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Sample records for rapidly activating slowly

  1. Interaction between the Cardiac Rapidly (IKr) and Slowly (IKs) Activating Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels Revealed by Low K+-induced hERG Endocytic Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Wang, Tingzhong; Yang, Tonghua; Xu, Jianmin; Li, Wentao; Fridman, Michael D.; Fisher, John T.; Zhang, Shetuan

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac repolarization is controlled by the rapidly (IKr) and slowly (IKs) activating delayed rectifier potassium channels. The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes IKr, whereas KCNQ1 and KCNE1 together encode IKs. Decreases in IKr or IKs cause long QT syndrome (LQTS), a cardiac disorder with a high risk of sudden death. A reduction in extracellular K+ concentration ([K+]o) induces LQTS and selectively causes endocytic degradation of mature hERG channels from the plasma membrane. In the present study, we investigated whether IKs compensates for the reduced IKr under low K+ conditions. Our data show that when hERG and KCNQ1 were expressed separately in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, exposure to 0 mm K+ for 6 h completely eliminated the mature hERG channel expression but had no effect on KCNQ1. When hERG and KCNQ1 were co-expressed, KCNQ1 significantly delayed 0 mm K+-induced hERG reduction. Also, hERG degradation led to a significant reduction in KCNQ1 in 0 mm K+ conditions. An interaction between hERG and KCNQ1 was identified in hERG+KCNQ1-expressing HEK cells. Furthermore, KCNQ1 preferentially co-immunoprecipitated with mature hERG channels that are localized in the plasma membrane. Biophysical and pharmacological analyses indicate that although hERG and KCNQ1 closely interact with each other, they form distinct hERG and KCNQ1 channels. These data extend our understanding of delayed rectifier potassium channel trafficking and regulation, as well as the pathology of LQTS. PMID:21844197

  2. Magnetocaloric and Hopkinson effects in slowly and rapidly cooled Gd{sub 7}Pd{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talik, Ewa; Guzik, Adam; Oboz, Monika; Zajdel, Pawel; Ziolkowski, Grzegorz [Silesia Univ., Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics

    2016-01-15

    Gd{sub 7}Pd{sub 3} intermetallic compound was prepared as slowly cooled polycrystal and rapidly cooled (rc) casts. The slowly cooled polycrystalline samples were obtained by melting in an induction coil. The rc-cast Gd{sub 7}Pd{sub 3} sample was obtained by means of a mould casting technique. The samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, SQUID magnetometry and scanning electron microscopy in order to elucidate the Hopkinson effect and magnetocaloric properties in relation to the technological aspects. The investigated ferromagnetic system is sensitive to grain size. The magnetocaloric and Hopkinson effect decreases with the decrease of the grain size. The results were compared to the data of single crystal obtained by the Czochralski method from a levitating melt.

  3. Tissue-Specificity of Gene Expression Diverges Slowly between Orthologs, and Rapidly between Paralogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezda Kryuchkova-Mostacci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ortholog conjecture implies that functional similarity between orthologous genes is higher than between paralogs. It has been supported using levels of expression and Gene Ontology term analysis, although the evidence was rather weak and there were also conflicting reports. In this study on 12 species we provide strong evidence of high conservation in tissue-specificity between orthologs, in contrast to low conservation between within-species paralogs. This allows us to shed a new light on the evolution of gene expression patterns. While there have been several studies of the correlation of expression between species, little is known about the evolution of tissue-specificity itself. Ortholog tissue-specificity is strongly conserved between all tetrapod species, with the lowest Pearson correlation between mouse and frog at r = 0.66. Tissue-specificity correlation decreases strongly with divergence time. Paralogs in human show much lower conservation, even for recent Primate-specific paralogs. When both paralogs from ancient whole genome duplication tissue-specific paralogs are tissue-specific, it is often to different tissues, while other tissue-specific paralogs are mostly specific to the same tissue. The same patterns are observed using human or mouse as focal species, and are robust to choices of datasets and of thresholds. Our results support the following model of evolution: in the absence of duplication, tissue-specificity evolves slowly, and tissue-specific genes do not change their main tissue of expression; after small-scale duplication the less expressed paralog loses the ancestral specificity, leading to an immediate difference between paralogs; over time, both paralogs become more broadly expressed, but remain poorly correlated. Finally, there is a small number of paralog pairs which stay tissue-specific with the same main tissue of expression, for at least 300 million years.

  4. Slowly digestible starch diets alter proximal glucosidase activity and glucose absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucrase-isomaltase (Si) and maltase-glucoamylase (Mgam) are mucosal glucosidases required for digestion of starch to glucose. Ablation of maltase-Mgam reduces in vivo starch digestion. We tested whether slowly digestible starch diets induce changes in glucosidase activities. Rice starch was encaps...

  5. Evaluation of bactericidal activity of Hannon honey on slowly growing bacteria in the chemostat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufya N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Najib Sufya,1 Noora Matar,1 Rawanda Kaddura,1 Abdulaziz Zorgani2 1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya Abstract: There is renewed interest in the therapeutic use of honey, including use in the treatment of infected wounds and burn patients. In this study, we have assessed the antibacterial activity of Libyan floral Hannon honey on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, both known to infect wounds. The effects of four concentrations (5%–30% of honey were compared with that of four antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, polymyxin, and ciprofloxacin on the growth of these bacteria at early log, mid log, and late log phases. It has been shown that E. coli and S. aureus are to some degree susceptible during mid log phase compared with late log phase, demonstrated by their complete resistance to antibiotics. Chemostat culture was used to investigate the effect of honey on E. coli grown at a steady state with specific growth rates between 0.1 to 0.5 hour-1. The rate of killing was distinctively clear during the two stages of growth monitored: there was a relatively moderate reduction at the slow growth phase (0.1 to 0.3 hour-1, while a dramatic reduction was obtained at the fast growth phase (0.3 to 0.5 hour-1, reaching a complete reduction at 0.5 hour-1. These results complement data using the cup-cut technique. The antibacterial effect of honey was concentration and time dependent, the bactericidal effect was indeed observed at low concentrations, it demonstrates that the honey has more impact on slow growing bacteria than antibiotics have. We suggest that more reduction could be achieved at higher concentrations of honey. These results may have important clinical implications, such as for the management of wound and burn patients. Keywords: antibiotic, killing, Libya, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus 

  6. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  7. Comparison of the effects of slowly and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates on postprandial glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Meidjie; Linn, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Isomaltulose attenuates postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations compared with sucrose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the mechanism by which isomaltulose limits postprandial hyperglycemia has not been clarified. The objective was therefore to assess the effects of bolus administration of isomaltulose on glucose metabolism compared with sucrose in T2DM. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 11 participants with T2DM initially underwent a 3-h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (0.8 mU · kg(-1) · min(-1)) clamp that was subsequently combined with 1 g/kg body wt of an oral (13)C-enriched isomaltulose or sucrose load. Hormonal responses and glucose kinetics were analyzed during a 4-h postprandial period. Compared with sucrose, absorption of isomaltulose was prolonged by ∼50 min (P = 0.004). Mean plasma concentrations of insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide were ∼10-23% lower (P insulin-to-glucagon ratio (P Insulin action was enhanced after isomaltulose compared with sucrose (P = 0.013). Ingestion of slowly absorbed isomaltulose attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia by reducing oral glucose appearance, inhibiting endogenous glucose production (EGP), and increasing SGU compared with ingestion of rapidly absorbed sucrose in patients with T2DM. In addition, GLP-1 secretion contributes to a beneficial shift in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio, suppression of EGP, and enhancement of SGU after isomaltulose consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01070238. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Complementary processing of haptic information by slowly and rapidly adapting neurons in the trigeminothalamic pathway. Electrophysiology, mathematical modeling and simulations of vibrissae-related neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel eSanchez-Jimenez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tonic (slowly adapting and phasic (rapidly adapting primary afferents convey complementary aspects of haptic information to the central nervous system: object location and texture the former, shape the latter. Tonic and phasic neural responses are also recorded in all relay stations of the somatosensory pathway, yet it is unknown their role in both, information processing and information transmission to the cortex: we don’t know if tonic and phasic neurons process complementary aspects of haptic information and/or if these two types constitute two separate channels that convey complementary aspects of tactile information to the cortex. Here we propose to elucidate these two questions in the fast trigeminal pathway of the rat (PrV-VPM: principal trigeminal nucleus-ventroposteromedial thalamic nucleus. We analyze early and global behavior, latencies and stability of the responses of individual cells in PrV and medial lemniscus under 1-40 Hz stimulation of the whiskers in control and decorticated animals and we use stochastic spiking models and extensive simulations. Our results strongly suggest that in the first relay station of the somatosensory system (PrV: 1 tonic and phasic neurons process complementary aspects of whisker-related tactile information 2 tonic and phasic responses are not originated from two different types of neurons 3 the two responses are generated by the differential action of the somatosensory cortex on a unique type of PrV cell 4 tonic and phasic neurons do not belong to two different channels for the transmission of tactile information to the thalamus 5 trigeminothalamic transmission is exclusively performed by tonically firing neurons and 6 all aspects of haptic information are coded into low-pass, band-pass and high-pass filtering profiles of tonically firing neurons. Our results are important for both, basic research on neural circuits and information processing, and development of sensory neuroprostheses.

  9. Constitutive activation of a slowly migrating isoform of Stat3 in mycosis fungoides: tyrphostin AG490 inhibits Stat3 activation and growth of mycosis fungoides tumor cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Kaltoft, K; Nordahl, M

    1997-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is a low-grade cutaneous T cell lymphoma of unknown etiology. In this report, the Jak/Stat (Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription) signaling pathway was investigated in tumor cell lines established from skin biopsy specimens from a patient with MF....... Jaks link cytokine receptors to Stats, and abnormal Jak/Stat signaling has been observed in some hemopoietic cancers. In MF tumor cells, a slowly migrating isoform of Stat3, Stat3(sm), was found to be constitutively activated, i.e., (i) Stat3(sm) was constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine residues...... specific. Thus, neither the fast migrating isoform of Stat3 (Stat3(fm)) nor other Stats (Stat1, Stat2, and Stat4 through Stat6) were constitutively activated. The Jak kinase inhibitor, tyrphostin AG490, blocked the constitutive activation of Stat3(sm) and inhibited spontaneous as well as interleukin 2...

  10. Vibrational coherence in polar solutions of Zn(II) tetrakis(N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin with Soret-band excitation: rapidly damped intermolecular modes with clustered solvent molecules and slowly damped intramolecular modes from the porphyrin macrocycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Kevin L; Shelly, Katherine R; Beck, Warren F

    2009-04-30

    Ground-state coherent wavepacket motions arising from intermolecular modes with clustered, first-shell solvent molecules were observed using the femtosecond dynamic absorption technique in polar solutions of Zn(II) meso-tetrakis(N-methylpyridyl)porphyrin (ZnTMPyP) with excitation in the Soret absorption band. As was observed previously in bacteriochlorophyll a solution, the pump-probe transients in ZnTMPyP solutions are weakly modulated by slowly damped (effective damping time gamma > 1 ps) features that are assigned to intramolecular modes, the skeletal normal modes of vibration of the porphyrin. The 40 cm(-1) and 215 cm(-1) modes from the metal-doming and metal-solvent-ligand modes, respectively, are members of this set of modulation components. A slowly damped 2-4 cm(-1) component is assigned to the internal rotation of the N-methylpyridyl rings with respect to the porphyrin macrocycle; this mode obtains strong resonance Raman intensity enhancement from an extensive delocalization of pi-electron density from the porphyrin in the ground state onto the rings in the pi* excited states. The dominant features observed in the pump-probe transients are a pair of rapidly damped (gamma modes with solvent molecules. This structural assignment is supported by an isotope-dependent shift of the average mode frequencies in methanol and perdeuterated methanol. The solvent dependence of the mean intermolecular mode frequency is consistent with a van der Waals intermolecular potential that has significant contributions only from the London dispersion and induction interactions; ion-dipole or ion-induced-dipole terms do not make large contributions because the pi-electron density is not extensively delocalized onto the N-methylpyridyl rings. The modulation depth associated with the intermolecular modes exhibits a marked dependence on the electronic structure of the solvent that is probably related to the degree of covalency; the strongest modulations are observed in acetonitrile

  11. Pharmacokinetic analysis and comparison of caffeine administered rapidly or slowly in coffee chilled or hot versus chilled energy drink in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John R; Padowski, Jeannie M; Zhong, Yili; Chen, Gang; Luo, Shaman; Lazarus, Philip; Layton, Matthew E; McPherson, Sterling

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of data describing the impact of type of beverage (coffee versus energy drink), different rates of consumption and different temperature of beverages on the pharmacokinetic disposition of caffeine. Additionally, there is concern that inordinately high levels of caffeine may result from the rapid consumption of cold energy drinks. The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of caffeine under various drink temperature, rate of consumption and vehicle (coffee versus energy drink) conditions. Five caffeine (dose = 160 mg) conditions were evaluated in an open-label, group-randomized, crossover fashion. After the administration of each caffeine dose, 10 serial plasma samples were harvested. Caffeine concentration was measured via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and those concentrations were assessed by non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The calculated mean pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed statistically by one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA). If differences were found, each group was compared to the other by all pair-wise multiple comparison. Twenty-four healthy subjects ranging in age from 18 to 30 completed the study. The mean caffeine concentration time profiles were similar with overlapping SDs at all measured time points. The ANOVA revealed significant differences in mean Cmax and Vd ss/F, but no pair-wise comparisons reached statistical significance. No other differences in pharmacokinetic parameters were found. The results of this study are consistent with previous caffeine pharmacokinetic studies and suggest that while rate of consumption, temperature of beverage and vehicle (coffee versus energy drink) may be associated with slightly different pharmacokinetic parameters, the overall impact of these variables is small. This study suggests that caffeine absorption and exposure from coffee and energy drink is similar irrespective of beverage temperature or rate of

  12. Pharmacokinetic analysis and comparison of caffeine administered rapidly or slowly in coffee chilled or hot versus chilled energy drink in healthy young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John R.; Padowski, Jeannie M.; Zhong, Yili; Chen, Gang; Luo, Shaman; Lazarus, Philip; Layton, Matthew E.; McPherson, Sterling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Context: There is a paucity of data describing the impact of type of beverage (coffee versus energy drink), different rates of consumption and different temperature of beverages on the pharmacokinetic disposition of caffeine. Additionally, there is concern that inordinately high levels of caffeine may result from the rapid consumption of cold energy drinks. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of caffeine under various drink temperature, rate of consumption and vehicle (coffee versus energy drink) conditions. Materials: Five caffeine (dose = 160 mg) conditions were evaluated in an open-label, group-randomized, crossover fashion. After the administration of each caffeine dose, 10 serial plasma samples were harvested. Caffeine concentration was measured via liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS), and those concentrations were assessed by non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The calculated mean pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed statistically by one-way repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA). If differences were found, each group was compared to the other by all pair-wise multiple comparison. Results: Twenty-four healthy subjects ranging in age from 18 to 30 completed the study. The mean caffeine concentration time profiles were similar with overlapping SDs at all measured time points. The ANOVA revealed significant differences in mean C max and V d ss/F, but no pair-wise comparisons reached statistical significance. No other differences in pharmacokinetic parameters were found. Discussion: The results of this study are consistent with previous caffeine pharmacokinetic studies and suggest that while rate of consumption, temperature of beverage and vehicle (coffee versus energy drink) may be associated with slightly different pharmacokinetic parameters, the overall impact of these variables is small. Conclusion: This study suggests that caffeine absorption and exposure from

  13. Involvement of activated prorenin in the pathogenesis of slowly progressive nephropathy in the non-clipped kidney of two kidney, one-clip hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryuzaki, Masaki; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Ohshima, Yoichi; Sakoda, Mariyo; Kurauchi-Mito, Asako; Narita, Tatsuya; Kinouchi, Kenichiro; Murohashi-Bokuda, Kanako; Nishiyama, Akira; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2011-03-01

    The handle region peptide (HRP), a (pro)renin receptor (P)RR blocker, did not prevent the acute nephropathy occurring 2 weeks after clipping in renovascular hypertensive rats. This study was performed to examine the effects of HRP, its scramble peptide, or a saline vehicle on slowly progressive nephropathy occurring in the kidneys of two-kidney, one-clip Goldblatt hypertensive rats. At 2 weeks after clipping, the renal morphology in the clipped and non-clipped kidneys was similar in the three groups of rats. At 12 weeks after clipping, however, the glomerulosclerosis index (GI) and the tubulointerstitial damage (TD) of the non-clipped kidneys of the HRP-treated rats were significantly lower than those of vehicle-treated rats, although the GI and the TD were similar in the rats treated with scramble peptide and vehicle. The GI and the TD of the clipped kidneys were similar in the three groups of rats at 12 weeks after clipping. In the non-clipped kidneys at 12 weeks after clipping, activated prorenin levels, angiotensin II levels and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β mRNA levels of HRP-treated rats were significantly lower than those of vehicle-treated rats, although they were similar in the non-clipped kidneys from the rats treated with scramble peptide and vehicle. In the clipped kidneys at 12 weeks after clipping, activated prorenin levels, angiotensin II levels and TGF-β mRNA levels were similar in the three groups of rats. These results suggest that the ((P)RR)-dependent activation of prorenin contributes to the pathogenesis of slowly progressive nephropathy in the intact kidney in a rat model of renovascular hypertension. © 2011 The Japanese Society of Hypertension All rights reserved

  14. Slowly rotating supercompact Schwarzschild stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada, Camilo

    2017-06-01

    The Schwarzschild interior solution, or 'Schwarzschild star', which describes a spherically symmetric homogeneous mass with a constant energy density, shows a divergence in pressure when the radius of the star reaches the Schwarzschild-Buchdahl bound. Recently, Mazur and Mottola showed that this divergence is integrable through the Komar formula, inducing non-isotropic transverse stresses on a surface of some radius R0. When this radius approaches the Schwarzschild radius Rs = 2 M, the interior solution becomes one of negative pressure evoking a de Sitter space-time. This gravitational condensate star, or gravastar, is an alternative solution to the idea of a black hole as the ultimate state of gravitational collapse. Using Hartle's model to calculate equilibrium configurations of slowly rotating masses, we report results of surface and integral properties for a Schwarzschild star in the very little studied region Rs < R < (9/8)Rs. We found that in the gravastar limit, the angular velocity of the fluid relative to the local inertial frame tends to zero, indicating rigid rotation. Remarkably, the normalized moment of inertia I/MR2 and the mass quadrupole moment Q approach the corresponding values for the Kerr metric to second order in Ω. These results provide a solution to the problem of the source of a slowly rotating Kerr black hole.

  15. Slowly Spinning Southern M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Elisabeth; Mondrik, Nicholas; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David

    2018-01-01

    M dwarf stars are the most common type of star in the galaxy, but their ages are challenging to determine due to their trillion-year lifetimes on the main sequence. Consequently, the evolution of rotation and magnetism at field ages is difficult to investigate observationally. M dwarfs in the Solar Neighborhood provide a unique opportunity to make progress in this area due to the availability of parallaxes and the accessibility of spectroscopy. We have used new rotation period measurements and our compilation of H-alpha emission for nearby M dwarfs to explore two questions: 1) What is the longest rotation period an M dwarf can have? And 2) Do M dwarfs undergo an era of rapid angular momentum evolution? Here, we focus on the view from the Southern hemisphere, presenting approximately 200 new rotation periods for fully convective M dwarfs. Amongst the highest-quality datasets, we identify rotation periods in three-quarters of all stars; of these, half have rotation periods longer than 70 days. The longest rotation period we detect is 148 days, which is for a 0.15 solar-mass star. The lack of M dwarfs with intermediate rotation periods that we previously identified persists, supporting our hypothesis that M dwarfs rapidly spin down from 10-day to 100-day periods.ERN is supported by the National Science Foundation Astronomy & Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowship. We gratefully acknowledge support from the David and Lucille Packard Foundation, the National Science Foundation, and the John Templeton Foundation.

  16. Area spectrum of slowly rotating black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Yun Soo

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the area spectrum for rotating black holes which are Kerr and BTZ black holes. For slowly rotating black holes, we use the Maggiore's idea combined with Kunstatter's method to derive their area spectra, which are equally spaced.

  17. Electrode reactions in slowly relaxing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyushov, Dmitry V.; Newton, Marshall D.

    2017-11-01

    Standard models of reaction kinetics in condensed materials rely on the Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution for the population of reactants at the top of the free energy barrier separating them from the products. While energy dissipation and quantum effects at the barrier top can potentially affect the transmission coefficient entering the rate pre-exponential factor, much stronger dynamical effects on the reaction barrier are caused by the breakdown of ergodicity for populating the reaction barrier (violation of the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics). When the spectrum of medium modes coupled to the reaction coordinate includes fluctuations slower than the reaction rate, such nuclear motions dynamically freeze on the reaction time scale and do not contribute to the activation barrier. Here we consider the consequences of this scenario for electrode reactions in slowly relaxing media. Changing the electrode overpotential speeds the electrode electron transfer up, potentially cutting through the spectrum of nuclear modes coupled to the reaction coordinate. The reorganization energy of electrochemical electron transfer becomes a function of the electrode overpotential, switching between the thermodynamic value at low rates to the nonergodic limit at higher rates. The sharpness of this transition depends on the relaxation spectrum of the medium. The reorganization energy experiences a sudden drop with increasing overpotential for a medium with a Debye relaxation but becomes a much shallower function of the overpotential for media with stretched exponential dynamics. The latter scenario characterizes the electron transfer in ionic liquids. The analysis of electrode reactions in room-temperature ionic liquids shows that the magnitude of the free energy of nuclear solvation is significantly below its thermodynamic limit. This result applies to reaction times faster than microseconds and is currently limited by the available dielectric relaxation data.

  18. Slowly Rotating Black Holes with Nonlinear Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Hendi

    2014-01-01

    4 dimensions. These solutions are asymptotically AdS and their horizon has spherical topology. We calculate the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the rotation parameter a as well as the nonlinearity parameter β. In the limit β→∞, the solution describes slowly rotating AdS type black holes.

  19. Recent activity of the Rapid Burster (MXB 1730-335)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuulkers, E.; Brandt, S.; Markwardt, C.; Remillard, R.A.; Shaw, S.; Beckmann, V.; Chenevez, J.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Domingo, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Jonker, P.; Kretschmar, P.; Oosterbroek, T.; Paizis, A.; Risquez, D.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; Wijnands, R.

    2008-01-01

    Observations taken as part of the INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring program (see ATel #1385) on 2008, February 23 13:32-17:13 (UT) showed bursting activity from the X-ray transient, the Rapid Burster (MXB 1730-335). During one of the 1800-sec pointings when the source was in the field- of-view of

  20. Recent activity of the Rapid Burster (MXB 1730-335)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Brandt, Søren Kristian; Markwardt, C.

    2008-01-01

    Observations taken as part of the INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring program (see ATel #1385) on 2008, February 23 13:32-17:13 (UT) showed bursting activity from the X-ray transient, the Rapid Burster (MXB 1730-335). During one of the 1800-sec pointings when the source was in the field- of-view o...

  1. Slowly progressive aphasia associated with surface dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiacchio, L; Grossi, D; Stanzione, M; Trojano, L

    1993-03-01

    We report an Italian patient affected by slowly progressive aphasia (SPA) lasting since four years when he first came to our observation. During the successive four years, we documented a progressive language decline resembling transcortical sensory aphasia, associated with a reading disorder corresponding to surface dyslexia, a form extremely rare in patients with native transparent language. His performance at standard intelligence tasks remained in the normal range, without any variation. CT scan showed left temporal atrophy. We emphasize the heterogeneity of the syndrome of SPA and suggest that it can represent one of the pictures of focal cortical degenerative disease, with variable onset, progression, and evolution.

  2. Rapid optical determination of β-lactamase and antibiotic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The absence of rapid tests evaluating antibiotic susceptibility results in the empirical prescription of antibiotics. This can lead to treatment failures due to escalating antibiotic resistance, and also furthers the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. This study reports a rapid optical method to detect β-lactamase and thereby assess activity of β-lactam antibiotics, which could provide an approach for targeted prescription of antibiotics. The methodology is centred on a fluorescence quenching based probe (β-LEAF – β-Lactamase Enzyme Activated Fluorophore) that mimics the structure of β-lactam antibiotics. Results The β-LEAF assay was performed for rapid determination of β-lactamase production and activity of β-lactam antibiotic (cefazolin) on a panel of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC strains and clinical isolates. Four of the clinical isolates were determined to be lactamase producers, with the capacity to inactivate cefazolin, out of the twenty-five isolates tested. These results were compared against gold standard methods, nitrocefin disk test for β-lactamase detection and disk diffusion for antibiotic susceptibility, showing results to be largely consistent. Furthermore, in the sub-set of β-lactamase producers, it was demonstrated and validated that multiple antibiotics (cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefepime) could be assessed simultaneously to predict the antibiotic that would be most active for a given bacterial isolate. Conclusions The study establishes the rapid β-LEAF assay for β-lactamase detection and prediction of antibiotic activity using S. aureus clinical isolates. Although the focus in the current study is β-lactamase-based resistance, the overall approach represents a broad diagnostic platform. In the long-term, these studies form the basis for the development of assays utilizing a broader variety of targets, pathogens and drugs. PMID:24708478

  3. A Rapidly Evolving Active Region NOAA 8032 observed on April ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1997-04-15

    The active region NOAA 8032 of April 15, 1997 was observed to evolve rapidly. The GOES X-ray data showed a number of sub-flares and two C-class flares during the 8-9 hours of its evolution. The magnetic evolution of this region is studied to ascertain its role in flare production. Large changes were observed in magnetic ...

  4. Slowly digestible starch--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ming; Jiang, Bo; Cui, Steve W; Zhang, Tao; Jin, Zhengyu

    2015-01-01

    The link between carbohydrate intake and health is becoming increasingly important for consumers, particularly in the areas of glycemic index (GI) and extended energy-releasing starches. From a physiological point of view, slowly digestible starch (SDS) delivers a slow and sustained release of blood glucose along with the benefits resulting from low glycemic and insulinemic response. SDS has been implicated in several health problems, including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (metabolic syndromes). It may also have commercial potential as a novel functional ingredient in a variety of fields, such as nutrition, medicine, and agriculture. The present review assesses this form of digestion by analyzing methods to prepare and evaluate SDS, and factors affecting its transformation, its health benefits, and its applications.

  5. Isotropic Heating of Galaxy Cluster Cores via Rapidly Reorienting Active Galactic Nucleus Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babul, Arif; Sharma, Prateek; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2013-05-01

    Active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets carry more than sufficient energy to stave off catastrophic cooling of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the cores of cool-core clusters. However, in order to prevent catastrophic cooling, the ICM must be heated in a near-isotropic fashion and narrow bipolar jets with P jet = 1044 - 45 erg s-1, typical of radio AGNs at cluster centers, are inefficient in heating the gas in the transverse direction to the jets. We argue that due to existent conditions in cluster cores, the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) will, in addition to accreting gas via radiatively inefficient flows, experience short stochastic episodes of enhanced accretion via thin disks. In general, the orientation of these accretion disks will be misaligned with the spin axis of the black holes (BHs) and the ensuing torques will cause the BH's spin axis (and therefore the jet axis) to slew and rapidly change direction. This model not only explains recent observations showing successive generations of jet-lobes-bubbles in individual cool-core clusters that are offset from each other in the angular direction with respect to the cluster center, but also shows that AGN jets can heat the cluster core nearly isotropically on the gas cooling timescale. Our model does require that the SMBHs at the centers of cool-core clusters be spinning relatively slowly. Torques from individual misaligned disks are ineffective at tilting rapidly spinning BHs by more than a few degrees. Additionally, since SMBHs that host thin accretion disks will manifest as quasars, we predict that roughly 1-2 rich clusters within z < 0.5 should have quasars at their centers.

  6. Researchers rapidly respond to submarine activity at Loihi Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 1996 Loihi Science Team

    The largest swarm of earthquakes ever observed at a Hawaiian volcano occurred at Loihi Seamount during July and early August 1996. The earthquake activity formed a large summit pit crater similar to those observed at Kilauea, and hydrothermal activity led to the formation of intense hydrothermal plumes in the ocean surrounding the summit. To investigate this event, the Rapid Response Cruise (RRC) was dispatched to Loihi in early August and two previously planned LONO cruises (named for a Hawaiian warrior god) sailed in September and October on the R/V Kaimikai-O-Kanaloa. Calm weather and a newly refurbished ship provided excellent opportunities for documenting the volcanic, hydrothermal plume, vent, and biological activities associated with the earthquake swarm.

  7. Slowly digestible starch: concept, mechanism, and proposed extended glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Genyi; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2009-11-01

    Starch is the major glycemic carbohydrate in foods, and its nutritional property is related to its rate and extent of digestion and absorption in the small intestine. A classification of starch into rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), and resistant starch (RS) based on the in vitro Englyst test is used to specify the nutritional quality of starch. Both the RDS and RS fractions have been extensively studied while there are only limited studies on the intermediate starch fraction of SDS, particularly regarding its structural basis and slow digestion mechanism. The current understanding of SDS including its concept, measurement method, structural basis and mechanism, physiological consequences, and approaches to make SDS is reviewed. An in vivo method of extended glycemic index (EGI) is proposed to evaluate its metabolic effect and related health consequences.

  8. Rapid neutrophil adhesion to activated endothelium mediated by GMP-140.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, J G; Bevilacqua, M P; Moore, K L; McIntyre, T M; Prescott, S M; Kim, J M; Bliss, G A; Zimmerman, G A; McEver, R P

    1990-02-22

    Granule membrane protein-140 (GMP-140), a membrane glycoprotein of platelet and endothelial cell secretory granules, is rapidly redistributed to the plasma membrane during cellular activation and degranulation. Also known as PADGEM protein, GMP-140 is structurally related to two molecules involved in leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium: ELAM-1, a cytokine-inducible endothelial cell receptor for neutrophils, and the MEL-14 lymphocyte homing receptor. These three proteins define a new gene family, termed selectins, each of which contains an N-terminal lectin domain, followed by an epidermal growth factor-like module, a variable number of repeating units related to those in complement-binding proteins, a transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. Here we demonstrate that GMP-140 can mediate leukocyte adhesion, thus establishing a functional similarity with the other selectins. Human neutrophils and promyelocytic HL-60 cells bind specifically to COS cells transfected with GMP-140 complementary DNA and to microtitre wells coated with purified GMP-140. Cell binding does not require active neutrophil metabolism but is dependent on extracellular Ca2+. Within minutes after stimulation with phorbol esters or histamine, human endothelial cells become adhesive for neutrophils; this interaction is inhibited by antibodies to GMP-140. Thus, GMP-140 expressed by activated endothelium might promote rapid neutrophil targeting to sites of acute inflammation.

  9. Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Rapid Response Team Activations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sei Won Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background To ensure patient safety and improvements in the quality of hospital care, rapid response teams (RRTs have been implemented in many countries, including Korea. The goal of an RRT is early identification and response to clinical deterioration in patients. However, there are differences in RRT systems among hospitals and limited data are available. Methods In Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, the St. Mary’s Advanced Life Support Team was implemented in June 2013. We retrospectively reviewed the RRT activation records of 287 cases from June 2013 to December 2016. Results The median response time and median modified early warning score were 8.6 minutes (interquartile range, 5.6 to 11.6 minutes and 5.0 points (interquartile range, 4.0 to 7.0 points, respectively. Residents (35.8% and nurses (59.1% were the main activators of the RRT. Interestingly, postoperative patients account for a large percentage of the RRT activation cases (69.3%. The survival rate was 83.6% and survival was mainly associated with malignancy, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II score, and the time from admission to RRT activation. RRT activation with screening showed a better outcome compared to activation via a phone call in terms of the intensive care unit admission rate and length of hospital stay after RRT activation. Conclusions Malignancy was the most important factor related to survival. In addition, RRT activation with patient screening showed a better outcome compared to activation via a phone call. Further studies are needed to determine the effective screening criteria and improve the quality of the RRT system.

  10. Time Frequency Features of Rotor Systems with Slowly Varying Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the analytic method and numerical method respectively, the asymptotic solutions and finite element model of rotor system with single slowly varying mass is obtained to investigate the time frequency features of such rotor system; furthermore, with given model of slowly varying mass, the rotor system with dual slowly varying mass is studied. For the first order approximate solution is used, there exists difference between the results with analytic method and numerical method. On the base of common characteristics of rotor system with dual slowly varying mass, the general rules and formula describing the frequency distribution of rotor system with multiple slowly varying mass are proposed.

  11. Synchronous states of slowly rotating pendula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapitaniak, Marcin [Division of Dynamics, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 1/15, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Centre for Applied Dynamics Research, School of Engineering, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UE Aberdeen, Scotland (United Kingdom); Czolczynski, Krzysztof; Perlikowski, Przemysław; Stefanski, Andrzej [Division of Dynamics, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 1/15, 90-924 Lodz (Poland); Kapitaniak, Tomasz, E-mail: tomasz.kapitaniak@p.lodz.pl [Division of Dynamics, Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 1/15, 90-924 Lodz (Poland)

    2014-08-01

    Coupled systems that contain rotating elements are typical in physical, biological and engineering applications and for years have been the subject of intensive studies. One problem of scientific interest, which among others occurs in such systems is the phenomenon of synchronization of different rotating parts. Despite different initial conditions, after a sufficiently long transient, the rotating parts move in the same way — complete synchronization, or a permanent constant shift is established between their displacements, i.e., the angles of rotation — phase synchronization. Synchronization occurs due to dependence of the periods of rotating elements motion and the displacement of the base on which these elements are mounted. We review the studies on the synchronization of rotating pendula and compare them with the results obtained for oscillating pendula. As an example we consider the dynamics of the system consisting of n pendula mounted on the movable beam. The pendula are excited by the external torques which are inversely proportional to the angular velocities of the pendula. As the result of such excitation each pendulum rotates around its axis of rotation. It has been assumed that all pendula rotate in the same direction or in the opposite directions. We consider the case of slowly rotating pendula and estimate the influence of the gravity on their motion. We classify the synchronous states of the identical pendula and observe how the parameters mismatch can influence them. We give evidence that synchronous states are robust as they exist in the wide range of system parameters and can be observed in a simple experiment.

  12. Rapid assessment of disaster damage using social media activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and an increasing intensity of natural disasters resulting from climate change. During such events, citizens turn to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. In addition, the spatiotemporal distribution of disaster-related messages helps with the real-time monitoring and assessment of the disaster itself. We present a multiscale analysis of Twitter activity before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We examine the online response of 50 metropolitan areas of the United States and find a strong relationship between proximity to Sandy’s path and hurricane-related social media activity. We show that real and perceived threats, together with physical disaster effects, are directly observable through the intensity and composition of Twitter’s message stream. We demonstrate that per-capita Twitter activity strongly correlates with the per-capita economic damage inflicted by the hurricane. We verify our findings for a wide range of disasters and suggest that massive online social networks can be used for rapid assessment of damage caused by a large-scale disaster. PMID:27034978

  13. Rapid assessment of disaster damage using social media activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Obradovich, Nick; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Fowler, James; Cebrian, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Could social media data aid in disaster response and damage assessment? Countries face both an increasing frequency and an increasing intensity of natural disasters resulting from climate change. During such events, citizens turn to social media platforms for disaster-related communication and information. Social media improves situational awareness, facilitates dissemination of emergency information, enables early warning systems, and helps coordinate relief efforts. In addition, the spatiotemporal distribution of disaster-related messages helps with the real-time monitoring and assessment of the disaster itself. We present a multiscale analysis of Twitter activity before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We examine the online response of 50 metropolitan areas of the United States and find a strong relationship between proximity to Sandy's path and hurricane-related social media activity. We show that real and perceived threats, together with physical disaster effects, are directly observable through the intensity and composition of Twitter's message stream. We demonstrate that per-capita Twitter activity strongly correlates with the per-capita economic damage inflicted by the hurricane. We verify our findings for a wide range of disasters and suggest that massive online social networks can be used for rapid assessment of damage caused by a large-scale disaster.

  14. A rapid search for the counterpart to an active magnetar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    We propose to obtain a fast response observation of a magnetar undergoing an active period. Utilizing rapid, deep, diffraction limited observations with WFC3 we will maximize the chances of obtaining the IR detection of the magnetar. This in turn yields unique constraints on emission mechanisms, enables the measurement of dynamics (e.g. via proper motion) and can associate the magnetar with a given structure (e.g. young cluster or supernova remnant) in the galaxy. The association with a cluster provides means of measuring the stellar age, in turn informing the stellar properties (e.g. mass) of the magnetar progenitors. We have demonstrated the success of this approach with the detection of the counterpart of SGR 1935+2154 with a magnitude (during bursting activity) of F140W(AB) 25.5, a level extremely challenging to detect variability in from the ground, requiring multiple nights of adaptive optics imaging in typical conditions. Indeed, our observations will be senstive to counterparts significantly fainter than it is possible to detect from any ground based observatory. These observations will allow us to break through the observational barrier that has so far prevented us from detecting counterparts to more than two-thirds of magnetar candidates. With these observations we will construct a fuller picture of magnetars, the routes to their creation, and their role as cosmic engines across the Universe.

  15. Rapid Assessment Medical Support (RAMS) for active shooter incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechem, C Crawford; Bossert, Richard; Baldini, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This country has witnessed a steady increase in the number of active shooter incidents in recent years. The traditional emergency medical services (EMS) response to such incidents has been to stage at a safe distance until the scene has been secured by law enforcement. Such an approach may lead to unnecessary delays in medical care and potentially needless loss of life. To address this issue locally, the Philadelphia Fire Department (PFD) and the Philadelphia Police Department (PPD) collaborated to develop the Rapid Assessment Medical Support (RAMS) program. All PFD paramedics have been equipped and trained to move with PPD officers into a scene that has been cleared by police but not yet secured in order to initiate emergency care, with an emphasis on hemorrhage control. Patients are then extracted to awaiting EMS resources in the cold zone. The history behind the program and the challenges and obstacles that had to be addressed in its development are described. These included initial and ongoing training and funding sources; buy-in from risk management, labor, and the individual providers; whether only paramedics should be included in the RAMS program or if the PFD's firefighter-EMTs should be included as well; the potential for mission creep as police recognized the value of this asset and its potential application to other scenarios; and how to involve the many nonmunicipal ambulance services that are not involved in the routine operation of Philadelphia's 9-1-1 system. To date, RAMS teams have been activated on multiple occasions, but fortunately the incidents were resolved without injury or loss of life. However, the program provides another valuable tool with which the City of Philadelphia can respond should another active shooter incident occur.

  16. Slowly progressive aphemia: a neuropsychological, conventional, and functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallassi, R; Sambati, L; Poda, R; Oppi, F; Stanzani Maserati, M; Cevolani, D; Agati, R; Lodi, R

    2011-12-01

    Slowly progressive aphemia (SPA) is a rare focal degenerative disorder characterized by severe dysarthria, frequent orofacial apraxia, dysprosody, phonetic and phonemic errors without global cognitive deterioration for many years. This condition is caused by a degeneration of anterior frontal lobe regions, mainly of the left frontal operculum. We report a case of SPA with a course of 8 years, evaluated by repeated neuropsychological, conventional, and functional MRI examinations. In our case, neuropsychological examinations showed a progressive impairment of speech articulation including dysprosody, phonetic and phonemic errors, and slight writing errors. No global cognitive deterioration was detected and the patient is still completely autonomous. Morphological and functional investigations showed, respectively, a progressive atrophy and progressive impairment of the left frontal region, confirming the role of the opercular region in determining this rare syndrome. During verbal task generation as the cortical activation of this region gradually decreased, the language articulation worsened.

  17. Crystallization and activation of silicon by microwave rapid annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shunsuke; Ota, Kosuke; Hasumi, Masahiko; Suzuki, Ayuta; Ushijima, Mitsuru; Sameshima, Toshiyuki

    2016-07-01

    A combination of the carbon-powder absorber with microwave irradiation is proposed as a rapid heat method. 2-μm-diameter carbon powders with a packing density of 0.08 effectively absorbed 2.45 GHz 1000-W-microwave and heated themselves to 1163 °C for 26 s. The present heat treatment recrystallized n-type crystalline silicon surfaces implanted with 1.0 × 10^{15}hbox {-cm}^{-2}-boron and phosphorus atoms with crystalline volume ratios of 0.99 and 0.93, respectively, by microwave irradiation at 1000 W for 20 s. Activation and carrier generation were simultaneously achieved with a sheet resistivity of 62 Ω / hbox {sq}. A high photo-induced-carrier effective lifetime of 1.0 × 10^{-4} s was also achieved. Typical electrical current-rectified characteristic and solar cell characteristic with an efficiency of 12.1 % under 100-mW/cm2-air-mass-1.5 illumination were obtained. Moreover, heat treatment with microwave irradiation at 1000 W for 22 s successfully crystallized silicon thin films with thicknesses ranging from 2.4 to 50 nm formed on quartz substrates. Nano-crystalline cluster structure with a high volume ratio of 50 % was formed in the 1.8-nm (initial 2.4-nm)-thick silicon films. Photoluminescence around 1.77 eV was observed for the 1.8-nm-thick silicon films annealed at 260 °C in 1.3 × 106-Pa-H2O-vapor for 3 h after the microwave heating.

  18. Rapid neurogenesis through transcriptional activation in human stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busskamp, Volker; Lewis, Nathan E; Guye, Patrick; Ng, Alex H M; Shipman, Seth L; Byrne, Susan M; Sanjana, Neville E; Murn, Jernej; Li, Yinqing; Li, Shangzhong; Stadler, Michael; Weiss, Ron; Church, George M

    2014-11-17

    Advances in cellular reprogramming and stem cell differentiation now enable ex vivo studies of human neuronal differentiation. However, it remains challenging to elucidate the underlying regulatory programs because differentiation protocols are laborious and often result in low neuron yields. Here, we overexpressed two Neurogenin transcription factors in human-induced pluripotent stem cells and obtained neurons with bipolar morphology in 4 days, at greater than 90% purity. The high purity enabled mRNA and microRNA expression profiling during neurogenesis, thus revealing the genetic programs involved in the rapid transition from stem cell to neuron. The resulting cells exhibited transcriptional, morphological and functional signatures of differentiated neurons, with greatest transcriptional similarity to prenatal human brain samples. Our analysis revealed a network of key transcription factors and microRNAs that promoted loss of pluripotency and rapid neurogenesis via progenitor states. Perturbations of key transcription factors affected homogeneity and phenotypic properties of the resulting neurons, suggesting that a systems-level view of the molecular biology of differentiation may guide subsequent manipulation of human stem cells to rapidly obtain diverse neuronal types. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  19. A bioluminescent caspase-1 activity assay rapidly monitors inflammasome activation in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Martha; Moehring, Danielle; Muñoz-Planillo, Raúl; Núñez, Gabriel; Callaway, Justin; Ting, Jenny; Scurria, Mike; Ugo, Tim; Bernad, Laurent; Cali, James; Lazar, Dan

    2017-08-01

    Inflammasomes are protein complexes induced by diverse inflammatory stimuli that activate caspase-1, resulting in the processing and release of cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, and pyroptosis, an immunogenic form of cell death. To provide a homogeneous method for detecting caspase-1 activity, we developed a bioluminescent, plate-based assay that combines a substrate, Z-WEHD-aminoluciferin, with a thermostable luciferase in an optimized lytic reagent added directly to cultured cells. Assay specificity for caspase-1 is conferred by inclusion of a proteasome inhibitor in the lytic reagent and by use of a caspase-1 inhibitor to confirm activity. This approach enables a specific and rapid determination of caspase-1 activation. Caspase-1 activity is stable in the reagent thereby providing assay convenience and flexibility. Using this assay system, caspase-1 activation has been determined in THP-1 cells following treatment with α-hemolysin, LPS, nigericin, gramicidin, MSU, R848, Pam3CSK4, and flagellin. Caspase-1 activation has also been demonstrated in treated J774A.1 mouse macrophages, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from mice, as well as in human primary monocytes. Caspase-1 activity was not detected in treated BMDMs derived from Casp1-/- mice, further confirming the specificity of the assay. Caspase-1 activity can be measured directly in cultured cells using the lytic reagent, or caspase-1 activity released into medium can be monitored by assay of transferred supernatant. The caspase-1 assay can be multiplexed with other assays to monitor additional parameters from the same cells, such as IL-1β release or cell death. The caspase-1 assay in combination with a sensitive real-time monitor of cell death allows one to accurately establish pyroptosis. This assay system provides a rapid, convenient, and flexible method to specifically and quantitatively monitor caspase-1 activation in cells in a plate-based format. This will allow a more efficient and effective

  20. Free Electron Lasers with Slowly Varying Beam and Undulator Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zhirong

    2005-01-01

    The performance of a free electron lasers (FEL) is affected when the electron beam energy varies alone the undulator as would be caused by vacuum pipe wakefields and/or when the undulator strength parameter is tapered in the small signal regime until FEL saturation. In this paper, we present a self-consistent theory of FELs with slowly-varying beam and undulator parameters. A general method is developed to apply the WKB approximation to the beam-radiation system by employing the adjoint eigenvector that is orthogonal to the eigenfunctions of the coupled Maxwell-Vlasov equations. This method may be useful for other slowly varying processes in beam dynamics.

  1. A Rapidly Evolving Active Region NOAA 8032 observed on April ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    1997-04-15

    Apr 15, 1997 ... The GOES X-ray data showed a number of sub-flares and two C-class flares during the 8-9 hours of its evolution. ... (1991), where they observed X-class flares near the sites of. EFR. Wang & Shi (1993) suggested that ... region using the USΟ video magnetograph (Mathew et al. 1998). The active region. 233 ...

  2. Easy and Rapid Purification of Highly Active Nisin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Abts

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide produced and secreted by several L. lactis strains and is specifically active against Gram-positive bacteria. In previous studies, nisin was purified via cation exchange chromatography at low pH employing a single-step elution using 1 M NaCl. Here, we describe an optimized purification protocol using a five-step NaCl elution to remove contaminants. The obtained nisin is devoid of impurities and shows high bactericidal activity against the nisin-sensitive L. lactis strain NZ9000. Purified nisin exhibits an IC50 of ~3 nM, which is a tenfold improvement as compared to nisin obtained via the one-step elution procedure.

  3. A rapid assay for the biological evaluation of helicase activity.

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Dimitrios Vlachakis, Andrea Brancale, Colin Berry & Sophia Kossida ### Abstract A new assay for the measurement of helicase enzyme activity was developed for the evaluation of the potency of potential inhibitors. This assay involves the use of a DNA or RNA duplex substrate and recombinant purified helicase. The DNA duplex consists of a pair of oligonucleotides, one of which is biotinylated and the other is digoxygenin (DIG)-labelled, both at their respective 5’ termini. This ...

  4. Kepler Observations of Rapid Optical Variability in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Edelson, R.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Gandhi, P.

    2012-01-01

    Over three quarters in 2010 - 2011, Kepler monitored optical emission from four active galactic nuclei (AGN) with approx 30 min sampling, > 90% duty cycle and approx law slopes of -2.6 to -3.3, much steeper than typically seen in the X-rays. We find evidence that individual AGN exhibit intrinsically different PSD slopes. The steep PSD fits are a challenge to recent AGN variability models but seem consistent with first order MRI theoretical calculations of accretion disk fluctuations.

  5. Non-stationary vibrations of mechanical systems with slowly varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents an approximate analytical solution for investigation of vibration responses in linear Single-Degree-of-Freedom-Systems (SDOF) with slowly varying natural frequency subjected to a transient excitalion force with constant amplitude. The solution employs the WBKJ-approximation method, the method of ...

  6. On stochastic perturbations of slowly changing dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidlin, M.; Koralov, L.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we consider a diffusion process obtained as a small random perturbation of a dynamical system attracted to a stable equilibrium point. The drift and the diffusive perturbation are assumed to evolve slowly in time. We describe the asymptotics of the time it takes the process to exit a given domain and the limiting distribution of the exit point.

  7. Weakly Nonlinear Waves with Slowly-Varying Speed | Chikwendu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A previously developed method of generating uniformly valid, multiple- scale asymptotic expansions for the solution of weakly nonlinear one-dimensional wave equations is applied to problems with slowly-varying speed. The method is also shown to be applicable specifically to periodic initial data.

  8. The cyclopentyl group, as a small but bulky terminal group, allows rapid and efficient active transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Junya; Makita, Yoshimasa; Kihara, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-02

    Secondary ammonium salts bearing a cyclopentyl terminal group rapidly formed pseudorotaxane with 1.5 equiv of DB24C8. Acylation of the pseudorotaxane with 50 equiv of benzoyl chloride in the presence of 50 equiv of triethylamine in toluene afforded rotaxane, the product of active transport, in 95% yield. The cyclopentyl group is small enough to allow rapid formation of pseudorotaxane, and bulky enough to facilitate the quantitative active transport by steric repulsion.

  9. BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liancheng; He, Feng; Fu, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole. It can be found that the BSW process will also arise near black hole horizon when the evaporation of charged black hole is very slow. But now the background black hole does not have to be an extremal black hole, and it will be approximately an extremal black hole unless it is nearly a huge stationary black hole.

  10. 20 CFR 665.300 - What are rapid response activities and who is responsible for providing them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are rapid response activities and who is responsible for providing them? 665.300 Section 665.300 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... INVESTMENT ACT Rapid Response Activities § 665.300 What are rapid response activities and who is responsible...

  11. Modelling of Electrodynamic Phenomena in Slowly Moving Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozov, Andrey Leonidovich

    2017-08-01

    We discuss the feasibility of using, along with Minkowski equations obtained on the basis of the theory of relativity and used at present in electrodynamics, alternative methods of describing the processes of interaction between electromagnetic fields and moving media. In this article, a way of describing electromagnetic fields in terms of classical mechanics is offered. A system of electrodynamic equations for slowly moving media was derived on the basis of Maxwell's theory within the framework of classical mechanics using Wilsons' experimental data with dielectrics in a previous article [A. Rozov, Z. Naturforsch. 70, 1019 (2015)]. This article puts forward a physical model that explains the features of the derived equations. The offered model made it possible to suggest a new approach to the derivation of electrodynamic equations for slowly moving media. A variant of Galileo's relativity principle, in accordance with which the electrodynamic equations for slowly moving media should be considered as Galilean-invariant, is laid down on the basis of both the interpretation of Galileo's concept following from Galileo's works and Pauli's concept of postulate of relativity within the framework of the represented physical model.

  12. Rapid Detection of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Activity in Mouse Sperm Using Fluorescent Gel Shift Electrophoresis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, Hoseok; Choi, Bomi; Seo, Ju Tae; Lee, Kyung Jin; Gye, Myung Chan; Kim, Young-Pil

    2016-01-01

    .... The GSK3 activity in mouse testes and sperm were quantifiable by gel shift assay with low sample consumption and were significantly correlated with the expression levels of GSK3 and p-GSK3. We suggest that our assay can be used for reliable and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in cells and tissue extracts.

  13. A slowly inactivating K+ current in retinal ganglion cells from postnatal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucher, N J; Lipton, S A

    1992-02-01

    The whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique was used to study voltage-gated K+ conductances in retinal ganglion cells from postnatal rat. Retinal ganglion cells were fluorescently labeled in situ, dissociated from the retina, and maintained in culture. With physiological solutions in the bath and the pipette, depolarizing voltage steps from physiological holding potentials activated Na(+)-(INa), Ca2+ (ICa), and K(+)-currents studied previously in retinal ganglion cells. Here we report on a slowly decaying K+ current, not heretofore reported in rat. With 4-AP, TEA, and Co2+ in the bath, to block IA, IK, and IK(Ca), respectively, a slowly decaying outward current was activated from -80 mV by steps positive to -40 mV. This current was present in 92% of all ganglion cells tested (n = 83). It activated within 10 ms and inactivated with a voltage-independent time constant of about 70 ms at 35 degrees C. Inactivation was voltage-dependent, half-maximal at -55 mV, and almost complete at 0 mV. The current was blocked by internal Cs+ and TEA, or by external application of 1 mM Ba2+, but not by 3 mM extracellular Co2+. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of this current are distinctly different from those of slowly inactivating K+ currents studied in other rat neurons. It was very similar, however, to a slowly inactivating K+ current previously reported in ganglion cells of tiger salamander retina. This last finding indicates conservation of a defined K+ channel type in functionally related cells in both lower vertebrates and mammals.

  14. Rapid Shifts in Soil Nutrients and Decomposition Enzyme Activity in Early Succession Following Forest Fire

    OpenAIRE

    Knelman, Joseph E.; Graham, Emily B; Scott Ferrenberg; Aurélien Lecoeuvre; Amanda Labrado; Darcy, John L.; Nemergut, Diana R; Schmidt, Steven K.

    2017-01-01

    While past research has studied forest succession on decadal timescales, ecosystem responses to rapid shifts in nutrient dynamics within the first months to years of succession after fire (e.g., carbon (C) burn-off, a pulse in inorganic nitrogen (N), accumulation of organic matter, etc.) have been less well documented. This work reveals how rapid shifts in nutrient availability associated with fire disturbance may drive changes in soil enzyme activity on short timescales in forest secondary s...

  15. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts by rapid XTT colorimetry and bacterial enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bakri, Amal G; Afifi, Fatma U

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of indigenous Jordanian plant extracts, dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide, using the rapid XTT assay and viable count methods. XTT rapid assay was used for the initial screening of antimicrobial activity for the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity of potentially active plant extracts was further assessed using the "viable plate count" method. Four degrees of antimicrobial activity (high, moderate, weak and inactive) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, were recorded. The plant extracts of Hypericum triquetrifolium, Ballota undulata, Ruta chalepensis, Ononis natrix, Paronychia argentea and Marrubium vulgare had shown promising antimicrobial activity. This study showed that while both XTT and viable count methods are comparable when estimating the overall antimicrobial activity of experimental substances, there is no strong linear correlation between the two methods.

  16. Rapid Detection of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Activity in Mouse Sperm Using Fluorescent Gel Shift Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Hoseok Choi; Bomi Choi; Ju Tae Seo; Kyung Jin Lee; Myung Chan Gye; Young-Pil Kim

    2016-01-01

    Assaying the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) activity in sperm is of great importance because it is closely implicated in sperm motility and male infertility. While a number of studies on GSK3 activity have relied on labor-intensive immunoblotting to identify phosphorylated GSK3, here we report the simple and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in mouse sperm using conventional agarose gel electrophoresis and a fluorescent peptide substrate. When a dye-tethered and prephosphorylated (primed) p...

  17. Music training enhances rapid plasticity of N1 and P2 source activation for unattended sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miia eSeppänen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive studies demonstrate that long-term musical training enhances the processing of unattended sounds. It is not clear, however, whether musical training modulates also rapid (within tens of minutes neural plasticity for sound encoding. To study this, we examined whether adult musicians display enhanced rapid neural plasticity when compared to nonmusicians. More specifically, we examined the modulation of P1, N1, and P2 responses to regular standard sounds in an oddball paradigm between unattended passive blocks which were separated by an active task. Source analysis for event-related potentials showed that N1 and P2 source activation decreased selectively in musicians already after fifteen minutes of passive exposure to sounds and that P2 source activation re-enhanced after the active task in musicians. Additionally, event-related potential (ERP analysis revealed that in both musicians and nonmusicians, P2 ERP amplitude enhanced after fifteen minutes of passive exposure but only at frontal electrodes. Furthermore, in musicians, N1 ERP enhanced after the active discrimination task but only at parietal electrodes. Musical training modulates the rapid plasticity reflected in N1 and P2 source activation for unattended regular standard sounds. Enhanced rapid plasticity of N1 and P2 might reflect the faster auditory perceptual learning in musicians when compared to nonmusicians.

  18. Functional brain activation differences in stuttering identified with a rapid fMRI sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech motor and auditory brain activity in children who stutter closer to the age at which recovery from stuttering is documented. Rapid sequences may be preferred for individuals or populations who do not tolerate long scanning sessions. In this report, we document the application of a picture naming and phoneme monitoring task in three minute fMRI sequences with adults who stutter (AWS). If relevant brain differences are found in AWS with these approaches that conform to previous reports, then these approaches can be extended to younger populations. Pairwise contrasts of brain BOLD activity between AWS and normally fluent adults indicated the AWS showed higher BOLD activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right temporal lobe and sensorimotor cortices during picture naming and and higher activity in the right IFG during phoneme monitoring. The right lateralized pattern of BOLD activity together with higher activity in sensorimotor cortices is consistent with previous reports, which indicates rapid fMRI sequences can be considered for investigating stuttering in younger participants. PMID:22133409

  19. Functional Brain Activation Differences in Stuttering Identified with a Rapid fMRI Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, Torrey; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech…

  20. Stratification of nitrification activity in rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Musovic, Sanin

    2013-01-01

    Rapid sand filters used in groundwater treatment remove ammonium, iron and manganese from the water. Ammonium is removed biologically by nitrifying microorganisms attached on the sand surface. Nitrification kinetics and activity is strongly affected by filter design and operation, which are the k...

  1. Total daily activity declines more rapidly with increasing age in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Aron S; Wilson, Robert S; Yu, Lei; James, Bryan D; Boyle, Patricia A; Bennett, David A

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal studies of objectively measured physical activity are lacking in older adults. We tested whether objective measures of total daily activity decline more rapidly in older adults. This prospective, observational cohort study included 519 community-dwelling older persons from across metropolitan Chicago participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Repeated total daily activity measures (leisure and non-leisure physical activity) were derived from actigraphic recordings for up to 10 days. Generalized estimating equation models which controlled for demographics measures were employed. At baseline, age was inversely related with the level of total daily activity (estimate, -0.014, S.E. 0.002, pdaily activity declined by about 0.070 × 10(5) activity counts/day/yr (estimate -0.065, S.E. 0.005, pdaily activity declined 3% more rapidly for each additional year of age at baseline (estimate -0.002, S.E. 0.001, p=0.027). Thus, total daily activity declined almost twice as fast in an individual 91 years old at baseline versus an individual 71 years old. A higher level of education was associated with a slower rate of decline (estimate 0.004, S.E. 0.002, pdaily activity were unchanged when controlling for baseline level of motor and cognitive function, other late-life activities and chronic health conditions. These data suggest that total daily activity in very old adults declines more rapidly with increasing age. Thus, physical inactivity is likely to become a larger problem in our aging population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optogenetic Activation of the Sublaterodorsal (SLD) Nucleus Induces Rapid Muscle Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    and neural activity, as measured with electroencephalography ( EEG ). One of the hallmarks of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is muscle inhibition and is...than the prior studies previously cited that relied on pharmaceuticals to induce REM sleep . Building on this known literature, we have generated pilot... sleep /wake component we may need to alter our experimental paradigm and test whether we can influence EEG activity after the animal is already in SWS

  3. The neuropsychological and neuroradiological correlates of slowly progressive visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, Anna Rita; Aresi, Anna; Reati, Fabiola; Riva, Alice; Gobbo, Clara; Bizzi, Alberto

    2009-04-01

    The case of a 64-year-old woman affected by slowly progressive visual agnosia is reported aiming to describe specific cognitive-brain relationships. Longitudinal clinical and neuropsychological assessment, combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), spectroscopy, and positron emission tomography (PET) were used. Sequential neuropsychological evaluations performed during a period of 9 years since disease onset showed the appearance of apperceptive and associative visual agnosia, alexia without agraphia, agraphia, finger agnosia, and prosopoagnosia, but excluded dementia. MRI showed moderate diffuse cortical atrophy, with predominant atrophy in the left posterior cortical areas (temporal, parietal, and lateral occipital cortical gyri). 18FDG-PET showed marked bilateral posterior cortical hypometabolism; proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging disclosed severe focal N-acetyl-aspartate depletion in the left temporoparietal and lateral occipital cortical areas. In conclusion, selective metabolic alterations and neuronal loss in the left temporoparietooccipital cortex may determine progressive visual agnosia in the absence of dementia.

  4. Identification and assessment of the slowly growing child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duck, S C

    1996-05-15

    Reliable measurements taken by trained personnel using appropriate equipment are essential in assessment of the slowly growing child. Linear growth plotted on appropriate statistical charts and expected growth based on parental heights are indicators of inappropriately reduced linear growth. Children older than three years of age who grow less than 1.75 in (4.5 cm) per year should be evaluated. Family and personal medical history (including prenatal and birth information) are important in the identification of familial short stature, constitutional delay and other causes of proportionate growth disorders. Other conditions, including chromosomal disorder, systemic disease and endocrine dysfunction, may be discovered during physical examination or appropriate laboratory investigation. Disproportionate growth of the limbs and trunk suggests the presence of a bone or collagen disorder. Bone age data based on radiographs of the left hand may assist in predicting the child's final height.

  5. The strange flight behaviour of slowly spinning soccer balls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizota, Taketo; Kurogi, Kouhei; Ohya, Yuji; Okajima, Atsushi; Naruo, Takeshi; Kawamura, Yoshiyuki

    2013-05-01

    The strange three-dimensional flight behaviour of slowly spinning soccer balls is one of the most interesting and unknown phenomenon associated with the trajectories of sports balls. Many spectators have experienced numerous exciting and emotional instances while observing the curious flight behaviour of these balls. We examine the aerodynamic mechanisms of erratic ball behaviours through real flight observations, unsteady force measurements and flow pattern visualisations. The strange behaviour is elucidated by the relationship between the unsteady forces on the ball and the wake flow. The irregular changes in position for twin longitudinal vortices have already been discovered in the supercritical Reynolds number region of a sphere with a smooth surface. This finding is applicable to the strange behaviour of the flight of soccer balls with this supercritical flow. The players, spectators, and television viewers will gain greater insight into the effects of soccer ball flights.

  6. Dark spots along slowly scaling chains of plasmonic nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Zito, Gianluigi; Sasso, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We numerically investigate the optical response of slowly scaling linear chains of mismatched silver nanoparticles. Hybridized plasmon chain resonances manifest unusual local field distributions around the nanoparticles that result from symmetry breaking of the geometry. Importantly, we find localization patterns characterized by bright hot-spots alternated by what we term \\textit{dark} spots. A dark spot is associated to dark plasmons that have collinear and antiparallel dipole moments along the chain. As a result, the field amplification in the dark interjunction gap is extinguished for incident polarization parallel to the chain axis. Despite the strong plasmonic coupling, the nanoparticles on the sides of this dark gap experience a dramatic asymmetric field amplification with amplitude gain contrast $> 2 \\times 10^2$. Remarkably, also for polarization orthogonal to the axis, gap hot-spots form on resonance.

  7. Slowly Varying Dilaton Cosmologies and Their Field Theory Duals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awad, Adel; /British U. in Egypt /Ain Shams U., Cairo; Das, Sumit R.; Ghosh, Archisman; Oh, Jae-Hyuk; /Kentucky U.; Trivedi, Sandip P.; /Tata Inst. /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-06-28

    We consider a deformation of the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} solution of IIB supergravity obtained by taking the boundary value of the dilaton to be time dependent. The time dependence is taken to be slowly varying on the AdS scale thereby introducing a small parameter {epsilon}. The boundary dilaton has a profile which asymptotes to a constant in the far past and future and attains a minimum value at intermediate times. We construct the sugra solution to first non-trivial order in {epsilon}, and find that it is smooth, horizon free, and asymptotically AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} in the far future. When the intermediate values of the dilaton becomes small enough the curvature becomes of order the string scale and the sugra approximation breaks down. The resulting dynamics is analysed in the dual SU(N) gauge theory on S{sup 3} with a time dependent coupling constant which varies slowly. When N{epsilon} << 1, we find that a quantum adiabatic approximation is applicable, and use it to argue that at late times the geometry becomes smooth AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} again. When N{epsilon} >> 1, we formulate a classical adiabatic perturbation theory based on coherent states which arises in the large N limit. For large values of the tHooft coupling this reproduces the supergravity results. For small 'tHooft coupling the coherent state calculations become involved and we cannot reach a definite conclusion. We argue that the final state should have a dual description which is mostly smooth AdS5 space with the possible presence of a small black hole.

  8. Probing nonlinear electrodynamics in slowly rotating spacetimes through neutrino astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J.; Lambiase, Gaetano; Pereira, Jonas P.

    2017-01-01

    Huge electromagnetic fields are known to be present during the late stages of the dynamics of supernovae. Thus, when dealing with electrodynamics in this context, the possibility may arise to probe nonlinear theories (generalizations of the Maxwellian electromagnetism). We firstly solve Einstein field equations minimally coupled to an arbitrary (current-free) nonlinear Lagrangian of electrodynamics (NLED) in the slow rotation regime a ≪M (black hole's mass), up to first order in a /M . We then make use of the robust and self-contained Born-Infeld Lagrangian in order to compare and contrast the physical properties of such NLED spacetime with its Maxwellian counterpart (a slowly rotating Kerr-Newman spacetime), especially focusing on the astrophysics of both neutrino flavor oscillations (νe→νμ , ντ ) and spin-flip (νl→νr, "l " stands for "left" and "r " stands for "right", change of neutrino handedness) mass level crossings, the equivalent to gyroscopic precessions. Such analysis proves that in the spacetime of a slowly rotating nonlinear charged black hole (RNCBH), intrinsically associated with the assumption the electromagnetism is nonlinear, the neutrino dynamics in core-collapse supernovae could be significantly changed. In such an astrophysical environment, a positive enhancement (reduction of the electron fraction Yesupernova explosions due to enlargement, in atomic number and amount, of the decaying nuclides. Finally, we envisage some physical scenarios that may lead to short-lived charged black holes with high charge-to-mass ratios (associated with unstable highly magnetized neutron stars) and ways to possibly disentangle theories of the electromagnetism from other black hole observables (by means of light polarization measurements).

  9. Rapid direct methods for enumeration of specific, active bacteria in water and biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFeters, G. A.; Pyle, B. H.; Lisle, J. T.; Broadaway, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    Conventional methods for detecting indicator and pathogenic bacteria in water may underestimate the actual population due to sublethal environmental injury, inability of the target bacteria to take up nutrients and other physiological factors which reduce bacterial culturability. Rapid and direct methods are needed to more accurately detect and enumerate active bacteria. Such a methodological advance would provide greater sensitivity in assessing the microbiological safety of water and food. The principle goal of this presentation is to describe novel approaches we have formulated for the rapid and simultaneous detection of bacteria plus the determination of their physiological activity in water and other environmental samples. The present version of our method involves the concentration of organisms by membrane filtration or immunomagnetic separation and combines an intracellular fluorochrome (CTC) for assessment of respiratory activity plus fluorescent-labelled antibody detection of specific bacteria. This approach has also been successfully used to demonstrate spatial and temporal heterogeneities of physiological activities in biofilms when coupled with cryosectioning. Candidate physiological stains include those capable of determining respiratory activity, membrane potential, membrane integrity, growth rate and cellular enzymatic activities. Results obtained thus far indicate that immunomagnetic separation can provide a high degree of sensitivity in the recovery of seeded target bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7) in water and hamburger. The captured and stained target bacteria are then enumerated by either conventional fluorescence microscopy or ChemScan(R), a new instrument that is very sensitive and rapid. The ChemScan(R) laser scanning instrument (Chemunex, Paris, France) provides the detection of individual fluorescently labelled bacterial cells using three emission channels in less than 5 min. A high degree of correlation has been demonstrated between

  10. Dietary Slowly Digestible Starch Triggers the Gut-Brain Axis in Obese Rats with Accompanied Reduced Food Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasek, Like Y; Phillips, Robert J; Zhang, Genyi; Kinzig, Kimberly P; Kim, Choon Young; Powley, Terry L; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2017-12-11

    Slowly digestible starch (SDS), as a functional carbohydrate providing a slow and sustained glucose release, may be able to modulate food intake through activation of the gut-brain axis. Diet-induced obese rats were used to test the effect on feeding behavior of high-fat (HF) diets containing an SDS, fabricated to digest into the ileum, as compared to rapidly digestible starch (RDS). Ingestion of the HF-SDS diet over an 11-week period reduced daily food intake, through smaller meal size, to the same level as a lean body control group, while the group consuming the HF-RDS diet remained at a high food intake. Expression levels (mRNA) of the hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) were significantly reduced, and the anorexigenic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) was increased, in the HF-SDS fed group compared to the HF-RDS group, and to the level of the lean control group. SDS with digestion into the ileum reduced daily food intake and paralleled suppressed expression of appetite-stimulating neuropeptide genes associated with the gut-brain axis. This novel finding suggests further exploration involving a clinical study and potential development of SDS-based functional foods as an approach to obesity control. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Selecting the smoothing parameter for estimation of slowly changing evoked potential signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, J; Turetsky, B; Fein, G

    1989-09-01

    Brain evoked potential (EP) data consist of a true response ("signal") and random background activity ("noise"), which are observed over repeated stimulus presentations ("trials"). A signal that changes slowly from trial to trial can be estimated by smoothing across trials and over time within trials. We present a method for selecting the smoothing parameter by minimizing an estimate of the mean average squared error (MASE). We evaluate the performance of this method using simulated EP data, and apply the method to an example set of real flash evoked potentials.

  12. A rapid and sensitive method for measuring N-acetylglucosaminidase activity in cultured cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mauri

    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive method to quantitatively assess N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG activity in cultured cells is highly desirable for both basic research and clinical studies. NAG activity is deficient in cells from patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB (MPS IIIB due to mutations in NAGLU, the gene that encodes NAG. Currently available techniques for measuring NAG activity in patient-derived cell lines include chromogenic and fluorogenic assays and provide a biochemical method for the diagnosis of MPS IIIB. However, standard protocols require large amounts of cells, cell disruption by sonication or freeze-thawing, and normalization to the cellular protein content, resulting in an error-prone procedure that is material- and time-consuming and that produces highly variable results. Here we report a new procedure for measuring NAG activity in cultured cells. This procedure is based on the use of the fluorogenic NAG substrate, 4-Methylumbelliferyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranoside (MUG, in a one-step cell assay that does not require cell disruption or post-assay normalization and that employs a low number of cells in 96-well plate format. We show that the NAG one-step cell assay greatly discriminates between wild-type and MPS IIIB patient-derived fibroblasts, thus providing a rapid method for the detection of deficiencies in NAG activity. We also show that the assay is sensitive to changes in NAG activity due to increases in NAGLU expression achieved by either overexpressing the transcription factor EB (TFEB, a master regulator of lysosomal function, or by inducing TFEB activation chemically. Because of its small format, rapidity, sensitivity and reproducibility, the NAG one-step cell assay is suitable for multiple procedures, including the high-throughput screening of chemical libraries to identify modulators of NAG expression, folding and activity, and the investigation of candidate molecules and constructs for applications in

  13. A Rapid Method for Measuring Strontium-90 Activity in Crops in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Lingjing Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid method for measuring Sr-90 activity in crop ashes is presented. Liquid scintillation counting, combined with ion exchange columns 4‘, 4“(5“-di-t-butylcyclohexane-18-crown-6, is used to determine the activity of Sr-90 in crops. The yields of chemical procedure are quantified using gravimetric analysis. The conventional method that uses ion-exchange resin with HDEHP could not completely remove all the bismuth when comparatively large lead and bismuth exist in the samples. This is overcome by the rapid method. The chemical yield of this method is about 60% and the MDA for Sr-90 is found to be 2:32 Bq/kg. The whole procedure together with using spectrum analysis to determine the activity only takes about one day, which is really a large improvement compared with the conventional method. A modified conventional method is also described here to verify the value of the rapid one. These two methods can meet di_erent needs of daily monitoring and emergency situation.

  14. A Rapid Method for Measuring Strontium-90 Activity in Crops in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lingjing Pan; Yu, Guobing; Wen, Deyun; Chen, Zhi; Sheng, Liusi; Liu, Chung-King; Xu, X. George

    2017-09-01

    A rapid method for measuring Sr-90 activity in crop ashes is presented. Liquid scintillation counting, combined with ion exchange columns 4`, 4"(5")-di-t-butylcyclohexane-18-crown-6, is used to determine the activity of Sr-90 in crops. The yields of chemical procedure are quantified using gravimetric analysis. The conventional method that uses ion-exchange resin with HDEHP could not completely remove all the bismuth when comparatively large lead and bismuth exist in the samples. This is overcome by the rapid method. The chemical yield of this method is about 60% and the MDA for Sr-90 is found to be 2:32 Bq/kg. The whole procedure together with using spectrum analysis to determine the activity only takes about one day, which is really a large improvement compared with the conventional method. A modified conventional method is also described here to verify the value of the rapid one. These two methods can meet di_erent needs of daily monitoring and emergency situation.

  15. Protein Biophysics Explains Why Highly Abundant Proteins Evolve Slowly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian W.R. Serohijos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The consistent observation across all kingdoms of life that highly abundant proteins evolve slowly demonstrates that cellular abundance is a key determinant of protein evolutionary rate. However, other empirical findings, such as the broad distribution of evolutionary rates, suggest that additional variables determine the rate of protein evolution. Here, we report that under the global selection against the cytotoxic effects of misfolded proteins, folding stability (ΔG, simultaneous with abundance, is a causal variable of evolutionary rate. Using both theoretical analysis and multiscale simulations, we demonstrate that the anticorrelation between the premutation ΔG and the arising mutational effect (ΔΔG, purely biophysical in origin, is a necessary requirement for abundance–evolutionary rate covariation. Additionally, we predict and demonstrate in bacteria that the strength of abundance–evolutionary rate correlation depends on the divergence time separating reference genomes. Altogether, these results highlight the intrinsic role of protein biophysics in the emerging universal patterns of molecular evolution.

  16. The evolved slowly pulsating B star 18 Peg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irrgang Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The predicted width of the upper main sequence in stellar evolution models depends on the empirical calibration of the convective overshooting parameter. Despite decades of discussions, its precise value is still unknown and further observational constraints are required to gauge it. Irrgang et al. ([1] showed that the B3 III giant 18 Peg is one of the most evolved members of the class of slowly pulsating B (SPB stars and, thus, bears tremendous potential to derive a tight lower limit for the width of the upper main sequence. In addition, 18 Peg turns out to be part of a single-lined spectroscopic binary system with an eccentric, more than 6-year orbit. The orbital solution, in combination with the absence of additional signatures of the secondary component in the spectroscopic data and the spectral energy distribution, lead to the conclusion that all the observations of 18 Peg are fully compatible with the assumption that the secondary component is either a main-sequence star with a mass of 1-4 M⊙ or a neutron star.

  17. Slowly-rotating neutron stars in massive bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, A.; Yunes, N.

    2018-02-01

    We study slowly-rotating neutron stars in ghost-free massive bigravity. This theory modifies general relativity by introducing a second, auxiliary but dynamical tensor field that couples to matter through the physical metric tensor through non-linear interactions. We expand the field equations to linear order in slow rotation and numerically construct solutions in the interior and exterior of the star with a set of realistic equations of state. We calculate the physical mass function with respect to observer radius and find that, unlike in general relativity, this function does not remain constant outside the star; rather, it asymptotes to a constant a distance away from the surface, whose magnitude is controlled by the ratio of gravitational constants. The Vainshtein-like radius at which the physical and auxiliary mass functions asymptote to a constant is controlled by the graviton mass scaling parameter, and outside this radius, bigravity modifications are suppressed. We also calculate the frame-dragging metric function and find that bigravity modifications are typically small in the entire range of coupling parameters explored. We finally calculate both the mass-radius and the moment of inertia-mass relations for a wide range of coupling parameters and find that both the graviton mass scaling parameter and the ratio of the gravitational constants introduce large modifications to both. These results could be used to place future constraints on bigravity with electromagnetic and gravitational-wave observations of isolated and binary neutron stars.

  18. Rapid kinetic BRET measurements to monitor G protein activation by GPCR and non-GPCR proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziarz, Marcin; Garcia-Marcos, Mikel

    2017-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are central hubs of signal transduction whose activity is controlled by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as well as by a complex network of regulatory proteins. Recently, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based assays have been used to monitor real-time activation of heterotrimeric G proteins in cells. Here we describe the use of a previously established BRET assay to monitor G protein activation upon GPCR stimulation and its adaptation to measure G protein activation by non-GPCR proteins, such as by cytoplasmic guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) like GIV/Girdin. The BRET assay monitors the release of free Gβγ from Gα-Gβγ heterotrimers as a readout of G protein activation, which is readily observable upon agonist stimulation of GPCRs. To control the signal input for non-GPCR activators, we describe the use of a chemically induced dimerization strategy to promote rapid membrane translocation of proteins containing the Gα-binding and -activating (GBA) motif found in some nonreceptor GEFs. The assay described here allows the kinetic measurement of G protein activation with subsecond temporal resolution and to compare the levels of activation induced by GPCR agonists vs those induced by the membrane recruitment of nonreceptor G protein signaling activators. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid Detection of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Activity in Mouse Sperm Using Fluorescent Gel Shift Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseok; Choi, Bomi; Seo, Ju Tae; Lee, Kyung Jin; Gye, Myung Chan; Kim, Young-Pil

    2016-04-16

    Assaying the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) activity in sperm is of great importance because it is closely implicated in sperm motility and male infertility. While a number of studies on GSK3 activity have relied on labor-intensive immunoblotting to identify phosphorylated GSK3, here we report the simple and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in mouse sperm using conventional agarose gel electrophoresis and a fluorescent peptide substrate. When a dye-tethered and prephosphorylated (primed) peptide substrate for GSK3 was employed, a distinct mobility shift in the fluorescent bands on the agarose was observed by GSK3-induced phosphorylation of the primed peptides. The GSK3 activity in mouse testes and sperm were quantifiable by gel shift assay with low sample consumption and were significantly correlated with the expression levels of GSK3 and p-GSK3. We suggest that our assay can be used for reliable and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in cells and tissue extracts.

  20. Rapid Detection of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Activity in Mouse Sperm Using Fluorescent Gel Shift Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoseok Choi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Assaying the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3 activity in sperm is of great importance because it is closely implicated in sperm motility and male infertility. While a number of studies on GSK3 activity have relied on labor-intensive immunoblotting to identify phosphorylated GSK3, here we report the simple and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in mouse sperm using conventional agarose gel electrophoresis and a fluorescent peptide substrate. When a dye-tethered and prephosphorylated (primed peptide substrate for GSK3 was employed, a distinct mobility shift in the fluorescent bands on the agarose was observed by GSK3-induced phosphorylation of the primed peptides. The GSK3 activity in mouse testes and sperm were quantifiable by gel shift assay with low sample consumption and were significantly correlated with the expression levels of GSK3 and p-GSK3. We suggest that our assay can be used for reliable and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in cells and tissue extracts.

  1. Virus-associated activation of innate immunity induces rapid disruption of Peyer's patches in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Simon; Anz, David; Stephan, Nicolas; Bohn, Bernadette; Herbst, Tina; Fendler, Wolfgang Peter; Suhartha, Nina; Sandholzer, Nadja; Kobold, Sebastian; Hotz, Christian; Eisenächer, Katharina; Radtke-Schuller, Susanne; Endres, Stefan; Bourquin, Carole

    2013-10-10

    Early in the course of infection, detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by innate immune receptors can shape the subsequent adaptive immune response. Here we investigate the influence of virus-associated innate immune activation on lymphocyte distribution in secondary lymphoid organs. We show for the first time that virus infection of mice induces rapid disruption of the Peyer's patches but not of other secondary lymphoid organs. The observed effect was not dependent on an active infectious process, but due to innate immune activation and could be mimicked by virus-associated molecular patterns such as the synthetic double-stranded RNA poly(I:C). Profound histomorphologic changes in Peyer's patches were associated with depletion of organ cellularity, most prominent among the B-cell subset. We demonstrate that the disruption is entirely dependent on type I interferon (IFN). At the cellular level, we show that virus-associated immune activation by IFN-α blocks B-cell trafficking to the Peyer's patches by downregulating expression of the homing molecule α4β7-integrin. In summary, our data identify a mechanism that results in type I IFN-dependent rapid but reversible disruption of intestinal lymphoid organs during systemic viral immune activation. We propose that such rerouted lymphocyte trafficking may impact the development of B-cell immunity to systemic viral pathogens.

  2. Analysis of α-glucosidase enzyme activity used in a rapid test for steam sterilization assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlow, B; Korza, G; Setlow, P

    2016-05-01

    This study was to determine the sources, location and identity of α-glucosidases in dormant/germinating/outgrowing spores and growing cells of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953, an enzymatic activity in spores used in rapid tests of steam sterilization. α-Glucosidase activity in spores and cells was determined measuring methylumbelliferyl-α-d-glucoside (α-MUG) or α-MUG-6-phosphate hydrolysis fluorometrically. While α-MUG-6-phosphate was not hydrolysed by cell or spore extracts, assays with α-MUG showed that: (1) the α-glucosidase activity was inside and outside spores, and the activity outside spores was largely removed by buffer washes or heat activation, whereas α-glucosidase activity was only inside vegetative cells; (2) most α-glucosidase activity in cells and spores was soluble; (3) Western blots and enzyme inhibition using an anti-α-glucosidase antiserum identified ≥2 α-glucosidases in spores and growing cells; (4) α-glucosidase-specific activities were similar in dormant, germinated and outgrowing spore and growing cell extracts; and (5) significant α-glucosidase was synthesized during spore germination and outgrowth and cell growth, this synthesis was not repressed by glucose nor induced by α-MUG, but glucose inhibited α-MUG uptake. α-MUG hydrolysis by G. stearothermophilus is by α-MUG uptake and hydrolysis by ≥2 α-glucosidases associated with dormant spores and synthesized by germinating and outgrowing spores. The enzyme activity observed by sterilization assurance assays appears likely to come from heat-stable enzyme in the spore core and enzyme(s) synthesized in spore outgrowth. The results of this work provide new insight into the science behind a rapid test for steam sterilization assurance. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. First-line capecitabine monotherapy for slowly progressing metastatic breast cancer: do we need aggressive treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debled, Marc; Madranges, Nicolas; Trainaud, Alexandra; Floquet, Anne; Donamaria, Catherine; Brouste, Véronique; Durand, Michel; Mauriac, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Primary treatment goals in less aggressive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are prolonged survival, good quality of life and control of the disease and its symptoms. High activity, oral administration and no alopecia make capecitabine monotherapy attractive in slowly evolving disease. We retrospectively analysed 226 patients who had received single-agent capecitabine as 1st-line chemotherapy at our institution. The median interval between breast cancer diagnosis and MBC was 52 months (range 0-479); 76% had received endocrine therapy for MBC, 58% had visceral involvement and 30% had 3 or more metastatic sites. The median starting dose was 1,000 mg/m(2) twice daily. Disease was improved in 56% of the patients (median duration: 13.2 months) and stabilised in 20%. Median time to treatment failure was 8.8 months (95% CI: 7.1-10.5); median overall survival from initiating capecitabine was 23.6 months (95% CI: 19.7-27.4). Prior adjuvant chemotherapy, endocrine therapy for MBC, visceral disease, hormone receptor status and initial capecitabine dose did not influence time to treatment failure. Among 161 patients <75 years, 90% received further chemotherapy. Based on these findings, 1st-line capecitabine should be considered in slowly progressing disease, offering an active, well-tolerated oral treatment with minimal toxicity and no alopecia. More toxic treatments may be reserved for more aggressive disease. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Rapid muscle activation and force capacity in conditions of chronic musculoskeletal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B

    2008-01-01

    muscle activation and force capacity of chronically painful muscles. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 42 women with chronic trapezius myalgia, and 20 healthy matched controls. Maximal capacity was determined as peak torque and peak EMG amplitude of the painful trapezius and painfree deltoid muscles......-analogue-scale. FINDINGS: Peak torque was 18% lower at 115 degrees shoulder joint angle in women with myalgia compared with healthy controls (Pmuscle (Ptorque development was 33-54% lower (P...BACKGROUND: The association between musculoskeletal pain and decreased maximal muscle strength capacity has been extensively studied, but knowledge about functional rapid force capacity in conditions of chronic musculoskeletal pain is lacking. The objective of this study is to investigate rapid...

  5. Rapid activation of Rac GTPase in living cells by force is independent of Src.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh-Chuin Poh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that mechanical forces are crucial in regulating functions of every tissue and organ in a human body. However, it remains unclear how mechanical forces are transduced into biochemical activities and biological responses at the cellular and molecular level. Using the magnetic twisting cytometry technique, we applied local mechanical stresses to living human airway smooth muscle cells with a magnetic bead bound to the cell surface via transmembrane adhesion molecule integrins. The temporal and spatial activation of Rac, a small guanosine triphosphatase, was quantified using a fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET method that measures changes in Rac activity in response to mechanical stresses by quantifying intensity ratios of ECFP (enhanced cyan fluorescent protein as a donor and YPet (a variant yellow fluorescent protein as an acceptor of the Rac biosensor. The applied stress induced rapid activation (less than 300 ms of Rac at the cell periphery. In contrast, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF induced Rac activation at a much later time (>30 sec. There was no stress-induced Rac activation when a mutant form of the Rac biosensor (RacN17 was transfected or when the magnetic bead was coated with transferrin or with poly-L-lysine. It is known that PDGF-induced Rac activation depends on Src activity. Surprisingly, pre-treatment of the cells with specific Src inhibitor PP1 or knocking-out Src gene had no effects on stress-induced Rac activation. In addition, eliminating lipid rafts through extraction of cholesterol from the plasma membrane did not prevent stress-induced Rac activation, suggesting a raft-independent mechanism in governing the Rac activation upon mechanical stimulation. Further evidence indicates that Rac activation by stress depends on the magnitudes of the applied stress and cytoskeletal integrity. Our results suggest that Rac activation by mechanical forces is rapid, direct and does not depend on Src

  6. Real-time PCR for rapidly detecting aniline-degrading bacteria in activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayashima, Takakazu; Suzuki, Hisako; Maeda, Toshinari; Ogawa, Hiroaki I

    2013-05-01

    We developed a detection method that uses quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and the TaqMan system to easily and rapidly assess the population of aniline-degrading bacteria in activated sludge prior to conducting a biodegradability test on a chemical compound. A primer and probe set for qPCR was designed by a multiple alignment of conserved amino acid sequences encoding the large (α) subunit of aniline dioxygenase. PCR amplification tests showed that the designed primer and probe set targeted aniline-degrading strains such as Acidovorax sp., Gordonia sp., Rhodococcus sp., and Pseudomonas putida, thereby suggesting that the developed method can detect a wide variety of aniline-degrading bacteria. There was a strong correlation between the relative copy number of the α-aniline dioxygenase gene in activated sludge obtained with the developed qPCR method and the number of aniline-degrading bacteria measured by the Most Probable Number method, which is the conventional method, and a good correlation with the lag time of the BOD curve for aniline degradation produced by the biodegradability test in activated sludge samples collected from eight different wastewater treatment plants in Japan. The developed method will be valuable for the rapid and accurate evaluation of the activity of inocula prior to conducting a ready biodegradability test. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid Shifts in Soil Nutrients and Decomposition Enzyme Activity in Early Succession Following Forest Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Knelman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While past research has studied forest succession on decadal timescales, ecosystem responses to rapid shifts in nutrient dynamics within the first months to years of succession after fire (e.g., carbon (C burn-off, a pulse in inorganic nitrogen (N, accumulation of organic matter, etc. have been less well documented. This work reveals how rapid shifts in nutrient availability associated with fire disturbance may drive changes in soil enzyme activity on short timescales in forest secondary succession. In this study, we evaluate soil chemistry and decomposition extracellular enzyme activity (EEA across time to determine whether rapid shifts in nutrient availability (1–29 months after fire might control microbial enzyme activity. We found that, with advancing succession, soil nutrients correlate with C-targeting β-1,4-glucosidase (BG EEA four months after the fire, and with N-targeting β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG EEA at 29 months after the fire, indicating shifting nutrient limitation and decomposition dynamics. We also observed increases in BG:NAG ratios over 29 months in these recently burned soils, suggesting relative increases in microbial activity around C-cycling and C-acquisition. These successional dynamics were unique from seasonal changes we observed in unburned, forested reference soils. Our work demonstrates how EEA may shift even within the first months to years of ecosystem succession alongside common patterns of post-fire nutrient availability. Thus, this work emphasizes that nutrient dynamics in the earliest stages of forest secondary succession are important for understanding rates of C and N cycling and ecosystem development.

  8. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    On-site detection of enzymatic activities has been suggested as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources (e.g. using glucuronidases, galactosidases, esterases). Due to the possible short measuring intervals enzymatic methods have high potential as near-real time water quality monitoring tools. This presentation describes results from a long termed field test. For twelve months, two ColiMinder devices (Vienna Water Monitoring, Austria) for on-site determination of enzymatic activity were tested for stream water monitoring at the experimental catchment HOAL (Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, Center for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology). The devices were overall able to follow and reflect the diverse hydrological and microbiological conditions of the monitored stream during the test period. Continuous data in high temporal resolution captured the course of enzymatic activity in stream water during diverse rainfall events. The method also proofed sensitive enough to determine diurnal fluctuations of enzymatic activity in stream water during dry periods. The method was able to capture a seasonal trend of enzymatic activity in stream water that matches the results gained from Colilert18 analysis for E. coli and coliform bacteria of monthly grab samples. Furthermore the comparison of ColiMinder data with measurements gained at the same test site with devices using the same method but having different construction design (BACTcontrol, microLAN) showed consistent measuring results. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between measured enzymatic activity (modified fishman units and pmol/min/100ml) and cultivation based analyses (most probable number, colony forming unit). Methods of enzymatic activity measures are capable to detect ideally the enzymatic activity caused by all active target bacteria members, including VBNC (viable but nonculturable) while cultivation based methods cannot detect VBNC

  9. Activation of raphe nuclei triggers rapid and distinct effects on parallel olfactory bulb output channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Vikrant; Provost, Allison C; Agarwal, Prateek; Murthy, Venkatesh N

    2016-02-01

    The serotonergic raphe nuclei are involved in regulating brain states over timescales of minutes and hours. We examined more rapid effects of raphe activation on two classes of principal neurons in the mouse olfactory bulb, mitral and tufted cells, which send olfactory information to distinct targets. Brief stimulation of the raphe nuclei led to excitation of tufted cells at rest and potentiation of their odor responses. While mitral cells at rest were also excited by raphe activation, their odor responses were bidirectionally modulated, leading to improved pattern separation of odors. In vitro whole-cell recordings revealed that specific optogenetic activation of raphe axons affected bulbar neurons through dual release of serotonin and glutamate. Therefore, the raphe nuclei, in addition to their role in neuromodulation of brain states, are also involved in fast, sub-second top-down modulation similar to cortical feedback. This modulation can selectively and differentially sensitize or decorrelate distinct output channels.

  10. Activation of intracellular angiotensin AT2 receptors induces rapid cell death in human uterine leiomyosarcoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yi; Lützen, Ulf; Fritsch, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    of apoptosis and cell death in cultured human uterine leiomyosarcoma (SK-UT-1) cells and control human uterine smooth muscle cells (HutSMC). The intracellular levels of the AT2 receptor are low in proliferating SK-UT-1 cells but the receptor is substantially up-regulated in quiescent SK-UT-1 cells with high...... densities in mitochondria. Activation of the cell membrane AT2 receptors by a concomitant treatment with angiotensin II and the AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, induces apoptosis but does not affect the rate of cell death. We demonstrate for the first time that the high-affinity, non-peptide AT2 receptor...... agonist, Compound 21 (C21) penetrates the cell membrane of quiescent SK-UT-1 cells, activates intracellular AT2 receptors and induces rapid cell death; approximately 70% of cells died within 24 h. The cells, which escaped from the cell death, displayed activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, i...

  11. Construction of a Quality of Life Questionnaire for slowly progressive neuromuscular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dany, Antoine; Barbe, Coralie; Rapin, Amandine; Réveillère, Christian; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit; Morrone, Isabella; Wolak-Thierry, Aurore; Dramé, Moustapha; Calmus, Arnaud; Sacconi, Sabrina; Bassez, Guillaume; Tiffreau, Vincent; Richard, Isabelle; Gallais, Benjamin; Prigent, Hélène; Taiar, Redha; Jolly, Damien; Novella, Jean-Luc; Boyer, François Constant

    2015-11-01

    To build a questionnaire to assess health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients suffering from slowly progressive neuromuscular disease (NMD) using item response theory (IRT). A pool of 64 items and a validated questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered to 159 patients recruited in eight NMD referral centers. Exploratory statistical analysis included methods derived from both IRT and classical test theory. We constructed a questionnaire named QoL-NMD which is composed of two general items and 24 items classified in three domains: (1) "Impact of Physical Symptoms," (2) "Self-perception" and (3) "Activities and Social Participation." Each domain has good psychometric properties (Cronbach's alpha > 0.77, test-retest ICC > 0.81, Loevinger's H > 0.41) and meets IRT assumptions. Comparison with the WHOQOL-BREF enabled assessing similarities and discrepancies with a generic questionnaire. This study enabled the development of a new HRQL questionnaire specifically designed for slowly progressive NMD patients. The QoL-NMD is short enough to be used in clinical practice (26 items). The next steps will be to validate QoL-NMD by re-assessing psychometrics in an independent sample of patients and calibrate the IRT scoring system.

  12. Rapid Cell-Based Assay for Detection and Quantification of Active Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Type D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Hernlem, Bradley J

    2017-03-01

    Food poisoning by Staphylococcus aureus is a result of ingestion of Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by this bacterium and is a major source of foodborne illness. Staphylococcal enterotoxin D (SED) is one of the predominant enterotoxins recovered in Staphylococcal food poisoning incidences, including a recent outbreak in Guam affecting 300 children. Current immunology methods for SED detection cannot distinguish between the biologically active form of the toxin, which poses a threat, from the inactive form, which poses no threat. In vivo bioassays that measure emetic activity in kitten and monkeys have been used, but these methods rely upon expensive procedures using live animals and raising ethical concerns. A rapid (5 h) quantitative bioluminescence assay, using a genetically engineered T-cell Jurkat cell line expressing luciferase under regulation of nuclear factor of activated T cells response elements, in combination with the lymphoblastoid B-cell line Raji for antigen presentation, was developed. In this assay, the detection limit of biologically active SED is 100 ng/mL, which is 10 times more sensitive than the splenocyte proliferation assay, and 105 times more sensitive than monkey or kitten bioassay. Pasteurization or repeated freeze-thaw cycles had no effect on SED activity, but reduction in SED activity was shown with heat treatment at 100°C for 5 min. It was also shown that milk exhibits a protective effect on SED. This bioluminescence assay may also be used to rapidly evaluate antibodies to SED for potential therapeutic application as a measurement of neutralizing biological effects of SED. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Rapid NK-cell activation in chicken after infection with infectious bronchitis virus M41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervelde, L; Matthijs, M G R; van Haarlem, D A; de Wit, J J; Jansen, C A

    2013-02-15

    Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes and play an important role in the early defence against viruses. In this study we focussed on NK cell and interferon (IFN) responses after infection with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Based on surface expression of CD107+, enhanced activation of lung NK cells was observed at 1 dpi, whereas in blood prolonged NK-cell activation was found. IFN-α and IFN-β mRNA and proteins were not rapidly induced whereas IFN-γ production in lung, measured by Elispot assay, increased over time at 2 and 4 dpi. In contrast, IFN-γ production in blood was highest at 1 dpi and decreased over time down to levels comparable to uninfected birds at 4 dpi. Collectively, infection with IBV-M41 resulted in activation of NK cells in the lung and blood and rapid production of IFN-γ and not IFN-α and IFN-β compared to uninfected birds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Using rapid assessment and response to operationalise physical activity strategic health communication campaigns in Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tahir; Latu, Netina; Cocker-Palu, Elizabeth; Liavaa, Villiami; Vivili, Paul; Gloede, Sara; Simons, Allison

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify stakeholder and program beneficiary needs and wants in relation to a netball communication strategy in Tonga. In addition, the study aimed to more clearly identify audience segments for targeting of communication campaigns and to identify any barriers or benefits to engaging in the physical activity program. A rapid assessment and response (RAR) methodology was used. The elicitation research encompassed qualitative fieldwork approaches, including semistructured interviews with key informants and focus group discussions with program beneficiaries. Desk research of secondary data sources supported in-field findings. A number of potential barriers to behavioural compliance existed, including cultural factors, gender discrimination, socioeconomic factors, stigmatising attitudes, the threat of domestic violence, infrastructure and training issues. Factors contributing to participation in physical activity included the fun and social aspects of the sport, incentives (including career opportunities, highlighting the health benefits of the activity and the provision of religious and cultural sanctions by local leaders towards the increased physical activity of women. The consultative approach of RAR provided a more in-depth understanding of the need for greater levels of physical activity and opportunities for engagement by all stakeholders. The approach facilitated opportunities for the proposed health behaviours to be realised through the communication strategy. Essential insights for the strategy design were identified from key informants, as well as ensuring future engagement of these stakeholders into the strategy. So what? The expanded use of RAR to inform the design of social marketing interventions is a practical approach to data collection for non-communicable diseases and other health issues in developing countries. The approach allows for the rapid mobilisation of scarce resources for the implementation of more

  15. Development of a New Decision Tree to Rapidly Screen Chemical Estrogenic Activities of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Weiying; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Lin, Zhifen; Kong, Deyang

    2014-02-01

    During the last past decades, there is an increasing number of studies about estrogenic activities of the environmental pollutants on amphibians and many determination methods have been proposed. However, these determination methods are time-consuming and expensive, and a rapid and simple method to screen and test the chemicals for estrogenic activities to amphibians is therefore imperative. Herein is proposed a new decision tree formulated not only with physicochemical parameters but also a biological parameter that was successfully used to screen estrogenic activities of the chemicals on amphibians. The biological parameter, CDOCKER interaction energy (Ebinding ) between chemicals and the target proteins was calculated based on the method of molecular docking, and it was used to revise the decision tree formulated by Hong only with physicochemical parameters for screening estrogenic activity of chemicals in rat. According to the correlation between Ebinding of rat and Xenopus laevis, a new decision tree for estrogenic activities in Xenopus laevis is finally proposed. Then it was validated by using the randomly 8 chemicals which can be frequently exposed to Xenopus laevis, and the agreement between the results from the new decision tree and the ones from experiments is generally satisfactory. Consequently, the new decision tree can be used to screen the estrogenic activities of the chemicals, and combinational use of the Ebinding and classical physicochemical parameters can greatly improves Hong's decision tree. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in milk using liquid scintilation counter technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sas Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid determination of gross alpha and beta emitters in milk by liquid scintillation counter is discussed. This method is based on direct addition of different types of milk into scintillation cocktail and therefore it is very promising for fast determination of alpha/beta activity due to direct alpha and beta separation, measurement in close 4p geometry and without sample treatment. The selected group of radionuclides was chosen with the respect to military significance, radio-toxicity, and possibility of potential misuse. As model radionuclides 241Am, 239Pu, and 90Sr were selected. The Liquid Scintilation Counter Hidex 300 SL equipped with triple-double-coincidence-ratio technique was used for sample measurement. The aim of the work was focused on comparison of different cocktails produced by Hidex and Perkin Elmer, choosing the best cocktail based on our measurement results and adjustment of its appropriate volume. Furthermore, the optimization of ratio between the volume of scintillation cocktail and the volume of urine was investigated with the respect to the model radionuclides. According to the obtained results, the efficiency for alpha emitters was greater than 85% and for beta, greater than 95%. The obtained results allowed this method to be used for rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in cases where time is an essence, such as first responders or mass-scale samples, where ordinary means suffer from lack of capacity or simply collapse under the onslaught.

  17. Rapid in situ assessment of physiological activities in bacterial biofilms using fluorescent probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F. P.; McFeters, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    Two rapid in situ enumeration methods using fluorescent probes were used to assess the physiological activities of Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilms on stainless steel. Fluorescent dyes, 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) and rhodamine 123 (Rh 123), were chosen to perform this study. CTC is a soluble redox indicator which can be reduced by respiring bacteria to fluorescent CTC-formazan crystals. Rh 123 is incorporated into bacteria with respect to cellular proton motive force. The intracellular accumulation of these fluorescent dyes can be determined using epifluorescence microscopy. The results obtained with these two fluorescent probes in situ were compared to the plate count (PC) and in situ direct viable count (DVC) methods. Viable cell densities within biofilms determined by the three in situ methods were comparable and always showed approximately 2-fold higher values than those obtained with the PC method. As an additional advantage, the results were observed after 2 h, which was shorter than the 4 h incubation time required for the DVC method and 24 h for colony formation. The results indicate that staining with CTC and Rh 123 provides rapid information regarding cell numbers and physiological activities of bacteria within biofilms.

  18. Rapid regulation of endoplasmic reticulum dynamics in dendritic spines by NMDA receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ai Na; Doherty, Andrew J; Lombroso, Paul J; Emptage, Nigel J; Collingridge, Graham L

    2014-08-19

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is motile within dendritic spines, but the mechanisms underlying its regulation are poorly understood. To address this issue, we have simultaneously imaged morphology and ER content of dendritic spines in cultured dissociated mouse hippocampal neurons. Over a 10 min period, spines were highly dynamic, with spines both increasing and decreasing in volume. ER was present in approximately 50% of spines and was also highly dynamic, with a net increase over this period of time. Inhibition of the endogenous activation of NMDA receptors resulted in a reduction in ER growth. Conversely, augmentation of the synaptic activation of NMDA receptors, by elimination of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP), resulted in enhanced ER growth. Therefore, NMDA receptors rapidly regulate spine ER dynamics.

  19. Rapid and quantitative measuring of telomerase activity using an electrochemiluminescent sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Xing, Da; Zhu, Debin; Jia, Li

    2007-11-01

    Telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein enzyme that adds telomeric repeats to the 3'end of chromosomal DNA for maintaining chromosomal integrity and stability. This strong association of telomerase activity with tumors establishing it is the most widespread cancer marker. A number of assays based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been developed for the evaluation of telomerase activity. However, those methods require gel electrophoresis and some staining procedures. We developed an electrochemiluminescent (ECL) sensor for the measuring of telomerase activity to overcome these problems such as troublesome post-PCR procedures and semi-quantitative assessment in the conventional method. In this assay 5'-biotinylated telomerase synthesis (TS) primer serve as the substrate for the extension of telomeric repeats under telomerase. The extension products were amplified with this TS primer and a tris-(2'2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR)-labeled reversed primer. The amplified products was separated and enriched in the surface of electrode by streptavidin-coated magnetic beads, and detected by measuring the ECL signals of the TBR labeled. Measuring telomerase activity use the sensor is easy, sensitive, rapid, and applicable to quantitative analysis, should be clinically useful for the detection and monitoring of telomerase activity.

  20. Dexamethasone rapidly suppresses IL-33-stimulated mast cell function by blocking transcription factor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Anuya; Chernushevich, Oksana; Qayum, Amina Abdul; Spence, Andrew J; Taruselli, Marcela T; Abebayehu, Daniel; Barnstein, Brian O; McLeod, Jamie Josephine Avila; Baker, Bianca; Bajaj, Gurjas S; Chumanevich, Alena P; Oskeritzian, Carole A; Ryan, John J

    2016-12-01

    Mast cells are critical effectors of allergic disease and can be activated by IL-33, a proinflammatory member of the IL-1 cytokine family. IL-33 worsens the pathology of mast cell-mediated diseases, but therapies to antagonize IL-33 are still forthcoming. Because steroids are the mainstay of allergic disease treatment and are well known to suppress mast cell activation by other stimuli, we examined the effects of the steroid dexamethasone on IL-33-mediated mast cell function. We found that dexamethasone potently and rapidly suppressed cytokine production elicited by IL-33 from murine bone marrow-derived and peritoneal mast cells. IL-33 enhances IgE-mediated mast cell cytokine production, an activity that was also antagonized by dexamethasone. These effects were consistent in human mast cells. We additionally observed that IL-33 augmented migration of IgE-sensitized mast cells toward antigen. This enhancing effect was similarly reversed by dexamethasone. Simultaneous addition of dexamethasone with IL-33 had no effect on the phosphorylation of MAP kinases or NFκB p65 subunit; however, dexamethasone antagonized AP-1- and NFκB-mediated transcriptional activity. Intraperitoneal administration of dexamethasone completely abrogated IL-33-mediated peritoneal neutrophil recruitment and prevented plasma IL-6 elevation. These data demonstrate that steroid therapy may be an effective means of antagonizing the effects of IL-33 on mast cells in vitro and in vivo, acting partly by suppressing IL-33-induced NFκB and AP-1 activity. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  1. Rapid estimation of activation enthalpies for cytochrome-P450-mediated hydroxylations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeno, Arthur N; Robinson, Jonathan L; Reisfeld, Brad

    2011-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play a critical role in detoxication and bioactivation of xenobiotics; thus, the ability to predict the biotransformation rates and regioselectivity of CYP enzymes toward substrates is an important goal in toxicology and pharmacology. Here, we present the use of the semiempirical quantum chemistry method SAM1 to rapidly estimate relative activation enthalpies (ΔH(‡)) for the hydroxylation of aliphatic carbon centers of various substrates. The ΔH(‡) were determined via a reaction path calculation, in the reverse direction (RRP), using the iron-hydroxo-porphine intermediate and the substrate radical. The SAM1 ΔH(‡) were calculated via unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) and configuration interaction (CI) formalisms for both the doublet and quartet spin states. The SAM1 RRP ΔH(‡), after subtracting a correction factor, were compared with density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP activation energies for two sets of substrates and showed R(2) ranging from 0.69 to 0.89, and mean absolute differences ranging from 1.2 ± 1.0 to 1.7 ± 1.5 kcal/mol. SAM1 UHF and CI RRP calculation times were, on average, more than 200 times faster than those for the corresponding forward reaction path DFT calculations. Certain key transition-state (TS) geometry measurements, such as the forming O···H bond length, showed good correlation with the DFT values. These results suggest that the SAM1 RRP approach can be used to rapidly estimate the DFT activation energy and some key TS geometry measurements and can potentially be applied to estimate substrate hydroxylation rates and regioselectivity by CYP enzymes. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. CE: Original research: hospital system barriers to rapid response team activation: a cognitive work analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Jane Saucedo

    2015-02-01

    The goal of rapid response team (RRT) activation in acute care facilities is to decrease mortality from preventable complications, but such efforts have been only moderately successful. Although recent research has shown decreased mortality when RRTs are activated more often, many hospitals have low activation rates. This has been linked to various hospital, team, and nursing factors. Yet there is a dearth of research examining how hospital systems shape nurses' behavior with regard to RRT activation. Making systemic constraints visible and modifying them may be the key to improving RRT activation rates and saving more lives. The purpose of this study was to use cognitive work analysis to describe factors within the hospital system that shape medical-surgical nurses' RRT activation behavior. Cognitive work analysis offers a framework for the study of complex sociotechnical systems. This framework was used as the organizing element of the study. Qualitative descriptive design was used to obtain data to fill the framework's five domains: resources, tasks, strategies, social systems, and worker competency. Data were obtained from interviews with 12 medical-surgical nurses and document review. Directed content analysis was used to place the obtained data into the framework's predefined domains. Many system factors affected participants' decisions to activate or not activate an RRT. Systemic constraints, especially in cases of subtle or gradual clinical changes, included a lack of adequate information, the availability of multiple strategies, the need to justify RRT activation, a scarcity of human resources, and informal hierarchical norms in the hospital culture. The most profound constraint was the need to justify the call. Justification was based on the objective or subjective nature of clinical changes, whether the nurse expected to be able to "handle" these changes, the presence or absence of a physician, and whether there was an expectation of support from the RRT

  3. [Antimicrobial and rapid bactericidal activities of sitafloxacin and other agents against Streptococcus pyogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Eiko; Okumura, Ryo; Chiba, Megumi; Hoshino, Kazuki; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2013-10-01

    We evaluated the in vitro activity of sitafloxacin against Japanese clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes by broth microdilution susceptibility testing and time-kill studies to elucidate its eradication potential against S. pyogenes. One hundred and nineteen clinical isolates of S. pyogenes isolated from pharynx were tested to sitafloxacin and seven other agents in the susceptibility testing. The time-kill studies were conducted with five strains, one of which was resistant to clarithromycin, one resistant to levofloxacin and one type strain of S. pyogenes. In the time-kill studies, sitafloxacin, garenoxacin, amoxicillin and clarithromycin were assessed at static concentrations of their respective peak concentrations in plasma (C(max)) when administered as oral single doses for adult patients with S. pyogenes infections. We found the rank order of antimicrobial activity against S. pyogenes isolates was: cefcapene (MIC90, 0.015 microg/mL) > amoxicillin (0.03 microg/mL) > sitafloxacin (0.12 microg/mL) > garenoxacin (0.25 microg/mL) > levofloxacin (4 microg/mL) > minocycline (16 microg/mL). Macrolide-resistant isolates accounted for 72 (60.5%), resulting in clarithromycin and azithromycin MIC90s of > 32 and > 128 microg/mL, respectively. Sitafloxacin exhibited the most rapid bactericidal activity (> or = log reduction from the initial inoculum) within 2h against all tested strains, including even one levofloxacin-resistant strain. For garenoxacin, bactericidal activity was achieved between 2 and 6 h. Amoxicillin revealed no significant bactericidal activity up to 6 h. Clarithromycin showed no bactericidal activity and did not inhibit growth of a clarithromycin-resistant strain. These data indicate the potential usefulness of sitafloxacin for the treatment of S. pyogenes eradication.

  4. Communication and general concern criterion prior to activation of the rapid response team: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martland, Jarrad; Chamberlain, Diane; Hutton, Alison; Smigielski, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Objective Patients commonly show signs and symptoms of deterioration for hours or days before cardiorespiratory arrest. Rapid response teams (RRT) were created to improve recognition and response to patient deterioration in these situations. Activation criteria include vital signs or 'general concern' by a clinician or family member. The general concern criterion for RRT activation accounts for nearly one-third of all RRT activity, and although it is well established that communication deficits between staff can contribute to poorer outcomes for patients, there is little evidence pertaining to communication and its effects on the general concern RRT activation. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a substantive grounded theory related to the communication process between clinicians that preceded the activation of an RRT when general concern criterion was used. Methods Qualitative grounded theory involved collection of three types of data details namely personal notes from participants in focus groups with white board notes from discussions and audio recordings of the focus groups sessions. Focus groups were conducted with participants exploring issues associated with clinician communication and how it related to the activation of an RRT using the general concern criterion. Results The three main phases of coding (i.e. open, axial and selective coding) analysis identified 322 separate open codes. The strongest theme contributed to a theory of ineffective communication and decreased psychological safety, namely that 'In the absence of effective communication there is a subsequent increase in anxiety, fear or concern that can be directly attributed to the activation of an RRT using the 'general concern' criterion'. The RRT filled cultural and process deficiencies in the compliance with an escalation protocol. Issues such as 'not for resuscitation documentation' and 'inability to establish communication with and between medical or nursing personnel' rated

  5. Three dimensional evaluation of alveolar bone changes in response to different rapid palatal expansion activation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian LaBlonde

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this multi-center retrospective study was to quantify the changes in alveolar bone height and thickness after using two different rapid palatal expansion (RPE activation protocols, and to determine whether a more rapid rate of expansion is likely to cause more adverse effects, such as alveolar tipping, dental tipping, fenestration and dehiscence of anchorage teeth. Methods: The sample consisted of pre- and post-expansion records from 40 subjects (age 8-15 years who underwent RPE using a 4-banded Hyrax appliance as part of their orthodontic treatment to correct posterior buccal crossbites. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their RPE activation rates (0.5 mm/day and 0.8 mm/day; n = 20 each group. Three-dimensional images for all included subjects were evaluated using Dolphin Imaging Software 11.7 Premium. Maxillary base width, buccal and palatal cortical bone thickness, alveolar bone height, and root angulation and length were measured. Significance of the changes in the measurements was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and comparisons between groups were done using ANOVA. Significance was defined at p ≤ 0.05. Results: RPE activation rates of 0.5 mm per day (Group 1 and 0.8 mm per day (Group 2 caused significant increase in arch width following treatment; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Buccal alveolar height and width decreased significantly in both groups. Both treatment protocols resulted in significant increases in buccal-lingual angulation of teeth; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Both activation rates are associated with significant increase in intra-arch widths. However, 0.8 mm/day resulted in greater increases. The 0.8 mm/day activation rate also resulted in more increased dental tipping and decreased buccal alveolar bone thickness over 0.5 mm/day.

  6. Internal Porosity of Mineral Coating Supports Microbial Activity in Rapid Sand Filters for Groundwater Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Tatari, Karolina; Musovic, Sanin

    2014-01-01

    prokaryotes in filter material with various degrees of mineral coating. We also examined the physical and chemical characteristics of the mineral coating. The amount of mineral coating correlated positively with the internal porosity, the packed bulk density, and the biologically available surface area.......6 μm) of the mineral coating, which had a thickness of up to 600 ± 51 μm. Environmental scanning electron microscopic (E-SEM) observations suggested an extracellular polymeric substance-rich matrix and submicron-sized bacterial cells. Nitrifier diversity profiles were similar irrespective of the degree...... of mineral coating, as indicated by pyrosequencing analysis. Overall, our results demonstrate that mineral coating positively affects microbial colonization and activity in rapid sand filters, most likely due to increased volumetric cell abundances facilitated by the large surface area of internal mineral...

  7. ER Stress Causes Rapid Loss of Intestinal Epithelial Stemness through Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarom Heijmans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells generate rapidly dividing transit-amplifying cells that have lost the capacity for self-renewal but cycle for a number of times until they exit the cell cycle and undergo terminal differentiation. We know very little of the type of signals that trigger the earliest steps of stem cell differentiation and mediate a stem cell to transit-amplifying cell transition. We show that in normal intestinal epithelium, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and activity of the unfolded protein response (UPR are induced at the transition from stem cell to transit-amplifying cell. Induction of ER stress causes loss of stemness in a Perk-eIF2α-dependent manner. Inhibition of Perk-eIF2α signaling results in stem cell accumulation in organoid culture of primary intestinal epithelium. Our findings show that the UPR plays an important role in the regulation of intestinal epithelial stem cell differentiation.

  8. A Rapid and Sensitive Method to Measure the Functional Activity of Shiga Toxins in Human Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Arfilli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxins (Stx have a definite role in the development of hemolytic uremic syndrome in children with hemorrhagic colitis caused by pathogenic Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC strains. The dramatic effects of these toxins on the microvasculature of different organs, particularly of the kidney, are well known, whereas there is no consensus on the mechanism by which Stx reach the endothelia of target organs and/or indirectly injure these body sites. We hereby describe a quick (4 h, radioactive, Raji cell-based method designed for the detection of Stx in human sera. The assay monitors the translation impairment induced by these powerful inhibitors of protein synthesis, which are identified properly by neutralizing their activity with specific monoclonal antibodies. By this method, we detected for the first time the functional activity of Stx in sera of STEC-infected patients during hemorrhagic colitis. Recent research has pointed to a dynamic process of Stx-induced renal intoxication in which concurrent and interactive steps are involved. Our rapid and specific method could be useful for studying the kinetics of Stx during the natural course of STEC infection and the interplay between Stx activity in serum and Stx presence in different blood fractions (neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, leukocyte-platelet aggregates, microvesicles, lipoproteins.

  9. A Rapid and Sensitive Method to Measure the Functional Activity of Shiga Toxins in Human Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfilli, Valentina; Carnicelli, Domenica; Ardissino, Gianluigi; Torresani, Erminio; Scavia, Gaia; Brigotti, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxins (Stx) have a definite role in the development of hemolytic uremic syndrome in children with hemorrhagic colitis caused by pathogenic Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains. The dramatic effects of these toxins on the microvasculature of different organs, particularly of the kidney, are well known, whereas there is no consensus on the mechanism by which Stx reach the endothelia of target organs and/or indirectly injure these body sites. We hereby describe a quick (4 h), radioactive, Raji cell-based method designed for the detection of Stx in human sera. The assay monitors the translation impairment induced by these powerful inhibitors of protein synthesis, which are identified properly by neutralizing their activity with specific monoclonal antibodies. By this method, we detected for the first time the functional activity of Stx in sera of STEC-infected patients during hemorrhagic colitis. Recent research has pointed to a dynamic process of Stx-induced renal intoxication in which concurrent and interactive steps are involved. Our rapid and specific method could be useful for studying the kinetics of Stx during the natural course of STEC infection and the interplay between Stx activity in serum and Stx presence in different blood fractions (neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, leukocyte-platelet aggregates, microvesicles, lipoproteins). PMID:26556372

  10. Colorimetry and SERS dual-mode detection of telomerase activity: combining rapid screening with high sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Shenfei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Chen, Hui; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Min; Chen, Peng; Cui, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted considerable attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Here, we present a colorimetry and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dual-mode telomerase activity detection method, which has several distinctive advantages. First, colorimetric functionality allows rapid preliminary discrimination of telomerase activity by the naked eye. Second, the employment of SERS technique results in greatly improved detection sensitivity. Third, the combination of colorimetry and SERS into one detection system can ensure highly efficacious and sensitive screening of numerous samples. Besides, the avoidance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures further guarantees fine reliability and simplicity. Generally, the presented method is realized by an "elongate and capture" procedure. To be specific, gold nanoparticles modified with Raman molecules and telomeric repeat complementary oligonucleotide are employed as the colorimetric-SERS bifunctional reporting nanotag, while magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with telomerase substrate oligonucleotide are used as the capturing substrate. Telomerase can synthesize and elongate telomeric repeats onto the capturing substrate. The elongated telomeric repeats subsequently facilitate capturing of the reporting nanotag via hybridization between telomeric repeat and its complementary strand. The captured nanotags can cause a significant difference in the color and SERS intensity of the magnetically separated sediments. Thus both the color and SERS can be used as indicators of the telomerase activity. With fast screening ability and outstanding sensitivity, we anticipate that this method would greatly promote practical application of telomerase-based early-stage cancer diagnosis.

  11. Rapid activation of inwardly rectifying potassium channels by immobile G-protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lober, Robert M; Pereira, Miguel A; Lambert, Nevin A

    2006-11-29

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate slow synaptic transmission and many other effects of small molecule and peptide neurotransmitters. In the standard model of GPCR signaling, receptors and G-proteins diffuse laterally within the plane of the plasma membrane and encounter each other by random collision. This model predicts that signaling will be most efficient if both GPCRs and G-proteins are free to diffuse, thus maximizing collision frequency. However, neuronal GPCRs are often recruited to and enriched at specific synaptic locations, suggesting receptor mobility is restricted in these cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that restricting GPCR mobility impairs signaling in neurons by limiting the frequency of collisions between receptors and G-proteins. Mu-opioid receptors (MORs) were immobilized on the surface of cerebellar granule neurons by avidin-mediated cross-linking, and inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels were used as rapid indicators of G-protein activation. Mobile and immobile MORs activated GIRK channels with the same onset kinetics and agonist sensitivity in these neurons. In a heterologous expression system, GFP (green fluorescent protein)-tagged G alpha(oA) subunits remained mobile after cross-linking, but their mobility was reduced in the presence of immobile MORs, suggesting that these receptors and subunits were transiently precoupled. In addition, channel activation could be reconstituted with immobile GPCRs, G-protein heterotrimers, and GIRK channels. These results show that collision frequency is not rate-limiting for G-protein activation in CNS neurons, and are consistent with the idea that signaling components are compartmentalized or preassembled.

  12. Activation of Notch3 in Glomeruli Promotes the Development of Rapidly Progressive Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Machhour, Fala; Keuylian, Zela; Kavvadas, Panagiotis; Dussaule, Jean-Claude; Chatziantoniou, Christos

    2015-07-01

    Notch3 expression is found in the glomerular podocytes of patients with lupus nephritis or focal segmental GN but not in normal kidneys. Here, we show that activation of the Notch3 receptor in the glomeruli is a turning point inducing phenotypic changes in podocytes promoting renal inflammation and fibrosis and leading to disease progression. In a model of rapidly progressive GN, Notch3 expression was induced by several-fold in podocytes concurrently with disease progression. By contrast, mice lacking Notch3 expression were protected because they exhibited less proteinuria, uremia, and inflammatory infiltration. Podocyte outgrowth from glomeruli isolated from wild-type mice during the early phase of the disease was higher than outgrowth from glomeruli of mice lacking Notch3. In vitro studies confirmed that podocytes expressing active Notch3 reorganize their cytoskeleton toward a proliferative/migratory and inflammatory phenotype. We then administered antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting Notch3 or scramble control oligodeoxynucleotides in wild-type mice concomitant to disease induction. Both groups developed chronic renal disease, but mice injected with Notch3 antisense had lower values of plasma urea and proteinuria and inflammatory infiltration. The improvement of renal function was accompanied by fewer deposits of fibrin within the glomeruli and by decreased peritubular inflammation. Finally, abnormal Notch3 staining was observed in biopsy samples of patients with crescentic GN. These results demonstrate that abnormal activation of Notch3 may be involved in the progression of renal disease by promoting migratory and proinflammatory pathways. Inhibiting Notch3 activation could be a novel, promising approach to treat GN. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. Rapid Detection of Microorganisms Based on Active and Passive Modes of QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Farka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Label-free immunosensors are well suited for detection of microorganisms because of their fast response and reasonable sensitivity comparable to infection doses of common pathogens. Active (lever oscillator and frequency counter and passive (impedance analyzer modes of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM were used and compared for rapid detection of three strains of E. coli. Different approaches for antibody immobilization were compared, the immobilization of reduced antibody using Sulfo‑SMCC was most effective achieving the limit of detection (LOD 8 × 104 CFU·mL−1 in 10 min. For the passive mode, software evaluating impedance characteristics in real-time was developed and used. Almost the same results were achieved using both active and passive modes confirming that the sensor properties are not limited by the frequency evaluation method but mainly by affinity of the antibody. Furthermore, reference measurements were done using surface plasmon resonance. Effect of condition of cells on signal was observed showing that cells ruptured by ultrasonication provided slightly higher signal changes than intact microbes.

  14. Activated Carbon Fibers "Thickly Overgrown" by Ag Nanohair Through Self-Assembly and Rapid Thermal Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuefeng; Xu, Sijun; Wang, Qiang; Fan, Xuerong

    2017-11-01

    Anisotropic nanomaterial-modified carbon fibers attract increasing attention because of their superior properties over traditional ones. In this study, activated carbon fibers (ACFs) "thickly overgrown" by Ag nanohair were prepared through self-assembly and rapid thermal annealing. Viscose fibers with well-dispersed silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on surfaces were first prepared through self-assembly of hyperbranched poly(amino-amine) (HBPAA)-capped AgNPs on viscose surfaces. HBPAA endowed the AgNP surfaces with negative charges and abundant amino groups, allowing AgNPs to monodispersively self-assemble to fiber surfaces. Ag nanohair-grown ACFs were prepared by sequential pre-oxidation and carbonization. Because the carbonization furnace was open-ended, ACFs are immediately transferrable to the outside of the furnace. Therefore, the Ag liquid adsorbed by ACF pores squeezed out to form Ag nanowires through thermal contraction. FESEM characterization indicated that Ag nanohairs stood on ACF surface and grew from ACF caps. XPS and XRD characterization showed that Ag successfully assembled to fiber surfaces and retained its metallic state even after high-temperature carbonization. TG analysis suggested that Ag nanohair-grown ACFs maintained their excellent thermal stabilities. Finally, the fabricated ACFs showed excellent and durable antibacterial activities, and the developed method may provide a potential strategy for preparing metal nanowire-grown ACFs.

  15. Activated Carbon Fibers "Thickly Overgrown" by Ag Nanohair Through Self-Assembly and Rapid Thermal Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuefeng; Xu, Sijun; Wang, Qiang; Fan, Xuerong

    2017-11-09

    Anisotropic nanomaterial-modified carbon fibers attract increasing attention because of their superior properties over traditional ones. In this study, activated carbon fibers (ACFs) "thickly overgrown" by Ag nanohair were prepared through self-assembly and rapid thermal annealing. Viscose fibers with well-dispersed silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on surfaces were first prepared through self-assembly of hyperbranched poly(amino-amine) (HBPAA)-capped AgNPs on viscose surfaces. HBPAA endowed the AgNP surfaces with negative charges and abundant amino groups, allowing AgNPs to monodispersively self-assemble to fiber surfaces. Ag nanohair-grown ACFs were prepared by sequential pre-oxidation and carbonization. Because the carbonization furnace was open-ended, ACFs are immediately transferrable to the outside of the furnace. Therefore, the Ag liquid adsorbed by ACF pores squeezed out to form Ag nanowires through thermal contraction. FESEM characterization indicated that Ag nanohairs stood on ACF surface and grew from ACF caps. XPS and XRD characterization showed that Ag successfully assembled to fiber surfaces and retained its metallic state even after high-temperature carbonization. TG analysis suggested that Ag nanohair-grown ACFs maintained their excellent thermal stabilities. Finally, the fabricated ACFs showed excellent and durable antibacterial activities, and the developed method may provide a potential strategy for preparing metal nanowire-grown ACFs.

  16. Rapid end-point quantitation of prion seeding activity with sensitivity comparable to bioassays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Wilham

    2010-12-01

    prion and amyloid seeding assays. End point dilution RT-QuIC provides a sensitive, rapid, quantitative, and high throughput assay of prion seeding activity.

  17. Improved Neural Signal Classification in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Task Using Active Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Amar R; Lawhern, Vernon J; Wu, Dongrui; Slayback, David; Lance, Brent J

    2016-03-01

    The application space for brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies is rapidly expanding with improvements in technology. However, most real-time BCIs require extensive individualized calibration prior to use, and systems often have to be recalibrated to account for changes in the neural signals due to a variety of factors including changes in human state, the surrounding environment, and task conditions. Novel approaches to reduce calibration time or effort will dramatically improve the usability of BCI systems. Active Learning (AL) is an iterative semi-supervised learning technique for learning in situations in which data may be abundant, but labels for the data are difficult or expensive to obtain. In this paper, we apply AL to a simulated BCI system for target identification using data from a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm to minimize the amount of training samples needed to initially calibrate a neural classifier. Our results show AL can produce similar overall classification accuracy with significantly less labeled data (in some cases less than 20%) when compared to alternative calibration approaches. In fact, AL classification performance matches performance of 10-fold cross-validation (CV) in over 70% of subjects when training with less than 50% of the data. To our knowledge, this is the first work to demonstrate the use of AL for offline electroencephalography (EEG) calibration in a simulated BCI paradigm. While AL itself is not often amenable for use in real-time systems, this work opens the door to alternative AL-like systems that are more amenable for BCI applications and thus enables future efforts for developing highly adaptive BCI systems.

  18. Colorimetry and SERS dual-mode detection of telomerase activity: combining rapid screening with high sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Shenfei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Chen, Hui; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Min; Chen, Peng; Cui, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted considerable attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Here, we present a colorimetry and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dual-mode telomerase activity detection method, which has several distinctive advantages. First, colorimetric functionality allows rapid preliminary discrimination of telomerase activity by the naked eye. Second, the employment of SERS technique results in greatly improved detection sensitivity. Third, the combination of colorimetry and SERS into one detection system can ensure highly efficacious and sensitive screening of numerous samples. Besides, the avoidance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures further guarantees fine reliability and simplicity. Generally, the presented method is realized by an ``elongate and capture'' procedure. To be specific, gold nanoparticles modified with Raman molecules and telomeric repeat complementary oligonucleotide are employed as the colorimetric-SERS bifunctional reporting nanotag, while magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with telomerase substrate oligonucleotide are used as the capturing substrate. Telomerase can synthesize and elongate telomeric repeats onto the capturing substrate. The elongated telomeric repeats subsequently facilitate capturing of the reporting nanotag via hybridization between telomeric repeat and its complementary strand. The captured nanotags can cause a significant difference in the color and SERS intensity of the magnetically separated sediments. Thus both the color and SERS can be used as indicators of the telomerase activity. With fast screening ability and outstanding sensitivity, we anticipate that this method would greatly promote practical application of telomerase-based early-stage cancer diagnosis.As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted considerable attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Here, we present a colorimetry and

  19. Rapid product analysis and increased sensitivity for quantitative determinations of botulinum neurotoxin proteolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Benjamin; Schmidt, James J; Smith, Leonard A; Ahmed, S Ashraf

    2010-01-15

    The ultimate molecular action of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a Zn-dependent endoproteolytic activity on one of the three SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins. There are seven serotypes (A-G) of BoNT having distinct cleavage sites on the SNARE substrates. The proteolytic activity is located on the N-terminal light chain (Lc) domain and is used extensively as the primary target toward therapeutic development against botulism. Here we describe an improved method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) whereby quantitative data were obtained in 1/10th the time using 1/20th the sample and solvent volumes compared with a widely used high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. We also synthesized a VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein)-based peptide containing an intact V1 motif that was efficiently used as a substrate by BoNT/D Lc. Although serotype C1 cleaves the serotype A substrate at a bond separated by only one residue, we were able to distinguish the two reactions by UPLC. The new method can accurately quantify as low as 7 pmol of the peptide substrates for BoNT serotypes A, B, C1, and D. We also report here that the catalytic efficiency of serotype A can be stimulated 35-fold by the addition of Triton X-100 to the reaction mixture. Combining the use of Triton X-100 with the newly introduced UPLC method, we were able to accurately detect very low levels of proteolytic activity in a very short time. Sensitivity of the assay and accuracy and rapidity of product analysis should greatly augment efforts in therapeutic development.

  20. Hydrodynamic Voltammetry as a Rapid and Simple Method for Evaluating Soil Enzyme Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuto Sazawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil enzymes play essential roles in catalyzing reactions necessary for nutrient cycling in the biosphere. They are also sensitive indicators of ecosystem stress, therefore their evaluation is very important in assessing soil health and quality. The standard soil enzyme assay method based on spectroscopic detection is a complicated operation that requires the removal of soil particles. The purpose of this study was to develop a new soil enzyme assay based on hydrodynamic electrochemical detection using a rotating disk electrode in a microliter droplet. The activities of enzymes were determined by measuring the electrochemical oxidation of p-aminophenol (PAP, following the enzymatic conversion of substrate-conjugated PAP. The calibration curves of β-galactosidase (β-gal, β-glucosidase (β-glu and acid phosphatase (AcP showed good linear correlation after being spiked in soils using chronoamperometry. We also performed electrochemical detection using real soils. Hydrodynamic chronoamperometry can be used to assess the AcP in soils, with a detection time of only 90 s. Linear sweep voltammetry was used to measure the amount of PAP released from β-gal and β-glu by enzymatic reaction after 60 min. For the assessment of soil enzymes, the results of hydrodynamic voltammetry assay compared favorably to those using a standard assay procedure, but this new procedure is more user-friendly, rapid and simple.

  1. Rapid prototyping of reflectors for vehicle lighting using laser activated remote phosphor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmayer, Roland; Kloppenburg, Gerolf; Wolf, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Bright white light sources are of significant importance for automotive front lighting systems. Today's upper class vehicles mainly use HID or LED as light source. As a further step in this development laser diode based systems offer high luminance, efficiency and allow the realization of new styling concepts and new dynamic lighting functions. These white laser diode systems can either be realized by mixing different spectral sources or by combining diodes with specific phosphors. Based on the approach of generating light using a laser and remote phosphor, lighting modules are manufactured. Four blue laser diodes (450 nm) are used to activate a phosphor coating and thus to achieve white light. A segmented paraboloid reflector generates the desired light distribution for an additional car headlamp. We use high speed milling and selective laser melting to build the reflector system for this lighting module. We compare the spectral reflection grade of these materials. Furthermore the generated modules are analyzed regarding their efficiency and light distribution. The use of Rapid Prototyping technologies allows an early validation of the chosen concept and is supposed to reduce cost and time in the product development process significantly. Therefor we discuss costs and times of the applied manufacturing technologies.

  2. Cell-free expression of protein kinase a for rapid activity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leippe, Donna M; Zhao, Kate Qin; Hsiao, Kevin; Slater, Michael R

    2010-05-19

    Functional protein analysis often calls for lengthy, laborious in vivo protein expression and purification, and can be complicated by the lack of stability of the purified protein. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a simplified procedure for functional protein analysis on magnetic particles using cell-free protein synthesis of the catalytic subunit of human cAMP-dependent protein kinase as a HaloTag((R)) fusion protein. The cell-free protein synthesis systems provide quick access to the protein of interest, while the HaloTag technology provides efficient, covalent protein immobilization of the fusion protein, eliminating the need for further protein purification and minimizing storage-related stability issues. The immobilized cPKA fusion protein is assayed directly on magnetic beads and can be used in inhibitor analyses. The combination of rapid protein synthesis and capture technologies can greatly facilitate the process of protein expression and activity screening, and therefore, can become a valuable tool for functional proteomics studies.

  3. Cell-Free Expression of Protein Kinase a for Rapid Activity Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Leippe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional protein analysis often calls for lengthy, laborious in vivo protein expression and purification, and can be complicated by the lack of stability of the purified protein. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a simplified procedure for functional protein analysis on magnetic particles using cell-free protein synthesis of the catalytic subunit of human cAMP-dependent protein kinase as a HaloTag ® fusion protein. The cell-free protein synthesis systems provide quick access to the protein of interest, while the HaloTag technology provides efficient, covalent protein immobilization of the fusion protein, eliminating the need for further protein purification and minimizing storage-related stability issues. The immobilized cPKA fusion protein is assayed directly on magnetic beads and can be used in inhibitor analyses. The combination of rapid protein synthesis and capture technologies can greatly facilitate the process of protein expression and activity screening, and therefore, can become a valuable tool for functional proteomics studies.

  4. Cell-Free Expression of Protein Kinase A for Rapid Activity Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Leippe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional protein analysis often calls for lengthy, laborious in vivo protein expression and purification, and can be complicated by the lack of stability of the purified protein. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of a simplified procedure for functional protein analysis on magnetic particles using cell-free protein synthesis of the catalytic subunit of human cAMP-dependent protein kinase as a HaloTag® fusion protein. The cell-free protein synthesis systems provide quick access to the protein of interest, while the HaloTag technology provides efficient, covalent protein immobilization of the fusion protein, eliminating the need for further protein purification and minimizing storage-related stability issues. The immobilized cPKA fusion protein is assayed directly on magnetic beads and can be used in inhibitor analyses. The combination of rapid protein synthesis and capture technologies can greatly facilitate the process of protein expression and activity screening, and therefore, can become a valuable tool for functional proteomics studies.

  5. Music training enhances rapid neural plasticity of n1 and p2 source activation for unattended sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, Miia; Hämäläinen, Jarmo; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Neurocognitive studies have demonstrated that long-term music training enhances the processing of unattended sounds. It is not clear, however, whether music training also modulates rapid (within tens of minutes) neural plasticity for sound encoding. To study this phenomenon, we examined whether adult musicians display enhanced rapid neural plasticity compared to non-musicians. More specifically, we compared the modulation of P1, N1, and P2 responses to standard sounds between four unattended passive blocks. Among the standard sounds, infrequently presented deviant sounds were presented (the so-called oddball paradigm). In the middle of the experiment (after two blocks), an active task was presented. Source analysis for event-related potentials (ERPs) showed that N1 and P2 source activation was selectively decreased in musicians after 15 min of passive exposure to sounds and that P2 source activation was found to be re-enhanced after the active task in musicians. Additionally, ERP analysis revealed that in both musicians and non-musicians, P2 ERP amplitude was enhanced after 15 min of passive exposure but only at the frontal electrodes. Furthermore, in musicians, the N1 ERP was enhanced after the active discrimination task but only at the parietal electrodes. Musical training modulates the rapid neural plasticity reflected in N1 and P2 source activation for unattended regular standard sounds. Enhanced rapid plasticity of N1 and P2 is likely to reflect faster auditory perceptual learning in musicians.

  6. What are the implications of rapid global warming for landslide-triggered turbidity current activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Michael; Peter, Talling; James, Hunt

    2014-05-01

    arithmetic mean recurrence, λ, for the full records (λ=0.007 and 0.0125 Myr). This period of inactivity is coincident with a dramatic carbon isotopic excursion (i.e. warmest part of the IETM) and heavily skews statistical analyses for both records. Dramatic global warming appears to exert a strong control on inhibiting turbidity current activity; whereas the effects of sea level change are not shown to be statistically significant. Rapid global warming is often implicated as a potential landslide trigger, due to dissociation of gas hydrates in response to elevated ocean temperatures. Other studies have suggested that intense global warming may actually be attributed to the atmospheric release of gas hydrates following catastrophic failure of large parts of a continental slope. Either way, a greater intensity of landslide and resultant turbidity current activity would be expected during the IETM; however, our findings are to the contrary. We offer some explanations in relation to potential triggers. Our work suggests that previous rapid global warming at the IETM did not trigger more frequent turbidity currents. This has direct relevance to future assessments relating to landslide-triggered tsunami hazard, and breakage of subsea cables by turbidity currents.

  7. Rapid activated sludge respiration inhibition test performed by CO2 producing rate using a carbon dioxide sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Noboru; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Shoji, Ryo

    2005-01-01

    The rapid activated sludge inhibition test (rapid ASRI) is one of the promising bioassays to evaluate environmental risk to the ecosystem caused by various pollutants. To improve the sensitivity and stability of ASRI, the CO2 producing rate (CPR) using a carbon dioxide gas sensor was employed to examine the respiration activity of activated sludge and to compare it to that by the conventional activated sludge respiration inhibition test using oxygen uptake rate (OUR) by EC50 values derived from dose response curve. Detection of respiratory activity based on CPR has higher reliability and sensitivity than that of OUR. It should be noted that the sensitivity of CPR for evaluating toxicity is sufficiently high in terms of derived dose response curve of some model environmental pollutants and the resultant EC50 values.

  8. A rapid, sensitive, simple plate assay for detection of microbial alginate lyase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Shailesh S; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Kim, Beom Soo

    2015-09-01

    Screening of microorganisms capable of producing alginate lyase enzyme is commonly carried out by investigating their abilities to grow on alginate-containing solid media plates and occurrence of a clearance zone after flooding the plates with agents such as 10% (w/v) cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), which can form complexes with alginate. Although the CPC method is good, advantageous, and routinely used, the agar in the media interferes with the action of CPC, which makes judgment about clearance zones very difficult. In addition, this method takes a minimum of 30 min to obtain the zone of hydrolysis after flooding and the hydrolyzed area is not sharply discernible. An improved plate assay is reported herein for the detection of extracellular alginate lyase production by microorganisms. In this method, alginate-containing agar plates are flooded with Gram's iodine instead of CPC. Gram's iodine forms a bluish black complex with alginate but not with hydrolyzed alginate, giving sharp, distinct zones around the alginate lyase producing microbial colonies within 2-3 min. Gram's iodine method was found to be more effective than the CPC method in terms of visualization and measurement of zone size. The alginate-lyase-activity area indicated using the Gram's iodine method was found to be larger than that indicated by the CPC method. Both methods (CPC and Gram's iodine) showed the largest alginate lyase activity area for Saccharophagus degradans (ATCC 43961) followed by Microbulbifer mangrovi (KCTC 23483), Bacillus cereus (KF801505) and Paracoccus sp. LL1 (KP288668) grown on minimal sea salt medium. The rate of growth and metabolite production in alginate-containing minimal sea salt liquid medium, followed trends similar to that of the zone activity areas for the four bacteria under study. These results suggested that the assay developed in this study of Gram's iodine could be useful to predict the potential of microorganisms to produce alginate lyase. The method also

  9. Slowly fading super-luminous supernovae that are not pair-instability explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, M; Smartt, S J; Jerkstrand, A; Inserra, C; McCrum, M; Kotak, R; Fraser, M; Wright, D; Chen, T-W; Smith, K; Young, D R; Sim, S A; Valenti, S; Howell, D A; Bresolin, F; Kudritzki, R P; Tonry, J L; Huber, M E; Rest, A; Pastorello, A; Tomasella, L; Cappellaro, E; Benetti, S; Mattila, S; Kankare, E; Kangas, T; Leloudas, G; Sollerman, J; Taddia, F; Berger, E; Chornock, R; Narayan, G; Stubbs, C W; Foley, R J; Lunnan, R; Soderberg, A; Sanders, N; Milisavljevic, D; Margutti, R; Kirshner, R P; Elias-Rosa, N; Morales-Garoffolo, A; Taubenberger, S; Botticella, M T; Gezari, S; Urata, Y; Rodney, S; Riess, A G; Scolnic, D; Wood-Vasey, W M; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K; Flewelling, H A; Magnier, E A; Kaiser, N; Metcalfe, N; Morgan, J; Price, P A; Sweeney, W; Waters, C

    2013-10-17

    Super-luminous supernovae that radiate more than 10(44) ergs per second at their peak luminosity have recently been discovered in faint galaxies at redshifts of 0.1-4. Some evolve slowly, resembling models of 'pair-instability' supernovae. Such models involve stars with original masses 140-260 times that of the Sun that now have carbon-oxygen cores of 65-130 solar masses. In these stars, the photons that prevent gravitational collapse are converted to electron-positron pairs, causing rapid contraction and thermonuclear explosions. Many solar masses of (56)Ni are synthesized; this isotope decays to (56)Fe via (56)Co, powering bright light curves. Such massive progenitors are expected to have formed from metal-poor gas in the early Universe. Recently, supernova 2007bi in a galaxy at redshift 0.127 (about 12 billion years after the Big Bang) with a metallicity one-third that of the Sun was observed to look like a fading pair-instability supernova. Here we report observations of two slow-to-fade super-luminous supernovae that show relatively fast rise times and blue colours, which are incompatible with pair-instability models. Their late-time light-curve and spectral similarities to supernova 2007bi call the nature of that event into question. Our early spectra closely resemble typical fast-declining super-luminous supernovae, which are not powered by radioactivity. Modelling our observations with 10-16 solar masses of magnetar-energized ejecta demonstrates the possibility of a common explosion mechanism. The lack of unambiguous nearby pair-instability events suggests that their local rate of occurrence is less than 6 × 10(-6) times that of the core-collapse rate.

  10. 20 CFR 665.330 - Are the NAFTA-TAA program requirements for rapid response also required activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are the NAFTA-TAA program requirements for... WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Rapid Response Activities § 665.330 Are the NAFTA-TAA program requirements for... WIA are made available to workers who, under the NAFTA Implementation Act (Public Law 103-182), are...

  11. Patient characteristics, interventions and outcomes of 1151 rapid response team activations in a tertiary hospital: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K; Scott, I A; Bernard, A; McCulloch, K; Vaux, A; Joyce, C; Sullivan, C M

    2016-12-01

    The characteristics of mature contemporary rapid response systems are unclear. To determine the patient characteristics, processes and outcomes, both in-hospital and post-discharge, of a well-established rapid response system in a tertiary adult hospital. This is a prospective study of consecutive rapid response team (RRT) activations between 1 July and 25 November 2015. Variables included patient characteristics, timing, location and triggers of RRT activations, interventions undertaken, mortality and readmission status at 28 days post-discharge. A total of 1151 RRT activations was analysed (69.1 per 1000 admissions), involving 800 patients, of whom 81.5% were emergency admissions. A total of 351 (30.5%) activations comprised repeat activations for the same patient. Most activations (723; 62.8%) occurred out of hours, and 495 (43%) occurred within 48 h of admission. Hypotension, decreased level of consciousness and oxygen desaturation were the most common triggers. Advanced life support was undertaken in less than 7%; 198 (17.2%) responses led to transfer to higher-level care units. Acute resuscitation plans were noted for only 29.1% of RRT activations, with 80.3% stipulating supportive care only. A total of 103 (12.6%) patients died in hospital, equalling 14 deaths per 100 RRT activations. At 28 days, 150 (18.8%) patients had died, significantly more among those with multiple versus single RRT activations (24.9 vs 16.6%; odds ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.31-2.44; P = 0.013). Relatively few RRT activations are associated with acute resuscitation plans, and most interventions during RRT responses are low level. The high rate of post-RRT deaths and transfers to higher-level care units calls for the prospective identification of such patients in targeting appropriate care. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  12. Rapid EEG desynchronization and EMG activation induced by intravenous cocaine in freely moving rats: a peripheral, nondopamine neural triggering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Smirnov, Michael S

    2010-02-01

    Many important physiological, behavioral, and psychoemotional effects of intravenous (IV) cocaine (COC) are too fast and transient compared with pharmacokinetic predictions, suggesting a possible involvement of peripheral neural mechanisms in their triggering. In the present study, we examined changes in cortical electroencephalogram (EEG) and neck electromyogram (EMG) induced in freely moving rats by IV COC administration at low, reinforcing doses (0.25-1.0 mg/kg) and compared them with those induced by an auditory stimulus and IV COC methiodide, which cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. We found that COC induces rapid, strong, and prolonged EEG desynchronization, associated with decrease in alpha and increase in beta and gamma activities, and EMG activation and that both begin within 2-6 s following the start of a 10-s injection; immediate components of this effect were dose independent. The rapid COC-induced changes in EEG and EMG resembled those induced by an auditory stimulus; the latter effects had shorter onset latencies and durations and were fully blocked during urethane anesthesia. Although urethane anesthesia completely blocked COC-induced EMG activation and rapid components of EEG response, COC still induced EEG desynchronization that was much weaker, greatly delayed (approximately 60 s), and associated with tonic decreases in delta and increases in alpha, beta, and gamma activities. Surprisingly, IV saline delivered during slow-wave sleep (but not quite wakefulness) also induced a transient EEG desynchronization but without changes in EMG activity; these effects were also fully blocked during anesthesia. Peripherally acting COC methiodide fully mimicked rapid EEG and EMG effects of regular COC, but the effects at an equimolar dose were less prolonged than those with regular COC. These data suggest that in awake animals IV COC, like somato-sensory stimuli, induces cortical activation and a subsequent motor response via its action on peripheral neural

  13. Characterizing rapid, activity-linked conformational transitions in proteins via sub-second hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resetca, Diana; Wilson, Derek J

    2013-11-01

    This review outlines the application of time-resolved electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (TRESI-MS) and hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) to study rapid, activity-linked conformational transitions in proteins. The method is implemented on a microfluidic chip which incorporates all sample-handling steps required for a 'bottom-up' HDX workflow: a capillary mixer for sub-second HDX labeling, a static mixer for HDX quenching, a microreactor for rapid protein digestion, and on-chip electrospray. By combining short HDX labeling pulses with rapid digestion, this approach provides a detailed characterization of the structural transitions that occur during protein folding, ligand binding, post-translational modification and catalytic turnover in enzymes. This broad spectrum of applications in areas largely inaccessible to conventional techniques means that microfluidics-enabled TRESI-MS/HDX is a unique and powerful approach for investigating the dynamic basis of protein function. © 2013 FEBS.

  14. Segregation and rapid turnover of EDEM1 by an autophagy-like mechanism modulates standard ERAD and folding activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calì, Tito; Galli, Carmela; Olivari, Silvia; Molinari, Maurizio

    2008-07-04

    EDEM1 is a crucial regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) that extracts non-native glycopolypeptides from the calnexin chaperone system. Under normal growth conditions, the intralumenal level of EDEM1 must be low to prevent premature interruption of ongoing folding programs. We report that in unstressed cells, EDEM1 is segregated from the bulk ER into LC3-I-coated vesicles and is rapidly degraded. The rapid turnover of EDEM1 is regulated by a novel mechanism that shows similarities but is clearly distinct from macroautophagy. Cells with defective EDEM1 turnover contain unphysiologically high levels of EDEM1, show enhanced ERAD activity and are characterized by impaired capacity to efficiently complete maturation of model glycopolypeptides. We define as ERAD tuning the mechanisms operating in the mammalian ER at steady state to offer kinetic advantage to folding over disposal of unstructured nascent chains by selective and rapid degradation of ERAD regulators.

  15. Rapidly Developing Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Oline Barrios Poulsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe cutaneous reactions with potentially fatal outcomes can have many different causes. The Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are rare. They are characterized by a low incidence but high mortality, and drugs are most commonly implicated. Urgent active therapy is required. Prompt recognition and withdrawal of suspect drug and rapid intervention can result in favourable outcome. No further international guidelines for treatment exist, and much of the treatment relies on old or experimental concepts with no scientific evidence. We report on a 54-year-old man experiencing rapidly developing drug-induced severe TEN and presented multiorgan failure involving the respiratory and circulatory system, coagulopathy, and renal insufficiency. Detachment counted 30% of total body surface area (TBSA. SCORTEN = 5, indicating a mortality rate >90%. The patient was sedated and mechanically ventilated, supported with fluids and inotropes to maintain a stable circulation. Component therapy was guided by thromboelastography (TEG. The patient received plasmapheresis, and shock reversal treatment was initiated. He was transferred to a specialized intensive care burn unit within 24 hours from admittance. The initial care was continued, and hemodialysis was started. Pulmonary, circulatory, and renal sequelae resolved with intensive care, and re-epithelialization progressed slowly. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 19.

  16. Stationary electromagnetic fields of slowly rotating relativistic magnetized star in the braneworld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turimov, B. V.; Ahmedov, B. J.; Hakimov, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    The exterior electromagnetic fields of slowly rotating relativistic magnetized star in the braneworld are studied in detail. We have also obtained exact analytical solutions of the Maxwell equations for the magnetic and the electric fields inside the slowly rotating relativistic magnetized star in the braneworld. The dependence of the electromagnetic energy losses of the rotating magnetized star from the brane tension is also calculated and has been combined with the astrophysical data on pulsar period slowdown in order to get constraints on the brane parameter. We have found the upper limit for the brane parameter as |Q*|≲3 ×1011 cm2.

  17. Lipid Extract of Mycoplasma penetrans Proteinase K-Digested Lipid-Associated Membrane Proteins Rapidly Activates NF-κB and Activator Protein 1

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Shaw-Huey; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    1999-01-01

    Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) of Mycoplasma penetrans rapidly induced macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Our analysis showed that the macrophage-stimulating activity of TNF-α production was mainly attributable to a lipid extractable component(s) in the LAMP preparation. Since induction of gene expression is normally preceded by activation of transcriptional factors that bind to their specific recognition elements located ...

  18. Lipid Extract of Mycoplasma penetrans Proteinase K-Digested Lipid-Associated Membrane Proteins Rapidly Activates NF-κB and Activator Protein 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shaw-Huey; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    1999-01-01

    Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) of Mycoplasma penetrans rapidly induced macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Our analysis showed that the macrophage-stimulating activity of TNF-α production was mainly attributable to a lipid extractable component(s) in the LAMP preparation. Since induction of gene expression is normally preceded by activation of transcriptional factors that bind to their specific recognition elements located in the upstream promoter region, we examined the activity of transcriptional factors, namely, NF-κB and activator protein 1 (AP-1), in thioglycolate exudate peritoneal (TEP) macrophages treated with M. penetrans lipid extract of proteinase K (PK)-digested LAMPs. Initially, in the nuclei of unstimulated TEP cells, there was only a low basal level of active AP-1, and the active form of NF-κB could not be detected. M. penetrans lipid extract of PK-digested LAMPs activated both NF-κB and AP-1 in TEP macrophages within 15 min. The markedly increased activities of both factors gradually declined and dissipated after 2 h. Parallel to the rapid increase of NF-κB and AP-1, the TNF-α transcript also increased significantly 15 min after the stimulation. The high-level expression of TNF-α persisted over 2 h. Dexamethasone blocked the activation of both NF-κB and AP-1 and suppressed the production of TNF-α in TEP macrophages stimulated by M. penetrans lipid extract of PK-digested LAMPs. Our study demonstrates that the M. penetrans lipid extract of PK-digested LAMP is a potent activator for NF-κB and AP-1 in murine TEP macrophages. Our results also suggest that high-level expression of TNF-α in cells induced by M. penetrans lipid extract of PK-digested LAMPs is associated with rapid activation of transcriptional factors NF-κB and AP-1. PMID:10338504

  19. Lipid extract of Mycoplasma penetrans proteinase K-digested lipid-associated membrane proteins rapidly activates NF-kappaB and activator protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S H; Lo, S C

    1999-06-01

    Lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) of Mycoplasma penetrans rapidly induced macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Our analysis showed that the macrophage-stimulating activity of TNF-alpha production was mainly attributable to a lipid extractable component(s) in the LAMP preparation. Since induction of gene expression is normally preceded by activation of transcriptional factors that bind to their specific recognition elements located in the upstream promoter region, we examined the activity of transcriptional factors, namely, NF-kappaB and activator protein 1 (AP-1), in thioglycolate exudate peritoneal (TEP) macrophages treated with M. penetrans lipid extract of proteinase K (PK)-digested LAMPs. Initially, in the nuclei of unstimulated TEP cells, there was only a low basal level of active AP-1, and the active form of NF-kappaB could not be detected. M. penetrans lipid extract of PK-digested LAMPs activated both NF-kappaB and AP-1 in TEP macrophages within 15 min. The markedly increased activities of both factors gradually declined and dissipated after 2 h. Parallel to the rapid increase of NF-kappaB and AP-1, the TNF-alpha transcript also increased significantly 15 min after the stimulation. The high-level expression of TNF-alpha persisted over 2 h. Dexamethasone blocked the activation of both NF-kappaB and AP-1 and suppressed the production of TNF-alpha in TEP macrophages stimulated by M. penetrans lipid extract of PK-digested LAMPs. Our study demonstrates that the M. penetrans lipid extract of PK-digested LAMP is a potent activator for NF-kappaB and AP-1 in murine TEP macrophages. Our results also suggest that high-level expression of TNF-alpha in cells induced by M. penetrans lipid extract of PK-digested LAMPs is associated with rapid activation of transcriptional factors NF-kappaB and AP-1.

  20. Transport of Nutrients Determines Growth in Tissue Culture; Why apple shoots grow rapidly and tulip shoots grow slowly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Tulip growth in vitro is seriously impaired by inferior transport in the shoots. As a result, tulip cannot be micropropagated commercially using conventional means. In contrast, apple shoots show high transport and are easily micropropagated.

  1. Injury-induced rapid activation of MAPK signaling in dechorionated eggs and larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shi-Hong; Chen, Chien-Hung

    2017-04-01

    Previous study showed that diapause in Bombyx mori eggs can be terminated by dechorionation and that activation in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in dechorionated cultured eggs is involved in diapause termination. In the present study, the possible mechanism underlying activation of ERK upon dechorionation was further investigated. Results showed that mechanical injury of diapause eggs without medium incubation also resulted in rapid increase in the phospho-ERK levels and that injury increased the phospho-ERK levels at different stages of both diapause eggs and eggs in which diapause initiation was prevented by HCl. Effects of anaerobiosis on dechorionation-stimulated phospho-ERK levels showed that the mechanical injury itself but not the dramatic increase in oxygen uptake upon injury is involved in a rapid activation of ERK. Chemical anaerobiosis on dechorionation-stimulated phospho-ERK levels and the in vivo effect of anaerobiosis showed that the supply of oxygen also plays a role in ERK signaling. In addition, injury induced the phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and p38 kinase, components of two parallel MAPK pathways. A kinase assay showed a dramatic increase in JNK kinase activity in egg lysates upon injury. When newly hatched first instar larvae were injured, an increase in the phospho-ERK levels similar to that in dechorionated eggs was observed. From the results, we hypothesize that the injury-induced rapid activation of MAPK signaling, which serves as a natural signal for embryonic development, is related to diapause termination in dechorionated eggs. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. 20 CFR 665.320 - May other activities be undertaken as part of rapid response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agencies and officials, employer associations, technical councils or other industry business councils, and... in capacity building activities, including providing information about innovative and successful... employee skill upgrading; and (3) Linkages with economic development activities at the Federal, State and...

  3. Efficient preconditioning of hphp-FEM matrix sequences with slowly-varying coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gatto, P.; Hesthaven, J. S.; Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk

    2017-01-01

    previous numerical experiments and develop a preconditioner-update strategy that allows us handle matrix sequences arising from problems with slowly-varying coefficients. We investigate the performance of the preconditioner along with the update strategy in context of topology optimization of an acoustic...

  4. Slowly but Surely: How Indiana Is Building a Pre-K Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Abbie; Loewenberg, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, Indiana was one of only a few states in the nation without a state-funded pre-K program. Recently, however, The Hoosier State has slowly begun to build pre-K offerings by investing in pilot programs in a handful of counties throughout the state. Now, Indiana lawmakers are looking ahead to a 2017 legislative session in which…

  5. Dimensional Modeling By Using a New Response to Slowly Changing Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, L.; Frank, C.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2005-01-01

    solutions/responses to handling the aggregation problems caused by slowly changing dimensions. In this paper, we will describe a fourth solution. A special aspect of our new response is that it should be used before the other responses, as it will change the design of the data warehouse. Afterwards, it may...

  6. Uni-directional waves over slowly varying bottom, part II: Deformation of travelling waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudjaprasetya, S.R.; Pudjaprasetya, S.R.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    1996-01-01

    A new Korteweg-de Vries type of equation for uni-directional waves over slowly varying bottom has been derived in Part I. The equation retains the Hamiltonian structure of the underlying complete set of equations for surface waves. For flat bottom it reduces to the standard Korteweg-de Vries

  7. No-go theorem for slowly rotating black holes in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barausse, Enrico; Sotiriou, Thomas P

    2012-11-02

    We consider slowly rotating, stationary, axisymmetric black holes in the infrared limit of Hořava-Lifshitz gravity. We show that such solutions do not exist, provided that they are regular everywhere apart from the central singularity. This has profound implications for the viability of the theory, considering the astrophysical evidence for the existence of black holes with nonzero spin.

  8. True polar wander of slowly rotating object and a case study of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, H.; van der Wal, W.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.

    2017-09-01

    We establish a new method to simulate the true polar wander (TPW) on slowly rotating objects such as Venus. In this situation, the TPW becomes a mega-wobble and our method can provide more accurate results compared to the previous study which is based on the quasi-fluid approximation.

  9. Can turbidity caused by Corophium volutator (Pallas) activity be used to assess sediment toxicity rapidly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew D; Greenwood, Naomi; Grant, Alastair

    2003-04-01

    The standard toxicity test organism, Corophium volutator, exhibits a behavioural response to contaminated sediments that causes increased turbidity of overlying water. We quantify the effects of this response to an estuarine sediment spiked with copper and hydrocarbon contaminated sediments from an oil installation in the North Sea. Turbidity measured 24 h after the start of a toxicity test shows a strong relationship with contaminant concentrations and with mortality after 10 days. Turbidity measurements can therefore give a rapid indication of sediment toxicity, permitting a reduction in storage time of sediments to be used in dilution series and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests, reducing the likelihood of contaminants degrading prior to testing.

  10. Rapid investigation of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of Phaleria macrocarpa extracts using FTIR-ATR based fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Easmin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Phaleria macrocarpa, known as “Mahkota Dewa”, is a widely used medicinal plant in Malaysia. This study focused on the characterization of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of P. macrocarpa extracts using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-based metabolomics. P. macrocarpa and its extracts contain thousands of compounds having synergistic effect. Generally, their variability exists, and there are many active components in meager amounts. Thus, the conventional measurement methods of a single component for the quality control are time consuming, laborious, expensive, and unreliable. It is of great interest to develop a rapid prediction method for herbal quality control to investigate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of P. macrocarpa by multicomponent analyses. In this study, a rapid and simple analytical method was developed using FTIR spectroscopy-based fingerprinting. A total of 36 extracts of different ethanol concentrations were prepared and tested on inhibitory potential and fingerprinted using FTIR spectroscopy, coupled with chemometrics of orthogonal partial least square (OPLS at the 4000–400 cm−1 frequency region and resolution of 4 cm−1. The OPLS model generated the highest regression coefficient with R2Y = 0.98 and Q2Y = 0.70, lowest root mean square error estimation = 17.17, and root mean square error of cross validation = 57.29. A five-component (1+4+0 predictive model was build up to correlate FTIR spectra with activity, and the responsible functional groups, such as –CH, –NH, –COOH, and –OH, were identified for the bioactivity. A successful multivariate model was constructed using FTIR-attenuated total reflection as a simple and rapid technique to predict the inhibitory activity.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of a Slowly Milk-Coagulating Variant of Lactobacillus helveticus Deficient in Purine Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Elvira M.; De Giori, Graciela S.; Raya, Raul R.

    2001-01-01

    A slowly milk-coagulating variant (Fmc−) of Lactobacillus helveticus CRL 1062, designated S1, was isolated and characterized. Strain S1 possessed all the known essential components required to utilize casein as a nitrogen source, which include functional proteinase and peptidase activities as well as functional amino acid, di- and tripeptide, and oligopeptide transport systems. The amino acid requirements of strain S1 were similar to those of the parental strain. However, on a purine-free, chemically defined medium, the growth rate of the Fmc− strain was threefold lower than that of the wild-type strain. L. helveticus S1 was found to be defective in IMP dehydrogenase activity and therefore was deficient in the ability to synthesize XMP and GMP. This conclusion was further supported by the observation that the addition of guanine or xanthine to milk, a substrate poor in purine compounds, restored the Fmc+ phenotype of L. helveticus S1. PMID:11282642

  12. Human activity accelerating the rapid desertification of the Mu Us Sandy Lands, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yunfa; Jin, Heling; Cui, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several thousand years, arid and semiarid China has experienced a series of asynchronous desertification events in its semiarid sandy and desert regions, but the precise identification of the driving forces of such events has remained elusive. In this paper we identify two rapid desertification events (RDEs) at ~4.6 ± 0.2 ka BP and ~3.3 ± 0.2 ka BP from the JJ Profile, located in the eastern Mu Us Sandy Lands. These RDEs appear to have occurred immediately following periods marked by persistently frequent and intense fires. We argue that such fire patterns, directly linked to an uncontrolled human use of vegetation as fuel, played a key role in accelerating RDEs by ensuring that the land surface was degraded beyond the threshold required for rapid desertification. This would suggest that the future use of a massive and sustained ecological program of vegetation rehabilitation should reduce the risk of destructive fire. PMID:26961705

  13. Discovery of PI-1840, a novel noncovalent and rapidly reversible proteasome inhibitor with anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Aslamuzzaman; Ozcan, Sevil; Tecleab, Awet; Sun, Ying; Lawrence, Harshani R; Sebti, Saïd M

    2014-04-25

    The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib is effective in hematologic malignancies such as multiple myeloma but has little activity against solid tumors, acts covalently, and is associated with undesired side effects. Therefore, noncovalent inhibitors that are less toxic and more effective against solid tumors are desirable. Structure activity relationship studies led to the discovery of PI-1840, a potent and selective inhibitor for chymotrypsin-like (CT-L) (IC50 value = 27 ± 0.14 nm) over trypsin-like and peptidylglutamyl peptide hydrolyzing (IC50 values >100 μm) activities of the proteasome. Furthermore, PI-1840 is over 100-fold more selective for the constitutive proteasome over the immunoproteasome. Mass spectrometry and dialysis studies demonstrate that PI-1840 is a noncovalent and rapidly reversible CT-L inhibitor. In intact cancer cells, PI-1840 inhibits CT-L activity, induces the accumulation of proteasome substrates p27, Bax, and IκB-α, inhibits survival pathways and viability, and induces apoptosis. Furthermore, PI-1840 sensitizes human cancer cells to the mdm2/p53 disruptor, nutlin, and to the pan-Bcl-2 antagonist BH3-M6. Finally, in vivo, PI-1840 but not bortezomib suppresses the growth in nude mice of human breast tumor xenografts. These results warrant further evaluation of a noncovalent and rapidly reversible proteasome inhibitor as potential anticancer agents against solid tumors.

  14. Complete inactivation of photosynthetic activity during desiccation and rapid recovery by rehydration in the aerial microalga Trentepohlia jolithus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Li, Y; Liu, J

    2016-11-01

    Aerial microalgae are more exposed to harsh and rapidly changing environmental conditions, including desiccation and radiation. Under high light, aerial algae in the desiccated state would be highly subject to photodamage. Therefore, aerial algae need effective protective mechanisms to dissipate excess excitation energy. In this study, the changes in photosynthetic behaviors during desiccation and after rehydration in Trentepohlia jolithus were confirmed using chlorophyll a fluorescence (OJIP) transient, allowing determination of the photoprotection mechanisms of this aerial alga. The filaments of T. jolithus cells at 25% relative air humidity (RH) are significantly shrunken compared with those at 100% and 87% RH, decreasing the surface area for light absorption. At 25% RH, the shape and intensity of the OJIP transient disappeared, but recovered rapidly to the level at 100% RH after 5 s of rehydration. Compared with 100% RH, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (φPo ), phenomenological energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/CSm) and active PSII reaction centers (RCs) at 25% RH decreased significantly, the specific energy fluxes for absorption (ABS/RC) increased significantly, but the specific energy fluxes for trapping (TRo/RC) at 25% RH did not change. These parameters at 25% RH recovered rapidly to the level at 100% RH after 5 s of rehydration. These results suggest that the efficiency of PSII light absorption and activities of PSII RCs were reversibly down-regulated in desiccated T. jolithus, which may be a special adaptive mechanism for the survivability of aerial microalgae in habitats with rapidly changing water availability. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Rapid Response Concentration-Controlled Desorption of Activated Carbon to Dampen Concentration Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    will be much smaller and will sustain a much more stable microbial population because the microorganisms will not experience starvation during times...activated carbon biofilter. Bioprocess Eng. 1997, 16, 331-337. (10) Weber, F. J.; Hartmans, S. Use of activated carbon as a buffer in biofiltration of waste

  16. Rapid and enhanced activation of microporous coordination polymers by flowing supercritical CO.sub.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzger, Adam J.; Liu, Baojian; Wong-Foy, Antek G.

    2016-07-19

    Flowing supercritical CO.sub.2 is used to activate metal organic framework materials (MOF). MOFs are activated directly from N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) thus avoiding exchange with a volatile solvent. Most MCPs display increased surface areas directly after treatment although those with coordinatively unsaturated metal centers benefit from additional heating.

  17. Field-deployable, quantitative, rapid identification of active Ebola virus infection in unprocessed blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kavit; Bentley, Emma; Tyler, Adam; Richards, Kevin S R; Wright, Edward; Easterbrook, Linda; Lee, Diane; Cleaver, Claire; Usher, Louise; Burton, Jane E; Pitman, James K; Bruce, Christine B; Edge, David; Lee, Martin; Nazareth, Nelson; Norwood, David A; Moschos, Sterghios A

    2017-11-01

    The West African Ebola virus outbreak underlined the importance of delivering mass diagnostic capability outside the clinical or primary care setting in effectively containing public health emergencies caused by infectious disease. Yet, to date, there is no solution for reliably deploying at the point of need the gold standard diagnostic method, real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), in a laboratory infrastructure-free manner. In this proof of principle work, we demonstrate direct performance of RT-qPCR on fresh blood using far-red fluorophores to resolve fluorogenic signal inhibition and controlled, rapid freeze/thawing to achieve viral genome extraction in a single reaction chamber assay. The resulting process is entirely free of manual or automated sample pre-processing, requires no microfluidics or magnetic/mechanical sample handling and thus utilizes low cost consumables. This enables a fast, laboratory infrastructure-free, minimal risk and simple standard operating procedure suited to frontline, field use. Developing this novel approach on recombinant bacteriophage and recombinant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; Lentivirus), we demonstrate clinical utility in symptomatic EBOV patient screening using live, infectious Filoviruses and surrogate patient samples. Moreover, we evidence assay co-linearity independent of viral particle structure that may enable viral load quantification through pre-calibration, with no loss of specificity across an 8 log-linear maximum dynamic range. The resulting quantitative rapid identification (QuRapID) molecular diagnostic platform, openly accessible for assay development, meets the requirements of resource-limited countries and provides a fast response solution for mass public health screening against emerging biosecurity threats.

  18. Brain activity-based image classification from rapid serial visual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Vankov, Andrey; Ramirez, Rey R; Makeig, Scott

    2008-10-01

    We report the design and performance of a brain-computer interface (BCI) system for real-time single-trial binary classification of viewed images based on participant-specific dynamic brain response signatures in high-density (128-channel) electroencephalographic (EEG) data acquired during a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task. Image clips were selected from a broad area image and presented in rapid succession (12/s) in 4.1-s bursts. Participants indicated by subsequent button press whether or not each burst of images included a target airplane feature. Image clip creation and search path selection were designed to maximize user comfort and maintain user awareness of spatial context. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to extract a set of independent source time-courses and their minimally-redundant low-dimensional informative features in the time and time-frequency amplitude domains from 128-channel EEG data recorded during clip burst presentations in a training session. The naive Bayes fusion of two Fisher discriminant classifiers, computed from the 100 most discriminative time and time-frequency features, respectively, was used to estimate the likelihood that each clip contained a target feature. This estimator was applied online in a subsequent test session. Across eight training/test session pairs from seven participants, median area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, by tenfold cross validation, was 0.97 for within-session and 0.87 for between-session estimates, and was nearly as high (0.83) for targets presented in bursts that participants mistakenly reported to include no target features.

  19. Rapid Guest Exchange and Ultra-Low Surface Tension Solvents Optimize Metal-Organic Framework Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jialiu; Kalenak, Andre P; Wong-Foy, Antek G; Matzger, Adam J

    2017-11-13

    Exploratory research into the critical steps in metal-organic framework (MOF) activation involving solvent exchange and solvent evacuation are reported. It is discovered that solvent exchange kinetics are extremely fast, and minutes rather days are appropriate for solvent exchange in many MOFs. It is also demonstrated that choice of a very low surface tension solvent is critical in successfully activating challenging MOFs. MOFs that have failed to be activated previously can achieve predicted surface areas provided that lower surface tension solvents, such as n-hexane and perfluoropentane, are applied. The insights herein aid in the efficient activation of MOFs in both laboratory and industrial settings and provide best practices for avoiding structural collapse. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Rapid shifts in Atta cephalotes fungus-garden enzyme activity after a change in fungal substrate (Attini, Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, P W; Schiøtt, M; Boomsma, J J

    2011-01-01

    Fungus gardens of the basidiomycete Leucocoprinus gongylophorus sustain large colonies of leaf-cutting ants by degrading the plant material collected by the ants. Recent studies have shown that enzyme activity in these gardens is primarily targeted toward starch, proteins and the pectin matrix...... associated with cell walls, rather than toward structural cell wall components such as cellulose and hemicelluloses. Substrate constituents are also known to be sequentially degraded in different sections of the fungus garden. To test the plasticity in the extracellular expression of fungus-garden enzymes......, we measured the changes in enzyme activity after a controlled shift in fungal substrate offered to six laboratory colonies of Atta cephalotes. An ant diet consisting exclusively of grains of parboiled rice rapidly increased the activity of endo-proteinases and some of the pectinases attacking...

  1. Children treated for severe acute malnutrition experience a rapid increase in physical activity a few days after admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel; Hansen, Kristina Beck; van Hees, Vincent T; Christensen, Line Brinch; Girma, Tsinuel; Friis, Henrik; Brage, Søren

    2014-06-01

    To assess physical activity at admission and during recovery from severe acute malnutrition. Ethiopian children who were admitted with severe acute malnutrition received a clinical examination each week to monitor their recovery during rehabilitation. Using accelerometry (24 h/d for 5 consecutive days) at admission and again after 10 days of rehabilitation, we assessed the level and changes of physical activity. Among 13 children included, the mean (SD) age was 31.1 months (15.5). At baseline, the day-night activity difference was relatively small, whereas the level of activity had substantially increased at follow-up. The diurnal mean acceleration level was significantly greater at follow-up for wrist (1158.8 vs 541.4 counts per minute, P = .003) but not hip movements (204.1 vs 141.5, P = .261). During daytime (6 a.m. to 10 p.m.), hip activity increased by 38% from baseline to follow-up (e(B) 1.38, 95% CI 1.17-1.62), and wrist activity more than doubled (e(B) 2.50, 95% CI 2.17-2.87). The level of physical activity among children with severe acute malnutrition is very low but increases rapidly during recovery. Accelerometry may be a useful approach in the recovery phase as an indicator of early improvement. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. One-step and rapid synthesis of porous Pd nanoparticles with superior catalytic activity toward ethanol/formic acid electrooxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Fang, Youxing; Wang, Jin; Wang, Erkang

    2014-02-01

    Porous Pd nanoparticles are successfully prepared by a rapid, one-step, and efficient route with high yield in aqueous solution. The developed method is very simple, just by mixing sodium tetrachloropalladate, polyvinylpyrrolidone and hydroquinone and heated at 70 °C for 15 min. The structure and composition are analyzed by transmission electron microscope, selected-area electron diffraction, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrochemical catalytic measurement results prove that the as synthesized porous Pd nanoparticles exhibit superior catalytic activity towards ethanol and formic acid electrooxidation.

  3. Steam-cooking rapidly destroys and reverses onion-induced antiplatelet activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Emilie A; Folts, John D; Goldman, Irwin L

    2012-09-20

    Foods in the diet that can aid in the prevention of diseases are of major interest. Onions are key ingredients in many cuisines around the world and moreover, onion demand has trended higher over the past three decades. An important pharmacological aspect of onion is the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. Raw onions inhibit platelet aggregation; however, when onions are boiled or heated, antiplatelet activity may be abolished. Onion quarters were steamed for 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, and 15 min. The in vitro antiplatelet activity of a yellow hybrid storage onion was examined at these times on the blood of 12 human subjects using in vitro whole blood aggregometry. Contrary to findings reported for boiling, antiplatelet activity was destroyed between 3 and 6 min of steaming, and at 10 min of steaming, cooked onions stimulated platelet activity. Extracts from cooked onion had the potential to reverse the inhibitory effect on blood platelets by 25%. Responses were consistent across all donors. Total polyphenolic concentration and soluble solids were not affected by steaming time. The potential value of cooked onion preparations may result in destruction or reversal of antiplatelet activity, without affecting the polyphenolic concentration.

  4. Steam-cooking rapidly destroys and reverses onion-induced antiplatelet activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Foods in the diet that can aid in the prevention of diseases are of major interest. Onions are key ingredients in many cuisines around the world and moreover, onion demand has trended higher over the past three decades. An important pharmacological aspect of onion is the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. Raw onions inhibit platelet aggregation; however, when onions are boiled or heated, antiplatelet activity may be abolished. Methods Onion quarters were steamed for 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, and 15 min. The in vitro antiplatelet activity of a yellow hybrid storage onion was examined at these times on the blood of 12 human subjects using in vitro whole blood aggregometry. Results Contrary to findings reported for boiling, antiplatelet activity was destroyed between 3 and 6 min of steaming, and at 10 min of steaming, cooked onions stimulated platelet activity. Extracts from cooked onion had the potential to reverse the inhibitory effect on blood platelets by 25%. Responses were consistent across all donors. Total polyphenolic concentration and soluble solids were not affected by steaming time. Conclusions The potential value of cooked onion preparations may result in destruction or reversal of antiplatelet activity, without affecting the polyphenolic concentration. PMID:22992282

  5. Steam-cooking rapidly destroys and reverses onion-induced antiplatelet activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Emilie A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foods in the diet that can aid in the prevention of diseases are of major interest. Onions are key ingredients in many cuisines around the world and moreover, onion demand has trended higher over the past three decades. An important pharmacological aspect of onion is the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. Raw onions inhibit platelet aggregation; however, when onions are boiled or heated, antiplatelet activity may be abolished. Methods Onion quarters were steamed for 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, and 15 min. The in vitro antiplatelet activity of a yellow hybrid storage onion was examined at these times on the blood of 12 human subjects using in vitro whole blood aggregometry. Results Contrary to findings reported for boiling, antiplatelet activity was destroyed between 3 and 6 min of steaming, and at 10 min of steaming, cooked onions stimulated platelet activity. Extracts from cooked onion had the potential to reverse the inhibitory effect on blood platelets by 25%. Responses were consistent across all donors. Total polyphenolic concentration and soluble solids were not affected by steaming time. Conclusions The potential value of cooked onion preparations may result in destruction or reversal of antiplatelet activity, without affecting the polyphenolic concentration.

  6. Muscle size, neuromuscular activation, and rapid force characteristics in elderly men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetta, C; Aagaard, P; Magnusson, S P

    2007-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists for the age-related decline in muscle strength and neural function, but the effect of long-term disuse in the elderly is largely unexplored. The present study examined the effect of unilateral long-term limb disuse on maximal voluntary quadriceps contraction (MVC), lean......%), contractile RFD (W: 17-26%; M: 15-24%), impulse (W: 10-19%, M: 19-20%), maximal EMG amplitude (W: 22-25%, M: 22-28%), and an increased muscle activation deficit (-18%) compared with UN. Furthermore, women were less strong (AF: 40%; UN: 39%), had less muscle mass (AF: 33%; UN: 34%), and had a lower RFD (AF: 38...... quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (LCSA), contractile rate of force development (RFD, Delta force/Delta time), impulse (integral force dt), muscle activation deficit (interpolated twitch technique), maximal neuromuscular activity [electromyogram (EMG)], and antagonist muscle coactivation in elderly men...

  7. Rapid regulation of sialidase activity in response to neural activity and sialic acid removal during memory processing in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Akira; Meguro, Yuko; Ishibashi, Sayaka; Ishii, Ami; Shiratori, Mako; Sai, Saki; Horii, Yuuki; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Fukumoto, Hokuto; Shimba, Sumika; Taguchi, Risa; Takahashi, Tadanobu; Otsubo, Tadamune; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2017-04-07

    Sialidase cleaves sialic acids on the extracellular cell surface as well as inside the cell and is necessary for normal long-term potentiation (LTP) at mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses and for hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. Here, we investigated in detail the role of sialidase in memory processing. Sialidase activity measured with 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid (4MU-Neu5Ac) or 5-bromo-4-chloroindol-3-yl-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid (X-Neu5Ac) and Fast Red Violet LB was increased by high-K+-induced membrane depolarization. Sialidase activity was also increased by chemical LTP induction with forskolin and activation of BDNF signaling, non-NMDA receptors, or NMDA receptors. The increase in sialidase activity with neural excitation appears to be caused not by secreted sialidase or by an increase in sialidase expression but by a change in the subcellular localization of sialidase. Astrocytes as well as neurons are also involved in the neural activity-dependent increase in sialidase activity. Sialidase activity visualized with a benzothiazolylphenol-based sialic acid derivative (BTP3-Neu5Ac), a highly sensitive histochemical imaging probe for sialidase activity, at the CA3 stratum lucidum of rat acute hippocampal slices was immediately increased in response to LTP-inducible high-frequency stimulation on a time scale of seconds. To obtain direct evidence for sialic acid removal on the extracellular cell surface during neural excitation, the extracellular free sialic acid level in the hippocampus was monitored using in vivo microdialysis. The free sialic acid level was increased by high-K+-induced membrane depolarization. Desialylation also occurred during hippocampus-dependent memory formation in a contextual fear-conditioning paradigm. Our results show that neural activity-dependent desialylation by sialidase may be involved in hippocampal memory processing. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Accumulation of slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (IKs) in canine ventricular myocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stengl, Milan; Volders, Paul G A; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard

    2003-01-01

    the deactivation is much faster, is still unclear. In this study the conditions under which accumulation occurs in canine ventricular myocytes were studied with regard to its physiological relevance in controlling action potential duration (APD). At baseline, square pulse voltage clamp experiments revealed...... that the accumulation of canine IKs could occur, but only at rather short interpulse intervals (... in the presence of isoproterenol. Block of IKs, however, led to a reverse rate-dependent prolongation of APD indicating that IKs does not have a dominant role at short cycle lengths....

  9. Testing gravity of a regular and slowly rotating phantom black hole by quasi-periodic oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Songbai; Jing, Jiliang

    2016-01-01

    We extend firstly the regular phantom black hole solution to a slowly rotating black hole case and find that the phantom field depresses the angular velocity of the event horizon and suppresses the super-radiation of black hole. We also probe the dependence of quasi-periodic oscillations frequencies in relativistic precession model on the phantom parameter. With the observation data of GRO J1655-40, we make a constraint on the parameters of the regular and slowly rotating phantom black hole. Our results show that although the best-fit value of the phantom parameter $b$ is small, the allowed value of $b$ in the $1\\sigma$ region is $b<0.619$, which means that the phantom theoretical model can not be excluded by the constraint from quasi-periodic oscillations with the observation data of GRO J1655-40.

  10. Triple solutions of Casson fluid flow between slowly expanding and contracting walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Jawad; Rohni, Azizah Mohd; Omar, Zurni

    2017-11-01

    This study focuses on Casson fluid flow in a channel with slowly expanding and contracting walls. Main structures of partial differential equations were taken in the form of continuity, momentum and energy equations. Governing partial differential equations were converted into set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by applying suitable similarity transformation and then solved numerically by employing shooting technique and triple solutions are obtained depending on Reynolds, Casson, expanding or contracting ratio and magnetic parameters considered.

  11. RAPID KNEE-EXTENSIONS TO INCREASE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN PATIENTS WITH TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the quadriceps muscle and reduced knee-extension strength is common shortly following total knee arthroplasty (weeks to months), due to reduced voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle. In healthy subjects, strength training with heavy loads is known to increase ago...

  12. Rapid knee-extensions to increase quadriceps muscle activity in patients with total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Rasmus Skov; Wilquin, Lousia; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the quadriceps muscle and reduced knee-extension strength is common shortly following total knee arthroplasty (weeks to months), due to reduced voluntary activation of the quadriceps muscle. In healthy subjects, strength training with heavy loads is known to increase ago...

  13. Rapid NK-cell activation in chicken after infection with infectious bronchitis virus M41

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervelde, L.; Matthijs, M.G.R.; van Haarlem, D.A.; de Wit, Sjaak; Jansen, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes and play an important role in the early defence against viruses. In this study we focussed on NK cell and interferon (IFN) responses after infection with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Based on surface expression of CD107+, enhanced activation

  14. Rapid and reliable determination of the halogenating peroxidase activity in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemmig, Jörg; Schwarz, Pauline; Bäcker, Ingo; Leichsenring, Anna; Lange, Franziska; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2014-12-15

    By combining easy and fast leukocyte enrichment with aminophenyl-fluorescein (APF) staining we developed a method to quickly and specifically address the halogenating activity of the immunological relevant blood heme peroxidases myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase, respectively. For leukocyte enrichment a two-fold hypotonic lysis procedure of the blood with Millipore water was chosen which represents a cheap, fast and reliable method to diminish the amount of erythrocytes in the samples. This procedure is shown to be suitable both to human and murine blood micro-samples, making it also applicable to small animal experiments with recurring blood sampling. As all types of leukocytes are kept in the sample during the preparation, they can be analysed separately after discrimination during the flow cytometry analysis. This also holds for all heme peroxidase-containing cells, namely neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes. Moreover additional parameters (e.g. antibody staining) can be combined with the heme peroxidase activity determination to gain additional information about the different immune cell types. Based on previous results we applied APF for specifically addressing the halogenating activity of leukocyte peroxidases in blood samples. This dye is selectively oxidized by the MPO and EPO halogenation products hypochlorous and hypobromous acid. This approach may provide a suitable tool to gain more insights into the immune-physiological role of the halogenating activity of heme peroxidases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. TNF as biomarker for rapid quantification of active Staphylococcus enterotoxin A in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen which causes clinical infection and food poisoning. This bacterium produces a group of twenty-one enterotoxins (SEs). These enterotoxins have two separate but related biological activities. They cause gastroenteritis and function as superantigens t...

  16. The AGG codon is translated slowly in E. coli even at very low expression levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonekamp, Fons; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1988-01-01

    Data are presented which indicate that AGG codons for arginine are translated significantly more slowly than the CGU codons for the same amino acid even when their expression level from the probe is very low. The two types of codons were inser ted (three in tandem) on a multicopy plasmid in an ar......Data are presented which indicate that AGG codons for arginine are translated significantly more slowly than the CGU codons for the same amino acid even when their expression level from the probe is very low. The two types of codons were inser ted (three in tandem) on a multicopy plasmid...... IPTG. At all induction levels it was found that the frequency of transcription past the pyrE attenuator was approximately nine times lower when the AGG codons were present in the leader than with CGT codons present. This shows that AGG codons decouple translation from transcription in the pyr......E attenuator region even when the concentration of this codon is not increased significantly relative to that in the unperturbed wild type strain. Thus the results indicate that AGG codons are always slowly translated in Eacherichia coli....

  17. A Rapid and Quantitative Flow Cytometry Method for the Analysis of Membrane Disruptive Antimicrobial Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil M O'Brien-Simpson

    Full Text Available We describe a microbial flow cytometry method that quantifies within 3 hours antimicrobial peptide (AMP activity, termed Minimum Membrane Disruptive Concentration (MDC. Increasing peptide concentration positively correlates with the extent of bacterial membrane disruption and the calculated MDC is equivalent to its MBC. The activity of AMPs representing three different membranolytic modes of action could be determined for a range of Gram positive and negative bacteria, including the ESKAPE pathogens, E. coli and MRSA. By using the MDC50 concentration of the parent AMP, the method provides high-throughput, quantitative screening of AMP analogues. A unique feature of the MDC assay is that it directly measures peptide/bacteria interactions and lysed cell numbers rather than bacteria survival as with MIC and MBC assays. With the threat of multi-drug resistant bacteria, this high-throughput MDC assay has the potential to aid in the development of novel antimicrobials that target bacteria with improved efficacy.

  18. Brain activity during bilateral rapid alternate finger tapping measured with magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi; Odagaki, Masato; Hiwaki, Osamu; Kodabashi, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Toshiro

    2009-04-01

    Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), brain regions involved in an alternate bimanual tapping task by index fingers triggered with spontaneous timing were investigated. The tapping mode in which both index fingers moved simultaneously was interlaced during the task. The groups of the alternate tapping (AL mode) and the simultaneous tapping (SI mode) were extracted from the successive alternating taps with a histogram of intervals between the right and left index fingers. MEG signals in each mode were averaged separately before and after the tapping initiation of the dominant index finger. The activities of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex before and after the tapping initiation in the AL mode were larger than that in the SI mode. The result indicates that the activity of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex depends on the degree of achievement in the difficult motor task such as the voluntary alternate tapping movements.

  19. Rapidly light-activated surgical protein glue inspired by mussel adhesion and insect structural crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Young; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Yang, Yun Jung; Kim, Bum Jin; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Jung, Gyu Yong; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2015-10-01

    Currently approved surgical tissue glues do not satisfy the requirements for ideal bioadhesives due to limited adhesion in wet conditions and severe cytotoxicity. Herein, we report a new light-activated, mussel protein-based bioadhesive (LAMBA) inspired by mussel adhesion and insect dityrosine crosslinking chemistry. LAMBA exhibited substantially stronger bulk wet tissue adhesion than commercially available fibrin glue and good biocompatibility in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Besides, the easily tunable, light-activated crosslinking enabled an effective on-demand wound closure and facilitated wound healing. Based on these outstanding properties, LAMBA holds great potential as an ideal surgical tissue glue for diverse medical applications, including sutureless wound closures of skin and internal organs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Steam-cooking rapidly destroys and reverses onion-induced antiplatelet activity

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen Emilie A; Folts John D; Goldman Irwin L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Foods in the diet that can aid in the prevention of diseases are of major interest. Onions are key ingredients in many cuisines around the world and moreover, onion demand has trended higher over the past three decades. An important pharmacological aspect of onion is the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. Raw onions inhibit platelet aggregation; however, when onions are boiled or heated, antiplatelet activity may be abolished. Methods Onion quarters were steamed for ...

  1. Rapid determination of filamentous microorganisms in activated sludge; Determinacion rapida de microorganismos filamentosos en fangos activados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C.; Jimenez, C.; Estevez, F. [Empresa Municipal de Abastecimiento y Saneamiento de Aguas de Sevilla (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Despite many methods available biomass estimation of a bioprocess may sometimes become laborious and impracticable. Samples containing filamentous organisms, as in Wastewater Treatment Plants, present special counting difficulties. If they are abundant they may need to be estimated separately. In this work a counting method for these organisms is show. The main goal is to improve chlorination of activated sludge suffering bulking or foaming through a quantitative record of filamentous bacteria. (Author) 12 refs.

  2. Noradrenergic modulation of masseter muscle activity during natural rapid eye movement sleep requires glutamatergic signalling at the trigeminal motor nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Peter B; Mir, Saba; Peever, John H

    2014-01-01

    Noradrenergic neurotransmission in the brainstem is closely coupled to changes in muscle activity across the sleep–wake cycle, and noradrenaline is considered to be a key excitatory neuromodulator that reinforces the arousal-related stimulus on motoneurons to drive movement. However, it is unknown if α-1 noradrenoceptor activation increases motoneuron responsiveness to excitatory glutamate (AMPA) receptor-mediated inputs during natural behaviour. We studied the effects of noradrenaline on AMPA receptor-mediated motor activity at the motoneuron level in freely behaving rats, particularly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, a period during which both AMPA receptor-triggered muscle twitches and periods of muscle quiescence in which AMPA drive is silent are exhibited. Male rats were subjected to electromyography and electroencephalography recording to monitor sleep and waking behaviour. The implantation of a cannula into the trigeminal motor nucleus of the brainstem allowed us to perfuse noradrenergic and glutamatergic drugs by reverse microdialysis, and thus to use masseter muscle activity as an index of motoneuronal output. We found that endogenous excitation of both α-1 noradrenoceptor and AMPA receptors during waking are coupled to motor activity; however, REM sleep exhibits an absence of endogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor activity. Importantly, exogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor stimulation cannot reverse the muscle twitch suppression induced by AMPA receptor blockade and nor can it elevate muscle activity during quiet REM, a phase when endogenous AMPA receptor activity is subthreshold. We conclude that the presence of an endogenous glutamatergic drive is necessary for noradrenaline to trigger muscle activity at the level of the motoneuron in an animal behaving naturally. PMID:24860176

  3. Rapid and Quantitative Assay of Amyloid-Seeding Activity in Human Brains Affected with Prion Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanae Takatsuki

    Full Text Available The infectious agents of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are composed of amyloidogenic prion protein, PrPSc. Real-time quaking-induced conversion can amplify very small amounts of PrPSc seeds in tissues/body fluids of patients or animals. Using this in vitro PrP-amyloid amplification assay, we quantitated the seeding activity of affected human brains. End-point assay using serially diluted brain homogenates of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients demonstrated that 50% seeding dose (SD50 is reached approximately 10(10/g brain (values varies 10(8.79-10.63/g. A genetic case (GSS-P102L yielded a similar level of seeding activity in an autopsy brain sample. The range of PrPSc concentrations in the samples, determined by dot-blot assay, was 0.6-5.4 μg/g brain; therefore, we estimated that 1 SD50 unit was equivalent to 0.06-0.27 fg of PrPSc. The SD50 values of the affected brains dropped more than three orders of magnitude after autoclaving at 121°C. This new method for quantitation of human prion activity provides a new way to reduce the risk of iatrogenic prion transmission.

  4. Enhanced Activity of Supported Ni Catalysts Promoted by Pt for Rapid Reduction of Aromatic Nitro Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huishan Shang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To improve the activities of non-noble metal catalysts is highly desirable and valuable to the reduced use of noble metal resources. In this work, the supported nickel (Ni and nickel-platinum (NiPt nanocatalysts were derived from a layered double hydroxide/carbon composite precursor. The catalysts were characterized and the role of Pt was analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS mapping, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS techniques. The Ni2+ was reduced to metallic Ni0 via a self-reduction way utilizing the carbon as a reducing agent. The average sizes of the Ni particles in the NiPt catalysts were smaller than that in the supported Ni catalyst. The electronic structure of Ni was affected by the incorporation of Pt. The optimal NiPt catalysts exhibited remarkably improved activity toward the reduction of nitrophenol, which has an apparent rate constant (Ka of 18.82 × 10−3 s−1, 6.2 times larger than that of Ni catalyst and also larger than most of the reported values of noble-metal and bimetallic catalysts. The enhanced activity could be ascribed to the modification to the electronic structure of Ni by Pt and the effect of exposed crystal planes.

  5. Phasic dopamine release drives rapid activation of striatal D2-receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcott, Pamela F; Mamaligas, Aphroditi A; Ford, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    Summary Striatal dopamine transmission underlies numerous goal-directed behaviors. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are a major target of dopamine in the striatum. However, as dopamine does not directly evoke a synaptic event in MSNs, the time course of dopamine signaling in these cells remains unclear. To examine how dopamine release activates D2-receptors on MSNs, G-protein activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK2; Kir 3.2) channels were virally overexpressed in the striatum and the resulting outward currents were used as a sensor of D2-receptor activation. Electrical and optogenetic stimulation of dopamine terminals evoked robust D2-receptor inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in GIRK2-expressing MSNs that occurred in under a second. Evoked D2-IPSCs could be driven by repetitive stimulation and were not occluded by background dopamine tone. Together, the results indicate that D2-receptors on MSNs exhibit functional low affinity and suggest that striatal D2-receptors can encode both tonic and phasic dopamine signals. PMID:25242218

  6. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Breast Cancer Cells in Patient Blood with Nuclease-Activated Probe Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Kruspe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A challenge for circulating tumor cell (CTC-based diagnostics is the development of simple and inexpensive methods that reliably detect the diverse cells that make up CTCs. CTC-derived nucleases are one category of proteins that could be exploited to meet this challenge. Advantages of nucleases as CTC biomarkers include: (1 their elevated expression in many cancer cells, including cells implicated in metastasis that have undergone epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; and (2 their enzymatic activity, which can be exploited for signal amplification in detection methods. Here, we describe a diagnostic assay based on quenched fluorescent nucleic acid probes that detect breast cancer CTCs via their nuclease activity. This assay exhibited robust performance in distinguishing breast cancer patients from healthy controls, and it is rapid, inexpensive, and easy to implement in most clinical labs. Given its broad applicability, this technology has the potential to have a substantive impact on the diagnosis and treatment of many cancers.

  7. Flexible and Adhesive Surface Enhance Raman Scattering Active Tape for Rapid Detection of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaming; Huang, Youju; Kannan, Palanisamy; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Zhenyu; Zhang, Jiawei; Chen, Tao; Guo, Longhua

    2016-02-16

    The efficient extraction of targets from complex surfaces is vital for technological applications ranging from environmental pollutant monitoring to analysis of explosive traces and pesticide residues. In our present study, we proposed a proof-of-concept surface enhance Raman scattering (SERS) active substrate serving directly to the rapid extraction and detection of target molecules. The novel substrate was constructed by decorating the commercial tape with colloidal gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), which simultaneously provides SERS activity and "sticky" of adhesive. The utility of SERS tape was demonstrated by directly extracting pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables via a simple and viable "paste and peel off" approach. The obtained strong and easily distinguishable SERS signals allow us to detect various pesticide residues such as parathion-methyl, thiram, and chlorpyrifos in the real samples with complex surfaces including green vegetable, cucumber, orange, and apple.

  8. A comparative study of methods for automatic detection of rapid eye movement abnormal muscular activity in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Alexander Neergaard; Cesari, Matteo; Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate rapid eye movement (REM) muscular activity in narcolepsy by applying five algorithms to electromyogram (EMG) recordings, and to investigate its value for narcolepsy diagnosis. Patients/methods: A modified version of phasic EMG metric (mPEM), muscle activity index (MAI), REM...... atonia index (RAI), supra-threshold REM EMG activit ymetric (STREAM), and Frandsen method (FR) were calculated from polysomnography recordings of 20 healthy controls, 18 clinic controls (subjects suspected with narcolepsy but finally diagnosed without any sleep abnormality), 16 narcolepsy type 1 without...... REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), 9 narcolepsy type 1 with RBD, and 18 narcolepsy type 2. Diagnostic value of metrics in differentiating between groups was quantified by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Correlations among the metrics and cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1...

  9. Antiarrhythmic properties of a rapid delayed-rectifier current activator in rabbit models of acquired long QT syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Thomas G; Yeh, Yung-Hsin; Qi, Xiao Yan

    2008-01-01

    effect of a novel compound (NS1643) that activates the rapid delayed-rectifier K+ current, I(Kr), in two rabbit models of acquired LQTS. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used two clinically relevant in vivo rabbit models of TdP in which we infused NS1643 or vehicle: (i) three-week atrioventricular block...... with ventricular bradypacing; (ii) dofetilide-induced I(Kr) inhibition in methoxamine-sensitized rabbits. In addition, we studied effects on ionic currents in cardiomyocytes with I(Kr) suppressed by bradycardia remodelling or dofetilide exposure. Bradypaced rabbits developed QT interval prolongation, spontaneous...... ventricular ectopy, and TdP. Infusion of NS1643 completely suppressed arrhythmic activity and shortened the QT interval; vehicle had no effect. NS1643 also suppressed ventricular tachyarrhythmias caused by infusion of dofetilide to methoxamine-sensitized rabbits, and reversed dofetilide-induced QT...

  10. Rapid behavioural gregarization in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria entails synchronous changes in both activity and attraction to conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephen M; Cullen, Darron A; Anstey, Michael L; Burrows, Malcolm; Despland, Emma; Dodgson, Tim; Matheson, Tom; Ott, Swidbert R; Stettin, Katja; Sword, Gregory A; Simpson, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    Desert Locusts can change reversibly between solitarious and gregarious phases, which differ considerably in behaviour, morphology and physiology. The two phases show many behavioural differences including both overall levels of activity and the degree to which they are attracted or repulsed by conspecifics. Solitarious locusts perform infrequent bouts of locomotion characterised by a slow walking pace, groom infrequently and actively avoid other locusts. Gregarious locusts are highly active with a rapid walking pace, groom frequently and are attracted to conspecifics forming cohesive migratory bands as nymphs and/or flying swarms as adults. The sole factor driving the onset of gregarization is the presence of conspecifics. In several previous studies concerned with the mechanism underlying this transformation we have used an aggregate measure of behavioural phase state, Pgreg, derived from logistic regression analysis, which combines and weights several behavioural variables to characterise solitarious and gregarious behaviour. Using this approach we have analysed the time course of behavioural change, the stimuli that induce gregarization and the key role of serotonin in mediating the transformation. Following a recent critique that suggested that using Pgreg may confound changes in general activity with genuine gregarization we have performed a meta-analysis examining the time course of change in the individual behaviours that we use to generate Pgreg. We show that the forced crowding of solitarious locusts, tactile stimulation of the hind femora, and the short-term application of serotonin each induce concerted changes in not only locomotion-related variables but also grooming frequency and attraction to other locusts towards those characteristic of long-term gregarious locusts. This extensive meta-analysis supports and extends our previous conclusions that solitarious locusts undergo a rapid behavioural gregarization upon receiving appropriate stimulation for

  11. Rapid behavioural gregarization in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria entails synchronous changes in both activity and attraction to conspecifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephen M.; Cullen, Darron A.; Anstey, Michael L.; Burrows, Malcolm; Despland, Emma; Dodgson, Tim; Matheson, Tom; Ott, Swidbert R.; Stettin, Katja; Sword, Gregory A.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Desert Locusts can change reversibly between solitarious and gregarious phases, which differ considerably in behaviour, morphology and physiology. The two phases show many behavioural differences including both overall levels of activity and the degree to which they are attracted or repulsed by conspecifics. Solitarious locusts perform infrequent bouts of locomotion characterised by a slow walking pace, groom infrequently and actively avoid other locusts. Gregarious locusts are highly active with a rapid walking pace, groom frequently and are attracted to conspecifics forming cohesive migratory bands as nymphs and/or flying swarms as adults. The sole factor driving the onset of gregarization is the presence of conspecifics. In several previous studies concerned with the mechanism underlying this transformation we have used an aggregate measure of behavioural phase state, Pgreg, derived from logistic regression analysis, which combines and weights several behavioural variables to characterise solitarious and gregarious behaviour. Using this approach we have analysed the time course of behavioural change, the stimuli that induce gregarization and the key role of serotonin in mediating the transformation. Following a recent critique that suggested that using Pgreg may confound changes in general activity with genuine gregarization we have performed a meta-analysis examining the time course of change in the individual behaviours that we use to generate Pgreg. We show that the forced crowding of solitarious locusts, tactile stimulation of the hind femora, and the short-term application of serotonin each induce concerted changes in not only locomotion-related variables but also grooming frequency and attraction to other locusts towards those characteristic of long-term gregarious locusts. This extensive meta-analysis supports and extends our previous conclusions that solitarious locusts undergo a rapid behavioural gregarization upon receiving appropriate stimulation for

  12. Bisphenol A induces a rapid activation of Erk1/2 through GPR30 in human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, S. [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Terasaka, S. [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Kiyama, R., E-mail: kiyama.r@aist.go.j [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been considered as an endocrine disruptor due to its ability to interact with estrogen receptors (ERs). While G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is a novel estrogen receptor, its role in BPA-induced activation of Erk1/2 remains unknown. Human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SKBR3, were used as experimental models to discriminate between ERs-dependent, putative ERs-independent and/or GPR30-associated effects. BPA induced a rapid activation of Erk1/2 in both ER{alpha}/{beta}-positive and negative breast cancer cells, and this effect was not blocked with an ER antagonist, ICI 182,780. A small interfering RNA assay revealed that the expression of GPR30 was necessary for BPA-induced activation of Erk1/2 and transcriptional regulation of c-fos. In addition, BPA regulates the expression of c-fos likely through an AP1-mediated pathway. As a conclusion, GPR30 plays an important role in the BPA-induced activation of Erk1/2 in a manner distinguishable from that in ER{alpha}-mediated signaling. - We showed here that the mechanism by which BPA induces the activation of Erk1/2 is distinguishable from the mechanism of ER{alpha}-mediated signaling in human breast cancer cells.

  13. Rapid degradation of an active formylglycine generating enzyme variant leads to a late infantile severe form of multiple sulfatase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlotawa, Lars; Radhakrishnan, Karthikeyan; Baumgartner, Matthias; Schmid, Regula; Schmidt, Bernhard; Dierks, Thomas; Gärtner, Jutta

    2013-09-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD) is a rare inborn error of metabolism affecting posttranslational activation of sulfatases by the formylglycine generating enzyme (FGE). Due to mutations in the encoding SUMF1 gene, FGE's catalytic capacity is impaired resulting in reduced cellular sulfatase activities. Both, FGE protein stability and residual activity determine disease severity and have previously been correlated with the clinical MSD phenotype. Here, we report a patient with a late infantile severe course of disease. The patient is compound heterozygous for two so far undescribed SUMF1 mutations, c.156delC (p.C52fsX57) and c.390A>T (p.E130D). In patient fibroblasts, mRNA of the frameshift allele is undetectable. In contrast, the allele encoding FGE-E130D is expressed. FGE-E130D correctly localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and has a very high residual molecular activity in vitro (55% of wildtype FGE); however, it is rapidly degraded. Thus, despite substantial residual enzyme activity, protein instability determines disease severity, which highlights that potential MSD treatment approaches should target protein folding and stabilization mechanisms.

  14. Rapid photometry of EZ Canis Majoris - Searching for flare activity in Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, J. M.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Marchenko, S. V.

    1992-12-01

    EZ CMa was chosen for a trial run of high-speed photometry to search for flare activity in W-R stars. Data were collected during UT November 27-December 2, 1991 with the 1.0-telescope + ASCAP photometer and the 0.6-m telescope + manual photometer of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. A period near 22.7 min was found. A brightness increase of about 1 percent, lasting for about 10 min in the otherwise smooth light curve, was observed. Fourier analysis of the data sets an upper limit of 0.0005 mag on any variations with periods less than about 10 min.

  15. Rapid adaptive remote focusing microscope for sensing of volumetric neural activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žurauskas, Mantas; Barnstedt, Oliver; Frade-Rodriguez, Maria; Waddell, Scott; Booth, Martin J

    2017-10-01

    The ability to record neural activity in the brain of a living organism at cellular resolution is of great importance for defining the neural circuit mechanisms that direct behavior. Here we present an adaptive two-photon microscope optimized for extraction of neural signals over volumes in intact Drosophila brains, even in the presence of specimen motion. High speed volume imaging was made possible through reduction of spatial resolution while maintaining the light collection efficiency of a high resolution, high numerical aperture microscope. This enabled simultaneous recording of odor-evoked calcium transients in a defined volume of mushroom body Kenyon cell bodies in a live fruit fly.

  16. From starburst to quiescence: testing active galactic nucleus feedback in rapidly quenching post-starburst galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesuf, Hassen M.; Faber, S. M.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Koo, David C.; Fang, Jerome J.; Liu, F. S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Wild, Vivienne [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Hayward, Christopher C. [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-09-10

    Post-starbursts are galaxies in transition from the blue cloud to the red sequence. Although they are rare today, integrated over time they may be an important pathway to the red sequence. This work uses Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer observations to identify the evolutionary sequence from starbursts to fully quenched post-starbursts (QPSBs) in the narrow mass range log M(M {sub ☉}) = 10.3-10.7, and identifies 'transiting' post-starbursts (TPSBs) which are intermediate between these two populations. In this mass range, ∼0.3% of galaxies are starbursts, ∼0.1% are QPSBs, and ∼0.5% are the transiting types in between. The TPSBs have stellar properties that are predicted for fast-quenching starbursts and morphological characteristics that are already typical of early-type galaxies. The active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction, as estimated from optical line ratios, of these post-starbursts is about three times higher (≳ 36% ± 8%) than that of normal star forming galaxies of the same mass, but there is a significant delay between the starburst phase and the peak of nuclear optical AGN activity (median age difference of ≳ 200 ± 100 Myr), in agreement with previous studies. The time delay is inferred by comparing the broadband near-NUV-to-optical photometry with stellar population synthesis models. We also find that starbursts and post-starbursts are significantly more dust obscured than normal star forming galaxies in the same mass range. About 20% of the starbursts and 15% of the TPSBs can be classified as 'dust-obscured galaxies' (DOGs), with a near-UV-to-mid-IR flux ratio of ≳ 900, while only 0.8% of normal galaxies are DOGs. The time delay between the starburst phase and AGN activity suggests that AGNs do not play a primary role in the original quenching of starbursts but may be responsible for quenching later low-level star formation by removing gas and dust during

  17. Emergency Department Visit Data for Rapid Detection and Monitoring of Norovirus Activity, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrer, Sherry; Park, Soyoun; Trivedi, Tarak; Parashar, Umesh D.; Lopman, Benjamin A.

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in the United States, but timely measures of disease are lacking. BioSense, a national-level electronic surveillance system, assigns data on chief complaints (patient symptoms) collected during emergency department (ED) visits to 78 subsyndromes in near real-time. In a series of linear regression models, BioSense visits mapped by chief complaints of diarrhea and nausea/vomiting subsyndromes as a monthly proportion of all visits correlated strongly with reported norovirus outbreaks from 6 states during 2007–2010. Higher correlations were seen for diarrhea (R = 0.828–0.926) than for nausea/vomiting (R = 0.729–0.866) across multiple age groups. Diarrhea ED visit proportions exhibited winter seasonality attributable to norovirus; rotavirus contributed substantially for children norovirus season within 4 weeks of observed dates and could be reliable, timely indicators of norovirus activity. PMID:23876432

  18. Functionally Active Fc Mutant Antibodies Recognizing Cancer Antigens Generated Rapidly at High Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M. Ilieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies find broad application as therapy for various types of cancer by employing multiple mechanisms of action against tumors. Manipulating the Fc-mediated functions of antibodies that engage immune effector cells, such as NK cells, represents a strategy to influence effector cell activation and to enhance antibody potency and potentially efficacy. We developed a novel approach to generate and ascertain the functional attributes of Fc mutant monoclonal antibodies. This entailed coupling single expression vector (pVitro1 antibody cloning, using polymerase incomplete primer extension (PIPE polymerase chain reaction, together with simultaneous Fc region point mutagenesis and high yield transient expression in human mammalian cells. Employing this, we engineered wild type, low (N297Q, NQ, and high (S239D/I332E, DE FcR-binding Fc mutant monoclonal antibody panels recognizing two cancer antigens, HER2/neu and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4. Antibodies were generated with universal mutagenic primers applicable to any IgG1 pVitro1 constructs, with high mutagenesis and transfection efficiency, in small culture volumes, at high yields and within 12 days from design to purified material. Antibody variants conserved their Fab-mediated recognition of target antigens and their direct anti-proliferative effects against cancer cells. Fc mutations had a significant impact on antibody interactions with Fc receptors (FcRs on human NK cells, and consequently on the potency of NK cell activation, quantified by immune complex-mediated calcium mobilization and by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC of tumor cells. This strategy for manipulation and testing of Fc region engagement with cognate FcRs can facilitate the design of antibodies with defined effector functions and potentially enhanced efficacy against tumor cells.

  19. Rapid and minimum invasive functional brain mapping by real-time visualization of high gamma activity during awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kamada, Kyousuke; Kapeller, Christoph; Hiroshima, Satoru; Prueckl, Robert; Guger, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    Electrocortical stimulation (ECS) is the gold standard for functional brain mapping during an awake craniotomy. The critical issue is to set aside enough time to identify eloquent cortices by ECS. High gamma activity (HGA) ranging between 80 and 120 Hz on electrocorticogram is assumed to reflect localized cortical processing. In this report, we used real-time HGA mapping and functional neuronavigation integrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for rapid and reliable identification of motor and language functions. Four patients with intra-axial tumors in their dominant hemisphere underwent preoperative fMRI and lesion resection with an awake craniotomy. All patients showed significant fMRI activation evoked by motor and language tasks. During the craniotomy, we recorded electrocorticogram activity by placing subdural grids directly on the exposed brain surface. Each patient performed motor and language tasks and demonstrated real-time HGA dynamics in hand motor areas and parts of the inferior frontal gyrus. Sensitivity and specificity of HGA mapping were 100% compared with ECS mapping in the frontal lobe, which suggested HGA mapping precisely indicated eloquent cortices. We found different HGA dynamics of language tasks in frontal and temporal regions. Specificities of the motor and language-fMRI did not reach 85%. The results of HGA mapping was mostly consistent with those of ECS mapping, although fMRI tended to overestimate functional areas. This novel technique enables rapid and accurate identification of motor and frontal language areas. Furthermore, real-time HGA mapping sheds light on underlying physiological mechanisms related to human brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pharmacological activation of rapid delayed rectifier potassium current suppresses bradycardia-induced triggered activity in the isolated guinea pig heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rie Schultz; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten

    2007-01-01

    arrhythmias. We present here data that support that NS3623 affects native I(Kr) and report the effects that activating this potassium current have in the intact guinea pig heart. In Langendorff-perfused hearts, the compound showed a concentration-dependent shortening of action potential duration, which...... was also detected as concentration-dependent shorter QT intervals. There was no sign of action potential triangulation or reverse use dependence. NS3623 decreased QT variability and distinctly decreased the occurrence of extrasystoles in the acutely bradypaced hearts. Taken together, the present data...

  1. A Design Methodology for Rapid Implementation of Active Control Systems Across Lean Direct Injection Combustor Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, William T.; Saunders, William R.; Vandsburger, Uri; Saus, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The VACCG team is comprised of engineers at Virginia Tech who specialize in the subject areas of combustion physics, chemical kinetics, dynamics and controls, and signal processing. Currently, the team's work on this NRA research grant is designed to determine key factors that influence combustion control performance through a blend of theoretical and experimental investigations targeting design and demonstration of active control for three different combustors. To validiate the accuracy of conclusions about control effectiveness, a sequence of experimental verifications on increasingly complex lean, direct injection combustors is underway. During the work period January 1, 2002 through October 15, 2002, work has focused on two different laboratory-scale combustors that allow access for a wide variety of measurements. As the grant work proceeds, one key goal will be to obtain certain knowledge about a particular combustor process using a minimum of sophisticated measurements, due to the practical limitations of measurements on full-scale combustors. In the second year, results obtained in the first year will be validated on test combustors to be identified in the first quarter of that year. In the third year, it is proposed to validate the results at more realistic pressure and power levels by utilizing the facilities at the Glenn Research Center.

  2. Active machine learning for rapid landslide inventory mapping with VHR satellite images (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, A.; Lachiche, N.; Malet, J.; Kerle, N.; Puissant, A.

    2013-12-01

    VHR satellite images have become a primary source for landslide inventory mapping after major triggering events such as earthquakes and heavy rainfalls. Visual image interpretation is still the prevailing standard method for operational purposes but is time-consuming and not well suited to fully exploit the increasingly better supply of remote sensing data. Recent studies have addressed the development of more automated image analysis workflows for landslide inventory mapping. In particular object-oriented approaches that account for spatial and textural image information have been demonstrated to be more adequate than pixel-based classification but manually elaborated rule-based classifiers are difficult to adapt under changing scene characteristics. Machine learning algorithm allow learning classification rules for complex image patterns from labelled examples and can be adapted straightforwardly with available training data. In order to reduce the amount of costly training data active learning (AL) has evolved as a key concept to guide the sampling for many applications. The underlying idea of AL is to initialize a machine learning model with a small training set, and to subsequently exploit the model state and data structure to iteratively select the most valuable samples that should be labelled by the user. With relatively few queries and labelled samples, an AL strategy yields higher accuracies than an equivalent classifier trained with many randomly selected samples. This study addressed the development of an AL method for landslide mapping from VHR remote sensing images with special consideration of the spatial distribution of the samples. Our approach [1] is based on the Random Forest algorithm and considers the classifier uncertainty as well as the variance of potential sampling regions to guide the user towards the most valuable sampling areas. The algorithm explicitly searches for compact regions and thereby avoids a spatially disperse sampling pattern

  3. Interaction between the long-latency stretch reflex and voluntary electromyographic activity prior to a rapid voluntary motor reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B L; Rothwell, J C; Marsden, C D

    1983-06-27

    The size of the long-latency component of the stretch reflex has been examined in the time interval between a signal to move and the required rapid voluntary contraction of triceps and flexor pollicis longus in 8 normal subjects. Bilateral movements of the elbow and thumb were made following an auditory signal. In 50% of the trials a torque pulse was applied unilaterally in order to elicit a stretch reflex response in one arm. The voluntary response in the contralateral arm was uncorrupted by a stretch reflex response, so was used as an indicator of voluntary reaction time. Control experiments, using an electrical stimulus to the fingers rather than muscle stretch, verified that both arms reacted almost simultaneously to the auditory cue, even when the reaction time was shortened by the presence of a unilateral electrical stimulus. Similarly, an interposed muscle stretch stimulus considerably reduced the reaction time to the audio signal. Because of this, the start of the voluntary EMG response frequently 'over-lapped' the end of the long-latency stretch reflex. Failure to take this shortening of voluntary reaction time into consideration can lead to the erroneous conclusion that reflex gain is increased prior to a rapid movement. If the 'overlap' of EMG responses is accounted for, very little change in the size of the long-latency stretch reflex is evident prior to activation of the muscles responsible for the movement of either the elbow or the thumb.

  4. A Force-Activated Trip Switch Triggers Rapid Dissociation of a Colicin from Its Immunity Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrance, Oliver E.; Hann, Eleanore; Kaminska, Renata; Housden, Nicholas G.; Derrington, Sasha R.; Kleanthous, Colin; Radford, Sheena E.; Brockwell, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Colicins are protein antibiotics synthesised by Escherichia coli strains to target and kill related bacteria. To prevent host suicide, colicins are inactivated by binding to immunity proteins. Despite their high avidity (Kd≈fM, lifetime ≈4 days), immunity protein release is a pre-requisite of colicin intoxication, which occurs on a timescale of minutes. Here, by measuring the dynamic force spectrum of the dissociation of the DNase domain of colicin E9 (E9) and immunity protein 9 (Im9) complex using an atomic force microscope we show that application of low forces (force-triggered increase in off-rate a trip bond. Using mutational analysis, we elucidate the mechanism of this switch in affinity. We show that the N-terminal region of E9, which has sparse contacts with the hydrophobic core, is linked to an allosteric activator region in E9 (residues 21–30) whose remodelling triggers immunity protein release. Diversion of the force transduction pathway by the introduction of appropriately positioned disulfide bridges yields a force resistant complex with a lifetime identical to that measured by ensemble techniques. A trip switch within E9 is ideal for its function as it allows bipartite complex affinity, whereby the stable colicin:immunity protein complex required for host protection can be readily converted to a kinetically unstable complex whose dissociation is necessary for cellular invasion and competitor death. More generally, the observation of two force phenotypes for the E9:Im9 complex demonstrates that force can re-sculpt the underlying energy landscape, providing new opportunities to modulate biological reactions in vivo; this rationalises the commonly observed discrepancy between off-rates measured by dynamic force spectroscopy and ensemble methods. PMID:23431269

  5. A force-activated trip switch triggers rapid dissociation of a colicin from its immunity protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver E Farrance

    Full Text Available Colicins are protein antibiotics synthesised by Escherichia coli strains to target and kill related bacteria. To prevent host suicide, colicins are inactivated by binding to immunity proteins. Despite their high avidity (K(d ≈ fM, lifetime ≈ 4 days, immunity protein release is a pre-requisite of colicin intoxication, which occurs on a timescale of minutes. Here, by measuring the dynamic force spectrum of the dissociation of the DNase domain of colicin E9 (E9 and immunity protein 9 (Im9 complex using an atomic force microscope we show that application of low forces (<20 pN increases the rate of complex dissociation 10(6-fold, to a timescale (lifetime ≈ 10 ms compatible with intoxication. We term this catastrophic force-triggered increase in off-rate a trip bond. Using mutational analysis, we elucidate the mechanism of this switch in affinity. We show that the N-terminal region of E9, which has sparse contacts with the hydrophobic core, is linked to an allosteric activator region in E9 (residues 21-30 whose remodelling triggers immunity protein release. Diversion of the force transduction pathway by the introduction of appropriately positioned disulfide bridges yields a force resistant complex with a lifetime identical to that measured by ensemble techniques. A trip switch within E9 is ideal for its function as it allows bipartite complex affinity, whereby the stable colicin:immunity protein complex required for host protection can be readily converted to a kinetically unstable complex whose dissociation is necessary for cellular invasion and competitor death. More generally, the observation of two force phenotypes for the E9:Im9 complex demonstrates that force can re-sculpt the underlying energy landscape, providing new opportunities to modulate biological reactions in vivo; this rationalises the commonly observed discrepancy between off-rates measured by dynamic force spectroscopy and ensemble methods.

  6. Macrophage activation-like syndrome: an immunological entity associated with rapid progression to death in sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazopoulou, Evdoxia; Leventogiannis, Konstantinos; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Dimopoulos, Georgios; Pantazi, Aikaterini; Orfanos, Stylianos E; Rovina, Nikoletta; Tsangaris, Iraklis; Gkavogianni, Theologia; Botsa, Elektra; Chassiou, Eleftheria; Kotanidou, Anastasia; Kontouli, Christina; Chaloulis, Panagiotis; Velissaris, Dimitrios; Savva, Athina; Cullberg, Jonas-Sundén; Akinosoglou, Karolina; Gogos, Charalambos; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J

    2017-09-18

    A subanalysis of a randomized clinical trial indicated sepsis survival benefit from interleukin (IL)-1 blockade in patients with features of the macrophage activation-like syndrome (MALS). This study aimed to investigate the frequency of MALS and to develop a biomarker of diagnosis and prognosis. Patients with infections and systemic inflammatory response syndrome were assigned to one test cohort (n = 3417) and a validation cohort (n = 1704). MALS was diagnosed for patients scoring positive either for the hemophagocytic syndrome score and/or having both hepatobiliary dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the predictive value of MALS for 10-day mortality in both cohorts. Ferritin, sCD163, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured in the blood the first 24 h; ferritin measurements were repeated in 747 patients on day 3. The frequency of MALS was 3.7% and 4.3% in the test and the validation cohort, respectively. In both cohorts, MALS was an independent risk factor for 10-day mortality. A ferritin level above 4420 ng/ml was accompanied by 66.7% and 66% mortality after 28 days, respectively. Ferritin levels above 4420 ng/ml were associated with an increase of IL-6, IL-18, INF-γ, and sCD163 and a decreased IL-10/TNF-α ratio, indicating predominance of pro-inflammatory phenomena. Any less than 15% decrease of ferritin on day 3 was associated with more than 90% sensitivity for unfavorable outcome after 10 days. This high mortality risk was also validated in an independent Swedish cohort (n = 109). MALS is an independent life-threatening entity in sepsis. Ferritin measurements can provide early diagnosis of MALS and may allow for specific treatment.

  7. Simulations of Superrotation on Slowly Rotating Planets: Sensitivity to Rotation and Initial Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Genio, Anthony D.; Zhou, Wei

    1996-04-01

    We use a simplified terrestrial general circulation model as a nonlinear process model to investigate factors that influence the extent of equatorial superrotation in statically stable atmospheres on slowly rotating planets such as Titan and Venus. The possibility of multiple equilibria is tested by running the same model to equilibrium from vastly different initial conditions. The final state is effectively independent of initial state, reinforcing the impression that equatorial superrotation is inevitable on slowly rotating planets with stable radiative equilibrium structures. Of particular interest is the fact that at Titan rotation, the model equilibrates with strong prograde winds even when initialized with strong retrograde winds. This suggests that reliable remote sensing inferences of latitudinal temperature gradients on Titan can unambiguously be interpreted as evidence for superrotation. We also demonstrate for the first time that significant equatorial superrotation can be produced at Venus' rotation rate in such models, given sufficient numerical precision. The strength of superrotating zonal winds increases with rotation rate in the slowly rotating regime when other parameters are held fixed. However, the efficiency of superrotation relative to the angular momentum of an atmosphere corotating with the solid planet increases with decreasing rotation rate instead, because the Hadley cell strengthens and expands poleward. This allows for the formation of stronger high latitude jets, which ultimately serve as the source for equatorial superrotation via barotropic instability. Estimates of relevant parameter settings for Triton and Pluto tentatively imply that their atmospheres may marginally be in the superrotating regime, but only if temperature decreases with height near the surface.

  8. The pulsating magnetosphere of the extremely slowly rotating magnetic β Cep star ξ1 CMa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, M.; Wade, G. A.; Rivinius, Th.; Neiner, C.; Henrichs, H.; Marcolino, W.; MiMeS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    ξ1 CMa is a monoperiodically pulsating, magnetic β Cep star with magnetospheric X-ray emission that, uniquely amongst magnetic stars, is clearly modulated with the star's pulsation period. The rotational period Prot has yet to be identified, with multiple competing claims in the literature. We present an analysis of a large ESPaDOnS data set with a 9 yr baseline. The longitudinal magnetic field 〈Bz〉 shows a significant annual variation, suggesting that Prot is at least of the order of decades. The possibility that the star's H α emission originates around a classical Be companion star is explored and rejected based upon Very Large Telescope Interferometer AMBER and PIONIER interferometry, indicating that the emission must instead originate in the star's magnetosphere and should therefore also be modulated with Prot. Period analysis of H α equivalent widths measured from ESPaDOnS and CORALIE spectra indicates Prot > 30 yr. All evidence thus supports that ξ1 CMa is a very slowly rotating magnetic star hosting a dynamical magnetosphere. H α also shows evidence for modulation with the pulsation period, a phenomenon that we show cannot be explained by variability of the underlying photospheric line profile, i.e. it may reflect changes in the quantity and distribution of magnetically confined plasma in the circumstellar environment. In comparison to other magnetic stars with similar stellar properties, ξ1 CMa is by far the most slowly rotating magnetic B-type star, is the only slowly rotating B-type star with a magnetosphere detectable in H α (and thus, the coolest star with an optically detectable dynamical magnetosphere), and is the only known early-type magnetic star with H α emission modulated by both pulsation and rotation.

  9. [The treatment of slowly healing wounds with collagen and growth factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baĭchev, G; Penkova, R; Deliĭski, T

    1995-01-01

    Experience had with the local application of collagen and autologous growth factors, isolated from platelets, in 35 patients presenting chronic, slowly healing wounds, treated with conventional methods, is discussed. In 24 cases of the series reviewed the wounds undergo epithelization within six weeks, and in the remainder (11)-within 10 weeks. As shown by the results, the healing process is quicker in wounds of patients treated with growth factors in combination with collagen, as compared to the control group--p(t) > 0.05.

  10. Mycobacterium arosiense sp. nov., a slowly growing, scotochromogenic species causing osteomyelitis in an immunocompromised child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, D.; Herlin, T.; Stegger, M.

    2008-01-01

    A yellow-pigmented, scotochromogenic, slowly growing mycobacterial strain, designated T1921(T), was isolated from the disseminated osteomyelitic lesions of a 7-year-old child with an underlying partial gamma interferon receptor alpha-1 deficiency. Hybridization by the line probe assay indicated...... mycobacteria. Strain T1921(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium arosiense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is T1921(T) (=DSM 45069(T) =ATCC BAA-1401(T)) Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10...

  11. Rapid isolation of a facultative anaerobic electrochemically active bacterium capable of oxidizing acetate for electrogenesis and azo dyes reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Nan; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Wu, Chao; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Song, Xiang-Ning; Li, Wen-Wei; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-05-01

    In this study, 27 strains of electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) were rapidly isolated and their capabilities of extracellular electron transfer were identified using a photometric method based on WO3 nanoclusters. These strains caused color change of WO3 from white to blue in a 24-well agar plate within 40 h. Most of the isolated EAB strains belonged to the genera of Aeromonas and Shewanella. One isolate, Pantoea agglomerans S5-44, was identified as an EAB that can utilize acetate as the carbon source to produce electricity and reduce azo dyes under anaerobic conditions. The results confirmed the capability of P. agglomerans S5-44 for extracellular electron transfer. The isolation of this acetate-utilizing, facultative EBA reveals the metabolic diversity of environmental bacteria. Such strains have great potential for environmental applications, especially at interfaces of aerobic and anaerobic environments, where acetate is the main available carbon source.

  12. Dynamic changes in single unit activity and γ oscillations in a thalamocortical circuit during rapid instrumental learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiu Yu

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and mediodorsal thalamus (MD together form a thalamocortical circuit that has been implicated in the learning and production of goal-directed actions. In this study we measured neural activity in both regions simultaneously, as rats learned to press a lever to earn food rewards. In both MD and mPFC, instrumental learning was accompanied by dramatic changes in the firing patterns of the neurons, in particular the rapid emergence of single-unit neural activity reflecting the completion of the action and reward delivery. In addition, we observed distinct patterns of changes in the oscillatory LFP response in MD and mPFC. With learning, there was a significant increase in theta band oscillations (6-10 Hz in the MD, but not in the mPFC. By contrast, gamma band oscillations (40-55 Hz increased in the mPFC, but not in the MD. Coherence between these two regions also changed with learning: gamma coherence in relation to reward delivery increased, whereas theta coherence did not. Together these results suggest that, as rats learned the instrumental contingency between action and outcome, the emergence of task related neural activity is accompanied by enhanced functional interaction between MD and mPFC in response to the reward feedback.

  13. Estrogen activates rapid signaling in the brain: role of estrogen receptor alpha and estrogen receptor beta in neurons and glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhyre, A J; Dorsa, D M

    2006-01-01

    The aging process is known to coincide with a decline in circulating sex hormone levels in both men and women. Due to an increase in the average lifespan, a growing number of post-menopausal women are now receiving hormone therapy for extended periods of time. Recent findings of the Women's Health Initiative, however, have called into question the benefits of long-term hormone therapy for treating symptoms of menopause. The results of this study are still being evaluated, but it is clear that a better understanding of the molecular effects of estradiol is needed in order to develop new estrogenic compounds that activate specific mechanisms but lack adverse side effects. Traditionally, the effects of estradiol treatment have been ascribed to changes in gene expression, namely transcription at estrogen response elements. This review focuses on emerging information that estradiol can also activate a repertoire of membrane-initiated signaling pathways and that these rapid signaling events lead to functional changes at the cellular level. The various types of cells in the brain can respond differently to estradiol treatment based on the signaling properties of the cell, as well as which receptor, estrogen receptor alpha and/or estrogen receptor beta, is expressed. Taken together, these findings suggest that the estradiol-induced activation of membrane-initiated signaling pathways occurs in a cell-type specific manner and can differentially influence how the cells respond to various insults.

  14. A CENSUS OF BROAD-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN NEARBY GALAXIES: COEVAL STAR FORMATION AND RAPID BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Fang, Jerome J.; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Kocevski, Dale D. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hsu, Alexander D. [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present the first quantified, statistical map of broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) frequency with host galaxy color and stellar mass in nearby (0.01 < z < 0.11) galaxies. Aperture photometry and z-band concentration measurements from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey are used to disentangle AGN and galaxy emission, resulting in estimates of uncontaminated galaxy rest-frame color, luminosity, and stellar mass. Broad-line AGNs are distributed throughout the blue cloud and green valley at a given stellar mass, and are much rarer in quiescent (red sequence) galaxies. This is in contrast to the published host galaxy properties of weaker narrow-line AGNs, indicating that broad-line AGNs occur during a different phase in galaxy evolution. More luminous broad-line AGNs have bluer host galaxies, even at fixed mass, suggesting that the same processes that fuel nuclear activity also efficiently form stars. The data favor processes that simultaneously fuel both star formation activity and rapid supermassive black hole accretion. If AGNs cause feedback on their host galaxies in the nearby universe, the evidence of galaxy-wide quenching must be delayed until after the broad-line AGN phase.

  15. Differential Activation of Medullary Vagal Nuclei Caused by Stimulation of Different Esophageal Mechanoreceptors

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Ivan M.; Medda, Bidyut K.; Shaker, Reza

    2010-01-01

    Esophageal mechanorecptors, i.e. muscular slowly adapting tension receptors and mucosal rapidly adapting touch receptors, mediate different sets of reflexes. The aim of this study was to determine the medullary vagal nuclei involved in the reflex responses to activation of these receptors. Thirty-three cats were anesthetized with alpha-chloralose and the esophagus was stimulated by slow balloon or rapid air distension. The physiological effects of the stimuli (N=4) were identified by recordin...

  16. Discovery and characteristics of the rapidly rotating active asteroid (62412) 2000 SY178 in the main belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Scott S. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Road. NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Trujillo, Chadwick, E-mail: ssheppard@carnegiescience.edu [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A‘ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We report a new active asteroid in the main belt of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter. Object (62412) 2000 SY178 exhibited a tail in images collected during our survey for objects beyond the Kuiper Belt using the Dark Energy Camera on the CTIO 4 m telescope. We obtained broadband colors of 62412 at the Magellan Telescope, which, along with 62412's low albedo, suggests it is a C-type asteroid. 62412's orbital dynamics and color strongly correlate with the Hygiea family in the outer main belt, making it the first active asteroid known in this heavily populated family. We also find 62412 to have a very short rotation period of 3.33 ± 0.01 hours from a double-peaked light curve with a maximum peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.45 ± 0.01 mag. We identify 62412 as the fastest known rotator of the Hygiea family and the nearby Themis family of similar composition, which contains several known main belt comets. The activity on 62412 was seen over one year after perihelion passage in its 5.6 year orbit. 62412 has the highest perihelion and one of the most circular orbits known for any active asteroid. The observed activity is probably linked to 62412's rapid rotation, which is near the critical period for break-up. The fast spin rate may also change the shape and shift material around 62412's surface, possibly exposing buried ice. Assuming 62412 is a strengthless rubble pile, we find the density of 62412 to be around 1500 kg m{sup −3}.

  17. Being active after a heart attack (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ... best activity when you start exercising after a heart attack. Start slowly, and increase the amount of time ...

  18. Estrogen Receptor β Activation Rapidly Modulates Male Sexual Motivation through the Transactivation of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredynski, Aurore L.; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the transcriptional activity of their liganded nuclear receptors, estrogens, such as estradiol (E2), modulate cell functions, and consequently physiology and behavior, within minutes through membrane-initiated events. The membrane-associated receptors (mERs) underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. We determined here, by acute intracerebroventricular injections of specific agonists and antagonists, the type(s) of mERs that modulate rapid effects of brain-derived estrogens on sexual motivation in male Japanese quail. Brain aromatase blockade acutely inhibited sexual motivation. Diarylpropionitrile (DPN), an estrogen receptor β (ERβ)-specific agonist, and to a lesser extent 17α-estradiol, possibly acting through ER-X, prevented this effect. In contrast, drugs targeting ERα (PPT and MPP), GPR30 (G1 and G15), and the Gq-mER (STX) did not affect sexual motivation. The mGluR1a antagonist LY367385 significantly inhibited sexual motivation but mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 antagonists were ineffective. LY367385 also blocked the behavioral restoration induced by E2 or DPN, providing functional evidence that ERβ interacts with metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a (mGluR1a) signaling to acutely regulate male sexual motivation. Together these results show that ERβ plays a key role in sexual behavior regulation and the recently uncovered cooperation between mERs and mGluRs is functional in males where it mediates the acute effects of estrogens produced centrally in response to social stimuli. The presence of an ER–mGluR interaction in birds suggests that this mechanism emerged relatively early in vertebrate history and is well conserved. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The membrane-associated receptors underlying the acute effects of estrogens on behavior have mostly been documented in females, where active estrogens are thought to be of ovarian origin. Using acute

  19. Baseline Levels of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep May Protect Against Excessive Activity in Fear-Related Neural Circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Itamar; Lupkin, Shira M; Sinha, Neha; Tsai, Alan; Gluck, Mark A

    2017-11-15

    Sleep, and particularly rapid eye movement sleep (REM), has been implicated in the modulation of neural activity following fear conditioning and extinction in both human and animal studies. It has long been presumed that such effects play a role in the formation and persistence of posttraumatic stress disorder, of which sleep impairments are a core feature. However, to date, few studies have thoroughly examined the potential effects of sleep prior to conditioning on subsequent acquisition of fear learning in humans. Furthermore, these studies have been restricted to analyzing the effects of a single night of sleep-thus assuming a state-like relationship between the two. In the current study, we used long-term mobile sleep monitoring and functional neuroimaging (fMRI) to explore whether trait-like variations in sleep patterns, measured in advance in both male and female participants, predict subsequent patterns of neural activity during fear learning. Our results indicate that higher baseline levels of REM sleep predict reduced fear-related activity in, and connectivity between, the hippocampus, amygdala and ventromedial PFC during conditioning. Additionally, skin conductance responses (SCRs) were weakly correlated to the activity in the amygdala. Conversely, there was no direct correlation between REM sleep and SCRs, indicating that REM may only modulate fear acquisition indirectly. In a follow-up experiment, we show that these results are replicable, though to a lesser extent, when measuring sleep over a single night just before conditioning. As such, baseline sleep parameters may be able to serve as biomarkers for resilience, or lack thereof, to trauma. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Numerous studies over the past two decades have established a clear role of sleep in fear-learning processes. However, previous work has focused on the effects of sleep following fear acquisition, thus neglecting the potential effects of baseline sleep levels on the acquisition itself. The

  20. [Slowly progressive dysarthria and impaired language function--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakajiri, K; Bandou, M; Yamanouchi, H; Ishii, K; Fukusako, Y

    1992-10-01

    A 68-year-old right-handed woman was admitted to Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital because of slowly progressive dysarthria and writing disability over 2-year period. On admission, severe dysarthria was observed, but no dysphagia. The dysarthria mostly resembled a type of pseudobulbar palsy, although it was associated with effortful speech production. An oro-facial apraxia was also found. She could name objects, and could understand spoken words correctly. Examination using the Western Aphasia Battery showed diminution of word fluency, impaired repetition and perseveration and writing errors. On the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-R verbal IQ was 100 and performance IQ was 87. These scores did not suggest any significant degree of general intellectual deterioration. Wisconsin card sorting test disclosed mild frontal dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging showed cortical atrophy in the bilateral frontal and temporal lobes. Measurements of regional cerebral metabolic rate by 18F-FDG-PET demonstrated decreased uptake in the latero-dorso-inferior area of the bilateral frontal lobes, especially on the left side. The present case showed slowly progressive dysarthria and progressive aphasia without generalized dementia, and without typical aphasia. These symptoms are speculated to be related to the atrophy in the bilateral frontal and temporal lobes shown by MRI and the decreased metabolic rate in the left dominant bilateral frontal lobes on PET study. The pathologic process responsible for these lesions remains obscure.

  1. Slowly progressive anarthria with late anterior opercular syndrome: a variant form of frontal cortical atrophy syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussolle, E; Bakchine, S; Tommasi, M; Laurent, B; Bazin, B; Cinotti, L; Cohen, L; Chazot, G

    1996-12-01

    We describe eight patients with slowly progressive speech production deficit combining speech apraxia, dysarthria, dysprosody and orofacial apraxia, and initially no other deficit in other language and non-language neuropsychological domains. Long-term follow-up (6-10 years) in 4 cases showed an evolution to muteness, bilateral suprabulbar paresis with automatic-voluntary dissociation and frontal lobe cognitive slowing without generalised intellectual deterioration. Most disabled patients presented with an anterior opercular syndrome (Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome), and pyramidal or extrapyramidal signs. CT and MRI findings disclosed asymmetric (left > right) progressive cortical atrophy of the frontal lobes predominating in the posterior inferior frontal region, notably the operculum. SPECT and PET revealed a decreased cerebral blood flow and metabolism, prominent in the left posterior-inferior frontal gyrus and premotor cortex, extending bilaterally in the most advanced cases. Pathological study of two cases showed non-specific neuronal loss, gliosis, and spongiosis of superficial cortical layers, mainly confined to the frontal lobes, with no significant abnormalities in the basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem (except severe neuronal loss in the substantia nigra in one case), and spinal cord. We propose to call this peculiar syndrome Slowly Progressive Anarthria (SPA), based on its specific clinical presentation, and its metabolic and pathological correlates. SPA represents another clinical expression of focal cortical degeneration syndromes, that may overlap with other similar syndromes, specially primary progressive aphasia and the various frontal lobe dementias.

  2. Relative Attitude Estimation for a Uniform Motion and Slowly Rotating Noncooperative Spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel relative attitude estimation approach for a uniform motion and slowly rotating noncooperative spacecraft. It is assumed that the uniform motion and slowly rotating noncooperative chief spacecraft is in failure or out of control and there is no a priori rotation rate information. We utilize a very fast binary descriptor based on binary robust independent elementary features (BRIEF to obtain the features of the target, which are rotational invariance and resistance to noise. And then, we propose a novel combination of single candidate random sample consensus (RANSAC with extended Kalman filter (EKF that makes use of the available prior probabilistic information from the EKF in the RANSAC model hypothesis stage. The advantage of this combination obviously reduces the sample size to only one, which results in large computational savings without the loss of accuracy. Experimental results from real image sequence of a real model target show that the relative angular error is about 3.5% and the mean angular velocity error is about 0.1 deg/s.

  3. Eating slowly led to decreases in energy intake within meals in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana M; Greene, Geoffrey W; Melanson, Kathleen J

    2008-07-01

    Although reducing eating rate is frequently advocated for control of food intake and thus body weight, empirical evidence is extremely limited and inconsistent. We sought to compare the impact of slow and quick eating rates on development of satiation in healthy women. In a randomized design, 30 healthy women (22.9+/-7.1 years; body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 22.1+/-2.9) were studied on two test visits to compare slow and quick eating rates. Satiation was examined as the main outcome, using the objective measure of energy intake during ad libitum meals. At designated times, subjects also rated perceived hunger, satiety, desire to eat, thirst and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Slow rates of ingestion led to significant decreases in energy intake (quick: 645.7+/-155.9 kcal; slow: 579.0+/-154.7 kcal; Penergy intake upon meal completion under the quick condition, satiety was significantly lower than the slow condition (Penergy intake was lower when the meal was eaten slowly, and satiety was higher at meal completion. Although more study is needed, these data suggest that eating slowly may help to maximize satiation and reduce energy intake within meals.

  4. LH Dynamics in Overweight Girls with Premature Adrenarche and Slowly Progressive Sexual Precocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenfield RobertL

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Excess adiposity and premature adrenarche (PA are risk factors for the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods. Girls with slowly progressive precocious breast development, who were overweight and had PA (SPPOPA, 6.2–8.2 years, , overweight PA (6.6–10.8 years, , and overweight premenarcheal controls (OW-PUB, 10.6–12.8 years, underwent hormonal sleep testing and GnRH agonist (GnRHag and ACTH tests. Results. Despite an insignificant sleep-related increase in LH and prepubertal baseline hormone levels, SPPOPA peak LH and estradiol responses to GnRHag were intermediate between those of PA and OW-PUB, the LH being significantly different from both. Conclusions. GnRHag tests indicate that SPPOPA is a slowly progressive form of true puberty with blunted LH dynamics. These results argue against the prepubertal hyperandrogenism of excess adiposity or PA enhancing LH secretion or causing ovarian hyperandrogenism prior to menarche. Excess adiposity may contribute to both the early onset and slow progression of puberty.

  5. Model for analyzing growth kinetics of a slowly growing Mycobacterium sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrecht, R.S.; Carriere, J.F.; Collins, M.T.

    1988-04-01

    This report describes a simple method for quantifying viable mycobacteria and for determining generation time. We used statistical models and computer analysis of growth curves generated for the slowly growing mycobacterium Mycobacterium paratuberculosis under controlled conditions to derive a mathematical formula relating the dependent variable, growth, to the independent variables, log10 number of organisms in the inoculum (inoculum size) and incubation time. Growth was measured by a radiometric method which detects /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ release during metabolism of a /sup 14/C-labeled substrate. The radiometric method allowed for early detection of growth and detected as few as three viable bacteria. The coefficient of variation between culture vials inoculated with the same number of M. paratuberculosis was 0.083. Radiometric measurements were highly correlated to spectrophotometric and plate count methods for measuring growth (r = 0.962 and 0.992, respectively). The proportion of the total variability explained by the model in a goodness of fit test was 0.9994. Application of the model to broth cultures provided accurate estimates of the number of M. paratuberculosis (standard error = 0.21, log10 scale) and the growth rate (coefficient of variation, 0.03). Generation time was observed to be dependent upon the number of organisms in the inoculum. The model accurately described all phases of growth of M. paratuberculosis and can likely be applied to other slowly growing microorganisms.

  6. A Search for slowly moving planets in the distant Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Edward; Jones, R.; Krughoff, K. Simon; Kavelaars, J. J.; Gladman, Brett

    2016-10-01

    Objects beyond several hundred AU from the Sun move so slowly that even at opposition their tiny apparent sky motions result in them not being detected in common search algorithms applied to imaging spaced at roughly hourly intervals. We are searching roughly 160 square degrees of imaging data from the Outer Solar System Origins Survey (OSSOS) running on CFHT, which has a usable multi-night cadence. In that data, objects beyond about 300 AU appear to be stationary (within tolerances) on the sky on a given 2 hour period, but will move between days. Our search will thus be senstive to objects in the 300-1000 AU distance range (with rough corresponding minimum diameters, respectively, of 2,000-30,000 km). This will be acheived by creating catalogue of sources that are stationary in three images spaced an hour apart (known as a triplet) and matching it in catalogues of sources in nights that are up to two months either side of the triplet. Absence outside the triplet night yields candidates that could be very slowly moving planetary scale objects. Obviously dozens of planets are needed in the 300-1000 AU distance range if the expected number of found planets is one. We report our progress in this effort.

  7. Preparation and slowly digestible properties of β-cyclodextrins (β-CDs)-modified starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Jinling; Tian, Yaoqi; Tong, Qunyi

    2013-01-16

    The β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-, maltosyl-β-CD (Mal-β-CD)- and hydroxypropyl-β-CD (HP-β-CD)-modified rice starches were prepared and their slowly digestible properties were estimated. The results showed that β-CD, Mal-β-CD and HP-β-CD significantly increased the slow digestibility of β-CDs-modified starches (Pdigestible starch (SDS) was 52.1% when β-CD was used as a denaturant (β-CD, 3%; water, 80%; and equilibrium temperature, 25°C). This higher SDS yield was probably attributed to the better compatibility of β-CD and starch molecules. Furthermore, β-CD-, Mal-β-CD- and HP-β-CD-modified starches generated slowly digestible curves during enzymatic digestion and showed the intermediate predicted glycemic indexes (pGI) of 58.7, 69.1 and 70.3, respectively. These findings suggest that the β-CDs-induced modification is one of promising techniques for preparing the SDS products in food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Slowly progressive fluent aphasia; Clinical features and an imaging study including MRI, SPECT and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Momose, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Iwata, Makoto (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Bando, Mitsuaki

    1991-05-01

    Three patients with slowly progressive fluent aphasia are reported. One of the patients presented with memory disturbance. They were characterized clinically by having selective deficits in vocabulary, which resulted in impairment of confrontation naming, and auditory comprehension. MRI showed an atrophy not only in the left temporal lobe (including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri), hippocampus, parahippocampual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, but also in the left parietal lobe. I-123 IMP SPECT and F-18 FDG PET were used to determine regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral metabolic rate, respectively. In addition to the decreased tracer uptake in the left temporal and/or parietal lobe, a decreased uptake was seen in the bilateral basal ganglia, the inner side of the temporal lobe (including the bilateral hippocampus), the right anterior temporal lobe, and the left thalamus. These findings may deny the previous thought that lesions are localized in slowly progressive fluent aphasia. Furthermore, noticeable difficulty in naming, i.e., patients unable to recognize the right answer, are considered attributable to widespread lesions from the whole left temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, to the right temporal lobe. (N.K.).

  9. Dynamics of a slowly evaporating solvent-polymer mixture with a deformable upper surface

    KAUST Repository

    Hennessy, M. G.

    2014-06-17

    This paper examines how surface deformations affect the stability of a slowly evaporating solvent-polymer mixture. The destabilizing effect of surface-tension variations arising from evaporation-induced concentration gradients and the counteracting influence of mean gravity and surface tension are incorporated into the mathematical model. A linear stability analysis that takes advantage of the separation between the characteristic time scales of the slowly evolving base state and the perturbations is carried out in combination with numerical solutions of the linearized system. It is shown that the onset of instability can occur for Marangoni numbers that are much lower than the critical value for a non-deformable surface. Moreover, two types of Marangoni instabilities appear in the system: one is associated with the traditional stationary instability, and the other is an oscillatory instability that is not present for a non-deformable liquid surface. A region of the parameter space where the oscillatory instability dominates is identified and used to formulate appropriate conditions for future experiments. © 2014 The authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid eye movement (REM sleep deprivation reduces rat frontal cortex acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7 activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camarini R.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement (REM sleep deprivation induces several behavioral changes. Among these, a decrease in yawning behavior produced by low doses of cholinergic agonists is observed which indicates a change in brain cholinergic neurotransmission after REM sleep deprivation. Acetylcholinesterase (Achase controls acetylcholine (Ach availability in the synaptic cleft. Therefore, altered Achase activity may lead to a change in Ach availability at the receptor level which, in turn, may result in modification of cholinergic neurotransmission. To determine if REM sleep deprivation would change the activity of Achase, male Wistar rats, 3 months old, weighing 250-300 g, were deprived of REM sleep for 96 h by the flower-pot technique (N = 12. Two additional groups, a home-cage control (N = 6 and a large platform control (N = 6, were also used. Achase was measured in the frontal cortex using two different methods to obtain the enzyme activity. One method consisted of the obtention of total (900 g supernatant, membrane-bound (100,000 g pellet and soluble (100,000 g supernatant Achase, and the other method consisted of the obtention of a fraction (40,000 g pellet enriched in synaptic membrane-bound enzyme. In both preparations, REM sleep deprivation induced a significant decrease in rat frontal cortex Achase activity when compared to both home-cage and large platform controls. REM sleep deprivation induced a significant decrease of 16% in the membrane-bound Achase activity (nmol thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 in the 100,000 g pellet enzyme preparation (home-cage group 152.1 ± 5.7, large platform group 152.7 ± 24.9 and REM sleep-deprived group 127.9 ± 13.8. There was no difference in the soluble enzyme activity. REM sleep deprivation also induced a significant decrease of 20% in the enriched synaptic membrane-bound Achase activity (home-cage group 126.4 ± 21.5, large platform group 127.8 ± 20.4, REM sleep-deprived group 102.8 ± 14.2. Our results

  11. Development of a rapid soil water content detection technique using active infrared thermal methods for in-field applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Francesca; Pallottino, Federico; Costa, Corrado; Rimatori, Valentina; Giorgi, Stefano; Papetti, Patrizia; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s). To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory-based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%). The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information on soil heterogeneity.

  12. Development of a Rapid Soil Water Content Detection Technique Using Active Infrared Thermal Methods for In-Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pallottino

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s. To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory–based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%. The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information

  13. Enhancement of Lipase Enzyme Activity in Non-Aqueous Media through a Rapid Three Phase Partitioning and Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saifuddin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three phase partitioning is fast developing as a novel bio-separation strategy with a wide range of applications including enzyme stability and enhancement of its catalytic activity. pH tuning of enzyme is now well known for use in non-aqueous systems. Tuned enzyme was prepared using a rapid drying technique of microwave dehydration (time required around 15 minutes. Further enhancement was achieved by three phase partitioning (TPP method. With optimal condition of ammonium sulphate and t-butanol, the protein appeared as an interfacial precipitate between upper t-butanol and lower aqueous phases. In this study we report the results on the lipase which has been subjected to pH tuning and TPP, which clearly indicate the remarkable increase in the initial rate of transesterification by 3.8 times. Microwave irradiation was found to increase the initial reaction rates by further 1.6 times, hence giving a combined increase in activity of about 5.4 times. Hence it is shown that microwave irradiation can be used in conjunction with other strategies (like pH tuning and TPP for enhancing initial reaction rates.

  14. A Rapid Review of the Factors Affecting Healthcare Students' Satisfaction with Small-Group, Active Learning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, James M; Grundy, Lisa; Monrouxe, Lynn V

    2016-01-01

    PHENOMENON: Problem-based learning (PBL) and other small-group, active learning methodologies have been widely adopted into undergraduate and postgraduate healthcare curricula across the world. Although much research has examined student perceptions of these innovative teaching pedagogies, there are still questions over which factors influence these views. This article aims to identify these key elements that affect healthcare student satisfaction with PBL and other small-group learning methods, including case-based and team-based learning. A systematic rapid review method was used to identify high-quality original research papers from the healthcare education literature from between 2009 and 2014. All papers were critically appraised before inclusion in line with published guidelines. Narrative synthesis was achieved using an inductively developed, thematic framework approach. Fifty-four papers were included in the narrative synthesis. The evidence suggests that, despite an initial period of negative emotion and anxiety, the perspectives of healthcare students toward small-group, active learning methods are generally positive. The key factors influencing this satisfaction level include (a) the facilitator role, (b) tutorial structure, (c) individual student factors, (d) case authenticity, (e) increased feedback, (f) group harmony, and (g) resource availability. Insights: Student satisfaction is an important determinant of healthcare education quality, and the findings of this review may be of value in future curriculum design. The evidence described here suggests that an ideal curriculum may be based on an expert-led, hybrid PBL model.

  15. A rapid method for testing in vivo the susceptibility of different strains of Trypanosoma cruzi to active chemotherapeutic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leny S. Filardi

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available A method is described which permits to determine in vivo an in a short period of time (4-6 hours the sensitivity of T. cruzo strains to known active chemotherapeutic agents. By using resistant- and sensitive T. cruzi stains a fairly good correlation was observed between the results obtained with this rapid method (which detects activity against the circulating blood forms and those obtained with long-term schedules which involve drug adminstration for at least 20 consecutive days and a prolonged period of assessment. This method may be used to characterize susceptibility to active drugs used clinically, provide infomation on the specific action against circulating trypomastigotes and screen active compounds. Differences in the natural susceptibility of Trypanosoma cruzi strains to active drugs have been already reported using different criteria, mostly demanding long-term study of the animal (Hauschka, 1949; Bock, Gonnert & Haberkorn, 1969; Brener, Costa & Chiari, 1976; Andrade & Figueira, 1977; Schlemper, 1982. In this paper we report a method which detects in 4-6 hours the effect of drugs on bloodstream forms in mice with established T. cruzi infections. The results obtained with this method show a fairly good correlation with those obtained by prolonged treatment schedules used to assess the action of drugs in experimental Chagas' disease and may be used to study the sensitivity of T. cruzi strains to active drugs.No presente trabalho descreve-se um metodo que permite determinar in vivo e em curto espaço de tempo (4-6 horas a sensibilidade de cepas de T. cruzi a agentes terapeuticos ativos na doença de Chagas. Usando-se cepas sensíveis e resistentes aos medicamentos foi possível observar uma boa correlação entre os resultados obtidos com o método rápido (que detecta atividade contra as formas circulantes do parasita e aqueles obtidos com esquema de acao prolongada que envolve a administração da droga por 20 dias e posterior avalia

  16. On homogenization of stokes flow in slowly varying media with applications to fluid–structure interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald L.

    2011-09-11

    In this paper we establish corrector estimates for Stokes flow in slowly varying perforated media via two scale asymptotic analysis. Current methods and techniques are often not able to deal with changing geometries prevalent in applied problems. For example, in a deformable porous medium environment, the geometry does not remain periodic under mechanical deformation and if slow variation in the geometry occurs. For such problems, one cannot use classical homogenization results directly and new homogenization results and estimates are needed. Our work uses asymptotic techniques of Marusic-Paloka and Mikelic (Bollettino U. M. I 7:661-671, 1996) where the authors constructed a downscaled velocity which converges to the fine-scale velocity at a rate of ε1/6 where ε is the characteristic length scale. We assume a slowly varying porous medium and study homogenization and corrector estimates for the Stokes equations. Slowly varying media arise, e. g., in fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems (Popov et al. in Iterative upscaling of flows in deformable porous media, 2008), carbonation of porous concrete (Peter in C. R. Mecanique 335:357-362, 2007a; C. R. Mecanique 335:679-684, 2007b), and various other multiphysics processes. To homogenize Stokes flows in such media we restate the cell problems of Marusic-Paloka and Mikelic (Bollettino U. M. I 7:661-671, 1996) in a moving RVE framework. Further, to recover the same convergence properties it is necessary to solve an additional cell problem and add one more corrector term to the downscaled velocity. We further extend the framework of Marusic-Paloka and Mikelic (Bollettino U. M. I 7:661-671, 1996) to three spatial dimensions in both periodic and variable pore-space cases. Next, we also propose an efficient algorithm for computing the correctors by solving a limited number of cell problems at selected spatial locations. We present two computational examples: one for a constructed medium of elliptical perforations, and

  17. An Efficient Hierarchical Multiscale Finite Element Method for Stokes Equations in Slowly Varying Media

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of fluid flow in porous media with many scales is often not feasible, and an effective or homogenized description is more desirable. To construct the homogenized equations, effective properties must be computed. Computation of effective properties for nonperiodic microstructures can be prohibitively expensive, as many local cell problems must be solved for different macroscopic points. In addition, the local problems may also be computationally expensive. When the microstructure varies slowly, we develop an efficient numerical method for two scales that achieves essentially the same accuracy as that for the full resolution solve of every local cell problem. In this method, we build a dense hierarchy of macroscopic grid points and a corresponding nested sequence of approximation spaces. Essentially, solutions computed in high accuracy approximation spaces at select points in the the hierarchy are used as corrections for the error of the lower accuracy approximation spaces at nearby macroscopic points. We give a brief overview of slowly varying media and formal Stokes homogenization in such domains. We present a general outline of the algorithm and list reasonable and easily verifiable assumptions on the PDEs, geometry, and approximation spaces. With these assumptions, we achieve the same accuracy as the full solve. To demonstrate the elements of the proof of the error estimate, we use a hierarchy of macro-grid points in [0, 1]2 and finite element (FE) approximation spaces in [0, 1]2. We apply this algorithm to Stokes equations in a slowly porous medium where the microstructure is obtained from a reference periodic domain by a known smooth map. Using the arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE) formulation of the Stokes equations (cf. [G. P. Galdi and R. Rannacher, Fundamental Trends in Fluid-Structure Interaction, Contemporary Challenges in Mathematical Fluid Dynamics and Its Applications 1, World Scientific, Singapore, 2010]), we obtain

  18. Rapid Assessment of Distribution of Wildlife and Human Activities for Prioritizing Conservation Actions in a Patagonian Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Lorena F; Novaro, Andrés J; Funes, Martín C; Walker, R Susan

    2015-01-01

    Large landscapes encompassing reserves and areas with other human uses are necessary for conservation of many species. Generating information for conservation planning over such landscapes may be expensive and time-consuming, though resources for conservation are generally limited and conservation is often urgent. We developed a sign-based occupancy survey to help prioritize conservation interventions by simultaneously assessing the distribution of 3 species, the lesser rhea, guanaco, and mara, and their association with human activities in a 20,000-km2 landscape in the northern Patagonian steppe. We used a single-season occupancy model with spatial rather than temporal replication of surveys in order to reduce costs of multiple visits to sites. We used covariates related to detectability, environmental factors, and different human activities to identify the most plausible models of occupancy, and calculated importance weights of covariates from these models to evaluate relative impacts of human activities on each species. Abundance of goats had the strongest negative association with lesser rheas and guanacos, and road density with maras. With six months of fieldwork, our results provided initial hypotheses for adaptive conservation interventions for each species. Addressing high livestock densities for rheas and guanacos, poaching by urban hunters for all three species, and hunting by rural people for rheas are priorities for conservation in this landscape. Our methodology provided new insights into the responses of these species, although low detection probabilities for maras indicate that the sampling scheme should be altered for future monitoring of this species. This method may be adapted for any large landscape where a rapid, objective means for prioritizing conservation actions on multiple species is needed and data are scarce.

  19. Rapid synthesis of biocompatible silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Rosa damascena petals and evaluation of their anticancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Balaji; Subramanian, Vimala; Tumala, Anusha; Vellaichamy, Elangovan

    2014-09-01

    To optimize the process parameters involved in the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (G-SNPs) by aqueous extract of Rosa damascena petals and to evaluate the biocompatibility and anti cancer activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles against human lung adenocarcinoma (A549). The process variables that include concentration of extract, mixing ratio of reactants, silver salt concentration and interaction time were analyzed. The compatibility of the G-SNPs was verified by incubating with erythrocytes and the anticancer property of the G-SNPs against A549 cells was performed by MTT assay. Formation of G-SNPs was confirmed by the visual change in the colour of the reaction mixture from pale yellow to brown yellow. Surface plasmon resonance of synthesized G-SNPs was observed at 420 nm; the size of G-SNPs were analyzed by DLS and found to be in the range of (84.00±10.08) nm. Field emission scanning electron microscope and high resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis confirmed that the G-SNPs were fairly spherical. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed the characteristic peaks of G-SNPs. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed a signal of silver around 3 keV. The synthesized G-SNPs exhibited anticancer activity as evidenced by the MTT assay. IC50 value of G-SNPs was found to be 80 μg/mL. The results of the present study suggest that G-SNPs can be synthesized rapidly within first minute of the reaction; they are biocompatible and possess anticancer activity against human lung adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ship-borne measurements of microbial enzymatic activity: A rapid biochemical indicator for microbial water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Loken, Luke; Crawford, John; Schramm, Paul; Sorsa, Kirsti; Kuhn, Catherine; Savio, Domenico; Striegl, Rob; Butman, David; Stanley, Emily; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Zessner, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Contamination of aquatic ecosystems by human and animal wastes is a global concern for water quality. Disclosing fate and transport processes of fecal indicator organism (FIO) in large water bodies is a big challenge due to material intensive and time consuming methods used in microbiological water quality monitoring. In respect of utilization of large surface water resources there is a dearth of rapid microbiological methods that allow a near-real time health related water quality monitoring to be implemented into early warning systems. The detection of enzymatic activities has been proposed as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water and water resources (Cabral, 2010; Farnleitner et al., 2001, 2002). Methods such as the beta-D-Glucuronidase assay (GLUC), targeting FIO such as E. coli, were established. New automated enzymatic assays have been implemented during the last years into on-site monitoring stations, ranging from ground- to surface waters (Ryzinska-Paier et al., 2014; Stadler et al., 2017, 2016). While these automated enzymatic methods cannot completely replace assays for culture-based FIO enumeration, they yielded significant information on pollution events and temporal dynamics on a catchment specific basis, but were restricted to stationary measurements. For the first time we conducted ship-borne and automated measurements of enzymatic GLUC activity on large fresh water bodies, including the Columbia River, the Mississippi River and Lake Mendota. Not only are automated enzymatic assays technically feasible from a mobile vessel, but also can be used to localize point sources of potential microbial fecal contamination, such as tributaries or storm drainages. Spatial and temporal patterns of enzymatic activity were disclosed and the habitat specific correlation with microbiological standard assays for FIO determined due to reference samples. The integration of rapid and automated enzymatic assays into well-established systems

  1. Sterilization in a liquid of a specific starch makes it slowly digestible in vitro and low glycemic in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severijnen, Chantal; Abrahamse, Evan; van der Beek, Eline M; Buco, Amra; van de Heijning, Bert J M; van Laere, Katrien; Bouritius, Hetty

    2007-10-01

    Diabetics are recommended to eat a balanced diet containing normal amounts of carbohydrates, preferably those with a low glycemic index. For solid foods, this can be achieved by choosing whole-grain, fiber-rich products. For (sterilized) liquid products, such as meal replacers, the choices for carbohydrate sources are restricted due to technological limitations. Starches usually have a high glycemic index after sterilization in liquids, whereas low glycemic sugars and sugar replacers can only be used in limited amounts. Using an in vitro digestion assay, we identified a resistant starch (RS) source [modified high amylose starch (mHAS)] that might enable the production of a sterilized liquid product with a low glycemic index. Heating mHAS for 4-5 min in liquid increased the slowly digestible starch (SDS) fraction at the expense of the RS portion. The effect was temperature dependent and reached its maximum above 120 degrees C. Heating at 130 degrees C significantly reduced the RS fraction from 49 to 22%. The product remained stable for at least several months when stored at 4 degrees C. To investigate whether a higher SDS fraction would result in a lower postprandial glycemic response, the sterilized mHAS solution was compared with rapidly digestible maltodextrin. Male Wistar rats received an i.g. bolus of 2.0 g available carbohydrate/kg body weight. Ingestion of heat-treated mHAS resulted in a significant attenuation of the postprandial plasma glucose and insulin responses compared with maltodextrin. mHAS appears to be a starch source which, after sterilization in a liquid product, acquires slow-release properties. The long-term stability of mHAS solutions indicates that this may provide a suitable carbohydrate source for low glycemic index liquid products for inclusion in a diabetes-specific diet.

  2. Flow of an elastico-viscous liquid in a curved pipe of slowly varying curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, V B

    1993-03-01

    Curvature forms an important feature of thoracic aorta and this paper deals with the flow of an idealized elastico-viscous liquid in a curved pipe of circular cross-section and slowly varying curvature, under a pressure gradient. The flow is assumed to be steady and at low Reynolds numbers. By using the series expansion method of Dean (Phil Mag 4 (1927) 208-223; Phil Mag 5 (1928) 673-693) in powers of a parameter L, which can be considered as the square of ratio of the centrifugal force induced by the circular motion of the fluid to the viscous force, it is shown that in a tube of increasing curvature, there will be delay in setting up of the secondary motion. The wall shear stress, an important parameter in physiological flows, is calculated. The flow of Newtonian fluid in a tube of circular cross section is discussed, as a particular case.

  3. Dynamical bifurcation in a system of coupled oscillators with slowly varying parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Parasyuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a fast-slow system representing n nonlinearly coupled oscillators with slowly varying parameters. We find conditions which guarantee that all omega-limit sets near the slow surface of the system are equilibria and invariant tori of all dimensions not exceeding n, the tori of dimensions less then n being hyperbolic. We show that a typical trajectory demonstrates the following transient process: while its slow component is far from the stationary points of the slow vector field, the fast component exhibits damping oscillations; afterwards, the former component enters and stays in a small neighborhood of some stationary point, and the oscillation amplitude of the latter begins to increase; eventually the trajectory is attracted by an n-dimesional invariant torus and a multi-frequency oscillatory regime is established.

  4. The evolved slowly pulsating B star 18 Peg: A testbed for upper main sequence stellar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrgang, A.; De Cat, P.; Tkachenko, A.; Deshpande, A.; Moehler, S.; Mugrauer, M.; Janousch, D.

    2017-09-01

    The bright B3 III giant star 18 Peg turns out to be a slowly pulsating B star in a long period binary with a main-sequence star or a neutron star as companion. Given that it is one of the most evolved members of this class of massive pulsating stars, an accurate determination of the location of 18 Peg in the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram would provide a lower limit on the width of the upper main sequence and hence would reveal information about the efficiency of the convective overshooting. We explain why long-term space-based observations are needed and how BRITE could play a crucial role in the gathering of the mandatory ingredients to test the models of the upper main sequence evolution.

  5. Slowly decaying resonances of massive scalar fields around Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshmatov, Bobir; Stuchlík, Zdeněk

    2017-07-01

    We study in special limiting cases quasinormal modes of massive scalar fields in the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole backgrounds. We determine the lower limit on the mass parameter of the scalar field that allows the waves with quasinormal frequencies to propagate to infinity, showing that it depends on the spacetime parameters only. Then we discuss in the large multipole number limit quasinormal modes, whose frequencies can be directly related to the unstable circular photon geodesics. In the large scalar mass approximation, we demonstrate the new interesting phenomenon of slowly decaying resonances, that are strongly related to the maximum of the effective potential of the massive scalar field, which is located at the static radius of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetimes, where the cosmic repulsion is just balanced by the black hole attraction.

  6. Escape time from potential wells of strongly nonlinear oscillators with slowly varying parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Jianping

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of negative damping to an oscillatory system is to force the amplitude to increase gradually and the motion will be out of the potential well of the oscillatory system eventually. In order to deduce the escape time from the potential well of quadratic or cubic nonlinear oscillator, the multiple scales method is firstly used to obtain the asymptotic solutions of strongly nonlinear oscillators with slowly varying parameters, and secondly the character of modulus of Jacobian elliptic function is applied to derive the equations governing the escape time. The approximate potential method, instead of Taylor series expansion, is used to approximate the potential of an oscillation system such that the asymptotic solution can be expressed in terms of Jacobian elliptic function. Numerical examples verify the efficiency of the present method.

  7. Decoherence approach to energy transfer and work done by slowly driven systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-ge

    2018-01-01

    A main problem, which is met when computing the energy transfer of or work done by a quantum system, comes from the fact that the system may lie in states with coherence in its energy eigenstates. As is well known, when the so-called environment-induced decoherence has happened with respect to a preferred basis given by the energy basis, no coherence exists among the energy basis and the energy change of the system can be computed in a definite way. I argue that one may make use of this property, in the search for an appropriate definition of quantum work for a total system that does not include any measuring apparatus. To show how this idea may work, in this paper, I study decoherence properties of a generic slowly driven system, which is weakly coupled to a huge environment whose main body is a complex quantum system. It is shown that decoherence may generically happen for such a system.

  8. Pinning, de-pinning and re-pinning of a slowly varying rivulet

    KAUST Repository

    Paterson, C.

    2013-09-01

    The solutions for the unidirectional flow of a thin rivulet with prescribed volume flux down an inclined planar substrate are used to describe the locally unidirectional flow of a rivulet with constant width (i.e. pinned contact lines) but slowly varying contact angle as well as the possible pinning and subsequent de-pinning of a rivulet with constant contact angle and the possible de-pinning and subsequent re-pinning of a rivulet with constant width as they flow in the azimuthal direction from the top to the bottom of a large horizontal cylinder. Despite being the same locally, the global behaviour of a rivulet with constant width can be very different from that of a rivulet with constant contact angle. In particular, while a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle can always run from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, the behaviour of a rivulet with constant width depends on the value of the width. Specifically, while a narrow rivulet can run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, a wide rivulet can run from the top of the cylinder only to a critical azimuthal angle. The scenario in which the hitherto pinned contact lines of the rivulet de-pin at the critical azimuthal angle and the rivulet runs from the critical azimuthal angle to the bottom of the cylinder with zero contact angle but slowly varying width is discussed. The pinning and de-pinning of a rivulet with constant contact angle, and the corresponding situation involving the de-pinning and re-pinning of a rivulet with constant width at a non-zero contact angle which generalises the de-pinning at zero contact angle discussed earlier, are described. In the latter situation, the mass of fluid on the cylinder is found to be a monotonically increasing function of the constant width. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Mycobacterium talmoniae sp. nov., a slowly growing mycobacterium isolated from human respiratory samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca M; DeGroote, Mary Ann; Marola, Jamie L; Buss, Sarah; Jones, Victoria; McNeil, Michael R; Freifeld, Alison G; Elaine Epperson, L; Hasan, Nabeeh A; Jackson, Mary; Iwen, Peter C; Salfinger, Max; Strong, Michael

    2017-08-01

    A novel slowly growing, non-chromogenic species of the class Actinobacteria was isolated from a human respiratory sample in Nebraska, USA, in 2012. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequence supported placement into the genus Mycobacterium with high sequence similarity to a previously undescribed strain isolated from a patient respiratory sample from Oregon, USA, held in a collection in Colorado, USA, in 2000. The two isolates were subjected to phenotypic testing and whole genome sequencing and found to be indistinguishable. The bacteria were acid-fast stain-positive, rod-shaped and exhibited growth after 7-10 days on solid media at temperatures ranging from 25 to 42°C. Colonies were non-pigmented, rough and slightly raised. Analyses of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight profiles showed no matches against a reference library of 130 mycobacterial species. Full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical for the two isolates, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) between their genomes was 99.7 % and phylogenetic comparisons classified the novel mycobacteria as the basal most species in the slowly growing Mycobacterium clade. Mycobacterium avium is the most closely related species based on rpoB gene sequence similarity (92 %), but the ANI between the genomes was 81.5 %, below the suggested cut-off for differentiating two species (95 %). Mycolic acid profiles were more similar to M. avium than to Mycobacterium simiae or Mycobacterium abscessus. The phenotypic and genomic data support the conclusion that the two related isolates represent a novel Mycobacterium species for which the name Mycobacterium talmoniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NE-TNMC-100812T (=ATCC BAA-2683T=DSM 46873T).

  10. Rapid Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles by the Extracellular Secretion of Bacillus niabensis 45: Characterization and Antibiofilm Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrated that the extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs using B. niabensis 45 may be mediated by a cyclic peptide (P2. The molecular weight of P2 was determined to be about 1122 Da by MALDI-TOF-MS and ESI-MS. A novel protocol for rapid biosynthesis of GNPs using P2 was developed. The results showed that GNP synthesis could be completed in a wide range of temperatures (40–100°C and pH (6.0–10.0 within few minutes when 9 mL of P2 (2 mg/mL and 1 mL of HAuCl4 solution (2 mM were mixed together. The synthesized GNPs were further characterized. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis confirmed the presence of elemental gold and crystalline structure of the GNPs, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed the formation of spherical metallic GNPs. The size distribution of GNPs calculated using ImageJ software was found to be 10–20 nm. And these GNPs showed excellent antibiofilm activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923. The results revealed microbial cyclic peptides could be used as synthesis of GNPs which had potent antibiofilm potential.

  11. HIV-1 Tat activates neuronal ryanodine receptors with rapid induction of the unfolded protein response and mitochondrial hyperpolarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Norman

    Full Text Available Neurologic disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 is ultimately refractory to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART because of failure of complete virus eradication in the central nervous system (CNS, and disruption of normal neural signaling events by virally induced chronic neuroinflammation. We have previously reported that HIV-1 Tat can induce mitochondrial hyperpolarization in cortical neurons, thus compromising the ability of the neuron to buffer calcium and sustain energy production for normal synaptic communication. In this report, we demonstrate that Tat induces rapid loss of ER calcium mediated by the ryanodine receptor (RyR, followed by the unfolded protein response (UPR and pathologic dilatation of the ER in cortical neurons in vitro. RyR antagonism attenuated both Tat-mediated mitochondrial hyperpolarization and UPR induction. Delivery of Tat to murine CNS in vivo also leads to long-lasting pathologic ER dilatation and mitochondrial morphologic abnormalities. Finally, we performed ultrastructural studies that demonstrated mitochondria with abnormal morphology and dilated endoplasmic reticulum (ER in brain tissue of patients with HIV-1 inflammation and neurodegeneration. Collectively, these data suggest that abnormal RyR signaling mediates the neuronal UPR with failure of mitochondrial energy metabolism, and is a critical locus for the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 in the CNS.

  12. Nebulization of active pharmaceutical ingredients with the eFlow(®) rapid: impact of formulation variables on aerodynamic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Prüfer, Nadine; Oesterheld, Nina; Seeger, Werner; Schmehl, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Nebulization of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) solutions is a well-established means to achieve pulmonary drug deposition. The current study identified the impact of formulation variables on the aerosolization performance of the eFlow(®) rapid with special respect to optimized lung application. API formulations (including excipient-supplemented samples) were investigated for physicochemical properties, then nebulized using vibrating-mesh technology. The generated aerosol clouds were analyzed by laser diffraction. Aerosol deposition characteristics in the human respiratory tract were estimated using an algebraic model. Remarkable effects on aerosolization performance [i.e., mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD)] of API solutions were obtained when the sample conductivity (by API concentration and type, sodium chloride addition) and dynamic viscosity (by application of sucrose and poly(ethylene glycol) 200) were elevated. A similar influence was observed for a decline in surface tension (by ethanol addition). Thus, a defined adjustment of formulation parameters allowed for a decrease of the MMAD from ∼ 8.0 μm to values as small as ∼ 3.5 μm. Consequently, the pattern and efficiency of aerosol deposition in the human respiratory tract were improved. In conclusion, identification of physicochemical variables and their way of influencing vibrating-mesh nebulization has been provided to deliver a platform for tailoring aerosol characteristics and thus, advancing pulmonary therapy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  13. Photosynthetic activity and proteomic analysis highlights the utilization of atmospheric CO2 by Ulva prolifera (Chlorophyta) for rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Li; Gu, Wenhui; Gao, Shan; Wang, Guangce

    2016-12-01

    Free-floating Ulva prolifera is one of the causative species of green tides. When green tides occur, massive mats of floating U. prolifera thalli accumulate rapidly in surface waters with daily growth rates as high as 56%. The upper thalli of the mats experience environmental changes such as the change in carbon source, high salinity, and desiccation. In this study, the photosynthetic performances of PSI and PSII in U. prolifera thalli exposed to different atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) levels were measured. Changes in photosynthesis within salinity treatments and dehydration under different CO2 concentrations were also analyzed. The results showed that PSII activity was enhanced as CO2 increased, suggesting that CO2 assimilation was enhanced and U. prolifera thalli can utilize CO2 in the atmosphere directly, even when under moderate stress. In addition, changes in the proteome of U. prolifera in response to salt stress were investigated. Stress-tolerance proteins appeared to have an important role in the response to salinity stress, whereas the abundance of proteins related to metabolism showed no significant change under low salinity treatments. These findings may be one of the main reasons for the extremely high growth rate of free-floating U. prolifera when green tides occur. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  14. Preliminary test of the LFA rapid evaluation of activity in lupus (LFA-REAL): an efficient outcome measure correlates with validated instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Askanase, Anca; Li, Xiaoqing; Pong, Avery; Shum, Katrina; Kamp, Stan; Carthen, Fredonna; Aberle, Teresa; Hanrahan, Leslie; Daly, Paola; Giles, Jon; Merrill, Joan T

    2015-01-01

    Objective Current disease activity measures for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are difficult to score or interpret and problematic for use in clinical practice. Lupus Foundation of America (LFA)-Rapid Evaluation of Activity in Lupus (REAL) is a pilot application composed of anchored visual analogue scores (0?100?mm each) for each organ affected by lupus. This study evaluated the use of LFA-REAL in capturing SLE disease activity. Methods In a preliminary test of LFA-REAL, this simplified, ...

  15. The Role of Non-Rapid Eye Movement Slow-Wave Activity in Prefrontal Metabolism across Young and Middle Age Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Wilckens, K.A.; Aizenstein, H J; Nofzinger, E.A.; James, J. A.; Hasler, B.P.; Rosario-Rivera, B.L.; Franzen, P; Germain, A.; Hall, M. H.; Kupfer, D.J.; Price, J C.; Siegle, G.J.; Buysse, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalographic slow-wave activity (0.5���4 Hz) during non rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep is a marker for cortical reorganization, particularly within the prefrontal cortex. Greater slow-wave activity during sleep may promote greater waking prefrontal metabolic rate, and in turn, executive function. However, this process may be affected by age. Here we examined whether greater NREM slow-wave activity was associated with higher prefrontal metabolism during wakefulness and whether this...

  16. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Coleman

    Full Text Available Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement and chill coma (final appendage twitch temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C. We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with

  17. Structural and Digestion Properties of Soluble-, Slowly Digestible and Resistant Maltodextrin from Cassava Starch by Enzymatic Modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorndech, Waraporn

    to produce slowly digestible and resistant maltodextrin structures. Well-defined ratios of amylose only-barley starch (AO) and waxy maize starch (WX) with non-granular AO content varied from 0 to 100% were used as a substrate. For only BE catalysis, an increase rate of α-1,6 linkage formation for the 0% AO......The combination of branching enzyme (BE) and amylomaltase (AM) were selected to modify cassava starch. AM were used to elongate the glucan chains in order to enhance BE activity to create branching linkages. Cassava starch were gelatinized and incubated with BE or AMBE or BEAMBE or simultaneous...... sample treated with BE was 1.5-fold while the 100% AO sample showed a 34.0-fold as compared to the original substrates. An increase in α-1,6 linkages for the 100% WX treated sequentially with BEAMBE was 1.8-fold as compared to the WX substrate used while the 100% AO showed a 39.0-fold. All BE and BE...

  18. Monitoring of β-d-Galactosidase Activity as a Surrogate Parameter for Rapid Detection of Sewage Contamination in Urban Recreational Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingun Tryland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Simple, automated methods are required for rapid detection of wastewater contamination in urban recreational water. The activity of the enzyme β-d-galactosidase (GAL can rapidly (<2 h be measured by field instruments, or a fully automated instrument, and was evaluated as a potential surrogate parameter for estimating the level of fecal contamination in urban waters. The GAL-activity in rivers, affected by combined sewer overflows, increased significantly during heavy rainfall, and the increase in GAL-activity correlated well with the increase in fecal indicator bacteria. The GAL activity in human feces (n = 14 was high (mean activity 7 × 107 ppb MU/hour and stable (1 LOG10 variation, while the numbers of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci varied by >5 LOG10. Furthermore, the GAL-activity per gram feces from birds, sheep and cattle was 2–3 LOG10 lower than the activity from human feces, indicating that high GAL-activity in water may reflect human fecal pollution more than the total fecal pollution. The rapid method can only be used to quantify high levels of human fecal pollution, corresponding to about 0.1 mg human feces/liter (or 103 E. coli/100 mL, since below this limit GAL-activity from non-fecal environmental sources may interfere.

  19. Perceptions of interactions between staff members calling, and those responding to, rapid response team activations for patient deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalwin, Richard; Flabouris, Arthas; Kapitola, Karoline; Dewick, Leonie

    2016-09-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to investigate experiences of staff interactions and non-technical skills (NTS) at rapid response team (RRT) calls, and their association with repeat RRT calls. Methods Mixed-methods surveys were conducted of RRT members and staff who activate the RRT (RRT users) for their perceptions and attitudes regarding the use of NTS during RRT calls. Responses within the survey were recorded as Likert items, ranked data and free comments. The latter were coded into nodes relating to one of four NTS domains: leadership, communication, cooperation and planning. Results Two hundred and ninety-seven (32%) RRT users and 79 (73.8%) RRT members provided responses. Of the RRT user respondents, 76.5% had activated the RRT at some point. Deficits in NTS at RRT calls were revealed, with 36.9% of users not feeling involved during RRT calls and 24.7% of members perceiving that users were disinterested. Unresolved user clinical concerns, or persistence of RRT calling criteria, were reasons cited by 37.6% and 23%, respectively, of RRT users for reactivating an RRT to the same patient. Despite recollections of conflict at previous RRT calls, 92% of users would still reactivate the RRT. The most common theme in the free comments related to deficiencies in cooperation (52.9%), communication (28.6%) and leadership (14.3%). Conclusions This survey of RRT users and members revealed problems with RRT users' and members' interactions at the time of an RRT call. Both users and members considered NTS to be important, but lacking. These findings support NTS training for RRT members and users. What is known about the topic? Previous surveying has related experiences of criticism and conflict between clinical staff at RRT activations. This leads to reluctance to call the RRT when indicated, with risks to patient safety, especially if subsequent RRT activation is necessary. Training in NTS has improved clinician interactions in simulated emergencies, but the

  20. A small molecule with anticancer and antimetastatic activities induces rapid mitochondrial-associated necrosis in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Anja; Thorpe, Jessica E; Disch, Bryan C; Bailey-Downs, Lora C; Gangjee, Aleem; Devambatla, Ravi K V; Henthorn, Jim; Humphries, Kenneth M; Vadvalkar, Shraddha S; Ihnat, Michael A

    2015-05-01

    Therapy for treatment-resistant breast cancer provides limited options and the response rates are low. Therefore, the development of therapies with alternative chemotherapeutic strategies is necessary. AG311 (5-[(4-methylphenyl)thio]-9H-pyrimido[4,5-b]indole-2,4-diamine), a small molecule, is being investigated in preclinical and mechanistic studies for treatment of resistant breast cancer through necrosis, an alternative cell death mechanism. In vitro, AG311 induces rapid necrosis in numerous cancer cell lines as evidenced by loss of membrane integrity, ATP depletion, HMGB1 (high-mobility group protein B1) translocation, nuclear swelling, and stable membrane blebbing in breast cancer cells. Within minutes, exposure to AG311 also results in mitochondrial depolarization, superoxide production, and increased intracellular calcium levels. Additionally, upregulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation results in sensitization to AG311. This AG311-induced cell death can be partially prevented by treatment with the mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibitor, Ru360 [(μ)[(HCO2)(NH3)4Ru]2OCl3], or an antioxidant, lipoic acid. Additionally, AG311 does not increase apoptotic markers such as cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) or caspase-3 and -7 activity. Importantly, in vivo studies in two orthotopic breast cancer mouse models (xenograft and allograft) demonstrate that AG311 retards tumor growth and reduces lung metastases better than clinically used agents and has no gross or histopathological toxicity. Together, these data suggest that AG311 is a first-in-class antitumor and antimetastatic agent inducing necrosis in breast cancer tumors, likely through the mitochondria. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  1. Interactions between microbial activity and distribution and mineral coatings on sand grains from rapid sand filters treating groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Tatari, Karolina; Musovic, Sanin

    Rapid sand filtration is a traditional and widespread technology for drinking water purification which combines biological, chemical and physical processes together. Granular media, especially sand, is a common filter material that allows several oxidized compounds to accumulate on its surface...

  2. Music Training Enhances Rapid Neural Plasticity of N1 and P2 Source Activation for Unattended Sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Seppänen, Miia; Hämäläinen, Jarmo; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2012-01-01

    Neurocognitive studies have demonstrated that long-term music training enhances the processing of unattended sounds. It is not clear, however, whether music training also modulates rapid (within tens of minutes) neural plasticity for sound encoding. To study this phenomenon, we examined whether adult musicians display enhanced rapid neural plasticity compared to non-musicians. More specifically, we compared the modulation of P1, N1, and P2 responses to standard sounds between four unattended ...

  3. Immediate-Early Gene Transcriptional Activation in Hippocampus Ca1 and Ca3 Does Not Accurately Reflect Rapid, Pattern Completion-Based Retrieval of Context Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevzner, Aleksandr; Guzowski, John F.

    2015-01-01

    No studies to date have examined whether immediate-early gene (IEG) activation is driven by context memory recall. To address this question, we utilized the context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) paradigm. In CPFE, animals acquire contextual fear conditioning through hippocampus-dependent rapid retrieval of a previously formed contextual…

  4. Rapid Screening of Active Components with an Osteoclastic Inhibitory Effect in Herba epimedii Using Quantitative Pattern–Activity Relationships Based on Joint-Action Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Yuan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Screening of bioactive components is important for modernization and quality control of herbal medicines, while the traditional bioassay-guided phytochemical approach is time-consuming and laborious. The presented study proposes a strategy for rapid screening of active components from herbal medicines. As a case study, the quantitative pattern–activity relationship (QPAR between compounds and the osteoclastic inhibitory effect of Herba epimedii, a widely used herbal medicine in China, were investigated based on joint models. For model construction, standard mixtures data showed that the joint-action models are better than the partial least-squares (PLS model. Then, the Good2bad value, which could reflect components’ importance based on Monte Carlo sampling, was coupled with the joint-action models for screening of active components. A compound (baohuoside I and a component composed of compounds with retention times in the 6.9–7.9 min range were selected by our method. Their inhibition rates were higher than icariin, the key bioactive compound in Herba epimedii, which could inhibit osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in a previous study. Meanwhile, the half-maximal effective concentration, namely, EC50 value of the selected component was 7.54 μg/mL, much smaller than that of baohuoside I—77 μg/mL—which indicated that there is synergistic action between compounds in the selected component. The results clearly show our proposed method is simple and effective in screening the most-bioactive components and compounds, as well as drug-lead components, from herbal medicines.

  5. Assessment of early thromboelastometric variables from extrinsically activated assays with and without aprotinin for rapid detection of fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkmann, Daniel; Görlinger, Klaus; Peters, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    Although thromboelastometry (ROTEM®) and thrombelastography can be used for bedside diagnosis of fibrinolysis, the time needed for detection is often prolonged. Since untreated fibrinolysis can result in consumption of coagulation factors and bleeding, early diagnosis and decision making are desirable. Accordingly, we assessed ROTEM variables from extrinsically activated assays with (APTEM) and without (EXTEM) addition of aprotinin for their ability to rapidly identify fibrinolysis. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that prolonged clotting time, clot formation time, low clot firmness (at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, designated A5, A10, A15, and A20, respectively), low maximum clot firmness (MCF) in EXTEM assays, and differences in these variables from parallel APTEM and EXTEM assays (designated as Δvariables) predict fibrinolysis. Data from 411 thromboelastometric measurements (obtained from 352 patients) with fibrinolysis and from 2537 measurements without fibrinolysis (obtained from 1605 patients) were assessed and analyzed using receiver operating characteristics. Data were analyzed as a pooled fibrinolysis cohort, and subanalyses were performed from sets assigned to categories of fibrinolysis related to the timing of thrombus lysis (i.e., a decrease of clot firmness to fibrinolysis. AUCs were compared to identify the variable providing the best predictive association with fibrinolysis. As a secondary end point, optimum cutoff values at the point estimate corresponding to the greatest Youden index were calculated along with the respective sensitivities and specificities. In the pooled cohort, clot formation time (AUC: 0.652 [0.016]), α-angle (AUC: 0.675 [0.015]), A5 (AUC: 0.718 [0.013]), A10 (AUC: 0.734 [0.0.13]), A15 (AUC: 0.752 [0.013]), A20 (AUC: 0.771 [0.013]), and MCF (AUC: 0.799 [0.012]) predicted fibrinolysis. Fibrinolysis was also predicted by ΔA15 (AUC: 0.675 [0.016]), ΔA20 (AUC: 0.719 [0.015]), and ΔMCF (AUC: 0.812 [0.013]). AUCs increased in

  6. Prostate cancer stem-like cells proliferate slowly and resist etoposide-induced cytotoxicity via enhancing DNA damage response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Judy [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Juravinski Innovation Tower, Room T3310, St. Joseph' s Hospital, 50 Charlton Ave East, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada); Father Sean O' Sullivan Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 4A6 (Canada); The Hamilton Centre for Kidney Research (HCKR), St. Joseph' s Hamilton Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 4A6 (Canada); Tang, Damu, E-mail: damut@mcmaster.ca [Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Juravinski Innovation Tower, Room T3310, St. Joseph' s Hospital, 50 Charlton Ave East, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada); Father Sean O' Sullivan Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 4A6 (Canada); The Hamilton Centre for Kidney Research (HCKR), St. Joseph' s Hamilton Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 4A6 (Canada)

    2014-10-15

    Despite the development of chemoresistance as a major concern in prostate cancer therapy, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this report, we demonstrate that DU145-derived prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs) progress slowly with more cells accumulating in the G1 phase in comparison to DU145 non-PCSCs. Consistent with the important role of the AKT pathway in promoting G1 progression, DU145 PCSCs were less sensitive to growth factor-induced activation of AKT in comparison to non-PCSCs. In response to etoposide (one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs), DU145 PCSCs survived significantly better than non-PCSCs. In addition to etoposide, PCSCs demonstrated increased resistance to docetaxel, a taxane drug that is commonly used to treat castration-resistant prostate cancer. Etoposide produced elevated levels of γH2AX and triggered a robust G2/M arrest along with a coordinated reduction of the G1 population in PCSCs compared to non-PCSCs, suggesting that elevated γH2AX plays a role in the resistance of PCSCs to etoposide-induced cytotoxicity. We have generated xenograft tumors from DU145 PCSCs and non-PCSCs. Consistent with the knowledge that PCSCs produce xenograft tumors with more advanced features, we were able to demonstrate that PCSC-derived xenograft tumors displayed higher levels of γH2AX and p-CHK1 compared to non-PCSC-produced xenograft tumors. Collectively, our research suggests that the elevation of DNA damage response contributes to PCSC-associated resistance to genotoxic reagents. - Highlights: • Increased survival in DU145 PCSCs following etoposide-induced cytotoxicity. • PCSCs exhibit increased sensitivity to etoposide-induced DDR. • Resistance to cytotoxicity may be due to slower proliferation in PCSCs. • Reduced kinetics to growth factor induced activation of AKT in PCSCs.

  7. Radial modes of slowly rotating compact stars in the presence of magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, N.R. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar (India); Siksha ' O' Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar (India); Mohanta, K.K. [Rairangpur College, Rairangpur, Odisha (India); Sahu, P.K. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2016-09-15

    Compact stars are composed of very high-density hadron matter. When the matter is above nuclear matter density, then there is a chance of different phases of matter such as hadron matter to quark matter. There is a possible phase which, having the quark core surrounded by a mixed phase followed by hadronic matter, may be considered as a hybrid phase inside the stars called hybrid star (HS). The star which consists of only u, d and s quarks is called quark star (QS) and the star which has only hadronic matter is called neutron star (NS). For the equation of state (EOS) of hadronic matter, we have considered the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) theory and we incorporated the effect of strong magnetic fields. For the EOS of the quark phase we use the simple MIT bag model. We have assumed Gaussian parametrization to make the density dependent for both bag pressure in quark matter and magnetic field. We have constructed the intermediate mixed phase by using the Glendenning conjecture. Eigenfrequencies of radial pulsations of slowly rotating magnetized compact stars (NS, QS, HS) are calculated in a general relativistic formalism given by Chandrasekhar and Friedman. We have studied the effect of central density on the square of the frequencies of the compact stars in the presence of zero and strong magnetic field. (orig.)

  8. Calculations of dose attenuation in slowly curving tunnel geometries at a high-energy proton accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Vincke, Helmut H

    2003-01-01

    The CERN Neutrino beam to Gran Sasso (CNGS) project and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will receive 450 GeV/c protons extracted from the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). In the tunnels leading to the CNGS target and the LHC accelerator there is a 150 m straight section where a beam dump (TED) can be moved into the beam chamber, intercepting the proton beam. After the TED, the beam is routed into either the 700m slowly curving TT41 tunnel (CNGS) or the TI8 tunnel consisting of a 400 m straight section followed by a curved 1.5 km long tunnel (LHC). The curved tunnels have a radius of approximately 1 km. During tests a proton beam of 1.2 multiplied by 10**1**3 s**- **1 could be sent to the dump. The question posed was how close to the TED could access be allowed during dumping operations. Initial simulations using the FLUKA Monte-Carlo transport program were optimised assuming that the high-energy muon contribution dominates. Discrepancies with an analytically based calculation led to a revision of this optimisa...

  9. A path crossing lemma and applications to nonlinear second order equations under slowly varyng perturbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pascoletti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present some recent results on the existence of periodic solutions and chaotic like dynamics for second order scalar nonlinear ODEs. The equations under consideration belong to a simple class of perturbed planar Hamiltonian systems with slowly varying periodic coefficients, a typical example being given by the pendulum equation with moving support. Although there is already a broad literature on this subject, our approach, based on the concept of stretching along the paths, appears new in this context. In particular, our method is global in nature and stable with respect to small perturbations of the coefficients. Thus it applies even when some small friction terms are inserted into the equations. The main tool on which all our results are based is a topological lemma (that we call path crossing lemma which was already implicitly used by Poincaré (1883-1884 [51], as well as by Butler (1976 [8] and Conley (1975 [12] and subsequently “rediscovered” and applied in many different contexts. For this reason, the first part of this paper is devoted to a detailed exposition of the Crossing Lemma and its connections with other topological results.

  10. Analysis of noise in quartz crystal oscillators by using slowly varying functions method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, R; Ratier, N; Couteleau, L; Marianneau, G; Guillemot, P

    1999-01-01

    By using formal manipulation capability of commercially available symbolic calculation code, it is possible to automatically derive the characteristic polynomial describing the conditions for oscillation of a circuit. The analytical expression of the characteristic polynomial is obtained through an encapsulation process starting from the SPICE netlist description of the circuit: by using a limited number of simple transformations, the initial circuit is progressively transformed in a simplified standard form. In this method, the nonlinear component is described by its large signal admittance parameters obtained from a set of SPICE transient simulations of larger and larger amplitude. The encapsulation process involving linear and nonlinear components as well as noise sources leads to a perturbed characteristic polynomial. In the time domain, the perturbed characteristic polynomial becomes a nonlinear nonautonomous differential equation. By using an extension of the slowly varying functions method, this differential equation is transformed into a nonlinear differential system with perturbation terms as the right-hand side. Eventually, solving this system with classical algorithms allows one to obtain both amplitude and phase noise spectra of the oscillator.

  11. Dynamic Off-Equilibrium Transition in Systems Slowly Driven across Thermal First-Order Phase Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelissetto, Andrea; Vicari, Ettore

    2017-01-20

    We study the off-equilibrium behavior of systems with short-range interactions, slowly driven across a thermal first-order transition, where the equilibrium dynamics is exponentially slow. We consider a dynamics that starts in the high-T phase at time t=t_{i}0 in the low-T phase, with a time-dependent temperature T(t)/T_{c}≈1-t/t_{s}, where t_{s} is the protocol time scale. A general off-equilibrium scaling (OS) behavior emerges in the limit of large t_{s}. We check it at the first-order transition of the two-dimensional q-state Potts model with q=20 and 10. The numerical results show evidence of a dynamic transition, where the OS functions show a spinodal-like singularity. Therefore, the general mean-field picture valid for systems with long-range interactions is qualitatively recovered, provided the time dependence is appropriately (logarithmically) rescaled.

  12. DISCOVERY OF 14 NEW SLOWLY PULSATING B STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 7654

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. P.; Han, Z. W. [National Astronomical Observatories/Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Zhang, X. B.; Deng, L. C., E-mail: luoyangping@ynao.ac.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2012-02-10

    We carried out time-series BV CCD photometric observations of the open cluster NGC 7654 (Messier 52) to search for variable stars. Eighteen slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars have been detected, among which 14 candidates are newly discovered, three known ones are confirmed, and a previously found {delta} Scuti star is also identified as an SPB candidate. Twelve SPBs are probable cluster members based on membership analysis. This makes NGC 7654 the richest galactic open cluster in terms of SPB star content. It is also a new discovery that NGC 7654 hosts three {gamma} Dor star candidates. We found that all these stars (18 SPB and 3 {gamma} Dor stars) have periods longer than their corresponding fundamental radial mode. With such a big sample of g-mode pulsators in a single cluster, it is clear that multi-mode pulsation is more common in the upper part of the main sequence than in the lower part. All the stars span a narrow strip on the period-luminosity plane, which also includes the {gamma} Dor stars at the low-luminosity extension. This result implies that there may be a single period-luminosity relation applicable to all g-mode main-sequence pulsators. As a by-product, three EA-type eclipsing binaries and an EW-type eclipsing binary are also discovered.

  13. Longitudinal space charge effect in slowly converging or diverging relativistic beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl L. F. Bane

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with the Green function for a rod beam in a round beam pipe we derive the space charge induced average energy change and rms spread for relativistic beams that are slowly converging or diverging in round beam pipes, a result that tends to be much larger than the 1/γ^{2} dependence for parallel beams. Our results allow for beams with longitudinal-transverse correlation, and for slow variations in beam pipe radius. We calculate, in addition, the space charge component of energy change and spread in a chicane compressor. This component indicates source regions of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR energy change in systems with compression. We find that this component, at the end of example compressors, approximates the total induced voltage obtained by more detailed CSR calculations. Our results depend on beam pipe radius (although only weakly whereas CSR calculations do not normally include this parameter, suggesting that results of such calculations, for systems with beam pipes, are not complete.

  14. Tidal deformation of a slowly rotating material body: Interior metric and Love numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    The metric outside a compact body deformed by a quadrupolar tidal field is universal up to its Love numbers, constants which encode the tidal response's dependence on the body's internal structure. For a nonrotating body, the deformed external geometry is characterized by the familiar gravitational Love numbers K2el and K2mag . For a slowly rotating body, these must be supplemented by rotational-tidal Love numbers, which measure the response to couplings between the body's spin and the external tidal field. By integrating the interior field equations, I find that the response of a barotropic perfect fluid to spin-coupled tidal perturbations is described by two rotational-tidal Love numbers, which I calculate explicitly for polytropes. Two other rotational-tidal Love numbers identified in prior work are found to have a fixed, universal value for all barotropes. Equipped with the complete interior solution, I calculate the amplitude of the time-varying internal currents induced by the gravitomagnetic part of the tidal field. For a typical neutron star in an equal-mass binary system, the size of the equatorial velocity perturbation is on the order of kilometers per second.

  15. A cyclostrophic transformed Eulerian zonal mean model for the middle atmosphere of slowly rotating planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, King-Fai; Yao, Kaixuan; Taketa, Cameron; Zhang, Xi; Liang, Mao-Chang; Jiang, Xun; Newman, Claire; Tung, Ka-Kit; Yung, Yuk L.

    2016-04-01

    With the advance of modern computers, studies of planetary atmospheres have heavily relied on general circulation models (GCMs). Because these GCMs are usually very complicated, the simulations are sometimes difficult to understand. Here we develop a semi-analytic zonally averaged, cyclostrophic residual Eulerian model to illustrate how some of the large-scale structures of the middle atmospheric circulation can be explained qualitatively in terms of simple thermal (e.g. solar heating) and mechanical (the Eliassen-Palm flux divergence) forcings. This model is a generalization of that for fast rotating planets such as the Earth, where geostrophy dominates (Andrews and McIntyre 1987). The solution to this semi-analytic model consists of a set of modified Hough functions of the generalized Laplace's tidal equation with the cyclostrohpic terms. As an example, we apply this model to Titan. We show that the seasonal variations of the temperature and the circulation of these slowly-rotating planets can be well reproduced by adjusting only three parameters in the model: the Brunt-Väisälä bouyancy frequency, the Newtonian radiative cooling rate, and the Rayleigh friction damping rate. We will also discuss an application of this model to study the meridional transport of photochemically produced tracers that can be observed by space instruments.

  16. Amblyopic children read more slowly than controls under natural, binocular reading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Krista R; Jost, Reed M; De La Cruz, Angie; Birch, Eileen E

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that amblyopia results in fixation instability and atypical saccades. Reading is a vision-reliant ability that requires sequential eye movements, including forward and regressive saccades. This study investigated reading and associated eye movements in school-age amblyopic children. Amblyopic children with strabismus and/or anisometropia (n = 29) were compared to nonamblyopic children treated for strabismus (n = 23) and normal control children (n = 21). While fitted with the ReadAlyzer, an eye movement recording system, children silently read a grade-level paragraph of text during binocular viewing. Reading rate, number of forward and regressive saccades per 100 words, and fixation duration were determined. Comprehension was evaluated with a 10-item quiz; only data from children with at least 80% correct responses were included. Amblyopic children read more slowly and had more saccades compared with nonamblyopic children with treated strabismus and normal controls. Fixation duration did not differ significantly for amblyopic children versus normal controls. Treated strabismic children without amblyopia did not differ significantly from normal controls on any reading measure. Amblyopic eye visual acuity was not correlated with any reading measure. Amblyopia was associated with slower reading speed in school-age children. Treatment for monocular amblyopia visual acuity impairment could improve reading speed and efficiency. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hubble Diagram Test of Expanding and Static Cosmological Models: The Case for a Slowly Expanding Flat Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo A. Marosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new redshift (RS versus photon travel time ( test including 171 supernovae RS data points. We extended the Hubble diagram to a range of z = 0,0141–8.1 in the hope that at high RSs, the fitting of the calculated RS/ diagrams to the observed RS data would, as predicted by different cosmological models, set constraints on alternative cosmological models. The Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM, the static universe model, and the case for a slowly expanding flat universe (SEU are considered. We show that on the basis of the Hubble diagram test, the static and the slowly expanding models are favored.

  18. Active and energy-dependent rapid formation of cell aggregates in the thermophilic photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aggregans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanada, Satoshi; Shimada, Keizo; Matsuura, Katsumi

    2002-03-05

    The thermophilic filamentous phototroph Chloroflexus aggregans was able to form a bacterial mat-like dense cell aggregate rapidly. The aggregate formation, which was observed in growing cells in a liquid medium in a bottle, occurred every time within 20-30 min after the cells were dispersed by shaking. The aggregation depended on the energy supplied by photosynthesis or respiration. Cells aggregated most rapidly under temperature and pH conditions that support maximum growth. The aggregation was also accelerated by the addition of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine that inhibits cyclic 3',5'-AMP phosphodiesterase. Microscopic observation revealed that the bacterium has a fast gliding mobility (1-3 microm s(-1)). The distinctive cell aggregation of C. aggregans was due to this rapid gliding movement.

  19. Biology of three Malacostraca (Decapoda) in a Mediterranean lagoon with particular emphasis on the effect of rapid environmental changes on the activity (catchability) of the species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivelli, A. J.

    1982-12-01

    The activity of three Malacostraca (Decapoda), Crangon crangon, Carcinus aestuarii and Paleamon squilla, was studied following rapid environmental changes in a Mediterranean lagoon linked temporarily with the sea. Nekton was sampled every 2-3 days using fixed fyke nets. A canonical analysis and a stepwise multiple regression were computed to determine which factor(s) can predict or account for the catch of these three decapods. In spite of rapid environmental changes no exceptional mortality was observed in each of the three species. Temperature is the environmental factor with major impact on the activity of C. crangon. Activity of P. squilla is controlled by water depth. At a depth of less than 20 cm two factors, salinity and phase of the moon, have a significant influence on the activity of this species. At depths deeper than 20 cm the activity is inhibited. There is only a weak relationship between the catch of C. aestuarii and salinity. Additional data on the life cycle of these species are given. The limitations of a monthly sampling period are discussed and the need for more short-term, consecutive sampling periods is stressed in order to understand the dynamics of systems with rapid environmental fluctuations.

  20. Changes in arm tissue composition with slowly progressive weight-lifting among women with breast cancer-related lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochen; Brown, Justin C; Paskett, Electra D; Zemel, Babette S; Cheville, Andrea L; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-07-01

    Studies in breast cancer-related lymphedema (BRCL) have exclusively examined total arm volume, but not the specific tissue composition that contributes to total volume. We evaluated baseline differences in arm tissue composition [fat mass, lean mass, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone mineral density (BMD)] between the affected and unaffected arms in women with BRCL. We compared changes in arm tissue composition and self-reported lymphedema symptoms after 1 year of weight-lifting versus control. We utilized data from physical activity and lymphedema trial that included 141 women with BRCL. Arm tissue composition was quantified using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The severity of lymphedema was quantified using self-report survey. Weight-lifting was performed at community fitness facilities. At baseline, the affected arm had more fat (∆ = 89.7 g; P composition of the affected arm was improved: lean mass (71.2 g; P = 0.01) and BMD (14.0 mg/cm 2 ; P = 0.02) increased, arm fat percentage decreased (-1.5%; P = 0.003). Composition of the unaffected arm was only improved in lean mass (65.2 g; P = 0·04). Increases in lean mass were associated with less severe BCRL symptoms. Among women with BRCL, slowly progressive weight-lifting could improve arm tissue composition. Changes in arm tissue composition predict changes in symptom burden. Investigating the combined effects of exercise and weight loss on arm tissue composition and BCRL symptoms may provide additional insight into the benefits of lifestyle modification on lymphedema biology.

  1. Physical-Chemical Basis of the Protection of Slowly Frozen Human Erythrocytes by Glycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, W. F.; Mazur, Peter; Souzu, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    One theory of freezing damage suggests that slowly cooled cells are killed by being exposed to increasing concentrations of electrolytes as the suspending medium freezes. A corollary to this view is that protective additives such as glycerol protect cells by acting colligatively to reduce the electrolyte concentration at any subzero temperature. Recently published phase-diagram data for the ternary system glycerol-NaCl-water by M. L. Shepard et al. (Cryobiology, 13:9-23, 1976), in combination with the data on human red cell survival vs. subzero temperature presented here and in the companion study of Souzu and Mazur (Biophys. J., 23:89-100), permit a precise test of this theory. Appropriate liquidus phase-diagram information for the solutions used in the red cell freezing experiments was obtained by interpolation of the liquidus data of Shepard and his co-workers. The results of phase-diagram analysis of red cell survival indicate that the correlation between the temperature that yields 50% hemolysis (LT50) and the electrolyte concentration attained at that temperature in various concentrations of glycerol is poor. With increasing concentrations of glycerol, the cells were killed at progressively lower concentrations of NaCl. For example, the LT50 for cells frozen in the absence of glycerol corresponds to a NaCl concentration of 12 weight percent (2.4 molal), while for cells frozen in 1.75 M glycerol in buffered saline the LT50 corresponds to 3.0 weight percent NaCl (1.3 molal). The data, in combination with other findings, lead to two conclusions: (a) The protection from glycerol is due to its colligative ability to reduce the concentration of sodium chloride in the external medium, but (b) the protection is less than that expected from colligative effects; apparently glycerol itself can also be a source of damage, probably because it renders the red cells susceptible to osmotic shock during thawing. PMID:667300

  2. Physical-chemical basis of the protection of slowly frozen human erythrocytes by glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rall, W.F.; Mazur, P.; Souzu, H.

    1978-07-01

    One theory of freezing damage suggests that slowly cooled cells are killed by being exposed to increasing concentrations of electrolytes as the suspending medium freezes. A corollary to this view is that protective additives such as glycerol protect cells by acting colligatively to reduce the electrolyte concentration at any subzero temperature. Recently published phase-diagram data for the ternary system glycerol-NaCl-water by M.L. Shepard et al. (Cryobiology, 13: 9-23, 1976), in combination with the data on human red cell survival vs. subzero temperature presented here and in the companion study of Souzu and Mazur (Biophys. J., 23: 89-100), permit a precise test of this theory. Appropriate liquidus phase-diagram information for the solutions used in the red cell freezing experiments was obtained by interpolation of liquidus data of Shepard and his co-workers. The results of phase-diagram analysis of red cell survival indicate that the correlation between the temperature that yields 50% hemolysis (LT/sub 50/) and the electrolyte concentration attained at that temperature in various concentrations of glycerol is poor. With increasing concentrations of glycerol, the cells were killed at progressively lower concentrations of NaCl. For example, the LT/sub 50/ for cells frozen in the absence of glycerol corresponds to a NaCl concentration of 12 weight percent (2.4 molal), while for cells frozen in 1.75 M glycerol in buffered saline the LT/sub 50/ corresponds to 3.0 weight percent NaCl (1.3 molal). The data, in combination with other findings, lead to two conclusions: (a) The protection from glycerol is due to its colligative ability to reduce the concentration of sodium chloride in the external medium, but (b) the protection is less than that expected from colligative effects; apparently glycerol itself can also be a source of damage, probably because it renders the red cells susceptible to osmotic shock during thawing.

  3. What Automaticity Deficit? Activation of Lexical Information by Readers with Dyslexia in a Rapid Automatized Naming Stroop-Switch Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Manon W.; Snowling, Margaret J.; Moll, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    Reading fluency is often predicted by rapid automatized naming (RAN) speed, which as the name implies, measures the automaticity with which familiar stimuli (e.g., letters) can be retrieved and named. Readers with dyslexia are considered to have less "automatized" access to lexical information, reflected in longer RAN times compared with…

  4. Increased extracellular collagen matrix in myocardial sleeves of pulmonary veins: an additional mechanism facilitating repetitive rapid activities in chronic pacing-induced sustained atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yung-Tsung; Wu, Tsu-Juey; Wei, Hao-Ji; Cheng, Ching-Chang; Lin, Nai-Nu; Chen, Ying-Tsung; Ting, Chih-Tai

    2005-07-01

    Increased ECM in canine PVs. Cell uncoupling due to fibrosis or increased extracellular collagen matrix (ECM) affects the formation of ectopic focal activity. Whether or not the increase of ECM also exists in the pulmonary veins (PVs) with rapid atrial pacing is unknown. We sought to test the hypothesis that in chronic atrial pacing dogs with sustained atrial fibrillation (AF), the amount of ECM was increased in both atria and the PVs. We induced sustained AF in dogs by rapid atrial pacing. Computerized mapping techniques were used to map both atria and the PVs. We also used histological assessment to quantify the amount of ECM. After 118+/-24 days of rapid atrial pacing, sustained AF was induced in 7 dogs. Repetitive rapid activities (RRAs) either continuously or intermittently arose from the PVs during sustained AF. Histological study shows that there was no fibrosis in both atrial free walls and the PVs. However, the amount of ECM was increased in these regions. The mean ECM surface area fraction at each region in the dogs with sustained AF was all significantly higher compared to the corresponding region in normal dogs. Similarly, the heterogeneity of the ECM surface area fraction at each region in the dogs with sustained AF was also all significantly higher compared to normal dogs. In chronic atrial pacing-induced sustained AF, structural remodeling (i.e., inhomogeneous increase of ECM) also involves the PVs. Reduced coupling of the myocytes in the PV due to histological changes may provide an additional mechanism facilitating RRAs.

  5. A Developmental Study of Static Postural Control and Superimposed Arm Movements in Normal and Slowly Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Janet M.

    Selected electromyographic parameters underlying static postural control in 4, 6, and 8 year old normally and slowly developing children during performance of selected arm movements were studied. Developmental delays in balance control were assessed by the Cashin Test of Motor Development (1974) and/or the Williams Gross Motor Coordination Test…

  6. Discovery of the New Slowly Pulsating B Star HD 163830 (B5 II/III) from MOST Spacebased Photometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, C.; Cat, P. de; Kuschnig, R.; Matthews, J.M.; Guenther, D.B.; Moffat, A.F.J.; Rucinski, S.M.; Sasselov, D.; Walker, G.A.H.; Weiss, W.W.

    2006-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new slowly pulsating B star, with the largest number of detected frequencies to date by more than a factor of 3, based on 37 days of MOST (Microvariability and Oscillations of STars) satellite guide star photometry. The star HD 163830 (V=9.3, B5 II/III) varies in 20

  7. Signatures of internal rotation discovered in the Kepler data of five slowly pulsating B stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pápics, P. I.; Tkachenko, A.; Van Reeth, T.; Aerts, C.; Moravveji, E.; Van de Sande, M.; De Smedt, K.; Bloemen, S.; Southworth, J.; Debosscher, J.; Niemczura, E.; Gameiro, J. F.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Massive stars are important building blocks of the Universe, and their stellar structure and evolution models are fundamental cornerstones of various fields in modern astrophysics. The precision of these models is strongly limited by our lack of understanding of various internal mixing processes that significantly influence the lifetime of these objects, such as core overshoot, chemical mixing, or the internal differential rotation. Aims: Our goal is to calibrate models by extending the sample of available seismic studies of slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars, providing input for theoretical modelling efforts that will deliver precise constraints on the parameters describing the internal mixing processes in these objects. Methods: We used spectral synthesis and disentangling techniques to derive fundamental parameters and to determine precise orbital parameters from high-resolution spectra. We employed custom masks to construct light curves from the virtually uninterrupted four year long Kepler pixel data and used standard time-series analysis tools to construct a set of significant frequencies for each target. These sets were first filtered from combination frequencies, and then screened for period spacing patterns. Results: We detect gravity mode period series of modes, of the same degree ℓ with consecutive radial order n, in four new and one revisited SPB star. These series (covering typically 10 to 40 radial orders) are clearly influenced by moderate to fast rotation and carry signatures of chemical mixing processes. Furthermore, they are predominantly prograde dipole series. Our spectroscopic analysis, in addition to placing each object inside the SPB instability strip and identifying KIC 4930889 as an SB2 binary, reveals that KIC 11971405 is a fast rotator that shows very weak Be signatures. Together with the observed photometric outbursts this illustrates that this Be star is a fast rotating SPB star. We hypothesise that the outbursts might be

  8. KIC 10526294: a slowly rotating B star with rotationally split, quasi-equally spaced gravity modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pápics, P. I.; Moravveji, E.; Aerts, C.; Tkachenko, A.; Triana, S. A.; Bloemen, S.; Southworth, J.

    2014-10-01

    Context. Massive stars are important for the chemical enrichment of the universe. Since internal mixing processes influence their lives, it is very important to place constraints on the corresponding physical parameters, such as core overshooting and the internal rotation profile, so as to calibrate their stellar structure and evolution models. Although asteroseismology has been shown to be able to deliver the most precise constraints so far, the number of detailed seismic studies delivering quantitative results is limited. Aims: Our goal is to extend this limited sample with an in-depth case study and provide a well-constrained set of asteroseismic parameters, contributing to the ongoing mapping efforts of the instability strips of the β Cep and slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars. Methods: We derived fundamental parameters from high-resolution spectra using spectral synthesis techniques. We used custom masks to obtain optimal light curves from the original pixel level data from the Kepler satellite. We used standard time-series analysis tools to construct a set of significant pulsation modes that provide the basis for the seismic analysis carried out afterwards. Results: We find that KIC 10526294 is a cool SPB star, one of the slowest rotators ever found. Despite this, the length of Kepler observations is sufficient to resolve narrow rotationally split multiplets for each of its nineteen quasi-equally spaced dipole modes. The number of detected consecutive (in radial order) dipole modes in this series is higher than ever before. The observed amount of splitting shows an increasing trend towards longer periods, which - largely independent of the seismically calibrated stellar models - points towards a non-rigid internal rotation profile. From the average splitting we deduce a rotation period of ~188 days. From seismic modelling, we find that the star is young with a central hydrogen mass fraction Xc> 0.64; it has a core overshooting αov ≤ 0.15. Based on

  9. Stimulus and Response-Locked P3 Activity in a Dynamic Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    electroencephalogram EOG electrooculography ERP event - related potential P3 P300 RSVP rapid serial visual presentation RT reaction time NO. OF NO. OF...4 Figure 3. Left: stimulus-locked P3 event - related potentials at electrode Pz from nontargets and targets in each quartile. Right...average). .....6 Figure 5. Left: response-locked P3 event - related potentials at electrode Pz from targets in each quartile. Right: corresponding

  10. Glucose Evokes Rapid Ca2+ and Cyclic AMP Signals by Activating the Cell-Surface Glucose-Sensing Receptor in Pancreatic β-Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Masahiro; Medina, Johan; Kojima, Itaru

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is a primary stimulator of insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. High concentration of glucose has been thought to exert its action solely through its metabolism. In this regard, we have recently reported that glucose also activates a cell-surface glucose-sensing receptor and facilitates its own metabolism. In the present study, we investigated whether glucose activates the glucose-sensing receptor and elicits receptor-mediated rapid actions. In MIN6 cells and isolated mouse β-cells, glucose induced triphasic changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c); glucose evoked an immediate elevation of [Ca2+]c, which was followed by a decrease in [Ca2+]c, and after a certain lag period it induced large oscillatory elevations of [Ca2+]c. Initial rapid peak and subsequent reduction of [Ca2+]c were independent of glucose metabolism and reproduced by a nonmetabolizable glucose analogue. These signals were also blocked by an inhibitor of T1R3, a subunit of the glucose-sensing receptor, and by deletion of the T1R3 gene. Besides Ca2+, glucose also induced an immediate and sustained elevation of intracellular cAMP ([cAMP]c). The elevation of [cAMP]c was blocked by transduction of the dominant-negative Gs, and deletion of the T1R3 gene. These results indicate that glucose induces rapid changes in [Ca2+]c and [cAMP]c by activating the cell-surface glucose-sensing receptor. Hence, glucose generates rapid intracellular signals by activating the cell-surface receptor. PMID:26630567

  11. Luminal leptin induces rapid inhibition of active intestinal absorption of glucose mediated by sodium-glucose cotransporter 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducroc, Robert; Guilmeau, Sandra; Akasbi, Khalil; Devaud, Hélène; Buyse, Marion; Bado, André

    2005-02-01

    The effect of leptin on glucose transport was studied in rat jejunal mucosa in Ussing chambers. Leptin was added in the luminal or the serosal compartment before the tissues were challenged with 1, 10, or 50 mmol/l glucose. In response to 10 mmol/l glucose, the increase in short-circuit current (DeltaIsc) reached 26.8 +/- 2.1 microA/cm(2). Luminal addition of leptin dramatically decreased glucose-induced Isc (90.5% for 10 nmol/l leptin). Inhibition was maximal after 5 min and dose dependent (IC(50) = 0.13 nM). Western blot analysis showed that rapid inhibition of glucose-induced Isc by leptin was associated with a parallel decrease in the abundance of sodium-glucose transporter-1 in brush border membranes. Inhibition by luminal leptin of DeltaIsc was prevented by inhibitor of conventional protein kinase C isoforms. Serosal addition of leptin did not decrease glucose-induced Isc within 5 min and reached maximum after 10 min. The effect of leptin from serosal side was blocked by cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor-2 receptor antagonist YM022. Altogether, these data demonstrate that luminal leptin induces rapid inhibition of glucose entry into enterocyte. The slower action of leptin on the serosal side of mucosa seems indirect and is likely mediated by endogenous CCK. They demonstrate that gut leptin is a major regulator of rapid intestinal glucose transport.

  12. Rapid Naming by Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Jeffry A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have reported that children with specific language impairment (SLI) name pictures more slowly than do chronological age-matched (CAM) peers. Rapid naming depends on 2 factors known to be problematic for children with SLI--lexical retrieval and nonlinguistic speed of processing. Although all studies implicate a…

  13. Cytokine-induced proapoptotic gene expression in insulin-producing cells is related to rapid, sustained, and nonoscillatory nuclear factor-kappaB activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortis, Fernanda; Cardozo, Alessandra K; Crispim, Daisy

    2006-01-01

    Cytokines, such as IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, contribute to pancreatic beta-cell death in type 1 diabetes mellitus. The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) mediates cytokine-induced beta-cell apoptosis. Paradoxically, NF-kappaB has mostly antiapoptotic effects in other cell types......-kappaB activation in insulin-producing cells is more rapid, marked, and sustained than in fibroblasts, which correlates with a more pronounced activation of downstream genes and a proapoptotic outcome....

  14. Specific, sensitive, precise, and rapid functional chromogenic assay of activated first complement component (C1) in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkvad, S; Jespersen, J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

    1990-01-01

    We present a new functional assay for the first complement component (C1) in plasma, based on its activation by inhibition of the C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh) when monospecific antiserum to C1-inh is added to the plasma. After maximal activation, we can determine the concentration of activated ...

  15. Long-acting lipidated analogue of human pancreatic polypeptide is slowly released into circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Elling, Christian E; Madsen, Andreas N

    2011-01-01

    The main disadvantages of peptide pharmaceuticals are their rapid degradation and excretion, their low hydrophilicity, and low shelf lifes. These bottlenecks can be circumvented by acylation with fatty acids (lipidation) or polyethylene glycol (PEGylation). Here, we describe the modification...... of a human pancreatic polypeptide analogue specific for the human (h)Y(2) and hY(4) receptor with PEGs of different size and palmitic acid. Receptor specificity was demonstrated by competitive binding studies. Modifications had only a small influence on binding affinities and no influence on secondary...

  16. Two-dimensional studies of coal pyrolysis: preliminary results. [Large blocks heated slowly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, R.C. III

    1976-01-01

    Two-dimensional pyrolysis behavior of large, instrumented blocks of subbituminous coal has been examined recently in support of in-situ coal gasification process development. Pyrolysis studies have traditionally dealt with small coal particles which were heated rapidly; but, by contrast, in-situ gasification involves slow heating of large coal blocks resulting from permeability enhancement operations or, perhaps, roof collapse. Experiments utilizing maximum reactor temperatures of 500/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/C, achieved over 4- to 50-hr time periods, have produced data correlating tar and gas production rates and composition with maximum temperature and heating rate.

  17. Rapid fluctuations in extracellular brain glucose levels induced by natural arousing stimuli and intravenous cocaine: fueling the brain during neural activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Magalie

    2012-01-01

    Glucose, a primary energetic substrate for neural activity, is continuously influenced by two opposing forces that tend to either decrease its extracellular levels due to enhanced utilization in neural cells or increase its levels due to entry from peripheral circulation via enhanced cerebral blood flow. How this balance is maintained under physiological conditions and changed during neural activation remains unclear. To clarify this issue, enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with high-speed amperometry were used in freely moving rats to evaluate fluctuations in extracellular glucose levels induced by brief audio stimulus, tail pinch (TP), social interaction with another rat (SI), and intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg). Measurements were performed in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), which drastically differ in neuronal activity. In NAcc, where most cells are powerfully excited after salient stimulation, glucose levels rapidly (latency 2–6 s) increased (30–70 μM or 6–14% over baseline) by all stimuli; the increase differed in magnitude and duration for each stimulus. In SNr, where most cells are transiently inhibited by salient stimuli, TP, SI, and cocaine induced a biphasic glucose response, with the initial decrease (−20–40 μM or 5–10% below baseline) followed by a reboundlike increase. The critical role of neuronal activity in mediating the initial glucose response was confirmed by monitoring glucose currents after local microinjections of glutamate (GLU) or procaine (PRO). While intra-NAcc injection of GLU transiently increased glucose levels in this structure, intra-SNr PRO injection resulted in rapid, transient decreases in SNr glucose. Therefore, extracellular glucose levels in the brain change very rapidly after physiological and pharmacological stimulation, the response is structure specific, and the pattern of neuronal activity appears to be a critical factor determining direction and magnitude of physiological

  18. Rapid fluctuations in extracellular brain glucose levels induced by natural arousing stimuli and intravenous cocaine: fueling the brain during neural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Eugene A; Lenoir, Magalie

    2012-09-01

    Glucose, a primary energetic substrate for neural activity, is continuously influenced by two opposing forces that tend to either decrease its extracellular levels due to enhanced utilization in neural cells or increase its levels due to entry from peripheral circulation via enhanced cerebral blood flow. How this balance is maintained under physiological conditions and changed during neural activation remains unclear. To clarify this issue, enzyme-based glucose sensors coupled with high-speed amperometry were used in freely moving rats to evaluate fluctuations in extracellular glucose levels induced by brief audio stimulus, tail pinch (TP), social interaction with another rat (SI), and intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg). Measurements were performed in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), which drastically differ in neuronal activity. In NAcc, where most cells are powerfully excited after salient stimulation, glucose levels rapidly (latency 2-6 s) increased (30-70 μM or 6-14% over baseline) by all stimuli; the increase differed in magnitude and duration for each stimulus. In SNr, where most cells are transiently inhibited by salient stimuli, TP, SI, and cocaine induced a biphasic glucose response, with the initial decrease (-20-40 μM or 5-10% below baseline) followed by a reboundlike increase. The critical role of neuronal activity in mediating the initial glucose response was confirmed by monitoring glucose currents after local microinjections of glutamate (GLU) or procaine (PRO). While intra-NAcc injection of GLU transiently increased glucose levels in this structure, intra-SNr PRO injection resulted in rapid, transient decreases in SNr glucose. Therefore, extracellular glucose levels in the brain change very rapidly after physiological and pharmacological stimulation, the response is structure specific, and the pattern of neuronal activity appears to be a critical factor determining direction and magnitude of physiological

  19. Substance P induces rapid and transient membrane blebbing in U373MG cells in a p21-activated kinase-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Meshki

    Full Text Available U373MG astrocytoma cells endogenously express the full-length neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R. Substance P (SP, the natural ligand for NK1R, triggers rapid and transient membrane blebbing and we report that these morphological changes have different dynamics and intracellular signaling as compared to the changes that we have previously described in HEK293-NK1R cells. In both cell lines, the SP-induced morphological changes are Gq-independent, and they require the Rho, Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK signaling pathway. Using confocal microscopy we have demonstrated that tubulin is phosphorylated subsequent to cell stimulation with SP and that tubulin accumulates inside the blebs. Colchicine, a tubulin polymerization inhibitor, blocked SP-induced blebbing in U373MG but not in HEK293-NK1R cells. Although p21-activated kinase (PAK is expressed in both cell lines, SP induced rapid phosphorylation of PAK in U373MG, but failed to phosphorylate PAK in HEK293-NK1R cells. The cell-permeable Rho inhibitor C3 transferase inhibited SP-induced PAK phosphorylation, but the ROCK inhibitor Y27632 had no effect on PAK phosphorylation, suggesting that Rho activates PAK in a ROCK-independent manner. Our study demonstrates that SP triggers rapid changes in cell morphology mediated by distinct intracellular signaling mechanisms in U373MG versus HEK293-NK1R cells.

  20. Rapid activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway by electroconvulsive shock in the rat prefrontal cortex is not associated with TrkB neurotrophin receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik H; Rantamäki, Tomi P J; Larsen, Marianne Hald

    2007-01-01

    , are important pathways triggered by TrkB autophosphorylation. 2. We have previously observed that chemical antidepressants induce a rapid activation of TrkB signaling in the rodent prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is likely a consequence of the stimulatory effect of antidepressants on BDNF synthesis. However...

  1. CD154 as a potential early molecular biomarker for rapid quantification analysis of active Staphylococcus enterotoxin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen producing a group of twenty-one enterotoxins (SEs). These enterotoxins have two separate but related biological activities, They cause gastroenteritis, and they function as a superantigens that activate large numbers of T cells. In the current stud...

  2. The role of non-rapid eye movement slow-wave activity in prefrontal metabolism across young and middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilckens, Kristine A; Aizenstein, Howard J; Nofzinger, Eric A; James, Jeffrey A; Hasler, Brant P; Rosario-Rivera, Bedda L; Franzen, Peter L; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica H; Kupfer, David J; Price, Julie C; Siegle, Greg J; Buysse, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Electroencephalographic slow-wave activity (0.5-4 Hz) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is a marker for cortical reorganization, particularly within the prefrontal cortex. Greater slow wave activity during sleep may promote greater waking prefrontal metabolic rate and, in turn, executive function. However, this process may be affected by age. Here we examined whether greater NREM slow wave activity was associated with higher prefrontal metabolism during wakefulness and whether this relationship interacted with age. Fifty-two participants aged 25-61 years were enrolled into studies that included polysomnography and a (18) [F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography scan during wakefulness. Absolute and relative measures of NREM slow wave activity were assessed. Semiquantitative and relative measures of cerebral metabolism were collected to assess whole brain and regional metabolism, focusing on two regions of interest: the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. Greater relative slow wave activity was associated with greater dorsolateral prefrontal metabolism. Age and slow wave activity interacted significantly in predicting semiquantitative whole brain metabolism and outside regions of interest in the posterior cingulate, middle temporal gyrus and the medial frontal gyrus, such that greater slow-wave activity was associated with lower metabolism in the younger participants and greater metabolism in the older participants. These results suggest that slow-wave activity is associated with cerebral metabolism during wakefulness across the adult lifespan within regions important for executive function. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  3. Microwave-assisted multicomponent reactions for rapid synthesis of AIE-active fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles by post-polymerization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qian-Yong; Jiang, Ruming; Liu, Meiying; Wan, Qing; Xu, Dazhuang; Tian, Jianwen; Huang, Hongye; Wen, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-11-01

    The development of simple and effective methods for synthesis of fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles (FPNs) with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) plays an important role for the biomedical applications of AIE-active FPNs. In present work, we developed a facile strategy for the fabrication of AIE-active FPNs by a post-polymerization method based on the microwave-assisted Kabachnik-Fields (KF) reaction, which can conjugate with poly(PEGMA-NH2), AIE-active dye (TPE-CHO) and diethyl phosphate (DP) under microwave irradiation within 5min. The characterization results confirm that PEGMA-TPE FPNs are successfully prepared through the microwave-assisted KF reaction. The resultant AIE-active FPNs show high water dispersity, intensive fluorescence and low cytotoxicity. These features make these AIE-active FPNs great potential for biomedical applications. Moreover, the microwave-assisted KF reaction is simple, fast, atom economy that should be a general strategy for the fabrication of various multifunctional AIE-active FPNs. We believe this work will open up a new avenue for the preparation of AIE-active functional materials with great potential for different applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. NF-κB is activated in CD4+ iNKT cells by sickle cell disease and mediates rapid induction of adenosine A2A receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene Lin

    Full Text Available Reperfusion injury following tissue ischemia occurs as a consequence of vaso-occlusion that is initiated by activation of invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells. Sickle cell disease (SDC results in widely disseminated microvascular ischemia and reperfusion injury as a result of vaso-occlusion by rigid and adhesive sickle red blood cells. In mice, iNKT cell activation requires NF-κB signaling and can be inhibited by the activation of anti-inflammatory adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs. Human iNKT cells are divided into subsets of CD4+ and CD4- cells. In this study we found that human CD4+ iNKT cells, but not CD4- cells undergo rapid NF-κB activation (phosphorylation of NF-κB on p65 and induction of A2ARs (detected with a monoclonal antibody 7F6-G5-A2 during SCD painful vaso-occlusive crises. These findings indicate that SCD primarily activates the CD4+ subset of iNKT cells. Activation of NF-κB and induction of A2ARs is concordant, i.e. only CD4+ iNKT cells with activated NF-κB expressed high levels of A2ARs. iNKT cells that are not activated during pVOC express low levels of A2AR immunoreactivity. These finding suggest that A2AR transcription may be induced in CD4+ iNKT cells as a result of NF-κB activation in SCD. In order to test this hypothesis further we examined cultured human iNKT cells. In cultured cells, blockade of NF-κB with Bay 11-7082 or IKK inhibitor VII prevented rapid induction of A2AR mRNA and protein upon iNKT activation. In conclusion, NF-κB-mediated induction of A2ARs in iNKT cells may serve as a counter-regulatory mechanism to limit the extent and duration of inflammatory immune responses. As activated iNKT cells express high levels of A2ARs following their activation, they may become highly sensitive to inhibition by A2AR agonists.

  5. Rapid green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Dendropanax morbifera leaf extract and their anticancer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Kim, Yeon Ju; Castro-Aceituno, Veronica; Singh, Priyanka; Ahn, Sungeun; Wang, Dandan; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-01-01

    Dendropanax morbifera Léveille is an oriental medicinal plant that is traditionally used in folk medicine and grows in a specific region of South Korea. We aimed to enhance the utilization of D. morbifera medicinal plants for synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). D. morbifera leaf extract acted as both a reducing and a stabilizing agent that rapidly synthesized Dendropanax AgNPs (D-AgNPs) and Dendropanax AuNPs (D-AuNPs). The D-AgNPs and D-AuNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, elemental mapping, field emission transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and dynamic light scattering. The characterizations revealed that the D-AgNPs and D-AuNPs were in polygon and hexagon shapes with average sizes of 100-150 nm and 10-20 nm, respectively. The important outcomes were the synthesis of AgNPs and AuNPs within 1 hour and 3 minutes, respectively, avoiding the subsequent processing for removal of any toxic components or for stabilizing the nanoparticles. Additionally, D-AgNPs and D-AuNPs were examined for cytotoxicity in a human keratinocyte cell line and in A549 human lung cancer cell line. The results indicated that D-AgNPs exhibited less cytotoxicity in the human keratinocyte cell line at 100 µg/mL after 48 hours. On the other hand, D-AgNPs showed potent cytotoxicity in the lung cancer cells at the same concentration after 48 hours, whereas D-AuNPs did not exhibit cytotoxicity in both cell lines at the same concentration. However, both D-AgNPs and D-AuNPs at 50 µg/mL enhanced the cytotoxicity of ginsenoside compound K at 25 µM after 48 hours of treatment compared with CK alone. We believe that this rapid green synthesis of D-AgNPs and D-AuNPs is a valuable addition to the applications of D. morbifera medicinal plant. D-AuNPs can be used as carriers for drug delivery and in cancer therapy due to their lack of normal cell cytotoxicity.

  6. Decreased phasic EMG activity during rapid eye movement sleep in treatment-naïve Parkinson's disease: effects of treatment with levodopa and progression of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Caminero, Ana B; De La Llave, Yolanda; Larrosa, Oscar; Barrio, Soledad; Granizo, Juan J; Pareja, Juan A

    2002-09-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is frequently associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and may anticipate its diagnosis by several years. We assessed the presence of motor dyscontrol during REM sleep in treatment-naïve PD patients and investigated the putative effect of levodopa (L-dopa) treatment on motor activity. Overnight sleep studies were performed on 15 previously untreated PD patients and 14 controls at baseline, again after a 3- to 9-month treatment period with a low dose of L-dopa, and 2 to 5 days after treatment discontinuation (in 8 patients). No differences in sleep parameters were observed across groups or treatment conditions. None of the patients met criteria for RBD at baseline, whereas 5 patients were symptomatic at the time of the second sleep study. A quantitative analysis of electromyographic (EMG) activity during REM sleep showed a lower phasic twitching activity in untreated PD than in controls. However, an increase in both phasic twitching and tonic activity was found after treatment with L-dopa. Discontinuation of treatment resulted in a return to pretreatment values of phasic but not of tonic EMG activity. Thus, the increase in phasic activity seems to depend on the effects of L-dopa, whereas the increase in tonic EMG activity during REM sleep might be caused by other factors such as the progression of disease. Potential implications for the understanding of the relationship between RBD and PD are discussed. Copyright 2002 Movement Disorder Society

  7. The role of arts activities in developing resilience and mental wellbeing in children and young people a rapid review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarobe, Leyre; Bungay, Hilary

    2017-11-01

    This rapid review explores the role of arts activities in promoting the mental wellbeing and resilience of children and young people aged between 11 and 18 years. A systematic search of the literature was undertaken across 18 databases; no date limit was set on publication. Search terms included a range of creative activities: music, dance, singing, drama and visual arts; these were combined with terms linked to aspects of mental health, emotional wellbeing and resilience. Only studies related to activities that took place within community settings and those related to extracurricular activities based within schools were included. Following the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, eight papers were included in the review. The interventions used in the studies were diverse and the research was heterogeneous; therefore, narrative synthesis of the results was conducted. The findings from the studies are considered in terms of the contribution the activities make to building resilience of children and young people. It was found that participating in arts activities can have a positive effect on self-confidence, self-esteem, relationship building and a sense of belonging, qualities which have been associated with resilience and mental wellbeing. Although the research evidence is limited, there is some support for providing structured group arts activities to help build resilience and contribute to positive mental wellbeing of children and young people.

  8. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  9. Rapid Upregulation of Orai1 Abundance in the Plasma Membrane of Platelets Following Activation with Thrombin and Collagen Related Peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilai Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood platelets accomplish primary hemostasis following vascular injury and contribute to the orchestration of occlusive vascular disease. Platelets are activated by an increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i, which is accomplished by Ca2+-release from intracellular stores and subsequent store operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE through Ca2+ release activated Ca2+ channel moiety Orai1. Powerful activators of platelets include thrombin and collagen related peptide (CRP, which are in part effective by activation of small G- protein Rac1. The present study explored the influence of thrombin and CRP on Orai1 protein abundance and cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i in platelets drawn from wild type mice. Methods: Orai1 protein surface abundance was quantified utilizing CF™488A conjugated antibodies, and [Ca2+]i was determined with Fluo3-fluorescence. Results: In resting platelets, Orai1 protein abundance and [Ca2+]i were low. Thrombin (0.02 U/ml and CRP (5ug/ml within 2 min increased [Ca2+]i and Orai1 protein abundance at the platelet surface. [Ca2+]i was further increased by Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin (1 µM and by store depletion with the sarcoendoplasmatic Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin (1 µM. However, Orai1 protein abundance at the platelet surface was not significantly affected by ionomycin and only slightly increased by thapsigargin. The effect of thrombin and CRP on Orai1 abundance and [Ca2+]i was significantly blunted by Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 (50 µM. Conclusion: The increase of [Ca2+]i following stimulation of platelets with thrombin and collagen related peptide is potentiated by ultrarapid Rac1 sensitive translocation of Orai1 into the cell membrane.

  10. Detection of carbapenemase activity in Enterobacteriaceae using LC-MS/MS in comparison with the neo-rapid CARB kit using direct visual assessment and colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Charlotte A; Sidjabat, Hanna E; Zowawi, Hosam M; Kvaskoff, David; Reed, Sarah; McNamara, John F; McCarthy, Kate L; Harris, Patrick; Toh, Benjamin; Wailan, Alexander M; Paterson, David L

    2016-12-01

    It has been described that the sensitivity of the Carba NP test may be low in the case of OXA-48-like carbapenamases and mass spectrometry based methods as well as a colorimetry based method have been described as alternatives. We evaluated 84 Enterobacteriaceae isolates including 31 OXA-48-like producing isolates and 13 isolates that produced either an imipenemase (IMP; n=8), New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM; n=3), or Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC; n=2), as well as 40 carbapenemase negative Enterobacteriaceae isolates. We used the Neo-Rapid CARB kit, assessing the results with the unaided eye and compared it with a colorimetric approach. Furthermore, we incubated the isolates in growth media with meropenem and measured the remaining meropenem after one and 2h of incubation, respectively, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Whilst all carbapenemase producing isolates with the exception of the OXA-244 producer tested positive for both the Neo-rapid CARB test using the unaided eye or colorimetry, and the 13 isolates producing either IMP, NDM or KPC hydrolysed the meropenem in the media almost completely after 2h of incubation, the 31 OXA-48-like producing isolates exhibited very variable hydrolytic activity when incubated in growth media with meropenem. In our study, the Neo-Rapid CARB test yielded a sensitivity of 98% for both the traditional and the colorimetric approach with a specificity of 95% and 100% respectively. Our results indicate that the Neo-Rapid CARB test may have use for the detection of OXA-48 type carbapenemases and that it may be particularly important to ensure bacterial lysis for the detection of these weaker hydrolysers. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Slowly and rapidly digestible starchy foods can elicit a similar glycemic response because of differential tissue glucose uptake in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelderink, Coby; Schepers, Marianne; Preston, Tom; Vonk, Roel J.; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previously we observed that the consumption of pasta and bread resulted in a similar glycemic response, despite a slower intestinal influx rate of glucose from the pasta. Underlying mechanisms of this effect were not clear. Objective: The objective was to investigate the differences in

  12. The effects of participating in creative activities on the health and well-being of children and young people: a rapid review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungay, Hilary; Vella-Burrows, Trish

    2013-01-01

    Health-promoting strategies need to be culturally appropriate to encourage healthy behaviours and lifestyle choices in children and young people. This rapid review explores the effects of participating in creative activities on the health and well-being of children aged between 11 and 18 years. Building on an earlier systematic review undertaken by Daykin and colleagues(1) a rapid review of the literature published between 2004 and 2011 was undertaken. The search was conducted systematically and included research on music, dance, singing, drama and visual arts, taking place in community settings or as extracurricular activities in mainstream schools. Therapies such as art, drama and music were excluded from the review. Following rigorous application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 20 papers were included in the review: six quantitative, eight qualitative and six mixed-method approaches. The interventions used in the studies were diverse and the research was heterogeneous, therefore overall synthesis of the results was inappropriate. The review is therefore organised into the following headings: sexual health, obesity, mental health and emotional well-being. Despite the methodological weakness and limitations of the majority of the studies there were some consistencies in their findings. It was found that participating in creative activities can have a positive effect on behavioural changes, self-confidence, self-esteem, levels of knowledge and physical activity. Although the research evidence is generally weak there is some evidence that using creative activities as part of a health-promoting strategy may be a useful method of increasing knowledge and positive behaviours in children and young people.

  13. RUMBLE-2 Project : Rapid Environment Assessment of Sea Bottom Parameters Using an Operational Active Low-Frequency Sonar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Juhel, B.; Cristol, X.; Chalindar, B.; Dybedal, J.; Eidem, E.J.; Ivansson, S.; Vossen,R. van; Ainslie, M.A.; Andersson, B.L.; Benders,F.P.A.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Olsen, G.K.; Pihl, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the European Defence Agency project called “RUMBLE 2” carried out with contribution of several European organizations: TUS in France, TNO in the Netherlands, KDS and FFI in Norway, FOI in Sweden. The objective was to assess the capability of an operational Low Frequency Active

  14. 17β-estradiol rapidly activates calcium release from intracellular stores via the GPR30 pathway and MAPK phosphorylation in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Jian

    2012-03-06

    Estrogen regulates critical cellular functions, and its deficiency initiates bone turnover and the development of bone mass loss in menopausal females. Recent studies have demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E 2) induces rapid non-genomic responses that activate downstream signaling molecules, thus providing a new perspective to understand the relationship between estrogen and bone metabolism. In this study, we investigated rapid estrogen responses, including calcium release and MAPK phosphorylation, in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells. E 2 elevated [Ca 2+] i and increased Ca 2+ oscillation frequency in a dose-dependent manner. Immunolabeling confirmed the expression of three estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 [GPR30]) in MLO-Y4 cells and localized GPR30 predominantly to the plasma membrane. E 2 mobilized calcium from intracellular stores, and the use of selective agonist(s) for each ER showed that this was mediated mainly through the GPR30 pathway. MAPK phosphorylation increased in a biphasic manner, with peaks occurring after 7 and 60 min. GPR30 and classical ERs showed different temporal effects on MAPK phosphorylation and contributed to MAPK phosphorylation sequentially. ICI182,780 inhibited E 2 activation of MAPK at 7 min, while the GPR30 agonist G-1 and antagonist G-15 failed to affect MAPK phosphorylation levels. G-1-mediated MAPK phosphorylation at 60 min was prevented by prior depletion of calcium stores. Our data suggest that E 2 induces the non-genomic responses Ca 2+ release and MAPK phosphorylation to regulate osteocyte function and indicate that multiple receptors mediate rapid E 2 responses. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  15. 17β-estradiol rapidly activates calcium release from intracellular stores via the GPR30 pathway and MAPK phosphorylation in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian; Wu, Jun Hua

    2012-05-01

    Estrogen regulates critical cellular functions, and its deficiency initiates bone turnover and the development of bone mass loss in menopausal females. Recent studies have demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E(2)) induces rapid non-genomic responses that activate downstream signaling molecules, thus providing a new perspective to understand the relationship between estrogen and bone metabolism. In this study, we investigated rapid estrogen responses, including calcium release and MAPK phosphorylation, in osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells. E(2) elevated [Ca(2+)]( i ) and increased Ca(2+) oscillation frequency in a dose-dependent manner. Immunolabeling confirmed the expression of three estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 [GPR30]) in MLO-Y4 cells and localized GPR30 predominantly to the plasma membrane. E(2) mobilized calcium from intracellular stores, and the use of selective agonist(s) for each ER showed that this was mediated mainly through the GPR30 pathway. MAPK phosphorylation increased in a biphasic manner, with peaks occurring after 7 and 60 min. GPR30 and classical ERs showed different temporal effects on MAPK phosphorylation and contributed to MAPK phosphorylation sequentially. ICI182,780 inhibited E(2) activation of MAPK at 7 min, while the GPR30 agonist G-1 and antagonist G-15 failed to affect MAPK phosphorylation levels. G-1-mediated MAPK phosphorylation at 60 min was prevented by prior depletion of calcium stores. Our data suggest that E(2) induces the non-genomic responses Ca(2+) release and MAPK phosphorylation to regulate osteocyte function and indicate that multiple receptors mediate rapid E(2) responses.

  16. Rapid preparation of branched and degradable AIE-active fluorescent organic nanoparticles via formation of dynamic phenyl borate bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zi; Liu, Meiying; Mao, Liucheng; Zeng, Guangjian; Wan, Qing; Xu, Dazhuang; Deng, Fengjie; Huang, Hongye; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-02-01

    The fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FNPs) with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) feature have received increasing attention for their advanced optical properties. Although many efforts have been devoted to the fabrication and biomedical applications of AIE-active FNPs, the preparation of branched AIE-active FNPs with degradability through formation of dynamic bonds have rarely been reported. In this work, branched AIE-active FNPs were fabricated via dynamic linkage of hydrophobic hyperbranched and degradable Boltorn H40 (H40) with phenylboronic acid terminated AIE dye (PhB(OH)2) and mPEG (mPEG-B(OH)2), which relied on a facile one-pot strategy between phenylboronic acid and diol group of H40. The branched H40-star-mPEG-PhB(OH)2 FNPs were characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Benefiting from their highly branched structure and amphiphilic properties, H40-star-mPEG-PhB(OH)2 could self-assemble into micelles and emit strong orange-red fluorescence. More importantly, cell viability results demonstrated that H40-star-mPEG-PhB(OH)2 FNPs showed good biocompatibility and promising candidates for bio-imaging. Taken together, we developed a one-pot strategy for preparation of branched AIE-active FNPs through the formation of dynamic phenyl borate. The resultant H40-star-mPEG-PhB(OH)2 FNPs should be promising biomaterials for different applications for biodegradability of H40 and responsiveness of phenyl borate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrasonic-assisted Kabachnik-Fields reaction for rapid fabrication of AIE-active fluorescent organic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zi; Liu, Meiying; Jiang, Ruming; Zeng, Guangjiang; Wan, Qing; Huang, Hongye; Deng, Fengjie; Wan, Yiqun; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2017-03-01

    Aggregation-induced emission (AIE)-active fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FNPs) have been extensively explored for fluorescence "turn-on" bio-imaging applications with the unique advantages over conventional FNPs. Transformation of AIE-active molecules into FNPs can greatly expand their biomedical application potential. Here we reported a novel "one-pot" strategy for fabricating AIE-active FNPs through an ultrasonic-assisted, catalysts-free and solvent-free Kabachnik-Fields (KF) reaction for the first time. The KF reaction can be completed within 10min to generate AIE-active PTH-CHO-PEI-DEP FNPs through mixing polyethylenimine and aldehyde group containing AIE dyes and diethyl phosphate. These PTH-CHO-PEI-DEP FNPs were confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fluorescence spectroscopy etc. The cell uptake behavior as well as cell viability of PTH-CHO-PEI-DEP FNPs was examined to evaluate their potential for biomedical application. We demonstrated that the amphiphilic α-aminophosphonate polymers could self-assemble into PTH-CHO-PEI-DEP FNPs in aqueous solution and showed excellent water dispersibility. TEM image shows the size of PTH-CHO-PEI-DEP FNPs is 100-200nm. More importantly, the PTH-CHO-PEI-DEP FNPs emit strong green fluorescence and desirable biocompatibility, making them very suitable for biomedical applications. Finally, thus smart FNPs design together with their excellent performance will open a new avenue in the development of FNPs for following biological processes such as carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid burst of H2O2 by plant growth regulators increases intracellular Ca2+ amounts and modulates CD4+ T cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Asma; Mukherjee, Sambuddho; Deobagkar, Mukta; Naik, Tanushree; Nandi, Dipankar

    2010-11-01

    The identification of small molecules that affect T cell activation is an important area of research. Three molecules that regulate plant growth and differentiation, but not their structurally similar analogs, were identified to enhance primary mouse CD4(+) T cell activation in conjunction with soluble anti-CD3 stimulation: Indoleacetic acid (natural plant auxin), 1-Napthaleneacetic acid (synthetic plant auxin) and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (synthetic plant auxin and herbicide). These effects are distinct in comparison to Curcumin, the well known phenolic immunomodulator, which lowers T cell activation. An investigation into the mechanisms of action of the three plant growth regulators revealed a rapid induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mainly comprising H(2)O(2). In addition, these three molecules synergize with soluble anti-CD3 signaling to enhance intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations [Ca(2+)](i), leading to greater T cell activation, e.g. induction of CD25 and IL-2. Enhanced production of TNFα and IFNγ by CD4(+) T cells is also observed upon plant growth regulator treatment with soluble anti-CD3. Interestingly, maximal IL-2 production and CD4(+) T cell cycle progression are observed upon activation with soluble anti-CD3 and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a phorbol ester. Additionally, stimulation with PMA and Ionomcyin (a Ca(2+) ionophore), which activates T cells by circumventing the TCR, and plant growth regulators also demonstrated the role of the strength of signal (SOS): T cell cycle progression is enhanced with gentle activation conditions but decreased with strong activation conditions. This study demonstrates the direct effects of three plant growth regulators on CD4(+) T cell activation and cycling. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preliminary test of the LFA rapid evaluation of activity in lupus (LFA-REAL): an efficient outcome measure correlates with validated instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askanase, Anca; Li, Xiaoqing; Pong, Avery; Shum, Katrina; Kamp, Stan; Carthen, Fredonna; Aberle, Teresa; Hanrahan, Leslie; Daly, Paola; Giles, Jon; Merrill, Joan T

    2015-01-01

    Current disease activity measures for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are difficult to score or interpret and problematic for use in clinical practice. Lupus Foundation of America (LFA)-Rapid Evaluation of Activity in Lupus (REAL) is a pilot application composed of anchored visual analogue scores (0-100 mm each) for each organ affected by lupus. This study evaluated the use of LFA-REAL in capturing SLE disease activity. In a preliminary test of LFA-REAL, this simplified, organ-based system was compared with the most widely used outcome measures in clinical trials, the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group 2004 Index (BILAG), the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and the Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment (SELENA) SLEDAI Physician's Global Assessment (SS-PGA). The level of agreement was analysed using Spearman rank correlations. 91 patients with SLE with mild to severe disease activity were evaluated, their median SLEDAI score was 4.0 (range 0-28) and BILAG score 8.0 (0-32). The median SS-PGA was 38 mm (4-92) versus the total REAL 50 mm (0-268), which expands in range by additive organ scores. Thirty-three patients had moderate to severe disease activity (≥1.5 on SS-PGA landmarks). The median SS-PGA score of this group was 66 mm (50-92) versus median REAL score of 100 mm (59-268), confirming ability to detect a wider distribution of scores at higher disease activity. Total REAL correlated with SLEDAI, BILAG and SS-PGA (correlation coefficient=0.816, 0.933 and 0.903, respectively; pexercise, there were strong correlations between LFA-REAL and validated lupus disease activity indices. Further development may be valuable for consistent scoring in clinical trials, grading optimal assessment of change in disease activity and reliable monitoring of patients in practice.

  20. Rapid evaluation and comparison of natural products and antioxidant activity in calendula, feverfew, and German chamomile extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Babazadeh Ortakand, Davoud; Morton, David W; Yusof, Ahmad P

    2015-03-13

    The present study describes a simple high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the simultaneous quantification of apigenin, chamazulene, bisabolol and the use of DPPH free radical as a post-chromatographic derivatization agent to compare the free radical scavenging activities of these components in leaf and flower head extracts from feverfew, German chamomile and marigold from the Asteraceae family. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) leaves have been traditionally used in the treatment of migraine with parthenolide being the main bioactive compound. However, due to similar flowers, feverfew is sometimes mistaken for the German chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Bisabolol and chamazulene are the main components in chamomile essential oil. Marigold (Calendula officinalis) was included in the study for comparison, as it belongs to the same family. Parthenolide was found to be present in all leaf extracts but was not detected in calendula flower extract. Chamazulene and bisabolol were found to be present in higher concentrations in chamomile and Calendula flowers. Apigenin was detected and quantified only in chamomile extracts (highest concentration in flower head extracts). Antioxidant activity in sample extracts was compared by superimposing the chromatograms obtained after post-chromatographic derivatization with DPPH and post-chromatographic derivatization with anisaldehyde. It was found that extracts from chamomile flower heads and leaves have the most prominent antioxidant activity, with bisabolol and chamazulene being the most effective antioxidants. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The NLP toxin family in Phytophthora sojae includes rapidly evolving groups that lack necrosis-inducing activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Suomeng; Kong, Guanghui; Qutob, Dinah; Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Kang, Jixiong; Dai, Tingting; Wang, Hai; Gijzen, Mark; Wang, Yuanchao

    2012-07-01

    Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins (NLP) are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic plant pathogens and are considered to be important virulence factors. We identified, in total, 70 potential Phytophthora sojae NLP genes but 37 were designated as pseudogenes. Sequence alignment of the remaining 33 NLP delineated six groups. Three of these groups include proteins with an intact heptapeptide (Gly-His-Arg-His-Asp-Trp-Glu) motif, which is important for necrosis-inducing activity, whereas the motif is not conserved in the other groups. In total, 19 representative NLP genes were assessed for necrosis-inducing activity by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, only eight genes triggered cell death. The expression of the NLP genes in P. sojae was examined, distinguishing 20 expressed and 13 nonexpressed NLP genes. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicate that most NLP are highly expressed during cyst germination and infection stages. Amino acid substitution ratios (Ka/Ks) of 33 NLP sequences from four different P. sojae strains resulted in identification of positive selection sites in a distinct NLP group. Overall, our study indicates that expansion and pseudogenization of the P. sojae NLP family results from an ongoing birth-and-death process, and that varying patterns of expression, necrosis-inducing activity, and positive selection suggest that NLP have diversified in function.

  2. Hepatocyte growth factor is a potent trigger of neutrophil adhesion through rapid activation of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mine, S; Tanaka, Y; Suematu, M; Aso, M; Fujisaki, T; Yamada, S; Eto, S

    1998-11-01

    Recruitment of neutrophils into tissue occurs in several pathologic processes such as inflammation, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and ischemia. In inflammation, the adherence of neutrophils to the endothelium depends on neutrophil integrins. Integrin-mediated adhesion is tightly regulated, ie, integrins do not function if neutrophils are not triggered by certain activation stimuli. We investigated the role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells in inflammation. Our results showed that (a) HGF induced not only lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1)-mediated adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells but also transmigration of neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner; (b) HGF functionally transformed neutrophil integrin LFA-1 to active form and reduced surface L-selectin expression level; (c) HGF induced F-actin polymerization and cytoskeletal rearrangement within seconds; (d) genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as well as wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3 (PI 3)-kinase inhibitor, inhibited both F-actin polymerization and LFA-1-mediated adhesion of neutrophils to endothelial cells; and (e) neutrophils in cutaneous inflamed tissue highly expressed HGF and serum levels of HGF were elevated in patients with Behçet's disease, which is associated with neutrophilic vasculitis and marked neutrophil accumulation. Our results indicate that HGF plays a pivotal role in integrin-mediated adhesion and transmigration of neutrophils to sites of acute inflammation through cytoskeletal rearrangement activated by tyrosine kinase and PI 3-kinase signaling.

  3. Vertical and Horizontal Polarization Observations of Slowly Varying Solar Emissions from Operational Swiss Weather Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gabella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic power that arrives from the Sun in the C-band has been used to check the quality of the polarimetric, Doppler weather radar network that has recently been installed in Switzerland. The operational monitoring of this network is based on the analysis of Sun signals in the polar volume data produced during the MeteoSwiss scan program. It relies on a method that has been developed to: (1 determine electromagnetic antenna pointing; (2 monitor receiver stability; and (3 assess the differential reflectivity offset. Most of the results from such a method had been derived using data acquired in 2008, which was a period of quiet solar flux activity. Here, it has been applied, in simplified form, to the currently active Sun period. This note describes the results that have been obtained recently thanks to an inter-comparison of three polarimetric operational radars and the Sun’s reference signal observed in Canada in the S-band by the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO. The focus is on relative calibration: horizontal and vertical polarization are evaluated versus the DRAO reference and mutually compared. All six radar receivers (three systems, two polarizations are able to capture and describe the monthly variability of the microwave signal emitted by the Sun. It can be concluded that even this simplified form of the method has the potential to routinely monitor dual-polarization weather radar networks during periods of intense Sun activity.

  4. Effects of respiratory muscle training on pulmonary functions in patients with slowly progressive neuromuscular disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Goksen Kuran; Gurses, H Nilgun; Issever, Halim; Kiyan, Esen

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the effects of inspiratory and expiratory muscle training on pulmonary functions in patients with slowly progressive neuromuscular disease. Prospective randomized controlled double-blinded study. Chest diseases clinic of university hospital. Twenty-six patients with slowly progressive neuromuscular disease followed for respiratory problems were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; experimental (n = 14; age 31.6 ±12.3 years) and sham (n = 12; age 26.5 ±8.6 years) groups. Spirometry, peak cough flow, maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal expiratory pressure, and sniff nasal inspiratory pressure were measured before the eighth week of study, and subsequently at end of it. Respiratory muscle training was performed by inspiratory (Threshold Inspiratory Muscle Trainer) and expiratory (Threshold Positive Expiratory Pressure) threshold loading methods. Training intensities were increased according to maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures in the experimental group, while the lowest loads were used for training in the sham group. Patients performed 15 minutes inspiratory muscle training and 15 minutes expiratory muscle training, twice a day, five days/week, for a total of eight weeks at home. Training intensity was adjusted in the training group once a week. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (cmH2O, % predicted) (respectively p = 0.002, p = 0.003, p = 0.04, p = 0.03) and sniff nasal inspiratory pressure (p = 0.04) were improved in the experimental group when compared with the sham group. However, there was no improvement in spirometric measurements when groups were compared (p > 0.05). As a conclusion of our study, we found that respiratory muscle strength improved by inspiratory and expiratory muscle training in patients with slowly progressive neuromuscular disease. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Walking more slowly than with normal velocity: The influence on trunk and pelvis kinematics in young and older healthy persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Eva; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Pintens, Seppe; Buyl, Ronald; Goossens, Maggie; Meeusen, Romain; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2013-08-01

    Few studies have addressed trunk and pelvis movements during gait, although they play an important role in gait control. The aim of this study was to compare trunk and pelvis kinematics between slower walking (1, 2, 3, 4kmph) and normal walking (5kmph), and between healthy adults who were young (n=15, 20-30years) and older (n=17, 50-60years). After 4min of treadmill walking, the 3-dimensional trunk and pelvis kinematics was measured (Polhemus Liberty™, 250Hz). A repeated measures ANOVA with simple contrasts was used to look for differences between the velocity conditions of walking and independent t-testing for comparison between the age groups (significance level: 5%, SPSS20). Walking more slowly than with normal velocity induces (1) a decrease in vertical center of mass of the trunk displacement, trunk lateral flexion and axial rotation and pelvis lateral and antero-posterior tilting, and (2) an increase in lateral and antero-posterior center of mass of the trunk displacement. Compared to young persons, older persons show: (1) larger pelvis axial rotations and trunk lateral and antero-posterior movements, and (2) smaller pelvis lateral tilting and trunk vertical movements and rotations. The literature reports that patients often walk slowly and that older persons show different gait patterns compared to young persons. This study shows that there are changes in trunk and pelvis kinematics (1) when walking more slowly than with normal velocity and (2) in older persons compared to young persons. These data could be taken into account in gait rehabilitation. © 2013.

  6. Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Based on Flocculation and Reduction of an Exopolysaccharide from Arthrobacter sp. B4: Its Antimicrobial Activity and Phytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yumei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using an exopolysaccharide from Arthrobacter sp. B4 (B4-EPS. The optimum condition for AgNPs synthesis was under the concentration of 5 g/L B4-EPS and 1 mM AgNO3 at 80°C between pH 7.0 and 8.0. The resulting AgNPs displayed a face-centred-cubic structure with the size range from 9 nm to 72 nm. Further analysis showed that flocculation and reduction of B4-EPS played a pivotal role in the formation of AgNPs. Furthermore, these nanoparticles exhibited great stability, excellent antimicrobial activity, and low phytotoxicity. The aforementioned data provide a feasible and efficient approach for green synthesis of AgNPs using microbial polysaccharides with flocculation and reduction activity, which will be promising in medical filed.

  7. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  8. Slowly Progressive Encephalopathy with Hearing Loss Due to a Mutation in the mtDNA tRNALeu(CUN) Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoku, Jorida; Shanske, Sara; Mehrazin, Mahsa; Tanji, Kurenai; Naini, Ali; Emmanuele, Valentina; Patterson, Marc; Hirano, Michio; DiMauro, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in the tRNALeu(UCN) gene of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been invariably accompanied by skeletal myopathy with or without chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO). We report a young woman with a heteroplasmic m.12276G>A mutation in tRNALeu(UCN), who had childhood-onset and slowly progressive encephalopathy with ataxia, cognitive impairment, and hearing loss. Sequencing of the 22 tRNA mitochondrial genes is indicated in all unusual neurological syndromes, even in the absence of maternal inheritance. PMID:20022607

  9. On slowly varying systems - l-infinity to l-infinity performance and implications to robust adaptive control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgaris, Petros G.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Valavani, Lena S.

    1992-01-01

    The authors present a result on the l-infinity to l-infinity performance of slowly time varying systems. In particular, it is shown that the performance of such systems cannot be much worse than that of the frozen-time systems which are time invariant. This result is used to characterize a class of indirect adaptive controllers that can stabilize a time-invariant system subjected to both parametric and l-infinity to l-infinity bounded unstructured uncertainty. Pertaining to this class of controllers, a particular indirect adaptive scheme is proposed that provides the greatest upper bound on the size of the unstructured uncertainty for which stability is ensured.

  10. Slowly progressive motor neuron disease with multi-system involvement related to p.E121G SOD1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taieb, Guillaume; Polge, Anne; Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Lumbroso, Serge; Mouzat, Kevin; Camu, William

    2017-05-01

    We report the third case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis related to p.E121G Superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) mutation. Besides a sporadic presentation and a slow progressive course, as described in the 2 previously cases, our patient presented with prominent sensory and cerebellar signs. This case report strengthens that p.E121G should be considered as a causal mutation. Slowly upper and lower motor neuron degeneration, even with non-motor clinical features, should prompt a sequencing of SOD1.

  11. Rapid activity prediction of HIV-1 integrase inhibitors: harnessing docking energetic components for empirical scoring by chemometric and artificial neural network approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangsunan, Patcharapong; Kittiwachana, Sila; Meepowpan, Puttinan; Kungwan, Nawee; Prangkio, Panchika; Hannongbua, Supa; Suree, Nuttee

    2016-06-01

    Improving performance of scoring functions for drug docking simulations is a challenging task in the modern discovery pipeline. Among various ways to enhance the efficiency of scoring function, tuning of energetic component approach is an attractive option that provides better predictions. Herein we present the first development of rapid and simple tuning models for predicting and scoring inhibitory activity of investigated ligands docked into catalytic core domain structures of HIV-1 integrase (IN) enzyme. We developed the models using all energetic terms obtained from flexible ligand-rigid receptor dockings by AutoDock4, followed by a data analysis using either partial least squares (PLS) or self-organizing maps (SOMs). The models were established using 66 and 64 ligands of mercaptobenzenesulfonamides for the PLS-based and the SOMs-based inhibitory activity predictions, respectively. The models were then evaluated for their predictability quality using closely related test compounds, as well as five different unrelated inhibitor test sets. Weighting constants for each energy term were also optimized, thus customizing the scoring function for this specific target protein. Root-mean-square error (RMSE) values between the predicted and the experimental inhibitory activities were determined to be <1 (i.e. within a magnitude of a single log scale of actual IC50 values). Hence, we propose that, as a pre-functional assay screening step, AutoDock4 docking in combination with these subsequent rapid weighted energy tuning methods via PLS and SOMs analyses is a viable approach to predict the potential inhibitory activity and to discriminate among small drug-like molecules to target a specific protein of interest.

  12. Age-associated changes in monocyte and innate immune activation markers occur more rapidly in HIV infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Genevieve E; Gouillou, Maelenn; Hearps, Anna C; Angelovich, Thomas A; Cheng, Allen C; Lynch, Fiona; Cheng, Wan-Jung; Paukovics, Geza; Palmer, Clovis S; Novak, Richard M; Jaworowski, Anthony; Landay, Alan L; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with immune dysfunction and the related development of conditions with an inflammatory pathogenesis. Some of these immune changes are also observed in HIV infection, but the interaction between immune changes with aging and HIV infection are unknown. Whilst sex differences in innate immunity are recognized, little research into innate immune aging has been performed on women. This cross-sectional study of HIV positive and negative women used whole blood flow cytometric analysis to characterize monocyte and CD8(+) T cell subsets. Plasma markers of innate immune activation were measured using standard ELISA-based assays. HIV positive women exhibited elevated plasma levels of the innate immune activation markers CXCL10 (pinnate immune aging biomarkers sCD163 and the proportion of CD16(+) monocytes were equivalent to those observed in HIV negative women aged 14.5 and 10.6 years older, respectively. CXCL10 increased with age at an accelerated rate in HIV positive women (p = 0.002) suggesting a synergistic effect between HIV and aging on innate immune activation. Multivariable modeling indicated that age-related increases in innate immune biomarkers CXCL10 and sCD163 are independent of senescent changes in CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Quantifying the impact of HIV on immune aging reveals that HIV infection in women confers the equivalent of a 10-14 year increase in the levels of innate immune aging markers. These changes may contribute to the increased risk of inflammatory age-related diseases in HIV positive women.

  13. Building blocks for actively-aligned micro-optical systems in rapid prototyping and small series production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, Gunnar; Queisser, Marco; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years there has been considerable progress in utilizing fully automated machines for the assembly of microoptical systems. Such systems integrate laser sources, optical elements and detectors into tight packages, and efficiently couple light to free space beams, waveguides in optical backplanes, or optical fibers for longer reach transmission. The required electrical-optical and optical components are placed and aligned actively in more than one respect. For one, all active components are actually operated in the alignment process, and, more importantly, the placing of all components is controlled actively by camera systems and power detectors with live feedback for an optimal coupling efficiency. The total number of optical components typically is in the range of 5 to 50, whereas the number of actors with gripping tools for the actual handling and aligning is limited, with little flexibility in the gripping width. The assembly process therefore is strictly sequential and, given that an automated tool changing has not been established in this class of machines yet, there are either limitations in the geometries of components that may be used, or time-consuming interaction by human operators is needed. As a solution we propose and present lasered glass building blocks with standardized gripping geometries that enclose optical elements of various shapes and functionalities. These are cut as free form geometries with green short pulse and CO2 lasers. What seems to add cost at first rather increases freedom of design and adds an economical flexibility to create very hybrid assemblies of various micro-optical assemblies also in small numbers.

  14. Rapid negative inotropic effect induced by TNF-α in rat heart perfused related to PKC activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jude, B; Vetel, S; Giroux-Metges, M A; Pennec, J P

    2017-11-29

    Myocardial depression, frequently observed in septic shock, is mediated by circulating molecules such as cytokines. TNF-α appears to be the most important pro-inflammatory cytokine released during the early phase of a septic shock. It was previously shown that TNF-α had a negative inotropic effect on myocardium. Now, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the activation of PKC by TNF-α on heart function, and to determine if this cytokine could induce a decrease of membrane excitability. Isolated rat hearts (n = 6) were perfused with Tyrode solution containing TNF-α at 20 ng/ml during 30 min by using a Langendorff technique. Expressions of PKC-α and PKC-ε were analysed by western blot on membrane and cytosol proteins extracted from ventricular myocardium. Patch clamp was performed on freshly isolated cardiomyocytes (n = 8). Compared to control situation, 30 min of TNF-α perfusion led to cardiac dysfunction with a decrease of the heart rate (-83%), the force (-20%) and speed of relaxation (-18%) and the coronary flow (-25%). This is associated with an activation and a membrane targeting of both PKC-α and PKC-ε isoforms in ventricle with respectively +123% and +54% compared to control hearts. Nevertheless, TNF-α had no significant effect on voltage-gated sodium current (109.0%+/- 12.5) after addition of the cytokine when compared to control. These results showed that TNF-α had a negative inotropic effect on the isolated rat heart and can induce PKC activation leading to an impaired contractility of the heart. However the early heart dysfunction induced by the cytokine was not associated to a decrease of cardiomyocytes membrane excitability as it has been evidenced in skeletal muscle fibres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Labelling of pneumococcal penicillin-binding proteins with (/sup 3/H)propionyl-ampicillin. A rapid method for monitoring penicillin-binding activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakenbeck, R. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Molekulare Genetik, Berlin (Germany, F.R.)); Kohiyama, M. (Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France). Inst. de Biologie Moleculaire)

    1982-08-01

    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are membrane components ubiquitous to all bacteria examined so far. Some of them are present in only a few copies per cell. The conventional method of visualizing these proteins consists in binding of radioactive penicillin to the fractions containing PBPs followed by SDS-PAGE and finally fluorography. Although this procedure is laborious, it is necessary for the determination of the identity as well as for the quantification of each PBP. On the other hand, when penicillin-binding conditions are to be examined or binding activity has to be followed through fractionation and purification of PBPs, no fast monitoring device for these proteins has been available. The authors developed a rapid and easy assay for penicillin-binding activity with a filter-binding technique using (/sup 3/H)propionyl ampicillin (/sup 3/H-PA) of high specific activity. As little 2..mu..g of crude membranes obtained from the highly penicillin-sensitive, ..beta..-lactamase-negative organism Streptococcus pneumoniae, are sufficient to detect binding activity. In this paper they describe optimum conditions for the assay of PBPs and show that this binding activity correlates with the presence of native penicillin-binding proteins.

  16. A Rapid Screening Analysis of Antioxidant Compounds in Native Australian Food Plants Using Multiplexed Detection with Active Flow Technology Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Janaka Rochana Rupesinghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional techniques for identifying antioxidant and phenolic compounds in native Australian food plants are laborious and time-consuming. Here, we present a multiplexed detection technique that reduces analysis time without compromising separation performance. This technique is achieved using Active Flow Technology-Parallel Segmented Flow (AFT-PSF columns. Extracts from cinnamon myrtle (Backhousia myrtifolia and lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora leaves were analysed via multiplexed detection using an AFT-PSF column with underivatised UV-VIS, mass spectroscopy (MS, and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• derivatisation for antioxidants as detection methods. A number of antioxidant compounds were detected in the extracts of each leaf extract.

  17. Rapid Removal of Zinc(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using a Mesoporous Activated Carbon Prepared from Agricultural Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotao; Hao, Yinan; Wang, Ximing; Chen, Zhangjing

    2017-08-28

    A low-cost activated carbon (XSBLAC) prepared from XanthocerasSorbifoliaBungehull via chemical activation was investigated to determine its adsorption and desorption properties for zinc(II) ions from aqueous solutions. XSBLAC was characterized based on its N₂-adsorption/desorption isotherm, EDX, XRD, SEM and FTIR results. An adsorption study was conducted in a series of experiments to optimize the process variables for zinc(II) removal using XSBLAC. Modeling the adsorption kinetics indicated good agreement between the experimental data and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The Langmuir equilibrium isotherm fit the experimental data reasonably well. The calculated enthalpy (ΔH⁰), entropy (ΔS⁰) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG⁰) values revealed the endothermic and spontaneous nature of the adsorption process. HNO₃ displayed the best desorption performance. The adsorption mechanism was investigated in detail through FTIR and SEM/EDX spectroscopic analyses. The results suggested that XSBLAC is a potential biosorbent for removing zinc(II) from aqueous solutions.

  18. Rapid extraction of Amomum tsao-ko essential oil and determination of its chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Qi; Wang, Li-Tao; Liu, Ju-Zhao; Wang, Hui-Mei; Guo, Na; Gu, Cheng-Bo; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2017-09-01

    A simple, green and efficient extraction method named modified-solvent free microwave extraction (M-SFME) was employed for the extraction of essential oils (EOs) from Amomun tsao-ko. The process of M-SFME was optimized with the prominent preponderance of such higher extraction yield (1.13%) than those of solvent free microwave extraction (SFME, 0.91%) and hydrodistillation (HD, 0.84%) under the optimal parameters. Thirty-four volatile substances representing 95.4% were identified. The IC 50 values of EOs determined by DPPH radical scavenging activity and β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay were 5.27 and 0.63mg/ml. Furthermore, the EOs exhibited moderate to potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against all tested strains including five gram-positive and two gram-negative bacteria (MIC: 2.94-5.86mg/ml). In general, M-SFME is a potential and desirable alternative for the extraction of EOs from aromatic herbs, and the EOs obtained from A. tsao-ko can be explored as a potent natural antimicrobial and antioxidant preservative ingredient in food industry from the technological and economical points of view. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A facile and rapid room-temperature route to hierarchical bismuth oxyhalide solid solutions with composition-dependent photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Han, Qiaofeng; Zhu, Junwu; Wang, Xin

    2016-09-01

    The unique nanosheet-based flower-like BiOCl1-xBrx (x=0-1) hierarchical solid solutions have been prepared by the reaction of Bi2O3 and KCl/KBr in mixed solution of glacial acetic acid (HAc) and H2O in dozens of minutes under ambient conditions. During the preparation process, the intermediate bismuth oxide acetate (CH3COOBiO) plays a key role in the formation of BiOCl1-xBrx solid solutions in such a short time. The as-prepared hierarchical BiOCl1-xBrx solid solutions possess high specific surface areas and modified band structures, which exhibit enhanced photocatalytic activity for Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation in comparison with pure BiOCl and BiOBr under visible light irradiation, with the activity reaching the maximum at x=0.5. The photodegradation efficiency of the BiOCl0.5Br0.5 solid solution is twice and 12times higher than P25 TiO2 under UV and visible light irradiation, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Escherichia coli HGT: Engineered for high glucose throughput even under slowly growing or resting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalowski, Annette; Siemann-Herzberg, Martin; Takors, Ralf

    2017-03-01

    Aerobic production-scale processes are constrained by the technical limitations of maximum oxygen transfer and heat removal. Consequently, microbial activity is often controlled via limited nutrient feeding to maintain it within technical operability. Here, we present an alternative approach based on a newly engineered Escherichia coli strain. This E. coli HGT (high glucose throughput) strain was engineered by modulating the stringent response regulation program and decreasing the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase. The strain offers about three-fold higher rates of cell-specific glucose uptake under nitrogen-limitation (0.6gGlc gCDW(-1)h(-1)) compared to that of wild type, with a maximum glucose uptake rate of about 1.8gGlc gCDW(-1)h(-1) already at a 0.3h(-1) specific growth rate. The surplus of imported glucose is almost completely available via pyruvate and is used to fuel pyruvate and lactate formation. Thus, E. coli HGT represents a novel chassis as a host for pyruvate-derived products. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulation suggests that rapid activation of social distancing can arrest epidemic development due to a novel strain of influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Heath

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social distancing interventions such as school closure and prohibition of public gatherings are present in pandemic influenza preparedness plans. Predicting the effectiveness of intervention strategies in a pandemic is difficult. In the absence of other evidence, computer simulation can be used to help policy makers plan for a potential future influenza pandemic. We conducted simulations of a small community to determine the magnitude and timing of activation that would be necessary for social distancing interventions to arrest a future pandemic. Methods We used a detailed, individual-based model of a real community with a population of approximately 30,000. We simulated the effect of four social distancing interventions: school closure, increased isolation of symptomatic individuals in their household, workplace nonattendance, and reduction of contact in the wider community. We simulated each of the intervention measures in isolation and in several combinations; and examined the effect of delays in the activation of interventions on the final and daily attack rates. Results For an epidemic with an R0 value of 1.5, a combination of all four social distancing measures could reduce the final attack rate from 33% to below 10% if introduced within 6 weeks from the introduction of the first case. In contrast, for an R0 of 2.5 these measures must be introduced within 2 weeks of the first case to achieve a similar reduction; delays of 2, 3 and 4 weeks resulted in final attack rates of 7%, 21% and 45% respectively. For an R0 of 3.5 the combination of all four measures could reduce the final attack rate from 73% to 16%, but only if introduced without delay; delays of 1, 2 or 3 weeks resulted in final attack rates of 19%, 35% or 63% respectively. For the higher R0 values no single measure has a significant impact on attack rates. Conclusion Our results suggest a critical role of social distancing in the potential control of a future

  2. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: devising controlled active treatment studies for symptomatic and neuroprotective therapy--a consensus statement from the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B; Hogl, B; Gagnon, J-F; Postuma, R; Sonka, K; Jennum, P; Partinen, M; Arnulf, I; Cochen de Cock, V; Dauvilliers, Y; Luppi, P-H; Heidbreder, A; Mayer, G; Sixel-Döring, F; Trenkwalder, C; Unger, M; Young, P; Wing, Y K; Ferini-Strambi, L; Ferri, R; Plazzi, G; Zucconi, M; Inoue, Y; Iranzo, A; Santamaria, J; Bassetti, C; Möller, J C; Boeve, B F; Lai, Y Y; Pavlova, M; Saper, C; Schmidt, P; Siegel, J M; Singer, C; St Louis, E; Videnovic, A; Oertel, W

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD) and related neurodegeneration in RBD. The consensus statement was generated during the fourth IRBD-SG symposium in Marburg, Germany in 2011. The IRBD-SG identified essential methodologic components for a randomized trial in RBD, including potential screening and diagnostic criteria, inclusion and exclusion criteria, primary and secondary outcomes for symptomatic therapy trials (particularly for melatonin and clonazepam), and potential primary and secondary outcomes for eventual trials with disease-modifying and neuroprotective agents. The latter trials are considered urgent, given the high conversion rate from idiopathic RBD (iRBD) to Parkinsonian disorders (i.e., PD, dementia with Lewy bodies [DLB], multiple system atrophy [MSA]). Six inclusion criteria were identified for symptomatic therapy and neuroprotective trials: (1) diagnosis of RBD needs to satisfy the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, second edition, (ICSD-2) criteria; (2) minimum frequency of RBD episodes should preferably be ⩾2 times weekly to allow for assessment of change; (3) if the PD-RBD target population is included, it should be in the early stages of PD defined as Hoehn and Yahr stages 1-3 in Off (untreated); (4) iRBD patients with soft neurologic dysfunction and with operational criteria established by the consensus of study investigators; (5) patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI); and (6) optimally treated comorbid OSA. Twenty-four exclusion criteria were identified. The primary outcome measure for RBD treatment trials was determined to be the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) efficacy index, consisting of a four-point scale with a four-point side-effect scale. Assessment of

  3. Rapid nanoparticle-mediated monitoring of bacterial metabolic activity and assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility in blood with magnetic relaxation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Kaittanis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the increased incidence of bacterial infections and the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria at the global level, we designed superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as nanosensors for the assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility through magnetic relaxation. In this report, we demonstrate that iron oxide nanosensors, either dextran-coated supplemented with Con A or silica-coated conjugated directly to Con A, can be used for the fast (1 quantification of polysaccharides, (2 assessment of metabolic activity and (3 determination of antimicrobial susceptibility in blood. The use of these polysaccharide nanosensors in the determination of antimicrobial susceptibility in the clinic or the field, and the utilization of these nanoprobes in pharmaceutical R&D are anticipated.

  4. Effects of rapid aging and lower participation rate among younger adults on the short-term trend of physical activity in the National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Nobuo; Yoshizawa, Takeshi; Okuda, Nagako

    2017-10-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan, has annually monitored two indicators of physical activity in adults. They are contrasting in the association with age; the prevalence of exercise habit is lower and step counts are higher among younger participants. The present study aimed to examine the effects of rapid aging of the Japanese population and the lower participation rate among younger adults on the short-term trend of two indicators of physical activity using tabulated data. The prevalence of exercise habit and step counts by age groups (≥20 years) from 2003 to 2010 were estimated using tabulated data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey by calculating sex-specific means weighted by age-specific Japanese population data for each year (population-weighted estimates) and for a fixed year (2005; age-standardized estimates). Linear regression analyses were used to test the statistical significance of their trends. Statistically significant increasing trends in the prevalence of exercise habit were observed for the crude means (P = 0.029), the population-weighted estimates (P = 0.007) and the age-standardized estimates (P = 0.016) only in men. Statistically significant decreasing trends in the step counts were observed for the crude means (P = 0.006 in men and P = 0.033 in women) and the population-weighted estimates (P = 0.008 in men and P = 0.049 in women) both in men and women, but for the age-standardized estimates (P = 0.039) only in men. The effects of rapid aging of the Japanese population and the lower participation rate among younger adults on the short-term trend are not small, and age-standardization is necessary to observe even the short-term trend of physical activity data. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1677-1682. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Frequent overlap of active hepatitis in recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis after living-donor liver transplantation relates to its rapidly progressive course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Egawa, Hiroto; Yoshizawa, Atsusi; Ueda, Yoshihide; Ichida, Takafumi; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Uemoto, Shinji; Harada, Kenichi; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2011-09-01

    Recurrence of primary sclerosing cholangitis after liver transplantation is a challenging issue. Liver pathologies of recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis after living-donor liver transplantation have not been reported. Here, liver pathologies of explanted grafts and biopsies of 9 patients who underwent retransplantation for recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis were compared with those of native livers. Recurrence was diagnosed in 13 of 36 patients for primary sclerosing cholangitis post-living-donor liver transplantation, and 9 of them underwent retransplantation. All explanted grafts revealed biliary cirrhosis with sclerosing cholangitis, and 6 patients had additional features of active hepatitis. Liver biopsies showed that 3 had active hepatitis in addition to fibrous cholangitis at recurrence of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Two developed active hepatitis later after the diagnosis of recurrence. In explanted grafts, in addition to extensive hilar lymphoplasmacytic cholangitis, 4 cases showed hilar xanthogranulomatous cholangitis. The latter was not evident in 7 native livers. Ductopenia was extensive in all native livers, although such changes were relatively mild in explanted grafts at retransplantation. Patients with recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis developed progressive graft failure, and the interval between diagnosis of recurrence and retransplantation (mean, 3.2 years) was shorter than that between diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis and first transplantation (mean, 7.7 years). The rather rapid deterioration of recurrent primary sclerosing cholangitis after liver transplantation may be related to the frequent overlap of active hepatitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl-tetrazolium chloride staining as an indicator of biocidal activity in a rapid assay for anti-Acanthamoeba agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Mito, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Narumi; Suzuki, Takashi; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2012-05-01

    The usefulness of 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl-tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining to determine the respiratory activity of Acanthamoeba was evaluated in this study. Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts have a red fluorescence after staining with CTC. To determine the effectiveness of CTC staining as a CTC biocidal assay for Acanthamoeba, the trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba castellanii (ATCC 5037) were treated with serial concentrations of disinfectant solutions, namely, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and commercial soft contact lens (SCL) disinfectant solutions. The treated Acanthamoeba organisms were stained with CTC, and their respiratory activity was determined by the intensity of fluorescence in a fluorescence microplate reader. The survival rates of the same samples were determined by a culture-dependent biocidal assay using the Spearman-Karber method. Our results showed that the respiratory activities determined by the CTC biocidal assay and the survival rates determined by the culture-dependent biocidal assay for Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts decreased in a dose-dependent way after PHMB treatments, and the results were significantly correlated (r = 0.83 and P activities in the trophozoites and cysts treated with SCL disinfectant solutions were significantly correlated with the survival rate (r = 0.70 and P biocidal assay can be used as an alternative method to a culture-dependent biocidal assay. The CTC biocidal assay is a rapid and simple method to test the effectiveness of disinfectant solutions against Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts.

  7. Diffusion and Electrical Activation After a Rapid Thermal Annealing of an As and B-Co-Implanted Polysilicon Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontrand, C.; Sellitto, P.; Tabikh, S.; Latreche, S.; Kaminski, A.

    1997-01-01

    This work provides an experimental insight into the physical mechanisms involved in the co-diffusion of arsenic and boron in polysilicon/monocrystalline Si bilayers, during the formation of shallow N^+ emitters for the BiCMOS technology. The RTA-induced redistribution of As and B successively implanted in a 380 nm LPCVD polysilicon layer is studied by SIMS measurements. Hall effect, as well as sheet resistance measurements, show that the electrical activation of dopants in the co-implanted structures is satisfactory from a RTA temperature of 1100 °C. Nous présentons ici un travail expérimental mettant en évidence les mécanismes physiques intervenant dans la co-diffusion de l'arsenic et du bore dans une bicouche polysilicium sur silicium polycrystallin, durant la formation des émetteurs étroits N^+ destinés à la technologie BiCMOS. La redistribution de As et B induite par un RTA, successivement implantés dans une couche de polysilicium de 380 nm, est appréhendée par des mesures SIMS. Des mesures par effet Hall et par résistances par carrés mettent en évidence que l'activité électrique des dopants dans les structures implantées est satisfaisante à partir d'une température de 1100 °C.

  8. Preparation of SERS-active substrates based on graphene oxide/silver nanocomposites for rapid zdetection of l-Theanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huajun; Ni, Dejiang; Yu, Zhi; Liang, Pei

    2017-02-15

    A kind of graphene oxide/silver (GO/Ag) nanocomposites with high Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity were fabricated via a facile and green liquid phase reduction method. The synthesized materials were characterized in detail using various microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. In this method, the GO sheets worked as a holder which makes silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) aggregate to a particular morphology, and under a suitable dosage of silver ions, well-dispersed AgNPs on the surface of GO were obtained, which could generate more "hot spots" of SERS. Moreover, SERS technique based on the obtained GO/Ag nanocomposites was used as an effective way to detect l-Theanine. The detection limit was estimated to be as low as 10(-7)M, and a multivariate linear regression model for the concentration of l-Theanine was established. The optimal fitting equation is Y=5.6765+0.0307X1458-0.0267X1251. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid and ultrasensitive detection of active thrombin based on the Vmh2 hydrophobin fused to a Green Fluorescent Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscitelli, Alessandra; Pennacchio, Anna; Cicatiello, Paola; Politi, Jane; De Stefano, Luca; Giardina, Paola

    2017-01-15

    A fusion protein designed in order to combine the fluorescence emission of the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) with the adhesion ability of the class I hydrophobin Vmh2 was heterologously produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The Vmh2-GFP fusion protein has proven to be a smart and effective tool for the study of Vmh2 self-assembling. Since the two proteins were linked by the specific cutting site of the thrombin, the fusion protein was used as the active biological element in the realization of a thrombin biosensor. When the thrombin present in the target solution specifically hydrolyzed its cleavage sequence, a consequent decrease in the fluorescence intensity of the sample could be observed. The Vmh2-GFP based assay allowed quantification of thrombin in solution with a detection limit of 2.27aM. The specificity of the assay with respect to other proteases and proteins granted the measurement of thrombin added to healthy human plasma with same high sensitivity and a limit of detection of 2.3aM. Further advantages of the developed biosensor are the simplicity of its design and preparation, and the low requirements in terms of samples, reagents and time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid discrimination of geographical origin and evaluation of antioxidant activity of Salvia miltiorrhiza var. alba by Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoju; Zhang, Danlu; Nie, Lei; Zang, Hengchang

    2014-03-01

    Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. var. alba C.Y. Wu and H.W. Li and Radix S. miltrorrhiza belong to the same genus. S. miltiorrhiza var. alba has a unique effectiveness for thromboangiitis besides therapeutical efficay of S. miltrorrhiza. It exhibits antioxidant activity (AA), while its quality and efficacy also vary with geographic locations. Therefore, a rapid and nondestructive method based on Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) was developed for discrimination of geographical origin and evaluation of AA of S. miltiorrhiza var. alba. The discrimination of geographical origin was achieved by using discriminant analysis and the accuracy was 100%. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was employed to establish the model for evaluation of AA by NIRS. The spectral regions were selected by interval PLS (i-PLS) method. Different pre-treated methods were compared for the spectral pre-processing. The final optimal results of PLS model showed that correlation coefficients in the calibration set (Rc) and the prediction set (Rp), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and residual prediction deviation (RPD) were 0.974, 0.950, 0.163 mg mL-1 and 2.66, respectively. The results demonstrated that NIRs combined with chemometric methods could be a rapid and nondestructive tool to discriminate geographical origin and evaluate AA of S. miltiorrhiza var. alba. The developed NIRS method might have a potential application to high-throughput screening of a great number of raw S. miltiorrhiza var. alba samples for AA.

  11. A rapid, automated VWF ristocetin cofactor activity assay improves reliability in the diagnosis of Von Willebrand disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Annette E; Shepherd, Fiona; Kitchen, Stephen; Makris, Michael

    2011-04-01

    The effective diagnosis and monitoring of Von Willebrand Disease (VWD) requires an accurate assessment of ristocetin co-factor activity (VWF:RCo). Current methodologies include automated platelet aggregometry and manual visual agglutination both of which are laborious to perform and notoriously subject to a high degree of inter and intra assay variation. We have evaluated an automated VWF:RCo assay (BC Von Willebrand Reagent, Siemens, Marberg, Germany) for use on the Sysmex CS2100i analyser (Milton Keynes, UK) and retrospectively compared the results with an in-house manual visual agglutination assay and VWF antigen (Siemens) in normal subjects and in 53 patients with various types of VWD and 23 patients following VWF therapeutic treatment. The intra and interassay CV was improved with the automated assay (2.3% and 3.8% respectively) compared to 7% with the manual VWF:RCo assay. Good correlation was found between the two assays (r=0.91) in 53 patients with VWD. The mean manual VWF:RCo was 0.25IU/ml and mean automated VWF:RCo was 0.27IU/ml. A comparable increase in VWF:RCo following treatment, mostly with Desmopressin, was found in 13 patients with type 1 VWD (mean 3.9 fold increase with manual VWF:RCo and 3.1 fold with the automated VWF:RCo). In 13 patients with type 2 or 3 VWD following treatment mostly with concentrate , a higher increase was found with the automated VWF:RCo assay than the manual assay (mean 11.9 fold manually and mean 20.3 automated). The automated VWF:RCo assay shows enhanced precision and analysis time in this difficult and time consuming laboratory test and its introduction should greatly improve the reliability of VWF testing. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Rapid Biosynthesis of AgNPs Using Soil Bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii With Promising Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Gopalu; Jagathambal, Matheswaran; Gusev, Alexander; Torres, Juan Antonio Lopez; Kolesnikov, Evgeny; Kuznetsov, Denis

    2017-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are applied in various fields from electronics to biomedical applications as a result of their high surface-to-volume ratio. Even though different approaches are available for synthesis of AgNPs, a nontoxic method for the synthesis has not yet been developed. Thus, this study focused on developing an easy and ecofriendly approach to synthesize AgNPs using Azotobacter vinelandii culture extracts. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were further characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive spectrum, particle size distribution (PSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). UV absorption noticed at 435 nm showed formation of AgNPs. The XRD pattern showed a face-centered cubic structure with broad peaks of 28.2°, 32.6°, 46.6°, 55.2°, 57.9°, and 67.8°. The FTIR confirmed the involvement of various functional groups in the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The PSD and TEM analyses showed spherical, well-distributed nanoparticles with an average size of 20-70 nm. The elemental studies confirmed the existence of pure AgNPs. The bacterial extract containing extracellular enzyme nitrate reductase converted silver nitrate into AgNPs. AgNPs significantly inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Streptomyces fradiae (National Collection of Industrial Microorganisms (NCIM) 2419), Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2127), Escherichia coli (NCIM 2065), and Serratia marcescens (NCIM 2919). In addition, biosynthesized AgNPs were found to possess strong antioxidant activity. Thus, the results of this study revealed that biosynthesized AgNPs could serve as a lead in the development of nanomedicine.

  13. EEG activities during elicited sleep onset REM and NREM periods reflect different mechanisms of dream generation. Electroencephalograms. Rapid eye movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Tomoka; Ogilvie, Robert D; Murphy, Timothy I; Ferrelli, Anthony V

    2003-02-01

    To be the first to compare EEG power spectra during sleep onset REM periods (SOREMP) and sleep onset NREM periods (NREMP) in normal individuals and relate this to dream appearance processes underlying these different types of sleep periods. Eight healthy undergraduates spent 7 consecutive nights in the sleep lab including 4 nights for SOREMP elicitation using the Sleep Interruption Technique. This enabled us to control preceding sleep processes between SOREMP and NREMP. EEG power spectra when participants did and did not report 'dreams' were compared between both types of sleep. Sleep stages, subjective measurements including dream property scores, sleepiness, mood, and tiredness after awakenings were also examined to determine their consistency with EEG findings. Increased alpha EEG activities (11.72-13.67 Hz) observed mainly in the central area were related to the absence of SOREMP dreams and appearance of NREMP dreams. Analyses of sleep stages combining two studies (16 participants) also supported the Fast Fourier Transform findings, showing that when dreams were reported there were decreased amounts of stage 2 and increased stage REM in SOREMP and increased stage W in NREMP. SOREMP dreams were more bizarre than NREMP dreams. Participants felt more tired after SOREMP with dreams than without dreams, while the opposite was observed after NREMP episodes. EEG power spectra patterns reflected different physiological mechanisms underlying generation of SOREMP and NREMP dreams. The same relationships were also reflected by sleep stage analyses as well as subjective measurements including dream properties and tiredness obtained after awakenings. This study not only supports the hypothesized relationships between REM mechanisms and REM dreams as well as arousal processes and NREM dreams, it also provides a new perspective to dream research due to its unique techniques to awaken participants and collect REM dreams during experimentally induced SOREMP.

  14. Conditional Inducible Triple-Transgenic Mouse Model for Rapid Real-Time Detection of HCV NS3/4A Protease Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhao, Haiwei; Qiao, Qinghua; Han, Peijun; Xu, Zhikai; Yin, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) frequently establishes persistent infections that can develop into severe liver disease. The HCV NS3/4A serine protease is not only essential for viral replication but also cleaves multiple cellular targets that block downstream interferon activation. Therefore, NS3/4A is an ideal target for the development of anti-HCV drugs and inhibitors. In the current study, we generated a novel NS3/4A/Lap/LC-1 triple-transgenic mouse model that can be used to evaluate and screen NS3/4A protease inhibitors. The NS3/4A protease could be conditionally inducibly expressed in the livers of the triple-transgenic mice using a dual Tet-On and Cre/loxP system. In this system, doxycycline (Dox) induction resulted in the secretion of Gaussia luciferase (Gluc) into the blood, and this secretion was dependent on NS3/4A protease-mediated cleavage at the 4B5A junction. Accordingly, NS3/4A protease activity could be quickly assessed in real time simply by monitoring Gluc activity in plasma. The results from such monitoring showed a 70-fold increase in Gluc activity levels in plasma samples collected from the triple-transgenic mice after Dox induction. Additionally, this enhanced plasma Gluc activity was well correlated with the induction of NS3/4A protease expression in the liver. Following oral administration of the commercial NS3/4A-specific inhibitors telaprevir and boceprevir, plasma Gluc activity was reduced by 50% and 65%, respectively. Overall, our novel transgenic mouse model offers a rapid real-time method to evaluate and screen potential NS3/4A protease inhibitors. PMID:26943641

  15. Individualized dosimetry-based activity reduction of {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC prevents severe and rapid kidney function deterioration from peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binnebeek, Sofie van; Baete, Kristof; Vanbilloen, Bert; Terwinghe, Christelle; Mortelmans, Luc [University Hospitals Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); Koole, Michel [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix M. [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Clement, Paul M. [University Hospitals Leuven, Medical Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Haustermans, Karin [University Hospitals Leuven, Radiation Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Cutsem, Eric van; Verslype, Chris [KU Leuven, Department of Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals Leuven, Division of Digestive Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Verbruggen, Alfons [KU Leuven, Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, Leuven (Belgium); Bogaerts, Kris [KU Leuven, Division of Public Health and Primary Care (I-Biostat), Leuven (Belgium); Deroose, Christophe M. [University Hospitals Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); UZ Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-06-15

    Assessment of kidney function evolution after {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with capped activity administration based on a 37-Gy threshold of biological effective dose (BED) to the kidney. In a prospective phase II study, patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumours were evaluated for therapy using 185 MBq {sup 111}In-pentetreotide with amino acid coinfusion. Planar whole-body images were acquired at four time-points after injection and kidney volumes were measured using CT/MRI. BED to the kidneys was estimated using an extended BED formula and biexponential renal clearance. Based on published BED dose-toxicity relationships, we allowed a maximal kidney BED of 37 Gy; if the calculated BED exceeded 37 Gy, treatment activity was reduced accordingly. Kidney function was assessed at baseline and at 18 months, predominantly using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA. The rate of renal function decline was expressed as annual glomerular filtration rate loss (aGFRL). Only 22 of 50 patients reached the 18-months time-point, with most missing patients having died due to disease progression. In the 22 patients who reached 18 months, no rapid kidney function deterioration was observed over the 18 months, aGFRL >33 % was not seen, and only three patients showed an increase of one toxicity grade and one patient an increase of two grades. No significant correlations between kidney volume (p = 0.35), baseline GFR (p = 0.18), risk factors for renal function loss (p = 0.74) and aGFRL were observed. Among the 28 patients who did not reach 18 months, one developed grade 4 kidney toxicity at 15 months after PRRT. Prospective dosimetry using a 37 Gy BED as the threshold for kidney toxicity is a good guide for {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC PRRT and is associated with a low risk of rapid renal function deterioration and evolution to severe nephrotoxicity. (orig.)

  16. A sodium-activated potassium channel supports high-frequency firing and reduces energetic costs during rapid modulations of action potential amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Michael R; Kaczmarek, Leonard K; Zakon, Harold H

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the ionic mechanisms that allow dynamic regulation of action potential (AP) amplitude as a means of regulating energetic costs of AP signaling. Weakly electric fish generate an electric organ discharge (EOD) by summing the APs of their electric organ cells (electrocytes). Some electric fish increase AP amplitude during active periods or social interactions and decrease AP amplitude when inactive, regulated by melanocortin peptide hormones. This modulates signal amplitude and conserves energy. The gymnotiform Eigenmannia virescens generates EODs at frequencies that can exceed 500 Hz, which is energetically challenging. We examined how E. virescens meets that challenge. E. virescens electrocytes exhibit a voltage-gated Na(+) current (I(Na)) with extremely rapid recovery from inactivation (τ(recov) = 0.3 ms) allowing complete recovery of Na(+) current between APs even in fish with the highest EOD frequencies. Electrocytes also possess an inwardly rectifying K(+) current and a Na(+)-activated K(+) current (I(KNa)), the latter not yet identified in any gymnotiform species. In vitro application of melanocortins increases electrocyte AP amplitude and the magnitudes of all three currents, but increased I(KNa) is a function of enhanced Na(+) influx. Numerical simulations suggest that changing I(Na) magnitude produces corresponding changes in AP amplitude and that K(Na) channels increase AP energy efficiency (10-30% less Na(+) influx/AP) over model cells with only voltage-gated K(+) channels. These findings suggest the possibility that E. virescens reduces the energetic demands of high-frequency APs through rapidly recovering Na(+) channels and the novel use of KNa channels to maximize AP amplitude at a given Na(+) conductance.

  17. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase rapidly suppresses multiple pro-inflammatory pathways in adipocytes including IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-4 phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancini, Sarah J; White, Anna D; Bijland, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    tissue from AMPKα1(-/-) mice exhibited increased JNK and STAT3 phosphorylation, supporting suppression of these distinct proinflammatory pathways by AMPK in vivo. The inhibition of multiple pro-inflammatory signalling pathways by AMPK may underlie the reported beneficial effects of AMPK activation...

  18. Rapid prediction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Sudanese honey using Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Haroon Elrasheid; Xiaobo, Zou; Zhihua, Li; Jiyong, Shi; Zhai, Xiaodong; Wang, Sheng; Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam

    2017-07-01

    Fourier transform infrared with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and Raman spectroscopy combined with partial least square regression (PLSR) were applied for the prediction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in honey. Standards of catechin, syringic, vanillic, and chlorogenic acids were used for the identification and quantification of the individual phenolic compounds in six honey varieties using HPLC-DAD. Total antioxidant activity (TAC) and ferrous chelating capacity were measured spectrophotometrically. For the establishment of PLSR model, Raman spectra with Savitzky-Golay smoothing in wavenumber region 1500-400cm-1 was used while for FTIR-ATR the wavenumber regions of 1800-700 and 3000-2800cm-1 with multiplicative scattering correction (MSC) and Savitzky-Golay smoothing were used. The determination coefficients (R2) were ranged from 0.9272 to 0.9992 for Raman while from 0.9461 to 0.9988 for FTIT-ART. The FTIR-ATR and Raman demonstrated to be simple, rapid and nondestructive methods to quantify phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in honey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The identification of fall history using maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensors in healthy, recreationally active elderly females: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ty B; Thiele, Ryan M; Williams, Katherine B; Adams, Bailey M; Akehi, Kazuma; Smith, Douglas B; Thompson, Brennan J

    2015-08-01

    Maximal and rapid torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles play an important role in fall prevention and other balance-related performances; however, few studies have investigated the ability of these variables at identifying fall-history status in healthy, recreationally active elderly adults. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles to differentiate between healthy, recreationally active elderly females with (fallers) and without (non-fallers) a history a falls. Six elderly female fallers (mean ± SD: age = 73 ± 7 year; mass = 68 ± 16 kg; height = 160 ± 5 cm) and nine elderly female non-fallers (age = 71 ± 7 year; mass = 66 ± 16 kg; height = 157 ± 6 cm) performed two isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the hip extensor muscles. Peak torque (PT) and absolute and relative rate of torque development (RTD) at the early (0-50 ms) and late (100-200 ms) phases of muscle contraction were examined during each MVC. Absolute and relative RTD at 0-50 ms were greater (P = 0.039 and 0.011, respectively) in the non-fallers compared to the fallers. However, no group-related differences (P = 0.160-0.573) were observed for PT nor absolute and relative RTD at 100-200 ms. Early rapid strength production of the hip extensor muscles may be a sensitive and effective measure for discriminating between elderly females of different fall histories. These findings may provide important insight regarding implications for the assessment of fall risk and in the development of proper training programs aimed at minimizing the occurrence of falls and other balance-related injuries in the elderly.

  20. Why don't hospital staff activate the rapid response system (RRS? How frequently is it needed and can the process be improved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Stuart J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid response system (RRS is a process of accessing help for health professionals when a patient under their care becomes severely ill. Recent studies and meta-analyses show a reduction in cardiac arrests by a one-third in hospitals that have introduced a rapid response team, although the effect on overall hospital mortality is less clear. It has been suggested that the difficulty in establishing the benefit of the RRS has been due to implementation difficulties and a reluctance of clinical staff to call for additional help. This assertion is supported by the observation that patients continue to have poor outcomes in our institution despite an established RRS being available. In many of these cases, the patient is often unstable for many hours or days without help being sought. These poor outcomes are often discovered in an ad hoc fashion, and the real numbers of patients who may benefit from the RRS is currently unknown. This study has been designed to answer three key questions to improve the RRS: estimate the scope of the problem in terms of numbers of patients requiring activation of the RRS; determine cognitive and socio-cultural barriers to calling the Rapid Response Team; and design and implement solutions to address the effectiveness of the RRS. Methods The extent of the problem will be addressed by establishing the incidence of patients who meet abnormal physiological criteria, as determined from a point prevalence investigation conducted across four hospitals. Follow-up review will determine if these patients subsequently require intensive care unit or critical care intervention. This study will be grounded in both cognitive and socio-cultural theoretical frameworks. The cognitive model of situation awareness will be used to determine psychological barriers to RRS activation, and socio-cultural models of interprofessional practice will be triangulated to inform further investigation. A multi-modal approach

  1. Activation of phasic pontine-wave generator prevents rapid eye movement sleep deprivation-induced learning impairment in the rat: a mechanism for sleep-dependent plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Subimal; Mavanji, Vijayakumar; Ulloor, Jagadish; Patterson, Elissa H

    2004-02-11

    Animal and human studies of sleep and learning have demonstrated that training on various tasks increases subsequent rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and phasic pontine-wave (P-wave) activity, followed by improvement in performance on the learned task. It is well documented that REM sleep deprivation after learning trials blocks the expected improvement in performance on subsequent retesting. Our aim was to test whether experimentally induced P-wave generator activation could eliminate the learning impairment produced by post-training REM sleep deprivation. Rats were trained on a two-way active avoidance-learning task. Immediately thereafter, two groups of those rats received a control vehicle (100 nl saline) microinjection and one group received a carbachol (50 ng in 100 nl saline) microinjection into the P-wave generator. The carbachol-injected group and one of the two control saline microinjected groups were selectively deprived of REM sleep during a 6 hr polygraphic recording session. All rats were then tested on the avoidance-learning task. The rats that received both the control saline injection and REM sleep deprivation showed learning deficits compared with the control saline-injected rats that were allowed to sleep normally. In contrast, the rats that received the carbachol microinjection and REM sleep deprivation demonstrated normal learning. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that carbachol-induced activation of the P-wave generator prevents the memory-impairing effects of post-training REM sleep deprivation. This evidence supports our hypothesis that the activation of the P-wave generator during REM sleep deprivation enhances a physiological process of memory, which occurs naturally during post-training REM sleep.

  2. Slowly progressive hemiparesis in childhood as a consequence of Rasmussen encephalitis without or with delayed-onset seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bien, C G; Elger, C E; Leitner, Y; Gomori, M; Ran, B; Urbach, H; Wilken, B; Korn-Lubetzki, I

    2007-04-01

    Five young children developed slowly progressive hemiparesis as the initial manifestation of Rasmussen encephalitis (RE). Three have remained seizure free over an observational period of 1.3-1.9 years. In the remaining two patients, seizures occurred after 0.5 and 0.6 years respectively. We suggest that RE might be presently underdiagnosed and should be suspected in cases of new onset hemiparesis. In this series, three out of five patients showed oligoclonal bands on examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) which represented additional diagnostic hints towards an immune-mediated condition. According to recently published formal diagnostic criteria, evidence of progressive cerebral hemiatrophy or bioptic identification of RE-typical inflammation confirms the diagnosis in such cases. Long-term immunotherapy is recommended in order to prevent further tissue loss and functional decline.

  3. A slowly growing mass around a cirrhotic liver: Usefulness of the hepatobility phase in the diagnosis of ectopic liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Jung; Kim, Kyung Ah; Im, So Young [St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    An ectopic liver is a rare congenital abnormality that is difficult to detect before surgery due to its small size. A 53-year-old man had liver cirrhosis and received regular surveillance. An ovoid mass on the surface of the gallbladder separated from the liver proper was found on computed tomography (CT). The mass had grown slowly over five years of surveillance. Upon further evaluation, the mass exhibited iso-signal intensity compared to liver on T2-weighted images, precontrast T1-weighted images, and the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Surgical resection was performed, and the mass was diagnosed as an ectopic liver with normal liver parenchyma without cirrhotic changes. This case demonstrates that ectopic liver with normal liver tissue can develop in a patient with liver cirrhosis and can grow in the absence of a tumor. MRI with gadoxetic acid is useful to identify this condition correctly.

  4. A slowly rotating hollow sphere in a magnetic field: First steps to de-spin a space object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Nurge, Mark A.; Starr, Stanley O.; Leve, Frederick A.; Peck, Mason

    2016-03-01

    Modeling the interaction of a slowly rotating hollow conducting sphere in a magnetic field provided an understanding of the dynamics of orbiting space objects moving through the Earth's magnetic field. This analysis, performed in the late 1950s and limited to uniform magnetic fields, was innovative and acknowledged the pioneers who first observed rotary magnetism, in particular, the seminal work of Hertz in 1880. Now, there is interest in using a magnetic field produced by one space object to stop the spin of a second object so that docking can occur. In this paper, we consider, yet again, the interaction of a rotating hollow sphere in a magnetic field. We show that the predicted results can be tested experimentally, making this an interesting advanced student project. This analysis also sheds light on a rich set of previously unaddressed behaviors involving eddy currents.

  5. Intranasal administration of CpG induces a rapid and transient cytokine response followed by dendritic and natural killer cell activation and recruitment in the mouse lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Isabella; Monaci, Elisabetta; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tritto, Elaine; Tavarini, Simona; Nuti, Sandra; De Gregorio, Ennio; Wack, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides are potent mucosal adjuvants and effective as stand-alone treatment of respiratory infections in mice. Although CpG is also used as a type 1 helper immunomodulator in the treatment of asthma and allergic disease, immune modulation following intranasal application has not been fully characterized yet. Using a B-type CpG, we monitored RNA expression profiles, cytokine production and cellular activation in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavages ex vivo and cytokine production of purified cell populations in vitro. CpG triggered the upregulation of many transcripts, including interferon response genes and proinflammatory cytokine genes, between 3 h and 4 days. Overlapping subsets of these cytokine proteins were induced in vitro in purified CD11c+ cells, B cells and alveolar macrophages from the lung, thus identifying these cells as direct targets of CpG. While lung B cells strongly respond to CpG in vitro, less activation is found ex vivo, suggesting efficient CpG sequestering or rapid B cell migration after activation. In contrast, a type II alveolar epithelial cell line did not respond to CpG in vitro. We noted selective recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) into the lung tissue, and of conventional DCs and natural killer (NK) cells into the lung tissue and bronchoalveolar space. Furthermore, CpG induced activation of intrapulmonary DCs, NK and T cells. We hypothesize that CpG-linked adjuvanticity and clearance of respiratory pathogens are mediated by two major mechanisms: transient induction of the interferon pathway limiting microbial survival and selective recruitment of DCs and NK cells, which allows for better adaptive responses.

  6. Functional Cross-Talk between the α1- and β1-Adrenergic Receptors Modulates the Rapidly Activating Delayed Rectifier Potassium Current in Guinea Pig Ventricular Myocytes

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    Di Xu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr plays a critical role in cardiac repolarization. Although IKr is known to be regulated by both α1- and β1-adrenergic receptors (ARs, the cross-talk and feedback mechanisms that dictate its response to α1- and β1-AR activation are not known. In the present study, IKr was recorded using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. IKr amplitude was measured before and after the sequential application of selective adrenergic agonists targeting α1- and β1-ARs. Stimulation of either receptor alone (α1-ARs using 1 μM phenylephrine (PE or β1-ARs using 10 μM xamoterol (Xamo reduced IKr by 0.22 ± 0.03 and 0.28 ± 0.01, respectively. The voltage-dependent activation curve of IKr shifted in the negative direction. The half-maximal activation voltage (V0.5 was altered by −6.35 ± 1.53 and −1.95 ± 2.22 mV, respectively, with no major change in the slope factor (k. When myocytes were pretreated with Xamo, PE-induced reduction in IKr was markedly blunted and the corresponding change in V0.5 was significantly altered. Similarly, when cells were pretreated with PE, Xamo-induced reduction of IKr was significantly attenuated. The present results demonstrate that functional cross-talk between α1- and β1-AR signaling regulates IKr. Such non-linear regulation may form a protective mechanism under excessive adrenergic stimulation.

  7. Clinical value of rapid urine trypsinogen-2 test strip, urinary trypsinogen activation peptide, and serum and urinary activation peptide of carboxypeptidase B in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Jesús; Martínez, Juan; Trigo, Celia; Sánchez-Payá, José; Compañy, Luis; Laveda, Raquel; Griñó, Pilar; García, Cristina; Pérez-Mateo, Miguel

    2005-12-14

    To assess the usefulness of urinary trypsinogen-2 test strip, urinary trypsinogen activation peptide (TAP), and serum and urine concentrations of the activation peptide of carboxypeptidase B (CAPAP) in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Patients with acute abdominal pain and hospitalized within 24 h after the onset of symptoms were prospectively studied. Urinary trypsinogen-2 was considered positive when a clear blue line was observed (detection limit 50 microg/L). Urinary TAP was measured using a quantitative solid-phase ELISA, and serum and urinary CAPAP by a radioimmunoassay method. Acute abdominal pain was due to acute pancreatitis in 50 patients and turned out to be extrapancreatic in origin in 22 patients. Patients with acute pancreatitis showed significantly higher median levels of serum and urinary CAPAP levels, as well as amylase and lipase than extrapancreatic controls. Median TAP levels were similar in both groups. The urinary trypsinogen-2 test strip was positive in 68% of patients with acute pancreatitis and 13.6% in extrapancreatic controls (Pabdominal pain, hospitalized within 24 h of symptom onset, CAPAP in serum and urine was a reliable diagnostic marker of acute pancreatitis. Urinary trypsinogen-2 test strip showed a clinical value similar to amylase and lipase. Urinary TAP was not a useful screening test for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis.

  8. Rapid synthesis of highly luminescent and stable Au20 nanoclusters for active tumor-targeted imaging in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pu; Yang, Xiao Xi; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Ning Wei; Xiong, Zu Hong; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Rapid synthesis of protein-stabilized Au20 nanoclusters (Au20NCs) with high fluorescence quantum yield (QY) up to ~15% is successfully achieved by manipulating the reaction kinetics. The as-obtained Au20NCs, identified by mass spectrometry, have an average size of 2.6 nm, with strong fluorescence emission at 620 nm (2.00 eV) upon excitation at either 370 nm (3.35 eV) or 470 nm (2.64 eV). The advantages of the as-obtained Au20NCs, including small sizes, high fluorescence QY, excellent photostability, non-toxicity, and good stability in biological media, make them ideal candidates as good luminescent probes for optical imaging in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the uptake of Au20NCs by both cancer cells and tumor-bearing nude mice can be improved by receptor-mediated internalization, compared with that by passive targeting. Because of their selective accumulation at the tumor sites, the Au20NC probes can be used as potential indicators for cancer diagnosis. This work not only provides a new understanding of the rapid synthesis of highly luminescent Au20NCs but also demonstrates that the functionalized-Au20NCs are excellent probes for active tumor-targeted imaging in vitro and in vivo.Rapid synthesis of protein-stabilized Au20 nanoclusters (Au20NCs) with high fluorescence quantum yield (QY) up to ~15% is successfully achieved by manipulating the reaction kinetics. The as-obtained Au20NCs, identified by mass spectrometry, have an average size of 2.6 nm, with strong fluorescence emission at 620 nm (2.00 eV) upon excitation at either 370 nm (3.35 eV) or 470 nm (2.64 eV). The advantages of the as-obtained Au20NCs, including small sizes, high fluorescence QY, excellent photostability, non-toxicity, and good stability in biological media, make them ideal candidates as good luminescent probes for optical imaging in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the uptake of Au20NCs by both cancer cells and tumor-bearing nude mice can be improved by receptor

  9. Essential roles of GABA transporter-1 in controlling rapid eye movement sleep and in increased slow wave activity after sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hong Xu

    Full Text Available GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system that has been strongly implicated in the regulation of sleep. GABA transporter subtype 1 (GAT1 constructs high affinity reuptake sites for GABA and regulates GABAergic transmission in the brain. However, the role of GAT1 in sleep-wake regulation remains elusive. In the current study, we characterized the spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and responses to sleep deprivation in GAT1 knock-out (KO mice. GAT1 KO mice exhibited dominant theta-activity and a remarkable reduction of EEG power in low frequencies across all vigilance stages. Under baseline conditions, spontaneous rapid eye movement (REM sleep of KO mice was elevated both during the light and dark periods, and non-REM (NREM sleep was reduced during the light period only. KO mice also showed more state transitions from NREM to REM sleep and from REM sleep to wakefulness, as well as more number of REM and NREM sleep bouts than WT mice. During the dark period, KO mice exhibited more REM sleep bouts only. Six hours of sleep deprivation induced rebound increases in NREM and REM sleep in both genotypes. However, slow wave activity, the intensity component of NREM sleep was briefly elevated in WT mice but remained completely unchanged in KO mice, compared with their respective baselines. These results indicate that GAT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of REM sleep and homeostasis of NREM sleep.

  10. Viremic blood donor found by a rapid screening method in a season of high human parvovirus B19 activity in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Sérgio Setúbal

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Erythrovirus B19 infection is usually benign but may have serious consequences in patients with hemolytic anemia (transient aplastic crisis, immunodeficiency (in whom persistent infection can lead to chronic bone marrow failure with anemia, or who are in the first or second trimester of gestation (spontaneous abortion, hydrops fetalis, and fetal death. Being non-enveloped, B19 resists most inactivation methods and can be transmitted by transfusion. B19 is difficult to cultivate and native virus is usually obtained from viremic blood. As specific antibodies may be absent, and there is no reliable immunological method for antigen detection, hybridization or polymerase chain reaction are needed for detecting viremia. A rapid method, gel hemagglutination (Diamed ID-Parvovirus B19 Antigen Test, can disclose highly viremic donations, whose elimination lessens the viral burden in pooled blood products and may even render them non-infectious. In order to obtain native antigen and to determine the frequency of viremic donors, we applied this test to blood donors in a period of high viral activity in our community. Positive or indeterminate results were re-tested by dot-blot hybridization. We tested 472 donors in 1998 and 831 ones in 1999. One viremic donor was found in 1999. We suggest that in periods of high community viral activity the gel hemagglutination test may be useful in avoiding highly viremic blood being added to plasma pools or directly transfused to patients under risk.

  11. Rapid microwave hydrothermal synthesis of ZnGa2O4 with high photocatalytic activity toward aromatic compounds in air and dyes in liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Li, Danzhen; Zhang, Wenjuan; Chen, Zhixin; Huang, Hanjie; Li, Wenjuan; He, Yunhui; Fu, Xianzhi

    2012-06-01

    ZnGa2O4 was synthesized from Ga(NO3)3 and ZnCl2 via a rapid and facile microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. The photocatalytic properties of the as-prepared ZnGa2O4 were evaluated by the degradation of pollutants in air and aqueous solution under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination. The results demonstrated that ZnGa2O4 had exhibited efficient photocatalytic activities higher than that of commercial P25 (Degussa Co.) in the degradation of benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene, respectively. In the liquid phase degradation of dyes (methyl orange, Rhodamine B, and methylene blue), ZnGa2O4 has also exhibited remarkable activities higher than that of P25. After 32 min of UV light irradiation, the decomposition ratio of methyl orange (10 ppm, 150 mL) over ZnGa2O4 (0.06 g) was up to 99%. The TOC tests revealed that the mineralization ratio of MO (10 ppm, 150 mL) was 88.1% after 90 min of reaction. A possible mechanism of the photocatalysis over ZnGa2O4 was also proposed.

  12. Highly purified CD34+ cells isolated using magnetically activated cell selection provide rapid engraftment following high-dose chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richel, D J; Johnsen, H E; Canon, J; Guillaume, T; Schaafsma, M R; Schenkeveld, C; Hansen, S W; McNiece, I; Gringeri, A J; Briddell, R; Ewen, C; Davies, R; Freeman, J; Miltenyi, S; Symann, M

    2000-02-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of infusion of CD34+ cells, selected using a clinical scale magnetically activated cell sorting device, assessed by time to hematological engraftment and incidence of adverse events. Secondary objectives included evaluation of device performance in terms of purity and recovery of the CD34+ cell product. Breast cancer patients suitable for transplantation received cyclophosphamide and filgrastim for mobilisation, followed by three leukaphereses. The products of the first two leukaphereses underwent CD34+ cell selection. The product of the third leukapheresis was cryopreserved unmanipulated. Following high-dose cyclophosphamide, thiotepa and carboplatin, selected CD34+ cells were infused. In 54 patients who received selected cells only, the median time to platelet recovery and neutrophil recovery was 11 days (range 5-51) and 9 days (range 5-51), respectively. There were no adverse events associated with infusion of selected cells. A total of 126 leukapheresis samples was available before and after selection for central CD34+ analysis. The median purity was 96.1% (27.4-99.4) and the median recovery was 52. 3% (15.2-146.3). These data show that cells selected using magnetically activated cell selection provide safe and rapid engraftment after high-dose therapy. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 243-249.

  13. Promotion of non-rapid eye movement sleep and activation of reticular thalamic neurons by a novel MT2 melatonin receptor ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Sanchez, Rafael; Comai, Stefano; Lacoste, Baptiste; Bambico, Francis Rodriguez; Dominguez-Lopez, Sergio; Spadoni, Gilberto; Rivara, Silvia; Bedini, Annalida; Angeloni, Debora; Fraschini, Franco; Mor, Marco; Tarzia, Giorgio; Descarries, Laurent; Gobbi, Gabriella

    2011-12-14

    Melatonin activates two brain G-protein coupled receptors, MT(1) and MT(2), whose differential roles in the sleep-wake cycle remain to be defined. The novel MT(2) receptor partial agonist, N-{2-[(3-methoxyphenyl) phenylamino] ethyl} acetamide (UCM765), is here shown to selectively promote non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) in rats and mice. The enhancement of NREMS by UCM765 is nullified by the pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of MT(2) receptors. MT(2), but not MT(1), knock-out mice show a decrease in NREMS compared to the wild strain. Immunohistochemical labeling reveals that MT(2) receptors are localized in sleep-related brain regions, and notably the reticular thalamic nucleus (Rt). Microinfusion of UCM765 in the Rt promotes NREMS, and its systemic administration induces an increase in firing and rhythmic burst activity of Rt neurons, which is blocked by the MT(2) antagonist 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin. Since developing hypnotics that increase NREMS without altering sleep architecture remains a medical challenge, MT(2) receptors may represent a novel target for the treatment of sleep disorders.

  14. The Silk-protein Sericin Induces Rapid Melanization of Cultured Primary Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells by Activating the NF-κB Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidet, J R; Reppe, S; Pasovic, L; Olstad, O K; Lyberg, T; Khan, A Z; Fostad, I G; Chen, D F; Utheim, T P

    2016-03-04

    Restoration of the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells to prevent further loss of vision in patients with age-related macular degeneration represents a promising novel treatment modality. Development of RPE transplants, however, requires up to 3 months of cell differentiation. We explored whether the silk protein sericin can induce maturation of primary human retinal pigment epithelial (hRPE) cells. Microarray analysis demonstrated that sericin up-regulated RPE-associated transcripts (RPE65 and CRALBP). Upstream analysis identified the NF-κB pathway as one of the top sericin-induced regulators. ELISA confirmed that sericin stimulates the main NF-κB pathway. Increased levels of RPE-associated proteins (RPE65 and the pigment melanin) in the sericin-supplemented cultures were confirmed by western blot, spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy. Sericin also increased cell density and reduced cell death following serum starvation in culture. Inclusion of NF-κB agonists and antagonists in the culture medium showed that activation of the NF-κB pathway appears to be necessary, but not sufficient, for sericin-induced RPE pigmentation. We conclude that sericin promotes pigmentation of cultured primary hRPE cells by activating the main NF-κB pathway. Sericin's potential role in culture protocols for rapid differentiation of hRPE cells derived from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells should be investigated.

  15. Doxorubicin in vivo rapidly alters expression and translation of myocardial electron transport chain genes, leads to ATP loss and caspase 3 activation.

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    Amy V Pointon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Doxorubicin is one of the most effective anti-cancer drugs but its use is limited by cumulative cardiotoxicity that restricts lifetime dose. Redox damage is one of the most accepted mechanisms of toxicity, but not fully substantiated. Moreover doxorubicin is not an efficient redox cycling compound due to its low redox potential. Here we used genomic and chemical systems approaches in vivo to investigate the mechanisms of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity, and specifically test the hypothesis of redox cycling mediated cardiotoxicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were treated with an acute dose of either doxorubicin (DOX (15 mg/kg or 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ (25 mg/kg. DMNQ is a more efficient redox cycling agent than DOX but unlike DOX has limited ability to inhibit gene transcription and DNA replication. This allowed specific testing of the redox hypothesis for cardiotoxicity. An acute dose was used to avoid pathophysiological effects in the genomic analysis. However similar data were obtained with a chronic model, but are not specifically presented. All data are deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO. Pathway and biochemical analysis of cardiac global gene transcription and mRNA translation data derived at time points from 5 min after an acute exposure in vivo showed a pronounced effect on electron transport chain activity. This led to loss of ATP, increased AMPK expression, mitochondrial genome amplification and activation of caspase 3. No data gathered with either compound indicated general redox damage, though site specific redox damage in mitochondria cannot be entirely discounted. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate the major mechanism of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity is via damage or inhibition of the electron transport chain and not general redox stress. There is a rapid response at transcriptional and translational level of many of the genes coding for proteins of the electron transport chain

  16. A simple and rapid method for measuring α-D-phosphohexomutases activity by using anion-exchange chromatography coupled with an electrochemical detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochen Jia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interconversion of hexose-6-phosphate and hexose-1-phosphate can be directly analyzed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with an electrochemical detector (HPAEC-PAD. Thus, this method can be used to measure the activities of N-acetylglucosamine-phosphate mutase (AGM, glucosamine-phosphate mutase (GlmM and phosphoglucomutase (PGM, which are the members of α-D-phosphohexomutases superfamily. The detection limits were extremely low as 2.747 pmol, 1.365 pmol, 0.512 pmol, 0.415 pmol, 1.486 pmol and 0.868 pmol for N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate (GlcNAc-1-P, N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6-P, glucosamine-1-phosphate (GlcN-1-P, glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN-6-P, glucose-1-phosphate (Glc-1-P and glucose-6-phosphate (Glc-6-P, respectively. By employing HPAEC-PAD, activities of AtAGM (AGM from Arabidopsis thaliana on these six phosphohexoses can be detected. The Km of AtAGM on Glc-1-P determined by HPAEC-PAD was 679.18 ± 156.40 µM, which is comparable with the Km of 707.09 ± 170.36 µM detected by traditional coupled assay. Moreover, the activity of MtGlmM (GlmM from Mycobacterium tuberculosis on GlcN-6-P tested by HPAEC-PAD was 7493.40 ± 309.12 nmol∕min ⋅ mg, which is much higher than 288.97 ± 35.28 nmol∕min ⋅ mg obtained by the traditional coupled assay. Accordingly, HPAEC-PAD is a more rapid and simple method than the traditional coupled assays given its high specificity and sensitivity, and will certainly bring convenience to further research of α-D-phosphohexomutases.

  17. Sunlight-induced rapid and efficient biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. with enhanced antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Sarkar, Sajal; Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mandal, Narayan C; Jash, Shyamal K; Banerjee, Bubun; Roy, Rajiv

    2014-12-01

    , thus offers a cost-effective and environmentally benign route for their large-scale commercial production. The nanoparticles dispersed in the mother solution showed promising antibacterial efficacy. Graphical AbstractSunlight-induced rapid and efficient biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. with enhanced antibacterial activity.

  18. The role of social toxicity in responses to a slowly-evolving environmental disaster: the case of amphibole asbestos exposure in Libby, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Rebecca J W; Orom, Heather; Chung, Jae Eun; Hernandez, Tanis

    2014-09-01

    Experiencing a disaster has significant negative effects on psychological adjustment. Case study accounts point to two consistent trends in slowly-evolving environmental disasters: (a) patterns of negative social dynamics, and (b) relatively worse psychological outcomes than in natural disasters. Researchers have begun to explicitly postulate that the social consequences of slowly-evolving environmental disasters (e.g., community conflict) have their own effects on victims' psychological outcomes. This study tested a model of the relationship between those social consequences and psychological adjustment of victims of a slowly-evolving environmental disaster, specifically those whose health has been compromised by the amphibole asbestos disaster in Libby, MT. Results indicate that experiencing greater community conflict about the disaster was associated with greater family conflict about the disaster which, in turn, was associated with greater social constraints on talking with others about their disease, both directly and indirectly through experiencing stigmatization. Experiencing greater social constraints was associated with worse psychological adjustment, both directly and indirectly through failed social support. Findings have implications for understanding pathways by which social responses create negative effects on mental health in slowly-evolving environmental disasters. These pathways suggest points for prevention and response (e.g., social support, stigmatization of victims) for communities experiencing slowly-evolving environmental disasters.

  19. Rapid Active Sampling Surveys as a Tool to Evaluate Factors Associated with Acute Gastroenteritis and Norovirus Infection among Children in Rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Daniel; Lamb, Molly M; Lopez, Maria R; Paniagua-Avila, Maria A; Zacarias, Alma; Samayoa-Reyes, Gabriela; Cordon-Rosales, Celia; Asturias, Edwin J

    2017-09-01

    We examined burden and factors associated with norovirus (NoV) acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among children in rural Guatemala. Children age 6 weeks to 17 years were enrolled into three AGE surveillance groups, using two-stage cluster sampling: a prospective participatory syndromic surveillance (PSS) cohort and two cross-sectional rapid active sampling (RAS) surveys, conducted from April 2015 to February 2016. Epidemiologic and NoV testing data were used to identify factors associated with NoV infection, AGE, and NoV+ AGE. The three cross-sectional surveys (PSS enrollment visit, RAS Survey 1, and RAS Survey 2) enrolled 1,239 children, who reported 134 (11%) AGE cases, with 20% of AGE and 11% of non-AGE samples positive for NoV. Adjusted analyses identified several modifiable factors associated with AGE and NoV infection. The cross-sectional RAS surveys were practical and cost-effective in identifying population-level risk factors for AGE and NoV, supporting their use as a tool to direct limited public health resources toward high-risk populations.

  20. Rapid breakdown of microvascular barriers and subsequent hemorrhagic transformation after delayed recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment in a rat embolic stroke model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Asahi, Minoru; Wu, Ona; Rosen, Bruce R; Lo, Eng H

    2002-08-01

    Thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) after stroke increases risk of hemorrhagic transformation, particularly in areas with blood-brain barrier leakage. Our aim was to characterize acute effects of rtPA administration on the integrity of microvascular barriers. Stroke was induced in spontaneously hypertensive rats by unilateral embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion. Six hours after stroke, rtPA was intravenously administered (n=10). Controls received saline (n=4). Extravasation of the large-diameter contrast agent monocrystalline iron oxide nanocolloid (MION) was assessed with susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI during rtPA injection. In addition, we performed perfusion MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI. After MRI, 2 hours after rtPA treatment, intracerebral hemorrhage was quantified with a spectrophotometric hemoglobin assay. Late rtPA treatment resulted in increased hemorrhage volume (8.4+/-1.7 versus 2.9+/-0.9 micro L in controls; Pcerebral blood flow index was 22.8+/-19.7% [of contralateral] at 0.5 hours before and 22.4+/-18.0% at 1 hour after rtPA administration). The DeltaR2* changes during rtPA delivery in MION-injected animals indicate extravasation of MION, which reflects increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier. This implies that late rtPA treatment rapidly aggravates early ischemia-induced damage to microvascular barriers, thereby enhancing hemorrhagic transformation.

  1. Dexamethasone rapidly increases GABA release in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus via retrograde messenger-mediated enhancement of TRPV1 activity.

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    Andrei V Derbenev

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids influence vagal parasympathetic output to the viscera via mechanisms that include modulation of neural circuitry in the dorsal vagal complex, a principal autonomic regulatory center. Glucocorticoids can modulate synaptic neurotransmitter release elsewhere in the brain by inducing release of retrograde signalling molecules. We tested the hypothesis that the glucocorticoid agonist dexamethasone (DEX modulates GABA release in the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that DEX (1-10 µM rapidly (i.e. within three minutes increased the frequency of tetrodotoxin-resistant, miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs in 67% of DMV neurons recorded in acutely prepared slices. Glutamate-mediated mEPSCs were also enhanced by DEX (10 µM, and blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors reduced the DEX effect on mIPSC frequency. Antagonists of type I or II corticosteroid receptors blocked the effect of DEX on mIPSCs. The effect was mimicked by application of the membrane-impermeant BSA-conjugated DEX, and intracellular blockade of G protein function with GDP βS in the recorded cell prevented the effect of DEX. The enhancement of GABA release was blocked by the TRPV1 antagonists, 5'-iodoresiniferatoxin or capsazepine, but was not altered by the cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonist AM251. The DEX effect was prevented by blocking fatty acid amide hydrolysis or by inhibiting anandamide transport, implicating involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the response. These findings indicate that DEX induces an enhancement of GABA release in the DMV, which is mediated by activation of TRPV1 receptors on afferent terminals. The effect is likely induced by anandamide or other 'endovanilloid', suggesting activation of a local retrograde signal originating from DMV neurons to enhance synaptic inhibition locally in response to glucocorticoids.

  2. Osmotic Edema Rapidly Increases Neuronal Excitability Through Activation of NMDA Receptor-Dependent Slow Inward Currents in Juvenile and Adult Hippocampus

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    Kelli Lauderdale

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellular edema (cell swelling is a principal component of numerous brain disorders including ischemia, cortical spreading depression, hyponatremia, and epilepsy. Cellular edema increases seizure-like activity in vitro and in vivo, largely through nonsynaptic mechanisms attributable to reduction of the extracellular space. However, the types of excitability changes occurring in individual neurons during the acute phase of cell volume increase remain unclear. Using whole-cell patch clamp techniques, we report that one of the first effects of osmotic edema on excitability of CA1 pyramidal cells is the generation of slow inward currents (SICs, which initiate after approximately 1 min. Frequency of SICs increased as osmolarity decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Imaging of real-time volume changes in astrocytes revealed that neuronal SICs occurred while astrocytes were still in the process of swelling. SICs evoked by cell swelling were mainly nonsynaptic in origin and NMDA receptor-dependent. To better understand the relationship between SICs and changes in neuronal excitability, recordings were performed in increasingly physiological conditions. In the absence of any added pharmacological reagents or imposed voltage clamp, osmotic edema induced excitatory postsynaptic potentials and burst firing over the same timecourse as SICs. Like SICs, action potentials were blocked by NMDAR antagonists. Effects were more pronounced in adult (8–20 weeks old compared with juvenile (P15–P21 mice. Together, our results indicate that cell swelling triggered by reduced osmolarity rapidly increases neuronal excitability through activation of NMDA receptors. Our findings have important implications for understanding nonsynaptic mechanisms of epilepsy in relation to cell swelling and reduction of the extracellular space.

  3. Drug susceptibility distributions in slowly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria using MGIT 960 TB eXiST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombach, Michael; Somoskövi, Akos; Hömke, Rico; Ritter, Claudia; Böttger, Erik C

    2013-07-01

    In general, uniform clinical antibiotic susceptibility breakpoints (CBPs) for slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have not been established. The aim of this study was to determine wild-type drug susceptibility distributions for relevant antibiotics using Bactec MGIT 960 equipped with EpiCenter TB eXiST and to derive epidemiological cut-offs (ECOFFs) from semi quantitative drug susceptibility measurements. One hundred and twenty-six NTM clinical isolates (Mycobacterium avium n=58, Mycobacterium intracellulare n=18, Mycobacterium kansasii n=50) were investigated in this study. Drug susceptibility distributions and MIC90 values were determined for clarithromycin, ethambutol, rifampicin, rifabutin, ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and amikacin using Bactec MGIT 960/EpiCenter TB eXiST. For most species/drug combinations ECOFFs were determined. For some species/drug combinations ECOFFs were not defined as either the isolates were susceptible to the lowest drug concentration tested or because isolates, in part, had MIC levels exceeding the highest drug concentration tested. This study describes drug susceptibility distributions and MIC90 values of M. avium, M. intracellulare, and M. kansasii that may aid the definition of CBPs when correlating in vitro drug susceptibility with clinical outcomes in future studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid and large-scale synthesis of Co3O4 octahedron particles with very high catalytic activity, good supercapacitance and unique magnetic property

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chowdhury, M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scarcity of rapid and large scale synthesis of functional materials, hinders the progress from laboratory scale to commercial applications. In this study, we report a rapid and large scale synthesis of Co(Sub3)O(sub4) octahedron micron size (1.3 µm...

  5. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “slowly digestible starch in starch-containing foods” and “reduction of postprandial glycaemic responses” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to “slowly digestible starch in starch-containing foods” and “reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses”. The food constituent, “slowly digestible starch (SDS)”, as defined by the applicant in applying an appropriate method (such as the method developed by Englyst et al. (1996; 1999......)), which is the subject of the health claim, and the comparator food constituent, “rapidly digestible starch (RDS)”, as defined by the applicant, are sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect, reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (as long as post......-prandial insulinaemic responses are not disproportionally increased), may be a beneficial physiological effect. The studies provided consistently showed that consumption of 40-50 % of digestible starch as “SDS” in cereal products containing about 55-70 % of available carbohydrates as starch and 30-45 % as sugars...

  6. Rapid regulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity is essential to salinity tolerance in two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis and Chenopodium quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jayakumar; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Lai, Diwen; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao; Shabala, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The activity of H+-ATPase is essential for energizing the plasma membrane. It provides the driving force for potassium retention and uptake through voltage-gated channels and for Na+ exclusion via Na+/H+ exchangers. Both of these traits are central to plant salinity tolerance; however, whether the increased activity of H+-ATPase is a constitutive trait in halophyte species and whether this activity is upregulated at either the transcriptional or post-translation level remain disputed. Methods The kinetics of salt-induced net H+, Na+ and K+ fluxes, membrane potential and AHA1/2/3 expression changes in the roots of two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis (saltbush) and Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), were compared with data obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Key Results Intrinsic (steady-state) membrane potential values were more negative in A. lentiformis and C. quinoa compared with arabidopsis (−144 ± 3·3, −138 ± 5·4 and −128 ± 3·3 mV, respectively). Treatment with 100 mm NaCl depolarized the root plasma membrane, an effect that was much stronger in arabidopsis. The extent of plasma membrane depolarization positively correlated with NaCl-induced stimulation of vanadate-sensitive H+ efflux, Na+ efflux and K+ retention in roots (quinoa > saltbush > arabidopsis). NaCl-induced stimulation of H+ efflux was most pronounced in the root elongation zone. In contrast, H+-ATPase AHA transcript levels were much higher in arabidopsis compared with quinoa plants, and 100 mm NaCl treatment led to a further 3-fold increase in AHA1 and AHA2 transcripts in arabidopsis but not in quinoa. Conclusions Enhanced salinity tolerance in the halophyte species studied here is not related to the constitutively higher AHA transcript levels in the root epidermis, but to the plant’s ability to rapidly upregulate plasma membrane H+-ATPase upon salinity treatment. This is necessary for assisting plants to maintain highly negative

  7. Rapid regulation of the plasma membrane H⁺-ATPase activity is essential to salinity tolerance in two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis and Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jayakumar; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Lai, Diwen; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao; Shabala, Sergey

    2015-02-01

    The activity of H(+)-ATPase is essential for energizing the plasma membrane. It provides the driving force for potassium retention and uptake through voltage-gated channels and for Na(+) exclusion via Na(+)/H(+) exchangers. Both of these traits are central to plant salinity tolerance; however, whether the increased activity of H(+)-ATPase is a constitutive trait in halophyte species and whether this activity is upregulated at either the transcriptional or post-translation level remain disputed. The kinetics of salt-induced net H(+), Na(+) and K(+) fluxes, membrane potential and AHA1/2/3 expression changes in the roots of two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis (saltbush) and Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), were compared with data obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Intrinsic (steady-state) membrane potential values were more negative in A. lentiformis and C. quinoa compared with arabidopsis (-144 ± 3·3, -138 ± 5·4 and -128 ± 3·3 mV, respectively). Treatment with 100 mm NaCl depolarized the root plasma membrane, an effect that was much stronger in arabidopsis. The extent of plasma membrane depolarization positively correlated with NaCl-induced stimulation of vanadate-sensitive H(+) efflux, Na(+) efflux and K(+) retention in roots (quinoa > saltbush > arabidopsis). NaCl-induced stimulation of H(+) efflux was most pronounced in the root elongation zone. In contrast, H(+)-ATPase AHA transcript levels were much higher in arabidopsis compared with quinoa plants, and 100 mm NaCl treatment led to a further 3-fold increase in AHA1 and AHA2 transcripts in arabidopsis but not in quinoa. Enhanced salinity tolerance in the halophyte species studied here is not related to the constitutively higher AHA transcript levels in the root epidermis, but to the plant's ability to rapidly upregulate plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase upon salinity treatment. This is necessary for assisting plants to maintain highly negative membrane potential values and to

  8. Differential Activation of Medullary Vagal Nuclei Caused by Stimulation of Different Esophageal Mechanoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ivan M.; Medda, Bidyut K.; Shaker, Reza

    2010-01-01

    Esophageal mechanorecptors, i.e. muscular slowly adapting tension receptors and mucosal rapidly adapting touch receptors, mediate different sets of reflexes. The aim of this study was to determine the medullary vagal nuclei involved in the reflex responses to activation of these receptors. Thirty-three cats were anesthetized with alpha-chloralose and the esophagus was stimulated by slow balloon or rapid air distension. The physiological effects of the stimuli (N=4) were identified by recording responses from the pharyngeal, laryngeal, and hyoid muscles, esophagus, and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). The effects on the medullary vagal nuclei of the stimuli: slow distension (N=10), rapid distension (N=9), and in control animals (N=10) were identified using the immunohistochemical analysis of c-fos. The experimental groups were stimulated 3 times per minute for 3 hours. After the experiment, the brains were removed and processed for c-fos immunoreactivity or thioinin. We found that slow balloon distension activated the esophago-UES contractile reflex and esophago LES relaxation response, and rapid air injection activated the belch and its component reflexes. Slow balloon distension activated the NTSce, NTSdl, NTSvl, DMNc, DMNr and NAr; and rapid air injection primarily activated AP, NTScd, NTSim, NTSis, NTSdm, NTSvl, NAc and NAr. We concluded that different sets of medullary vagal nuclei mediate different reflexes of the esophagus activated from different sets of mechanoreceptors. The NTScd is the primary NTS subnucleus mediating reflexes from the mucosal rapidly adapting touch receptors, and the NTSce is the primary NTS subnucleus mediating reflexes from the muscular slowly adapting tension receptors. The AP may be involved in mediation of belching. PMID:20971087

  9. A slowly progressive and reproducible animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration characterized by MRI, X-ray, and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobajima, Satoshi; Kompel, John F; Kim, Joseph S; Wallach, Corey J; Robertson, Douglas D; Vogt, Molly T; Kang, James D; Gilbertson, Lars G

    2005-01-01

    The progression of intervertebral disc degeneration following anterolateral "stab" of adult rabbit lumbar discs by 16-gauge hypodermic needle to a limited (5-mm) depth was studied for up to 24 weeks using magnetic resonance imaging, radiograph, and histologic outcome measures. To develop a slowly progressive, reproducible rabbit model of intervertebral disc degeneration suitable for studying pathogenesis and pathophysiology of intervertebral disc degeneration and testing safety and efficacy of novel approaches to the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration (e.g., growth factors, gene therapy, cell therapy, and tissue engineering). Numerous animal models of intervertebral disc degeneration have been proposed in the literature, each with attendant advantages and disadvantages. The classic "stab model," involving full-thickness stab of anterior anulus fibrosus of adult rabbit lumbar discs by a number 11 scalpel blade, appears to produce changes in certain biochemical and histologic outcome measures that are similar to changes seen in human intervertebral disc degeneration. However, the immediate herniation of nucleus pulposus on full-thickness stab renders this model less suitable for 1) studying effects of less precipitous changes in nucleus pulposus and anulus fibrosus that may be important in the onset and progression of intervertebral disc degeneration and 2) testing novel therapeutic approaches that target the processes of early intervertebral disc degeneration. The L2-L3, L3-L4, and L4-L5 lumbar intervertebral discs of 18 skeletally mature female New Zealand White rabbits were stabbed by 16-gauge hypodermic needle to a depth of 5 mm in the left anterolateral anulus fibrosus. Serial magnetic resonance imaging scans of the stabbed discs and intact L1-L2 and L5-L6 control discs were performed at 3, 6, 12, and 24 weeks post surgery and compared with preoperative magnetic resonance images. Supplemental radiograph and histologic analyses were performed. The

  10. An experimental study for rapid detection and quantification of endodontic microbiota following photo-activated disinfection via new multiplex real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhajibagher, Maryam; Raoofian, Reza; Ghorbanzadeh, Roghayeh; Bahador, Abbas

    2018-01-11

    The infected root canal system harbors one of the highest accumulations of polymicrobial infections. Since the eradication of endopathogenic microbiota is a major goal in endodontic infection therapy, photo-activated disinfection (PAD) can be used as an alternative therapeutic method in endodontic treatment. Compared to cultivation-based approaches, molecular techniques are more reliable for identifying microbial agents associated with endodontic infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of designed multiplex real-time PCR protocol for the rapid detection and quantification of six common microorganisms involved in endodontic infection before and after the PAD. Samples were taken from the root canals of 50 patients with primary and secondary/persistent endodontic infections using sterile paper points. PAD with toluidine blue O (TBO) plus diode laser was performed on root canals. Resampling was then performed, and the samples were transferred to transport medium. Then, six target microorganisms were detected using multiplex real-time PCR before and after the PAD. Veillonella parvula was found using multiplex real-time PCR to have the highest frequency among samples collected before the PAD (29.4%), followed by Porphyromonas. gingivalis (23.1%), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (13.6%), Actinomyces naeslundii (13.0%), Enterococcus faecalis (11.5%), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (9.4%). After TBO-mediated PAD, P. gingivalis strains, the most resistance microorganisms, were recovered in 41.7% of the samples using molecular approach (P > 0.05). As the results shown, multiplex real-time PCR as an accurate detection approach with high-throughput and TBO-mediated PAD as an efficient antimicrobial strategy due to the significant reduction of the endopathogenic count can be used for detection and treatment of microbiota involved in infected root canals, respectively. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Rapid paracellular transmigration of Campylobacter jejuni across polarized epithelial cells without affecting TER: role of proteolytic-active HtrA cleaving E-cadherin but not fibronectin

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boehm, Manja

    2012-04-25

    AbstractBackgroundCampylobacter jejuni is one of the most important bacterial pathogens causing food-borne illness worldwide. Crossing the intestinal epithelial barrier and host cell entry by C. jejuni is considered the primary reason of damage to the intestinal tissue, but the molecular mechanisms as well as major bacterial and host cell factors involved in this process are still widely unclear.ResultsIn the present study, we characterized the serine protease HtrA (high-temperature requirement A) of C. jejuni as a secreted virulence factor with important proteolytic functions. Infection studies and in vitro cleavage assays showed that C. jejuni’s HtrA triggers shedding of the extracellular E-cadherin NTF domain (90 kDa) of non-polarised INT-407 and polarized MKN-28 epithelial cells, but fibronectin was not cleaved as seen for H. pylori’s HtrA. Deletion of the htrA gene in C. jejuni or expression of a protease-deficient S197A point mutant did not lead to loss of flagella or reduced bacterial motility, but led to severe defects in E-cadherin cleavage and transmigration of the bacteria across polarized MKN-28 cell layers. Unlike other highly invasive pathogens, transmigration across polarized cells by wild-type C. jejuni is highly efficient and is achieved within a few minutes of infection. Interestingly, E-cadherin cleavage by C. jejuni occurs in a limited fashion and transmigration required the intact flagella as well as HtrA protease activity, but does not reduce transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) as seen with Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria or Neisseria.ConclusionThese results suggest that HtrA-mediated E-cadherin cleavage is involved in rapid crossing of the epithelial barrier by C. jejuni via a very specific mechanism using the paracellular route to reach basolateral surfaces, but does not cleave the fibronectin receptor which is necessary for cell entry.

  12. A rapid, non-destructive methodology to monitor activity of sulfide-induced corrosion of concrete based on H2S uptake rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Guangming; Bond, Philip L; Wells, Tony; Keller, Jurg

    2014-08-01

    Many existing methods to monitor the corrosion of concrete in sewers are either very slow or destructive measurements. To overcome these limitations, a rapid, non-invasive methodology was developed to monitor the sulfide-induced corrosion process on concrete through the measurement of the H2S uptake rates of concrete at various corrosion stages. The H2S uptake rate for a concrete coupon was determined by measuring the gaseous H2S concentrations over time in a temperature- and humidity-controlled gas-tight reactor. The reliability of this method was evaluated by carrying out repeated tests on different concrete coupons previously exposed to 50 ppm of H2S, at 30 °C and 100% relative humidity for over 32 months. The H2S uptake measurements showed good reproducibility. It was also shown that a severely corroded coupon exhibited higher sulfide uptake rates than a less corroded coupon. This could be explained by the corrosion layer in the more corroded coupon having a higher biological sulfide oxidation activity than the less corroded coupon. Additionally, temperature changes had a stronger effect on the uptake rate of the heavily corroded coupon compared to the less corroded coupon. A corrosion rate of 8.9 ± 0.5 mm/year, estimated from the H2S uptake results, agreed well with the corrosion rate observed in real sewers under similar conditions. The method could be applied to investigate important factors affecting sulfide-induced concrete corrosion, particularly temperature, fluctuating gaseous H2S concentrations, oxygen concentrations, surface pH and relative humidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid quantitative analysis of ormeloxifene and its active metabolite, 7-desmethyl ormeloxifene, in rat plasma using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhisheak; Jaiswal, Swati; Shukla, Mahendra; Malik, Mohd Yaseen; Lal, Jawahar

    2015-08-01

    Ormeloxifene (ORM) is a non-steroidal, selective estrogen receptor modulator used as a once a week oral contraceptive and is intended for long-term clinical use by females. Therefore, a simple, sensitive and rapid LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of ORM and its active metabolite (7-desmethyl ormeloxifene, 7-DMO) in rat plasma. Also, the method was partially validated in human plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Discovery HS C-18 column (5μm, 50×4.6mm) with mobile phase [acetonitrile: aqueous ammonium acetate (0.01M) buffer (85: 15, %v/v)] at a flow rate of 0.8mL/min. The calibration curve was linear (r≥0.99) for a concentration range of 0.78-100ng/mL for both the analytes. The precision (%RSD; ORM, 1.3 to 13.4; 7-DMO, 3.1 to 15.0) and accuracy (%bias; ORM, -13.8 to 12.5; 7-DMO, -10.6 to 6.8) in both rat and human plasma were within the acceptable limits. The recovery for ORM and 7-DMO was always >79.1% and >72.9%, respectively. Both the analytes were found stable in rat plasma even after 30 days of storage at -80°C and on being subjected to three freeze-thaw cycles. The method has not only short run time (3.5min) but requires a low plasma sample volume (20μL) and is the first reported LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantification of the marketed drug known as centchroman (INN: ormeloxifene) and the metabolite 7-DMO in plasma. The method was applied to evaluate drug-drug interaction of ORM with the commonly prescribed antidepressant drug sertraline using serial sampling in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Validación de la Escala Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity (RAPA en población chilena adulta consultante en Atención Primaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Carola Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la práctica de actividad física es esencial para el cuidado de la salud. Se requiere contar con instrumentos que permitan medirla y monitorear los cambios en las personas que la practican. Objetivos: adaptar culturalmente el cuestionario Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity (RAPA, y estimar sus propiedades psicométricas, su validez y confiabilidad, para medir el nivel de actividad física en personas adultas consultantes en centros de atención primaria en Santiago (Chile. Materiales y métodos: el RAPA adaptado fue aplicado a 180 adultos asistentes a 5 centros de salud. Se determinó su índice de masa corporal (IMC y circunferencia de cintura (CC. Resultados: las puntuaciones en la escala RAPA se relacionaron en forma inversa y significativa con el perímetro de cintura y el IMC. Las personas categorizadas con bajo nivel de actividad física (Poco Activo y Poco Activo Regular Ligero presentan un IMC promedio más elevado y son más frecuentemente categorizados con CC alterada. La confiabilidad del instrumento fue moderada (r = 0,61; K = 0,34. Conclusiones: el RAPA en su versión en español adaptada para Chile, es un instrumento de fácil aplicación, que pese a su moderada confiabilidad, logra ser sensible al desarrollo de actividad física, que presenta una relación coherente con los parámetros antropométricos de IMC y CC sensibles a dicha actividad.

  15. Case of Rapid Progression of Hemiatrophy on the Face: A New Clinical Entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Nomura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of diseases, including lupus profundus, morphea, lipodystrophy, and Parry-Romberg syndrome, may manifest progressive hemifacial atrophy. These diseases usually progress slowly and rapid progression of atrophy is extremely rare. We report a case of elderly-onset rapid progression of hemifacial atrophy only in three weeks. Our case did not meet variable differential diagnoses. We discuss the clinical character of the patient against the past of literature and suppose it may be a new clinical entity.

  16. Effect of zero-valent iron and trivalent iron on UASB rapid start-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Fang, Hongyan; Jia, Hui; Yang, Guang; Gao, Fei; Liu, Wenbin

    2018-01-01

    In order to realize the rapid start-up of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, the iron ion in different valence state was added to UASB. The results indicated that the start-up time of R3 (FeCl 3 ) was 48 h faster than that of R2 (zero-valent iron (ZVI)). It was because the FeCl 3 could rapidly promote granulation of sludge as a flocculant. However, ZVI released Fe 2+ through corrosion slowly, and then the Fe 2+ increased start-up speed by enhancing enzyme activity and enriching methanogens. In addition, the ZVI and FeCl 3 could promote hydrolysis acidification and strengthen the decomposition of long-chain fatty acids. The detection of iron ions showed that iron ions mainly existed in the sludge. Because the high concentration of Fe 2+ could inhibit anaerobic bacteria activity, excess Fe 3+ could be changed into iron hydroxide precipitation to hinder the mass transfer process of anaerobic bacteria under the alkaline condition. The FeCl 3 was suitable to be added at the initial stage of UASB start-up, and the ZVI was more fitted to be used in the middle stage of reactor start-up to improve the redox ability.

  17. Human Neutrophil Lipocalin in Activated Whole Blood Is a Specific and Rapid Diagnostic Biomarker of Bacterial Infections in the Respiratory Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venge, Per; Eriksson, Ann-Katrin; Douhan-Håkansson, Lena; Pauksen, Karlis

    2017-07-01

    The distinction between bacterial and viral causes of infections of the respiratory tract is a major but important clinical challenge. We investigated the diagnostic performance of human neutrophil lipocalin (HNL) in respiratory tract infections compared to those of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). Patients were recruited from the emergency department and from a primary care unit (n = 162). The clinical diagnosis with regard to bacterial or viral cause of infection was complemented with objective microbiological/serological testing. HNL was measured in whole blood after preactivation with the neutrophil activator formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP) (B-HNL), and CRP and PCT were measured in plasma. Head-to-head comparisons of the three biomarkers showed that B-HNL was a superior diagnostic means to distinguish between causes of infections, with areas under the concentration-time curve (AUCs) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for HNL of 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 0.96) and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.82 to 0.97) for all respiratory infections and for upper respiratory infections, respectively, compared to 0.72 (95% CI, 0.63 to 0.80) and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.56 to 0.79) for CRP, respectively (P = 0.001). In relation to major clinical symptoms of respiratory tract infections (cough, sore throat, stuffy nose, and signs of sinusitis), AUCs varied between 0.88 and 0.93 in those patients with likely etiology (i.e., etiology is likely determined) of infection, compared to 0.63 and 0.71 for CRP, respectively, and nonsignificant AUCs for PCT. The diagnostic performance of B-HNL is superior to that of plasma CRP (P-CRP) and plasma PCT (P-PCT) in respiratory tract infections, and the activity specifically reflects bacterial challenge in the body. The rapid and accurate analysis of HNL by point-of-care technologies should be a major advancement in the diagnosis and management of respiratory infections with respect to antibiotic

  18. The quantum 2D-harmonic oscillator in 1:1 resonance with time-dependent perturbation : averaging applied to slowly varying quantum systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huveneers, R.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we will study the 2D-harmonic oscillator in 1:1 resonance. We add a general third- and fourth order perturbation which is slowly time-dependent, and are interested in the resulting interaction between the unperturbed orbits (states). By treating this system quantummechanically we get a

  19. On the co-existence of chemically peculiar Bp stars, slowly pulsating B stars and constant B stars in the same part of the H-R diagram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briquet, M.; Hubrig, S.; Cat, P. de; Aerts, C.; North, P.; Schöller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aims. In order to better model massive B-type stars, we need to understand the physical processes taking place in slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars, chemically peculiar Bp stars, and non-pulsating normal B stars co-existing in the same part of the H-R diagram. Methods: We carry out a comparative study

  20. Physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not exercised or been active in a long time, start slowly to prevent injuries. Taking a brisk 10-minute walk twice a week is a good start. Try joining a dance, yoga, or karate class if it appeals to you. You could also ...

  1. Low renal replacement therapy incidence among slowly progressing elderly chronic kidney disease patients referred to nephrology care: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Ulrika Hahn; Gasparini, Alessandro; Bellocco, Rino; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Carrero, Juan-Jesus; Evans, Marie

    2017-02-10

    Elderly patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high risk of death before reaching end-stage kidney disease. In order to allocate resources, such as advanced care nephrology where it is most needed, it is essential to know which patients have the highest absolute risk of advancing to renal replacement therapy (RRT). We included all nephrology-referred CKD stage 3b-5 patients in Sweden 2005-2011 included in the Swedish renal registry (SRR-CKD) who had at least two serum creatinine measurements one year apart (+/- 6 months). We followed these patients to either initiation of RRT, death, or September 30, 2013. Decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (%) was estimated during the one-year baseline period. The patients in the highest tertile of progression (>18.7% decline in eGFR) during the initial year of follow-up were classified as "fast progressors". We estimated the cumulative incidence of RRT and death before RRT by age, eGFR and progression status using competing risk models. There were 2119 RRT initiations (24.2%) and 2060 deaths (23.5%) before RRT started. The median progression rate estimated during the initial year was -8.8% (Interquartile range [IQR] - 24.5-6.5%). A fast initial progression rate was associated with a higher risk of RRT initiation (Sub Hazard Ratio [SHR] 2.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.00-2.51) and also a higher risk of death before RRT initiation (SHR 1.27 (95% CI 1.13-1.43). The five year probability of RRT was highest in younger patients (75 years with a slow progression rate (7, 13, and 25% for CKD stages 3b, 4 and 5 respectively), and slightly higher in elderly patients with a fast initial progression rate (28% in CKD stage 4 and 47% in CKD stage 5) or with diabetic kidney disease. The 5-year probability of RRT was low among referred slowly progressing CKD patients >75 years of age because of the competing risk of death.

  2. HIV-1 RNA may decline more slowly in semen than in blood following initiation of efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Graham

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy (ART decreases HIV-1 RNA levels in semen and reduces sexual transmission from HIV-1-infected men. Our objective was to study the time course and magnitude of seminal HIV-1 RNA decay after initiation of efavirenz-based ART among 13 antiretroviral-naïve Kenyan men.HIV-1 RNA was quantified (lower limit of detection, 120 copies/mL in blood and semen at baseline and over the first month of ART. Median log(10 HIV-1 RNA was compared at each time-point using Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests. Perelson's two-phase viral decay model and nonlinear random effects were used to compare decay rates in blood and semen.Median baseline HIV-1 RNA was 4.40 log(10 copies/mL in blood (range, 3.20-5.08 log(10 copies/mL and 3.69 log(10 copies/mL in semen (range, <2.08-4.90 log(10 copies/mL. The median reduction in HIV-1 RNA by day 28 was 1.90 log(10 copies/mL in blood (range, 0.56-2.68 log(10 copies/mL and 1.36 log(10 copies/mL in semen (range, 0-2.66 log(10 copies/mL. ART led to a decrease from baseline by day 7 in blood and day 14 in semen (p = 0.005 and p = 0.006, respectively. The initial modeled decay rate was slower in semen than in blood (p = 0.06. There was no difference in second-phase decay rates between blood and semen.Efavirenz-based ART reduced HIV-1 RNA levels more slowly in semen than in blood. Although this difference was of borderline significance in this small study, our observations suggest that there is suboptimal suppression of seminal HIV-1 RNA for some men in the early weeks of treatment.

  3. Sanshool on The Fingertip Interferes with Vibration Detection in a Rapidly-Adapting (RA Tactile Channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scinob Kuroki

    Full Text Available An Asian spice, Szechuan pepper (sanshool, is well known for the tingling sensation it induces on the mouth and on the lips. Electrophysiological studies have revealed that its active ingredient can induce firing of mechanoreceptor fibres that typically respond to mechanical vibration. Moreover, a human behavioral study has reported that the perceived frequency of sanshool-induced tingling matches with the preferred frequency range of the tactile rapidly adapting (RA channel, suggesting the contribution of sanshool-induced RA channel firing to its unique perceptual experience. However, since the RA channel may not be the only channel activated by sanshool, there could be a possibility that the sanshool tingling percept may be caused in whole or in part by other sensory channels. Here, by using a perceptual interference paradigm, we show that the sanshool-induced RA input indeed contributes to the human tactile processing. The absolute detection thresholds for vibrotactile input were measured with and without sanshool application on the fingertip. Sanshool significantly impaired detection of vibrations at 30 Hz (RA channel dominant frequency, but did not impair detection of higher frequency vibrations at 240 Hz (Pacinian-corpuscle (PC channel dominant frequency or lower frequency vibrations at 1 Hz (slowly adapting 1 (SA1 channel dominant frequency. These results show that the sanshool induces a peripheral RA channel activation that is relevant for tactile perception. This anomalous activation of RA channels may contribute to the unique tingling experience of sanshool.

  4. Quantitative cytochemical analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in living isolated hepatocytes of European flounder for rapid analysis of xenobiotic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winzer, K.; van Noorden, C. J.; Köhler, A.

    2001-01-01

    There is a great need for rapid but reliable assays to determine quantitatively effects of xenobiotics on biological systems in environmental research. Hepatocytes of European flounder are sensitive to low-dose toxic stress. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) is the major source of NADPH in

  5. Diabetes - keeping active

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ways to add more activity to your day. Introduction There are many benefits to being active. Staying ... of activities and locations. When the weather is cold or wet, stay active by ... and equipment. Start slowly. A common mistake is to try and do too much ...

  6. Interrupted or continuous slowly absorbable sutures – Design of a multi-centre randomised trial to evaluate abdominal closure techniques INSECT-Trial [ISRCTN24023541

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Büchler Markus W

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The closure of the abdomen after median laparotomy is still a matter of debate among surgeons. Further well designed and performed randomised controlled trials determining the optimal method of abdominal fascial closure are needed. Design This is a three armed, multi-centre, intra-operatively randomised, controlled, patient blinded trial. Over 20 surgical departments will enrol 600 patients who are planned for an elective primary abdominal operation. The objective of this study is to compare the frequency of abdominal incisional hernias between two continuous suture techniques with different, slowly absorbable monofilament materials and an interrupted suture using an absorbable braided suture material at one year postoperatively. Conclusion This trial will answer the question whether the continuous abdominal wall closure with a slowly absorbable material with longitudinal elasticity is superior to the continuous suture with a material lacking elasticity and to interrupted sutures with braided thread.

  7. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  9. Higher body mass index in adults at diagnosis of the slowly progressive form of type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with lower risk HLA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourlanos, S; Elkassaby, S; Varney, M D; Colman, P G; Harrison, L C

    2014-06-01

    We hypothesised that higher body weight, a proposed risk factor for type 1 diabetes mellitus, would be associated with increased penetrance of lower risk genes. In adults at diagnosis of the slowly progressive form of type 1 diabetes mellitus we found that higher body mass index was associated with the absence of the highest risk HLA genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. From efficient symplectic exponentiation of matrices to symplectic integration of high-dimensional Hamiltonian systems with slowly varying quadratic stiff potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Molei; Owhadi, Houman; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    2010-01-01

    We present a multiscale integrator for Hamiltonian systems with slowly varying quadratic stiff potentials that uses coarse timesteps (analogous to what the impulse method uses for constant quadratic stiff potentials). This method is based on the highly-non-trivial introduction of two efficient symplectic schemes for exponentiations of matrices that only require O(n) matrix multiplications operations at each coarse time step for a preset small number n. The proposed integrator is shown to be (...

  11. Performance analysis of variable code rate signals transmitted over frequency-nonselective, slowly fading channels in a pulse-interference environment

    OpenAIRE

    Shih, Wan-Chun

    2005-01-01

    Wireless systems, including wireless local area networks (WLAN) and cellular networks, are increasingly being used for both commercial and military applications. For military applications, it is important to analyze the effect of interference on wireless communications systems. The objective of this research is to investigate the performance of variable code rate signals transmitted over frequency-nonselective, slowly fading channels in a worst case, pulse-noise interference environment. ...

  12. Rapidly developing multimorbidity and disability in older adults: does social background matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Santoni, Giola; Wang, Hui Xin; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Rizzuto, Debora; Vetrano, Davide L; Marengoni, Alessandra; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2018-02-07

    Multimorbidity is among the most disabling geriatric conditions. In this study we explored whether a rapid development of multimorbidity potentiates its impact on the functional independence of older adults, and whether different sociodemographic factors play a role beyond the rate of chronic disease accumulation. A random sample of persons aged ≥60 years (n = 2387) from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) was followed over 6 years. The speed of multimorbidity development was estimated as the rate of chronic disease accumulation (linear mixed models) and further dichotomized into the upper versus the three lower rate quartiles. Binomial negative mixed models were used to analyse the association between speed of multimorbidity development and disability (impaired basic and instrumental activities of daily living), expressed as the incidence rate ratio (IRR). The effect of sociodemographic factors, including sex, education, occupation and social network, was investigated. The risk of new activity impairment was higher among participants who developed multimorbidity faster (IRR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-3.1) compared with those who accumulated diseases more slowly over time, even after considering the baseline number of chronic conditions. Only female sex (IRR for women vs. men 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.0) and social network (IRR for poor vs. rich social network 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.2) showed an effect on disability beyond the rate of chronic disease accumulation. Rapidly developing multimorbidity is a negative prognostic factor for disability. However, sociodemographic factors such as sex and social network may determine older adults' reserves of functional ability, helping them to live independently despite rapid accumulation of chronic conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Commercial aspects of rapid thermal processing (RTP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.G.; Huffman, D.R. [Ensyn Technologies Inc., Greely, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    In its broadest sense, Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP{sup TM}) covers the conversion of all types of carbonaceous materials to liquid fuels, high quality fuel gases, and chemicals. Scientifically, it is based on the general premise that products which result from the extremely rapid application of heat to a given feedstock are inherently more valuable than those which are produced when heat is applied much more slowly over longer periods of processing time. Commercial RTP{sup TM} activities (including the actual implementation in the market as well as the short-term R and D initiatives) are much narrower in scope, and are focused on the production of high yields of light, non-tarry liquids (i.e. `bio-crude`) from biomass for fuel and chemical markets. Chemicals are of significant interest from an economical point of view since they typically have a higher value than fuel products. Liquid fuels are of interest for many reasons: (1) Liquid fuels do not have to be used immediately after production, such as is the case with hot combustion gases or combustible gases produced via gasification. This allows the decoupling of fuel production from the end-use (ie. the conversion of fuel to energy). (2) The higher energy density of liquid fuels vs. that of fuel gases and solid biomass results in a large reduction in the costs associated with storage and transportation. (3) The costs to retrofit an existing gas or oil fired combustion system are much lower than replacement with a solid fuel combustor. (4) In general, liquid fuel combustion is much more efficient, controllable, and cleaner than the combustion of solid fuels. (5) The production of liquid `bio-crude` permits the removal of ash from the biomass prior to combustion or other end-use applications. (6) Gas or liquid fuel-fired diesel or turbine engines cannot operate commercially on solid fuels. Although wood represents the biomass which is of principal commercial interest (including a vast array of wood residues

  14. Specific, Sensitive, and Rapid Diagnosis of Active Toxoplasmosis by a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method Using Blood Samples from Patients ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Yee Ling; Meganathan, Puviarasi; Sonaimuthu, Parthasarathy; Thiruvengadam, Girija; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Chen, Yeng

    2010-01-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), a rapid nucleic acid amplification method, was developed for the clinical diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Three LAMP assays based on the SAG1, SAG2, and B1 genes of Toxoplasma gondii were developed. The sensitivities and specificities of the LAMP assays were evaluated by comparison with the results of conventional nested PCR. The LAMP assays were highly sensitive and had a detection limit of 0.1 tachyzoite, and no cross-reactivity with the DNA of oth...

  15. Self-assembly of silver nanoparticles as high active surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate for rapid and trace analysis of uranyl(VI) ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaofei; Jiang, Jiaolai; Wu, Haoxi; Jia, Jianping; Shao, Lang; Tang, Hao; Ren, Yiming; Chu, Mingfu; Wang, Xiaolin

    2017-06-01

    A facile surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate based on the self-assembly of silver nanoparticles on the modified silicon wafer was obtained, and for the first time, an advanced SERS analysis method basing on this as-prepared substrate was established for high sensitive and rapid detection of uranyl ions. Due to the weakened bond strength of Odbnd Udbnd O resulting from two kinds of adsorption of uranyl species (;strong; and ;weak; adsorption) on the substrate, the ν1 symmetric stretch vibration frequency of Odbnd Udbnd O shifted from 871 cm- 1 (normal Raman) to 720 cm- 1 and 826 cm- 1 (SERS) along with significant Raman enhancement. Effects of the hydrolysis of uranyl ions on SERS were also investigated, and the SERS band at 826 cm- 1 was first used to approximately define the constitution of uranyl species at trace quantity level. Besides, the SERS intensity was proportional to the variable concentrations of uranyl nitrate ranging from 10- 7 to 10- 3 mol L- 1 with an excellent linear relation (R2 = 0.998), and the detection limit was 10- 7 mol L- 1. Furthermore, the related SERS approach involves low-cost substrate fabrication, rapid and trace analysis simultaneously, and shows great potential applications for the field assays of uranyl ions in the nuclear fuel cycle and environmental monitoring.

  16. Elevated levels of serum type I collagen C-telopeptide in patients with rapidly destructive osteoarthritis of the hip

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Christian E.; Kröner, Andreas; Stiegler, Helmar; Leitha, Thomas; Engel, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    We compared type I collagen degradation using serum cross-linking C-terminal telopeptide (ICTP) in 18 patients with rapidly destructive osteoarthrosis and in 20 patients with slowly progressive osteoarthrosis of the hip. The diagnosis was established by clinical examination and radiographic evaluation. Total hip arthroplasty was performed in all patients. Serum levels of ICTP, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin and N-terminal propeptide were studied. Patients with rapidly destruc...

  17. Acute inhalation of ozone stimulates bronchial C-fibers and rapidly adapting receptors in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleridge, J.C.G.; Coleridge, H.M.; Schelegle, E.S.; Green, J.F. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States) Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States))

    1993-05-01

    To identify the afferents responsible for initiating the vagally mediated respiratory changes evoked by acute exposure to ozone, the authors recorded vagal impulses in anesthetized, open-chest, artificially ventilated dogs and examined the pulmonary afferent response to ozone (2--3 ppM in air) delivered to the lower trachea for 20--60 min. Bronchial C-fibers (BrCs) were the lung afferents most susceptible to ozone, the activity of 10 of 11 BrCs increasing from 0.2 [+-] 0.2 to 4.6 [+-] 1.3 impulses/s within 1--7 min of ozone exposure. Ten of 15 rapidly adapting receptors (RARs) were stimulated by ozone, their activity increasing from 1.5 [+-] 0.4 to 4.7 [+-] 0.7 impulses/s. Stimulation of RARs (but not of BrCs) appeared secondary to the ozone-induced reduction of lung compliance because it was abolished by hyperinflation of the lungs. Ozone had little effect on pulmonary C-fibers or slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors. The authors' results suggest that both BrCs and RARs contribute to the tachypnea and bronchoconstriction evoked by acute exposure to ozone when vagal conduction is intact and that BrCs alone are responsible for the vagally mediated tachypnea that survives vagal cooling to 7[degrees]C. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Rapid antibacterial activity of 2 novel hand soaps: evaluation of the risk of development of bacterial resistance to the antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldo, Ingrid M; Gilman, Allan; Shintre, Milind S; Modak, Shanta M

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of and risk of organisms developing resistance to 2 novel hand soaps: (1) a soap containing triclosan, polyhexamethylene biguanide, and benzethonium chloride added to a soap base (TPB soap); and (2) a soap containing farnesol, polyhexamethylene biguanide, and benzethonium chloride added to a soap base (FPB soap). Tests also included soaps containing only triclosan. The risk of emergence of resistant bacterial mutants was investigated by determining the susceptibility changes after repeated exposure of bacteria to the drugs and soaps in vitro. The effectiveness of the soaps was evaluated using an in vitro tube dilution method, a volunteer method (the ASTM standard), and 2 pig skin methods. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of triclosan against Staphylococcus aureus increased 8- to 62.5-fold, whereas those of TPB and FPB (both alone and in soap) were unchanged. In vitro, TPB and FPB soaps produced higher log(10) reductions in colony-forming units of all tested organisms (4.95-8.58) than did soaps containing triclosan alone (0.29-4.86). In the test using the pig skin and volunteer methods, TPB soap produced a higher log(10) reduction in colony-forming units (3.1-3.3) than did the soap containing triclosan alone (2.6-2.8). The results indicate that TPB and FPB soaps may provide superior rapid and broad-spectrum efficacy with a lower risk of organisms developing resistance than do soaps containing triclosan alone. Pig skin methods may be used to predict the efficacy of antibacterial soaps in the rapid disinfection of contaminated hands. Hand washing with TPB and FPB soaps by healthcare workers and the general population may reduce the transmission of pathogens, with a lower risk of promoting the emergence of resistant organisms.

  19. Development of Rapid Radiochemical Method for Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activity Concentration in Flowback and Produced Waters from Hydraulic Fracturing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the development and validation of an improved method for the Determination of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activity in Flowback and Produced Waters from Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (FPWHFO). Flowback and produced waters are characterized by high concentra...

  20. What stops hospital clinical staff from following protocols? An analysis of the incidence and factors behind the failure of bedside clinical staff to activate the rapid response system in a multi-campus Australian metropolitan healthcare service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Bill; Marshall, Stuart; Buist, Michael David; Finnigan, Monica; Kitto, Simon; Hore, Tonina; Sturgess, Tamica; Wilson, Stuart; Ramsay, Wayne

    2012-07-01

    To explore the causes of failure to activate the rapid response system (RRS). The organisation has a recognised incidence of staff failing to act when confronted with a deteriorating patient and leading to adverse outcomes. A multi-method study using the following: a point prevalence survey to determine the incidence of abnormal simple bedside observations and activation of the rapid response team by clinical staff; a prospective audit of all patients experiencing a cardiac arrest, unplanned intensive care unit admission or death over an 8-week period; structured interviews of staff to explore cognitive and sociocultural barriers to activating the RRS. Southern Health is a comprehensive healthcare network with 570 adult in-patient beds across four metropolitan teaching hospitals in the south-eastern sector of Melbourne. Frequency of physiological instability and outcomes within the in-patient hospital population. Qualitative data from staff interviews were thematically coded. The incidence of physiological instability in the acute adult population was 4.04%. Nearly half of these patients (42%) did not receive an appropriate clinical response from the staff, despite most (69.2%) recognising their patient met physiological criteria for activating the RRS, and being 'quite', or 'very' concerned about their patient (75.8%). Structured interviews with 91 staff members identified predominantly sociocultural reasons for failure to activate the RRS. Despite an organisational commitment to the RRS, clinical staff act on local cultural rules within the clinical environment that are usually not explicit. Better understanding of these informal rules may lead to more appropriate activation of the RRS.

  1. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  2. Rapidly progressing and resistant warts in an immuno-competent male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shahidullah Sikder

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous warts are common skin conditions caused by different specific strains of the human papilloma virus (HPV, mostly affect children as localized lesion on the hands and feet. They are slowly progressing and disseminated lesions are found in immuno-compromised situations. Usually majority of warts disappear by few months to two years. This is a case of extensive, giant, rapidly progressing and resistant warts in an immuno-competent adult male. 

  3. Multiscale study of the boron and carbon behavior in the fracture zone of the rapidly quenched nickel-based superalloy by the nuclear physics methods of the track and activation autoradiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    The results of the study of the fracture zone of the rapidly quenched nickel-based superalloy after tensile tests are presented. The main attention was attended to the multiscale investigation of boron and carbon distribution in the area of the cracks propagation by the direct nuclear physics methods of the track and activation autoradiography. Tensile tests were performed at the temperatures up to 1150 °C. The nuclear reactor MEPhI IRT-2000 and cyclotron were applied for the autoradiography studies. Significant depleting of boron in the fracture zone which was revealed can be explained due to the intensive moving of the dislocation.

  4. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenck, C H; Montplaisir, J Y; Frauscher, B

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to provide a consensus statement by the International Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Study Group (IRBD-SG) on devising controlled active treatment studies in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and devising studies of neuroprotection against Parkinson disease (PD...

  5. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry rapid detection of carbapenamase activity in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouseada, Noha; Raouf, May; El-Attar, Eman; Moez, Pacinte

    2017-01-01

    Carbapenamase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii are an increasing threat in hospitals and Intensive Care Units. Accurate and rapid detection of carbapenamase producers has a great impact on patient improvement and aids in implementation of infection control measures. In this study, we describe the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) to identify carbapenamase-producing A. baumannii isolates in up to 3 h. Isolates and Methods: A total of 50 A. baumannii isolates (of which 39 were carabapenamase producers) were tested using MALDI TOF MS. Isolates were incubated for 3 h with 0.25 mg/ml up to 2 mg/ml of imipenem (IMP) at 37°C. Supernatants were analysed by MALDI TOF to analyse peaks corresponding to IMP (300 Da) and an IMP metabolite (254 Da) using UltrafleXtreme (Bruker Daltonics, Bremen, Germany). All carbapenamase-producing isolates were evidenced by the disappearance or reduction in intensity of the 300 Da peak of IPM and the appearance of a 254 Da peak of the IPM metabolite. In isolates that did not produce carbapenamase, the IPM 300 Da peak remained intact. MALDI TOF is a promising tool in the field of diagnostic microbiology that has the ability to transfer identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing time from days to hours.

  6. Rapid 'on-line' image processing as a tool in the evaluation of kinetic and morphological aspects of receptor-induced cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theler, J M; Wollheim, C B; Schlegel, W

    1991-01-01

    Transmembrane signalling involves rapid and spatially well defined changes in cytosolic free Ca2+, [Ca2+]i. Specific technologies involving image processing permit the analysis of kinetic and morphological aspects of [Ca2+]i at the subcellular level with the fluorescent Ca2+ probe fura-2. Fluorescence excitation wavelengths (340 nm or 380 nm) are alternated in synchrony with the acquisition at video rate of images captured with an intensified CCD camera. Images are digitized, recursively filtered, divided, and displayed after calibration of the 'ratio' image into a numerical [Ca2+]i scale. The image processor IMAGINE (Synoptics Ltd., UK) permits these operations at video rate. This produces 'on-line' [Ca2+]i images in real time which are stored on video tapes for subsequent analysis. The present communication summarizes the rationale for the selection of our current technologies. A comparison with alternative solutions should highlight the particular advantages and drawbacks of our approach. The present text thus should serve as a help for investigators who try to assemble image processing tools for work in the receptor and cellular signalling field.

  7. Early gamma oscillations during rapid auditory processing in children with a language-learning impairment: changes in neural mass activity after training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Sabine; Keil, Andreas; Choudhury, Naseem; Thomas Friedman, Jennifer; Benasich, April A

    2013-04-01

    Children with language-learning impairment (LLI) have consistently shown difficulty with tasks requiring precise, rapid auditory processing. Remediation based on neural plasticity assumes that the temporal precision of neural coding can be improved by intensive training protocols. Here, we examined the extent to which early oscillatory responses in auditory cortex change after audio-visual training, using combined source modeling and time-frequency analysis of the human electroencephalogram (EEG). Twenty-one elementary school students diagnosed with LLI underwent the intervention for an average of 32 days. Pre- and post-training assessments included standardized language/literacy tests and EEG recordings in response to fast-rate tone doublets. Twelve children with typical language development were also tested twice, with no intervention given. Behaviorally, improvements on measures of language were observed in the LLI group following completion of training. During the first EEG assessment, we found reduced amplitude and phase-locking of early (45-75 ms) oscillations in the gamma-band range (29-52 Hz), specifically in the LLI group, for the second stimulus of the tone doublet. Amplitude reduction for the second tone was no longer evident for the LLI children post-intervention, although these children still exhibited attenuated phase-locking. Our findings suggest that specific aspects of inefficient sensory cortical processing in LLI are ameliorated after training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aberrant Purkinje cell activity is the cause of dystonia in a shRNA-based mouse model of Rapid Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremont, Rachel; Tewari, Ambika; Khodakhah, Kamran

    2015-10-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the α3 isoform of the sodium pump are responsible for Rapid Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism (RDP). A pharmacologic model of RDP replicates the most salient features of RDP, and implicates both the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the disorder; dystonia is associated with aberrant cerebellar output, and the parkinsonism-like features are attributable to the basal ganglia. The pharmacologic agent used to generate the model, ouabain, is selective for sodium pumps. However, close to the infusion sites in vivo it likely affects all sodium pump isoforms. Therefore, it remains to be established whether selective loss of α3-containing sodium pumps replicates the pharmacologic model. Moreover, while the pharmacologic model suggested that aberrant firing of Purkinje cells was the main cause of abnormal cerebellar output, it did not allow the scrutiny of this hypothesis. To address these questions RNA interference using small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) delivered via adeno-associated viruses (AAV) was used to specifically knockdown α3-containing sodium pumps in different regions of the adult mouse brain. Knockdown of the α3-containing sodium pumps mimicked both the behavioral and electrophysiological changes seen in the pharmacologic model of RDP, recapitulating key aspects of the human disorder. Further, we found that knockdown of the α3 isoform altered the intrinsic pacemaking of Purkinje cells, but not the neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei. Therefore, acute knockdown of proteins associated with inherited dystonias may be a good strategy for developing phenotypic genetic mouse models where traditional transgenic models have failed to produce symptomatic mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The resilience activation framework: a conceptual model of how access to social resources promotes adaptation and rapid recovery in post-disaster settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, David M; Grattan, Lynn M; Mayer, Brian; Colten, Craig E; Arosemena, Farah A; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane; Lichtveld, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    A number of governmental agencies have called for enhancing citizens' resilience as a means of preparing populations in advance of disasters, and as a counterbalance to social and individual vulnerabilities. This increasing scholarly, policy, and programmatic interest in promoting individual and communal resilience presents a challenge to the research and practice communities: to develop a translational framework that can accommodate multidisciplinary scientific perspectives into a single, applied model. The Resilience Activation Framework provides a basis for testing how access to social resources, such as formal and informal social support and help, promotes positive adaptation or reduced psychopathology among individuals and communities exposed to the acute collective stressors associated with disasters, whether human-made, natural, or technological in origin. Articulating the mechanisms by which access to social resources activate and sustain resilience capacities for optimal mental health outcomes post-disaster can lead to the development of effective preventive and early intervention programs.

  10. The Resilience Activation Framework: A conceptual model of how access to social resources promotes adaptation and rapid recovery in post-disaster settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, David M.; Grattan, Lynn M.; Mayer, Brian; Colten, Craig E.; Arosemena, Farah A.; Rung, Ariane; Lichtveld, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    A number of governmental agencies have called for enhancing citizen’s resilience as a means of preparing populations in advance of disasters, and as a counter-balance to social and individual vulnerabilities. This increasing scholarly, policy and programmatic interest in promoting individual and communal resilience presents a challenge to the research and practice communities: to develop a translational framework that can accommodate multi-disciplinary scientific perspectives into a single, applied model. The Resilience Activation Framework provides a basis for testing how access to social resources, such as formal and informal social support and help, promotes positive adaptation or reduced psychopathology among individuals and communities exposed to the acute collective stressors associated with disasters, whether manmade, natural, or technological in origin. Articulating the mechanisms by which access to social resources activate and sustain resilience capacities for optimal mental health outcomes post-disaster can lead to the development of effective preventive and early intervention programs. PMID:24870399

  11. Practical implications of rapid development methodologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development methodologies are popular approaches for the development of modern software systems. The goals of these methodologies are the inclusion of the client into the analysis, design and implementation activities, as well...

  12. Use of 5-Cyano-2,3-Ditolyl-Tetrazolium Chloride Staining as an Indicator of Biocidal Activity in a Rapid Assay for Anti-Acanthamoeba Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Takeshi; Mito, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Narumi; Suzuki, Takashi; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2012-01-01

    The usefulness of 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl-tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining to determine the respiratory activity of Acanthamoeba was evaluated in this study. Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts have a red fluorescence after staining with CTC. To determine the effectiveness of CTC staining as a CTC biocidal assay for Acanthamoeba, the trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba castellanii (ATCC 5037) were treated with serial concentrations of disinfectant solutions, namely, polyhexamethylene biguan...

  13. Long QT 1 mutation KCNQ1A344V increases local anesthetic sensitivity of the slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebrands, Cornelia C; Binder, Stephan; Eckhoff, Ulrike

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anesthesia in patients with long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a matter of concern. Congenital LQTS is most frequently caused by mutations in KCNQ1 (Kv7.1), whereas drug-induced LQTS is a consequence of HERG (human ether-a-go-go-related gene) channel inhibition. The aim of this study...... was to investigate whether the LQT1 mutation A344V in the S6 region of KCNQ1, at a position corresponding to the local anesthetic binding site in HERG, may render drug insensitive KCNQ1 channels into a toxicologically relevant target of these pharmacologic agents. This may suggest that LQTS constitutes not only...... a nonspecific but also a specific pharmacogenetic risk factor for anesthesia. METHODS: The authors examined electrophysiologic and pharmacologic properties of wild-type and mutant KCNQ1 channels. The effects of bupivacaine, ropivacaine, and mepivacaine were investigated using two-electrode voltage clamp...

  14. Persistent virus infection despite chronic cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activation in gamma interferon-deficient mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, C; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Wodarz, D

    2000-01-01

    The role of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in the permanent control of infection with a noncytopathic virus was studied by comparing immune responses in wild-type and IFN-gamma-deficient (IFN-gamma -/-) mice infected with a slowly invasive strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV Armstrong......). While wild-type mice rapidly cleared the infection, IFN-gamma -/- mice became chronically infected. Virus persistence in the latter mice did not reflect failure to generate cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) effectors, as an unimpaired primary CTL response was observed. Furthermore, while ex vivo CTL activity...

  15. Combining a Clostridial enzyme exhibiting unusual active site plasticity with a remarkably facile sigmatropic rearrangement: rapid, stereocontrolled entry into densely functionalized fluorinated phosphonates for chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Kaushik; Applegate, Gregory A; Malik, Guillaume; Berkowitz, David B

    2015-03-18

    Described is an efficient stereocontrolled route into valuable, densely functionalized fluorinated phosphonates that takes advantage of (i) a Clostridial enzyme to set the absolute stereochemistry and (ii) a new [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of the thiono-Claisen variety that is among the fastest sigmatropic rearrangements yet reported. Here, a pronounced rate enhancement is achieved by distal fluorination. This rearrangement is completely stereoretentive, parlaying the enzymatically established β-C-O stereochemistry in the substrate into the δ-C-S stereochemistry in the product. The final products are of interest to chemical biology, with a platform for Zn-aminopeptidase A inhibitors being constructed here. The enzyme, Clostridium acetobutylicum (CaADH), recently expressed by our group, reduces a spectrum of γ,δ-unsaturated β-keto-α,α-difluorophosphonate esters (93-99% ee; 10 examples). The resultant β-hydroxy-α,α-difluorophosphonates possess the "L"-stereochemistry, opposite to that previously observed for the CaADH-reduction of ω-keto carboxylate esters ("D"), indicating an unusual active site plasticity. For the thiono-Claisen rearrangement, a notable structure-reactivity relationship is observed. Measured rate constants vary by over 3 orders of magnitude, depending upon thiono-ester structure. Temperature-dependent kinetics reveal an unusually favorable entropy of activation (ΔS(‡) = 14.5 ± 0.6 e.u.). Most notably, a 400-fold rate enhancement is seen upon fluorination of the distal arene ring, arising from favorable enthalpic (ΔΔH(‡) = -2.3 kcal/mol) and entropic (ΔΔS(‡) = 4 e.u., i.e. 1.2 kcal/mol at rt) contributions. The unusual active site plasticity seen here is expected to drive structural biology studies on CaADH, while the exceptionally facile sigmatropic rearrangement is expected to drive computational studies to elucidate its underlying entropic and enthalpic basis.

  16. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  17. In situ controlled rapid growth of novel high activity TiB2/(TiB2–TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilin Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a reaction coupling self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (RC-SHS method was developed for the in situ controlled synthesis of novel, high activity TiB2/(TiB2–TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites using TiO2, Mg, B2O3, KBH4 and NH4NO3 as raw materials. The as-synthesized samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX, transition electron microscopy (TEM, high-resolution TEM (HRTEM and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED. The obtained TiB2/TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites demonstrated an average particle size of 100–500 nm, and every particle surface was covered by many multibranched, tapered nanorods with diameters in the range of 10–40 nm and lengths of 50–200 nm. In addition, the tapered nanorod presents a rough surface with abundant exposed atoms. The internal and external components of the nanorods were TiB2 and TiN, respectively. Additionally, a thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analyzer (TG-DSC comparison analysis indicated that the as-synthesized samples presented better chemical activity than that of commercial TiB2 powders. Finally, the possible chemical reactions as well as the proposed growth mechanism of the TiB2/(TiB2–TiN hierarchical/heterostructured nanocomposites were further discussed.

  18. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  19. 16S-23S Internal Transcribed Spacer Region PCR and Sequencer-Based Capillary Gel Electrophoresis has Potential as an Alternative to High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Identification of Slowly Growing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shradha Subedi

    Full Text Available Accurate identification of slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (SG-NTM of clinical significance remains problematic. This study evaluated a novel method of SG-NTM identification by amplification of the mycobacterial 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS region followed by resolution of amplified fragments by sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE. Fourteen American Type Culture Collection (ATCC strains and 103 clinical/environmental isolates (total n = 24 species of SG-NTM were included. Identification was compared with that achieved by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, in-house PCR and 16S/ITS sequencing. Isolates of all species yielded a SCGE profile comprising a single fragment length (or peak except for M. scrofulaceum (two peaks. SCGE peaks of ATCC strains were distinct except for peak overlap between Mycobacterium kansasii and M. marinum. Of clinical/environmental strains, unique peaks were seen for 7/17 (41% species (M. haemophilum, M. kubicae, M. lentiflavum, M. terrae, M. kansasii, M. asiaticum and M. triplex; 3/17 (18% species were identified by HPLC. There were five SCGE fragment length types (I-V each of M. avium, M. intracellulare and M. gordonae. Overlap of fragment lengths was seen between M. marinum and M. ulcerans; for M. gordonae SCGE type III and M. paragordonae; M. avium SCGE types III and IV, and M. intracellulare SCGE type I; M. chimaera, M. parascrofulaceum and M. intracellulare SCGE types III and IV; M. branderi and M. avium type V; and M. vulneris and M. intracellulare type V. The ITS-SCGE method was able to provide the first line rapid and reproducible species identification/screening of SG-NTM and was more discriminatory than HPLC.

  20. 16S-23S Internal Transcribed Spacer Region PCR and Sequencer-Based Capillary Gel Electrophoresis has Potential as an Alternative to High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Identification of Slowly Growing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Shradha; Kong, Fanrong; Jelfs, Peter; Gray, Timothy J.; Xiao, Meng; Sintchenko, Vitali; Chen, Sharon C-A

    2016-01-01

    Accurate identification of slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (SG-NTM) of clinical significance remains problematic. This study evaluated a novel method of SG-NTM identification by amplification of the mycobacterial 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region followed by resolution of amplified fragments by sequencer-based capillary gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Fourteen American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains and 103 clinical/environmental isolates (total n = 24 species) of SG-NTM were included. Identification was compared with that achieved by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), in-house PCR and 16S/ITS sequencing. Isolates of all species yielded a SCGE profile comprising a single fragment length (or peak) except for M. scrofulaceum (two peaks). SCGE peaks of ATCC strains were distinct except for peak overlap between Mycobacterium kansasii and M. marinum. Of clinical/environmental strains, unique peaks were seen for 7/17 (41%) species (M. haemophilum, M. kubicae, M. lentiflavum, M. terrae, M. kansasii, M. asiaticum and M. triplex); 3/17 (18%) species were identified by HPLC. There were five SCGE fragment length types (I–V) each of M. avium, M. intracellulare and M. gordonae. Overlap of fragment lengths was seen between M. marinum and M. ulcerans; for M. gordonae SCGE type III and M. paragordonae; M. avium SCGE types III and IV, and M. intracellulare SCGE type I; M. chimaera, M. parascrofulaceum and M. intracellulare SCGE types III and IV; M. branderi and M. avium type V; and M. vulneris and M. intracellulare type V. The ITS-SCGE method was able to provide the first line rapid and reproducible species identification/screening of SG-NTM and was more discriminatory than HPLC. PMID:27749897

  1. A case study for effects of operational taxonomic units from intracellular endoparasites and ciliates on the eukaryotic phylogeny: phylogenetic position of the haptophyta in analyses of multiple slowly evolving genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayoshi Nozaki

    Full Text Available Recent multigene phylogenetic analyses have contributed much to our understanding of eukaryotic phylogeny. However, the phylogenetic positions of various lineages within the eukaryotes have remained unresolved or in conflict between different phylogenetic studies. These phylogenetic ambiguities might have resulted from mixtures or integration from various factors including limited taxon sampling, missing data in the alignment, saturations of rapidly evolving genes, mixed analyses of short- and long-branched operational taxonomic units (OTUs, intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs with unusual substitution etc. In order to evaluate the effects from intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs co-analyzed on the eukaryotic phylogeny and simplify the results, we here used two different sets of data matrices of multiple slowly evolving genes with small amounts of missing data and examined the phylogenetic position of the secondary photosynthetic chromalveolates Haptophyta, one of the most abundant groups of oceanic phytoplankton and significant primary producers. In both sets, a robust sister relationship between Haptophyta and SAR (stramenopiles, alveolates, rhizarians, or SA [stramenopiles and alveolates] was resolved when intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs were excluded, but not in their presence. Based on comparisons of character optimizations on a fixed tree (with a clade composed of haptophytes and SAR or SA, disruption of the monophyly between haptophytes and SAR (or SA in the presence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs can be considered to be a result of multiple evolutionary reversals of character positions that supported the synapomorphy of the haptophyte and SAR (or SA clade in the absence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs.

  2. A single-chamber microbial fuel cell for rapid determination of biochemical oxygen demand using low-cost activated carbon as cathode catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Xianhua; Wang, Meiyu; Zhang, Pingping; Zong, Yanping; Zhang, Qiufeng

    2017-09-13

    The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is widely used for the evaluation of water and wastewater quality. However, the conventional method to measure BOD is time-consuming and requires complicated processes. In this study, a Microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based BOD sensor was developed by using low-cost activated carbon as the cathode catalyst. The sensor was calibrated with an aerated nutrient medium containing sodium acetate as the BOD source. When the sensor was operated with an external resistance of 1 K Ω, linear correlation (R2 = 0.9965) was obtained for BOD concentrations ranging from 80 to 1280 mg/L in a reaction time of 50 h. Besides acetate, glucose/glutamic acid (GGA) and ethanol could also be analyzed by the sensor. In a low concentration range (200 mg/L), the relationship between GGA solution concentration and output voltage was in accord with Monod growth kinetics.

  3. The effect of the ammonium ion on activated-sludge settling properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, John Thomas

    2001-01-01

    High levels of sodium in wastewater have been found to be detrimental to activated-sludge. settling and dewatering. Another potentially troublesome monovalent cation in activated-sludge systems is the ammonium ion. This study was conducted to determine if the ammonium ion could alter activated...... that the ammonium concentration would increase or by adding sodium. These studies showed that an increase in either sodium or ammonium would cause activated-sludge settling properties to deteriorate. When the monovalent-to-divalent cation ratio on a charge-equivalent basis was increased from 2.4 to 4.7 either...... by addition of sodium or ammonium, the interfacial settling velocity decreased, although the greatest drop was in the reactor containing ammonium. When addition of the nitrification inhibitor was stopped, rapid recovery of nitrification occurred but the settling properties improved more slowly. It seemed...

  4. "Mind the Gap": Raman Evidence for Rapid Inactivation of CTX-M-9 β-Lactamase Using Mechanism-Based Inhibitors that Bridge the Active Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari-Torkabadi, Hossein; Bethel, Christopher R; Ding, Zhe; Pusztai-Carey, Marianne; Bonnet, Richard; Bonomo, Robert A; Carey, Paul R

    2015-10-14

    CTX-M β-lactamases are one of the fastest growing extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) families found in Escherichia coli rendering this organism extremely difficult to treat with β-lactam antibiotics. Although they are grouped in class A β-lactamases, the CTX-M family possesses low sequence identity with other enzymes. In addition, they have high hydrolytic activity against oxyimino-cephalosporins, despite having smaller active sites compared to other ESBLs in class A. Similar to most class A enzymes, most of the CTX-M β-lactamases can be inhibited by the clinical inhibitors (clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam), but the prevalence of inhibitor resistance is an emerging clinical threat. Thus, the mechanistic details of inhibition pathways are needed for new inhibitor development. Here, we use Raman microscopy to study the CTX-M-9 inactivation reaction with the three commercially available inhibitors and compare these findings to the analysis of the S130G variant. Characterization of the reactions in CTX-M-9 single crystals and solution show the formation of a unique cross-linked species, probably involving Ser70 and Ser130, with subsequent hydrolysis leading to an acrylate species linked to Ser130. In solution, a major population of this species is seen at 25 ms after mixing. Support for this finding comes from the CTX-M-9 S130G variant that reacts with clavulanic acid, sulbactam, and tazobactam in solution, but lacks the characteristic spectroscopic signature for the Ser130-linked species. Understanding the mechanism of inactivation of this clinically important ESBL-type class A lactamase permits us to approach the challenge of inhibitor resistance using knowledge of the bridging species in the inactivation pathway.

  5. Rapid and Accurate Detection of Bacteriophage Activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 by Propidium Monoazide Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methods to determine the efficacy of bacteriophage (phage for biocontrol of E. coli require several days, due to the need to culture bacteria. Furthermore, cell surface-attached phage particles may lyse bacterial cells during experiments, leading to an overestimation of phage activity. DNA-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR is a fast, sensitive, and highly specific means of enumerating pathogens. However, qPCR may underestimate phage activity due to its inability to distinguish viable from nonviable cells. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of propidium monoazide (PMA, a microbial membrane-impermeable dye that inhibits amplification of extracellular DNA and DNA within dead or membrane-compromised cells as a means of using qPCR to identify only intact E. coli cells that survive phage exposure. Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain R508N and 4 phages (T5-like, T1-like, T4-like, and O1-like were studied. Results compared PMA-qPCR and direct plating and confirmed that PMA could successfully inhibit amplification of DNA from compromised/damaged cells E. coli O157:H7. Compared to PMA-qPCR, direct plating overestimated (P < 0.01 phage efficacy as cell surface-attached phage particles lysed E. coli O157:H7 during the plating process. Treatment of samples with PMA in combination with qPCR can therefore be considered beneficial when assessing the efficacy of bacteriophage for biocontrol of E. coli O157:H7.

  6. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  7. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  8. Study of X-Ray and $\\gamma$-Ray Spectra from Antiprotonic Atoms at the Slowly Extracted Antiproton Beam of LEAR

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment will study the X-ray spectra of antiprotonic atoms and the $\\gamma$ spectra of residual nuclei after the antiproton absorption. We intend to begin with measurements on selected isotopically pure targets. Strong interaction effects, the antiproton absorption and the atomic cascade are analysed through the measurement of energies, lineshapes, relative and absolute intensities of all observable lines. The experiments are continued to determine st in resolved fine structure levels and in different isotopes of the same element. Coincidence techniques may be applied. All components of the experimental set-up are already existing from previous experiments and we could begin the measurements with any slowly extracted beam of low energy at LEAR.

  9. Clinical application of a tissue-cultured skin autograft: an alternative for the treatment of non-healing or slowly healing wounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöller, Nadja; Valesky, Eva; Butting, Manuel; Hofmann, Matthias; Kippenberger, Stefan; Bereiter-Hahn, Jürgen; Bernd, August; Kaufmann, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The treatment regime of non-healing or slowly healing wounds is constantly improving. One aspect is surgical defect coverage whereby mesh grafts and keratinocyte suspension are applied. Tissue-cultured skin autografts may be an alternative for the treatment of full-thickness wounds and wounds that cover large areas of the body surface. Autologous epidermal and dermal cells were isolated, expanded in vitro and seeded on collagen-elastin scaffolds. The developed autograft was immunohistochemically characterized and subsequently transplanted onto a facial chronic ulceration of a 71-year-old patient with vulnerable atrophic skin. Characterization of the skin equivalent revealed comparability to healthy human skin due to the epidermal strata, differentiation and proliferation markers. Within 138 days, the skin structure at the transplantation site closely correlated with the adjacent undisturbed skin. The present study demonstrates the comparability of the developed organotypic skin equivalent to healthy human skin and the versatility for clinical applications.

  10. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Preservation ® and “ rapid recovery of cellular activity post stress ” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to Preservation® and “rapid recovery of cellular activity post stress”. The Panel considers that Preservation®, which contains an extract of prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “rapid recovery of cellular activity...... laid down in Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  11. Development of an Activated Carbon-Based Electrode for the Capture and Rapid Electrolytic Reductive Debromination of Methyl Bromide from Postharvest Fumigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Liu, Chong; Cui, Yi; Walse, Spencer S; Olver, Ryan; Zilberman, David; Mitch, William A

    2016-10-18

    Due to concerns surrounding its ozone depletion potential, there is a need for technologies to capture and destroy methyl bromide (CH 3 Br) emissions from postharvest fumigations applied to control agricultural pests. Previously, we described a system in which CH 3 Br fumes vented from fumigation chambers could be captured by granular activated carbon (GAC). The GAC was converted to a cathode by submergence in a high ionic strength solution and connection to the electrical grid, resulting in reductive debromination of the sorbed CH 3 Br. The GAC bed was drained and dried for reuse to capture and destroy CH 3 Br fumes from the next fumigation. However, the loose GAC particles and slow kinetics of this primitive electrode necessitated improvements. Here, we report the development of a cathode containing a thin layer of small GAC particles coating carbon cloth as a current distributor. Combining the high sorption potential of GAC for CH 3 Br with the conductivity of the carbon cloth current distributor, the cathode significantly lowered the total cell resistance and achieved 96% reductive debromination of CH 3 Br sorbed at 30% by weight to the GAC within 15 h at -1 V applied potential vs standard hydrogen electrode, a time scale and efficiency suitable for postharvest fumigations. The cathode exhibited stable performance over 50 CH 3 Br capture and destruction cycles. Initial cost estimates indicate that this technique could treat CH 3 Br fumes at ∼$5/kg, roughly one-third of the cost of current alternatives.

  12. Mechanical properties and rapid low-temperature consolidation of nanocrystalline Cu-ZrO2 composites by pulsed current activated heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bo-Ram; Yoon, Jin-kook; Hong, Kyung-Tae; Shon, In-Jin

    2015-07-01

    Metal-ceramic compositr can be obtained with an optimum combination of low density, high oxidation resistance, and high hardness of the ceramic and toughness of the metal. Therefore, metal matrix composites are recognized as candidates for aerospace, automotive, biomaterials, and defense applications. Despite its many attractive properties, the low fracture toughness of ZrO2 limits its wide application. One of the most obvious tactics to improve the mechanical properties has been to fabricate a nanostructured material and composite material. Nano-powders of Cu and ZrO2 were synthesized from 2CuO and Zr powders by high-energy ball milling. Nanocrystalline 2Cu-ZrO2 composite was consolidated within 5 minutes from mechanically synthesized powders of ZrO2 and 2Cu at low temperature, by a pulsed current activated sintering method. The relative density of the composite was 98.5%. The fracture toughness of 2Cu-ZrO2 composite in this study is higher than that of monolithic ZrO2, without great decrease of hardness.

  13. Performance evaluation of granular activated carbon system at Pantex: Rapid small-scale column tests to simulate removal of high explosives from contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henke, J.L.; Speitel, G.E. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1998-08-01

    A granular activated carbon (GAC) system is now in operation at Pantex to treat groundwater from the perched aquifer that is contaminated with high explosives. The main chemicals of concern are RDX and HMX. The system consists of two GAC columns in series. Each column is charged with 10,000 pounds of Northwestern LB-830 GAC. At the design flow rate of 325 gpm, the hydraulic loading is 6.47 gpm/ft{sup 2}, and the empty bed contact time is 8.2 minutes per column. Currently, the system is operating at less than 10% of its design flow rate, although flow rate increases are expected in the relatively near future. This study had several objectives: Estimate the service life of the GAC now in use at Pantex; Screen several GACs to provide a recommendation on the best GAC for use at Pantex when the current GAC is exhausted and is replaced; Determine the extent to which natural organic matter in the Pantex groundwater fouls GAC adsorption sites, thereby decreasing the adsorption capacity for high explosives; and Determine if computer simulation models could match the experimental results, thereby providing another tool to follow system performance.

  14. Rapid prefrontal cortex activation towards aversively paired faces and enhanced contingency detection are observed in highly trait-anxious women under challenging conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimu Alissa Rehbein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Relative to healthy controls, anxiety-disorder patients show anomalies in classical conditioning that may either result from, or provide a risk factor for, clinically relevant anxiety. Here, we investigated whether healthy participants with enhanced anxiety vulnerability show abnormalities in a challenging affective-conditioning paradigm, in which many stimulus-reinforcer associations had to be acquired with only few learning trials. Forty-seven high and low trait-anxious females underwent MultiCS conditioning, in which 52 different neutral faces (CS+ were paired with an aversive noise (US, while further 52 faces (CS- remained unpaired. Emotional learning was assessed by evaluative (rating, behavioral (dot-probe, contingency report, and neurophysiological (magnetoencephalography measures before, during, and after learning. High and low trait-anxious groups did not differ in evaluative ratings or response priming before or after conditioning. High trait-anxious women, however, were better than low trait-anxious women at reporting CS+/US contingencies after conditioning, and showed an enhanced prefrontal cortex activation towards CS+ in the M1 (i.e., 80 to 117 ms and M170 time intervals (i.e., 140 to 160 ms during acquisition. These effects in MultiCS conditioning observed in individuals with elevated trait anxiety are consistent with theories of enhanced conditionability in anxiety vulnerability. Furthermore, they point towards increased threat monitoring and detection in highly trait-anxious females, possibly mediated by alterations in visual working memory.

  15. Rosmarinic Acid Potentiates Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep Behaviors and Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) Sleep through the Activation of GABAA-ergic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yeong Ok; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2017-03-01

    It has been known that RA, one of major constituents of Perilla frutescens which has been used as a traditional folk remedy for sedation in oriental countries, shows the anxiolytic-like and sedative effects. This study was performed to know whether RA may enhance pentobarbital-induced sleep through γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A-ergic systems in rodents. RA (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/ kg, p.o.) reduced the locomotor activity in mice. RA decreased sleep latency and increased the total sleep time in pentobarbital (42 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced sleeping mice. RA also increased sleeping time and number of falling sleep mice after treatment with sub-hypnotic pentobarbital (28 mg/kg, i.p.). In electroencephalogram (EEG) recording, RA (2.0 mg/kg) not only decreased the counts of sleep/wake cycles and REM sleep, but also increased the total and NREM sleep in rats. The power density of NREM sleep showed the increase in δ-waves and the decrease in α-waves. On the other hand, RA (0.1, 1.0 and 10 μg/ml) increased intracellular Cl- influx in the primary cultured hypothalamic cells of rats. RA (p.o.) increased the protein expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65/67) and GABAA receptors subunits except β1 subunit. In conclusion, RA augmented pentobarbital-induced sleeping behaviors through GABAA-ergic transmission. Thus, it is suggested that RA may be useful for the treatment of insomnia.

  16. CeO2nanocrystallines ensemble-on-nitrogen-doped graphene nanocomposites: one-pot, rapid synthesis and excellent electrocatalytic activity for enzymatic biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaojiao; Jiang, Ding; Chen, Saibo; Dai, Liming; Zhou, Lei; Hao, Nan; You, Tianyou; Mao, Hanping; Wang, Kun

    2017-03-15

    Ceria nanomaterials for heterogeneous catalysis have attracted much attention due to their excellent properties and have been extensively applied in recent years. But the poor electron conductivity and the aggregation behavior severely affect their electrocatalytic performances. In this paper, we prepared a novel catalyst based on CeO 2 nanocrystallines (CeO 2 NCs) ensemble-on-nitrogen-doped graphene (CeO 2 -NG) nanocomposites through a one-step heat-treatment without the need of the precursor. The results confirmed that the high dispersion of CeO 2 NCs with the uniform size distribution of about 5nm on the surface of nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) sheets could be easily obtained via the one-step procedure and the resultant CeO 2 -NG nanocomposites were an excellent electrode material possessing outstanding electrochemical features for electron transfer. Luminol, an important electroactive substance, was further chosen to inspect the electrocatalytic properties of the as-prepared CeO 2 -NG nanocomposites. The studies showed that the presence of the NG in CeO 2 -NG nanocomposites could facilitate the electrochemical redox process of luminol. Compared with pristine CeO 2 NCs, the synthesized CeO 2 -NG nanocomposites can enhance the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) intensity by 3.3-fold and decrease the onset ECL potential for about 72mV in the neutral condition. Employing above superiority, selecting cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) as the model oxidase, a facile ECL method for cholesterol detection with the CeO 2 -NG nanocomposites as the matrix to immobilize enzyme ChOx was developed. The results demonstrated CeO 2 -NG nanocomposites exhibited excellent performances in terms of sensitivity and catalytic activities, indicating that NG-based nanomaterials have great promise in electrocatalytic and enzymatic biosensing fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of the β-CARBA™ test, a colorimetric test for the rapid detection of carbapenemase activity in Gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeu, Sandrine; Dortet, Laurent; Naas, Thierry

    2017-06-01

    There is an urgent need for accurate and fast diagnostic tests to identify carbapenemase-producing bacteria. Here, we have evaluated a novel colorimetric test (the β-CARBA™ test; Bio-Rad) to detect carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacilli from cultured colonies. The performance of the β-CARBA™ test was compared with that of the Carba NP test (or the CarbAcineto NP test) and RAPIDEC ® CARBA NP (bioMérieux) using a collection of 290 isolates with characterized β-lactamase content. This collection included 199 carbapenemase producers (121 Enterobacteriaceae, 36 Pseudomonas and 42 Acinetobacter baumannii ) and 91 non-carbapenemase producers (55 Enterobacteriaceae, 20 Pseudomonas and 16 A. baumannii ). The β-CARBA™ test correctly detected 84.9% of the carbapenemase producers, including all KPC and IMP, 96.4% of VIM, 85.3% of NDM, 80.5% of OXA-48-like and 91.2% of A. baumannii -related OXA carbapenemases (OXA-23, OXA-40, OXA-58, OXA-143 and overexpressed OXA-51). All rare metallo-β-lactamases (SPM, AIM, GIM, DIM and SIM) were detected. Importantly, all non-KPC Ambler class A carbapenemases were not detected, including GES variants with carbapenemase activity ( n  = 6), IMI ( n  = 3), NMC-A ( n  = 1), SME ( n  = 2), FRI-1 ( n  = 1) and BIC-1 ( n  = 1). All non-carbapenemase producers gave a negative result except with OXA-163-, OXA-405- and one TEM-3-producing Citrobacter freundii . The overall sensitivity and specificity of the β-CARBA™ test were 84.9% and 95.6%, respectively. This test is easy to perform and to interpret by non-specialized staff members. Despite lack of specificity towards non-KPC Ambler class A and OXA-48-like carbapenemases, the β-CARBA™ test could complete the existing panel of tests available for the confirmation of carbapenemases in Gram-negatives.

  18. Performance of a lateral flow immunochromatography test for the rapid diagnosis of active tuberculosis in a large multicentre study in areas with different clinical settings and tuberculosis exposure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Selene; Perales, Rocio; Reaño, Maria; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Amicosante, Massimo

    2016-11-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to cause an outsized burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide, still missing efficient and largely accessible diagnostic tools determining an appropriate control of the disease. Serological tests have the potentially to impact TB diagnosis, in particular in extreme clinical settings. The diagnostic performances of the TB-XT HEMA EXPRESS (HEMA-EXPRESS) immunochromatographic rapid test for active TB diagnosis, based on use of multiple Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) specific antigens, have been evaluated in a large study multicentre TB case-finding study, in populations with different exposure level to TB. A total of 1,386 subjects were enrolled in the six participating centres in Peru: 290 active-TB and 1,096 unaffected subjects. The TB prevalence (overall 20.5%) varied between 4.0% and 41.1% in the different study groups. Overall, the HEMA-EXPRESS test had 30.6% sensitivity (range 3.9-77.9%) and 84.6% specificity (range 51.6-97.3%). A significant inverse correlation between test accuracy (overall 73.5%, range 40.4-96.4%) and TB prevalence in the various study populations was observed (Pearson's r=-0.7985; P=0.05). HEMA-EXPRESS, is rapid and relatively inexpensive test suitable for routine use in TB diagnosis. In low TB prevalence conditions, test performance appears in line with WHO Target Product Profile for TB diagnostics. Performances appear suboptimal in high TB prevalence settings. Appropriate set-up in operative clinical settings has to be considered for novel serological tests for TB diagnosis, particularly for formats suitable for point-of-care use.

  19. Rapid and facile preparation of zinc ferrite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) oxide by microwave-solvothermal technique and its catalytic activity in heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anchieta, Chayene G.; Severo, Eric C.; Rigo, Caroline; Mazutti, Marcio A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria (Brazil); Kuhn, Raquel C., E-mail: raquelckuhn@yahoo.com.br [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria (Brazil); Muller, Edson I.; Flores, Erico M.M. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria (Brazil); Moreira, Regina F.P.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Food Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianópolis (Brazil); Foletto, Edson L. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria (Brazil)

    2015-06-15

    In this work zinc ferrite (ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) oxide was rapidly and easily prepared by microwave-solvothermal route and its catalytic property in photo-Fenton reaction was evaluated. The effects of microwave heating time and power on the properties of produced particles were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms were the techniques used for characterizing the solid products. The synthesized material was tested as a catalyst in the degradation of the textile dye molecule by the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process. Characterization results showed that the microwave heating time and power have significant influences on the formation of the phase spinel as well as on its physical properties. The reaction results showed that the ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxide has good photocatalytic activity, which can be attributed to high surface area and pore volume, and large pore size. The ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} oxide produced by the microwave irradiation exhibited promising photocatalytic activity for the removal of textile dye, reaching nearly 100% of decolorization at 40 min and 60% of mineralization at 240 min. Therefore, ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles rapidly prepared by the microwave route have the potential for use in treatment of textile wastewater by the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process. - Highlights: • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was synthesized by microwave-solvothermal method. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was prepared by different microwave heating times and powers. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was used as heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyst. • Degradation of Procion red dye using heterogeneous photo-Fenton process. • ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was highly efficient to degrade textile dye under visible light.

  20. Highly active microbial phosphoantigen induces rapid yet sustained MEK/Erk- and PI-3K/Akt-mediated signal transduction in anti-tumor human gammadelta T-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel V Correia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The unique responsiveness of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T-cells, the major gammadelta subset of human peripheral blood, to non-peptidic prenyl pyrophosphate antigens constitutes the basis of current gammadelta T-cell-based cancer immunotherapy strategies. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for phosphoantigen-mediated activation of human gammadelta T-cells remain unclear. In particular, previous reports have described a very slow kinetics of activation of T-cell receptor (TCR-associated signal transduction pathways by isopentenyl pyrophosphate and bromohydrin pyrophosphate, seemingly incompatible with direct binding of these antigens to the Vgamma9Vdelta2 TCR. Here we have studied the most potent natural phosphoantigen yet identified, (E-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP, produced by Eubacteria and Protozoa, and examined its gammadelta T-cell activation and anti-tumor properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have performed a comparative study between HMB-PP and the anti-CD3epsilon monoclonal antibody OKT3, used as a reference inducer of bona fide TCR signaling, and followed multiple cellular and molecular gammadelta T-cell activation events. We show that HMB-PP activates MEK/Erk and PI-3K/Akt pathways as rapidly as OKT3, and induces an almost identical transcriptional profile in Vgamma9(+ T-cells. Moreover, MEK/Erk and PI-3K/Akt activities are indispensable for the cellular effects of HMB-PP, including gammadelta T-cell activation, proliferation and anti-tumor cytotoxicity, which are also abolished upon antibody blockade of the Vgamma9(+ TCR Surprisingly, HMB-PP treatment does not induce down-modulation of surface TCR levels, and thereby sustains gammadelta T-cell activation upon re-stimulation. This ultimately translates in potent human gammadelta T-cell anti-tumor function both in vitro and in vivo upon transplantation of human leukemia cells into lymphopenic mice, CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The development of

  1. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  2. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  3. Specific and rapid effects of acoustic stimulation on the tonotopic distribution of Kv3.1b potassium channels in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumbos, J G; Polley, D B; Kaczmarek, L K

    2010-05-19

    Recent studies have demonstrated that total cellular levels of voltage-gated potassium channel subunits can change on a time scale of minutes in acute slices and cultured neurons, raising the possibility that rapid changes in the abundance of channel proteins contribute to experience-dependent plasticity in vivo. In order to investigate this possibility, we took advantage of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) sound localization circuit, which contains neurons that precisely phase-lock their action potentials to rapid temporal fluctuations in the acoustic waveform. Previous work has demonstrated that the ability of these neurons to follow high-frequency stimuli depends critically upon whether they express adequate amounts of the potassium channel subunit Kv3.1. To test the hypothesis that net amounts of Kv3.1 protein would be rapidly upregulated when animals are exposed to sounds that require high frequency firing for accurate encoding, we briefly exposed adult rats to acoustic environments that varied according to carrier frequency and amplitude modulation (AM) rate. Using an antibody directed at the cytoplasmic C-terminus of Kv3.1b (the adult splice isoform of Kv3.1), we found that total cellular levels of Kv3.1b protein-as well as the tonotopic distribution of Kv3.1b-labeled cells-was significantly altered following 30 min of exposure to rapidly modulated (400 Hz) sounds relative to slowly modulated (0-40 Hz, 60 Hz) sounds. These results provide direct evidence that net amounts of Kv3.1b protein can change on a time scale of minutes in response to stimulus-driven synaptic activity, permitting auditory neurons to actively adapt their complement of ion channels to changes in the acoustic environment. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  5. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  6. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  7. On-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2 cell membrane chromatographic analysis system for charactering anti-hepatoma components from rat serum after oral administration of Radix scutellariae: A strategy for rapid screening active compounds in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dan; Chen, Xiaofei; Cao, Yan; Wu, Xunxun; Ding, Xuan; Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Chuan; Chai, Yifeng; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2016-01-25

    Cell membrane chromatography (CMC) is a bioaffinity chromatography technique for characterizing interactions between drugs and membrane receptors and has been widely used to screen active components from complex samples such as herbal medicines (HMs). However, it has never been applied in vivo due to its relatively high limit of detection (LOD) and the matrix interferences. In this study, a novel on-line comprehensive two-dimensional HepG2/CMC/enrich columns/high performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry system was developed to rapidly screen potential anti-hepatoma components from drug-containing serum of rats after oral administration of Radix scutellariae. A matrix interference deduction method with a home-written program in MATLAB was developed, which could successfully eliminate the interference of endogenous substances in serum. Baicalein, wogonin, chrysin, oroxylin A, neobaicalein and rivularin from Radix scutellariae extraction were significantly retained in the HepG2/CMC column. Three potential active components, wogonin, oroxylin A and neobaicalein were firstly screened from the drug-containing serum as well. The cell counting kit-8 assay demonstrated that wogonin, oroxylin A and chrysin showed high inhibitory activities in a dose-dependent manner on HepG2 cells at the concentration of 12.5-200 μM (pCMC system and matrix interference elimination strategy have significant advantages for in vivo screening of active components from complex biological samples and could be applied to other biochromatography models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrostatic/magnetic ion acceleration through a slowly diverging magnetic nozzle between a ring anode and an on-axis hollow cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasoh, A.; Mizutani, K.; Iwakawa, A.

    2017-06-01

    Ion acceleration through a slowly diverging magnetic nozzle between a ring anode and a hollow cathode set on the axis of symmetry has been realized. Xenon was supplied as the propellant gas from an annular slit along the inner surface of the ring anode so that it was ionized near the anode, and the applied electric potential was efficiently transformed to an ion kinetic energy. As an electrostatic thruster, within the examined operation conditions, the thrust, F, almost scaled with the propellant mass flow rate; the discharge current, Jd, increased with the discharge voltage, Vd. An important characteristic was that the thrust also exhibited electromagnetic acceleration performance, i.e., the so-called "swirl acceleration," in which F ≅JdB Ra /√{2 }, where B and Ra were a magnetic field and an anode inner radius, respectively. Such a unique thruster performance combining both electrostatic and electromagnetic accelerations is expected to be useful as another option for in-space electric propulsion in its broad functional diversity.

  9. Microstructural and drug release properties of oven-dried and of slowly or fast frozen freeze-dried MCC-Carbopol pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Carracedo, Ana; Souto, Consuelo; Martínez-Pacheco, Ramón; Concheiro, Angel; Gómez-Amoza, José Luis

    2007-08-01

    The influence of the procedure and conditions of drying (oven-drying and freeze-drying after slow or fast freezing) and of the CaCl(2) concentration in the wetting liquid on the physical characteristics and drug release behaviour of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)-carbopol 40:60 pellets containing theophylline or ketoprofen has been evaluated. The microstructural, morphological and mechanical properties can be modulated, to a large extent, through the control of the drying step and the CaCl(2) proportion. The drying step determines the volumetric contraction of the pellets and, consequently, the porosity parameters. When freeze-drying is applied, the freezing conditions have a marked influence on total porosity and mean pore size of the pellets. Slowly frozen pellets present the lowest porosity but the pores are the greatest. Pore size appears as a critical factor for achieving controlled release; the greater the pores, the faster the entrance of water and, consequently, the drug release. Therefore, if freeze-drying is used to remove water from wet pellets, the control of the ice formation is essential to modulate the release profiles. The practical possibilities of such modulation are especially clear for a slightly-water soluble drug, such as ketoprofen.

  10. In vivo neutron activation analysis of sodium and chlorine in tumor tissue after fast neutron therapy; Analyse par activation neutronique in vivo d`echanges de sodium et de chlore dans des tissus cancereux apres traitement par neutrons rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auberger, T.; Weissfloch, L. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany); Koester, L.; Knopf, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik

    1996-12-31

    In 12 patients with recurrences and metastases of different primaries (head and neck cancer, breast cancer, malignant melanoma, and osteosarcoma) who were treated with reactor fission neutrons the photon emission of irradiated tissue was measured after each radiotherapy fraction. Spectral analyses of the decay rates resulted in data for the exchange of sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) between the irradiated tissue and the body. About 60 % of Na and Cl exchanged rapidly with a turnover half-life of 13{+-} 2 min. New defined mass exchange rates for Na and Cl amount to an average of 0.8 m val/min/kg of soft tissue. At the beginning of radiotherapy the turnover of the electrolytes in tissues with large tumor volumes was about twice that in tissues with small tumor volumes. Depending on the dose, neutron therapy led in all cases to variation in the metabolism. A maximum of Cl exchange and a minimum of Na exchange occurred after 10 Gy of neutrons (group of six previously untreated patients) or after 85 Gy (photon equivalent dose) of combined photon-neutron therapy. A significant increase in non-exchangeable fraction of Na from about 40 to 80 % was observed in after end of therapy. These results demonstrate for the first time the local response of the electrolyte metabolism to radiotherapy. (author). 9 refs.

  11. Are Melt Migration Rates Through the Mantle Universally Rapid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, M. K.; Sims, K. W.

    2001-12-01

    Significant enrichments in 226Ra over 230Th have been observed in basalts erupted in nearly all tectonic settings. These enrichments generally are greatest in lavas with low concentrations of U, Th and other incompatible elements, including those from mid-ocean ridges and "depleted" volcanic arcs. Excesses of 226Ra over 230Th in mid-ocean ridge settings are commonly attributed to smaller bulk partition coefficients for Ra with respect to Th during mantle melting, and extraction of ingrown Ra into melts slowly migrating through interconnected pore space. In contrast, 226Ra excesses in basalts from volcanic arcs have been attributed to fluid additions from subducting slabs to the sources of the basalt and rapid (102 - 103y) melt migration to the surface (e.g. Turner et al., 2001). Such rapid melt velocities imply channeled flow rather than diffuse porous flow, and suggest that basalts from other tectonic settings migrate similarly rapidly. Here, we show that the compositions of basalts from both arc and mid-ocean ridge settings indeed can be explained by melting models involving rapid transit times to the surface. Simple fluxed melting models and rapid transfer of melt to the surface explain the U-Th-Ra systematics and incompatible trace element compositions of arc basalts. The U-Th-Ra and trace element data for young MORB from the East Pacific Rise (Sims et al. 2001) and the Siqueiros transform (Lundstrom et al. 1999) are modeled using simple 2-d polybaric melting based on Braun et al. (2000) and rapid melt migration rates. Successful models mix small-degree fractional melts derived from a broad cross-sectional area of mantle at depth with high-degree melts derived from a small cross-sectional area of shallow mantle that is the aged residue of the small degree melt.

  12. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  13. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  14. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  15. Slowly digestible carbohydrate sources can be used to attenuate the postprandial glycemic response to the ingestion of diabetes-specific enteral formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanschoonbeek, K; Lansink, M; van Laere, K M J; Senden, J M G; Verdijk, L B; van Loon, L J C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the glycemic and insulinemic responses following the ingestion of recently developed diabetes-specific enteral formulas versus a standard and a high-fat formula. Fifteen type 2 diabetes patients were selected to participate in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Two enteral formulas (47 energy percent [En%] carbohydrate, 34En% fat, and 4 g fiber/200 mL) were defined with either isomaltulose (formula 1) or sucromalt (formula 2) as the main carbohydrate source. For comparison, an isoenergetic diabetes-specific, high-fat (33En% carbohydrate, 50En% fat, 2.9 g fiber/200 mL) and a standard formula (55En% carbohydrate, 30En% fat, 2.8 g fiber/200 mL) were tested. Ingestion of formulas 1 and 2 and the high-fat formula resulted in an attenuated blood glucose response when compared with the standard formula (P < .05). In accordance, peak plasma glucose concentrations were significantly lower when compared with the standard formula (189 +/- 3.6 mg/dL [10.5 +/- 0.2 mmol/L], 196.2 +/- 3.6 mg/dL [10.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/L], 187.2 +/- 3.6 mg/dL [10.4 +/- 0.2 mmol/L], and 237.6 +/- 3.6 mg/dL [13.2 +/- 0.2 mmol/L], respectively). Plasma insulin responses were lower after consumption of the newly developed and high-fat formulas. Ingestion of the high-fat formula resulted in a greater postprandial triglyceride response (P < .05). Diabetes-specific enteral formulas rich in slowly digestible carbohydrate sources can be equally effective in attenuating the postprandial blood glucose response as low-carbohydrate, high-fat enteral formulas without elevating the plasma triglyceride response.

  16. The Effect of a Breakfast Rich in Slowly Digestible Starch on Glucose Metabolism: A Statistical Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoy, Sophie; Meynier, Alexandra; Goux, Aurélie; Jourdan-Salloum, Nathalie; Normand, Sylvie; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Brack, Olivier; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Péronnet, François; Laville, Martine

    2017-01-01

    Starch digestibility may have an effect on the postprandial blood glucose profile. The aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the relationship between Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS) levels and plasma glucose appearance and disappearance rates, as well as other parameters of glucose metabolism, after healthy subjects consumed cereal products that differed in SDS content. Three randomized controlled clinical trials that included a total of 79 subjects were identified. Using binary classification for the variables (high versus low levels, more than 12 g of SDS per portion, and less than 1 g of SDS per portion, respectively), we found that there was a 15-fold higher chance of having a low rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE) after consumption of a high-SDS product. A high SDS content was also associated with a 12-fold and 4-fold higher chance of having a low rate of disappearance of exogenous glucose (RdE) and rate of disappearance of total plasma glucose (RdT), respectively. The RaE kinetics were further analyzed by modeling the contribution of SDS content to the different phases of the RaE response. We show that the higher the SDS content per portion of cereal product, the higher its contribution to the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of the RaE response after 165 min. Using the association rule technique, we found that glycemic iAUC and insulinemic iAUC values vary in the same direction. In conclusion, this meta-analysis confirms the effect of the SDS level in cereal products on the metabolic response, and shows for the first time that the degree to which SDS affects the RaE response differs depending on the SDS content of the food product, as well as the phase of the postprandial period. PMID:28333086

  17. The effects of starch and rapidly degradable dry matter from concentrate on ruminal digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with fixed forage proportion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechartier, C; Peyraud, J-L

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of the type (starch vs. nonstarch) and rate of ruminal degradation of carbohydrates from the concentrate on digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets. Six ruminally cannulated cows were assigned to 6 treatments in a 6 × 6 Latin square design. Treatments were arranged in a 3 × 2 factorial design. Two starch levels [25 and 41% dry matter (DM) for low starch (LS) and high starch (HS) diets, respectively] were obtained by replacing starch-rich feedstuffs by nonstarch feedstuffs. These starch levels were combined with slowly, moderately, and rapidly rumen-degradable feedstuffs to obtain 3 levels of rapidly degradable carbohydrates from concentrate (18, 23, and 28% DM). These levels were estimated from the DM disappearance of concentrate after 4h of in sacco incubation (CRDM). Wheat and corn grain were used as rapidly degradable and slowly degradable starch feedstuffs, respectively. Soybean hulls and citrus pulp were used as slowly degradable and rapidly degradable nonstarch feedstuffs, respectively. No interaction effect was found between dietary starch content and CRDM on pH range, volatile fatty acid (VFA) range, or VFA profile. Increasing CRDM led to a linear decrease in acetate-to-propionate ratio (from 2.7 to 2.1), and a linear increase in the pH and VFA ranges (from 0.86 to 1.12 pH units and from 34 to 56mM, respectively). Feeding HS diets decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio (2.6 vs. 2.0) and increased pH range (0.89 vs. 1.04 pH units), but had no effect on VFA range. Increasing CRDM linearly decreased mean ruminal pH in LS diets but linearly increased mean ruminal pH in HS diets. Fibrolytic activity was unaffected in LS diets but decreased strongly in HS diets (from 62 to 50%). These findings suggest that pH regulation differs on a short-term and on a longer-term basis. In the short-term, increasing CRDM increased the rate of VFA production, which may have been partly buffered under LS diets due to the higher

  18. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  19. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  20. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  1. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  2. Rapid synthesis of acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, D A; Drachman, D B; Pestronk, A

    1988-10-11

    The rate of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) degradation in mature, innervated mammalian neuromuscular junctions has recently been shown to be biphasic; up to 20% are rapidly turned over (RTOs; half life less than 1 day) whereas the remainder are lost more slowly ('stable' AChRs; half life 10-12 days). In order to maintain normal junctional receptor density, synthesis and insertion of AChRs should presumably be sufficiently rapid to replace both the RTOs and the stable receptors. We have tested this prediction by blocking pre-existing AChRs in the mouse sternomastoid muscle with alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BuTx), and monitoring the subsequent appearance of 'new' junctional AChRs at intervals of 3 h to 20 days by labeling them with 125I-alpha-BuTx. The results show that new receptors were initially inserted rapidly (16% at 24 h and 28% at 48 h). The rate of increase of 'new' 125I-alpha-BuTx binding sites gradually slowed down during the remainder of the time period studied. Control observations excluded possible artifacts of the experimental procedure including incomplete blockade of AChRs, dissociation of toxin-receptor complexes, or experimentally induced alteration of receptor synthesis. The present demonstration of rapid synthesis and incorporation of AChRs at innervated neuromuscular junctions provides support for the concept of a subpopulation of rapidly turned over AChRs. The RTOs may serve as precursors for the larger population of stable receptors and have an important role in the metabolism of the neuromuscular synapse.

  3. Measurement of slowly exchanging45Ca in rat aorta without using EGTA or lanthanum and its application to quantify the effects of the calcium entry blockers nifedipine and verapamil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wermelskirchen, D.; Wilhelm, D.; Wilffert, B.; Pegram, B.L.; Hunter, J.; Nebel, U.; Peters, Thies

    1988-01-01

    In rat aortic strips a method was developed to measure a fraction of slowly exchanging45Ca, which correlates with contraction and the cytosolic Ca pool that is enhanced by K+-induced depolarization. In this method no EGTA or lanthanum are used, but the strips are washed for 45 min with a Tyrode

  4. A rapid feedback signal is not always necessary for termination of a drinking bout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houpt, T R; Yang-Preyer, H; Geyer, J; Norris, M L

    1999-04-01

    When a pig is deprived of drinking water, a deficit of body water develops that is corrected when the pig drinks to satiation. If food is available during the deprivation, the stimulus to drinking is plasma hyperosmolality. Because of the delay in correction of plasma hyperosmolality as ingested water is slowly absorbed, it has been thought that a rapid inhibitory signal from the digestive tract is necessary to prevent overdrinking. This concept was tested by measuring changes in plasma osmolality before and during drinking after such deprivation and also after infusion of hypertonic saline. As drinking began, there was a rapid fall of plasma osmolality to levels insufficient to drive drinking by the time drinking ended. This fall of plasma hyperosmolality to subthreshold levels while the pig is drinking seems to make a rapid inhibitory control signal from the digestive tract unnecessary to terminate the drinking bout under these conditions.

  5. Rapidly progressive post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sirolimus, a potent inhibitor of B- and T-cell activation, is a commonly used immunosuppressant after renal transplantation. Withdrawal of sirolimus from the immunosuppression regimen may reduce B-cell surveillance. We present a case of rapidly progressive central nervous system (CNS) polymorphic Epstein-Barr virus ...

  6. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  7. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  8. Enzyme-synthesized highly branched maltodextrins have slow glucose generation at the mucosal α-glucosidase level and are slowly digestible in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Hoo Lee

    Full Text Available For digestion of starch in humans, α-amylase first hydrolyzes starch molecules to produce α-limit dextrins, followed by complete hydrolysis to glucose by the mucosal α-glucosidases in the small intestine. It is known that α-1,6 linkages in starch are hydrolyzed at a lower rate than are α-1,4 linkages. Here, to create designed slowly digestible carbohydrates, the structure of waxy corn starch (WCS was modified using a known branching enzyme alone (BE and an in combination with β-amylase (BA to increase further the α-1,6 branching ratio. The digestibility of the enzymatically synthesized products was investigated using α-amylase and four recombinant mammalian mucosal α-glucosidases. Enzyme-modified products (BE-WCS and BEBA-WCS had increased percentage of α-1,6 linkages (WCS: 5.3%, BE-WCS: 7.1%, and BEBA-WCS: 12.9%, decreased weight-average molecular weight (WCS: 1.73×10(8 Da, BE-WCS: 2.76×10(5 Da, and BEBA-WCS 1.62×10(5 Da, and changes in linear chain distributions (WCS: 21.6, BE-WCS: 16.9, BEBA-WCS: 12.2 DPw. Hydrolysis by human pancreatic α-amylase resulted in an increase in the amount of branched α-limit dextrin from 26.8% (WCS to 56.8% (BEBA-WCS. The α-amylolyzed samples were hydrolyzed by the individual α-glucosidases (100 U and glucogenesis decreased with all as the branching ratio increased. This is the first report showing that hydrolysis rate of the mammalian mucosal α-glucosidases is limited by the amount of branched α-limit dextrin. When enzyme-treated materials were gavaged to rats, the level of postprandial blood glucose at 60 min from BEBA-WCS was significantly higher than for WCS or BE-WCS. Thus, highly branched glucan structures modified by BE and BA had a comparably slow digesting property both in vitro and in vivo. Such highly branched α-glucans show promise as a food ingredient to control postprandial glucose levels and to attain extended glucose release.

  9. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  10. Rapid and highly fieldable viral diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Timothy E.

    2016-12-20

    The present invention relates to a rapid, highly fieldable, nearly reagentless diagnostic to identify active RNA viral replication in a live, infected cells, and more particularly in leukocytes and tissue samples (including biopsies and nasal swabs) using an array of a plurality of vertically-aligned nanostructures that impale the cells and introduce a DNA reporter construct that is expressed and amplified in the presence of active viral replication.

  11. Plant MAPK cascades: Just rapid signaling modules?

    KAUST Repository

    Boudsocq, Marie

    2015-08-27

    © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major phytohormone mediating important stress-related processes. We recently unveiled an ABA-activated MAPK signaling module constituted of MAP3K17/18-MKK3-MPK1/2/7/14. Unlike classical rapid MAPK ac