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Sample records for rapidly absorbed carbohydrate

  1. Comparison of the effects of slowly and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates on postprandial glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Meidjie; Linn, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Isomaltulose attenuates postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations compared with sucrose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the mechanism by which isomaltulose limits postprandial hyperglycemia has not been clarified. The objective was therefore to assess the effects of bolus administration of isomaltulose on glucose metabolism compared with sucrose in T2DM. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 11 participants with T2DM initially underwent a 3-h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (0.8 mU · kg(-1) · min(-1)) clamp that was subsequently combined with 1 g/kg body wt of an oral (13)C-enriched isomaltulose or sucrose load. Hormonal responses and glucose kinetics were analyzed during a 4-h postprandial period. Compared with sucrose, absorption of isomaltulose was prolonged by ∼50 min (P = 0.004). Mean plasma concentrations of insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide were ∼10-23% lower (P < 0.05). In contrast, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) was ∼64% higher (P < 0.001) after isomaltulose ingestion, which results in an increased insulin-to-glucagon ratio (P < 0.001) compared with sucrose. The cumulative amount of systemic glucose appearance was ∼35% lower after isomaltulose than after sucrose (P = 0.003) because of the reduction in orally derived and endogenously produced glucose and a higher first-pass splanchnic glucose uptake (SGU). Insulin action was enhanced after isomaltulose compared with sucrose (P = 0.013). Ingestion of slowly absorbed isomaltulose attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia by reducing oral glucose appearance, inhibiting endogenous glucose production (EGP), and increasing SGU compared with ingestion of rapidly absorbed sucrose in patients with T2DM. In addition, GLP-1 secretion contributes to a beneficial shift in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio, suppression of EGP, and enhancement of SGU after isomaltulose consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  2. A rapid stereoselective synthesis of fluorinated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, M.J.; Neeser, J-R.; Hall, L.D.; Pate, B.D.

    1983-01-01

    Acetyl hypofluorite has been added to six unsaturated carbohydrates which contain the vinyl ether moiety. All reactions were rapid (less than 5 min.) at -78 degrees C and gave, with one exception, high yields of isomerically pure products. The hypofluorite was shown to add exclusively in a cis mode and with a strong preference for a particular 'face' of the double bond. As well as the syntheses, NMR data and preferred conformations for the fluorinated products are also discussed

  3. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients. They are the most important source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this ...

  4. The human small intestinal microbiota is driven by rapid uptake and conversion of simple carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetendal, Erwin G; Raes, Jeroen; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus

    2012-01-01

    in parallel. Comparative functional analysis with fecal metagenomes identified functions that are overrepresented in the small intestine, including simple carbohydrate transport phosphotransferase systems (PTS), central metabolism and biotin production. Moreover, metatranscriptome analysis supported high...... level in-situ expression of PTS and carbohydrate metabolic genes, especially those belonging to Streptococcus sp. Overall, our findings suggest that rapid uptake and fermentation of available carbohydrates contribute to maintaining the microbiota in the human small intestine....

  5. Rapid prototyping tool for tuning of vibration absorbers; Rapid-Prototyping-Tool zur Abstimmung von Schwingungstilgern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marienfeld, P.M.; Karkosch, H.J. [ContiTech Vibration Control GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Bohn, C. [Technische Univ. Clausthal (Germany); Svaricek, F. [Univ. der Bundeswehr Muenchen (Germany); Knake-Langhorst, S. [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    In the automotive industry passive vibration absorbers are a well established method to reduce structural vibrations in automotive vehicles. Designing a vibration absorber consists of selecting its mechanical properties. Usually extensive tests are necessary with different absorbers in the vehicle and subjective as well as objective evaluation of the results. This requires hardware modifications between different tests. In this paper, an approach is proposed that can assist in the development of vibration absorbers. It is based on tuning an active vibration control system such that it reproduces the behavior of a specified vibration absorber. This behavior can then be changed electronically without modifying the hardware. Two different control approaches are compared. In the first approach, the apparent physical properties of a vibration absorber are directly modified through acceleration, velocity or displacement feedback. In the second approach, a desired dynamic mass transfer function for the vibration absorber is prescribed and an H2-norm optimal model matching problem is solved. Experimental results obtained with this approach are presented. (orig.)

  6. A new method for rapid determination of carbohydrate and total carbon concentrations using UV spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A

    2013-09-12

    A new UV spectrophotometry based method for determining the concentration and carbon content of carbohydrate solution was developed. This method depends on the inherent UV absorption potential of hydrolysis byproducts of carbohydrates formed by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid (furfural derivatives). The proposed method is a major improvement over the widely used Phenol-Sulfuric Acid method developed by DuBois, Gilles, Hamilton, Rebers, and Smith (1956). In the old method, furfural is allowed to develop color by reaction with phenol and its concentration is detected by visible light absorption. Here we present a method that eliminates the coloration step and avoids the health and environmental hazards associated with phenol use. In addition, avoidance of this step was shown to improve measurement accuracy while significantly reducing waiting time prior to light absorption reading. The carbohydrates for which concentrations and carbon content can be reliably estimated with this new rapid Sulfuric Acid-UV technique include: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides with very high molecular weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenolic carbonyls undergo rapid aqueous photodegradation to form low-volatility, light-absorbing products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Haley; Anastasio, Cort

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the aqueous photochemistry of six phenolic carbonyls - vanillin, acetovanillone, guaiacyl acetone, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone, and coniferyl aldehyde - that are emitted from wood combustion. The phenolic carbonyls absorb significant amounts of solar radiation and decay rapidly via direct photodegradation, with lifetimes (τ) of 13-140 min under Davis, CA winter solstice sunlight at midday (solar zenith angle = 62°). The one exception is guaiacyl acetone, where the carbonyl group is not directly connected to the aromatic ring: This species absorbs very little sunlight and undergoes direct photodegradation very slowly (τ > 103 min). We also found that the triplet excited states (3C*) of the phenolic carbonyls rapidly oxidize syringol (a methoxyphenol without a carbonyl group), on timescales of 1-5 h for solutions containing 5 μM phenolic carbonyl. The direct photodegradation of the phenolic carbonyls, and the oxidation of syringol by 3C*, both efficiently produce low volatility products, with SOA mass yields ranging from 80 to 140%. Contrary to most aliphatic carbonyls, under typical fog conditions we find that the primary sink for the aromatic phenolic carbonyls is direct photodegradation in the aqueous phase. In areas of significant wood combustion, phenolic carbonyls appear to be small but significant sources of aqueous SOA: over the course of a few hours, nearly all of the phenolic carbonyls will be converted to SOA via direct photodegradation, enhancing the POA mass from wood combustion by approximately 3-5%.

  8. Method Optimization for Rapid Measurement of Carbohydrates in Plasma by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ductoan; Yu, Jondong; Mho, Sunil; Lee, Gwang; Lee, Haelee; Paik, Manjeong; Yee, Sungtae

    2013-01-01

    In conclusion, the developed HPLC coupled with ESI-MS was a powerful technique for the separation and characterization of carbohydrates by either SIM or MRM mode. The present method will be useful for the monitoring of carbohydrate profile in biological fluids from various diseases including diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia and hyperosmolar coma. Carbohydrates are one of the most abundant classes of organic compounds in nature, which not only constitute complex biomolecules in human and animals but are also distributed in plants and bacteria

  9. Carbohydrate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  10. Effect of different levels of rapidly degradable carbohydrates calculated by a simple rumen model on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenbos, J; Martín-Tereso, J; Dijkstra, J; van Laar, H

    2017-07-01

    Aggregating rumen degradation characteristics of different carbohydrate components into the term modeled rapidly degradable carbohydrates (mRDC) can simplify diet formulation by accounting for differences in rate and extent of carbohydrate degradation within and between feedstuffs. This study sought to evaluate responses of lactating dairy cows to diets formulated with increasing levels of mRDC, keeping the supply of other nutrients as constant as possible. The mRDC content of feedstuffs was calculated based on a simple rumen model including soluble, washable, and nonwashable but potentially degradable fractions, as well as the fractional degradation and passage rates, of sugar, starch, neutral detergent fiber, and other carbohydrates. The mRDC term effectively represents the total amount of carbohydrates degraded in the rumen within 2 h after ingestion. Fifty-two lactating Holstein cows (of which 4 were rumen fistulated) were assigned to 4 treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration consisting of 25.4% corn silage, 23.1% grass silage, 11.6% grass hay, and 39.9% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Differences in mRDC were created by exchanging nonforage neutral detergent fiber-rich ingredients (mainly sugar beet pulp) with starch-rich ingredients (mainly wheat) and by exchanging corn (slowly degradable starch) with wheat (rapidly degradable starch) in the concentrate, resulting in 4 treatments that varied in dietary mRDC level of 167, 181, 194, or 208 g/kg of dry matter. Level of mRDC did not affect dry matter intake. Fat- and protein-corrected milk production and milk fat and lactose yield were greatest at 181 mRDC and decreased with further increases in mRDC. Milk protein yield and concentration increased with increasing mRDC level. Mean rumen pH and diurnal variation in ruminal pH did not differ between treatments. Total daily meal time and number of visits per meal were smaller at 181 and 194 mRDC. Despite milk

  11. MBTH: A novel approach to rapid, spectrophotometric quantitation of total algal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wychen, Stefanie; Long, William; Black, Stuart K; Laurens, Lieve M L

    2017-02-01

    A high-throughput and robust application of the 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) method was developed for carbohydrate determination in microalgae. The traditional phenol-sulfuric acid method to quantify carbohydrates is strongly affected by algal biochemical components and exhibits a highly variable response to microalgal monosaccharides. We present a novel use of the MBTH method to accurately quantify carbohydrates in hydrolyzate after acid hydrolysis of algal biomass, without a need for neutralization. The MBTH method demonstrated consistent and sensitive quantitation of algae-specific monosaccharides down to 5 μg mL -1 without interference from other algae acidic hydrolyzate components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Improved rapidly-quenched hydrogen-absorbing alloys for development of improved-capacity nickel metal hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ise, Tadashi; Hamamatsu, Takeo; Imoto, Teruhiko; Nogami, Mitsuzo; Nakahori, Shinsuke

    The effects of annealing a rapidly-quenched hydrogen-absorbing alloy with a stoichiometric ratio of 4.76 were investigated concerning its hydrogen-absorbing properties, crystal structure and electrochemical characteristics. Annealing at 1073 K homogenized the alloy microstructure and flattened its plateau slope in the P-C isotherms. However, annealing at 1273 K segregated a second phase rich in rare earth elements, increased the hydrogen-absorbing pressure and decreased the hydrogen-absorbing capacity. As the number of charge-discharge cycles increases, the particle size distribution of the rapidly-quenched alloy became broad due to partial pulverization. However, particle size distribution of the rapidly-quenched, annealed, alloy was sharp, since the annealing homogenized the microstructure, thereby improving the cycle characteristics. A high-capacity rectangular nickel metal hydride battery using a rapidly-quenched, annealed, surface-treated alloy for the negative electrode and an active material coated with cobalt compound containing sodium for the positive electrode was developed. The capacity of the resulting battery was 30% greater than that of a conventional battery.

  13. Rapid regulation of leaf photosynthesis, carbohydrate status and leaf area expansion to maintain growth in irregular light environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig

    2012-01-01

    to maintain carbohydrate status and growth in unpredictable light environments. Our recent results show rapid regulation of photosynthesis and leaf carbohydrate status to maintain growth and light interception in dynamic light environments when campanula, rose and chrysanthemum were grown in a cost......-efficient light control system. Plant dry matter production was in all cases linear related to DLI, despite changes in daily light duration and light intensity of supplemental light suggesting that DLI is the main limiting factor for the prediction of production time in optimal temperature conditions. The results......Protected plant productions in northern latitudes rely heavily on supplemental light use to extend the number of light hours during the day. To conserve electricity and lower costs, a low-energy input system use supplemental lights preferable during less expensive off-peak hours and turn lighting...

  14. Rapid determination of carbohydrates, ash, and extractives contents of straw using attenuated total reflectance fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Yukihiro; Mazza, Giuseppe

    2011-06-22

    Analysis of the chemical components of lignocellulosic biomass is essential to understanding its potential for utilization. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression were used for rapid measurement of the carbohydrate (total glycans; glucan; xylan; galactan; arabinan; mannan), ash, and extractives content of triticale and wheat straws. Calibration models for total glycans, glucan, and extractives showed good and excellent predictive performance on the basis of slope, r², RPD, and R/SEP criteria. The xylan model showed good and acceptable predictive performance. However, the ash model was evaluated as providing only approximate quantification and screening. The models for galactan, arabinan, and mannan indicated poor and insufficient prediction for application. Most models could predict both triticale and wheat straw samples with the same degree of accuracy. Mid-infrared spectroscopic techniques coupled with partial least-squares regression can be used for rapid prediction of total glycans, glucan, xylan, and extractives in triticale and wheat straw samples.

  15. Rapid analysis of carbohydrates in aqueous extracts and hydrolysates of biomass using a carbonate-modified anion-exchange column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, Richard S; Mowery, Richard A; Becker, Christopher; Chambliss, C Kevin

    2011-03-04

    Quantitative liquid-chromatography techniques used to characterize carbohydrates present in biomass samples can suffer from long analysis times, limited analyte resolution, poor stability, or a combination of these factors. The current manuscript details a novel procedure enabling resolution of glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, mannose, fructose, and sucrose via isocratic elution in less than 5 min. Equivalent conditions also enable analysis of cellobiose and maltose with a minimal increase in chromatographic run time (ca. 3 and 6 min, respectively). Noted chromatographic performance requires that a commercially available anion-exchange column be modified with carbonate prior to analysis. Analytical performance of a modified column was assessed over a 5-day period via repeated analyses of 4 samples, resulting from aqueous extraction or quantitative saccharification of a potential biofuel feedstock (i.e., corn stover or switchgrass). A simple solid phase extraction procedure was utilized to clean up each sample prior to analysis. Analytical accuracy of the extraction protocol was assessed by evaluation of matrix spike recoveries which typically ranged from 84% to 98%. The instrumental variability of measured concentrations in real samples over the 5-day period was generally less than 5% RSD for all detected analytes, independent of sample type. Finally, it is important to note that the modified column exhibited exceptional stability over approximately 800 injections of biofeedstock-based samples. These data demonstrate that a carbonate-modified anion-exchange column can be employed for rapid determination of carbohydrates in biomass samples of lignocellulosic origin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Scanning electron microscopical examination of the impact of laser patterning on microscopic inhomogeneities of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 absorbers produced by rapid thermal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Künecke, U.; Hölzing, A.; Jost, S.; Lechner, R.; Vogt, H.; Heiß, A.; Palm, J.; Hock, R.; Wellmann, P.

    2013-01-01

    Laser scribing of the Mo back electrode is commonly applied to define the cell structure of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 (CIGSSe) thin film solar cells. The patterning process was performed on laboratory samples using ns and ps pulse length laser processes. After structuring, CIGSSe absorbers were processed by rapid thermal processing (RTP) of stacked elemental layer precursors. Microscopic inhomogeneities were investigated on different sample positions. For samples structured with ns pulse, the absorber morphology in the laser line vicinity is different as compared to the morphology in the unstructured cell area. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy show significant changes in the absorber grain size and chemical composition. Close to the laser line, the typically observed Ga accumulation on the back contact is less pronounced and more Ga is incorporated closer to the surface leading to a smaller grain size. The observed changes are attributed to partial damaging of a diffusion barrier between glass and Mo induced by the ns laser process, which allows diffusion of sodium from the glass substrate into the absorber during RTP. The enhanced Ga incorporation closer to the surface is an indication for the influence of sodium on the local phase development during RTP. The damages of the diffusion barrier can be effectively prevented by the application of a ps laser scribing process. CIGSSe absorbers processed on samples structured with ps pulse length do not show the described microscopic inhomogeneities around the laser line. - Highlights: ► Scanning electron microscopy on Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S) 2 solar cell absorbers ► Laser patterning with ns laser pulse damages the sodium diffusion barrier. ► Improved laser patterning with ps laser pulse leaves diffusion barrier intact. ► Additional sodium changes phase development during absorber formation. ► Gallium content is increased at surface and decreased at backside of absorber

  17. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  18. Carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Sungjin; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Blixt, Klas Ola

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, carbohydrate microarrays have been core technologies for analyzing carbohydrate-mediated recognition events in a high-throughput fashion. A number of methods have been exploited for immobilizing glycans on the solid surface in a microarray format. This microarray...... of substrate specificities of glycosyltransferases. This review covers the construction of carbohydrate microarrays, detection methods of carbohydrate microarrays and their applications in biological and biomedical research....

  19. Rapid and sensitive determination of carbohydrates in foods using high temperature liquid chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terol, Amanda; Paredes, Eduardo; Maestre, Salvador E; Prats, Soledad; Todolí, José L

    2012-04-01

    In the present work, an evaporative light scattering detector was used as a high-temperature liquid chromatography detector for the determination of carbohydrates. The compounds studied were glucose, fructose, galactose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose. The effect of column temperature on the retention times and detectability of these compounds was investigated. Column heating temperatures ranged from 25 to 175°C. The optimum temperature in terms of peak resolution and detectability with pure water as mobile phase and a liquid flow rate of 1 mL/min was 150°C as it allowed the separation of glucose and the three disaccharides here considered in less than 3 min. These conditions were employed for lactose determination in milk samples. Limits of quantification were between 2 and 4.7 mg/L. On the other hand, a temperature gradient was developed for the simultaneous determination of glucose, fructose, and sucrose in orange juices, due to coelution of monosaccharides at temperatures higher than 70°C, being limits of quantifications between 8.5 and 12 mg/L. The proposed hyphenation was successfully applied to different types of milk and different varieties of oranges and mandarins. Recoveries for spiked samples were close to 100% for all the studied analytes. © 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Evaluating a novel application of optical fibre evanescent field absorbance: rapid measurement of red colour in winegrape homogenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lye, Peter G.; Bradbury, Ronald; Lamb, David W.

    Silica optical fibres were used to measure colour (mg anthocyanin/g fresh berry weight) in samples of red wine grape homogenates via optical Fibre Evanescent Field Absorbance (FEFA). Colour measurements from 126 samples of grape homogenate were compared against the standard industry spectrophotometric reference method that involves chemical extraction and subsequent optical absorption measurements of clarified samples at 520 nm. FEFA absorbance on homogenates at 520 nm (FEFA520h) was correlated with the industry reference method measurements of colour (R2 = 0.46, n = 126). Using a simple regression equation colour could be predicted with a standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 0.21 mg/g, with a range of 0.6 to 2.2 mg anthocyanin/g and a standard deviation of 0.33 mg/g. With a Ratio of Performance Deviation (RPD) of 1.6, the technique when utilizing only a single detection wavelength, is not robust enough to apply in a diagnostic sense, however the results do demonstrate the potential of the FEFA method as a fast and low-cost assay of colour in homogenized samples.

  1. Fabrication of a Cu(InGaSe2 Thin Film Photovoltaic Absorber by Rapid Thermal Annealing of CuGa/In Precursors Coated with a Se Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yao Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu(InGaSe2 (CIGS thin film absorbers are prepared using sputtering and selenization processes. The CuGa/In precursors are selenized during rapid thermal annealing (RTA, by the deposition of a Se layer on them. This work investigates the effect of the Cu content in precursors on the structural and electrical properties of the absorber. Using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Hall effect measurement, it is found that the CIGS thin films produced exhibit facetted grains and a single chalcopyrite phase with a preferred orientation along the (1 1 2 plane. A Cu-poor precursor with a Cu/( ratio of 0.75 demonstrates a higher resistance, due to an increase in the grain boundary scattering and a reduced carrier lifetime. A Cu-rich precursor with a Cu/( ratio of 1.15 exhibits an inappropriate second phase ( in the absorber. However, the precursor with a Cu/( ratio of 0.95 exhibits larger grains and lower resistance, which is suitable for its application to solar cells. The deposition of this precursor on Mo-coated soda lime glass substrate and further RTA causes the formation of a MoSe2 layer at the interface of the Mo and CIGS.

  2. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  3. CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot-Labeled Lateral Flow Strips for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Gastric Cancer Carbohydrate Antigen 72-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinyu; Wang, Kan; Lu, Wenting; Qin, Weijian; Cui, Daxiang; He, Jinghua

    2016-03-01

    Carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) is an important biomarker associated closely with diagnosis and prognosis of early gastric cancer. How to realize quick, sensitive, specific, and quantitative detection of CA72-4 in clinical specimens has become a great requirement. Herein, we reported a CdSe/ZnS quantum dot-labeled lateral flow test strip combined with a charge-coupled device (CCD)-based reader was developed for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of CA72-4. Two mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against CA72-4 were employed. One of them was coated as a test line, while another mAb was labeled with quantum dots and coated onto conjugate pad. The goat anti-mouse IgG was immobilized as a control line. After sample was added, a sandwich structure was formed with CA72-4 and these two mAbs. The fluorescent signal from quantum dots (QD)-labeled mAb in sandwich structure was related to the amount of detected CA72-4. A CCD-based reader was used to realize quantitative detection of CA72-4. Results showed that developed QD-labeled lateral flow strips to detect CA72-4 biomarker with the sensitivity of 2 IU/mL and 10 min detection time. One hundred sera samples from clinical patients with gastric cancer and healthy people were used to confirm specificity of this strip method; results showed that established strip method own 100 % reproducibility and 100 % specificity compared with Roche electrochemiluminescence assay results. In conclusion, CdSe/ZnS quantum dot-labeled lateral flow strips for detection of CA72-4 could realize rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of clinical samples and could own great potential in clinical translation in near future.

  4. Carbohydrate intake and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, R M; Seidell, J C

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly worldwide and the importance of considering the role of diet in the prevention and treatment of obesity is widely acknowledged. This paper reviews data on the effects of dietary carbohydrates on body fatness. Does the composition of the diet as related

  5. Carbohydrate malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Nordgaard-Andersen, I; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies in small series of healthy adults have suggested that parallel measurement of hydrogen and methane resulting from gut fermentation may improve the precision of quantitative estimates of carbohydrate malabsorption. Systematic, controlled studies of the role of simultaneous hydrogen...

  6. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Housman, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A shock absorber is described for use in a hostile environment at the end of a blind passage for absorbing impact loads. The shock absorber includes at least one element which occupies the passage and which is comprised of a porous brittle material which is substantially non-degradable in the hostile environment. A void volume is provided in the element to enable the element to absorb a predetermined level of energy upon being crushed due to impact loading

  7. Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method for Total Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The phenol-sulfuric acid method is a simple and rapid colorimetric method to determine total carbohydrates in a sample. The method detects virtually all classes of carbohydrates, including mono-, di-, oligo-, and polysaccharides. Although the method detects almost all carbohydrates, the absorptivity of the different carbohydrates varies. Thus, unless a sample is known to contain only one carbohydrate, the results must be expressed arbitrarily in terms of one carbohydrate.

  8. Recovery of insulin sensitivity and optimal body composition after rapid weight loss in obese dogs fed a high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, A; Leriche, I; Chaix, G; Thorin, C; Burger, M; Nguyen, P

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of an experimental high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet (protein level, 46% metabolizable energy, ME). First, postprandial plasma glucose and insulin kinetics were determined in steady-state overweight/obese Beagle dogs (28%-41% excess body weight) for an experimental high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet (protein level, 46% ME) and a commercial high-carbohydrate medium-protein diet (protein level, 24%ME) in obese dogs. Secondly, all the dogs were included in a weight loss programme. They were fed the high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet, and the energy allocation was gradually reduced until they reached their optimal body weight. Insulin sensitivity and body composition were evaluated before and after weight loss using a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp and the deuterium oxide dilution technique respectively. For statistical analysis, linear mixed effect models were used with a significance level of 5%. Postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were substantially lower with the high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet than the high-carbohydrate medium-protein diet. These differences can be explained mainly by the difference in carbohydrate content between the two diets. Energy restriction (35% lower energy intake than in the obese state) resulted in a 2.23 ± 0.05% loss in body weight/week, and the dogs reached their optimal body weight in 12-16 weeks. Weight loss was associated with a significant increase in insulin sensitivity. The high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet allowed fat-free mass preservation despite a relatively high rate of weekly weight loss. The increase in insulin sensitivity indicated improved control of carbohydrate metabolism, possible due to weight loss and to the nature of the diet. Thus, a high-protein medium-carbohydrate diet is a good nutritional solution for managing the weight of overweight dogs. This diet may improve glycaemic control, which could be beneficial for preventing or

  9. Detailed Visualization of Phase Evolution during Rapid Formation of Cu(InGa)Se2 Photovoltaic Absorber from Mo/CuGa/In/Se Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Jaseok; Kim, Sammi; Cheon, Taehoon; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2018-03-02

    Amongst several processes which have been developed for the production of reliable chalcopyrite Cu(InGa)Se 2 photovoltaic absorbers, the 2-step metallization-selenization process is widely accepted as being suitable for industrial-scale application. Here we visualize the detailed thermal behavior and reaction pathways of constituent elements during commercially attractive rapid thermal processing of glass/Mo/CuGa/In/Se precursors on the basis of the results of systematic characterization of samples obtained from a series of quenching experiments with set-temperatures between 25 and 550 °C. It was confirmed that the Se layer crystallized and then melted between 250 and 350 °C, completely disappearing at 500 °C. The formation of CuInSe 2 and Cu(InGa)Se 2 was initiated at around 450 °C and 550 °C, respectively. It is suggested that pre-heat treatment to control crystallization of Se layer should be designed at 250-350 °C and Cu(InGa)Se 2 formation from CuGa/In/Se precursors can be completed within a timeframe of 6 min.

  10. Optimization of matrix solid-phase dispersion for the rapid determination of salicylate and benzophenone-type UV absorbing substances in marketed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Dung-Ying; Chen, Chien-Liang; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2014-07-01

    A simple and effective method for the rapid determination of five salicylate and benzophenone-type UV absorbing substances in marketed fish is described. The method involves the use of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) prior to their determination by on-line silylation gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The parameters that affect the extraction efficiency were optimized using a Box-Behnken design method. The optimal extraction conditions involved dispersing 0.5g of freeze-dried powdered fish with 1.0g of Florisil using a mortar and pestle. This blend was then transferred to a solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge containing 1.0g of octadecyl bonded silica (C18), as the clean-up co-sorbent. The target analytes were then eluted with 7mL of acetonitrile. The extract was derivatized on-line in the GC injection-port by reaction with a trimethylsilylating (TMS) reagent. The TMS-derivatives were then identified and quantitated by GC-MS/MS. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were less than 0.1ng/g. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Rapid-Insertion Control-Absorber Mechanism for Use in Hollow Fuel Elements; Mecanisme d'Insertion Rapide d'Absorbants pour Utilisation dans des Elements Creux; Mekhanizm bystrogo vvoda poglotitelya dlya ispol'zovaniya v polykh toplivnykh ehlementakh; Mecanismo para la Insercion Rapida de Absorbentes en Elementos Combustibles Huecos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, E. S.F. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment Harwell, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1964-06-15

    This report describes the engineering design and performance of a rapid-insertion control absorber mechanism for use within hollow, vertical, fuel elements of the DIDO materials-testing class reactors operating at a thermal flux of 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} s. The initial downward acceleration of the absorber is that of gravity, and the full travel of 161 cm takes 0.4 s. The magnet release time is 5 ms. The absorber weighs 7 kg, has an effective area of 1000 cm{sup 2} of cadmium and controls nearly 3% of reactivity. It can be positioned with an accuracy of 4 x 10{sup -3}cm and withdrawn at speeds of 0.04 cm/s and 0.01 cm/s. The mechanism consists of a vernier stepping-motor which drives a lead-screw and raises or lowers a close-fitting cylindrical shield-plug with an electromagnet at its lower end, which supports a tubular absorber. There are large radial clearances around the absorber, which falls freely when released, except for the viscous drag of the moderator/coolant, until brought to rest by a stop on a central rod passing through the lead-screw to a ring-spring shock-absorber at the top of the mechanism. After release of the absorber, the shield-plug is motored down at fast speed to engage the absorber again. The size of the absorber system is within the overall dimensions of the fuel element and may be removed from the reactor together with the fuel element or separately by means of the fuel-unloading flask. (author) [French] L'auteur indique les caracteristiques techniques et les performances d'un mecanisme d'insertion rapide d'absorbants destine a etre utilise dans des elements creux et verticaux de reacteurs d'essai de materiaux du type DIDO, de flux thermique egal a 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} s. L'acceleration initiale est celle de la pesanteur; le temps de parcours (61 cm) est de 0,4 s. L'aimant se declenche en 5 ms. L'absorbant pese 7 kg; sa surface efficace est de 1000 cm{sup 2} de cadmium et il compense environ 3% de reactivite. Sa position peut etre

  12. Composition, production, and loss of carbohydrates in subtropical shallow subtidal sandy sediments: Rapid processing and long-term retention revealed by 13C-labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oakes, J.M.; Eyre, B.D.; Middelburg, J.J.; Boschker, H.T.S.

    2010-01-01

    The composition and production of carbohydrates (mannose, rhamnose, fucose, galactose, glucose, and xylose) and their transfer among sediment compartments (microphytobenthos [MPB], bacteria, and detritus) was investigated through in situ labeling with 13C-bicarbonate. After 60 h, 13C was found in

  13. Learning about Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning About Carbohydrates KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning About Carbohydrates Print en ... source of energy for the body. What Are Carbohydrates? There are two major types of carbohydrates (or ...

  14. Absorbant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quetier, Monique.

    1978-11-01

    Absorbants play a very important part in the nuclear industry. They serve for the control, shut-down and neutron shielding of reactors and increase the capacity of spent fuel storage pools and of special transport containers. This paper surveys the usual absorbant materials, means of obtainment, their essential characteristics relating to their use and their behaviour under neutron irradiation [fr

  15. An additional bolus of rapid-acting insulin to normalise postprandial cardiovascular risk factors following a high-carbohydrate high-fat meal in patients with type 1 diabetes: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew D; Walker, Mark; Ajjan, Ramzi A; Birch, Karen M; Gonzalez, Javier T; West, Daniel J

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate an additional rapid-acting insulin bolus on postprandial lipaemia, inflammation and pro-coagulation following high-carbohydrate high-fat feeding in people with type 1 diabetes. A total of 10 males with type 1 diabetes [HbA 1c 52.5 ± 5.9 mmol/mol (7.0% ± 0.5%)] underwent three conditions: (1) a low-fat (LF) meal with normal bolus insulin, (2), a high-fat (HF) meal with normal bolus insulin and (3) a high-fat meal with normal bolus insulin with an additional 30% insulin bolus administered 3-h post-meal (HFA). Meals had identical carbohydrate and protein content and bolus insulin dose determined by carbohydrate-counting. Blood was sampled periodically for 6-h post-meal and analysed for triglyceride, non-esterified-fatty acids, apolipoprotein B48, glucagon, tumour necrosis factor alpha, fibrinogen, human tissue factor activity and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Continuous glucose monitoring captured interstitial glucose responses. Triglyceride concentrations following LF remained similar to baseline, whereas triglyceride levels following HF were significantly greater throughout the 6-h observation period. The additional insulin bolus (HFA) normalised triglyceride similarly to low fat 3-6 h following the meal. HF was associated with late postprandial elevations in tumour necrosis factor alpha, whereas LF and HFA was not. Fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue factor pathway levels were similar between conditions. Additional bolus insulin 3 h following a high-carbohydrate high-fat meal prevents late rises in postprandial triglycerides and tumour necrosis factor alpha, thus improving cardiovascular risk profile.

  16. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  17. Shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeth, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A shock absorber for the support of piping and components in a nuclear power plant is described. It combines a high degree of stiffness under sudden shocks, e.g. seismic disturbances, with the ability to allow for thermal expansion without resistance when so required. (JIW)

  18. Rapid adjustment in chrysanthemum carbohydrate turnover and growth activity to a change in time-of-day application of light and daylength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Poiré, Richard; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2012-01-01

    diurnally-regulated parameters related to growth. In this study, chrysanthemum plants were exposed to a change in the time-of-day application of light followed by short days or long days with a night interruption of light. We observed a clear shift in the diel cycle of sucrose turnover and relative leaf......Abstract. Diel (24 h) rhythms are believed to be of great importance to plant growth and carbohydrate metabolism in fluctuating environments. However, it is unclear how plants that have evolved to experience regular day–night patterns will respond to irregular light environments that disturb...... expansion, indicating a resetting of these activities with a temporal trigger in the early morning. The starch pool was relatively stable in long-day plants and marginally affected by the change in the time-of-day application in light followed by long days with a night interruption. This was in contrast...

  19. Reflection measurements of microwave absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dirk E.; van der Neut, Cornelis A.

    1988-12-01

    A swept-frequency interferometer is described for making rapid, real-time assessments of localized inhomogeneities in planar microwave absorber panels. An aperture-matched exponential horn is used to reduce residual reflections in the system to about -37 dB. This residual reflection is adequate for making comparative measurements on planar absorber panels whose reflectivities usually fall in the -15 to -25 dB range. Reflectivity measurements on a variety of planar absorber panels show that multilayer Jaumann absorbers have the greatest inhomogeneity, while honeycomb absorbers generally have excellent homogeneity within a sheet and from sheet to sheet. The test setup is also used to measure the center frequencies of resonant absorbers. With directional couplers and aperture-matched exponential horns, the technique can be easily applied in the standard 2 to 40 GHz waveguide bands.

  20. Modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds, methods of making the same and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Richard A; Pawlak, Joel J; Salam, Abdus; El-Tahlawy, Khaled Fathy

    2015-03-10

    Compositions of matter are provided that include chitosan and a modified carbohydrate. The modified carbohydrate includes a carbohydrate component and a cross linking agent. The modified carbohydrate has increased carboxyl content as compared to an unmodified counterpart carbohydrate. A carboxyl group of the modified carbohydrate is covalently bonded with an amino group of chitosan. The compositions of matter provided herein may include cross linked starch citrate-chitosan and cross linked hemicellulose citrate-chitosan, including foams thereof. These compositions yield excellent absorbency and metal chelation properties. Methods of making cross linked modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds are also provided.

  1. Rapid Analysis of Carbohydrates in Bioprocess Samples: An Evaluation of the CarboPac SA10 for HPAE-PAD Analysis by Interlaboratory Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevcik, R. S.; Hyman, D. A.; Basumallich, L.; Scarlata, C. J.; Rohrer, J.; Chambliss, C. K.

    2013-01-01

    A technique for carbohydrate analysis for bioprocess samples has been developed, providing reduced analysis time compared to current practice in the biofuels R&D community. The Thermofisher CarboPac SA10 anion-exchange column enables isocratic separation of monosaccharides, sucrose and cellobiose in approximately 7 minutes. Additionally, use of a low-volume (0.2 mL) injection valve in combination with a high-volume detection cell minimizes the extent of sample dilution required to bring sugar concentrations into the linear range of the pulsed amperometric detector (PAD). Three laboratories, representing academia, industry, and government, participated in an interlaboratory study which analyzed twenty-one opportunistic samples representing biomass pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and fermentation samples. The technique's robustness, linearity, and interlaboratory reproducibility were evaluated and showed excellent-to-acceptable characteristics. Additionally, quantitation by the CarboPac SA10/PAD was compared with the current practice method utilizing a HPX-87P/RID. While these two methods showed good agreement a statistical comparison found significant quantitation difference between them, highlighting the difference between selective and universal detection modes.

  2. Measurement of extrapolation curves for the secondary pattern of beta radiation Nr. 86 calibrated in rapidity of absorbed dose for tissue equivalent by the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1988-10-01

    The following report has as objective to present the obtained results of measuring - with a camera of extrapolation of variable electrodes (CE) - the dose speed absorbed in equivalent fabric given by the group of sources of the secondary pattern of radiation Beta Nr. 86, (PSB), and to compare this results with those presented by the calibration certificates that accompany the PSB extended by the primary laboratory Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, (PTB), of the R.F.A. as well as the uncertainties associated to the measure process. (Author)

  3. Chemoselective Reactions for the Synthesis of Glycoconjugates from Unprotected Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Klaus; Martos Maldonado, Manuel Cristo; Jensen, Knud Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Glycobiology is the comprehensive biological investigation of carbohydrates. The study of the role and function of complex carbohydrates often requires the attachment of carbohydrates to surfaces, their tagging with fluorophores, or their conversion into natural or non-natural glycoconjugates......, such as glycopeptides or glycolipids. Glycobiology and its “omics”, glycomics, require easy and robust chemical methods for the construction of these glycoconjugates. This review gives an overview of the rapidly expanding field of chemical reactions that selectively convert unprotected carbohydrates...

  4. Carbohydrate-Loading Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grape juice (12 ounces) 55 225 Lunch Milk, chocolate, reduced fat (12 ounces) 45 285 4 slices ... usual during carbohydrate loading to get the same benefits as a man does. Despite carbohydrate loading, you ...

  5. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally your enzymes break carbohydrates down into glucose (a type of sugar). If ...

  6. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus): biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan M

    2017-01-01

    As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus . We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  7. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus: biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus. We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  8. Boronic acids for fluorescence imaging of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolong; Zhai, Wenlei; Fossey, John S; James, Tony D

    2016-02-28

    "Fluorescence imaging" is a particularly exciting and rapidly developing area of research; the annual number of publications in the area has increased ten-fold over the last decade. The rapid increase of interest in fluorescence imaging will necessitate the development of an increasing number of molecular receptors and binding agents in order to meet the demand in this rapidly expanding area. Carbohydrate biomarkers are particularly important targets for fluorescence imaging given their pivotal role in numerous important biological events, including the development and progression of many diseases. Therefore, the development of new fluorescent receptors and binding agents for carbohydrates is and will be increasing in demand. This review highlights the development of fluorescence imaging agents based on boronic acids a particularly promising class of receptors given their strong and selective binding with carbohydrates in aqueous media.

  9. Carbohydrate metabolism in catfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, C.R.; Lovell, R.T.

    2002-01-01

    Radiolabeled (U- 14 C)-glucose was incorporated in diets and forced-fed to channel catfish and was observed for a 24 hour period. About 95% of fed labeled (U- 14 C)-glucose was absorbed by catfish, showing a high digestibility of glucose. The amounts of 14 C excreted over 24 h as carbon dioxide were 49% and amounts excreted in urine were 3.5%. The amount retained as protein, fat glycogen and other organic compounds were 8.2, 1.2, 6.5 and 32.1 % respectively, for the 24 hour period. The blood concentration of 14 C reached a maximum 2.5 hour after feeding (U- 14 C)-glucose, then gradually decreased. Based on tissue concentrations of 14 C, glycogen was an immediate storage site for absorbed glucose, but 14 C- glycogen in liver decreased rapidly. Glucose was quickly and heavily converted into triglyceride, indicating that fat is an important intermediate in the metabolism of glucose in channel catfish. 14 C-fat in the serum and liver were transferred to the adipose tissue in the muscle and mesentery about 10 hours after feeding. (Author)

  10. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  11. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Using structure to inform carbohydrate binding module function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, D. Wade; Lammerts van Bueren, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Generally, non-catalytic carbohydrate binding module (CBM) specificity has been shown to parallel the catalytic activity of the carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) module it is appended to. With the rapid expansion in metagenomic sequence space for the potential discovery of new CBMs in addition to

  13. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth / For Parents / Carbohydrates and Diabetes ... many kids with diabetes take to stay healthy. Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar The two main forms of ...

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This Opinion of the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition, and Allergies (NDA) deals with the establishment of Dietary Reference Values for carbohydrates and dietary fibre. Nutritionally, two broad categories of carbohydrates can be differentiated: “glycaemic carbohydrates”, i.e. carbohydrates digested and absorbed in the human small intestine, and „dietary fibre‟, non-digestible carbohydrates passing to the large intestine. In this Opinion, dietary fibre is defined as non-digestible car...

  15. The Profiling and Identification of the Absorbed Constituents and Metabolites of Guizhi Decoction in Rat Plasma and Urine by Rapid Resolution Liquid Chromatography Combined with Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hongjun; Zhang, Lishi; Song, Jiannan; Fan, Bin; Nie, Yinglan; Bai, Dong; Lei, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    Guizhi decoction (GZD), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription consisting of Ramulus Cinnamomi, Radix Paeoniae Alba, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Fructus Jujubae and Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens, is usually used for the treatment of common colds, influenza, and other pyretic conditions in the clinic. However, the absorbed ingredients and metabolic compounds of GZD have not been reported. In this paper, a method incorporating rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) was used to identify ingredients after oral administration of GZD. Identification of the primary components in GZD, drug-containing serum and urine samples was carried out in order to investigate the assimilation and metabolites of the decoction in vivo. By comparing the total ion chromatograms (TICs) of GZD, a total of 71 constituents were detected or characterized. By comparing TICs of blank and dosed rat plasma, a total of 15 constituents were detected and identified as prototypes according to their retention time (tR) and MS, MS/MS data. Based on this, neutral loss scans of 80 and 176 Da in samples of rat plasma and urine helped us to identify most of the metabolites. Results showed that the predominant metabolic pathways of (epi) catechin and gallic acid were sulfation, methylation, glucuronidation and dehydroxylation; the major metabolic pathways of flavone were hydrolysis, sulfation and glucuronidation. Furthermore, degradation, oxidation and ring fission were found to often occur in the metabolism process of GZD in vivo. PMID:27626411

  16. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores.

  17. Impact of carbohydrates on weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2015-07-01

    Research on obesity treatment has shifted its focus from weight loss to weight-loss maintenance strategies. The conventional approach of a low-fat diet is challenged by insights from glycemic effects of carbohydrates on body weight regulation. Metabolic and endocrine adaptations to weight loss that contribute to weight regain involve reduced energy expenditure, increased insulin sensitivity, and enhanced orexigenic signals. This review summarizes the impact of carbohydrates on energetic efficiency, partitioning of weight regain as fat and lean mass, and appetite control. Both the amount and frequency of postprandial glycemia add to body weight regulation after weight loss and strengthen the concept of glycemic index and glycemic load. In addition, dietary fiber and slowly or poorly absorbable functional sugars modify gastrointestinal peptides involved in appetite and metabolic regulation and exert prebiotic effects. Current evidence suggests that a low-glycemic load diet with a preference for low-glycemic index foods and integration of slowly digestible, poorly absorbable carbohydrates may improve weight-loss maintenance. Future studies should investigate the health benefits of low glycemic functional sweeteners (e.g., isomaltulose and tagatose).

  18. CARBOHYDRATE-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WHICH BIND TO CARBOHYDRATE BINDING RECEPTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases.......Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases....

  19. Shock absorbing structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Naoki; Matsushita, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    Small pieces of shock absorbers are filled in a space of a shock absorbing vessel which is divided into a plurality of sections by partitioning members. These sections function to prevent excess deformation or replacement of the fillers upon occurrence of falling accident. Since the shock absorbing small pieces in the shock absorbing vessel are filled irregularly, shock absorbing characteristics such as compression strength is not varied depending on the direction, but they exhibit excellent shock absorbing performance. They surely absorb shocks exerted on a transportation vessel upon falling or the like. If existing artificial fillers such as pole rings made of metal or ceramic and cut pieces such as alumium extrusion molding products are used as the shock absorbing pieces, they have excellent fire-proofness and cold resistance since the small pieces are inflammable and do not contain water. (T.M.)

  20. Carbohydrates and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  1. Single tag for total carbohydrate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumula, Kalyan Rao

    2014-07-15

    Anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-AA) has the remarkable property of reacting rapidly with every type of reducing carbohydrate. Reactivity of 2-AA with carbohydrates in aqueous solutions surpasses all other tags reported to date. This unique capability is attributed to the strategically located -COOH which accelerates Schiff base formation. Monosaccharides, oligosaccharides (N-, O-, and lipid linked and glycans in secretory fluids), glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides can be easily labeled with 2-AA. With 2-AA, labeling is simple in aqueous solutions containing proteins, peptides, buffer salts, and other ingredients (e.g., PNGase F, glycosidase, and transferase reaction mixtures). In contrast, other tags require relatively pure glycans for labeling in anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide-acetic acid medium. Acidic conditions are known to cause desialylation, thus requiring a great deal of attention to sample preparation. Simpler labeling is achieved with 2-AA within 30-60 min in mild acetate-borate buffered solution. 2-AA provides the highest sensitivity and resolution in chromatographic methods for carbohydrate analysis in a simple manner. Additionally, 2-AA is uniquely qualified for quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry in the negative mode. Analyses of 2-AA-labeled carbohydrates by electrophoresis and other techniques have been reported. Examples cited here demonstrate that 2-AA is the universal tag for total carbohydrate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Who is the carbohydrate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Enrique Cuevas Mestanza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biochemistry is a complex science that studies biomolecules and their interactions in metabolic pathways in living beings. Due to the large amount of contents against the short period to apply them, only expositive classes are not enough to arouse the interest of students and solve questions. In this perspective, is very important to develop new educational tools to improve the understanding of these contents. “Who is the carbohydrate?” It is a didactic game created to review the structural and functional relationship of carbohydrates. Based on the classic “Guess who?” The objective of the player or group is to first find out the opponent's carbohydrate name.

  3. Methods for absorbing neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Donna P [Idaho Falls, ID; Longhurst, Glen R [Idaho Falls, ID; Porter, Douglas L [Idaho Falls, ID; Parry, James R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    A conduction cooled neutron absorber may include a metal matrix composite that comprises a metal having a thermal neutron cross-section of at least about 50 barns and a metal having a thermal conductivity of at least about 1 W/cmK. Apparatus for providing a neutron flux having a high fast-to-thermal neutron ratio may include a source of neutrons that produces fast neutrons and thermal neutrons. A neutron absorber positioned adjacent the neutron source absorbs at least some of the thermal neutrons so that a region adjacent the neutron absorber has a fast-to-thermal neutron ratio of at least about 15. A coolant in thermal contact with the neutron absorber removes heat from the neutron absorber.

  4. Hydraulic shock absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Davidson, D. F.

    1984-01-01

    A hydraulic shock absorber of the dash pot kind for use with electrically conducting liquid such as sodium, has magnet means for electro magnetically braking a stream of liquid discharged from the cylinder. The shock absorber finds use in a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor for arresting control rods

  5. Carbohydrates as Fat Replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingyun; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-28

    The overconsumption of dietary fat contributes to various chronic diseases, which encourages attempts to develop and consume low-fat foods. Simple fat reduction causes quality losses that impede the acceptance of foods. Fat replacers are utilized to minimize the quality deterioration after fat reduction or removal to achieve low-calorie, low-fat claims. In this review, the forms of fats and their functions in contributing to food textural and sensory qualities are discussed in various food systems. The connections between fat reduction and quality loss are described in order to clarify the rationales of fat replacement. Carbohydrate fat replacers usually have low calorie density and provide gelling, thickening, stabilizing, and other texture-modifying properties. In this review, carbohydrates, including starches, maltodextrins, polydextrose, gums, and fibers, are discussed with regard to their interactions with other components in foods as well as their performances as fat replacers in various systems.

  6. PWR burnable absorber evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciapouti, R.J.; Weader, R.J.; Malone, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative neurotic efficiency and fuel cycle cost benefits of PWR burnable absorbers. Establishment of reference low-leakage equilibrium in-core fuel management plans for 12-, 18- and 24-month cycles. Review of the fuel management impact of the integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA), erbium and gadolinium. Calculation of the U 3 O 8 , UF 6 , SWU, fuel fabrication, and burnable absorber requirements for the defined fuel management plans. Estimation of fuel cycle costs of each fuel management plan at spot market and long-term market fuel prices. Estimation of the comparative savings of the different burnable absorbers in dollar equivalent per kgU of fabricated fuel. (author)

  7. TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — TOMS_AI_G is an aerosol related dataset derived from the Total Ozone Monitoring Satellite (TOMS) Sensor. The TOMS aerosol index arises from absorbing aerosols such...

  8. Effects of polymeric carbohydrates on growth and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    , metabolized and net energy); available energy relative to protein is crucial for performance and carcass quality; second, the proportion of starch to NSP will influence rate and type of metabolites (glucose vs. SCFA) deriving from carbohydrate assimilation, and finally, type of starch (types A, B, and C......The main objective of the presentation is to provide insight into the role of polymeric carbohydrates in growth and development of pigs. Polymeric carbohydrates—starch and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP)—quantitatively represent the largest portion of the diets for pigs and are therefore...... at a slower and more constant rate and with SCFA being absorbed by passive diffusion. Type and levels of polymeric carbohydrates influence growth and development through different mechanisms; first, the proportion of starch to NSP plays an important role for the content of available energy (digestible...

  9. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  10. Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Pankiv

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, the possibility of early and rapid progress of complications, a large number of undiagnosed cases and disappointing forecasts of the World Health Organization on the prospects of DM spreading in the world, timely and accurate diagnosis of carbohydrate metabolism disorders is important. The criteria for the diagnosis of carbohydrate metabolism and DM are shown in the article. The article includes a new consensus on the staging of type 1 DM and a discussion of a proposed unifying diabetes classification scheme that focuses on β-cell dysfunction and disease stage as indicated by glucose status. Modern recommendations 2017 of the American Diabetes Association are shown in relation to the criteria of diagnostics of impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus. The value of insulin resistance and functional state of pancreatic β-cells is underlined in determination of type 2 DM duration. A plan of type 2 DM management is brought.

  11. Chiral reagents in glycosylation and modification of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Yuan; Blaszczyk, Stephanie A; Xiao, Guozhi; Tang, Weiping

    2018-02-05

    Carbohydrates play a significant role in numerous biological events, and the chemical synthesis of carbohydrates is vital for further studies to understand their various biological functions. Due to the structural complexity of carbohydrates, the stereoselective formation of glycosidic linkages and the site-selective modification of hydroxyl groups are very challenging and at the same time extremely important. In recent years, the rapid development of chiral reagents including both chiral auxiliaries and chiral catalysts has significantly improved the stereoselectivity for glycosylation reactions and the site-selectivity for the modification of carbohydrates. These new tools will greatly facilitate the efficient synthesis of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates. In this tutorial review, we will summarize these advances and highlight the most recent examples.

  12. Adaptation to a high protein, carbohydrate-free diet induces a marked reduction of fatty acid synthesis and lipogenic enzymes in rat adipose tissue that is rapidly reverted by a balanced diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, S M R C; Moura, M A F; Kawashita, N H; Festuccia, W T L; Garófalo, M A R; Kettelhut, I C; Migliorini, R H

    2005-06-01

    We have previously shown that in vivo lipogenesis is markedly reduced in liver, carcass, and in 4 different depots of adipose tissue of rats adapted to a high protein, carbohydrate-free (HP) diet. In the present work, we investigate the activity of enzymes involved in lipogenesis in the epididymal adipose tissue (EPI) of rats adapted to an HP diet before and 12 h after a balanced diet was introduced. Rats fed an HP diet for 15 days showed a 60% reduction of EPI fatty acid synthesis in vivo that was accompanied by 45%-55% decreases in the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, ATP-citrate lyase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme. Reversion to a balanced diet for 12 h resulted in a normalization of in vivo EPI lipogenesis, and in a restoration of acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity to levels that did not differ significantly from control values. The activities of ATP-citrate lyase and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex increased to about 75%-86% of control values, but the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme remained unchanged 12 h after diet reversion. The data indicate that in rats, the adjustment of adipose tissue lipogenic activity is an important component of the metabolic adaptation to different nutritional conditions.

  13. Neutron absorbing article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naum, R.G.; Owens, D.P.; Dooher, G.I.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron absorbing article, in flat plate form and suitable for use in a storage rack for spent fuel, includes boron carbide particles, diluent particles and a solid, irreversibly cured phenolic polymer cured to a continuous matrix binding the boron carbide and diluent particles. The total conent of boron carbide and diluent particles is a major proportion of the article and the content of cured phenolic polymer present is a minor proportion. By regulation of the ratio of boron carbide particles to diluent particles, normally within the range of 1:9 and 9:1 and preferably within the range of 1:5 to 5:1, the neutron absorbing activity of the product may be controlled, which facilitates the manufacture of articles of particular absorbing activities best suitable for specific applications

  14. Burnable neutron absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, K.C.; Carlson, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    A neutron-absorber body for use in burnable poison rods in a nuclear reactor. The body is composed of a matrix of Al 2 O 3 containing B 4 C, the neutron absorber. Areas of high density polycrystalline Al 2 O 3 particles are predominantly encircled by pores in some of which there are B 4 C particles. This body is produced by initially spray drying a slurry of A1 2 O 3 powder to which a binder has been added. The powder of agglomerated spheres of the A1 2 O 3 with the binder are dry mixed with B 4 C powder. The mixed powder is formed into a green body by isostatic pressure and the green body is sintered. The sintered body is processed to form the neutron-absorber body. In this case the B 4 C particles are separate from the spheres resulting from the spray drying instead of being embedded in the sphere

  15. Absorbent material for type a radioactive materials packaging containing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, G.A.

    1989-11-01

    The application of absorbent materials to the packaging and transport of liquid radioactive materials in Type A packages has not been reported in the literature. However, a significant body of research exists on absorbent materials for personal hygiene products such as diapers. Absorption capacity is dependent on both the absorbent material and the liquid being absorbed. Theoretical principles for capillary absorption in both the horizontal and the vertical plane indicate that small contact angle between the absorbent fibre and the liquid, and a small inter-fibre pore size are important. Some fluid parameters such as viscosity affect the rate of absorption but not the final absorption capacity. There appears to be little comparability between results obtained for the same absorbent and fluid using different test procedures. Test samples of materials from several classes of potential absorbents have been evaluated in this study, and shown to have a wide range of absorbent capacities. Foams, natural fibres, artificial fibres and granular materials are all potentially useful absorbents, with capacities ranging from as little as 0.86 to as much as 40.6 grams of distilled water per gram of absorbent. Two experimental procedures for evaluating the absorbent capacity of these materials have been detailed in this report, and found suitable for evaluating granular, fibrous or foam materials. Compression of the absorbent material reduces its capacity, but parameters such as relative humidity, pH, temperature, and viscosity appear to have little significant influence on capacity. When the materials were loaded to 50% of their one-minute absorbency, subsequent loss of the absorbed liquid was generally minimal. All of the absorbent materials rapidly lost their absorbed water through evaporation within twenty-four hours in still air at 21 degrees C and 50% relative humidity

  16. Issues in Nutrition: Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and dietary fibers. Resistant starches resemble fiber in their behavior in the intestinal tract, and may have positive effects on blood glucose levels and the gut microbiome. Fibers are classified as soluble and insoluble, but most fiber-containing foods contain a mixture of soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber has been shown to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Many artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are available. Most natural sources of sweeteners also are energy sources. Many artificial sweeteners contain no kilocalories in the amounts typically used. Sugar alcohols may have a laxative effect when consumed in large amounts. Glycemic index and glycemic load are measurements that help quantify serum glucose response after ingestion of particular foods. These measurements may be affected by the combination of foods consumed in a given meal, and the glycemic index may vary among individuals eating the same meal. Eating foods with a low glycemic index may help prevent development of type 2 diabetes. There is no definitive evidence to recommend low-carbohydrate diets over low-fat diets for long-term weight loss; they are equally effective. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  17. Mechanical shock absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrillon, Bernard.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanical shock absorber described is made of a constant thickness plate pierced with circular holes regularly distributed in such a manner that for all the directions along which the strain is applied during the shock, the same section of the substance forming the plate is achieved. The shock absorber is made in a metal standing up to extensive deformation before breaking, selected from a group comprising mild steels and austenitic stainless steels. This apparatus is used for handling pots of fast neutron reactor fuel elements [fr

  18. Neutron absorbing article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naum, R.G.; Owens, D.P.; Dooker, G.I.

    1981-01-01

    A neutron-absorbing article suitable for use in spent fuel racks is described. It comprises boron carbide particles, diluent particles, and a phenolic polymer cured to a continuous matrix. The diluent may be silicon carbide, graphite, amorphous carbon, alumina, or silica. The combined boron carbide-diluent phase contains no more than 2 percent B 2 O 3 , and the neutron-absorbing article contains from 20 to 40 percent phenol resin. The ratio of boron carbide to diluent particles is in the range 1:9 to 9:1

  19. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  20. Low Absorbance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.; Williams, A. M.

    1983-10-01

    The application of low absorption measurements to dilute solute determination requires specific instrumental characteristics. The use of laser intracavity absorption and thermal lens calorimetry to measure concentration is shown. The specific operating parameters that determine sensitivity are delineated along with the limits different measurement strategies impose. Finally areas of improvement in components that would result in improve sensitivity, accuracy, and reliability are discussed. During the past decade, a large number of methods have been developed for measuring the light absorbed by transparent materials. These include measurements on gases, liquids, and solids. The activity has been prompted by a variety of applications and a similar variety of disciplines. In Table 1 some representative examples of these methods is shown along with their published detection limits.1 It is clear that extraordinarily small absorbances can be measured. Most of the methods can be conveniently divided into two groups. These groups are those that measure the transmission of the sample and those that measure the light absorbed by the sample. The light absorbed methods are calorimetric in character. The advantages and disadvantages of each method varies depending on the principal application for which they were developed. The most prevalent motivation has been to characterize the bulk optical properties of transparent materials. Two examples are the development of extremely transparent glasses for use as fiber optic materials and the development of substrates for high power laser operation.

  1. Optical absorption of irradiated carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, A.A.; Tiliks, Yu.E.

    1994-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of γ-irradiated carbohydrates (glucose, lactose, sucrose, maltose, and starch) and their aqueous solutions were studied. The comparison of the data obtained with the determination of the concentrations of molecular and radical products of radiolysis allows the absorption bands with maxima at 250 and 310 nm to be assigned to the radicals trapped in the irradiated carbohydrates

  2. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    a renewable route to aromatics. The conversion of biomass by high temperature processes is a desirable prospect due to the high volumetric production rates which can be achieved, and the ability of these types of processes to convert a wide range of substrates. Current processes however typically have rather...... with the production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were...... to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of fossil resources means...

  3. Myostatin and carbohydrate disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assyov, Yavor S; Velikova, Tsvetelina V; Kamenov, Zdravko A

    2017-05-01

    Purpose/aim of the study: Myostatin is a myokine that has been shown to inhibit muscle growth and to have potentially deleterious effects on metabolism. The aim of the current study was to compare its circulating serum levels in subjects from the whole spectrum of carbohydrate disturbances leading to diabetes. A total of 159 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched subjects participated in the study - 50 had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 60 had prediabetes (PreDM), and 49 had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Oral glucose tolerance testing was used to determine glucose tolerance. Serum myostatin was quantified by means of ELISA. Circulating serum myostatin levels were highest in patients with T2D, lower in subjects with prediabetes, and lowest in subjects with normoglycemia (all p Myostatin was shown to be positively associated with fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR, hepatic enzymes, uric acid, and FINDRISC questionnaire scores in both sexes. ROC analyses determined circulating myostatin levels to be of value for differentiating subjects with T2D (AUC = 0.72, p = 0.002 in men; AUC = 0.70, p = 0.004 in women) in the study population. After adjustment for potential confounders, in a multiple binary logistic regression model, serum myostatin added further information to traditional risk estimates in distinguishing subjects with T2D. Serum myostatin levels are higher with deterioration of carbohydrate tolerance. Furthermore, circulating myostatin is positively associated with traditional biochemical estimates of poor metabolic health. These data add to evidence of the involvement of this myokine in the pathogenesis of T2D.

  4. NIR calibration of soluble stem carbohydrates for predicting drought tolerance in spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluble stem carbohydrates are a component of drought response in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and other grasses. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) can rapidly assay for soluble carbohydrates indirectly, but this requires a statistical model for calibration. The objectives of this study were: (i) to ...

  5. Nutrition to Support Recovery from Endurance Exercise: Optimal Carbohydrate and Protein Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Daniel R

    2015-01-01

    Proper nutrition is vital to optimize recovery after endurance exercise. Dietary carbohydrate and protein provide the requisite substrates to enhance glycogen resynthesis and remodel skeletal muscle proteins, respectively, both of which would be important to rapidly restore muscle function and performance. With short recovery windows (optimal ingestion of both carbohydrate and protein.

  6. Synthesis of carbohydrate-based surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pemberton, Jeanne E.; Polt, Robin L.; Maier, Raina M.

    2016-11-22

    The present invention provides carbohydrate-based surfactants and methods for producing the same. Methods for producing carbohydrate-based surfactants include using a glycosylation promoter to link a carbohydrate or its derivative to a hydrophobic compound.

  7. Adjustable Shock Absorbers

    OpenAIRE

    Adamiec, Radek

    2012-01-01

    Bakalářská práce obsahuje přehled používaných tlumičů osobních automobilů, závodních automobilů a motocyklů. Jsou zde popsány systémy t lumením, konstrukce tlumičů a vidlic používaných u motocyklů. Dále je zde přehled prvků používaných u podvozků automobilů. This bachelor´s thesis contains the survey of the shock absorbers of passenger cars, racing cars and motorcycles. Are described damping systems, the design used shock absorbers and forks for motorcycles. Then there is the list of the e...

  8. Kinetic energy absorbing pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricmont, R.J.; Hamilton, P.A.; Ming Long Ting, R.

    1981-01-01

    Reactors, fuel processing plants etc incorporate pipes and conduits for fluids under high pressure. Fractures, particularly adjacent to conduit elbows, produce a jet of liquid which whips the broken conduit at an extremely high velocity. An enormous impact load would be applied to any stationary object in the conduit's path. The design of cellular, corrugated metal impact pads to absorb the kinetic energy of the high velocity conduits is given. (U.K.)

  9. Absorbable and biodegradable polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Shalaby, Shalaby W

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION NOTES: Absorbable/Biodegradable Polymers: Technology Evolution. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONOF NEW SYSTEMS: Segmented Copolyesters with Prolonged Strength Retention Profiles. Polyaxial Crystalline Fiber-Forming Copolyester. Polyethylene Glycol-Based Copolyesters. Cyanoacrylate-Based Systems as Tissue Adhesives. Chitosan-Based Systems. Hyaluronic Acid-Based Systems. DEVELOPMENTS IN PREPARATIVE, PROCESSING, AND EVALUATION METHODS: New Approaches to the Synthesis of Crystalline. Fiber-Forming Aliphatic Copolyesters. Advances in Morphological Development to Tailor the Performance of Me

  10. Burnable neutron absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, K.C.; Carlson, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    This patent deals with the fabrication of pellets for neutron absorber rods. Such a pellet includes a matrix of a refractory material which may be aluminum or zirconium oxide, and a burnable poison distributed throughout the matrix. The neutron absorber material may consist of one or more elements or compounds of the metals boron, gadolinium, samarium, cadmium, europium, hafnium, dysprosium and indium. The method of fabricating pellets of these materials outlined in this patent is designed to produce pores or voids in the pellets that can be used to take up the expansion of the burnable poison and to absorb the helium gas generated. In the practice of this invention a slurry of Al 2 O 3 is produced. A hard binder is added and the slurry and binder are spray dried. This powder is mixed with dry B 4 C powder, forming a homogeneous mixture. This mixture is pressed into green tubes which are then sintered. During sintering the binder volatilizes leaving a ceramic with nearly spherical high-density regions of

  11. Methodological challenges in carbohydrate analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Beth Hall

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates can provide up to 80% of the dry matter in animal diets, yet their specific evaluation for research and diet formulation is only now becoming a focus in the animal sciences. Partitioning of dietary carbohydrates for nutritional purposes should reflect differences in digestion and fermentation characteristics and effects on animal performance. Key challenges to designating nutritionally important carbohydrate fractions include classifying the carbohydrates in terms of nutritional characteristics, and selecting analytical methods that describe the desired fraction. The relative lack of information on digestion characteristics of various carbohydrates and their interactions with other fractions in diets means that fractions will not soon be perfectly established. Developing a system of carbohydrate analysis that could be used across animal species could enhance the utility of analyses and amount of data we can obtain on dietary effects of carbohydrates. Based on quantities present in diets and apparent effects on animal performance, some nutritionally important classes of carbohydrates that may be valuable to measure include sugars, starch, fructans, insoluble fiber, and soluble fiber. Essential to selection of methods for these fractions is agreement on precisely what carbohydrates should be included in each. Each of these fractions has analyses that could potentially be used to measure them, but most of the available methods have weaknesses that must be evaluated to see if they are fatal and the assay is unusable, or if the assay still may be made workable. Factors we must consider as we seek to analyze carbohydrates to describe diets: Does the assay accurately measure the desired fraction? Is the assay for research, regulatory, or field use (affects considerations of acceptable costs and throughput? What are acceptable accuracy and variability of measures? Is the assay robust (enhances accuracy of values? For some carbohydrates, we

  12. Shock absorber in Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavas, A.; Muralis, J.

    1996-09-01

    Theoretical calculation and experimental analysis of models of shock absorber in Ignalina NPP is presented. The results obtained from the investigation with model of shock absorber coincide with the theoretical calculation. (author). 2 figs., 3 refs

  13. Absorber for terahertz radiation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biallas, George Herman; Apeldoorn, Cornelis; Williams, Gwyn P.; Benson, Stephen V.; Shinn, Michelle D.; Heckman, John D.

    2015-12-08

    A method and apparatus for minimizing the degradation of power in a free electron laser (FEL) generating terahertz (THz) radiation. The method includes inserting an absorber ring in the FEL beam path for absorbing any irregular THz radiation and thus minimizes the degradation of downstream optics and the resulting degradation of the FEL output power. The absorber ring includes an upstream side, a downstream side, and a plurality of wedges spaced radially around the absorber ring. The wedges form a scallop-like feature on the innermost edges of the absorber ring that acts as an apodizer, stopping diffractive focusing of the THz radiation that is not intercepted by the absorber. Spacing between the scallop-like features and the shape of the features approximates the Bartlett apodization function. The absorber ring provides a smooth intensity distribution, rather than one that is peaked on-center, thereby eliminating minor distortion downstream of the absorber.

  14. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jor-Shan [El Cerrito, CA; Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Lee, Chuck K [Hayward, CA; Walker, Jeffrey [Gaithersburg, MD; Russell, Paige [Las Vegas, NV; Kirkwood, Jon [Saint Leonard, MD; Yang, Nancy [Lafayette, CA; Champagne, Victor [Oxford, PA

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  15. Feynman Integrals with Absorbing Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Marchewka, A.; Schuss, Z.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a formulation of an absorbing boundary for a quantum particle. The formulation is based on a Feynman-type integral over trajectories that are confined to the non-absorbing region. Trajectories that reach the absorbing wall are discounted from the population of the surviving trajectories with a certain weighting factor. Under the assumption that absorbed trajectories do not interfere with the surviving trajectories, we obtain a time dependent absorption law. Two examples are worked ...

  16. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde......Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important...... therapy with glycosylation enzyme inhibitors will, however, require the development of more specific and less toxic compounds. If carbohydrate antigens can elicit a neutralizing immune response in vivo, the possibility exists that carbohydrate neoantigens can be utilized in the construction of a vaccine...

  17. Facultative thermogenesis induced by carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Christensen, N J

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the obligatory thermogenesis due to processing and storage, carbohydrate ingestion is accompanied by a facultative thermogenesis mediated by catecholamines via beta-adrenoceptors. The anatomical origin of facultative thermogenesis has hitherto not been determined. The possible...

  18. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further ...

  19. Racemic carbohydrates - fact or fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senning, Alexander Erich Eugen

    2007-01-01

    Chemical Abstracts Service has developed unsound practices in the naming and handling of simple carbohydrates such as aldopentoses 1, aldohexoses 2, and ketohexoses 3. Typically, the common name glucose is sometimes, inappropriately, interpreted as meaning DL-glucose DL-2d. Thus, a considerable...... number of CA names and registry numbers have been created for non-existing racemic carbohydrates and linked to irrelevant references which, moreover, in many cases cannot be retrieved by the SciFinder Scholar program....

  20. Solar radiation absorbing material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Googin, John M.; Schmitt, Charles R.; Schreyer, James M.; Whitehead, Harlan D.

    1977-01-01

    Solar energy absorbing means in solar collectors are provided by a solar selective carbon surface. A solar selective carbon surface is a microporous carbon surface having pores within the range of 0.2 to 2 micrometers. Such a surface is provided in a microporous carbon article by controlling the pore size. A thermally conductive substrate is provided with a solar selective surface by adhering an array of carbon particles in a suitable binder to the substrate, a majority of said particles having diameters within the range of about 0.2-10 microns.

  1. Complexes of natural carbohydrates with metal cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, Yurii E; Garnovskii, Alexander D; Zhdanov, Yu A

    1998-01-01

    Data on the interaction of natural carbohydrates (mono-, oligo-, and poly-saccharides, amino sugars, and natural organic acids of carbohydrate origin) with metal cations are surveyed and described systematically. The structural diversity of carbohydrate metal complexes, caused by some specific features of carbohydrates as ligands, is demonstrated. The influence of complex formation on the chemical properties of carbohydrates is discussed. It is shown that the formation of metal complexes plays an important role in the configurational and conformational analysis of carbohydrates. The practical significance of the coordination interaction in the series of carbohydrate ligands is demonstrated. The bibliography includes 571 references.

  2. Separation of carbohydrates using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Liang, Tu; Li, Zhenyu; Xu, Xiaoyong; Ke, Yanxiong; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2013-09-20

    A strategy was developed to rapidly evaluate chromatographic properties of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) columns for separating carbohydrates. Seven HILIC columns (Silica, Diol, TSK Amide-80, XAmide, Click Maltose, Click β-CD, and Click TE-Cys columns) were evaluated by using three monosaccharide and seven disaccharides as probes. The influence of column temperature on the peak shape and tautomerization of carbohydrates, as well as column selectivity were investigated. The influence of surface charge property on the retention was also studied by using glucose, glucuronic acid, and glucosamine, which indicated that buffer salt concentration and pH value in mobile phase was necessary to control the ionic interactions between ionic carbohydrates and HILIC columns. According to evaluation results, the XAmide column was selected as an example to establish experimental schemes for separation of complex mixtures of oligosaccharide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of a New Spectrophotometric Method for the analysis of carbohydrates using glucose as model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Z.; Ali, A.; Shah, N.U.; Khan, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates are biomolecule of significant importance. Its analysis is of prime importance in the clinical investigations, delivery of medicines and quality control operations of food and fuel products. Based on its importance a novel spectrophotometric method was investigated for the trace analysis of carbohydrates using glucose as model carbohydrate. This method is based on glucosazation followed by oxidation of the glucosazone with acidified iron (III) chloride. Oxidation of the glucsazone is necessary for enhancing the color intensity and optimum conditions were investigated for the process. All the absorbance measurements were carried out using 390 nm as gamma max. The ratio of the reactants was 1: 1.5: 0.1 mole for the glucose, phenyl hydrazine and iron (III) chloride. This method was used for the analysis of carbohydrates in real samples from plants, industrial products, blood and urine using glucose as reference. (author)

  4. Radiolysis of carbohydrates and of carbohydrate-containing foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, J.F.; Adam, S.; Delincee, H.; Jakubick, V.

    1978-01-01

    Toxicological evaluation of irradiated foodstuffs requires knowledge of radiation-induced chemical changes. A review of the literature reveals much information on the radiation chemistry of pure substances, e.g., dilute solutions of individual carbohydrates. Much less is known about the interactions of food constituents during irradiation. In an effort to remedy this situation, radiation effects on various compounds have been studied in systems of increasing complexity. In one approach, gas chromatography was used to investigate the radiolysis of tehalose in pure solution and in the presence of amino acids or proteins. In another approach, radiation-induced aggregation of proteins and of [ 14 C]tryptophan with proteins was studied in the absence and presence of carbohydrates (trehalose, starch), emulsified sunfower oil, and a mixture of carbohydrates and emulsified sunflower oil

  5. Heterogeneous neutron absorbers development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccaccini, Aldo; Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego; Perez, Edmundo

    1987-01-01

    The use of solid burnable absorber materials in power light water reactors has increased in the last years, specially due to improvements attained in costs of generated electricity. The present work summarizes the basic studies made on an alumina-gadolinia system, where alumina is the inert matrix and gadolinia acts as burnable poison, and describes the fabrication method of pellets with that material. High density compacts were obtained in the range of concentrations used by cold pressing and sintering at 1600 deg C in inert (Ar) atmosphere. Finally, the results of the irradiation experiences made at RA-6 reactor, located at the Bariloche Atomic Center, are given where variations on negative reactivity caused by introduction of burnable poison rods were measured. The results obtained from these experiences are in good agreement with those coming from calculation codes. (Author)

  6. Drought response strategies define the relative contributions of hydraulic dysfunction and carbohydrate depletion during tree mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patrick J; O'Grady, Anthony P; Tissue, David T; White, Donald A; Ottenschlaeger, Maria L; Pinkard, Elizabeth A

    2013-02-01

    Plant survival during drought requires adequate hydration in living tissues and carbohydrate reserves for maintenance and recovery. We hypothesized that tree growth and hydraulic strategy determines the intensity and duration of the 'physiological drought', thereby affecting the relative contributions of loss of hydraulic function and carbohydrate depletion during mortality. We compared patterns in growth rate, water relations, gas exchange and carbohydrate dynamics in three tree species subjected to prolonged drought. Two Eucalyptus species (E. globulus, E. smithii) exhibited high growth rates and water-use resulting in rapid declines in water status and hydraulic conductance. In contrast, conservative growth and water relations in Pinus radiata resulted in longer periods of negative carbon balance and significant depletion of stored carbohydrates in all organs. The ongoing demand for carbohydrates from sustained respiration highlighted the role that duration of drought plays in facilitating carbohydrate consumption. Two drought strategies were revealed, differentiated by plant regulation of water status: plants maximized gas exchange, but were exposed to low water potentials and rapid hydraulic dysfunction; and tight regulation of gas exchange at the cost of carbohydrate depletion. These findings provide evidence for a relationship between hydraulic regulation of water status and carbohydrate depletion during terminal drought. © 2012 CSIRO. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Physiochemical Characteristics and Molecular Structures for Digestible Carbohydrates of Silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Basim; Prates, Luciana L; Khan, Nazir A; Lei, Yaogeng; Christensen, David A; McKinnon, John J; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-10-18

    The main objectives of this study were (1) to assess the magnitude of differences among new barley silage varieties (BS) selected for varying rates of in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (ivNDFD; Cowboy BS with higher ivNDFD, Copeland BS with intermediate ivNDFD, and Xena BS with lower ivNDFD) with regard to their carbohydrate (CHO) molecular makeup, CHO chemical fractions, and rumen degradability in dairy cows in comparison with a new corn silage hybrid (Pioneer 7213R) and (2) to quantify the strength and pattern of association between the molecular structures and digestibility of carbohydrates. The carbohydrate-related molecular structure spectral data was measured using advanced vibrational molecular spectroscopy (FT/IR). In comparison to BS, corn silage showed a significantly (P carbohydrates were significantly (P carbohydrate content of the silages. In conclusion, the univariate approach with only one-factor consideration (ivNDFD) might not be a satisfactory method for evaluating and ranking BS quality. FT/IR molecular spectroscopy can be used to evaluate silage quality rapidly, particularly the digestible fiber content.

  8. Carbohydrates Through Animation: Preliminary Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Sugai

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods of education are changing, so the educational tools must change too. The developmentof the systems of information and communication gave the opportunity to bring new technology tothe learning process. Modern education needs interactive programs that may be available to theacademic community, in order to ease the learning process and sharing of the knowledge. Then,an educational software on Carbohydrates is being developed using concept maps and FLASH-MXanimations program, and approached through six modules. The introduction of Carbohydrates wasmade by the module Carbohydrates on Nature, which shows the animations gures of a teacher andstudents, visiting a farm, identifying the carbohydrates found in vegetables, animals, and microor-ganisms, integrated by links containing short texts to help understanding the structure and functionof carbohydrates. This module was presented, as pilot experiment, to teachers and students, whichdemonstrated satisfaction, and high receptivity, by using animation and interactivitys program asstrategy to biochemistrys education. The present work is part of the project Biochemistry throughanimation, which is having continuity.

  9. Aminooxylated Carbohydrates: Synthesis and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, Carlo; Daskhan, Gour Chand; Fiore, Michele; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Roy, René; Renaudet, Olivier

    2017-08-09

    Among other classes of biomolecules, carbohydrates and glycoconjugates are widely involved in numerous biological functions. In addition to addressing the related synthetic challenges, glycochemists have invested intense efforts in providing access to structures that can be used to study, activate, or inhibit these biological processes. Over the past few decades, aminooxylated carbohydrates have been found to be key building blocks for achieving these goals. This review provides the first in-depth overview covering several aspects related to the syntheses and applications of aminooxylated carbohydrates. After a brief introduction to oxime bonds and their relative stabilities compared to related C═N functions, synthetic aspects of oxime ligation and methodologies for introducing the aminooxy functionality onto both glycofuranosyls and glycopyranosyls are described. The subsequent section focuses on biological applications involving aminooxylated carbohydrates as components for the construcion of diverse architectures. Mimetics of natural structures represent useful tools for better understanding the features that drive carbohydrate-receptor interaction, their biological output and they also represent interesting structures with improved stability and tunable properties. In the next section, multivalent structures such as glycoclusters and glycodendrimers obtained through oxime ligation are described in terms of synthetic design and their biological applications such as immunomodulators. The second-to-last section discusses miscellaneous applications of oxime-based glycoconjugates, such as enantioselective catalysis and glycosylated oligonucleotides, and conclusions and perspectives are provided in the last section.

  10. Simplification of Assessment Technology of Intestinal Absorbed Amino Acids Fluxes of Rumen Undegradable Protein Based on Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System%基于康奈尔净碳水化合物与蛋白质体系的瘤胃非降解蛋白质小肠可吸收氨基酸流量的简化评定技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志勇; 陶鲲; 李延涛; 刘晓莲; 林雪彦; 王中华

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to simplify the assessment technology of intestinal absorbed amino acids fluxes of rumen undegradable protein ( RUP) based on Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system ( CNCPS) . Intestinal absorbed amino acids were consisted of microbial protein and RUP. Crude protein ( CP) was divided into A, B1, B2, B3 and C in CNCPS based on solubility, only B fractions could pass rumen and be digested in intestine. To estimate the contribution of intestinal absorbed amino acids from RUP, CNCPS model needed the degradability of B fractions, and intestinal digestibility of B fractions used different constants. This study collected 18 kinds of feedstuffs including 12 kinds of concentrate and 6 kinds of roughage. The data for measur⁃ing RUP intestinal absorbed amino acids fluxes in CNCPS was determined, and it was also determined that ru⁃minal degradability of CP and intestinal digestibility of RUP at different time points. Based on the above data, simplification methods were concluded. The results showed as follows: 1 ) CP ruminal degradability at 8 h ( X, %) and effective degradability ( Y, %) got the highest correlation with linear correlation both in concen⁃trates and roughages. The equations for concentrates and roughages were Y=12.652+0.828X, r=0.990, P<0.000 1 and Y=10.967+0.886X, r=0.980, P=0.000 6, respectively. 2) CP intestinal digestibility of resi⁃dues retained in rumen for 2 h ( X, %) got the highest correlation with RUP intestinal effective digestibility (Y, %) for concentrates, and the equation was Y=0.026+0.879X, r=0.970, P<0.000 1; CP intestinal di⁃gestibility of residues retained in rumen for 8 h ( X,%) got the highest correlation with RUP intestinal effective digestibility ( Y,%) for roughages, and the equation was Y=-0.002+0.960X, r=0.995, P<0.000 1. 3) Af⁃ter reliability assessment, the highest correlations were found in intestinal absorbed amino acids predicated by simplified CNCPS models using ruminal degradability and

  11. Aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanlong Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The periodic-metamaterial-based perfect absorber has been studied broadly. Conversely, if the unit cell in the metamaterial-based absorber is arranged aperiodically (aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorber, how does it perform? Inspired by this, here we present a systematic study of the aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorber. By investigating the response of metamaterial absorbers based on periodic, Fibonacci, Thue-Morse, and quasicrystal lattices, we found that aperiodic-metamaterial-based absorbers could display similar absorption behaviors as the periodic one in one hand. However, their absorption behaviors show different tendency depending on the thicknesses of the spacer. Further studies on the angle and polarization dependence of the absorption behavior are also presented.

  12. Neutron absorbing element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Shigeo.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention concerns a neutron absorbing element of a neutron shielding member used for an LMFBR type reactor. The inside of a fuel can sealed at both of the upper and the lower ends thereof with plugs is partitioned into an upper and a lower chambers by an intermediate plug. A discharging hole is disposed at the upper end plug, which is in communication with the outside. A communication tube is disposed at the intermediate end plug and it is in communication with the lower chamber containing B 4 C pellets. A cylindrical support member having three porous plugs connected in series is disposed at the lower surface of the discharging hole provided at the upper end plug. Further, the end of the discharging hole is sealed with high temperature solder and He atmosphere is present at the inside of the fuel can. With such a constitution, the supporting differential pressure of the porous plugs can be made greater while discharging He gases generated from B 4 C to the outside. Further, the porous plugs can be surely wetted by coolants. Accordingly, it is possible to increase life time and shorten the size. (I.N.)

  13. Carbohydrate-Restriction with High-Intensity Interval Training: An Optimal Combination for Treating Metabolic Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique E. Francois

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle interventions incorporating both diet and exercise strategies remain cornerstone therapies for treating metabolic disease. Carbohydrate-restriction and high-intensity interval training (HIIT have independently been shown to improve cardiovascular and metabolic health. Carbohydrate-restriction reduces postprandial hyperglycemia, thereby limiting potential deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of excessive glucose excursions. Additionally, carbohydrate-restriction has been shown to improve body composition and blood lipids. The benefits of exercise for improving insulin sensitivity are well known. In this regard, HIIT has been shown to rapidly improve glucose control, endothelial function, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Here, we report the available evidence for each strategy and speculate that the combination of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT will synergistically maximize the benefits of both approaches. We hypothesize that this lifestyle strategy represents an optimal intervention to treat metabolic disease; however, further research is warranted in order to harness the potential benefits of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT for improving cardiometabolic health.

  14. Carbohydrate-Restriction with High-Intensity Interval Training: An Optimal Combination for Treating Metabolic Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E; Gillen, Jenna B; Little, Jonathan P

    2017-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions incorporating both diet and exercise strategies remain cornerstone therapies for treating metabolic disease. Carbohydrate-restriction and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have independently been shown to improve cardiovascular and metabolic health. Carbohydrate-restriction reduces postprandial hyperglycemia, thereby limiting potential deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of excessive glucose excursions. Additionally, carbohydrate-restriction has been shown to improve body composition and blood lipids. The benefits of exercise for improving insulin sensitivity are well known. In this regard, HIIT has been shown to rapidly improve glucose control, endothelial function, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Here, we report the available evidence for each strategy and speculate that the combination of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT will synergistically maximize the benefits of both approaches. We hypothesize that this lifestyle strategy represents an optimal intervention to treat metabolic disease; however, further research is warranted in order to harness the potential benefits of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT for improving cardiometabolic health.

  15. Shock absorber system for nuclear reactor ice condenser compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, J.F.; Rudd, G.E.; Pradhan, A.V.; George, J.A.; Lippincott, H.W.; Sutherland, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A shock absorber system was designed to absorb the energy imparted to doors in a nuclear reactor ice condenser compartment as they swing rapidly to an open position. Each shock absorber which is installed on a wall adjacent to each door is large and must absorb up to about 40,000 foot pounds of energy. The basic shock absorber component comprises foam enclosed in a synthetic fabric bag having a volume about twice the foam volume. A stainless steel knitted mesh bag of the same volume as the fabric bag, contains the fabric bag and its enclosed foam. To protect the foam and bags during construction activities at the reactor site and from the shearing action of the doors, a protective sheet metal cover is installed over the shock absorber ends and the surface to be contacted by the moving door. With the above shock absorber mounted on a wall behind each door, as the door is forcibly opened by steam pressure and air resulting from a pipe break in the reactor compartment, it swings at a high velocity into contact with the shock absorber, crushes the foam and forces it into the fabric bag excess material thus containing the foam fragmented particles, and minimizes build-up of pressure in the bag as a result of the applied compressive force

  16. Extending our knowledge of fermentable, short-chain carbohydrates for managing gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jacqueline S

    2013-06-01

    The Monash University low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) diet is now accepted as an effective strategy for managing symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in Australia, with interest expanding across the world. These poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates have been shown to induce IBS symptoms of diarrhea, bloating, abdominal pain, and flatus due to their poor absorption, osmotic activity, and rapid fermentation. Four clinical trials have been published to date, all with significant symptomatic response to the low FODMAP diet. Up to 86% of patients with IBS have achieved relief of overall gastrointestinal symptoms and, more specifically, bloating, flatus, abdominal pain, and altered bowel habit from the approach. This review provides an overview of the low FODMAP diet and summarizes the research to date, emerging concepts, and limitations. FODMAPs are known to be beneficial to bowel health; the importance of this and how this should be considered in the clinical management of IBS is also discussed. A clinical management flowchart is provided to assist nutrition professionals in the use of this approach.

  17. Carbohydrates of human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    Elucidation of the mechanism by which viral infection induces the appearance of carbohydrate neoantigens is highly important. Results from such studies could be expected to be significant for a general understanding of the regulation of glycosylation, and perhaps especially important for the unde...

  18. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carbs are: simple carbohydrates (or simple sugars): including fructose, glucose, and lactose, which also are found in nutritious ... sugar, check the ingredients list for sugar, corn syrup, or other sweeteners, such as dextrose, fructose, honey, or molasses, to name just a few. ...

  19. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline Potassium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    CLASSROOM. 285. RESONANCE | March 2016. Qualitative Carbohydrate Analysis using Alkaline. Potassium Ferricyanide. Keywords. Alkaline potassium ferricyanide, qualitative ... Carbohydrates form a distinct class of organic compounds often .... Laboratory Techniques: A contemporary Approach, W B Saunders Com-.

  20. Burnable absorber coated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, W.; Radford, K.C.; Parks, B.H.

    1984-01-01

    A nuclear fuel body which is at least partially covered by a burnable neutron absorber layer is provided with a hydrophobic overcoat generally covering the burnable absorber layer and bonded directly to it. In a method for providing a UO 2 fuel pellet with a zirconium diboride burnable poison layer, the fuel body is provided with an intermediate niobium layer. (author)

  1. Leaf absorbance and photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a leaf is often thought to contain some clues to the photosynthetic action spectrum of chlorophyll. Of course, absorption of photons is needed for photosynthesis, but the reverse, photosynthesis when there is absorption, is not necessarily true. As a check on the existence of absorption limits we measured spectra for a few different leaves. Two techniques for measuring absorption have been used, viz. the separate determination of the diffuse reflectance and the diffuse transmittance with the leaf at a port of an integrating sphere and the direct determination of the non-absorbed fraction with the leaf in the sphere. In a cross-check both methods yielded the same results for the absorption spectrum. The spectrum of a Fuchsia leaf, covering the short-wave region from 350 to 2500 nm, shows a high absorption in UV, blue and red, the well known dip in the green and a steep fall-off at 700 nm. Absorption drops to virtually zero in the near infrared, with subsequent absorptions, corresponding to the water absorption bands. In more detailed spectra, taken at 5 nm intervals with a 5 nm bandwidth, differences in chlorophyll content show in the different depths of the dip around 550 nm and in a small shift of the absorption edge at 700 nm. Spectra for Geranium (Pelargonium zonale) and Hibiscus (with a higher chlorophyll content) show that the upper limit for photosynthesis can not be much above 700 nm. No evidence, however, is to be seen of a lower limit for photosynthesis and, in fact, some experiments down to 300 nm still did not show a decrease of the absorption although it is well recognized that no photosynthesis results with 300 nm wavelengths.

  2. Effects of caffeine and carbohydrate mouth rinses on repeated sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaven, C Martyn; Maulder, Peter; Pooley, Adrian; Kilduff, Liam; Cook, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Our purpose was to examine the effectiveness of carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinses in enhancing repeated sprint ability. Previously, studies have shown that a carbohydrate mouth rinse (without ingestion) has beneficial effects on endurance performance that are related to changes in brain activity. Caffeine ingestion has also demonstrated positive effects on sprint performance. However, the effects of carbohydrate or caffeine mouth rinses on intermittent sprints have not been examined previously. Twelve males performed 5 × 6-s sprints interspersed with 24 s of active recovery on a cycle ergometer. Twenty-five milliliters of either a noncaloric placebo, a 6% glucose, or a 1.2% caffeine solution was rinsed in the mouth for 5 s prior to each sprint in a double-blinded and balanced cross-over design. Postexercise maximal heart rate and perceived exertion were recorded, along with power measures. A second experiment compared a combined caffeine-carbohydrate rinse with carbohydrate only. Compared with the placebo mouth rinse, carbohydrate substantially increased peak power in sprint 1 (22.1 ± 19.5 W; Cohen's effect size (ES), 0.81), and both caffeine (26.9 ± 26.9 W; ES, 0.71) and carbohydrate (39.1 ± 25.8 W; ES, 1.08) improved mean power in sprint 1. Experiment 2 demonstrated that a combination of caffeine and carbohydrate improved sprint 1 power production compared with carbohydrate alone (36.0 ± 37.3 W; ES, 0.81). We conclude that carbohydrate and (or) caffeine mouth rinses may rapidly enhance power production, which could have benefits for specific short sprint exercise performance. The ability of a mouth-rinse intervention to rapidly improve maximal exercise performance in the absence of fatigue suggests a central mechanism.

  3. A randomised controlled trial of absorbable versus non-absorbable sutures for skin closure after open carpal tunnel release.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Theopold, C

    2012-05-01

    We compared the aesthetic outcome of scars after closure of open carpal tunnel incisions with either absorbable 4-0 Vicryl Rapide or non-absorbable 4-0 Novafil. Patients were recruited in a randomized controlled trial and scars were scored at 6 weeks using a modified Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale. Scores demonstrated differences only for pain, vascularity and cross-hatching between both groups, though none of these were statistically significant. The dissolving and falling out of Vicryl Rapide was significantly more comfortable than removal of 4-0 Novafil sutures, assessed on a numerical analogue scale. There was no difference in infection rate between both study groups, supporting overall the use of Vicryl Rapide for the closure of palmar hand incisions, in light of the convenience and cost savings associated with absorbable sutures.

  4. Visible light broadband perfect absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, X. L.; Meng, Q. X.; Yuan, C. X.; Zhou, Z. X.; Wang, X. O., E-mail: wxo@hit.edu.cn [School of Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-03-15

    The visible light broadband perfect absorbers based on the silver (Ag) nano elliptical disks and holes array are studied using finite difference time domain simulations. The semiconducting indium silicon dioxide thin film is introduced as the space layer in this sandwiched structure. Utilizing the asymmetrical geometry of the structures, polarization sensitivity for transverse electric wave (TE)/transverse magnetic wave (TM) and left circular polarization wave (LCP)/right circular polarization wave (RCP) of the broadband absorption are gained. The absorbers with Ag nano disks and holes array show several peaks absorbance of 100% by numerical simulation. These simple and flexible perfect absorbers are particularly desirable for various potential applications including the solar energy absorber.

  5. Carbohydrate Microarray on Glass: a Tool for Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetala, K.K.R.; Giesbers, M.; Visser, G.M.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Beek, van T.A.

    2007-01-01

    A simple method to immobilize carbohydrates on a glass surface to obtain a carbohydrate microarray is described. The array was used to study carbohydrate-lectin interactions. The glass surface was modified with aldehyde terminated linker groups of various chain lengths. Coupling of carbohydrates

  6. Absorbing rods for nuclear fast neutron reactor absorbing assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aji, M.; Ballagny, A.; Haze, R.

    1986-01-01

    The invention proposes a neutron absorber rod for neutron absorber assembly of a fast neutron reactor. The assembly comprises a bundle of vertical rods, each one comprising a stack of pellets made of a neutron absorber material contained in a long metallic casing with a certain radial play with regard to this casing; this casing includes traps for splinters from the pellets which may appear during reactor operation, at the level of contact between adjacent pellets. The present invention prevents the casing from rupture involved by the disintegration of the pellets producing pieces of boron carbide of high hardness [fr

  7. Post-Gastric Bypass Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia: Fructose is a Carbohydrate Which Can Be Safely Consumed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantle, Anne E; Wang, Qi; Bantle, John P

    2015-08-01

    Postprandial hypoglycemia after gastric bypass surgery is a serious problem. Available treatments are often ineffective. The objective was to test the hypotheses that injection of rapid-acting insulin before a high-carbohydrate meal or replacement of other carbohydrates with fructose in the meal would prevent hypoglycemia. This was a randomized, crossover trial comparing a high-carbohydrate meal with premeal saline injection (control), a high-carbohydrate meal with premeal insulin injection, and a high-fructose meal with total carbohydrate content similar to the control meal. The setting was an academic medical center. Ten patients with post-gastric bypass hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia participated. Interventions included lispro insulin injected before test meals and replacement of other carbohydrates with fructose in test meals. The main outcome measure was plasma glucose meals. After the control meal, mean peak glucose and insulin were 173 ± 47 mg/dL and 134 ± 55 mU/L, respectively; mean glucose nadir was 44 ± 15 mg/dL; and eight of 10 subjects demonstrated glucose meal, mean peak postprandial glucose and insulin were 117 ± 20 mg/dL and 45 ± 31 mU/L, respectively (both P meal sweetened with fructose with little risk of hypoglycemia. Treatment with rapid-acting insulin before a carbohydrate-containing meal did not prevent hypoglycemia.

  8. The Effects of Breakfast Consumption and Composition on Metabolic Wellness with a Focus on Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; Smith, Kristen N

    2016-05-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies indicate that there are associations between breakfast consumption and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome, prompting interest in the influence of breakfast on carbohydrate metabolism and indicators of T2DM risk. The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence from randomized controlled trials assessing the impact of breakfast on variables related to carbohydrate metabolism and metabolic wellness. Consuming compared with skipping breakfast appeared to improve glucose and insulin responses throughout the day. Breakfast composition may also be important. Dietary patterns high in rapidly available carbohydrate were associated with elevated T2DM risk. Therefore, partial replacement of rapidly available carbohydrate with other dietary components, such as whole grains and cereal fibers, proteins, and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), at breakfast may be a useful strategy for producing favorable metabolic outcomes. Consumption of fermentable and viscous dietary fibers at breakfast lowers glycemia and insulinemia. Fermentable fibers likely act through enhancing insulin sensitivity later in the day, and viscous fibers have an acute effect to slow the rate of carbohydrate absorption. Partially substituting protein for rapidly available carbohydrate enhances satiety and diet-induced thermogenesis, and also favorably affects lipoprotein lipids and blood pressure. Partially substituting UFA for carbohydrate has been associated with improved insulin sensitivity, lipoprotein lipids, and blood pressure. Overall, the available evidence suggests that consuming breakfast foods high in whole grains and cereal fiber, while limiting rapidly available carbohydrate, is a promising strategy for metabolic health promotion. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Physiological aspects of energy metabolism and gastrointestinal effects of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, M; Cummings, J H

    2007-12-01

    The energy values of carbohydrates continue to be debated. This is because of the use of different energy systems, for example, combustible, digestible, metabolizable, and so on. Furthermore, ingested macronutrients may not be fully available to tissues, and the tissues themselves may not be able fully to oxidize substrates made available to them. Therefore, for certain carbohydrates, the discrepancies between combustible energy (cEI), digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) and net metabolizable energy (NME) may be considerable. Three food energy systems are in use in food tables and for food labelling in different world regions based on selective interpretation of the digestive physiology and metabolism of food carbohydrates. This is clearly unsatisfactory and confusing to the consumer. While it has been suggested that an enormous amount of work would have to be undertaken to change the current ME system into an NME system, the additional changes may not be as great as anticipated. In experimental work, carbohydrate is high in the macronutrient hierarchy of satiation. However, studies of eating behaviour indicate that it does not unconditionally depend on the oxidation of one nutrient, and argue against the operation of a simple carbohydrate oxidation or storage model of feeding behaviour to the exclusion of other macronutrients. The site, rate and extent of carbohydrate digestion in, and absorption from the gut are key to understanding the many roles of carbohydrate, although the concept of digestibility has different meanings. Within the nutrition community, the characteristic patterns of digestion that occur in the small (upper) vs large (lower) bowel are known to impact in contrasting ways on metabolism, while in the discussion of the energy value of foods, digestibility is defined as the proportion of combustible energy that is absorbed over the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract. Carbohydrates that reach the large bowel are fermented to

  10. Photoelectron antibunching and absorber theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegg, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    The recently detected photoelectron antibunching effect is considered to be evidence for the quantised electromagnetic field, i.e. for the existence of photons. Direct-action quantum absorber theory, on the other hand, has been developed on the basis that the quantised field is illusory, with quantisation being required only for atoms. In this paper it is shown that photoelectron antibunching is readily explicable in terms of absorber theory and in fact is directly attributable to the quantum nature of the emitting and detecting atoms alone. The physical nature of the reduction of the wavepacket associated with the detection process is briefly discussed in terms of absorber theory. (author)

  11. Liquid metal reactor absorber technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1990-10-01

    The selection of boron carbide as the reference liquid metal reactor absorber material is supported by results presented for irradiation performance, reactivity worth compatibility, and benign failure consequences. Scram response requirements are met easily with current control rod configurations. The trend in absorber design development is toward larger sized pins with fewer pins per bundle, providing economic savings and improved hydraulic characteristics. Very long-life absorber designs appear to be attainable with the application of vented pin and sodium-bonded concepts. 3 refs., 3 figs

  12. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important...... industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high...... for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  13. Dietary carbohydrates and triacylglycerol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, H M

    1999-02-01

    There is a growing body of scientific evidence which demonstrates that plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration, especially in the postprandial state, is an important risk factor in relation to the development of CHD. Postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia is associated with a number of adverse metabolic risk factors, including the preponderance of small dense LDL, low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and elevated factor VII activity. Traditionally, a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet was used to prevent CHD because it effectively reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations, but this dietary regimen increases plasma TAG concentrations and reduces HDL-cholesterol concentrations. There is substantial epidemiological evidence which demonstrates that high plasma TAG and low plasma HDL concentrations are associated with an increased risk of CHD. Thus, there is reason for concern that the adverse effects of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets on TAG and HDL may counteract or negate the beneficial effect of reducing LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Although there have been no prospective studies to investigate whether reduced fat intake has an adverse effect on CHD, there is strong epidemiological evidence that reducing total fat intake is not protective against CHD. On the other hand, high-fat diets predispose to obesity, and central obesity adversely affects TAG metabolism. There is substantial evidence that in free-living situations low-fat high-carbohydrate diets lead to weight loss, which in turn will correct insulin resistance and plasma TAG metabolism. Clearly there is a need for prospective studies to resolve the issue as to whether low-fat high-carbohydrate diets play an adverse or beneficial role in relation to the development of CHD.

  14. A multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing absorbable barbed sutures versus conventional absorbable sutures for dermal closure in open surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, J Peter; Hunstad, Joseph P; Polynice, Alain; Gusenoff, Jeffrey A; Schoeller, Thomas; Dunn, Raymond; Walgenbach, Klaus J; Hansen, Juliana E

    2014-02-01

    Barbed sutures were developed to reduce operative time and improve security of wound closure. The authors compare absorbable barbed sutures (V-Loc, Covidien, Mansfield, Massachusetts) with conventional (smooth) absorbable sutures for soft tissue approximation. A prospective multicenter randomized study comparing barbed sutures with smooth sutures was undertaken between August 13, 2009, and January 31, 2010, in 241 patients undergoing abdominoplasty, mastopexy, and reduction mammaplasty. Each patient received barbed sutures on 1 side of the body, with deep dermal sutures eliminated or reduced. Smooth sutures with deep dermal and subcuticular closure were used on the other side as a control. The primary endpoint was dermal closure time. Safety was assessed through adverse event reporting through a 12-week follow-up. A total of 229 patients were ultimately treated (115 with slow-absorbing polymer and 114 with rapid-absorbing polymer). Mean dermal closure time was significantly quicker with the barbed suture compared with the smooth suture (12.0 vs 19.2 minutes; P<.001), primarily due to the need for fewer deep dermal sutures. The rapid-absorbing barbed suture showed a complication profile equivalent to the smooth suture, while the slow-absorbing barbed suture had a higher incidence of minor suture extrusion. Barbed sutures enabled faster dermal closure quicker than smooth sutures, with a comparable complication profile. 1.

  15. A systematic study of chemogenomics of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiangyong; Luo, Fang; Chen, Lirong; Yuan, Gu; Xu, Xiaojie

    2014-03-04

    Chemogenomics focuses on the interactions between biologically active molecules and protein targets for drug discovery. Carbohydrates are the most abundant compounds in natural products. Compared with other drugs, the carbohydrate drugs show weaker side effects. Searching for multi-target carbohydrate drugs can be regarded as a solution to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. In this work, we collected 60 344 carbohydrates from the Universal Natural Products Database (UNPD) and explored the chemical space of carbohydrates by principal component analysis. We found that there is a large quantity of potential lead compounds among carbohydrates. Then we explored the potential of carbohydrates in drug discovery by using a network-based multi-target computational approach. All carbohydrates were docked to 2389 target proteins. The most potential carbohydrates for drug discovery and their indications were predicted based on a docking score-weighted prediction model. We also explored the interactions between carbohydrates and target proteins to find the pathological networks, potential drug candidates and new indications.

  16. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adronie Verbrugghe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  17. Absorber materials in CANDU PHWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, E.G.; Boss, C.R.; Novak, W.Z.; Fong, R.W.L.

    1995-03-01

    In a CANDU reactor the fuel channels are arranged on a square lattice in a calandria filled with heavy water moderator. This arrangement allows five types of tubular neutron absorber devices to be located in a relatively benign environment of low pressure, low temperature heavy water between neighbouring rows of columns of fuel channels. This paper will describe the roles of the devices and outline the design requirements of the absorber component from a reactor physics viewpoint. Nuclear heating and activation problems associated with the different absorbers will be briefly discussed. The design and manufacture of the devices will be also discussed. The control rod absorbers and shut off materials are cadmium and stainless steel. In the tubular arrangement, the cadmium is sandwiched between stainless steel tubes. This type of device has functioned well, but there is now concern over the availability and expense of cadmium which is used in two types of CANDU control devices. There are also concerns about the toxicity of cadmium during the fabrication of the absorbers. These concerns are prompting AECL to study alternatives. To minimize design changes, pure boron-10 alloyed in stainless steel is a favoured option. Work is underway to confirm the suitability of the boron-loaded steel and identify other encapsulated absorber materials for practical application. Because the reactivity devices or their guide tubes span the calandria vessel, the long slender components must be sufficiently rigid to resist operational vibration and also be seismically stable. Some of these components are made of Zircaloy to minimize neutron absorption. Slow irradiation growth and creep can reduce the spring tension, and periodic adjustments to the springs are required. Experience with the control absorber devices has generally been good. In one instance liquid zone controllers had a problem of vibration induced fretting but a designed back-fit resolved the problem. (author). 3 refs., 1

  18. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as kidney beans, black beans, pinto beans, black-eyed peas, split peas, and garbanzo beans Starchy vegetables, such as potatoes, corn, green peas, and parsnips Whole grains, such as brown rice, oats, barley, and quinoa Refined grains, such as ...

  19. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the great nutrients. That's why your best bet is whole grain. Enriched products means some of ... Molasses Syrup and malt syrup If you are thinking about using a sugar substitute, you may wonder ...

  20. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  1. Effect of varying carbohydrate levels on the uptake and translocation of 32P in Eragrostis curvula (Schrad.) Nees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naidoo, G.; Steinke, T.D.

    1979-01-01

    The uptake and subsequent translocation of 32 P among root, crown and leaf tissues of Eragrostis curvula were investigated in plants with varying carbohydrate levels. Plants were depleted of carbohydrates by being subjected to 3 days of continuous darkness and by defoliation. Plant roots were introduced to nutrient solutions containing 32 P, at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 21 days after the depletion treatments. Initially, plants depleted of carbohydrates absorbed and translocated less 32 P than the controls. Subsequently, uptake and translocation increased probably to restore the pools of phosphate to levels prior to the depletion treatments. Increased 32 P uptake and translocation were related to an adequate supply of reserve carbohydrates [af

  2. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P. H.; Pereira Arias, A. M.; Ackermans, M. T.; Endert, E.; Pijl, H.; Kuipers, F.; Meijer, A. J.; Sauerwein, H. P.; Romijn, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  3. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Arias, AMP; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Pijl, H; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  4. The relationship between carbohydrate content and gamma irradiation during rooting of chrysanthemum cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Seol Ah; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2003-01-01

    The effect of gamma radiation on carbohydrate metabolism was studied in chrysanthemum cuttings. Total water-soluble carbohydrate, glucose, fructose, sucrose, and starch contents were measured in leaves and stems. Differences in the accumulation of carbohydrate associated with inhibition or stimulation in response to gamma irradiation. Sucrose levels increased significantly in leaves and stems until the 15th day, reaching maximum values on that day. Glucose contents declined rapidly until the 10th day and increased later, reaching maximum values on the 15th day. Fructose levels gradually increased, reaching maximum values at the 10th day, and then decreased again. Differences in the components of soluble carbohydrates were evident between rooting durations and doses. Soluble sugars were in the highest contents in the 20 Gy irradiated group. However, irradiation dose higher than 20 Gy resulted in an inhibitory effect

  5. Adaptive inertial shock-absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraj, Rami; Holnicki-Szulc, Jan; Knap, Lech; Seńko, Jarosław

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces and discusses a new concept of impact absorption by means of impact energy management and storage in dedicated rotating inertial discs. The effectiveness of the concept is demonstrated in a selected case-study involving spinning management, a recently developed novel impact-absorber. A specific control technique performed on this device is demonstrated to be the main source of significant improvement in the overall efficiency of impact damping process. The influence of various parameters on the performance of the shock-absorber is investigated. Design and manufacturing challenges and directions of further research are formulated. (paper)

  6. Intestinal capacity to digest and absorb carbohydrates is maintained in a rat model of cholestasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, E. Leonie; Wolters, Henk; Stellaard, Frans; Kuipers, Folkert; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Rings, Edmond H. H. M.

    Cholestasis is associated with systemic accumulation of bile salts and with deficiency of bile in the intestinal lumen. During the past years bile salts have been identified as signaling molecules that regulate lipid, glucose, and energy metabolism. Bile salts have also been shown to activate

  7. Research on temperature characteristics of laser energy meter absorber irradiated by ms magnitude long pulse laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Qiao, Chunhong; Fan, Chengyu; Zhang, Jinghui; Yang, Gaochao

    2017-10-01

    The research on temperature characteristics for large-energy laser energy meter absorber is about continuous wave (CW) laser before. For the measuring requirements of millisecond magnitude long pulse laser energy, the temperature characteristics for absorber are numerically calculated and analyzed. In calculation, the temperature field distributions are described by heat conduction equations, and the metal cylinder cavity is used for absorber model. The results show that, the temperature of absorber inwall appears periodic oscillation with pulse structure, the oscillation period and amplitude respectively relate to the pulse repetition frequency and single pulse energy. With the wall deep increasing, the oscillation amplitude decreases rapidly. The temperature of absorber outerwall is without periodism, and rises gradually with time. The factors to affect the temperature rise of absorber are single pulse energy, pulse width and repetition frequency. When the laser irradiation stops, the temperature between absorber inwall and outerwall will reach agreement rapidly. After special technology processing to enhance the capacity of resisting laser damage for absorber inwall, the ms magnitude long pulse laser energy can be obtained with the method of measuring the temperature of absorber outerwall. Meanwhile, by optimization design of absorber structure, when the repetition frequency of ms magnitude pulse laser is less than 10Hz, the energy of every pulse for low repetition frequency pulse sequence can be measured. The work offers valuable references for the design of ms magnitude large-energy pulse laser energy meter.

  8. Carbohydrate production, balance and translocation in leaves, shoots and fruits of Montmorency sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappes, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Carbohydrate production, export and use were studied for different organs of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Montmorency). Gross carbohydrate ( 14 CO 2 ) export started between 27.2 and 77.6% of full leaf expansion. The 10th leaf developing started export later than the 7th leaf, suggesting that higher carbohydrate availability during leaf expansion delays export initiation. In support of this, gross export started earlier (44.4-52.4% full expansion) after source leaf removal, than in the control (77.6%). Translocation was primarily vertical (following orthostichies). Most leaves of fruiting shoots exported bidirectionally to the apex and fruits, only leaves closest to fruits exported exclusively to fruits during rapid cell division (Stage I) and rapid cell expansion (Stage III). Net export, determined from carbohydrate balance models started at 17 and 51% expansion for the 7th and terminal leaf, and at 26.5% of shoot elongation. Cumulative carbohydrate production of the 7th and terminal leaves during the first 9 and 11 days after emergence, exceeded carbohydrate accumulated at final size, 464.2 and 148.9 mg. A fruit carbohydrate balance was developed to determine contributions by fruit photosynthesis and fruit respiration, and to identify periods of greatest carbohydrate import. Fruit photosynthesis during development was characterized under different environmental conditions. Gross photosynthesis and chlorophyll content per fruit increased to a maximum during stage II and decreased thereafter. Gross photosynthesis approached a maximum at 40 0 C. Since dark respiration increased exponentially over the same temperature range, net photosynthesis reached a maximum at 18 0 C. Photorespiration was not detected

  9. Carbohydrate structure: the rocky road to automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirre, Jon; Davies, Gideon J; Wilson, Keith S; Cowtan, Kevin D

    2017-06-01

    With the introduction of intuitive graphical software, structural biologists who are not experts in crystallography are now able to build complete protein or nucleic acid models rapidly. In contrast, carbohydrates are in a wholly different situation: scant automation exists, with manual building attempts being sometimes toppled by incorrect dictionaries or refinement problems. Sugars are the most stereochemically complex family of biomolecules and, as pyranose rings, have clear conformational preferences. Despite this, all refinement programs may produce high-energy conformations at medium to low resolution, without any support from the electron density. This problem renders the affected structures unusable in glyco-chemical terms. Bringing structural glycobiology up to 'protein standards' will require a total overhaul of the methodology. Time is of the essence, as the community is steadily increasing the production rate of glycoproteins, and electron cryo-microscopy has just started to image them in precisely that resolution range where crystallographic methods falter most. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The absorption ability for carbohydrate between vigorous and weak spikelets in hybrid rice and its restorers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xi; Tao Longxing; Tian Shulan; Huang Xiaolin; Yu Meiyu

    2000-01-01

    Some hybrid rice combinations and their restorers, II you2070 (indica/Indica) and its restorer2070, Shuangyou23 (Japonica/Japonica) with its restorer 91-23, sub-species hybrid rice Xieyou 413 (Indica/Japonica) with its restorer Zhong 413, were selected as rice material and planted in pot and field to study the differences of absorption ability for labelled carbohydrate between vigorous and weak spikelets, and to demonstrate the phenomenon of 'inter-grain apical dominance' in rice. It was shown that the absorbing rate of hybrid rice and it restorer for store material and for photo-material was 50% and 80% respectively, and the absorbing rate of hybrid rice was a litter higher than that of its restorer. However, there was a big difference between vigorous spikelets and weak spikelets in the absorbing ability for carbohydrate. The absorbing amount of vigorous spikelets was 10 times higher than that of the weak spikelets, especially in hybrid rice combinations. It was also observed that the 'inter-grain apical dominance' in hybrid rice was stronger than its restorer, which might be one of the main reasons for low seed setting in hybrid rice combination

  11. Wood adhesives containing proteins and carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years there has been resurgent interest in using biopolymers as sustainable and environmentally friendly ingredients in wood adhesive formulations. Among them, proteins and carbohydrates are the most commonly used. In this chapter, an overview is given of protein-based and carbohydrate-...

  12. Conversion of carbohydrates to levulinic acid esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of converting carbohydrates into levulinic acid, a platform chemical for many chemical end products. More specifically the invention relates to a method for converting carbohydrates such as mono-, di- or polysaccharides, obtained from for example biomass...

  13. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Joong-Won, E-mail: jshin@govst.edu [Division of Science, Governors State University, University Park, Illinois 60484-0975 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States); Bernstein, Elliot R., E-mail: erb@lamar.colostate.edu [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  14. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5 ′ -monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results

  15. Carbohydrate epitopes on Haemonchus contortus antigens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D.; van Leeuwen, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of infective larvae and adults of the trichostrongylid Haemonchus contortus were studied for the presence of carbohydrate moieties. Several different lectin-binding sites were demonstrated in both stages using a panel of nine lectins. The carbohydrate specificity of the lectins used

  16. Determining a carbohydrate profile for Hansenula polymorpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The determination of the levels of carbohydrates in the yeast Hansenula polymorpha required the development of new analytical procedures. Existing fractionation and analytical methods were adapted to deal with the problems involved with the lysis of whole cells. Using these new procedures, the complete carbohydrate profiles of H. polymorpha and selected mutant strains were determined and shown to correlate favourably with previously published results.

  17. Total dissolved carbohydrate in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    Total dissolved carbohydrate varied from 4.37-15 mg l-1 and 3.71-15.95 mg l-1 in the surface and bottom samples respectively. Highest concentration of carbohydrate was observed at station 1 which decreased downward upto Station 6 which showed...

  18. Characterization of carbohydrate fractions and fermentation quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of adding fast-sile (FS), previous fermented juice (PFJ), sucrose (S) or fast-sile + sucrose (FS + S) on the fermentation characteristics and carbohydrates fractions of alfalfa silages by the Cornell net carbohydrates and proteins systems (CNCPS). Silages quality were well ...

  19. Carbohydrate clearance receptors in transfusion medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll; Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates play important functions for circulation of proteins and cells. They provide protective shields and refraction from non-specific interactions with negative charges from sialic acids to enhance circulatory half-life. For recombinant protein therapeutics carbohydrates are espe...

  20. Effect of phenolic compounds on the rapid direct enzymatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-15

    May 15, 2009 ... A range of bioprobes and biosensors have recently been developed for the rapid, direct and in situ .... maximum absorbance of 4 mOD (milli optical density). ..... FIKSDAL L and TRYLAND I (2008) Application of rapid enzyme.

  1. Does prior acute exercise affect postexercise substrate oxidation in response to a high carbohydrate meal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickey Matthew S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of a mixed meal increases postprandial carbohydrate utilization and decreases fat oxidation. On the other hand, acute endurance exercise increases fat oxidation and decreases carbohydrate utilization during the post-exercise recovery period. It is possible that the resulting post-exercise increase in circulating nonesterified fatty acids could attenuate the ability of ingested carbohydrate to inhibit lipid oxidation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior exercise attenuates the usual meal-induced decline in lipid oxidation. Methods Six healthy, physically active young subjects (x age = 26.3 years, 4 males, 2 females completed three treatments in random order after a ~10 h fast: (a Exercise/Carbohydrate (Ex/CHO – subjects completed a bout of exercise at 70% VO2peak (targeted net energy cost of 400 kcals, followed by consumption of a carbohydrate-rich meal; (b Exercise/Placebo (Ex/Placebo – subjects completed an identical bout of exercise followed by consumption of a placebo; and (c No Exercise/Carbohydrate (NoEx/CHO – subjects sat quietly rather than exercising and then consumed the carbohydrate-rich meal. Blood samples were obtained before and during the postprandial period to determine plasma glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA. Respiratory gas exchange measures were used to estimate rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Results Plasma NEFA were approximately two-fold higher immediately following the two exercise conditions compared to the no-exercise condition, while meal consumption significantly increased insulin and glucose in both Ex/CHO and NoEx/CHO. NEFA concentrations fell rapidly during the 2-h postprandial period, but remained higher compared to the NoEx/CHO treatment. Carbohydrate oxidation increased rapidly and fat oxidation decreased in response to the meal, with no differences in the rates of carbohydrate and fat oxidation during recovery between the Ex

  2. Radiation sterilization of absorbent cotton and of absorbent gauze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosobuchi, Kazunari; Oka, Mitsuru; Kaneko, Akira; Ishiwata, Hiroshi.

    1986-01-01

    The bioburden of absorbent cotton and of absorbent gauze and their physical and chemical characteristics after irradiation are investigated. The survey conducted on contaminants of 1890 cotton samples from 53 lots and 805 gauze samples from 56 lots showed maximum numbers of microbes per g of the cotton and gauze were 859 (an average of 21.4) and 777 (an average of 42.2), respectively. Isolation and microbiological and biochemical tests of representative microbes indicated that all of them, except one, were bacilli. The sterilization dose at 10 -6 of sterlity assurance level was found to be 2.0 Mrad when irradiated the spores loaded on paper strips and examined populations having graded D values from 0.10 to 0.28 Mrad. The sterilization dose would be about 1.5 Mrad if subjected the average numbers of contaminants observed in this study to irradiation. No significant differences were found between the irradiated samples and control up to 2 Mrad in tensile strength, change of color, absorbency, sedimentation rate, soluble substances, and pH of solutions used for immersion and other tests conventionally used. These results indicate that these products can be sterilized by irradiation. (author)

  3. Carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration from branch girdling in four species of wet tropical rain forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Shinichi; Ryan, Michael G

    2015-06-01

    in leaves. In three species, removal of three-quarters of phloem area did not cause leaf carbohydrates to accumulate nor did it change photosynthesis or respiration, suggesting that phloem transport is flexible and transport rate per unit phloem can rapidly increase under an increase in carbohydrate supply relative to phloem area. Leaf carbohydrate content thus may be decoupled from whole plant carbon balance by phloem transport in some species, and carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration may not be as common in trees as previous girdling studies suggest. Further studies in carbohydrate regulation should avoid using girdling as girdling can decrease photosynthesis through unintended means without the tested mechanisms of accumulating leaf carbohydrates. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. A functional carbohydrate chip platform for analysis of carbohydrate-protein interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Chang Sup; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2010-01-01

    A carbohydrate chip based on glass or other transparent surfaces has been suggested as a potential tool for high-throughput analysis of carbohydrate-protein interactions. Here we proposed a facile, efficient, and cost-effective method whereby diverse carbohydrate types are modified in a single step and directly immobilized onto a glass surface, with retention of functional orientation. We modified various types of carbohydrates by reductive amination, in which reducing sugar groups were coupled with 4-(2-aminoethyl)aniline, which has di-amine groups at both ends. The modified carbohydrates were covalently attached to an amino-reactive NHS-activated glass surface by formation of stable amide bonds. This proposed method was applied for efficient construction of a carbohydrate microarray to analyze carbohydrate-protein interactions. The carbohydrate chip prepared using our method can be successfully used in diverse biomimetic studies of carbohydrates, including carbohydrate-biomolecule interactions, and carbohydrate sensor chip or microarray development for diagnosis and screening.

  5. Technological aspects of functional food-related carbohydrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voragen, A.G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Carbohydrates in food occur as natural constituents or are added as ingredients or additives. The most important endogenous carbohydrates in food are starch, depolymerized starch, sucrose, lactose, glucose, fructose and sorbitol (digestible) and carbohydrates such as raffinose, stachyose, resistant

  6. Estimating the carbohydrate content of various forms of tobacco by phenol-sulfuric acid method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vardhaman Mulchand; Karibasappa, Gundabaktha Nagappa; Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Mali, Gaurao Vasant

    2017-01-01

    Due to consumption of various forms of tobacco in large amounts by Indian population, it has become a cause of concern for major oral diseases. In 2008, the WHO named tobacco as the world's single greatest cause of preventable death. It is also known that certain amount of carbohydrates are incorporated in processed tobacco to make it acceptable for consumption. Thus, its role in oral diseases becomes an important question at this point of time. Through this study, it is attempted to find out the carbohydrate content of various forms of tobacco by phenol-sulfuric acid method. Tobacco products selected for the study were Nandi hookah tambakhu (A), photo brand budhaa Punjabi snuff (B), Miraj (C), Gai-chhap tambakhu (D), Hanuman-chhap Pandharpuri tambakhu (E), and Hathi-chhap Bidi (F). The samples were decoded and transported to laboratory and tested at various concentrations by phenol-sulfuric acid method followed by ultraviolet spectrophotometry to determine their absorbance. The present study showed Hathi-chhap bidi/sample F had a maximum absorbance (1.995) at 10 μg/ml which is a smoking form of tobacco followed by rest all smokeless forms of tobacco, i.e. sample C (0.452), sample B (0.253), sample D (0.077), sample E (-0.018), and sample A (-0.127), respectively. As the concentration of tobacco sample increases, their absorbance increases which in turn is suggestive of increase in its carbohydrate concentration. Carbohydrates in the form of sugars, either inherently present or added in it during manufacturing can serve as a risk factor for higher incidence of dental caries.

  7. Digital Alloy Absorber for Photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the spectral response range and improve the mobility of the photo-generated carriers (e.g. in an nBn photodetector), a digital alloy absorber may be employed by embedding one (or fraction thereof) to several monolayers of a semiconductor material (insert layers) periodically into a different host semiconductor material of the absorber layer. The semiconductor material of the insert layer and the host semiconductor materials may have lattice constants that are substantially mismatched. For example, this may performed by periodically embedding monolayers of InSb into an InAsSb host as the absorption region to extend the cutoff wavelength of InAsSb photodetectors, such as InAsSb based nBn devices. The described technique allows for simultaneous control of alloy composition and net strain, which are both key parameters for the photodetector operation.

  8. Insight into magnetorheological shock absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Gołdasz, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with magnetorheological fluid theory, modeling and applications of automotive magnetorheological dampers. On the theoretical side a review of MR fluid compositions and key factors affecting the characteristics of these fluids is followed by a description of existing applications in the area of vibration isolation and flow-mode shock absorbers in particular. As a majority of existing magnetorheological devices operates in a so-called flow mode a critical review is carried out in that regard. Specifically, the authors highlight common configurations of flow-mode magnetorheological shock absorbers, or so-called MR dampers that have been considered by the automotive industry for controlled chassis applications. The authors focus on single-tube dampers utilizing a piston assembly with one coil or multiple coils and at least one annular flow channel in the piston.

  9. Effect of thermal-treatment sequence on sound absorbing and mechanical properties of porous sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chen-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent rapid commercial and industrial development, mechanical equipment is supplemented massively in the factory and thus mechanical operation causes noise which distresses living at home. In livelihood, neighborhood, transportation equipment, jobsite construction noises impact on quality of life not only factory noise. This study aims to preparation technique and property evaluation of porous sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites. Hollow three-dimensional crimp PET fibers blended with low-melting PET fibers were fabricated into hollow PET/low-melting PET nonwoven after opening, blending, carding, lapping and needle-bonding process. Then, hollow PET/low-melting PET nonwovens were laminated into sound-absorbing/thermal-insulating composites by changing sequence of needle-bonding and thermal-treatment. The optimal thermal-treated sequence was found by tensile strength, tearing strength, sound-absorbing coefficient and thermal conductivity coefficient tests of porous composites.

  10. Acoustic Properties of Absorbent Asphalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Lombardi, Ilaria

    2017-08-01

    Road traffic is one of the greater cause of noise pollution in urban centers; a prolonged exposure to this source of noise disturbs populations subjected to it. In this paper is reported a study on the absorbent coefficients of asphalt. The acoustic measurements are carried out with a impedance tube (tube of Kundt). The sample are measured in three conditions: with dry material (traditional), “wet” asphalt and “dirty” asphalt.

  11. Gut feedback mechanisms and food intake: a physiological approach to slow carbohydrate bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Genyi; Hasek, Like Y; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-04-01

    Glycemic carbohydrates in foods are an important macronutrient providing the biological fuel of glucose for a variety of physiological processes. A classification of glycemic carbohydrates into rapidly digestible carbohydrate (RDC) and slowly digestible carbohydrate (SDC) has been used to specify their nutritional quality related to glucose homeostasis that is essential to normal functioning of the brain and critical to life. Although there have been many studies and reviews on slowly digestible starch (SDS) and SDC, the mechanisms of their slow digestion and absorption were mostly investigated from the material side without considering the physiological processes of their in vivo digestion, absorption, and most importantly interactions with other food components and the gastrointestinal tract. In this article, the physiological processes modulating the bioavailability of carbohydrates, specifically the rate and extent of their digestion and absorption as well as the related locations, in a whole food context, will be discussed by focusing on the activities of the gastrointestinal tract including glycolytic enzymes and glucose release, sugar sensing, gut hormones, and neurohormonal negative feedback mechanisms. It is hoped that a deep understanding of these physiological processes will facilitate the development of innovative dietary approaches to achieve desired carbohydrate or glucose bioavailability for improved health.

  12. Liquid scintillation vial for radiometric assay of lymphocyte carbohydrate metabolism in response to mitogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, N.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    We have demonstrated that mitogens--i.e., PHA and Con.A--stimulate lymphocyte carbohydrate metabolism using a liquid-scintillation vial with conventional liquid-scintillation detectors. The results showed that this enclosed system can be useful for development of rapid in vitro tests of lymphocytes immune responsiveness, as well as for radiometric detection of bacterial growth in various gaseous atmospheres

  13. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F.

    2002-01-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use

  14. An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad; Farhat, Mohamed; Bagci, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber operating at terahertz (THz) frequencies is proposed. The absorber design makes use of three mechanisms: (i) The graphene layers are asymmetrically patterned to support higher order surface plasmon

  15. Piezooptic effect of absorbing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. А. Рудяк

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of piezooptic effect of absorbing environment for the definition of the parameter of stress deformation state was examined. The analysis of dielectric permeability tensor of imaginary parts was done. It is shown that changes in the real part dielectric permeability tensor mainly the indicator of fracture was fixed by means of mechanics interference methods and the changes in the imaginary part (α – real rate of absorption can be measured by means of analysis of light absorption and thus stress deformation state can be determined

  16. Energy absorbers as pipe supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlafallah, M.Z.; Lee, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    With the exception of springs, pipe supports currently in use are designed with the intent of maintaining their rigidity under load. Energy dissipation mechanisms in these pipe supports result in system damping on the order presented by Code Case N-411 of ASME Section III code. Examples of these energy dissipation mechanisms are fluids and gaps in snubbers, gaps in frame supports, and friction in springs and frame supports. If energy absorbing supports designed in accordance with Code Case N-420 are used, higher additional damping will result

  17. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include inexpen...... was characterized in human colon carcinoma xenograft bearing nude mice. A tumor specific accumulation of HES 450 was observed, which proves it’s potential as carrier for passive tumor targeting....

  18. Digestion and metabolism of carbohydrates in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Abro, Rani

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the digestion and metabolism of carbohydrates in Arctic charr, Eurasian perch and tilapia. Two sources of carbohydrates, native starch (wheat) and chitin (zygomycete biomass), were evaluated. Gut tissue of Arctic charr displayed significant chitinase activity, of both endo- and exo-chitinase forms. Moreover, the distribution pattern along the gastrointestinal tract of Arctic charr differed between endo-chitinase and exo-chitinase. The endo-chitinase activity in sto...

  19. The carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML): an XML description of carbohydrate structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Norihiro; Kameyama, Akihiko; Nakaya, Shuuichi; Ito, Hiromi; Sato, Takashi; Shikanai, Toshihide; Takahashi, Yoriko; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2005-04-15

    Bioinformatics resources for glycomics are very poor as compared with those for genomics and proteomics. The complexity of carbohydrate sequences makes it difficult to define a common language to represent them, and the development of bioinformatics tools for glycomics has not progressed. In this study, we developed a carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML), an XML description of carbohydrate structures. The language definition (XML Schema) and an experimental database of carbohydrate structures using an XML database management system are available at http://www.phoenix.hydra.mki.co.jp/CabosDemo.html kikuchi@hydra.mki.co.jp.

  20. Multi-channel coherent perfect absorbers

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Ping

    2016-05-18

    The absorption efficiency of a coherent perfect absorber usually depends on the phase coherence of the incident waves on the surfaces. Here, we present a scheme to create a multi-channel coherent perfect absorber in which the constraint of phase coherence is loosened. The scheme has a multi-layer structure such that incident waves in different channels with different angular momenta can be simultaneously and perfectly absorbed. This absorber is robust in achieving high absorption efficiency even if the incident waves become "incoherent" and possess "random" wave fronts. Our work demonstrates a unique approach to designing highly efficient metamaterial absorbers. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.

  1. Multi-channel coherent perfect absorbers

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Ping; Wu, Ying; Lai, Yun

    2016-01-01

    The absorption efficiency of a coherent perfect absorber usually depends on the phase coherence of the incident waves on the surfaces. Here, we present a scheme to create a multi-channel coherent perfect absorber in which the constraint of phase coherence is loosened. The scheme has a multi-layer structure such that incident waves in different channels with different angular momenta can be simultaneously and perfectly absorbed. This absorber is robust in achieving high absorption efficiency even if the incident waves become "incoherent" and possess "random" wave fronts. Our work demonstrates a unique approach to designing highly efficient metamaterial absorbers. © CopyrightEPLA, 2016.

  2. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.

  3. Oxalate: Effect on calcium absorbability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaney, R.P.; Weaver, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    Absorption of calcium from intrinsically labeled Ca oxalate was measured in 18 normal women and compared with absorption of Ca from milk in these same subjects, both when the test substances were ingested in separate meals and when ingested together. Fractional Ca absorption from oxalate averaged 0.100 +/- 0.043 when ingested alone and 0.140 +/- 0.063 when ingested together with milk. Absorption was, as expected, substantially lower than absorption from milk (0.358 +/- 0.113). Nevertheless Ca oxalate absorbability in these women was higher than we had previously found for spinach Ca. When milk and Ca oxalate were ingested together, there was no interference of oxalate in milk Ca absorption and no evidence of tracer exchange between the two labeled Ca species

  4. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical...

  5. Sensitive determination of carbohydrates labelled with p-nitroaniline by capillary electrophoresis with photometric detection using a 406 nm light-emitting diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momenbeik, Fariborz; Johns, Cameron; Breadmore, Michael C; Hilder, Emily F; Macka, Miroslav; Haddad, Paul R

    2006-10-01

    p-Nitroaniline was explored as a derivatising reagent for UV absorbance detection of carbohydrates after separation by CE. This derivatising agent has three advantages: first, it has excellent water solubility; second, it has high molar absorptivity; and third, it is possible to obtain sensitive detection using a UV or blue light-emitting diode (LED) as the light source. The labelling reaction took less than 30 min to complete with high reaction yield. The separation process was modelled and optimised using an artificial neural network. Nine carbohydrates were separated by a CE system within 16 min using a 0.17 M boric acid buffer at pH 9.7. On-column LED detection at 406 nm allowed the detection of carbohydrates with good detection limits (determination of component carbohydrates in some food samples.

  6. Rapid shift in substrate utilization driven by hypothalamic Agrp neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti-De-Albuquerque, Joao; Dietrich, Marcelo; Bober, Jeremy; Zimmer, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Agrp neurons drive feeding. To what extend these neurons participate in the regulation of other homeostatic processes is not well understood. We investigated the role of Agrp neurons in substrate utilization in mice. Activation of Agrp neurons was sufficient to rapidly increase RER and carbohydrate utilization, while decreasing fat utilization. These metabolic changes were linearly correlated with carbohydrates ingested, but not protein or fat ingestion. However, even in the absence of ingest...

  7. An omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber made of metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Qiang; Cui Tiejun; Jiang Weixiang; Cai Bengeng

    2010-01-01

    In a recent theoretical work by Narimanov and Kildishev (2009 Appl. Phys. Lett. 95 041106) an optical omnidirectional light absorber based on metamaterials was proposed, in which theoretical analysis and numerical simulations showed that all optical waves hitting the absorber are trapped and absorbed. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of an omnidirectional electromagnetic absorber in the microwave frequency. The proposed device is composed of non-resonant and resonant metamaterial structures, which can trap and absorb electromagnetic waves coming from all directions spirally inwards without any reflections due to the local control of electromagnetic fields. It is shown that the absorption rate can reach 99 per cent in the microwave frequency. The all-directional full absorption property makes the device behave like an 'electromagnetic black body', and the wave trapping and absorbing properties simulate, to some extent, an 'electromagnetic black hole.' We expect that such a device could be used as a thermal emitting source and to harvest electromagnetic waves.

  8. Comments on liquid hydrogen absorbers for MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the heat transfer problems associated with a liquid hydrogen absorber for the MICE experiment. This report describes a technique for modeling heat transfer from the outside world, to the absorber case and in its vacuum vessel, to the hydrogen and then into helium gas at 14 K. Also presented are the equation for free convection cooling of the liquid hydrogen in the absorber

  9. Absorbed dose by a CMOS in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borja H, C. G.; Valero L, C. Y.; Guzman G, K. A.; Banuelos F, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Paredes G, L. C.

    2011-10-01

    Absorbed dose by a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit as part of a pacemaker, has been estimated using Monte Carlo calculations. For a cancer patient who is a pacemaker carrier, scattered radiation could damage pacemaker CMOS circuits affecting patient's health. Absorbed dose in CMOS circuit due to scattered photons is too small and therefore is not the cause of failures in pacemakers, but neutron calculations shown an absorbed dose that could cause damage in CMOS due to neutron-hydrogen interactions. (Author)

  10. Multiband Negative Permittivity Metamaterials and Absorbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran Tian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and characteristics of multiband negative permittivity metamaterial and its absorber configuration are presented in this paper. The proposed multiband metamaterial is composed of a novel multibranch resonator which can possess four electric resonance frequencies. It is shown that, by controlling the length of the main branches of such resonator, the resonant frequencies and corresponding absorbing bands of metamaterial absorber can be shifted in a large frequency band.

  11. Carbohydrates in pig nutrition - Recent advances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Ingerslev, Anne Krog

    2016-01-01

    The dietary carbohydrates are a diverse group of substances with a range of chemical, physical, and physiological properties. The primary chemical classification of carbohydrates is by molecular size (degree of polymerization [DP]), the type of linkage (α or β), and composition of individual...... to their potential for digestion by endogenous enzymes. Carbohydrates are the principal substrates for energy metabolism but also exert a number of other effects throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The starch structure as well as type and levels of DF influence, to a varying degree, the rate of starch digestion...... in the small intestine. Some types of soluble NSP are found to interact with intestinal mucus and produce a layer that significantly delays the transport of lipid digestion products. Potentially, the same may be the case for proteinous compounds. The delay in the transport of the nutrients to the gut...

  12. Kinetic study on UV-absorber photodegradation under different conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubev, Emil, E-mail: ebubev@my.uctm.edu [University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Physical Chemistry (Bulgaria); Georgiev, Anton [University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Organic Chemistry (Bulgaria); Machkova, Maria [University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Physical Chemistry (Bulgaria)

    2016-09-12

    The photodegradation kinetics of two benzophenone derivative UV-absorbers (UVAs)-BP-4 (benzophenone-4) and 4-HBP (4-hydroxybenzophenone), as additives in polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) films, were studied. Solution-processed PVAc films were irradiated in different environments in order to study oxygen and atmospheric humidity influence on UVA photodegradation. Photodegradation was traced by absorption intensity loss via UV–vis spectroscopy. Both UVAs exhibited excellent photostability in an inert atmosphere. Rate constants showed that BP-4 has better permanence in absence of oxygen. Both film types experienced rapid absorption loss, when irradiated in an oxygen containing atmosphere. UVA degradation was treated as a two-stage process. The photodegradation kinetics in the first stage agreed with the adopted complex rate law, but the second stage was best described by pseudo-first order kinetics. BP-4 exhibited better stability. Oxygen was established as the main accelerating factor for photodegradation of benzophenone derivatives UV-absorbers in thin PVAc films.

  13. Preparation of super absorbent by irradiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Fengjun; Tan Chunhong; Qian Mengping

    1995-01-01

    A kind of absorbent is prepared by gamma-rays irradiated by reversed-phase suspension polymerization. Drying particles have 1400 (g/g) absorbency in de-ionic water. Effects of reactive conditions, e.g.: dose-rate, dose, monomer concentration, degree of monomer neutralization and crosslinking agents on absorbency in de-ionic water are discussed. The cause of absorbing de-ionic water by polymer is related to its network structure and ionic equilibrium in particle. Accordingly, a suit reactive condition is chosen for preparation of hydro gel spheres

  14. Absorber rod drive for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acher, H.

    1985-01-01

    The invention concerns a further addition to the invention of DE 33 42 830 A1. The free contact of the hollow piston with the nut due to hydraulic pressure is replaced by a hydraulic or spring attachment. The pressure system required to produce the hydraulic pressure is therefore omitted, and the electrical power required for driving the pump or the mass flow is also omitted. The absorber rod slotted along its longitudinal axis is replaced by an absorber rod, in the longitudinal axis of which a hollow piston is connected together with the absorber rod. This makes the absorber rod more stable, and assembly is simplified. (orig./HP) [de

  15. TPX/TFTR Neutral Beam energy absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlgren, F.; Wright, K.; Kamperschroer, J.; Grisham, L.; Lontai, L.; Peters, C.; VonHalle, A.

    1993-01-01

    The present beam energy absorbing surfaces on the TFTR Neutral Beams such as Ion Dumps, Calorimeters, beam defining apertures, and scrapers, are simple water cooled copper plates which wee designed to absorb (via their thermal inertia) the incident beam power for two seconds with a five minute coal down interval between pulses. These components are not capable of absorbing the anticipated beam power loading for 1000 second TPX pulses and will have to be replaced with an actively cooled design. While several actively cooled energy absorbing designs were considered,, the hypervapotron elements currently being used on the JET beamlines were chosen due to their lower cooling water demands and reliable performance on JET

  16. Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1981-03-26

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  17. Hepatocyte heterogeneity in the metabolism of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungermann, K; Thurman, R G

    1992-01-01

    Periportal and perivenous hepatocytes possess different amounts and activities of the rate-generating enzymes of carbohydrate and oxidative energy metabolism and thus different metabolic capacities. This is the basis of the model of metabolic zonation, according to which periportal cells catalyze predominantly the oxidative catabolism of fatty and amino acids as well as glucose release and glycogen formation via gluconeogenesis, and perivenous cells carry out preferentially glucose uptake for glycogen synthesis and glycolysis coupled to liponeogenesis. The input of humoral and nervous signals into the periportal and perivenous zones is different; gradients of oxygen, substrates and products, hormones and mediators and nerve densities exist which are important not only for the short-term regulation of carbohydrate metabolism but also for the long-term regulation of zonal gene expression. The specialization of periportal and perivenous hepatocytes in carbohydrate metabolism has been well characterized. In vivo evidence is provided by the complex metabolic situation termed the 'glucose paradox' and by zonal flux differences calculated on the basis of the distribution of enzymes and metabolites. In vitro evidence is given by the different flux rates determined with classical invasive techniques, e.g. in periportal-like and perivenous-like hepatocytes in cell culture, in periportal- and perivenous-enriched hepatocyte populations and in perfused livers during orthograde and retrograde flow, as well as with noninvasive techniques using miniature oxygen electrodes, e.g. in livers perfused in either direction. Differences of opinion in the interpretation of studies with invasive and noninvasive techniques by the authors are discussed. The declining gradient in oxygen concentrations, the decreasing glucagon/insulin ratio and the different innervation could be important factors in the zonal expression of the genes of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. While it is clear that

  18. Exponential increase in postprandial blood-glucose exposure with increasing carbohydrate loads using a linear carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marran, K J; Davey, B; Lang, A; Segal, D G

    2013-04-10

    Postprandial glucose excursions contribute significantly to average blood glucose, glycaemic variability and cardiovascular risk. Carbohydrate counting is a method of insulin dosing that balances carbohydrate load to insulin dose using a fixed ratio. Many patients and current insulin pumps calculate insulin delivery for meals based on a linear carbohydrate-to-insulin relationship. It is our hypothesis that a non-linear relationship exists between the amounts of carbohydrate consumed and the insulin required to cover it. To document blood glucose exposure in response to increasing carbohydrate loads on fixed carbohydrate-to-insulin ratios. Five type 1 diabetic subjects receiving insulin pump therapy with good control were recruited. Morning basal rates and carbohydrate- to-insulin ratios were optimised. A Medtronic glucose sensor was used for 5 days to collect data for area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis, during which standardised meals of increasing carbohydrate loads were consumed. Increasing carbohydrate loads using a fixed carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio resulted in increasing glucose AUC. The relationship was found to be exponential rather than linear. Late postprandial hypoglycaemia followed carbohydrate loads of >60 g and this was often followed by rebound hyperglycaemia that lasted >6 hours. A non-linear relationship exists between carbohydrates consumed and the insulin required to cover them. This has implications for control of postprandial blood sugars, especially when consuming large carbohydrate loads. Further studies are required to look at the optimal ratios, duration and type of insulin boluses required to cover increasing carbohydrate loads.

  19. Gaseous carbon dioxide absorbing column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harashina, Heihachi.

    1994-01-01

    The absorbing column of the present invention comprises a cyclone to which CO 2 gas and Ca(OH) 2 are blown to form CaCO 3 , a water supply means connected to an upper portion of the cyclone for forming a thin water membrane on the inner wall thereof, and a water processing means connected to a lower portion of the cyclone for draining water incorporating CaCO 3 . If a mixed fluid of CO 2 gas and Ca(OH) 2 is blown in a state where a flowing water membrane is formed on the inner wall of the cyclone, formation of CaCO 3 is promoted also in the inside of the cyclone in addition to the formation of CaCO 3 in the course of blowing. Then, formed CaCO 3 is discharged from the lower portion of the cyclone together with downwardly flowing water. With such procedures, solid contents such as CaCO 3 separated at the inner circumferential wall are sent into the thin water membrane, adsorbed and captured, and the solid contents are successively washed out, so that a phenomenon that the solid contents deposit and grow on the inner wall of the cyclone can be prevented effectively. (T.M.)

  20. Radiation absorbed doses in cephalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasson, S.; Julin, P.; Richter, S.; Stenstroem, B.

    1984-01-01

    Radiation absorbed doses to different organs in the head and neck region in lateral (LAT) and postero-anterior (PA) cephalography were investigated. The doses were measured by thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) on a tissue equivalent phantom head. Lanthanide screens in speed group 4 were used at 90 and 85 k Vp. A near-focus aluminium dodger was used and the radiation beam was collimated strictly to the face. The maximum entrance dose from LAT was 0.25 mGy and 0.42 mGy from a PA exposure. The doses to the salivary glands ranged between 0.2 and 0.02 mGy at LAT and between 0.15 and 0.04 mGy at PA exposures. The average thyroid gland dose without any shielding was 0.11 mGy (LAT) and 0.06 mGy (PA). When a dodger was used the dose was reduced to 0.07 mGy (LAT). If the thyroid gland was sheilded off, the dose was further reduced to 0.01 mGy and if the thyroid region was collimated out of the primary radiation field the dose was reduced to only 0.005 mGy. (authors)

  1. A Universal Protocol for Photochemical Covalent Immobilization of Intact Carbohydrates for the Preparation of Carbohydrate Microarrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huibin; Zhang, Yiming; Yuan, Xun; Chen, Yi; Yan, Mingdi

    2010-01-01

    A universal photochemical method has been established for the immobilization of intact carbohydrates and their analogues, and for the fabrication of carbohydrate microarrays. The method features the use of perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA)-modified substrates and the photochemical reaction of surface azido groups with printed carbohydrates. Various aldoses, ketoses, non-reducing sugars such as alditols and their derivatives can be directly arrayed on the PFPA-modified chips. The lectin-recognition ability of arrayed mannose, glucose and their oligo- and polysaccharides were confirmed using surface plasmon resonance imaging and laser-induced fluorescence imaging. PMID:21138274

  2. The effect of enteric galactose on neonatal canine carbohydrate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliegman, R.M.; Miettinen, E.L.; Kalhan, S.C.; Adam, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    Newborn pups were assigned to a fasting group or to a group receiving intravenous glucose alimentation. Glucose turnover was determined during steady state equilibration of simultaneously infused [6- 3 H] glucose. Thereafter, pups from each group received 0.625 g/Kg of either oral [U- 14 C] galactose or [U- 14 C] glucose. In fasted or intravenously alimented pups enteric glucose resulted in a rapid and sustained elevation of blood glucose concentrations. Systemic appearance of 14 C label from enteric glucose increased rapidly as did the enrichment of blood [ 14 C] glucose specific activity. In those pups given enteric galactose, blood glucose values were equivalent to that in the glucose fed groups, however 14 C appearing in blood glucose and blood glucose specific activity was significantly lower. The peak values for rates of appearance and disappearance of systemic glucose were significantly lower in pups fed galactose than among pups fed glucose. Glucose clearance was also significantly lower in these pups despite equivalent plasma insulin responses. Among fasting pups hepatic glycogen content was significantly higher in those given either oral glucose or galactose when compared to a completely starved control group. In contrast, among alimented pups galactose administration significantly enhanced hepatic glycogen content compared to those fed glucose. In addition, hepatic glycogen synthase (glucose-6-phosphate independent) activity was increased only among alimented pups fed galactose when compared to completely fasted pups. In conclusion these data suggest that following gastrointestinal galactose administration, hepatic carbohydrate uptake is augmented while glycogen synthesis may be enhanced. Augmented glycogen synthesis following galactose administration may reflect alterations in hepatic glycogen synthase activity or enhanced hepatic carbohydrate uptake

  3. Measurement of extrapolation curves for the secondary pattern of beta radiation Nr. 86 calibrated in rapidity of absorbed dose for tissue equivalent by the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt; Medicion de curvas de extrapolacion para el patron secundario de radiacion beta Nr. 86 calibrado en rapidez de dosis absorbida para tejido equivalente por el Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T

    1988-10-15

    The following report has as objective to present the obtained results of measuring - with a camera of extrapolation of variable electrodes (CE) - the dose speed absorbed in equivalent fabric given by the group of sources of the secondary pattern of radiation Beta Nr. 86, (PSB), and to compare this results with those presented by the calibration certificates that accompany the PSB extended by the primary laboratory Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, (PTB), of the R.F.A. as well as the uncertainties associated to the measure process. (Author)

  4. Absorbing Property of Multi-layered Short Carbon Fiber Absorbing Coating

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhaohui; Tao, Rui; Ban, Guodong; Luo, Ping

    2018-01-01

    The radar absorbing coating was prepared with short carbon fiber asabsorbent and waterborne polyurethane (WPU) as matrix resin. The coating’s absorbing property was tested with vectornetwork analyzer, using aramid honeycomb as air layer which was matched withcarbon fiber coating. The results demonstrate that the single-layered carbonfiber absorbing coating presented relatively poor absorbing property when thelayer was thin, and the performance was slightly improved after the matched airlayer ...

  5. Absorber element for fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verset, L.

    1987-01-01

    This absorber element is characterized by a new head which avoids an accident disconnection of the mobil absorber. This head is made by a superior piece which can take shore up an adjusting ring on an adjusting bearing on the inferior piece. The intermediate piece is catched at the superior piece by a link of chain [fr

  6. Analysis of absorbing times of quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Hirotada; Imai, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Quantum walks are expected to provide useful algorithmic tools for quantum computation. This paper introduces absorbing probability and time of quantum walks and gives both numerical simulation results and theoretical analyses on Hadamard walks on the line and symmetric walks on the hypercube from the viewpoint of absorbing probability and time

  7. Absorber transmissivities in 57Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, O.

    1985-01-01

    Some useful relations are derived for the polarization dependent optical index of 57 Fe Moessbauer absorbers. Real rotation matrices are extensively used and, besides wave-direction dependence, their properties simplify also the treatment of texture and f-anisotropy. The derivation of absorber transmissivities from the optical index is discussed with a special emphasis on line overlapping. (Auth.)

  8. Does Subclinical Malabsorption of Carbohydrates Prevent Colorectal Cancer? A Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Dorcen Bolin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC is high in the western world and low in Asia and Africa. Fibre and starch are thought to be important protective factors, with a strong inverse relationship between starch consumption and CRC incidence. Whether this is true in Asia, particularly, and Africa is debatable. Because rice is the most easily absorbed of carbohydrates, a mechanism whereby there is an increased starch load in the colon in the Asian population needs to be identified. One possible cause is subclinical malabsorption. This is linked to increased mucosal permeability and low gross domestic product (GDP per capita, which reflects poor sanitation and water supplies with increased risk for small bowel bacterial overgrowth leading to mucosal cell damage. A potential cause of the dramatic rise in CRC incidence in Japan may relate to its equally dramatic increase in GDP per capita of 600% over 50 years. This correlation appears to be stronger than with other dietary factors including fruit, vegetables and meat. Worldwide, a close correlation exists among low GDP per capita, low CRC incidence and presumed subclinical malabsorption. All these factors combine to maintain a low incidence of CRC in poorly developed countries.

  9. Carbohydrates and gibberellins relationship in potato tuberization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčíková, H.; Mašková, P.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Mašek, T.; Lipavská, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 214, JUL (2017), s. 53-63 ISSN 0176-1617 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Carbohydrate distribution * Gibberellin * Photoautotrophic cultivation * Potato * Tuberization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.121, year: 2016

  10. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Umukoro

    1977-09-09

    Sep 9, 1977 ... 1Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), EEA Famaillá, Argentina. 2Department of Plant Sciences, University of California Davis, CA, USA. Accepted 17 October, 2012. The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa. Duch.) nursery ...

  11. Crystallization of carbohydrate oxidase from Microdochium nivale

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dušková, Jarmila; Dohnálek, Jan; Skálová, Tereza; Ostergaard, L. H.; Fuglsang, C. C.; Kolenko, Petr; Štěpánková, Andrea; Hašek, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 6 (2009), s. 638-640 ISSN 1744-3091 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500500701; GA ČR GA305/07/1073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : carbohydrate oxidase * crystallization * data processing Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.551, year: 2009

  12. Nutrient and carbohydrate partitioning in sorghum stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.M.; Hons, F.M.; McBee, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] stover has been demonstrated to be a potential biomass energy source. Complete aboveground crop removal, however, can result in soil degradation. Differential dry matter, nutrient, and carbohydrate partitioning by sorghum cultivars may allow management strategies that return certain parts to the field while removing other portions for alternative uses, such as energy production. A field study was conducted to determine N,P,K, nonstructural carbohydrate, cellulose hemicellulose, and lignin distributions in stover of three diverse sorghum cultivars of differing harvest indices. Determinations were based on total vegetative biomass; total blades; total stalks; and upper middle, and lower blades and stalks. Concentrations of N and P were higher in blades than stalks and generally declines from upper to lower stover parts. Large carbohydrate and lignin concentration differences were observed on the basis of cultivar and stover part. Greater nutrient partitioning to the upper third of the intermediate and forage-type sorghum stovers was observed as compared to the conventional grain cultivar. Stover carbohydrates for all cultivars were mainly contained in the lower two-thirds of the stalk fraction. A system was proposed for returning upper stover portion to soil, while removing remaining portions for alternative uses

  13. Saturated fat, carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, R. S.; de Graaf, D. J.; Luxwolda, M. F.; Muskiet, M. H. A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. J.; Muskiet, F. A. J.

    The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) is associated with a modest increase in serum total cholesterol, but not with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Replacing dietary SAFA with carbohydrates (CHO), notably those with a high glycaemic index, is associated with an increase in CVD risk in

  14. Profiling of carbohydrate polymers in biotechnology using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of carbohydrate polymers is very demanding and challenging because of the similar physical and chemical properties they possess. Enzymatic hydrolysis is employed to cleave the polymers. The use of enzymes in analytical chemistry requires an analytical system that has on-line capability, is fast, ...

  15. Radiation chemistry of carbohydrates, ch. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauphin, J.F.; Saint-Lebe, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    The physical and chemical changes undergone by carbohydrates at irradiation are reviewed. The discussion includes the irradiation of pure sugars (low molecular weight sugars and derivatives in the solid state or in solution; polysaccharides) as well as the irradiation of simple mixtures containing a given sugar, emphasizing the irradiation of foodstuffs containing one or more sugars

  16. Carbohydrates in Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight to nineteen ethanol-soluble carbohydrate components were identified in vegetative tissues of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica. The analysed carbohydrates included: monosaccharides, cyclitols, galactosyl cyclitols, raffinose family oligosaccharides, lichnose family oligosaccharides, kestose family oligosaccharides. The analysed vegetative tissues accumulated from 447 to 139 mg/g d.m. soluble carbohydrates in Colobanthus quitensis, Deschampsia antarctica respectively. The raffinose family oligosaccharides constituted 53.3% in Colobanthus quitensis of the identified soluble carbohydrate component pool. Vegetative tissues accumulated starch in Colobanthus quitensis 20.6 mg/g d.m. and 261.6 mg/g d.m. in Deschampsia antarctica. Anatomical and ultrastructural observations of vegetative part of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschmpsia antarctica revealed the presence of various ergastic materials in intercellular spaces, cell walls and protoplasts. Various parts of these plants contain insoluble, PAS positive polysaccharides in intercellular spaces and in cell walls. Chloroplasts of analysed tissues contained starch. Less starch was visible in young, growing parts of shoots of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschmpsia antarctica, more starch appears in mature, differentiated parts.

  17. Dissolved carbohydrate in the central Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhople, V.M.; Bhosle, N.B.

    with chlorophyll a (P 0.001) and phaeopigments (P 0.001) suggesting its release from the former and zooplankton grazing in the latter. Inverse correlations with dissolved oxygen, phosphate and nitrate indicated the possibility of the release of carbohydrate from...

  18. Accumulation pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) nursery runner plants, cv. eCamarosaf, was determined for three growing seasons. Plant growth and fruit production patterns were also evaluated. The experiments were carried out on plants propagated in high ...

  19. STICS: surface-tethered iterative carbohydrate synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; Ranade, Sneha C; Li, Aixiao; Parlato, M Cristina; Sims, Charles R; Shulga, Olga V; Stine, Keith J; Demchenko, Alexei V

    2009-04-14

    A new surface-tethered iterative carbohydrate synthesis (STICS) technology is presented in which a surface functionalized 'stick' made of chemically stable high surface area porous gold allows one to perform cost efficient and simple synthesis of oligosaccharide chains; at the end of the synthesis, the oligosaccharide can be cleaved off and the stick reused for subsequent syntheses.

  20. DETERMINATION OF CARBOHYDRATE AND β-CAROTENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    A sample of each vegetable was washed and ground to a fine pulp using pestle and mortar. The operation was done under dim light to reduce the rate of carotene oxidation contained in them. One gramme (1g) and 10g of macerated sample were weighed using Metler PT balance for carbohydrate and β-carotene analysis ...

  1. Particulate carbohydrates in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Nandakumar, K.; Venkat, K.

    Particulate matter collected from 77 water samples over a 3000 m water column was analyzed for particulate carbohydrates (PCHO). PCHO in the surface waters ranged from 43 to 143 mu g.l-1, and below 250 m it was 16.PCHO showed large variations at all...

  2. Liquid absorber experiments in ZED-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, F.N.

    1975-07-01

    A set of liquid absorber experiments was performed in ZED-2 to provide data with which to test the adequacy of calculational methods for zone controller and refuelling studies associated with advanced reactor concepts. The absorber consisted of a full length aluminum tube, containing either i)H 2 O, ii)H 2 O + boron (2.5 mg/ml) or iii)H 2 O + boron (8.0 mg/ml). The tube was suspended vertically at interstitial or in-channel locations. A U-tube absorber was also simulated using two absorber tubes with appropriate spacers. Experiments were carried out at two different square lattice pitches, 22.86 and 27.94 cm. Measurements were made of the reactivity effects of the absorbers and, in some cases, of the detailed flux distribution near the perturbation. The results from one calculational method, the source-sink approach, were compared with the data from selected experiments. (author)

  3. Cell surface carbohydrates as prognostic markers in human carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Tumour development is usually associated with changes in cell surface carbohydrates. These are often divided into changes related to terminal carbohydrate structures, which include incomplete synthesis and modification of normally existing carbohydrates, and changes in the carbohydrate core...... structure. The latter includes chain elongation of both glycolipids and proteins, increased branching of carbohydrates in N-linked glycoproteins, and blocked synthesis of carbohydrates in O-linked mucin-like glycoproteins. In mature organisms, expression of distinct carbohydrates is restricted to specific...... cell types; within a given tissue, variation in expression may be related to cell maturation. Tumour-associated carbohydrate structures often reflect a certain stage of cellular development; most of these moieties are structures normally found in other adult or embryonic tissues. There is no unique...

  4. Carbohydrate secretion by phototrophic communities in tidal sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winder, B.; Staats, N.; Stal, L.J.; Paterson, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Two different benthic phototrophic communities on tidal flats were investigated for their carbohydrate content and distribution. Carbohydrates were analysed as two operationally defined fractions, related to the difficulty of extraction from the sediment matrix. Water-soluble (colloidal) and EDTA-

  5. High throughput screening of starch structures using carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanackovic, Vanja; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Pedersen, Henriette Lodberg

    2016-01-01

    In this study we introduce the starch-recognising carbohydrate binding module family 20 (CBM20) from Aspergillus niger for screening biological variations in starch molecular structure using high throughput carbohydrate microarray technology. Defined linear, branched and phosphorylated...

  6. Mixed drink increased carbohydrate oxidation but not performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    ... carbohydrate intake is hypothesised to provide additional substrate for oxidation[3] ... performance is attained when a multiple carbohydrate drink is ingested. ..... and often intense exercise, such as can be seen in events such as the Tour de ...

  7. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier - Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    combinations have been investigated for the production of hydrogen from biomass carbohydrate. Chemical catalysis approaches include pyrolysis [19...temperature. High fructose corn syrup, low-cost sucrose replacement, is made by stabilized glucose isomerase, which can work at ~60 °C for even about two...gasoline, vegetable oil vs. biodiesel, corn kernels vs. ethanol [31,109]. Given a price of $0.18/kg carbohydrate (i.e., $10.6/GJ) [2,44], the hydrogen

  8. Fabricating method of hydrogen absorbing alloy for alkali storage battery; Arukari chikudenchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin no seizo hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadokoro, M.

    1996-03-08

    There are many grain boundaries in spherical hydrogen absorbing alloy particles prepared by rapid solidification methods such as centrifugal spraying method and gas atomizing method, and heterogeneous strains are produced at boundaries. When hydrogen absorbing alloy with large heterogeneous strain is used for preparing electrodes, many cracks are produced in hydrogen absorbing alloy to cause pulverization in the charge and discharge cycles. This invention relates to heat treatment of hydrogen absorbing alloys having spherical shape, cannon ball shape, and egg-like shape prepared by rapid solidification method in moving conditions. By this heat treatment, mutual sintering of hydrogen absorbing alloy particles can be prevented. The methods for moving hydrogen absorbing alloy are vibration or rotation of the heat treatment container in which hydrogen absorbing alloy is held and agitation of hydrogen absorbing alloy powder. Furthermore, mutual sintering of hydrogen absorbing alloy is restricted to reduce homogeneous strain by heat treatment in the range from 700{degree}C to 1,100{degree}C. 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Design of a nonlinear torsional vibration absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Ammaar Bin

    Tuned mass dampers (TMD) utilizing linear spring mechanisms to mitigate destructive vibrations are commonly used in practice. A TMD is usually tuned for a specific resonant frequency or an operating frequency of a system. Recently, nonlinear vibration absorbers attracted attention of researchers due to some potential advantages they possess over the TMDs. The nonlinear vibration absorber, or the nonlinear energy sink (NES), has an advantage of being effective over a broad range of excitation frequencies, which makes it more suitable for systems with several resonant frequencies, or for a system with varying excitation frequency. Vibration dissipation mechanism in an NES is passive and ensures that there is no energy backflow to the primary system. In this study, an experimental setup of a rotational system has been designed for validation of the concept of nonlinear torsional vibration absorber with geometrically induced cubic stiffness nonlinearity. Dimensions of the primary system have been optimized so as to get the first natural frequency of the system to be fairly low. This was done in order to excite the dynamic system for torsional vibration response by the available motor. Experiments have been performed to obtain the modal parameters of the system. Based on the obtained modal parameters, the design optimization of the nonlinear torsional vibration absorber was carried out using an equivalent 2-DOF modal model. The optimality criterion was chosen to be maximization of energy dissipation in the nonlinear absorber attached to the equivalent 2-DOF system. The optimized design parameters of the nonlinear absorber were tested on the original 5-DOF system numerically. A comparison was made between the performance of linear and nonlinear absorbers using the numerical models. The comparison showed the superiority of the nonlinear absorber over its linear counterpart for the given set of primary system parameters as the vibration energy dissipation in the former is

  10. The effect of stereochemistry on carbohydrate hydration in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, Saskia Alexandra

    1992-01-01

    Although-carbohydrates are widely used, not much is known about the stereochemical aspects of hydration of carbohydrates. For D-aldohexoses, for example, there are eight different stereoisomers. Just how the hydroxy topology of a carbohydrate molecule influences the hydration behaviour in water is

  11. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, DUBNA, contains eight separate records on symmetry in modern physics (dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of academician V.A.Fock), the double φ-meson production investigation on the Serpukhov accelerator, two-leptonic η-meson decays and SUSY without R parity, charge form factors and alpha-cluster internal structure of 12 C, increasing of muon-track reconstruction efficiency in ME1/1 Dubna prototype for the CMS/LHC, study of photon-structure function F 2 γ in the reaction e + e - → e + e - + hadrons at LEP2, jets reconstruction possibility in pAu and AuAu interactions at STAR RHIC and high-vacuum nondispersable gas absorber

  12. Method of absorbing UF6 from gaseous mixtures in alkamine absorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafferty, R.H.; Smiley, S.H.; Radimer, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for recovering UF 6 from gaseous mixtures by absorption in a liquid. The liquid absorbent must have a relatively low viscosity and at least one component of the absorbent is an alkamine having less than 3 carbon atoms bonded to the amino nitrogen, less than 2 of the carbon atoms other than those bonded to the amino nitrogen are free of the hydroxy radical and precipitate the absorbed uranium from the absorbent. At least one component of the absorbent is chosen from the group consisting of ethanolamine, diethanolamine, and 3-methyl-3-amino-propane-diol-1,2

  13. Low back pain: conservative treatment with artificial shock absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosk, J; Voloshin, A S

    1985-03-01

    A new method of conservative treatment for low back pain (LBP) was studied by follow-up investigation of 382 patients during the last five years. The attempt to reduce repetitive impulsive intervertebral impact in the troublesome S1-L5-4 area by significant improvement of the foot's attenuational capacity through artificial viscoelastic shock absorbing was prompted by the authors' work on decreased capability of LBP spines to attenuate axially propagated walking stresses. Viscoelastic shoe inserts were used in addition to light flexible shoes as artificial shock absorbing devices. Maximal amplitudes of bone oscillation during walking were reduced by about 40% by the viscoelastic inserts. Rapid and surprisingly significant improvement of pain syndrome and patient mobility occurred in about 80% of the patients. The accelerographic patterns recorded on a sacrum of patient with LBP were unusual for a healthy subject; they usually disappeared after treatment in LBP cases. Results suggested that poor walking impact attenuation was a true cause for prolonging intervertebral structures overstrain and consequent degeneration. It seemed logical that as spine damage could be explained primarily by prolonged impulsive overstrain, treatment must include viscoelastic inserts which increase foot shock absorbing capacity and help cushion the spine.

  14. Rapid hydrolysis of celluloses in homogeneous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garves, K

    1979-01-01

    Dissolution of cellulose (I), cotton, and cotton linters in a mixture of Ac0H, Ac/sub 2/O, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and DMF at 120 to 160 degrees resulted in rapid and complete hydrolysis of I with decomposition of the cellulose acetatesulfate formed by gradual addition of aqueous acid. Highly crystalline I is quickly decomposed to glucose with minimum byproduct formation. Carbohydrate products containing sugar units other than glucose are hydrolyzed with destruction of monosaccharides.

  15. On the definition of absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grusell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The quantity absorbed dose is used extensively in all areas concerning the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological organisms, as well as with matter in general. The most recent and authoritative definition of absorbed dose is given by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) in ICRU Report 85. However, that definition is incomplete. The purpose of the present work is to give a rigorous definition of absorbed dose. Methods: Absorbed dose is defined in terms of the random variable specific energy imparted. A random variable is a mathematical function, and it cannot be defined without specifying its domain of definition which is a probability space. This is not done in report 85 by the ICRU, mentioned above. Results: In the present work a definition of a suitable probability space is given, so that a rigorous definition of absorbed dose is possible. This necessarily includes the specification of the experiment which the probability space describes. In this case this is an irradiation, which is specified by the initial particles released and by the material objects which can interact with the radiation. Some consequences are discussed. Specific energy imparted is defined for a volume, and the definition of absorbed dose as a point function involves the specific energy imparted for a small mass contained in a volume surrounding the point. A possible more precise definition of this volume is suggested and discussed. Conclusions: The importance of absorbed dose motivates a proper definition, and one is given in the present work. No rigorous definition has been presented before. - Highlights: • A stringent definition of absorbed dose is given. • This requires the definition of an irradiation and a suitable probability space. • A stringent definition is important for an understanding of the concept absorbed dose

  16. Radioactive iodine absorbing properties of tetrathiafulvalene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Tomiyasu; Nakamura, Asao (Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Central Research Labs.); Nogawa, Norio; Oohashi, Kunio; Morikawa, Naotake

    1989-05-01

    For the purpose of searching some effective absorbents of gaseous radioactive iodine, 16 substances considered as having an affinity for iodine were investigated with regular iodine and /sup 125/I. In a preliminary survey, only tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was found to have satisfactory absorbing properties comparable to activated charcoal. A further detailed comparison of the properties between TTF and activated charcoal led us to the conclusion that the former has more preferable properties as absorbent of radioactive iodine than the latter in all points studied. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The absorption of iodine on TTF in atmosphere was about twice as much as that on activated charcoal. Desorption of iodine from saturatedly absorbed iodine on TTF was practically negligible except trace amount of initial desorption, while that on activated charcoal was considerable (3%/50h) even in the air at room temperature. (2) Absorbed amount of iodine on activated charcoal decreased with increasing gaseous iodine concentration, air flow rate, on humidity of flowing-air. On the other hand, those factors scarcely affected that on TTF. Under an air flow rate of 1m/s, activated charcoal absorbs only 80% of iodine, while TTF absorbs more than 99%. (3) In flowing-air saturated with water vapor, iodine absorbed on activated charcoal was gradually liberated although by small amount (0.08%/100h), while that on TTF was much more stable for a long period (0.004%/100h). As a conclusion, TTF is considered to be useful as a quite effective radioactive iodine absorbent, especially in the case where protection from radioactive iodine should be serious, though it is expensive now. (author).

  17. Estimation of Absorbed Dose in Occlusal Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Young Ah; Choi, Karp Shick; Lee, Sang Han

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate absorbed dose of each important anatomic site of phantom (RT-210 Head and Neck Section R, Humanoid Systems Co., U.S.A.) head in occlusal radiography. X-radiation dosimetry at 12 anatomic sites in maxillary anterior topography, maxillary posterior topography, mandibular anterior cross-section, mandibular posterior cross-section, mandibular anterior topographic, mandibular posterior topographic occlusal projection was performed with calcium sulfate thermoluminescent dosimeters under 70 Kvp and 15 mA, 1/4 second (8 inch cone ) and 1 second (16 inch cone) exposure time. The results obtained were as follows: Skin surface produced highest absorbed dose ranged between 3264 mrad and 4073 mrad but there was little difference between projections. In maxillary anterior topographic occlusal radiography, eyeballs, maxillary sinuses, and pituitary gland sites produced higher absorbed doses than those of other sites. In maxillary posterior topographic occlusal radiography, exposed eyeball site and exposed maxillary sinus site produced high absorbed doses. In mandibular anterior cross-sectional occlusal radiography, all sites were produced relatively low absorbed dose except eyeball sites. In Mandibular posterior cross-sectional occlusal radiography, exposed eyeball site and exposed maxillary sinus site were produced relatively higher absorbed doses than other sites. In mandibular anterior topographic occlusal radiography, maxillary sinuses, submandibular glands, and thyroid gland sites produced high absorbed doses than other sites. In mandibular posterior topographic occlusal radiography, submandibular gland site of the exposed side produced high absorbed dose than other sites and eyeball site of the opposite side produced relatively high absorbed dose.

  18. Radioactive iodine absorbing properties of tetrathiafulvalene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tomiyasu; Nakamura, Asao; Nogawa, Norio; Oohashi, Kunio; Morikawa, Naotake.

    1989-01-01

    For the purpose of searching some effective absorbents of gaseous radioactive iodine, 16 substances considered as having an affinity for iodine were investigated with regular iodine and 125 I. In a preliminary survey, only tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) was found to have satisfactory absorbing properties comparable to activated charcoal. A further detailed comparison of the properties between TTF and activated charcoal led us to the conclusion that the former has more preferable properties as absorbent of radioactive iodine than the latter in all points studied. The results are summarized as follows: (1) The absorption of iodine on TTF in atmosphere was about twice as much as that on activated charcoal. Desorption of iodine from saturatedly absorbed iodine on TTF was practically negligible except trace amount of initial desorption, while that on activated charcoal was considerable (3%/50h) even in the air at room temperature. (2) Absorbed amount of iodine on activated charcoal decreased with increasing gaseous iodine concentration, air flow rate, on humidity of flowing-air. On the other hand, those factors scarcely affected that on TTF. Under an air flow rate of 1m/s, activated charcoal absorbs only 80% of iodine, while TTF absorbs more than 99%. (3) In flowing-air saturated with water vapor, iodine absorbed on activated charcoal was gradually liberated although by small amount (0.08%/100h), while that on TTF was much more stable for a long period (0.004%/100h). As a conclusion, TTF is considered to be useful as a quite effective radioactive iodine absorbent, especially in the case where protection from radioactive iodine should be serious, though it is expensive now. (author)

  19. Comparison of a carbohydrate-free diet vs. fasting on plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Frank Q; Almokayyad, Rami M; Gannon, Mary C

    2015-02-01

    Hyperglycemia improves when patients with type 2 diabetes are placed on a weight-loss diet. Improvement typically occurs soon after diet implementation. This rapid response could result from low fuel supply (calories), lower carbohydrate content of the weight-loss diet, and/or weight loss per se. To differentiate these effects, glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glucagon were determined during the last 24 h of a 3-day period without food (severe calorie restriction) and a calorie-sufficient, carbohydrate-free diet. Seven subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes were studied. A randomized-crossover design with a 4-week washout period between arms was used. Results from both the calorie-sufficient, carbohydrate-free diet and the 3-day fast were compared with the initial standard diet consisting of 55% carbohydrate, 15% protein and 30% fat. The overnight fasting glucose concentration decreased from 196 (standard diet) to 160 (carbohydrate-free diet) to 127 mg/dl (fasting). The 24 h glucose and insulin area responses decreased by 35% and 48% on day 3 of the carbohydrate-free diet, and by 49% and 69% after fasting. Overnight basal insulin and glucagon remained unchanged. Short-term fasting dramatically lowered overnight fasting and 24 h integrated glucose concentrations. Carbohydrate restriction per se could account for 71% of the reduction. Insulin could not entirely explain the glucose responses. In the absence of carbohydrate, the net insulin response was 28% of the standard diet. Glucagon did not contribute to the metabolic adaptations observed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    states, due to conduction band onparabolicity and scattering into satellite valleys in strong THz fields. Saturable absorber parameters, such as linear and nonsaturable transmission, and saturation fluence, are extracted by fits to a classic saturable absorber model. Further, we observe THz pulse......We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in the terahertz THz frequency range at room temperature using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. The saturation mechanism is based on a decrease in electron conductivity of semiconductors at high electron momentum...

  1. Absorbed dose by a CMOS in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja H, C. G.; Valero L, C. Y.; Guzman G, K. A.; Banuelos F, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Paredes G, L. C., E-mail: candy_borja@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    Absorbed dose by a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit as part of a pacemaker, has been estimated using Monte Carlo calculations. For a cancer patient who is a pacemaker carrier, scattered radiation could damage pacemaker CMOS circuits affecting patient's health. Absorbed dose in CMOS circuit due to scattered photons is too small and therefore is not the cause of failures in pacemakers, but neutron calculations shown an absorbed dose that could cause damage in CMOS due to neutron-hydrogen interactions. (Author)

  2. Energy Absorbing Effectiveness – Different Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotełko Maria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the study of different crashworthiness indicators used to evaluate energy absorbing effectiveness of thin-walled energy absorbers is presented. Several different indicators are used to assess an effectiveness of two types of absorbing structures, namely thin-walled prismatic column with flaws and thin-walled prismatic frustum (hollow or foam filled in both cases subjected to axial compressive impact load. The indicators are calculated for different materials and different geometrical parameters. The problem of selection of the most appropriate and general indicators is discussed.

  3. Graphene and Graphene Metamaterials for Terahertz Absorbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Booth, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Graphene, due to the possibility to tune its conductivity, is the promising material for a range of the terahertz (THz) applications, such as tunable reflectors, absorbers, modulators, filters and polarization converters. Subwavelength structuring of graphene in order to form metamaterials allows...... for even more control over the THz waves. In this poster presentation I will show an elegant way to describe the graphene metamaterials and the design of graphene based absorbers. I will also present our recent experimental results on the graphene absorbers characterization....

  4. Effects of Bacterial Inoculants and Absorbents on Fermentation Properties and Chemical Composition of Fresh Sugar Beet Pulp Silage Using Laboratory silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Seidali Dolat-Abad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Ensiling is one of the common preserving methods for forage or other organic materials. In this method, organic matters were preserved by proving an aerobic condition and then by reducing the pH with increasing acids production (mainly lactic acid. Some circumstances like enough soluble carbohydrates, low buffering capacity and appropriate dry matter concentration are needed in ensilages for an ideal silage production. Seepage production during ensiling is one of the most problems especially when high moisture materials (like fresh beet sugar pulp are ensiled. Silage seepage can pollute the environment and make loses in nutrients like soluble carbohydrates, protein, organic acids and etc. Moreover, lactic acid bacteria inoculants (Mainly consist of Lactobacillus plantarum have been widely used for improving fermentation pattern in ensilages. These external provided bacteria usually enhance lactic acid production in silage and then accelerate the falling of pH values in silages. Rapid decrease in pH can inhibit non-beneficial bacteria from activity which finally preserves nutrients from un-necessary fermentation or oxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactive effects of lactic acid bacteria inoculants and some absorbents (straw and pith on chemical properties and fermentation profile of wet sugar beet pulp silage. Materials and Methods In the first experiment, fresh wet sugar beet pulp was treated with 5% straw or 5% pith in order to investigate the effects of these absorbents on chemical composition, fermentation characteristics and effluent production during ensiling period. In the second experiment, fresh wet sugar beet pulp was treated with a commercial lactic acid bacteria inoculants (Ecosyle and/or 5% pith in order to investing the main and interaction effects of the bacterial bacteria inoculants and the best absorbents from the experiment 1. In both experiments, triplicate samples were prepared for each

  5. Thin absorbers for large-area soft X-ray microcalorimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocks, L. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)]. E-mail: rocks@wisp.physics.wisc.edu; Anderson, M.B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bilgri, N. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Brekosky, R. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gwynne Crowder, S. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kelley, R. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kilbourne, C.A. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lai, T. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Lindeman, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Man, J. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); McCammon, D. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Nelms, K.L. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Porter, F.S. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sivananthan, S. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Vidugiris, G. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Zhao, J. [University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    The X-ray Quantum Calorimeter (XQC) sounding rocket experiment utilizes a microcalorimeter array for observing the diffuse soft X-ray background. Observations of such low surface-brightness targets require a large-area detector. We will be using an array of large absorbers. Good absorbers must rapidly and completely thermalize photons, have small heat capacity for high stopping efficiency and have good lateral thermal transport. For observing the soft X-ray background (energies <1 keV), the volume and heat capacity of absorber material can be kept to a minimum by making the absorbers only as thick as needed for high quantum efficiency at these low energies. These thin, large-area absorbers are not self-supporting and have poor lateral heat transport. Depositing the absorber material on a Si substrate provides support and improves lateral thermal conduction. We present heat capacity results for thin HgTe and thin Bi, each on Si substrates. We also describe the HgTe absorber fabrication.

  6. Recent developments of smart electromagnetic absorbers based polymer-composites at gigahertz frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, Fadzidah Mohd.; Hashim, Mansor; Abbas, Zulkifly; Ismail, Ismayadi; Nazlan, Rodziah; Ibrahim, Idza Riati

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase in electromagnetic interference has received a serious attention from researchers who responded by producing a variety of radar absorbing materials especially at high gigahertz frequencies. Ongoing investigation is being carried out in order to find the best absorbing materials which can fulfill the requirements for smart absorbing materials which are lightweight, broad bandwidth absorption, stronger absorption etc. Thus, to improve the absorbing capability, several important parameters need to be taken into consideration such as filler type, loading level, type of polymer matrix, physical thickness, grain sizes, layers and bandwidth. Therefore, this article introduces the electromagnetic wave absorption mechanisms and then reveals and reviews those parameters that enhance the absorption performance. - Highlights: • Development variety of radar absorbing materials especially at high gigahertz frequencies. • Best absorbing materials which can fulfill the requirements for smart absorbing materials which are lightweight, broad bandwidth absorption, stronger absorption etc. • Important parameters need to be taken into consideration to obtain stronger absorption and better performances.

  7. OrbusNeich fully absorbable coronary stent platform incorporating dual partitioned coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottone, Robert J; Thatcher, G Lawrence; Parker, Sherry P; Hanks, Laurence; Kujawa, David A; Rowland, Stephen M; Costa, Marco; Schwartz, Robert S; Onuma, Yoshinobu

    2009-12-15

    The field of stent based tissue engineering continues to revolutionise modern medicine by designing novel materials to restore vascular tissue function. Accordingly, the following discussion examines a novel, absorbable, polymeric scaffold engineered in combination with dual therapeutic coating, enabling locally administered temporary scaffolding in the coronary arteries for long term vascular patency and repair. This coronary stent platform consists of an absorbable polymeric material stent structure that incorporates a dual partitioned coating, by means of pro-healing EPC (endothelial progenitor cell) capture technology allowing for rapid endothelial coverage, and an absorbable polymer matrix with sustained elution of sirolimus, a drug controlling neointimal proliferation. This paper provides a brief overview of the various innovations developed by OrbusNeich to create this fully absorbable coronary device platform.

  8. The antimicrobial efficacy and structure activity relationship of novel carbohydrate fatty acid derivatives against Listeria spp. and food spoilage microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobmann, Patricia; Smith, Aoife; Dunne, Julie; Henehan, Gary; Bourke, Paula

    2009-01-15

    Novel mono-substituted carbohydrate fatty acid (CFA) esters and ethers were investigated for their antibacterial activity against a range of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria focussing on Listeria monocytogenes. Carbohydrate derivatives with structural differences enable comparative studies on the structure/activity relationship for antimicrobial efficacy and mechanism of action. The antimicrobial efficacy of the synthesized compounds was compared with commercially available compounds such as monolaurin and monocaprylin, as well as the pure free fatty acids, lauric acid and caprylic acid, which have proven antimicrobial activity. Compound efficacy was compared using an absorbance based broth microdilution assay to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), increase in lag phase and decrease in maximum growth rate. Among the carbohydrate derivatives synthesized, lauric ether of methyl alpha-d-glucopyranoside and lauric ester of methyl alpha-d-mannopyranoside showed the highest growth-inhibitory effect with MIC values of 0.04 mM, comparable to monolaurin. CFA derivatives were generally more active against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria. The analysis of both ester and ether fatty acid derivatives of the same carbohydrate, in tandem with alpha and beta configuration of the carbohydrate moiety suggest that the carbohydrate moiety is involved in the antimicrobial activity of the fatty acid derivatives and that the nature of the bond also has a significant effect on efficacy, which requires further investigation. This class of CFA derivatives has great potential for developing antibacterial agents relevant to the food industry, particularly for control of Listeria or other Gram-positive pathogens.

  9. Solubility of carbohydrates in heavy water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Marcus V C; Carvalho, Larissa V C; Sabadini, Edvaldo

    2012-05-15

    The solubility of several mono-(glucose and xylose), di-(sucrose and maltose), tri-(raffinose) and cyclic (α-cyclodextrin) saccharides in H(2)O and in D(2)O were measured over a range of temperatures. The solution enthalpies for the different carbohydrates in the two solvents were determined using the vant' Hoff equation and the values in D(2)O are presented here for the first time. Our findings indicate that the replacement of H(2)O by D(2)O remarkably decreases the solubilities of the less soluble carbohydrates, such as maltose, raffinose and α-cyclodextrin. On the other hand, the more soluble saccharides, glucose, xylose, and sucrose, are practically insensitive to the H/D replacement in water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  11. Carbohydrates and the human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassard, Christophe; Lacroix, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Due to its scale and its important role in maintaining health, the gut microbiota can be considered as a 'new organ' inside the human body. Many complex carbohydrates are degraded and fermented by the human gut microbiota in the large intestine to both yield basic energy salvage and impact gut health through produced metabolites. This review will focus on the gut microbes and microbial mechanisms responsible for polysaccharides degradation and fermentation in the large intestine. Gut microbes and bacterial metabolites impact the host at many levels, including modulation of inflammation, and glucose and lipid metabolisms. A complex relationship occurs in the intestine between the human gut microbiota, diet and the host. Research on carbohydrates and gut microbiota composition and functionality is fast developing and will open opportunities for prevention and treatment of obesity, diabetes and other related metabolic disorders through manipulation of the gut ecosystem.

  12. Carbocyclic Carbohydrate Mimics as Potential Glycosidase Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanefjord, Mette; Lundt, Inge

    It has been proven that aminocyclopentanols having the aminogroup adjacent to a carbon sidechain could be potential anomer-selective glycosidase inhibitors [1]. A successful pathway for synthesising mimics to L-carbohydrates 2, by introducing nitrogen to the C6 position in compound 1, has been...... developed in our group. A similar strategy has been used for synthesising mimics of D-carbohydrates. The α,β-unsaturated lactone 3 was cyclised to compound 4 which was further transformed into 5. The nitrogen functionality in compound 7 is introduced by an Overman rearrangement of 6 and the hydroxyl...... functionalities was introduced by either epoxidation or dihydroxylation of 7. Finally, reduction of the lactone ring led to the sugar mimics 8. The synthesis of several isomers of 8 will be presented. [1] a) Kleban, M. ; Hilgers, P. ; Greul, J.N. ; Kugler, R.D. ; Li, J. ; Picasso, S. ; Vogel, P. ; Jäger, V. Chem...

  13. Spacesuit Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary goal is to build and test a rigid Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR) coupon based on honeycomb geometry that would be applicable for EVA and...

  14. Full-flow absorbers. Every centimetre counts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, Joachim

    2012-07-01

    New absorbers with a maximised area for heat exchange with the thermal medium are significantly more efficient than the presently typical designs. Both the industry and researchers are working to revive an old idea. (orig.)

  15. Quantitative neutron radiography using neutron absorbing honeycomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masayoshi; Oda, Masahiro; Takahashi, Kenji; Ohkubo, Kohei; Tasaka, Kanji; Tsuruno, Akira; Matsubayashi, Masahito.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation concerns quantitative neutron radiography and computed tomography by using a neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator. By setting the neutron absorbing honeycomb collimator between object and imaging system, neutrons scattered in the object were absorbed by the honeycomb material and eliminated before coming to the imaging system, but the neutrons which were transmitted the object without interaction could reach the imaging system. The image by purely transmitted neutrons gives the quantitative information. Two honeycombs were prepared with coating of boron nitride and gadolinium oxide and evaluated for the quantitative application. The relation between the neutron total cross section and the attenuation coefficient confirmed that they were in a fairly good agreement. Application to quantitative computed tomography was also successfully conducted. The new neutron radiography method using the neutron-absorbing honeycomb collimator for the elimination of the scattered neutrons improved remarkably the quantitativeness of the neutron radiography and computed tomography. (author)

  16. An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-broadband multilayered graphene absorber operating at terahertz (THz) frequencies is proposed. The absorber design makes use of three mechanisms: (i) The graphene layers are asymmetrically patterned to support higher order surface plasmon modes that destructively interfere with the dipolar mode and generate electromagnetically induced absorption. (ii) The patterned graphene layers biased at different gate voltages backedup with dielectric substrates are stacked on top of each other. The resulting absorber is polarization dependent but has an ultra-broadband of operation. (iii) Graphene\\'s damping factor is increased by lowering its electron mobility to 1000cm 2=Vs. Indeed, numerical experiments demonstrate that with only three layers, bandwidth of 90% absorption can be extended upto 7THz, which is drastically larger than only few THz of bandwidth that can be achieved with existing metallic/graphene absorbers. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  17. Analysis and validation of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lütteke, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The article summarizes the information that is gained from and the errors that are found in carbohydrate structures in the Protein Data Bank. Validation tools that can locate these errors are described. Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of the carbohydrate molecules is indispensable for a full understanding of the molecular processes in which carbohydrates are involved, such as protein glycosylation or protein–carbohydrate interactions. The Protein Data Bank (PDB) is a valuable resource for three-dimensional structural information on glycoproteins and protein–carbohydrate complexes. Unfortunately, many carbohydrate moieties in the PDB contain inconsistencies or errors. This article gives an overview of the information that can be obtained from individual PDB entries and from statistical analyses of sets of three-dimensional structures, of typical problems that arise during the analysis of carbohydrate three-dimensional structures and of the validation tools that are currently available to scientists to evaluate the quality of these structures

  18. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. Objectives To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an e...

  19. Phase Space Exchange in Thick Wedge Absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The problem of phase space exchange in wedge absorbers with ionization cooling is discussed. The wedge absorber exchanges transverse and longitudinal phase space by introducing a position-dependent energy loss. In this paper we note that the wedges used with ionization cooling are relatively thick, so that single wedges cause relatively large changes in beam phase space. Calculation methods adapted to such “thick wedge” cases are presented, and beam phase-space transformations through such wedges are discussed.

  20. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast THz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors in the THz frequency range using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. Further, we observe THz pulse shortening and increase of the group refractive index at high field strengths.......We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors in the THz frequency range using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. Further, we observe THz pulse shortening and increase of the group refractive index at high field strengths....

  1. Actual behaviour of a ball vibration absorber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirner, Miroš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 8 (2002), s. 987-1005 ISSN 0167-6105 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GV103/96/K034 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : TV towers * wind-excited vibrations * vibration absorbers * pendulum absorber Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.513, year: 2002 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167610502002155#

  2. A Wedge Absorber Experiment at MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermilab; Mohayai, Tanaz [IIT, Chicago; Rogers, Chris [Rutherford; Snopok, Pavel [IIT, Chicago; Summers, Don [Mississippi U.

    2017-05-01

    Emittance exchange mediated by wedge absorbers is required for longitudinal ionization cooling and for final transverse emittance minimization for a muon collider. A wedge absorber within the MICE beam line could serve as a demonstration of the type of emittance exchange needed for 6-D cooling, including the configurations needed for muon colliders, as well as configurations for low-energy muon sources. Parameters for this test are explored in simulation and possible experimental configurations with simulated results are presented.

  3. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albernaz, Pedro L Mangabeira

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an early diagnosis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Retrospective study of 376 patients with inner ear symptoms suggestive of disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The authors present patientś clinical symptoms and clinical evaluations, with emphasis on the glucose and insulin essays. Authors based their conclusions on otolaryngological findings, diagnostic procedures and treatment principles. They found that auditory and vestibular symptoms usually occur prior to other manifestations of metabolic changes, leading to an early diagnosis of hyperinsulinemia, intestinal sugar malabsorption or diabetes. Previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II was found in 39 patients. The identification of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances is important not only to minimize the patients' clinical symptoms, but also to help maintain their general health.

  4. Hearing Loss, Dizziness, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albernaz, Pedro L. Mangabeira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Metabolic activity of the inner ear is very intense, and makes it sensitive to changes in the body homeostasis. This study involves a group of patients with inner ear disorders related to carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, including hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, and episodes of vertigo. Objectives To describe the symptoms of metabolic inner ear disorders and the examinations required to establish diagnoses. These symptoms are often the first to allow for an early diagnosis of metabolic disorders and diabetes. Methods Retrospective study of 376 patients with inner ear symptoms suggestive of disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism. The authors present patientś clinical symptoms and clinical evaluations, with emphasis on the glucose and insulin essays. Results Authors based their conclusions on otolaryngological findings, diagnostic procedures and treatment principles. They found that auditory and vestibular symptoms usually occur prior to other manifestations of metabolic changes, leading to an early diagnosis of hyperinsulinemia, intestinal sugar malabsorption or diabetes. Previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus type II was found in 39 patients. Conclusions The identification of carbohydrate metabolism disturbances is important not only to minimize the patients' clinical symptoms, but also to help maintain their general health.

  5. Adaptive Piezoelectric Absorber for Active Vibration Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Herold

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive vibration control solutions are often limited to working reliably at one design point. Especially applied to lightweight structures, which tend to have unwanted vibration, active vibration control approaches can outperform passive solutions. To generate dynamic forces in a narrow frequency band, passive single-degree-of-freedom oscillators are frequently used as vibration absorbers and neutralizers. In order to respond to changes in system properties and/or the frequency of excitation forces, in this work, adaptive vibration compensation by a tunable piezoelectric vibration absorber is investigated. A special design containing piezoelectric stack actuators is used to cover a large tuning range for the natural frequency of the adaptive vibration absorber, while also the utilization as an active dynamic inertial mass actuator for active control concepts is possible, which can help to implement a broadband vibration control system. An analytical model is set up to derive general design rules for the system. An absorber prototype is set up and validated experimentally for both use cases of an adaptive vibration absorber and inertial mass actuator. Finally, the adaptive vibration control system is installed and tested with a basic truss structure in the laboratory, using both the possibility to adjust the properties of the absorber and active control.

  6. Performance of an absorbing concentrating solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imadojemu, H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparison of the efficiency of an absorbing fluid parabolic trough concentrating solar collector and a traditional concentrating collector that was made. In the absorbing fluid collector, black liquid flows through a glass tube absorber while the same black liquid flows through a selective black coated copper tube absorber while the same black fluid flows through a selective black coated copper tube absorber in the traditional collector. After a careful study of the properties of available black liquids, a mixture of water and black ink was chosen as the black absorbing medium or transfer fluid. In the black liquid glass collector there is a slightly improved efficiency based on beam radiation as a result of the direct absorption process and an increase in the effective transmittance absorptance. At worst the efficiency of this collector equals that of the traditional concentrating collector when the efficiency is based on total radiation. The collector's reflecting surfaces were made of aluminum sheet, parabolic line focus and with cylindrical receivers. The ease of manufacture and reduced cost per unit energy collected, in addition to the clean and pollution free mode of energy conversion, makes it very attractive

  7. [Sources of dissolved organic carbon and the bioavailability of dissolved carbohydrates in the tributaries of Lake Taihu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lin-Lin; Wu, Xiao-Dong; Kong, Fan-Xiang; Liu, Bo; Yan, De-Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Surface water samples of Yincungang and Chendonggang Rivers were collected from September 2012 to August 2013 in Lake Taihu. Water temperature, Chlorophyll a and bacterial abundance were analyzed, as well as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, stable carbon isotope of DOC (Δ13C(DOC)), specific UV absorbance (SUVA254 ) and dissolved carbohydrates concentrations. Δ13C(DOC) ranged from -27.03% per thousand ± 0.30% per thousand to -23.38%per thousand ± 0.20% per thousand, indicating a terrestrial source. Both the autochthonous and allochthonous sources contributed to the carbohydrates pool in the tributaries. Significant differences in PCHO (polysaccharides) and MCHO (monosaccharides) concentrations were observed between spring-summer and autumn-winter (P carbohydrates. PCHO contributed a major fraction to TCHO (total dissolved carbohydrates) in autumn and winter, which could be explained by the accumulation of undegradable PCHO limited by the low water temperature; MCHO contributed a major fraction to TCHO in spring and summer, which might be caused by the transformation from PCHO by microbes at high water temperature.

  8. Effects of eco-friendly carbohydrate-based superabsorbent polymers on seed germination and seedling growth of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jinghe; Zhang, Wenxu; Liang, Li; Lei, Ziqiang

    2018-02-01

    Desertification is the degradation of land in arid and semi-arid areas. Nowadays, lack of water and desertification are extreme problems for plant survival and growth in the arid and semi-arid areas of the world. It becomes increasingly important as to how to let the plant absorb moisture more effectively for keeping growth strong. We synthesized superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) with carbohydrate and characterized them by Fourier transform infrared spectra analyses, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses. Then, a completely randomized experiment was conducted to assess the effect of carbohydrate-based SAPs on seed germination and seedling growth of maize in an artificial climate chest. The results showed that adding an appropriate amount of SAPs could improve root length, shoot length, total biomass, germination potential and germination rate. It indicates that this SAP is not toxic to plants and can promote seed germination, and at the same time provides a possibility of replacing other substrates.

  9. Effects of eco-friendly carbohydrate-based superabsorbent polymers on seed germination and seedling growth of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jinghe; Liang, Li; Lei, Ziqiang

    2018-01-01

    Desertification is the degradation of land in arid and semi-arid areas. Nowadays, lack of water and desertification are extreme problems for plant survival and growth in the arid and semi-arid areas of the world. It becomes increasingly important as to how to let the plant absorb moisture more effectively for keeping growth strong. We synthesized superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) with carbohydrate and characterized them by Fourier transform infrared spectra analyses, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses. Then, a completely randomized experiment was conducted to assess the effect of carbohydrate-based SAPs on seed germination and seedling growth of maize in an artificial climate chest. The results showed that adding an appropriate amount of SAPs could improve root length, shoot length, total biomass, germination potential and germination rate. It indicates that this SAP is not toxic to plants and can promote seed germination, and at the same time provides a possibility of replacing other substrates. PMID:29515838

  10. Abnormal accumulation of intestinal fluid following ingestion of an unabsorbable carbohydrate in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: an MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undseth, R; Berstad, A; Kløw, N-E; Arnljot, K; Moi, K S; Valeur, J

    2014-12-01

    Postprandial discomfort following intake of poorly absorbable, but fermentable carbohydrates is a common complaint in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We used lactulose as a model substance for this group of symptom triggering carbohydrates, aiming to visualize the intestinal response in IBS patients compared to healthy controls. Patients with IBS according to Rome III criteria (n = 52) and healthy controls (n = 16) underwent a lactulose challenge test. By using magnetic resonance imaging, we measured small bowel water content (SBWC), and distension (diameter) of the distal ileum and the colon, both in fasting state and 1 h after ingestion of 10 g lactulose. We recorded symptoms after lactulose ingestion. Lactulose provoked significantly more symptoms in IBS patients than in healthy controls (p intestine or impaired function of the ileocecal segment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Discovery and design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Laura; Araújo, Ana C; Bini, Davide; Gabrielli, Luca; Russo, Laura; Shaikh, Nasrin

    2010-08-01

    Till now, the importance of carbohydrates has been underscored, if compared with the two other major classes of biopolymers such as oligonucleotides and proteins. Recent advances in glycobiology and glycochemistry have imparted a strong interest in the study of this enormous family of biomolecules. Carbohydrates have been shown to be implicated in recognition processes, such as cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix adhesion and cell-intruder recognition phenomena. In addition, carbohydrates are recognized as differentiation markers and as antigenic determinants. Due to their relevant biological role, carbohydrates are promising candidates for drug design and disease treatment. However, the growing number of human disorders known as congenital disorders of glycosylation that are being identified as resulting from abnormalities in glycan structures and protein glycosylation strongly indicates that a fast development of glycobiology, glycochemistry and glycomedicine is highly desirable. The topics give an overview of different approaches that have been used to date for the design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics; this includes the use of native synthetic carbohydrates, the use of carbohydrate mimics designed on the basis of their native counterpart, the use of carbohydrates as scaffolds and finally the design of glyco-fused therapeutics, one of the most recent approaches. The review covers mainly literature that has appeared since 2000, except for a few papers cited for historical reasons. The reader will gain an overview of the current strategies applied to the design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics; in particular, the advantages/disadvantages of different approaches are highlighted. The topic is presented in a general, basic manner and will hopefully be a useful resource for all readers who are not familiar with it. In addition, in order to stress the potentialities of carbohydrates, several examples of carbohydrate-based marketed therapeutics are given

  12. Method of absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas Vyankatrao; Zelepouga, Sergeui; Pratapas, John

    2013-09-17

    A method and apparatus for absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor in which a reference light intensity measurement is made on a non-absorbing reference fluid, a light intensity measurement is made on a sample fluid, and a measured light absorbance of the sample fluid is determined. A corrective light intensity measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength of the sample fluid is made on the sample fluid from which an absorbance correction factor is determined. The absorbance correction factor is then applied to the measured light absorbance of the sample fluid to arrive at a true or accurate absorbance for the sample fluid.

  13. Carbohydrate absorption from one serving of fruit juice in young children: age and carbohydrate composition effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobigrot, T; Chasalow, F I; Lifshitz, F

    1997-04-01

    To test the hypotheses that: the efficiency of carbohydrate absorption in childhood increases with age, and decreased carbohydrate absorption occurs more frequently with juices containing more fructose than glucose and/or sorbitol than with juices which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. One hundred and four healthy children were recruited from the Ambulatory Center at Maimonides Children's Center. They were assigned to one of three age groups: approximately 1, 3 and 5 years of age. Each child received one age-specific dose (by randomization) of one of four juices: a) pear juice which contains fructose in excess to glucose and a large amount of sorbitol; b) apple juice which is similar to pear juice in its fructose to glucose ratio but contains four times less sorbitol than pear juice; c) white grape juice or d) purple grape juice both of which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. Breath hydrogen excretion (BH2) was utilized as the index of carbohydrate absorption. It was measured in fasting children and at 30-minute intervals for 3 hours after drinking the single serving of juice. Multiple breath hydrogen related parameters were quantified and results were expressed as: BH2 peak, area under the curve, and degree of carbohydrate malabsorption. After the test, parents completed a questionnaire and recorded signs and symptoms of intestinal malabsorption for 24 hours. Pear juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher among children 1 and 3 years of age as compared to the levels achieved after the other juices. Apple juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher only among the youngest age group of children. There was no significant difference in carbohydrate absorption among the 5 year old children regardless of the juice consumed. Incomplete carbohydrate absorption (BH2 peak above 20 ppm) occurred more frequently after pear juice consumption (84%) than after apple juice (41%) or grape juice

  14. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF CARBOHYDRATES IN THE FOODS AND BEVERAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Korenman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The extraction of fructose, glucose, galactose, sucrose and lactose from aqueous salt solutions, hydrophilic solvents (aliphatic alcohols, alkyl acetates, ketones of double and triple mixtures has been studied. Under identical conditions set quantitative characteristics extraction has been established. It was found that from the all studied carbohydrateы most fully extracted disaccharides lactose and sucrose. The conditions of concentration and almost complete recovery of carbohydrates from aqueous salt solutions has beenoptimized. The technique of extraction-potentiometric selective determination of carbohydrates in foods and beverages has been developed. As a titrant was used isopropanol solution of boric acid. The developed method allows to determine separately the mono- or disaccharides in milk, which include those contained 5 or less carbohydrates. The complex of photocolorimetric, polarimetric, potentiometric and chromatographic methods for determining carbohydrates in aqueous media and food (diabetic confectionery, juices, dairy products, honey wasproposed. To determine the fructose, glucose and sucrose in natural juices us used optical methods (photoelectrocolorimeters, polarimetry. Method is express, does not require expensive equipment and reagents. Fructose and sucrose in diabetic confectionery was determined by ascending thin layer chromatography. Some diabetic products based on fructose, produced by Russian confectionery factorieshas beenanalyzed. Duration analysis, 50-60 minutes, selective determination of error within 5-7%. Extracts from honey and milk were analyzed potentiometrically. We have developed a technique characterized by the following advantages compared with state standards: rapidity (analysis time 30-35 min, accuracy (relative error within 5 %, does not require expensive equipment and reagents, as well as dilution and filtration of milk stage sampling.

  15. Innovative energy absorbing devices based on composite tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Chandrashekhar

    Analytical and experimental study of innovative load limiting and energy absorbing devices are presented here. The devices are based on composite tubes and can be categorized in to two groups based upon the energy absorbing mechanisms exhibited by them, namely: foam crushing and foam fracturing. The device based on foam crushing as the energy absorbing mechanism is composed of light weight elastic-plastic foam filling inside an angle ply composite tube. The tube is tailored to have a high Poisson’s ratio (>20). Upon being loaded the device experiences large transverse contraction resulting in rapid decrease in diameter. At a certain axial load the foam core begins to crush and energy is dissipated. This device is termed as crush tube device. The device based upon foam shear fracture as the energy absorbing mechanism involves an elastic-plastic core foam in annulus of two concentric extension-twist coupled composite tubes with opposite angles of fibers. The core foam is bonded to the inner and outer tube walls. Upon being loaded axially, the tubes twist in opposite directions and fracture the core foam in out of plane shear and thus dissipate the energy stored. The device is termed as sandwich core device (SCD). The devices exhibit variations in force-displacement characteristics with changes in design and material parameters, resulting in wide range of energy absorption capabilities. A flexible matrix composite system was selected, which was composed of high stiffness carbon fibers as reinforcements in relatively low stiffness polyurethane matrix, based upon large strain to failure capabilities and large beneficial elastic couplings. Linear and non-linear analytical models were developed encapsulating large deformation theory of the laminated composite shells (using non-linear strain energy formulation) to the fracture mechanics of core foam and elastic-plastic deformation theory of the foam filling. The non-linear model is capable of including material and

  16. Warm Absorber Diagnostics of AGN Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallman, Timothy

    Warm absorbers and related phenomena are observable manifestations of outflows or winds from active galactic nuclei (AGN) that have great potential value. Understanding AGN outflows is important for explaining the mass budgets of the central accreting black hole, and also for understanding feedback and the apparent co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. In the X-ray band warm absorbers are observed as photoelectric absorption and resonance line scattering features in the 0.5-10 keV energy band; the UV band also shows resonance line absorption. Warm absorbers are common in low luminosity AGN and they have been extensively studied observationally. They may play an important role in AGN feedback, regulating the net accretion onto the black hole and providing mechanical energy to the surroundings. However, fundamental properties of the warm absorbers are not known: What is the mechanism which drives the outflow?; what is the gas density in the flow and the geometrical distribution of the outflow?; what is the explanation for the apparent relation between warm absorbers and the surprising quasi-relativistic 'ultrafast outflows' (UFOs)? We propose a focused set of model calculations that are aimed at synthesizing observable properties of warm absorber flows and associated quantities. These will be used to explore various scenarios for warm absorber dynamics in order to answer the questions in the previous paragraph. The guiding principle will be to examine as wide a range as possible of warm absorber driving mechanisms, geometry and other properties, but with as careful consideration as possible to physical consistency. We will build on our previous work, which was a systematic campaign for testing important class of scenarios for driving the outflows. We have developed a set of tools that are unique and well suited for dynamical calculations including radiation in this context. We also have state-of-the-art tools for generating synthetic spectra, which are

  17. Impact of anti-acidification microbial consortium on carbohydrate metabolism of key microbes during food waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Caihong; Li, Mingxiao; Qi, Hui; Zhang, Yali; Liu, Dongming; Xia, Xunfeng; Pan, Hongwei; Xi, Beidou

    2018-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of anti-acidification microbial consortium (AAMC), which act synergistically for rapid bioconversion of organic acids on carbohydrate metabolism of key microbes in the course of food waste (FW) composting by metaproteomics. AAMC was inoculated to the composting mass and compared with treatment with alkaline compounds and the control without any amendment. Inoculating AAMC could effectively accelerate carbohydrate degradation process and improve composting efficiency. Carbohydrate metabolic network profiles showed the inoculation with AAMC could increase significantly the types of enzymes catalysing the degradation of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. Furthermore, AAMC inoculum could increase not only diversities of microbes producing key enzymes in metabolism pathways of acetic and propionic acids, but also the amounts of these key enzymes. The increase of diversities of microbes could disperse the pressure from acidic adversity on microorganisms which were capable to degrade acetic and propionic acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Automation of the anthrone assay for carbohydrate concentration determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turula, Vincent E; Gore, Thomas; Singh, Suddham; Arumugham, Rasappa G

    2010-03-01

    Reported is the adaptation of a manual polysaccharide assay applicable for glycoconjugate vaccines such as Prevenar to an automated liquid handling system (LHS) for improved performance. The anthrone assay is used for carbohydrate concentration determinations and was scaled to the microtiter plate format with appropriate mixing, dispensing, and measuring operations. Adaptation and development of the LHS platform was performed with both dextran polysaccharides of various sizes and pneumococcal serotype 6A polysaccharide (PnPs 6A). A standard plate configuration was programmed such that the LHS diluted both calibration standards and a test sample multiple times with six replicate preparations per dilution. This extent of replication minimized the effect of any single deviation or delivery error that might have occurred. Analysis of the dextran polymers ranging in size from 214 kDa to 3.755 MDa showed that regardless of polymer chain length the hydrolysis was complete, as evident by uniform concentration measurements. No plate positional absorbance bias was observed; of 12 plates analyzed to examine positional bias the largest deviation observed was 0.02% percent relative standard deviation (%RSD). The high purity dextran also afforded the opportunity to assess LHS accuracy; nine replicate analyses of dextran yielded a mean accuracy of 101% recovery. As for precision, a total of 22 unique analyses were performed on a single lot of PnPs 6A, and the resulting variability was 2.5% RSD. This work demonstrated the capability of a LHS to perform the anthrone assay consistently and a reduced assay cycle time for greater laboratory capacity.

  19. Identifying the perfect absorption of metamaterial absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, G.; Schalch, J.; Zhao, X.; Zhang, J.; Averitt, R. D.; Zhang, X.

    2018-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the conditions that result in unity absorption in metamaterial absorbers to guide the design and optimization of this important class of functional electromagnetic composites. Multilayer absorbers consisting of a metamaterial layer, dielectric spacer, and ground plane are specifically considered. Using interference theory, the dielectric spacer thickness and resonant frequency for unity absorption can be numerically determined from the functional dependence of the relative phase shift of the total reflection. Further, using transmission line theory in combination with interference theory we obtain analytical expressions for the unity absorption resonance frequency and corresponding spacer layer thickness in terms of the bare resonant frequency of the metamaterial layer and metallic and dielectric losses within the absorber structure. These simple expressions reveal a redshift of the unity absorption frequency with increasing loss that, in turn, necessitates an increase in the thickness of the dielectric spacer. The results of our analysis are experimentally confirmed by performing reflection-based terahertz time-domain spectroscopy on fabricated absorber structures covering a range of dielectric spacer thicknesses with careful control of the loss accomplished through water absorption in a semiporous polyimide dielectric spacer. Our findings can be widely applied to guide the design and optimization of the metamaterial absorbers and sensors.

  20. Evaluation of Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Biochemical Traits of Lettuce under Drought Stress and Super Absorbent or Bentonite Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Valizadeh Ghale Beig

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of two superabsorbents (natural-bentonite and (synthetic-A 200 on the chlorophyll fluorescence index, proline accumulation, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and total carbohydrate in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. was evaluated. For this purpose, a factorial experiment using completely randomized design with superabsorbents at 3 levels (0, 0.15, 0.30 w/w%, drought stress at 2 levels (60 and 100% of field capacity and 4 replicates was conducted. Results showed that photosystem photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm II under drought stress (60% FC as well as lower levels of bentonite superabsorbent polymer reduced. The minimum and maximum proline content were obtained in 0.3% bentonite, 100% FC and 0 benetonite, 60% FC, respectively. The lowest and highest phenolic compounds was corresponded to the highest levels in both super absorbents and control respectively, so that the super absorbent and bentonite, reduced phenolic compounds by 62.65 and 66.21% compared to control. 0 and 0.15 wt % bentonite in high drought stress (60% FC showed the highest and 0.3 wt % bentonite and 100% FC attained the lowest level of antioxidant activity. Control bentonite treatment beds at 60% FC and beds containing 0.3 wt. % bentonite in 100% FC, showed the lowest and the highest total carbohydrate content respectively. Results of this study indicate that bentonite can reduce the negative effects of drought stress similar to artificial super absorbent.

  1. Intestinal absorption of copper: influence of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapnir, R A; Balkman, C

    1992-02-01

    Macronutrients can modulate the intestinal absorption of trace elements by binding the metal or altering mucosal function. We investigated whether certain simple and complex carbohydrates modify copper (Cu) absorption, using an in vivo perfusion technique in the rat. Corn syrup solids, which contain a mixture of glucose polymers of diverse length, added at either 20 or 50 mosm/kg enhanced Cu absorption from a 31.5 microM (2 mg/liter) Cu solution (128 +/- 11 and 130 +/- 11 pmol/min x cm, respectively, vs 101 +/- 4 pmol/min x cm, P less than 0.05, in the absence of carbohydrate). This was concomitant with a stimulation of net water absorption (1.05 +/- 0.08 and 0.84 +/- 0.08 microliter/min x cm, respectively, vs 0.63 +/- 0.02 microliter/min x cm with no carbohydrate, P less than 0.05). Glucose, fructose, lactose, or sucrose had no influence on Cu absorption, although they altered water exchanges, an effect attributable to a reduction of the outflow component of fluid recirculation. Low concentrations of lactose resulted in a greater accumulation of Cu in the intestinal mucosa (8.75 +/- 0.71 micrograms/g vs 5.77 +/- 0.68 micrograms/g for controls, P less than 0.05). Hence, solutes that moderately stimulate mucosa-to-serosa fluid influx in a progressive manner, such as glucose polymers, may contribute to functionally increase Cu absorption. Conversely, conditions which tend to reduce water inflow or increase water outflow across the small intestinal mucosa, as may occur with high lactose diets or in cases of chronic diarrhea, may have negative effects.

  2. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in alcoholic cirrhosis: a kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Grønbaek, M; Møller, Søren

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carbohydrate deficient transferrin has been introduced as a marker of excessive alcohol intake. The present study was undertaken in order to measure the circulating level of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and to assess arteriovenous kinetics...... of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in liver and kidney. METHODS/RESULTS: The median value of serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin was 16.0 U/l in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 41), and this value was not significantly different from that of a normal control group (median 17.4 U/l, n = 55, ns......). Carbohydrate deficient transferrin was significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis and high current alcohol intake than in abstaining patients (20 vs. 14 U/l, p 50 g/day) had a significantly higher carbohydrate deficient transferrin...

  3. Dietary carbohydrates and glucose metabolism in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parillo, M; Riccardi, G

    1995-12-01

    Dietary carbohydrates represent one of the major sources of energy for the human body. However, the main (if not the only) therapy for diabetes since ancient times has been based on reducing dietary carbohydrates drastically because of their effects on blood glucose levels. The introduction of insulin in the 1920s and then of oral hypoglycaemic drugs led to various studies evaluating the biochemical characteristics of carbohydrates and their effects on glucose metabolism in diabetic patients. This review considers the role of dietary carbohydrates in the diet of diabetic patients in the light of the most recent studies and provides a short summary of the biochemistry of carbohydrates and the physiology of carbohydrate digestion.

  4. DNP NMR of carbohydrate converting enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Duus, Jens Øllgaard

    intermediate, however, this evidence is based on mutant of X-ray crystallography and simulations. As the natural substrate lactose does not have any quaternary carbon with long T1, the unnatural substrate o-nitrophenyl β-D-galactopyranoside was used (figure 1) as the quaternarypositions have T1 relaxations...... of ca. 15 s instead of hydrolysis of this substrate can be seen in figure 2, and another use of this substrate is for optimizing the conditions for a labelled substrate (figure 1), which would further increase the signal and allow monitoring of the carbohydrate...

  5. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III.

    1994-01-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group's discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15

  6. Carbohydrates/nucleosides/RNA-DNA-ligand interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaptein, R.; McConnell, B.; Serianni, A.S.; Silks, L.A. III

    1994-12-01

    Carbohydrate and nucleotide structural determination using modern spectroscopic techniques is dependent on our ability to label oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides with stable isotopes. Uniform Carbon 13 and Nitrogen 15 labeling of oligonucleotides is important to present-day efforts, which are focused on determining the structure of relatively small oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides, which form the elements of larger structures. Because of the relatively recent interest in three-dimensional structure, the development of techniques used to label them has lagged behind parallel techniques used to label peptides and proteins. Therefore, this group`s discussion focused primarily on problems faced today in obtaining oligonucleotides labeled uniformly with carbon 13 and nitrogen 15.

  7. Neutron absorbed dose in a pacemaker CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borja H, C. G.; Guzman G, K. A.; Valero L, C.; Banuelos F, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Paredes G, L.

    2012-01-01

    The neutron spectrum and the absorbed dose in a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS), has been estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Eventually a person with a pacemaker becomes an oncology patient that must be treated in a linear accelerator. Pacemaker has integrated circuits as CMOS that are sensitive to intense and pulsed radiation fields. Above 7 MV therapeutic beam is contaminated with photoneutrons that could damage the CMOS. Here, the neutron spectrum and the absorbed dose in a CMOS cell was calculated, also the spectra were calculated in two point-like detectors in the room. Neutron spectrum in the CMOS cell shows a small peak between 0.1 to 1 MeV and a larger peak in the thermal region, joined by epithermal neutrons, same features were observed in the point-like detectors. The absorbed dose in the CMOS was 1.522 x 10 -17 Gy per neutron emitted by the source. (Author)

  8. Neutron absorbed dose in a pacemaker CMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja H, C. G.; Guzman G, K. A.; Valero L, C.; Banuelos F, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Paredes G, L., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    The neutron spectrum and the absorbed dose in a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS), has been estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Eventually a person with a pacemaker becomes an oncology patient that must be treated in a linear accelerator. Pacemaker has integrated circuits as CMOS that are sensitive to intense and pulsed radiation fields. Above 7 MV therapeutic beam is contaminated with photoneutrons that could damage the CMOS. Here, the neutron spectrum and the absorbed dose in a CMOS cell was calculated, also the spectra were calculated in two point-like detectors in the room. Neutron spectrum in the CMOS cell shows a small peak between 0.1 to 1 MeV and a larger peak in the thermal region, joined by epithermal neutrons, same features were observed in the point-like detectors. The absorbed dose in the CMOS was 1.522 x 10{sup -17} Gy per neutron emitted by the source. (Author)

  9. Tribology Aspect of Rubber Shock Absorbers Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Banić

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rubber is a very flexible material with many desirable properties Which enable its broad use in engineering practice. Rubber or rubber-metal springs are widely used as anti-vibration or anti-shock components in technical systems. Rubber-metal springs are usually realized as a bonded assembly, however especially in shock absorbers, it is possible to realize free contacts between rubber and metal parts. In previous research it authors was observed that friction between rubber and metal in such case have a significant influence on the damping characteristics of shock absorber. This paper analyzes the development process of rubber or rubber-metal shock absorbers realized free contacts between the constitutive parts, starting from the design, construction, testing and operation, with special emphasis on the development of rubber-metal springs for the buffing and draw gear of railway vehicles.

  10. Quantum walk with one variable absorbing boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feiran; Zhang, Pei; Wang, Yunlong; Liu, Ruifeng; Gao, Hong; Li, Fuli

    2017-01-01

    Quantum walks constitute a promising ingredient in the research on quantum algorithms; consequently, exploring different types of quantum walks is of great significance for quantum information and quantum computation. In this study, we investigate the progress of quantum walks with a variable absorbing boundary and provide an analytical solution for the escape probability (the probability of a walker that is not absorbed by the boundary). We simulate the behavior of escape probability under different conditions, including the reflection coefficient, boundary location, and initial state. Moreover, it is also meaningful to extend our research to the situation of continuous-time and high-dimensional quantum walks. - Highlights: • A novel scheme about quantum walk with variable boundary is proposed. • The analytical results of the survival probability from the absorbing boundary. • The behavior of survival probability under different boundary conditions. • The influence of different initial coin states on the survival probability.

  11. A wideband absorber for television studios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, M. D. M.

    The acoustic treatment in BBC television has taken various forms to date, all of which have been relatively expensive, some of which provide inadequate absorption. An investigation has been conducted into the possibilities of producing a new type of wideband absorber which would be more economic, also taking installation time into account, than earlier designs. This Report describes the absorption coefficient measurements made on various combinations of materials, from which a wideband sound absorber has been developed. The absorber works efficiently between 50 Hz and 10 kHz, is simple and easy to construct using readily available materials, and is fire resistant. The design lends itself, if necessary, to on-site fine tuning, and savings in the region of 50 percent can be achieved in terms of cost and space with respect to previous designs.

  12. Ferrite HOM Absorber for the RHIC ERL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn,H.; Choi, E.M.; Hammons, L.

    2008-10-01

    A superconducting Energy Recovery Linac is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory to serve as test bed for RHIC upgrades. The damping of higher-order modes in the superconducting five-cell cavity for the Energy-Recovery linac at RHIC is performed exclusively by two ferrite absorbers. The ferrite properties have been measured in ferrite-loaded pill box cavities resulting in the permeability values given by a first-order Debye model for the tiled absorber structure and an equivalent permeability value for computer simulations with solid ring dampers. Measured and simulated results for the higher-order modes in the prototype copper cavity are discussed. First room-temperature measurements of the finished niobium cavity are presented which confirm the effective damping of higher-order modes in the ERL. by the ferrite absorbers.

  13. Aluminum alloy excellent in neutron absorbing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Tetsuya; Tamamura, Tadao; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Ouchi, Ken-ichiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain structural materials made of aluminum alloys having favorable neutron absorbing performance and excellent in the performance as structural materials such as processability and strength. Constitution: Powder of Gd 2 O 3 as a gadolinium compound or metal gadolinium is uniformly mixed with the powder of aluminum or aluminum alloy. The amount of the gadolinium compound added is set to 0.1 - 30 % by weight. No sufficient neutron absorbing performance can be obtained if it is less than 0.1 % by weight, whereas the processability and mechanical property of the alloy are degraded if it exceeds 30 % by weight. Further, the grain size is set to less about 50 μm. Further, since the neutron absorbing performance varies greatly if the aluminum powder size exceeds 100 μm, the diameter is set to less than about 100 μm. These mixtures are molded in a hot press. This enables to obtain aimed structural materials. (Takahashi, M.)

  14. Carbohydrate modified polysiloxanes, 3 - Solution properties of carbohydrate-polysiloxane conjugates in toluene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Katja; Jonas, Gerd; Stadler, Reimund

    2001-01-01

    High molecular weight poly(hydromethyl-co-dimethyl) siloxanes containing 0.6 and 3 mol-% of Si-H units are polar functionalized by the addition of various mono-, di- and oligosaccharides. Due to the hydrogen bond interaction between the carbohydrate moieties, the solution properties are strongly

  15. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from pigmented Bacilli: a genomic approach to assess carbohydrate utilization and degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spore-forming Bacilli are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in a variety of natural habitats, including soil, water and the gastro-intestinal (GI-tract of animals. Isolates of various Bacillus species produce pigments, mostly carotenoids, with a putative protective role against UV irradiation and oxygen-reactive forms. Results We report the annotation of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes of two pigmented Bacilli isolated from the human GI-tract and belonging to the Bacillus indicus and B. firmus species. A high number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs were found in both isolates. A detailed analysis of CAZyme families, was performed and supported by growth data. Carbohydrates able to support growth as the sole carbon source negatively effected carotenoid formation in rich medium, suggesting that a catabolite repression-like mechanism controls carotenoid biosynthesis in both Bacilli. Experimental results on biofilm formation confirmed genomic data on the potentials of B. indicus HU36 to produce a levan-based biofilm, while mucin-binding and -degradation experiments supported genomic data suggesting the ability of both Bacilli to degrade mammalian glycans. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genomes of the two pigmented Bacilli, compared to other Bacillus species and validated by experimental data on carbohydrate utilization, biofilm formation and mucin degradation, suggests that the two pigmented Bacilli are adapted to the intestinal environment and are suited to grow in and colonize the human gut.

  16. The MIRD method of estimating absorbed dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The estimate of absorbed radiation dose from internal emitters provides the information required to assess the radiation risk associated with the administration of radiopharmaceuticals for medical applications. The MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) system of dose calculation provides a systematic approach to combining the biologic distribution data and clearance data of radiopharmaceuticals and the physical properties of radionuclides to obtain dose estimates. This tutorial presents a review of the MIRD schema, the derivation of the equations used to calculate absorbed dose, and shows how the MIRD schema can be applied to estimate dose from radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine

  17. Absorbed Energy in Ship Collisions and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    is that the absorbed energy does not depend on the arrangement of the structure, the material properties, and the damage mode.The purpose of the present paper is to establish a new simple relation between the absorbed energy and the destroyed material volume, which can be used as a design tool for analysis of ship...... collisions and grounding. The developed expressions reflect the structural arrangement, the material properties and different damage patterns.The present method is validated against a large number of existing experimental results and detailed numerical simulation results. Applications to full-sale ship...

  18. Method for manufacture of neutron absorbing articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, D.

    1980-01-01

    A one-step curing method for the manufacture of a neutron absorbing article which comprises irreversibly curing, in desired article form, a form-retaining mixture of boron carbide particles, curable phenolic resin in solid state and in particula te form and a minor proportion of a liquid medium, which boils at a temperature below 200*c., at an elevated temperature so as to obtain bonding of the irreversibly cured phenolic polymer resulting to the boron carbide particles and production of the neutron absorbing article in desired form

  19. LINEAR MODEL FOR NON ISOSCELES ABSORBERS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERG,J.S.

    2003-05-12

    Previous analyses have assumed that wedge absorbers are triangularly shaped with equal angles for the two faces. In this case, to linear order, the energy loss depends only on the position in the direction of the face tilt, and is independent of the incoming angle. One can instead construct an absorber with entrance and exit faces facing rather general directions. In this case, the energy loss can depend on both the position and the angle of the particle in question. This paper demonstrates that and computes the effect to linear order.

  20. Optically Modulated Multiband Terahertz Perfect Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seren, Huseyin R.; Keiser, George R.; Cao, Lingyue

    2014-01-01

    response of resonant metamaterials continues to be a challengingendeavor. Resonant perfect absorbers have flourished as one of the mostpromising metamaterial devices with applications ranging from power har-vesting to terahertz imaging. Here, an optically modulated resonant perfectabsorber is presented....... Utilizing photo-excited free carriers in silicon padsplaced in the capacitive gaps of split ring resonators, a dynamically modu-lated perfect absorber is designed and fabricated to operate in reflection.Large modulation depth (38% and 91%) in two absorption bands (with 97%and 92% peak absorption...

  1. Microstructured extremely thin absorber solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, Matteo; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed by press......In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed...

  2. Multilayer detector for skin absorbed dose measuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osanov, D.P.; Panova, V.P.; Shaks, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    A method for skin dosimetry based on utilization of multilayer detectors and permitting to estimate distribution of absorbed dose by skin depth is described. The detector represents a set of thin sensitive elements separated by tissue-equivalent absorbers. Quantitative evaluation and forecasting the degree of radiation injury of skin are determined by the formula based on determination of the probability of the fact that cells are not destroyed and they can divide further on. The given method ensures a possibility of quantitative evaluation of radiobiological effect and forecasting clinical consequences of skin irradiation by results of corresponding measurements of dose by means of the miultilayer detector

  3. Optimization of Perfect Absorbers with Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Voti, Roberto

    2018-02-01

    We study wide-angle and broadband perfect absorbers with compact multilayer structures made of a sequence of ITO and TiN layers deposited onto a silver thick layer. An optimization procedure is introduced for searching the optimal thicknesses of the layers so as to design a perfect broadband absorber from 400 nm to 750 nm, for a wide range of angles of incidence from 0{°} to 50{°}, for both polarizations and with a low emissivity in the mid-infrared. We eventually compare the performances of several optimal structures that can be very promising for solar thermal energy harvesting and collectors.

  4. Device for absorbing seismic effects on buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xercavins, Pierre; Pompei, Michel.

    1979-01-01

    Device for absorbing seismic effects. The construction or structure to be protected rests on its foundations through at least one footing formed of a stack of metal plates interlinked by layers of adhesive material, over at least a part of their extent, this material being an elastomer that can distort, characterized in that at least part of the area of some metal plates works in association with components which are able to absorb at least some of the energy resulting from friction during the relative movements of the metal plates against the distortion of the elastomer [fr

  5. The effect of dietary carbohydrate on gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Keng-Liang; Kuo, Chung-Mou; Yao, Chih-Chien; Tai, Wei-Chen; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Lim, Chee-Sang; Chiu, Yi-Chun

    2018-01-12

    Acid changes in gastroesophageal reflux with vary component in the food have less been studied, especially carbohydrate. We plan to clarify the effect of different carbohydrate density on low esophageal acid and reflux symptoms of patients with gastroesophgeal reflux disease. Twelve patients (52 ± 12 years old; five female) with gastroesophageal reflux disease were recruited for the prospective crossover study. Each patient was invited for panendoscope, manometry and 24 h pH monitor. The two formulated liquid meal, test meal A: 500 ml liquid meal (containing 84.8 g carbohydrate) and B: same volume liquid meal (but 178.8 g carbohydrate) were randomized supplied as lunch or dinner. Reflux symptoms were recorded. There are significant statistic differences in more Johnson-DeMeester score (p = 0.019), total reflux time (%) (p = 0.028), number of reflux periods (p = 0.026) and longest reflux (p = 0.015) after high carbohydrate diet than low carbohydrate. Total reflux time and number of long reflux periods more than 5 min are significant more after high carbohydrate diet. More acid reflux symptoms are found after high carbohydrate diet. High carbohydrate diet could induce more acid reflux in low esophagus and more reflux symptoms in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier — Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Percival Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen economy presents an appealing energy future but its implementation must solve numerous problems ranging from low-cost sustainable production, high-density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high-density hydrogen carrier and energy source for hydrogen production is possible due to emerging cell-free synthetic biology technology—cell-free synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB. Assembly of numerous enzymes and co-enzymes in vitro can create complicated set of biological reactions or pathways that microorganisms or catalysts cannot complete, for example, C6H10O5 (aq + 7 H2O (l à 12 H2 (g + 6 CO2 (g (PLoS One 2007, 2:e456. Thanks to 100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high-purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end users. Gravimetric density of carbohydrate is 14.8 H2 mass% if water can be recycled from proton exchange membrane fuel cells or 8.33% H2 mass% without water recycling. Renewable carbohydrate can be isolated from plant biomass or would be produced from a combination of solar electricity/hydrogen and carbon dioxide fixation mediated by high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis mediated by SyPaB. The construction of this carbon-neutral carbohydrate economy would address numerous sustainability challenges, such as electricity and hydrogen storage, CO2 fixation and long-term storage, water conservation, transportation fuel production, plus feed and food production.

  7. CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE CONSIDERATIONS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Montfort-Steiger

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Good nutritional practices are important for exercise performance and health during all ages. Athletes and especially growing children engaged in heavy training have higher energy and nutrient requirements compared to their non-active counterparts. Scientific understanding of sports nutrition for the young athlete is lacking behind the growing number of young athletes engaged in sports. Most of the sports nutrition recommendations given to athletic children and adolescents are based on adult findings due to the deficiency in age specific information in young athletes. Therefore, this review reflects on child specific sports nutrition, particularly on carbohydrate intake and metabolism that distinguishes the child athlete from the adult athlete. Children are characterised to be in an insulin resistance stage during certain periods of maturation, have different glycolytic/metabolic responses during exercise, have a tendency for higher fat oxidation during exercise and show different heat dissipation mechanisms compared to adults. These features point out that young athletes may need different nutritional advice on carbohydrate for exercise to those from adult athletes. Sport drinks for example may need to be adapted to children specific needs. However, more research in this area is warranted to clarify sports nutrition needs of the young athlete to provide better and healthy nutritional guidance to young athletes

  8. Crystallization of carbohydrate oxidase from Microdochium nivale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dušková, Jarmila; Dohnálek, Jan; Skálová, Tereza; Østergaard, Lars Henrik; Fuglsang, Claus Crone; Kolenko, Petr; Štěpánková, Andrea; Hašek, Jindřich

    2009-01-01

    Industrially used carbohydrate oxidase was successfully crystallized in several forms, diffraction data suitable for structural analysis were collected. Microdochium nivale carbohydrate oxidase was produced by heterologous recombinant expression in Aspergillus oryzae, purified and crystallized. The enzyme crystallizes with varying crystal morphologies depending on the crystallization conditions. Several different crystal forms were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method, two of which were used for diffraction measurements. Hexagon-shaped crystals (form I) diffracted to 2.66 Å resolution, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 55.7, c = 610.4 Å and apparent space group P6 2 22. Analysis of the data quality showed almost perfect twinning of the crystals. Attempts to solve the structure by molecular replacement did not give satisfactory results. Recently, clusters of rod-shaped crystals (form II) were grown in a solution containing PEG MME 550. These crystals belonged to the monoclinic system C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 132.9, b = 56.6, c = 86.5 Å, β = 95.7°. Data sets were collected to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method. Model refinement is currently in progress

  9. Impact of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Hanhineva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols, including flavonoids, phenolic acids, proanthocyanidins and resveratrol, are a large and heterogeneous group of phytochemicals in plant-based foods, such as tea, coffee, wine, cocoa, cereal grains, soy, fruits and berries. Growing evidence indicates that various dietary polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. In animal models and a limited number of human studies carried out so far, polyphenols and foods or beverages rich in polyphenols have attenuated postprandial glycemic responses and fasting hyperglycemia, and improved acute insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. The possible mechanisms include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic b-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver, activation of insulin receptors and glucose uptake in the insulin-sensitive tissues, and modulation of intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression. The positive effects of polyphenols on glucose homeostasis observed in a large number of in vitro and animal models are supported by epidemiological evidence on polyphenol-rich diets. To confirm the implications of polyphenol consumption for prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and eventually type 2 diabetes, human trials with well-defined diets, controlled study designs and clinically relevant end-points together with holistic approaches e.g., systems biology profiling technologies are needed.

  10. Vibration control of ultrasonic cutting via dynamic absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer, Y.A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt)]. E-mail: yasser31270@yahoo.com

    2007-08-15

    Ultrasonic machining (USM) is one of the most effective non-conventional techniques. Its application especially to hard-to-machine material (HTM) is growing rapidly. The main operation condition of USM is at resonance where an exciter derives a tuned blade or a tool. In this paper, the coupling of two non-linear oscillators of the main system and absorber representing ultrasonic cutting process are investigated. This leads to a two-degree-of-freedom Duffing's oscillator in which such non-linear effects can be neutralized under certain dynamic conditions. The aim of this work is the control of the system behavior at principal parametric resonance condition where the system damage is probable. An approximate solution is derived up to the second order for the coupled system. A threshold value of linear damping has been obtained, where the system vibration can be reduced dramatically. The stability of the system is investigated applying both phase-plane and frequency response techniques. The effects of the different parameters of the absorber on system behavior are studied numerically. Comparison with the available published work is reported.

  11. The Cooling of a Liquid Absorber using a Small Cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baynham, D.E.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Green, M.A.; Ishimoto, S.; Liggins, N.

    2005-01-01

    This report discusses the use of small cryogenic coolers for cooling the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) liquid cryogen absorbers. Since the absorber must be able contain liquid helium as well liquid hydrogen, the characteristics of the available 4.2 K coolers are used here. The issues associated with connecting two-stage coolers to liquid absorbers are discussed. The projected heat flows into an absorber and the cool-down of the absorbers using the cooler are presented. The warm-up of the absorber is discussed. Special hydrogen safety issues that may result from the use of a cooler on the absorbers are also discussed

  12. Review of Plasmonic Nanocomposite Metamaterial Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Keshavarz Hedayati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic metamaterials are artificial materials typically composed of noble metals in which the features of photonics and electronics are linked by coupling photons to conduction electrons of metal (known as surface plasmon. These rationally designed structures have spurred interest noticeably since they demonstrate some fascinating properties which are unattainable with naturally occurring materials. Complete absorption of light is one of the recent exotic properties of plasmonic metamaterials which has broadened its application area considerably. This is realized by designing a medium whose impedance matches that of free space while being opaque. If such a medium is filled with some lossy medium, the resulting structure can absorb light totally in a sharp or broad frequency range. Although several types of metamaterials perfect absorber have been demonstrated so far, in the current paper we overview (and focus on perfect absorbers based on nanocomposites where the total thickness is a few tens of nanometer and the absorption band is broad, tunable and insensitive to the angle of incidence. The nanocomposites consist of metal nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix with a high filling factor close to the percolation threshold. The filling factor can be tailored by the vapor phase co-deposition of the metallic and dielectric components. In addition, novel wet chemical approaches are discussed which are bio-inspired or involve synthesis within levitating Leidenfrost drops, for instance. Moreover, theoretical considerations, optical properties, and potential application of perfect absorbers will be presented.

  13. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  14. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji-Huan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A polar bear (Ursus maritimus has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  15. Shock absorbing structure for nuclear fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    A hydraulic apparatus is described that absorbs shocks that may be applied to fuel assemblies. Spring pads mounted on the upper end fittings of the fuel assemblies have plungers that move within hollow guide posts attached to the upper grids of the fuel assemblies. (L.L.)

  16. Absorbance and fluorescence studies on porphyrin Nanostructures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work was to study some photophysical properties of PNR for application as light harvester in dye sensitized solar cells. These properties included absorbance, fluorescence, and fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime. The results of Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images showed the formation of ...

  17. Proposal concerning the absorbed dose conversion factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiragai, A [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1978-03-01

    New definitions of the absorbed dose conversion factors Csub(lambda) and Csub(E) are proposed. The absorbed dose in water is given by the product of absorbed dose conversion factor, exposure calibration factor, ionisation chamber reading, cap displacement correction factor and perturbation correction factor. At exposure calibration the material of the build-up cap must be the same as that of the chamber wall. An ionisation chamber of which the wall material is water-equivalent or air-equivalent may be used. In the latter case the wall must be thin. For these two cases absorbed dose conversion factors are introduced and it is recommended that either of the two sets should be adopted. Furthermore, if the chamber wall is neither water- nor air-equivalent, the factor by which these currently defined values should be multiplied is also given: again the wall must be thin. The ICRU definitions of Csub(lambda) and Csub(E) are inconsistent, as recently pointed out, while the definitions presented here are consistent.

  18. Fabrication of high efficacy selective solar absorbers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tile, N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available High efficiency tandem selective solar absorber materials of carbon in nickel oxide (C-NiO) composite were fabricated on an aluminium substrate using a simple and cost effective sol-gel process. The process involved preparation of carbon and nickel...

  19. Strain absorbent modules for cavity filling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    Strain absorbent modules made from weldmesh panels and helical steel binders can be used, together with timber packing, to support the roof and sides of cavities instead of softwood and hardwood nogs. A description of these modules and a series of load tests and underground trials carried out on the modules is given.

  20. Measuring the absorbed radioactivity during a flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the new system SIEVERT developed by the General Direction of the Civil Aviation (DGAC) to measure the radiations doses absorbed from cosmic radiation. The system is available on the Internet site: www.sievert-system.org. (A.L.B.)

  1. Electromagnetic and microwave absorbing properties of hollow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bandwidth below −10 dB and minimum RL decrease with increasing thickness of HCNSs/paraffin composites. Keywords. Nanomaterials; nanospheres; CVD; electric; magnetic; microwave absorption properties. 1. Introduction. In recent years, microwave absorbing materials have attracted considerable attention because it ...

  2. Coupler for nuclear reactor absorber rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerz, K.

    1984-01-01

    A coupler is described for absorber rods being suspended during operation of nuclear reactors which includes plurality of actuating elements being movable for individually and jointly releasing the coupler, the movement of each of the actuating elements for releasing the coupler being independently controllable

  3. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-14

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  4. Association of carbohydrate and fat intake with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yu-Jin; Lee, Hye-Sun; Lee, Ji-Won

    2018-04-01

    In Asia, dietary pattern has been changed with increased intake of refined carbohydrates, sugar, and saturated fat, while the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is on the rise. However, it remains unclear whether a high-carbohydrate or a high-fat diet is more metabolically harmful, and the optimal amount of carbohydrates and fat has not been determined. The aim of our study was to examine the role of carbohydrate and fat intake in MetS in a Korean population. Data were obtained from a large, population-based, cross-sectional study (6737 males and 8845 females). The subjects were divided into nine groups based on carbohydrate and fat proportion, and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for confounding variables. Regardless of fat intake, the risk of MetS significantly increased in males with higher carbohydrate proportions (of total energy intake). In females, the risk of MetS was significantly elevated only in those with both the highest carbohydrate proportion and lowest fat proportion. A high carbohydrate proportion was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS in males, and a high carbohydrate proportion combined with a low fat proportion was associated with MetS in females. Our results indicate that reduction of excessive carbohydrate intake paired with an adequate fat intake, taking into consideration optimal types of fat, is useful for MetS prevention. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the optimal types and amounts of carbohydrate and fat proportions as well as the mechanism underlying these relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  6. Bioavailability of copper to rats from various foodstuffs and in the presence of different carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Stuart, M.A.; Bowman, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    Copper bioavailability was studied in rats using an extrinsic Cu label. Copper absorption from sunflower seeds (46%), peanuts (41%), cooked shrimp (50%), and cooked beef (40%) was as good or better than copper sulfate (46%). Copper from plant foods (sunflower seeds, garbanzo beans, peanuts) was absorbed equally as well as copper from animal foods (beef, shrimp, chicken liver), 39 +/- 7% vs 43 +/- 7%, P greater than 0.05. There was no significant difference in percentage Cu absorption between intrinsically labeled chicken liver and extrinsically labeled chicken liver. In a second experiment, Cu absorption was measured in the presence of glucose, fructose, sucrose, or cornstarch. There were no significant differences in Cu absorption due to different carbohydrates in a single meal

  7. Temporal Coordination of Carbohydrate Metabolism during Mosquito Reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Hou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous mosquitoes serve as vectors of multiple devastating human diseases, and many unique physiological features contribute to the incredible evolutionary success of these insects. These functions place high-energy demands on a reproducing female mosquito, and carbohydrate metabolism (CM must be synchronized with these needs. Functional analysis of metabolic gene profiling showed that major CM pathways, including glycolysis, glycogen and sugar metabolism, and citrate cycle, are dramatically repressed at post eclosion (PE stage in mosquito fat body followed by a sharply increase at post-blood meal (PBM stage, which were also verified by Real-time RT-PCR. Consistent to the change of transcript and protein level of CM genes, the level of glycogen, glucose and trehalose and other secondary metabolites are also periodically accumulated and degraded during the reproductive cycle respectively. Levels of triacylglycerols (TAG, which represent another important energy storage form in the mosquito fat body, followed a similar tendency. On the other hand, ATP, which is generated by catabolism of these secondary metabolites, showed an opposite trend. Additionally, we used RNA interference studies for the juvenile hormone and ecdysone receptors, Met and EcR, coupled with transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses to show that these hormone receptors function as major regulatory switches coordinating CM with the differing energy requirements of the female mosquito throughout its reproductive cycle. Our study demonstrates how, by metabolic reprogramming, a multicellular organism adapts to drastic and rapid functional changes.

  8. Neutron absorbers and methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, Donna P; Porter, Douglas L; Swank, W David; Erickson, Arnold W

    2014-12-02

    Methods of forming at least a portion of a neutron absorber include combining a first material and a second material to form a compound, reducing the compound into a plurality of particles, mixing the plurality of particles with a third material, and pressing the mixture of the plurality of particles and the third material. One or more components of neutron absorbers may be formed by such methods. Neutron absorbers may include a composite material including an intermetallic compound comprising hafnium aluminide and a matrix material comprising pure aluminum.

  9. Carbohydrates: How Carbs Fit into a Healthy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... obesity. Carbohydrates are an essential part of a healthy diet, and provide many important nutrients. Still, not all carbs are created equal. Here's how to make healthy carbohydrates work in a balanced diet: Emphasize fiber-rich fruits and vegetables. Aim for ...

  10. PREPARATION OF CHEMICALLY WELL-DEFINED CARBOHYDRATE DENDRIMER CONJUGATES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A method for the synthesis of dendrimer conjugates having a well-defined chemical structure, comprising one or more carbohydrate moieties and one or more immunomodulating substances coupled to a dendrimer, is presented. First, the carbohydrate is bound to the dendrimer in a chemoselective manner...... conjugates and their use in vaccination, production of antibodies, high throughput screening, diagnostic assays and libraries....

  11. Frankincense tapping reduces the carbohydrate storage of Boswellia trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistu, T.; Sterck, F.J.; Fetene, M.; Bongers, F.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates fixed by photosynthesis are stored in plant organs in the form of starch or sugars. Starch and sugars sum to the total non-structural carbohydrate pool (TNC) and may serve as intermediate pools between assimilation and utilization. We examined the impact of tapping on TNC

  12. The effect of carbohydrates on alpha-amylase activity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Ceralpha method can be used for ¿-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40 wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ¿-amylase activity

  13. Characterization of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of experimental parameters like pH, temperature and substrate concentration on the activity of the immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary ... of immobilized post-carbohydrate meal salivary α-amylase in this study show that immobilization had no significant effect on the enzyme and compared to kinetic ...

  14. Mixed drink increased carbohydrate oxidation but not performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... improvement in 40 km time trial time between an isocaloric GP-only or a GP and fructose drink, and no differences in any of the measured variables other than exogenous carbohydrate oxidation at 90 minutes during the pre-time trial steady state ride. Keywords: multiple carbohydrate, cycling, endurance, glucose, fructose ...

  15. Carbohydrates in the waters of ponds of Ramanthuruthu Island, Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Kumaran, S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Stephen, R.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    carbohydrate showed high variability and the concentration varied from 0.2 to 11 mg/l. High concentration of particulate carbohydrate observed during monsoon months is believed to be due to high phytoplankton population and also to the large amount of organic...

  16. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  17. Uptake and metabolism of carbohydrates by Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, S.O.; Streeter, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids were isolated anaerobically and were supplied with 14 C-labeled trehalose, sucrose, UDP-glucose, glucose, or fructose under low O 2 (2% in the gas phase). Uptake and conversion of 14 C to CO 2 were measured at intervals up to 90 minutes. Of the five compounds studied, UDP-glucose was most rapidly absorbed but it was very slowly metabolized. Trehalose was the sugar most rapidly converted to CO 2 , and fructose was respired at a rate of at least double that of glucose. Sucrose and glucose were converted to CO 2 at a very low but measurable rate ( 2 at a rate 30 times greater than the conversion of carbon Number 6 to CO 2 , indicating high activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. Enzymes of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway were not detected in bacteroids, but very low activities of sucrose synthase and phosphofructokinase were demonstrated. Although metabolism of sugars by B. japonicum bacteroids was clearly demonstrated, the rate of sugar uptake was only 1/30 to 1/50 the rate of succinate uptake. The overall results support the view that, although bacteroids metabolize sugars, the rates are very low and are inadequate to support nitrogenase

  18. Molecular Tools for Facilitative Carbohydrate Transporters (Gluts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasova, Marina; Fedie, Joseph R

    2017-09-19

    Facilitative carbohydrate transporters-Gluts-have received wide attention over decades due to their essential role in nutrient uptake and links with various metabolic disorders, including diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Endeavors directed towards understanding the mechanisms of Glut-mediated nutrient uptake have resulted in a multidisciplinary research field spanning protein chemistry, chemical biology, organic synthesis, crystallography, and biomolecular modeling. Gluts became attractive targets for cancer research and medicinal chemistry, leading to the development of new approaches to cancer diagnostics and providing avenues for cancer-targeting therapeutics. In this review, the current state of knowledge of the molecular interactions behind Glut-mediated sugar uptake, Glut-targeting probes, therapeutics, and inhibitors are discussed. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Attenuation measurements in solutions of some carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagandeep; Singh, K.; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), maltose monohydrate (C 12 H 22 O 11 ·H 2 O), and sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1,173, and 1,332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm 3 ) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form

  20. Attenuation Measurements in Solutions of Some Carbohydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagandeep; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B.S.; Sahota, H.S.

    2000-01-01

    The linear attenuation coefficients in aqueous solutions of three carbohydrates, glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ), maltose monohydrate (C 12 H 22 O 11 .H 2 O), and sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ), were determined at 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173, and 1332 keV by the gamma-ray transmission method in a good geometry setup. From the precisely measured densities of these solutions, mass attenuation coefficients were then obtained that varied systematically with the corresponding changes in the concentrations (g/cm 3 ) of these solutions. The experimental results were used in terms of effective atomic numbers and electron densities. A comparison between experimental and theoretical values of attenuation coefficients has proven that the study has a potential application for the determination of attenuation coefficients of solid solutes from their solutions without obtaining them in pure crystalline form

  1. Arabinogalactan proteins: focus on carbohydrate active enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eKnoch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a highly diverse class of cell surface proteoglycans that are commonly found in most plant species. AGPs play important roles in many cellular processes during plant development, such as reproduction, cell proliferation, pattern formation and growth, and in plant-microbe interaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their function. Numerous studies using monoclonal antibodies that recognize different AGP glycan epitopes have shown the appearance of a slightly altered AGP glycan in a specific stage of development in plant cells. Therefore, it is anticipated that the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycan is tightly regulated during development. Until recently, however, little was known about the enzymes involved in the metabolism of AGP glycans. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy; http://www.cazy.org/ involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycans, and we discuss the biological role of these enzymes in plant development.

  2. Nature of elevated rat intestinal carbohydrase activities after high-carbohydrate diet feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, K.K.; Kwong, L.K.; Yamada, K.; Sunshine, P.; Koldovsky, O.

    1985-01-01

    Adult rats that were maintained on a low-carbohydrate intake showed rapid increase in the activities of sucrase, maltase, and lactase along the length of the small intestine when they were fed a high-starch diet. In the present study, the authors have identified these activity increases, and showed that they reflect proportional accumulations in enzyme-protein of sucrase-isomaltase, maltase-glucoamylase, and neutral lactase. It was determined that each of these enzymes exists in adult rat intestine in single immunoreactive form and accounts as a group for all sucrase, cellobiase, and most maltase and lactase activities. Dietary change from low to high carbohydrate (starch) resulted in an increase in [ 3 H]leucine accumulation in each of the enzymes, without a change in the amount of label accumulation in total intestinal proteins. The increase in label accumulation in the brush-border carbohydrase pools was matched generally by proportional elevation in the pool concentrations of sucrase-isomaltase and lactase but not maltase. These studies suggest that the elevation of intestinal carbohydrase concentrations induced by high-carbohydrate feeding may involve selective stimulation of their synthesis

  3. Identification and determination of 3-deoxyglucosone and glucosone in carbohydrate-rich foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Matute, Ana I; Castro Vazquez, Lucía; Hernández-Hernández, Oswaldo; Sanz, María L; Martínez-Castro, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    α-Dicarbonyl compounds (α-DCs) such as 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and glucosone are markers of both Maillard and degradation reactions of sugars and also of certain enzymatic processes. However, quantitation of these compounds is not straightforward when more abundant carbohydrates are present in real samples. Therefore in this work a GC/MS method was developed to separate monosaccharides, 3-DG and glucosone and applied to analyze them in carbohydrate-rich food products. Difructose anhydrides (DFAs), known markers of sugar degradation, were also determined. The effect of time and temperature in the production and storage of these compounds was also evaluated. Under optimized conditions, good separation between monosaccharides and α-DCs was achieved. Must syrups showed the highest concentrations of 3-DG and glucosone (average values 9.2 and 5.8 mg g(-1) respectively). Coffee substitutes based on carob, chicory and blends showed the highest content of DFAs. Heating and storage assays proved that production of 3-DG was influenced by temperature, while glucosone was more affected by storage time. The proposed method allows the rapid quantitation of 3-DG and glucosone along with carbohydrates and DFAs in different food products, which is essential to determine their degradation level. Moreover, the α-DC content in several foods is reported for the first time. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Changes in carbohydrate metabolism in coconut palms infected with the lethal yellowing phytoplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maust, B E; Espadas, F; Talavera, C; Aguilar, M; Santamaría, J M; Oropeza, C

    2003-08-01

    ABSTRACT Lethal yellowing (LY), a disease caused by a phytoplasma, is the most devastating disease affecting coconut (Cocos nucifera) in Mexico. Thousands of coconut palm trees have died on the Yucatan peninsula while plantations in Central America and on the Pacific coast of Mexico are severely threatened. Polymerase chain reaction assays enable identification of incubating palm trees (stage 0+, phytoplasma detected but palm asymptomatic). With the development of LY, palm trees exhibit various visual symptoms such as premature nut fall (stage 1), inflorescence necrosis (stages 2 to 3), leaf chlorosis and senescence (stages 4 to 6), and finally palm death. However, physiological changes occur in the leaves and roots prior to onset of visual symptoms. Stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and root respiration decreased in stages 0+ to 6. The number of active photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers decreased during stage 2, but maximum quantum use efficiency of PSII remained similar until stage 3 before declining. Sugar and starch concentrations in intermediate leaves (leaf 14) and upper leaves (leaf 4) increased from stage 0- (healthy) to stages 2 to 4, while root carbohydrate concentrations decreased rapidly from stage 0- to stage 0+ (incubating phytoplasma). Although photosynthetic rates and root carbohydrate concentrations decreased, leaf carbohydrate concentrations increased, suggesting inhibition of sugar transport in the phloem leading to stress in sink tissues and development of visual symptoms of LY.

  5. Energy metabolism of medium-chain triglycerides versus carbohydrates during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décombaz, J; Arnaud, M J; Milon, H; Moesch, H; Philippossian, G; Thélin, A L; Howald, H

    1983-01-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are known to be rapidly digested and oxidized. Their potential value as a source of dietary energy during exercise was compared with that of maltodextrins (MD). Twelve subjects exercised for 1 h on a bicycle ergometer (60% VO2 max), 1 h after the test meal (1MJ). The metabolism of MCT was followed using 1-13C-octanoate (Oc) as tracer and U-13C-glucose (G) was added to the 13C-naturally enriched MD. After MCT ingestion no insulin peak was observed with some accumulation of ketone bodies (KB), blood levels not exceeding 1 mM. Total losses of KB during exercise in urine, sweat and as breath acetone were small (less than 0.2 mmol X h-1). Hence, the influence of KB loss and storage on gas exchange data was negligible. The partition of fat and carbohydrate utilization during exercise as obtained by indirect calorimetry was practically the same after the MCT and the CHO meals. Oxidation over the 2-h period was 30% of dose for Oc and 45% for G. Glycogen decrements in the Vastus lateralis muscle were equal. It appears that with normal carbohydrate stores, a single meal of MCT or CHO did not alter the contribution of carbohydrates during 1 h of high submaximal exercise. The moderate ketonemia after MCT, despite substantial oxidation of this fat, led to no difference in muscle glycogen sparing between the diets.

  6. [Specific problems posed by carbohydrate utilization in the rainbow trout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergot, F

    1979-01-01

    Carbohydrate incorporation in trout diets arises problems both at digestive and metabolic levels. Digestive utilization of carbohydrate closely depends on their molecular weight. In addition, in the case of complex carbohydrates (starches), different factors such as the level of incorporation, the amount consumed and the physical state of starch influence the digestibility. The measurement of digestibility in itself is confronted with methodological difficulties. The way the feces are collected can affect the digestion coefficient. Dietary carbohydrates actually serve as a source of energy. Nevertheless, above a certain level in the diet, intolerance phenomena may appear. The question that arises now is to establish the optimal part that carbohydrates can take in the metabolizable energy of a given diet.

  7. Structure of a streptococcal adhesion carbohydrate receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassels, F.J.; Fales, H.M.; London, J.; Carlson, R.W.; van Halbeek, H.

    1990-01-01

    Interactions between complementary protein and carbohydrate structures on different genera of human oral bacteria have been implicated in the formation of dental plaque. The carbohydrate receptor on Streptococcus sanguis H1 that is specific for the adhesion on Capnocytophaga ochracea ATCC 33596 has been isolated from the streptococcal cell wall, purified, and structurally characterized. The hexasaccharide repeating unit of the polysaccharide was purified by reverse-phase, amino-bonded silica, and gel permeation high performance liquid chromatography. Earlier studies established that the repeating unit was a hexasaccharide composed of rhamnose, galactose, and glucose in the ration of 2:3:1, respectively. In the present study, determination of absolute configuration by gas chromatography of the trimethylsilyl (+)-2-butyl glycosides revealed that the rhamnose residues were of the L configuration while the hexoses were all D. 252Californium plasma desorption mass spectrometry of the native, the acetylated and the reduced and acetylated hexasaccharide determined that the molecular mass of the native hexasaccharide was 959, and that the 2 rhamnose residues were linked to each other at the nonreducing terminus of the linear molecule. Methylation analysis revealed the positions of the glycosidic linkages in the hexasaccharide and showed that a galactose residue was present at the reducing end. The structural characterization of the hexasaccharide was completed by one and two dimensional 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Complete 1H and 13C assignments for each glycosyl residue were established by two-dimensional (1H,1H) correlation spectroscopy, homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn, and (13C,1H) correlation experiments. The configurations of the glycosidic linkages were inferred from the chemical shifts and coupling constants of the anomeric 1H and 13C resonances

  8. Carbohydrates and phenols as quantitative molecular vegetation proxies in peats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, K.; Benner, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    Vegetation in peatlands is intricately linked to local environmental conditions and climate. Here we use chemical analyses of carbohydrates and phenols to reconstruct paleovegetation in peat cores collected from 56.8°N (SIB04), 58.4°N (SIB06), 63.8°N (G137) and 66.5°N (E113) in the Western Siberian Lowland. Lignin phenols (vanillyl and syringyl phenols) were sensitive biomarkers for vascular plant contributions and provided additional information on the relative contributions of angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. Specific neutral sugar compositions allowed identification of sphagnum mosses, sedges (Cyperaceae) and lichens. Hydroxyphenols released by CuO oxidation were useful tracers of sphagnum moss contributions. The three independent molecular proxies were calibrated with a diverse group of peat-forming plants to yield quantitative estimates (%C) of vascular plant, sphagnum moss and lichen contributions in peat core samples. Correlation analysis indicated the three molecular proxies produced fairly similar results for paleovegetation compositions, generally within the error interval of each approach (≤26%). The lignin-based method generally lead to higher estimates of vascular plant vegetation. Several significant deviations were also observed due to different reactivities of carbohydrate and phenolic polymers during peat decomposition. Rapid vegetation changes on timescales of 50-200 years were observed in the southern cores SIB04 and SIB06 over the last 2000 years. Vanillyl and syringyl phenol ratios indicated these vegetation changes were largely due to varying inputs of angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. The northern permafrost cores G137 and E113 showed a more stable development. Lichens briefly replaced sphagnum mosses and vascular plants in both of these cores. Shifts in vegetation did not correlate well with Northern hemisphere climate variability over the last 2000 years. This suggested that direct climate forcing of peatland dynamics was overridden

  9. Absorbed dose thresholds and absorbed dose rate limitations for studies of electron radiation effects on polyetherimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Edward R., Jr.; Long, Sheila Ann T.; Gray, Stephanie L.; Collins, William D.

    1989-01-01

    The threshold values of total absorbed dose for causing changes in tensile properties of a polyetherimide film and the limitations of the absorbed dose rate for accelerated-exposure evaluation of the effects of electron radiation in geosynchronous orbit were studied. Total absorbed doses from 1 kGy to 100 MGy and absorbed dose rates from 0.01 MGy/hr to 100 MGy/hr were investigated, where 1 Gy equals 100 rads. Total doses less than 2.5 MGy did not significantly change the tensile properties of the film whereas doses higher than 2.5 MGy significantly reduced elongation-to-failure. There was no measurable effect of the dose rate on the tensile properties for accelerated electron exposures.

  10. Particulate carbohydrate in the euphotic zone of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N; De; Shirodkar, P.V.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Particulate matter collected from the Bay of Bengal was analysed for carbohydrate and chlorophyll a. The distribution of chlorophyll a was different from that of carbohydrate. Chlorophyll a increased from north to south, whereas carbohydrate levels...

  11. Dietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Non-digestible carbohydrates, prebiotics, inulin, FOS, calcium, microflora, short-chain fatty acids, mucin, intestinal permeability, salmonella, infection, rat, humanDietary non-digestible carbohydrates and the resistance to intestinal infectionsNon-digestible carbohydrates (NDC) stimulate

  12. Very low-carbohydrate versus isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet in dietary obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axen, Kathleen V; Axen, Kenneth

    2006-08-01

    The effects of a very low-carbohydrate (VLC), high-fat (HF) dietary regimen on metabolic syndrome were compared with those of an isocaloric high-carbohydrate (HC), low-fat (LF) regimen in dietary obese rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, made obese by 8 weeks ad libitum consumption of an HF diet, developed features of the metabolic syndrome vs. lean control (C) rats, including greater visceral, subcutaneous, and hepatic fat masses, elevated plasma cholesterol levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and fasting and post-load insulin resistance. Half of the obese rats (VLC) were then fed a popular VLC-HF diet (Weeks 9 and 10 at 5% and Weeks 11 to 14 at 15% carbohydrate), and one-half (HC) were pair-fed an HC-LF diet (Weeks 9 to 14 at 60% carbohydrate). Energy intakes of pair-fed VLC and HC rats were less than C rats throughout Weeks 9 to 14. Compared with HC rats, VLC rats exhibited impaired insulin and glycemic responses to an intraperitoneal glucose load at Week 10 and lower plasma triacylglycerol levels but retarded loss of hepatic, retroperitoneal, and total body fat at Week 14. VLC, HC, and C rats no longer differed in body weight, plasma cholesterol, glucose tolerance, or fasting insulin resistance at Week 14. Progressive decreases in fasting insulin resistance in obese groups paralleled concomitant reductions in hepatic, retroperitoneal, and total body fat. When energy intake was matched, the VLC-HF diet provided no advantage in weight loss or in improving those components of the metabolic syndrome induced by dietary obesity and may delay loss of hepatic and visceral fat as compared with an HC-LF diet.

  13. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Sook Min

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI, glycemic load (GL, total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2. However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI.

  14. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarlane Samy I

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by a significant decrease in fat consumption and an increase in carbohydrate consumption. This apparent failure of the traditional diet, from a public health point of view, indicates that alternative dietary approaches are needed. Because carbohydrate is the major secretagogue of insulin, some form of carbohydrate restriction is a prima facie candidate for dietary control of diabetes. Evidence from various randomized controlled trials in recent years has convinced us that such diets are safe and effective, at least in short-term. These data show low carbohydrate diets to be comparable or better than traditional low fat high carbohydrate diets for weight reduction, improvement in the dyslipidemia of diabetes and metabolic syndrome as well as control of blood pressure, postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion. Furthermore, the ability of low carbohydrate diets to reduce triglycerides and to increase HDL is of particular importance. Resistance to such strategies has been due, in part, to equating it with the popular Atkins diet. However, there are many variations and room for individual physician planning. Some form of low carbohydrate diet, in combination with exercise, is a viable option for patients with diabetes. However, the extreme reduction of carbohydrate of popular diets (

  15. Design and development of radiation absorber for sighting beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, R.; Shukla, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    During the commissioning of Indus-2 , it is necessary to view the synchrotron radiation that will be emanating from the dipole exit ports. The 10 0 beam line from dipole 11 was earmarked for sighting beam line. The synchrotron radiation power density would be around 340 watts on the photon absorber inside the radiation absorber module, at the specified beam power of Indus-2. The beam striking on this photon absorber produces x-rays and Bremsstrahlung radiation. These are to be stopped and absorbed by radiation absorber. The photon absorber and the radiation absorber are integrated in a single vacuum chamber and actuated by a pneumatic cylinder connected using a bellow. Radiation absorber was needed to isolate the diagnostic components and to protect them from radiation a well as heat when they were not in use. The paper describes the design, calculation and development of the dynamic photon cum radiation absorber. The ultimate vacuum performance is also described. (author)

  16. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat I Munir

    Full Text Available Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes, sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199 and carbohydrate binding modules (95 were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  17. [Performance enhancement by carbohydrate intake during sport: effects of carbohydrates during and after high-intensity exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, Milou; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrate availability does not provide sufficient energy for prolonged moderate to high-intensity exercise. Carbohydrate ingestion during high-intensity exercise can therefore enhance performance.- For exercise lasting 1 to 2.5 hours, athletes are advised to ingest 30-60 g of carbohydrates per hour.- Well-trained endurance athletes competing for longer than 2.5 hours at high intensity can metabolise up to 90 g of carbohydrates per hour, provided that a mixture of glucose and fructose is ingested.- Athletes participating in intermittent or team sports are advised to follow the same strategies but the timing of carbohydrate intake depends on the type of sport.- If top performance is required again within 24 hours after strenuous exercise, the advice is to supplement endogenous carbohydrate supplies quickly within the first few hours post-exercise by ingesting large amounts of carbohydrate (1.2 g/kg/h) or a lower amount of carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg/h) with a small amount of protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h).

  18. Optimization of sound absorbing performance for gradient multi-layer-assembled sintered fibrous absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Weiyong; Zhu, Jian

    2012-04-01

    The transfer matrix method, based on plane wave theory, of multi-layer equivalent fluid is employed to evaluate the sound absorbing properties of two-layer-assembled and three-layer-assembled sintered fibrous sheets (generally regarded as a kind of compound absorber or structures). Two objective functions which are more suitable for the optimization of sound absorption properties of multi-layer absorbers within the wider frequency ranges are developed and the optimized results of using two objective functions are also compared with each other. It is found that using the two objective functions, especially the second one, may be more helpful to exert the sound absorbing properties of absorbers at lower frequencies to the best of their abilities. Then the calculation and optimization of sound absorption properties of multi-layer-assembled structures are performed by developing a simulated annealing genetic arithmetic program and using above-mentioned objective functions. Finally, based on the optimization in this work the thoughts of the gradient design over the acoustic parameters- the porosity, the tortuosity, the viscous and thermal characteristic lengths and the thickness of each samples- of porous metals are put forth and thereby some useful design criteria upon the acoustic parameters of each layer of porous fibrous metals are given while applying the multi-layer-assembled compound absorbers in noise control engineering.

  19. Fault Detection for Automotive Shock Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Alcantara, Diana; Morales-Menendez, Ruben; Amezquita-Brooks, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Fault detection for automotive semi-active shock absorbers is a challenge due to the non-linear dynamics and the strong influence of the disturbances such as the road profile. First obstacle for this task, is the modeling of the fault, which has been shown to be of multiplicative nature. Many of the most widespread fault detection schemes consider additive faults. Two model-based fault algorithms for semiactive shock absorber are compared: an observer-based approach and a parameter identification approach. The performance of these schemes is validated and compared using a commercial vehicle model that was experimentally validated. Early results shows that a parameter identification approach is more accurate, whereas an observer-based approach is less sensible to parametric uncertainty.

  20. Carbon Nanomaterials for Optical Absorber Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama KAUL

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Optical absorbers based on vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, synthesized using electric-field assisted growth, are described here that show an ultra-low reflectance, 100X lower compared to the benchmark, a diffuse metal black - Au-black - from wavelength l ~ 350 nm – 2500 nm. The reflectance of the MWCNT arrays was measured to be as low as 0.02 % at 2 mm in the infra-red (IR. Growth conditions were optimized for the realization of high-areal density arrays of MWCNTs using a plasma-based chemical vapor deposition (CVD process. Such high efficiency absorbers are particularly attractive for radiometry, as well as energy harnessing applications. Optical modeling calculations were conducted that enabled a determination of the extinction coefficient in the films.

  1. Use of Wedge Absorbers in MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, D. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Summers, D. [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); Mohayai, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); IIT, Chicago, IL (United States); Snopok, P. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); IIT, Chicago, IL (United States); Rogers, C. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL)

    2017-03-01

    Wedge absorbers are needed to obtain longitudinal cooling in ionization cooling. They also can be used to obtain emittance exchanges between longitudinal and transverse phase space. There can be large exchanges in emittance, even with single wedges. In the present note we explore the use of wedge absorbers in the MICE experiment to obtain transverse–longitudinal emittance exchanges within present and future operational conditions. The same wedge can be used to explore “direct” and “reverse” emittance exchange dynamics, where direct indicates a configuration that reduces momentum spread and reverse is a configuration that increases momentum spread. Analytical estimated and ICOOL and G4BeamLine simulations of the exchanges at MICE parameters are presented. Large exchanges can be obtained in both reverse and direct configurations.

  2. Development of an innovative solar absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Gavin

    Solar thermal systems have great potential to replace or reduce the dependence of conventional fossil fuel based heating technologies required for space and water heating. Specifically solar domestic hot water systems can contribute 50-75% of the annual thermal load. To date residential users have been slow to purchase and install systems, primarily due to the large monetary investment required to purchase and install a system. Recent innovations in materials design and manufacturing techniques, offer opportunities for the development of absorber plate designs that have the potential to reduce cost, increase efficiency and reduce payback periods. Consequently, this design study was conducted in conjunction with industrial partners to develop an improved absorber based on roll bond manufacturing that can be produced at reduced cost with comparable or greater thermal efficiency.

  3. Comparison of diarrhea induced by ingestion of fructooligosaccharide Idolax and disaccharide lactulose: role of osmolarity versus fermentation of malabsorbed carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, M R; Jørgensen, J; Mortensen, P B

    1998-12-01

    Whether carbohydrate malabsorption causes diarrhea probably depends on the balance between the osmotic force of the carbohydrate and the compensatory capacity of the colon to dispose of the carbohydrate by bacterial fermentation. The present study evaluated the specific role of the osmolarity by comparing the severity of diarrhea after ingestion of two nonabsorbable carbohydrates, the fructooligosaccharide Idolax and the disaccharide lactulose. Both carbohydrates are readily fermented by the colonic flora but differ in osmolarity, the osmotic force being twice as high for lactulose as for Idolax. Twelve subjects were given increasing doses (0, 20, 40, 80, 160 g/d) of Idolax and lactulose in a crossover design. Every dose level was administered for three days with intervals of one week. Stools were collected on the third day to determine 24-hr volume, concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, L- and D-lactate, residues of Idolax or lactulose, sodium, potassium, pH, osmolarity, and in vitro productions of organic acids. Measured by short-chain fatty acid and lactate formation in a fecal incubation system, the fermentation of Idolax and lactulose was identical and very rapid compared with a range of reference carbohydrates. A laxative effect of both Idolax and lactulose was demonstrated. The increment in fecal volume as a function of the dose administered was twice as high for lactulose (slope of the regression line = 7.3, r = 0.64, Pdiarrhea is proportional to the osmotic force of the malabsorbed saccharide, even though all or the majority of the saccharide is degraded by colonic bacteria. The capacity to modify the diarrhea varies considerably from person to person and is associated with colonic saccharide disposal, whereas the variation in response to isosmolar amounts of different saccharides is small within the same individual.

  4. Effect of the bio-absorbent on the microwave absorption property of the flaky CIPs/rubber absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yang; Xu, Yonggang, E-mail: xuyonggang221@163.com; Cai, Jun; Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Deyuan

    2015-09-01

    Microwave absorbing composites filled with flaky carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) and the bio-absorbent were prepared by using a two-roll mixer and a vulcanizing machine. The electromagnetic (EM) parameters were measured by a vector network analyzer and the reflection loss (RL) was measured by the arch method in the frequency range of 1–4 GHz. The uniform dispersion of the absorbents was verified by comparing the calculated RL with the measured one. The results confirm that as the bio-absorbent was added, the permittivity was increased due to the volume content of absorbents, and the permeability was enlarged owing to the volume content of CIPs and interactions between the two absorbents. The composite filled with bio-absorbents achieved an excellent absorption property at a thickness of 1 mm (minimum RL reaches −7.8 dB), and as the RL was less than −10 dB the absorption band was widest (2.1–3.8 GHz) at a thickness of 2 mm. Therefore, the bio-absorbent is a promising additive candidate on fabricating microwave absorbing composites with a thinner thickness and wider absorption band. - Graphical abstract: Morphology of composites filled with flaky CIPs and the bio-absorbent. The enhancement of bio-absorbent on the electromagnetic absorption property of composites filled with flaky carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) is attributed to the interaction of the two absorbents. The volume content of the FCMPs with the larger shape CIPs play an important role in this effects, the composites filled with irons and bio-absorbents can achieve wider-band and thinner-thickness absorbing materials. - Highlights: • Absorbers filled with bio-absorbents and CIPs was fabricated. • Bio-absorbents enhanced the permittivity and permeability of the composites. • The absorbent interactions play a key role in the enhancement mechanism. • Bio-absorbents enhanced the composite RL in 1–4 GHz.

  5. Investigating broadband acoustic adsorption using rapid manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbold, O.

    The reduction of nuisance noise and the removal of unwanted sound modes within a room or component enclosure-area can be accomplished through the use of acoustic absorbers. Sound absorption can be achieved through conversion of the kinetic energy associated with pressure waves, into heat energy via viscous dissipation. This occurs within open porous materials, or by utilising resonant effects produced using simple cavity and orifice configurations. The manufacture of traditional porous and resonant absorbers is commonly realised using basic manufacturing techniques. These techniques restrict the geometry of a given resonant construction, and limit the configuration of porous absorbers. The aim of this work is to exploit new and emerging capabilities of Rapid Manufacturing (RM) to produce components with geometrical freedom, and apply it to the development of broadband acoustic absorption. New and novel absorber geometric configurations are identified and their absorption performance is determined. The capabilities and limitations of RM processes in reproducing these configurations are demonstrated. The geometric configuration of RM resonant absorbers is investigated. Cavity modifications aimed at damping the resonant effect by restricting the motion of cavity air, and adding increased viscous resistance are explored. Modifications relating to cavity shape, the addition of internal perforations and increased cavity surface area have all been shown to add acoustic resistance, thereby increasing the bandwidth of absorption. Decreasing the hydraulic radius of the cavity cross section and reducing internal feature dimensions provide improved resistance over conventional configurations..

  6. High carbohydrate diet and physical inactivity associated with central obesity among premenopausal housewives in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, Kumari M; Roopasingam, Tharrmini; Dibley, Michael J

    2014-08-23

    Prevalence of obesity and overweight is rising in developing countries, including Sri Lanka at a rapid pace due to dietary and lifestyle changes. This study aimed to assess the association between high carbohydrate diet, physical inactivity and central obesity among premenopausal housewives in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted as a cross-sectional study. A sample of 100 premenopausal women with home duties aged between 20 to 45 years were selected randomly from two divisional secretariats (DS), representing urban and rural sectors in Sri Lanka. Data on basic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary assessment and physical activity were collected. We defined central obesity as a waist circumference ≥80 cm, which is the WHO recommended cut-off. Independent sample t test was used to compare the mean values. Linear and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to find out the relationship and the magnitude of association between central obesity and percentage of energy contributed from carbohydrate and physical activity level, respectively. The women reported an average of 18 starch portions per day, which was well above the national recommendations. Seventy percent of energy in the diet came from carbohydrate. The mean BMI and waist circumference of total sample was 25.4 kgm-2 and 78.5 cm, respectively. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and centrally obesity among total sample was 38%, 34% and 45%, respectively. A significant positive correlation observed between high carbohydrate diet and waist circumference (r = 0.628, p household level to reverse this trend among the housewives in Sri Lanka.

  7. Removing fuelling transient using neutron absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, S.; Chan, P.K.; Bonin, H.W., E-mail: Stephane.Paquette@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Dept., Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Pant, A. [Cameco Fuel Manufacturing, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Preliminary criticality and burnup calculation results indicate that by employing a small amount of neutron absorber the fuelling transient, currently occurring in a CANDU 37-element fuel bundle, can be significantly reduced. A parametric study using the Los Alamos National Laboratories' MCNP 5 code and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's WIMS-AECL 3.1 is presented in this paper. (author)

  8. Radiation and shielding around beam absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkmans, A.; Maas, R.

    1978-12-01

    During operational conditions it is anticipated that a fair amount of the total available beam power is dumped in either the slit system on one of the beam dumps. Thses beam absorbers therefore become strong radioactive sources. The radiation level due to the absorption of a 100 kW electron beam is estimated and the problem of residual activity is treated. Proposed shielding materials are discussed. (C.F.)

  9. Visual indicator of absorbed radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Generalova, V V; Krasovitskii, B M; Vainshtok, B A; Gurskii, M N

    1968-10-15

    A visual indicator of the absorbed doses of ionizing radiation is proposed. The indicator has a polymer base with the addition of a dye. A distinctive feature of the indicator consists of the use of polystyrene as its polymer base with the addition of halogen-containing hydrocarbon and the light-proof dye. Such combination of the radiation-resistant polymer of polystyrene and the light-proof dyestuff makes the proposed indicator highly stable.

  10. Heaving buoys, point absorbers and arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falnes, Johannes; Hals, Jørgen

    2012-01-28

    Absorption of wave energy may be considered as a phenomenon of interference between incident and radiated waves generated by an oscillating object; a wave-energy converter (WEC) that displaces water. If a WEC is very small in comparison with one wavelength, it is classified as a point absorber (PA); otherwise, as a 'quasi-point absorber'. The latter may be a dipole-mode radiator, for instance an immersed body oscillating in the surge mode or pitch mode, while a PA is so small that it should preferably be a source-mode radiator, for instance a heaving semi-submerged buoy. The power take-off capacity, the WEC's maximum swept volume and preferably also its full physical volume should be reasonably matched to the wave climate. To discuss this matter, two different upper bounds for absorbed power are applied in a 'Budal diagram'. It appears that, for a single WEC unit, a power capacity of only about 0.3 MW matches well to a typical offshore wave climate, and the full physical volume has, unfortunately, to be significantly larger than the swept volume, unless phase control is used. An example of a phase-controlled PA is presented. For a sizeable wave-power plant, an array consisting of hundreds, or even thousands, of mass-produced WEC units is required.

  11. Thermal expansion absorbing structure for pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Takashi; Yamashita, Takuya.

    1995-01-01

    A thermal expansion absorbing structure for a pipeline is disposed to the end of pipelines to form a U-shaped cross section connecting a semi-circular torus shell and a short double-walled cylindrical tube. The U-shaped longitudinal cross-section is deformed in accordance with the shrinking deformation of the pipeline and absorbs thermal expansion. Namely, since the central lines of the outer and inner tubes of the double-walled cylindrical tube deform so as to incline, when the pipeline is deformed by thermal expansion, thermal expansion can be absorbed by a simple configuration thereby enabling to contribute to ensure the safety. Then, the entire length of the pipeline can greatly be shortened by applying it to the pipeline disposed in a high temperature state compared with a method of laying around a pipeline using only elbows, which has been conducted so far. Especially, when it is applied to a pipeline for an FBR-type reactor, the cost for the construction of a facility of a primary systems can greater be reduced. In addition, it can be applied to a pipeline for usual chemical plants and any other structures requiring absorption of deformation. (N.H.)

  12. An absorbed dose calorimeter for IMRT dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duane, S.; Aldehaybes, M.; Bailey, M.; Lee, N.D.; Thomas, C.G.; Palmans, H.

    2012-01-01

    A new calorimeter for dosimetry in small and complex fields has been built. The device is intended for the direct determination of absorbed dose to water in moderately small fields and in composite fields such as IMRT treatments, and as a transfer instrument calibrated against existing absorbed dose standards in conventional reference conditions. The geometry, materials and mode of operation have been chosen to minimize detector perturbations when used in a water phantom, to give a reasonably isotropic response and to minimize the effects of heat transfer when the calorimeter is used in non-reference conditions in a water phantom. The size of the core is meant to meet the needs of measurement in IMRT treatments and is comparable to the size of the air cavity in a type NE2611 ionization chamber. The calorimeter may also be used for small field dosimetry. Initial measurements in reference conditions and in an IMRT head and neck plan, collapsed to gantry angle zero, have been made to estimate the thermal characteristics of the device, and to assess its performance in use. The standard deviation (estimated repeatability) of the reference absorbed dose measurements was 0.02 Gy (0.6%). (authors)

  13. Neutron absorbers, and the production method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayano, Hideo; Yajima, Seishi; Oono, Hironori.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To integrally sinter a metal powder and a metal network material thereby to obtain a material having a high neutron absorbing function, an excellent corrosion resistance and an excellent oxidation resistance. Method: An element having a high neutron absorbing function, such as Gd, or a compound thereof and a powder of a metal having excellent corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance and ductility, such as Fe, Cr or the like are uniformly mixed with each other. In a case where a substance having a neutron absorbing function is a hydroxide an organic complex or the like, it is formed into a gel-like substance and mixed uniformly with the metal powder, the gel-like substance being pasted, and covered on the surface of the metal powder and dried. Then, the mixture or the dry coated material is extended and the metal network material having excellent corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance and ductility is covered or interposed or between at least one layer of upper, intermediate or lower layers of said laminated material, and thereafter is subjected to cold or hot rolling, and then sintered and furthermore rolled, if necessary, the thus treated material being burned in vacuum or a non-oxidizing atmosphere. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja K Warda

    Full Text Available We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed.

  15. Characterization of carbohydrates in rainwater from the southeastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaugh, Katherine M; Byrd, Jade N; Avery, G Brooks; Mead, Ralph N; Willey, Joan D; Kieber, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Carbohydrates have been widely reported in atmospheric aerosols, but have not previously been quantified in rainwater. We have identified and quantified a series of 11 specific compounds including monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose and pinitol), disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose), sugar alcohols (arabitol, dulcitol and mannitol) and the anhydrosaccharide levoglucosan. Rainwater analyzed in this study includes 52 distinct precipitation events in Wilmington, NC between June 2011 and October 2012. Our analysis indicates carbohydrates typically contribute carbohydrates reached as high as 5.8 μM, with glucose and sucrose typically being the predominant species. The distribution of carbohydrates exhibited a distinct seasonal pattern, with higher concentrations of most carbohydrates, especially sucrose, in spring and summer, driven primarily by increased biogenic inputs during the growing season. Concentrations of carbohydrates were an order of magnitude higher in storms of terrestrial origin compared to marine events, further supporting a terrestrial biogenic origin of most species. Sequential sampling of Hurricane Irene showed significant quantities of carbohydrates present at the end of the storm when air mass back trajectories traversed over land. The highest level of levoglucosan, a compound associated with biomass burning, was detected in rain with an air mass back trajectory that traveled over a region affected by wildfires. When compared to aerosol concentrations reported by others, the sugar concentrations in rain demonstrate wet deposition is an important removal mechanism of this water-soluble and bioavailable fraction of atmospheric particulate organic matter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing Bacterial Interactions Using Carbohydrate-Based Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Flannery

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates play a crucial role in host-microorganism interactions and many host glycoconjugates are receptors or co-receptors for microbial binding. Host glycosylation varies with species and location in the body, and this contributes to species specificity and tropism of commensal and pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, bacterial glycosylation is often the first bacterial molecular species encountered and responded to by the host system. Accordingly, characterising and identifying the exact structures involved in these critical interactions is an important priority in deciphering microbial pathogenesis. Carbohydrate-based microarray platforms have been an underused tool for screening bacterial interactions with specific carbohydrate structures, but they are growing in popularity in recent years. In this review, we discuss carbohydrate-based microarrays that have been profiled with whole bacteria, recombinantly expressed adhesins or serum antibodies. Three main types of carbohydrate-based microarray platform are considered; (i conventional carbohydrate or glycan microarrays; (ii whole mucin microarrays; and (iii microarrays constructed from bacterial polysaccharides or their components. Determining the nature of the interactions between bacteria and host can help clarify the molecular mechanisms of carbohydrate-mediated interactions in microbial pathogenesis, infectious disease and host immune response and may lead to new strategies to boost therapeutic treatments.

  17. Carbohydrate administration during a day of sustained aerobic activity improves vigilance, as assessed by a novel ambulatory monitoring device, and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R; Falco, Christina M; Slade, Steven S

    2002-07-01

    The brain requires a continuous supply of glucose to function adequately. During aerobic exercise, peripheral glucose requirements increase and carbohydrate supplementation improves physical performance. The brain's utilization of glucose also increases during aerobic exercise. However, the effects of energy supplementation on cognitive function during sustained aerobic exercise are not well characterized. The effects of energy supplementation, as liquid carbohydrate, on cognitive function during sustained aerobic activity were examined. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design was used. Young, healthy men (n = 143) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups. The groups received either a 6% (by vol) carbohydrate (35.1 kJ/kg), 12% (by vol) carbohydrate (70.2 kJ/kg), or placebo beverage in 6 isovolumic doses, and all groups consumed 2 meals (3200 kJ). Over the 10-h study, the subjects performed physically demanding tasks, including a 19.3-km road march and two 4.8-km runs, interspersed with rest and other activities. Wrist-worn vigilance monitors, which emitted auditory stimuli (20/h) to which the subjects responded as rapidly as possible, and a standardized self-report mood questionnaire were used to assess cognitive function. Vigilance consistently improved with supplemental carbohydrates in a dose-related manner; the 12% carbohydrate group performed the best and the placebo group the worst (P Mood-questionnaire results corroborated the results from the monitors; the subjects who received carbohydrates reported less confusion (P = 0.040) and greater vigor (P = 0.025) than did those who received the placebo. Supplemental carbohydrate beverages enhance vigilance and mood during sustained physical activity and interspersed rest. In addition, ambulatory monitoring devices can continuously assess the effects of nutritional factors on cognition as individuals conduct their daily activities or participate in experiments.

  18. Distribution of absorbed dose in human eye simulated by SRNA-2KG computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, R.; Pesic, M.; Pavlovic, R.; Mostacci, D.

    2003-01-01

    Rapidly increasing performances of personal computers and development of codes for proton transport based on Monte Carlo methods will allow, very soon, the introduction of the computer planning proton therapy as a normal activity in regular hospital procedures. A description of SRNA code used for such applications and results of calculated distributions of proton-absorbed dose in human eye are given in this paper. (author)

  19. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Thorn, J

    1994-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well......-defined monoclonal antibodies (MAb) on frozen and paraffin-embedded normal salivary gland tissue from 22 parotid, 14 submandibular, six sublingual, and 13 labial glands to elucidate the simple mucin-type glycosylation pattern in relation to cyto- and histodifferentiation. The investigated carbohydrate structures...

  20. Cerebral carbohydrate cost of physical exertion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Dawson, Ellen A

    2004-01-01

    Above a certain level of cerebral activation the brain increases its uptake of glucose more than that of O(2), i.e., the cerebral metabolic ratio of O(2)/(glucose + 12 lactate) decreases. This study quantified such surplus brain uptake of carbohydrate relative to O(2) in eight healthy males who...... to exhaustion (15.8 +/- 1.7 min; P carbohydrate was not substantiated...... and, consequently, exhaustive exercise involves a brain surplus carbohydrate uptake of a magnitude comparable with its glycogen content....

  1. [Soil carbohydrates: their determination methods and indication functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xie, Hongtu; He, Hongbo; Zheng, Lichen; Wang, Ge

    2006-08-01

    Soil carbohydrates are the important component of soil organic matter, and play an important role in soil aggregation formation. Their hydrolysis methods involve sulfur acid (H2SO4), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) hydrolysis, and their determination methods include colorimetry, gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) , high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and high performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD). This paper summarized the methods of carbohydrates' hydrolysis, purification and detection, with focus on the derived methods of GLC, and briefly introduced the indication functions of carbohydrates in soil organic matter turnover.

  2. Radar absorbing properties of carbon nanotubes/polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This research is devoted to the study of radar absorbing properties of the composites, based on the epoxy binder and ... Radar absorbing materials; carbon nanotubes; nanocomposites; reflection loss. 1. ..... So, for example, the papers of [3–5 ...

  3. Simulated mixed absorbers and effective atomic numbers for γ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. γ-rays; γ attenuation; simulated mixed absorbers; effective atomic ... We have tried to simulate composite (mixed) absorbers ... Experimental method .... puter, Program manual, Centre for Radiation Research, National Bureau of ...

  4. Perceived hunger is lower and weight loss is greater in overweight premenopausal women consuming a low-carbohydrate/high-protein vs high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Coleman, Mary Dean; Volpe, Joanne J; Hosig, Kathy W

    2005-09-01

    The impact of a low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet compared with a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet on ratings of hunger and cognitive eating restraint were examined. Overweight premenopausal women consumed a low-carbohydrate/high-protein (n=13) or high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (n=15) for 6 weeks. Fasting body weight (BW) was measured and the Eating Inventory was completed at baseline, weeks 1 to 4, and week 6. All women experienced a reduction in BW (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein vs high-carbohydrate/low-fat group at week 6 (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein but not in the high-carbohydrate/low-fat group from baseline to week 6. In both groups, self-rated cognitive eating restraint increased (Plow-carbohydrate/high-protein group may have contributed to a greater percentage of BW loss.

  5. Effect of inclusions' distribution on microwave absorbing properties of composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Siliang; Wang, Qingguo; Qu, Zhaoming

    2013-01-01

    Effect of inclusions' spatial distributions on the permeability and permittivity of composites is studied using the generalized Maxwell-Garnett equations. The result indicates that inclusions' orientation distribution can increase the longitudinal electromagnetic parameters. For inclusions' random and orientation distribution, single and three-layer absorbers are designed and optimized using genetic algorithm. The result shows that under a given absorbing requirement, absorber with inclusions' orientation distribution is lighter and thinner than absorber with inclusions' random distribution.

  6. Dynamic testing of airplane shock-absorbing struts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, P; Thome, W

    1932-01-01

    Measurement of perpendicular impacts of a landing gear with different shock-absorbing struts against the drum testing stand. Tests were made with pneumatic shock absorbers having various degrees of damping, liquid shock absorbers, steel-spring shock absorbers and rigid struts. Falling tests and rolling tests. Maximum impact and gradual reduction of the impacts in number and time in the falling tests. Maximum impact and number of weaker impacts in rolling tests.

  7. GEOMETRICAL OPTIMIZATION OF VEHICLE SHOCK ABSORBERS WITH MR FLUID

    OpenAIRE

    ENGIN, Tahsin; PARLAK, Zekeriya; ŞAHIN, Ismail; ÇALLI, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) shock absorber have received remarkable attention in the last decade due to being a potential technology to conduct semi-active control in structures and mechanical systems in order to effectively suppress vibration. To develop performance of MR shock absorbers, optimal design of the dampers should be considered. The present study deals with optimal geometrical modeling of a MR shock absorber. Optimal design of the present shock absorber was carried out by using Taguch...

  8. On (m, n)-absorbing ideals of commutative rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with respect to various ring theoretic constructions and study (m, n)-absorbing ideals in several commutative rings. For example, in a Bézout ring or a Boolean ring, an ideal is an (m, n)-absorbing ideal if and only if it is an n-absorbing ideal, and in an almost. Dedekind domain every (m, n)-absorbing ideal is a product of at ...

  9. Slow and Fast Light in an Electro-Absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öhman, Filip; Bermejo Ramirez, Andres; Sales, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate controllable and large time delay in cascaded semiconductor saturable absorbers and amplifiers. The possibility of further increasing the tuneable phase shift by utilizing field screening effects in the quantum well absorber is demonstrated.......We demonstrate controllable and large time delay in cascaded semiconductor saturable absorbers and amplifiers. The possibility of further increasing the tuneable phase shift by utilizing field screening effects in the quantum well absorber is demonstrated....

  10. Airborne and total gamma absorbed dose rates at Patiala - India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesfaye, Tilahun; Sahota, H.S.; Singh, K.

    1999-01-01

    The external gamma absorbed dose rate due to gamma rays originating from gamma emitting aerosols in air, is compared with the total external gamma absorbed dose rate at the Physics Department of Punjabi University, Patiala. It has been found out that the contribution, to the total external gamma absorbed dose rate, of radionuclides on particulate matter suspended in air is about 20% of the overall gamma absorbed dose rate. (author)

  11. [Absorbable coronary stents. New promising technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbel, Raimund; Böse, Dirk; Haude, Michael; Kordish, Igor; Churzidze, Sofia; Malyar, Nasser; Konorza, Thomas; Sack, Stefan

    2007-06-01

    Coronary stent implantation started in Germany 20 years ago. In the beginning, the progress was very slow and accelerated 10 years later. Meanwhile, coronary stent implantation is a standard procedure in interventional cardiology. From the beginning of permanent stent implantation, research started to provide temporary stenting of coronary arteries, first with catheter-based systems, later with stent-alone technology. Stents were produced from polymers or metal. The first polymer stent implantation failed except the Igaki-Tamai stent in Japan. Newly developed absorbable polymer stents seem to be very promising, as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography have demonstrated. Temporary metal stents were developed based on iron and magnesium. Currently, the iron stent is tested in peripheral arteries. The absorbable magnesium stent (Biotronik, Berlin, Germany) was tested in peripheral arteries below the knee and meanwhile in the multicenter international PROGRESS-AMS (Clinical Performance and Angiographic Results of Coronary Stenting with Absorbable Metal Stents) study. The first magnesium stent implantation was performed on July 30, 2004 after extended experimental testing in Essen. The magnesium stent behaved like a bare-metal stent with low recoil of 5-7%. The stent struts were absorbed when tested with IVUS. Stent struts were not visible by fluoroscopy or computed tomography (CT) as well as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). That means, that the magnesium stent is invisible and therefore CT and MRI can be used for imaging of interventions. Only using micro-CT the stent struts were visible. The absorption process could be demonstrated in a patient 18 days after implantation due to suspected acute coronary syndrome, which was excluded. IVUS showed a nice open lumen. Stent struts were no longer visible, but replaced by tissue indicating the previous stent location. Coronary angiography after 4 months showed an ischemia-driven target lesion

  12. Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged, Intense Endurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, John A; Leckey, Jill J

    2015-11-01

    A major goal of training to improve the performance of prolonged, continuous, endurance events lasting up to 3 h is to promote a range of physiological and metabolic adaptations that permit an athlete to work at both higher absolute and relative power outputs/speeds and delay the onset of fatigue (i.e., a decline in exercise intensity). To meet these goals, competitive endurance athletes undertake a prodigious volume of training, with a large proportion performed at intensities that are close to or faster than race pace and highly dependent on carbohydrate (CHO)-based fuels to sustain rates of muscle energy production [i.e., match rates of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis with rates of resynthesis]. Consequently, to sustain muscle energy reserves and meet the daily demands of training sessions, competitive athletes freely select CHO-rich diets. Despite renewed interest in high-fat, low-CHO diets for endurance sport, fat-rich diets do not improve training capacity or performance, but directly impair rates of muscle glycogenolysis and energy flux, limiting high-intensity ATP production. When highly trained athletes compete in endurance events lasting up to 3 h, CHO-, not fat-based fuels are the predominant fuel for the working muscles and CHO, not fat, availability becomes rate limiting for performance.

  13. Application of radiation degraded carbohydrates for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshu, F.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation degraded carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carageenan, cellulose, pectin, etc. were applied for plant cultivation. Chitosan (poly-β -D-glucosamine) was easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbacterial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress on plants, phytoalexins induction, etc. Pectic fragments obtained from degraded pectin also induced the phytoalexins such as glyceollins in soybean and pisafin in pea. The irradiated chitosan shows the higher elicitor activity for pisafin than that of pectin. For the plant growth promotion, alginate derived from brown marine algae, chitosan and ligno-cellulosic extracts show a strong activity. The hot water and ethanol extracts from EFB and sugar cane bagasse were increased by irradiation. These extracts promoted the growth of plants and suppressed the damage on barley with salt and Zn stress. The results show that the degraded polysaccharides by radiation have the potential to induce various biological activities and the products can be use for agricultural and medical fields

  14. 21 CFR 880.5300 - Medical absorbent fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical absorbent fiber. 880.5300 Section 880.5300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5300 Medical absorbent fiber. (a) Identification. A medical absorbent fiber is a device...

  15. Piston-rotaxanes as molecular shock absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevick, E M; Williams, D R M

    2010-04-20

    We describe the thermomechanical response of a new molecular system that behaves as a shock absorber. The system consists of a rodlike rotaxane connected to a piston and tethered to a surface. The response of this system is dominated by the translational entropy of the rotaxane rings and can be calculated exactly. The force laws are contrasted with those for a rigid rod and a polymer. In some cases, the rotaxanes undergo a sudden transition to a tilted state when compressed. These piston-rotaxanes provide a potential motif for the design of a new class of materials with a novel thermomechanical response.

  16. DHCAL with Minimal Absorber: Measurements with Positrons

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, B; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Xia, L.; Dotti, A.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Antequera, J.Berenguer; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morgunov, V.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Schuwalow, S.; Tran, H.L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schroeder, S.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kovalcuk, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; van Doren, B.; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Takada, S.; Tomita, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Bilokin, S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Pöschl, R.; Richard, F.; Thiebault, A.; Zerwas, D.; Hostachy, J.Y.; Morin, L.; Besson, D.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Markin, O.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Goecke, P.; Kiesling, C.; Kolk, N.van der; Simon, F.; Szalay, M.; Corriveau, F.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Zutshi, V.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Ieki, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Ootani, W.; Shibata, N.; Jeans, D.; Komamiya, S.; Nakanishi, H.

    2016-01-01

    In special tests, the active layers of the CALICE Digital Hadron Calorimeter prototype, the DHCAL, were exposed to low energy particle beams, without being interleaved by absorber plates. The thickness of each layer corresponded approximately to 0.29 radiation lengths or 0.034 nuclear interaction lengths, defined mostly by the copper and steel skins of the detector cassettes. This paper reports on measurements performed with this device in the Fermilab test beam with positrons in the energy range of 1 to 10 GeV. The measurements are compared to simulations based on GEANT4 and a standalone program to emulate the detailed response of the active elements.

  17. Performansi Purifikasi Biogas Dengan KOH Based Absorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Hermawan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The absorpstion of CO2 is aimed to increase the methane gas fraction in biogas. Enhancing methane fraction hopefully will increase the total energy of the biogas it self. The purification process of biogas minimizing another elements maintains combustion, especially minimizing H2O, CO2, and H2S. The purification using KOH as the absorbent to decrease the CO2. The result shown that the content of CO2 decreased into 27% from 35.5%, the average content of CH4 increased from 18% to 48.5%. Increasing KOH composition decreases bubble generator diameter and mass flow.

  18. Performansi Purifikasi Biogas Dengan KOH Based Absorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Hermawan, Dadang; Hamidi, Nurkholis; Sasongko, Mega Nur

    2016-01-01

    The absorpstion of CO2 is aimed to increase the methane gas fraction in biogas. Enhancing methane fraction hopefully will increase the total energy of the biogas it self. The purification process of biogas minimizing another elements maintains combustion, especially minimizing H2O, CO2, and H2S. The purification using KOH as the absorbent to decrease the CO2. The result shown that the content of CO2 decreased into 27% from 35.5%, the average content of CH4 increased from 18% to 48.5%. Increas...

  19. Liquid holdup in turbulent contact absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.; Zaman, M.; Inayat, M.H.; Chughtai, I.R.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic liquid holdup in a turbulent contact absorber was obtained through quick shut off valves technique. Experiments were carried out in a Perspex column. Effects of liquid velocity, gas velocity, packing diameter packing density and packing height on dynamic liquid holdup were studied. Hollow spherical high density polyethylene (HDPE) balls were used as inert fluidized packing. Experiments were performed at practical range of liquid and gas velocities. Holdup was calculated on the basis of static bed height. Liquid holdup increases with increasing both liquid and gas velocities both for type 1 and type 2 modes of fluidization. Liquid holdup increases with packing density. No effect of dia was observed on liquid holdup. (author)

  20. Optical Pulsing in an Absorbing Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jacob; Evans, Dean; Guha, Shekhar

    2003-03-01

    A continuous-wave laser can be converted into a series of repetitive pulses by focusing the laser beam into an absorbing liquid (e.g. nigrosine dissolved in a solvent), where the mechanism responsible for the pulses is the scattering of light off of photo-generated bubbles. The dependence of the pulsation frequency on the solvent, power, and cell thickness will be shown. The authors would like to acknowledge the contributions made by Prof. Daniel Lathrop (University of Maryland, Department of Physics) at the APS March 2002 meeting.

  1. Impedance matched thin metamaterials make metals absorbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiucci, N; Bloemer, M J; Aközbek, N; D'Aguanno, G

    2013-11-13

    Metals are generally considered good reflectors over the entire electromagnetic spectrum up to their plasma frequency. Here we demonstrate an approach to tailor their absorbing characteristics based on the effective metamaterial properties of thin, periodic metallo-dielectric multilayers by exploiting a broadband, inherently non-resonant, surface impedance matching mechanism. Based on this mechanism, we design, fabricate and test omnidirectional, thin ( 99%) over a frequency range spanning from the UV to the IR. Our approach opens new venues to design cost effective materials for many applications such as thermo-photovoltaic energy conversion devices, light harvesting for solar cells, flat panel display, infrared detectors, stray light reduction, stealth and others.

  2. High energy model for irregular absorbing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiappetta, Pierre.

    1979-05-01

    In the framework of a high energy formulation of relativistic quantum scattering a model is presented which describes the scattering functions and polarization of irregular absorbing particles, whose dimensions are greater than the incident wavelength. More precisely in the forward direction an amplitude parametrization of eikonal type is defined which generalizes the usual diffraction theory, and in the backward direction a reflective model is used including a shadow function. The model predictions are in good agreement with the scattering measurements off irregular compact and fluffy particles performed by Zerull, Giese and Weiss (1977)

  3. Absorbency of Superabsorbent Polymers in Cementitious Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2012-01-01

    Optimal use of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) in cement-based materials relies on knowledge on how SAP absorbency is influenced by different physical and chemical parameters. These parameters include salt concentration in the pore fluid, temperature of the system and SAP particle size. The present...... work shows experimental results on this and presents a new technique to measure the swelling of SAP particles. This new technique is compared with existing techniques that have been recently proposed for the measurement of pore fluid absorption by superabsorbent polymers. It is seen...

  4. DoGlycans-Tools for Preparing Carbohydrate Structures for Atomistic Simulations of Glycoproteins, Glycolipids, and Carbohydrate Polymers for GROMACS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danne, Reinis; Poojari, Chetan; Martinez-Seara, Hector

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrates constitute a structurally and functionally diverse group of biological molecules and macromolecules. In cells they are involved in, e.g., energy storage, signaling, and cell-cell recognition. All of these phenomena take place in atomistic scales, thus atomistic simulation would...... be the method of choice to explore how carbohydrates function. However, the progress in the field is limited by the lack of appropriate tools for preparing carbohydrate structures and related topology files for the simulation models. Here we present tools that fill this gap. Applications where the tools...

  5. Differential carbohydrate media and anaerobic replica plating techniques in delineating carbohydrate-utilizing subgroups in rumen bacterial populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Leedle, J A; Hespell, R B

    1980-01-01

    A basal (BC) medium devoid of added carbohydrates, a complete (CC) medium containing nine carbohydrates were developed for enumerating rumen bacteria. The colony counts on the BC medium were 85 to 100% of those obtained on the CC medium. These colonies were pinpoint size (less than or equal to mm in diameter) but increased in size (2 to 5 mm in diameter) when carbohydrates were subsequently added. With the CC medium or other media tested, the colony counts were 20 to 50% higher on plates than...

  6. Studies on carbohydrate metabolism in Bacillus sphaericus 1593

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-02

    Oct 2, 2006 ... Key words: Bacillus sphaericus, carbohydrate metabolism, glycolytic enzymes. ... available in soil close to decaying plant materials. So when a medium .... citrate, isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate and acetate. The unit of.

  7. Sublethal effects of manganese on the carbohydrate metabolism of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carbohydrate metabolism provides (1) energy,. (2) precursors for synthetic reactions ... as a response to the adrenal corticotrophic hormone (ACTH) from the ... During the exposure experiments, control groups were also set-up. The control fish ...

  8. Recent Progress in Chemical and Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthana, Saddam; Cao, Hongzhi; Chen, Xi

    2011-01-01

    Summary The important roles that carbohydrates play in biological processes and their potential application in diagnosis, therapeutics, and vaccine development have made them attractive synthetic targets. Despite ongoing challenges, tremendous progresses have been made in recent years for the synthesis of carbohydrates. The chemical glycosylation methods have become more sophisticated and the synthesis of oligosaccharides has become more predictable. Simplified one-pot glycosylation strategy and automated synthesis are increasingly used to obtain biologically important glycans. On the other hand, chemoenzymatic synthesis continues to be a powerful alternative for obtaining complex carbohydrates. This review highlights recent progress in chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbohydrates with a particular focus on the methods developed for the synthesis of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, glycolipids, and glycosylated natural products. PMID:19833544

  9. Post-exercise ingestion of a carbohydrate and casein hydrolysate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an isocaloric carbohydrate and protein supplement and ingested the assigned ..... week, and day showed that the 4-way interaction with “condition” ..... on markers of muscle recovery following soccer training: a randomized cross-over study.

  10. APPROACHING CARBOHYDRATES AND ITS METABOLISM: AN EXPERIENCE FOR EDUCATIONAL GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Henrique Dias Ribeiro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The study of carbohydrates, its metabolism and many other fields of biochemistry are often understood by students as a junction of chemical structures and reactions of difficult compression. However, Biochemistry should no longer be seen as an abstruse field, but a way to know the human body and its components, including molecular, structural and functional aspects. Therefore, some alternatives are being evaluated in order to assist and improve the dissemination of knowledge among them highlights are the educational games. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work is the production of two educational games able to include the contents of carbohydrates and its metabolism in higher education. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The educational games produced were made from available materials and low cost. The games were tested in courses of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology of the Federal University of Uberlândia and the response of the students towards the activities was analyzed. The application, had the presence of trained students to instruct on the activity and correcting. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS: "What is the Carbohydrate?" and "Mastering the metabolism" are two educational games covering the content of structure and function carbohydrates and basal metabolism, respectively. "What is the Carbohydrate?" consists in unravel amid several options the carbohydrate in the hands of the others players. For this, several questions with two possible answers, “yes” or “not”, are accepted each round, and if the player find difficulty in formulating questions, there are cards tips. “Mastering the metabolism” consists in a combination of cards that simulate pieces of a domino that must be mounted following the metabolic pathway of carbohydrates, and as the game progresses, the main points of regulation of the pathway will be accompanied by surprise questions. The games showed great acceptance by students. CONCLUSION: “What is the Carbohydrate

  11. [The participation of ethanol in induction of carbohydrates metabolism disturbances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orywal, Karolina; Jelski, Wojciech; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2009-07-01

    Alcohol and products of its metabolism lead to impairment of many organs functions, what cause systemic and local carbohydrates metabolism disturbances. Abusing of alcohol induces changes in pancreatic digestive enzymes secretion, what contributes to development of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. Alcohol can cause secondary diabetes, what is result of pancreatic beta-cells damage and is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Alcohol cause liver cells degeneration and induction of many metabolic disturbances especially carbohydrates.

  12. Metabolism of non-structural carbohydrates in ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Cañizares, G. I L [UNESP; Rodrigues, L. [UNESP; Cañizares, M. C. [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    The carbohydrates provide 50 to 80% of the dry matter of grain and roughage and can be divided into structural (cellulose, hemicellulose) and non-structural (starch, pectin and sugars). The non-structural carbohydrates are primarily digested in the rumen and its dynamic process is a sequence for the supply of nutrients to the intestine. The quality and quantity of products resulting from ruminal fermentation are dependent on the type and activity of microorganisms in the rumen influenced by t...

  13. Wave energy extraction by coupled resonant absorbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D V; Porter, R

    2012-01-28

    In this article, a range of problems and theories will be introduced that will build towards a new wave energy converter (WEC) concept, with the acronym 'ROTA' standing for resonant over-topping absorber. First, classical results for wave power absorption for WECs constrained to operate in a single degree of freedom will be reviewed and the role of resonance in their operation highlighted. Emphasis will then be placed on how the introduction of further resonances can improve power take-off characteristics by extending the range of frequencies over which the efficiency is close to a theoretical maximum. Methods for doing this in different types of WECs will be demonstrated. Coupled resonant absorbers achieve this by connecting a WEC device equipped with its own resonance (determined from a hydrodynamic analysis) to a new system having separate mass/spring/damper characteristics. It is shown that a coupled resonant effect can be realized by inserting a water tank into a WEC, and this idea forms the basis of the ROTA device. In essence, the idea is to exploit the coupling between the natural sloshing frequencies of the water in the internal tank and the natural resonance of a submerged buoyant circular cylinder device that is tethered to the sea floor, allowing a rotary motion about its axis of attachment.

  14. Erbium concentration dependent absorbance in tellurite glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazali, E. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Rohani, M. S., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Sahar, M. R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Arifin, R., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Ghoshal, S. K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm; Hamzah, K., E-mail: mdsupar@utm [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-25

    Enhancing the optical absorption cross-section in topically important rare earth doped tellurite glasses is challenging for photonic devices. Controlled synthesis and detailed characterizations of the optical properties of these glasses are important for the optimization. The influence of varying concentration of Er{sup 3+} ions on the absorbance characteristics of lead tellurite glasses synthesized via melt-quenching technique are investigated. The UV-Vis absorption spectra exhibits six prominent peaks centered at 490, 526, 652, 800, 982 and 1520 nm ascribed to the transitions in erbium ion from the ground state to the excited states {sup 4}F{sub 7/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}, {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}, {sup 4}I{sub 9/2}, {sup 2}H{sub 11/2} and {sup 4}I{sub 13/2}, respectively. The results are analyzed by means of optical band gap E{sub g} and Urbach energy E{sub u}. The values of the energy band gap are found decreased from 2.82 to 2.51 eV and the Urbach energy increased from 0.15 to 0.24 eV with the increase of the Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration from 0 to 1.5 mol%. The excellent absorbance of the prepared tellurite glasses makes them suitable for fabricating solid state lasers.

  15. Possible Quantum Absorber Effects in Cortical Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpf, Uwe

    The Wheeler-Feynman transactional "absorber" approach was proposed originally to account for anomalous resonance coupling between spatio-temporally distant measurement partners in entangled quantum states of so-called Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradoxes, e.g. of spatio-temporal non-locality, quantum teleportation, etc. Applied to quantum brain dynamics, however, this view provides an anticipative resonance coupling model for aspects of cortical synchronization and recurrent visual action control. It is proposed to consider the registered activation patterns of neuronal loops in so-called synfire chains not as a result of retarded brain communication processes, but rather as surface effects of a system of standing waves generated in the depth of visual processing. According to this view, they arise from a counterbalance between the actual input's delayed bottom-up data streams and top-down recurrent information-processing of advanced anticipative signals in a Wheeler-Feynman-type absorber mode. In the framework of a "time-loop" model, findings about mirror neurons in the brain cortex are suggested to be at least partially associated with temporal rather than spatial mirror functions of visual processing, similar to phase conjugate adaptive resonance-coupling in nonlinear optics.

  16. Spacesuit Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chan, Weibo; Bue, Grant C.

    2012-01-01

    For decades advanced spacesuit developers have pursued a regenerable, robust nonventing system for heat rejection. Toward this end, this paper investigates linking together two previously developed technologies, namely NASA s Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare s Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). Heat from a liquid cooled garment is transported to SWME that provides cooling through evaporation. This water vapor is then captured by solid LiCl in the LCAR with a high enthalpy of absorption, resulting in sufficient temperature lift to reject heat to space by radiation. After the sortie, the LCAR would be heated up and dried in a regenerator to drive off and recover the absorbed evaporant. A engineering development prototype was built and tested in vacuum conditions at a sink temperature of 250 K. The LCAR was able to stably reject 75 W over a 7-hour period. A conceptual design of a full-scale radiator is proposed. Excess heat rejection above 240 W would be accomplished through venting of the evaporant. Loop closure rates were predicted for various exploration environment scenarios.

  17. Pregnant woman mode for absorbed fraction calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloutier, R.J.; Snyder, W.S.; Watson, E.E.

    1977-01-01

    The most radiation-sensitive segment of our population is the developing fetus. Until recently, methods available for calculating the dose to the fetus were inadequate because a model for the pregnant woman was not available. Instead, the Snyder and Fisher model of Reference Man, which includes a uterus, was frequently used to calculate absorbed fractions when the source was in various organs of the body and the nongravid uterus was the target. These values would be representative of the dose to the embryo during the early stages of pregnancy. Unfortunately, Reference Man is considerable larger than Reference Woman. The authors recently reported on the design of a Reference Woman phantom that has dimensions quite similar to the ICRP Reference Woman. This phantom was suitable for calculating the dose to the embryo during early stages of pregnancy (0 to 3 mo.), but was not suitable for the later stages of pregnancy because of the changing shape of the mother and the displacement of several abdominal organs brought about by the growth of the uterus and fetus. The models of Reference Woman that were subsequently developed for each month of pregnancy are described. The models take into account the growth of the uterus and fetus and the repositioning of the various abdominal organs. These models have been used to calculate absorbed fractions for the fetus as a target and the gastrointestinal tract as a source of radiation for twelve photon energies ranging from 10 keV to 4 MeV

  18. High-efficiency ventilated metamaterial absorber at low frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoxiao; Au-Yeung, Ka Yan; Li, Xin; Roberts, Robert Christopher; Tian, Jingxuan; Hu, Chuandeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Wang, Shuxia; Yang, Zhiyu; Wen, Weijia

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate a ventilated metamaterial absorber operating at low frequency (90%) has been achieved in both simulations and experiments. This high-efficiency absorption under the ventilation condition originates from the weak coupling of two identical split tube resonators constituting the absorber, which leads to the hybridization of the degenerate eigenmodes and breaks the absorption upper limit of 50% for conventional transmissive symmetric acoustic absorbers. The absorber can also be extended to an array and work in free space. The absorber should have potential applications in acoustic engineering where both noise reduction and ventilation are required.

  19. Validation of lignocellulosic biomass carbohydrates determination via acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengfei; Runge, Troy M

    2014-11-04

    This work studied the two-step acid hydrolysis for determining carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass. Estimation of sugar loss based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards or analysis of sugar derivatives was investigated. Four model substrates (starch, holocellulose, filter paper and cotton) and three levels of acid/material ratios (7.8, 10.3 and 15.4, v/w) were studied to demonstrate the range of test artifacts. The method for carbohydrates estimation based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards having the most satisfactory carbohydrate recovery and relative standard deviation. Raw material and the acid/material ratio both had significant effect on carbohydrate hydrolysis, suggesting the acid to have impacts beyond a catalyst in the hydrolysis. Following optimal procedures, we were able to reach a carbohydrate recovery of 96% with a relative standard deviation less than 3%. The carbohydrates recovery lower than 100% was likely due to the incomplete hydrolysis of substrates, which was supported by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid analytical extraction of volatile fermentation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, N B; Flickinger, M C; Tsao, G T

    1979-10-01

    With renewed interest in production of liquid fuels and chemical feedstocks from carbohydrates, numerous authors have utilized gas-liquid chromatography (GC) for quantification of volatile products. Poor separation and short column life will result if residual sugars present in the medium are not separated from the volatile compounds before injection. In our current investigation of 2,3-butanediol production from xylose, we have developed a rapid GC assay for 2,3-butanediol, acetyl methyl carbinol (acetoin), 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl), and ethanol. This method extracts the fermentation products at high pH from residual xylose before injection into the GC. This routine is a modification of the method of Kolfenbach et al. and is more rapid than the method of separation of diacetyl and acetoin from carbohydrates by distillation reported by Gupta et al. Their erroneous reports of yields of 640 mg diacetyl + acetoin/g sugar are 30% higher than the theoretical maximum for Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC 27613) and points out the need for a reliable, accurate assay for these products.

  1. Chemical characterization of carbohydrate-based biosurfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-yield, glycolipid-based biosurfactants are of increasing interest for use in environmentally benign cleaning or emulsifying agents. We have developed a MALDI-TOF/MS screen for the rapid analysis of several types of biosurfactants, including various acylated rhamnolipids in Pseudomonas extracts...

  2. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas, E-mail: tke@uams.edu [Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute and Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses.

  3. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses

  4. Cause of impaired carbohydrate metabolism in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldes, J.; Megyesi, K.; Koranyi, L.

    1984-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism (HT) affects glucose metabolism in various ways. The role of insulin, glucagon and growth-hormone (GH) was determined. After glucose loading the insulin response is weaker in HT than in euthyroid subjects. Enhanced degradation of insulin has been reported. It is suggested that in HT the serum insulin concentration declines at a slightly accelerated rate. In HT the deranged carbohydrate metabolism might be a consequence of altered tissue sensitivity to insulin. To elucidate this problem insulin receptors on erythrocytes obtained from hyperthyroid women were investigated. The maximal specific binding of 125 I-insulin to RBC of hyperthyroid patients was decreased and the analysis refers to a decreased receptor concentration in RBC. The nature of glucagon secretion and its influence on glucose metabolism in HT was investigated. The basal plasma glucagon is elevated in hyperthyroid patients. The suppression of glucagon secretion induced by an oral glucose loading was of significantly lesser degree in hyperthyroid patients than in controls. Applying the erythrocyte receptor assay a decreased specific binding of 125 I-glucagon to RBC of hyperthyroid patients has been found and data indicate a significantly less glucagon receptor concentration in thyrotoxicosis. Physiological elevations of serum GH levels led to a significant impairment of glucose metabolism. Beside the GH-RH and somatostatin, the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system participates in the regulation of GH secretion too. It has been demonstrated that after administration of the dopamine agonist l-dopa the GH response was weaker in HT than in controls. This indicates that in thyrotoxicosis the GH secretion can not be stimulated in such a degree as in euthyroidism. (author)

  5. Cause of impaired carbohydrate metabolism in hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foeldes, J.; Megyesi, K.; Koranyi, L. (Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary))

    1984-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism (HT) affects glucose metabolism in various ways. The role of insulin, glucagon and growth-hormone (GH) was determined. After glucose loading the insulin response is weaker in HT than in euthyroid subjects. Enhanced degradation of insulin has been reported. It is suggested that in HT the serum insulin concentration declines at a slightly accelerated rate. In HT the deranged carbohydrate metabolism might be a consequence of altered tissue sensitivity to insulin. To elucidate this problem insulin receptors on erythrocytes obtained from hyperthyroid women were investigated. The maximal specific binding of /sup 125/I-insulin to RBC of hyperthyroid patients was decreased and the analysis refers to a decreased receptor concentration in RBC. The nature of glucagon secretion and its influence on glucose metabolism in HT was investigated. The basal plasma glucagon is elevated in hyperthyroid patients. The suppression of glucagon secretion induced by an oral glucose loading was of significantly lesser degree in hyperthyroid patients than in controls. Applying the erythrocyte receptor assay a decreased specific binding of /sup 125/I-glucagon to RBC of hyperthyroid patients has been found and data indicate a significantly less glucagon receptor concentration in thyrotoxicosis. Physiological elevations of serum GH levels led to a significant impairment of glucose metabolism. Beside the GH-RH and somatostatin, the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system participates in the regulation of GH secretion too. It has been demonstrated that after administration of the dopamine agonist l-dopa the GH response was weaker in HT than in controls. This indicates that in thyrotoxicosis the GH secretion can not be stimulated in such a degree as in euthyroidism.

  6. Frequency Tuning of Vibration Absorber Using Topology Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Swapnil Subhash

    A tuned mass absorber is a system for reducing the amplitude in one oscillator by coupling it to a second oscillator. If tuned correctly, the maximum amplitude of the first oscillator in response to a periodic driver will be lowered, and much of the vibration will be 'transferred' to the second oscillator. The tuned vibration absorber (TVA) has been utilized for vibration control purposes in many sectors of Civil/Automotive/Aerospace Engineering for many decades since its inception. Time and again we come across a situation in which a vibratory system is required to run near resonance. In the past, approaches have been made to design such auxiliary spring mass tuned absorbers for the safety of the structures. This research focuses on the development and optimization of continuously tuned mass absorbers as a substitute to the discretely tuned mass absorbers (spring- mass system). After conducting the study of structural behavior, the boundary condition and frequency to which the absorber is to be tuned are determined. The Modal analysis approach is used to determine mode shapes and frequencies. The absorber is designed and optimized using the topology optimization tool, which simultaneously designs, optimizes and tunes the absorber to the desired frequency. The tuned, optimized absorber, after post processing, is attached to the target structure. The number of the absorbers are increased to amplify bandwidth and thereby upgrade the safety of structure for a wide range of frequency. The frequency response analysis is carried out using various combinations of structure and number of absorber cell.

  7. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  8. A shock absorber model for structure-borne noise analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaziz, Marouane; Nacivet, Samuel; Thouverez, Fabrice

    2015-08-01

    Shock absorbers are often responsible for undesirable structure-borne noise in cars. The early numerical prediction of this noise in the automobile development process can save time and money and yet remains a challenge for industry. In this paper, a new approach to predicting shock absorber structure-borne noise is proposed; it consists in modelling the shock absorber and including the main nonlinear phenomena responsible for discontinuities in the response. The model set forth herein features: compressible fluid behaviour, nonlinear flow rate-pressure relations, valve mechanical equations and rubber mounts. The piston, base valve and complete shock absorber model are compared with experimental results. Sensitivity of the shock absorber response is evaluated and the most important parameters are classified. The response envelope is also computed. This shock absorber model is able to accurately reproduce local nonlinear phenomena and improves our state of knowledge on potential noise sources within the shock absorber.

  9. Neutron Absorbing Ability Variation in Neutron Absorbing Material Caused by the Neutron Irradiation in Spent Fuel Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Hee Dong; Han, Seul Gi; Lee, Sang Dong; Kim, Ki Hong; Ryu, Eag Hyang; Park, Hwa Gyu [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In spent fuel storage facility like high density spent fuel storage racks and dry storage casks, spent fuels are stored with neutron absorbing materials installed as a part of those facilities, and they are used for absorbing neutrons emitted from spent fuels. Usually structural material with neutron absorbing material of racks and casks are located around spent fuels, so it is irradiated by neutrons for long time. Neutron absorbing ability could be changed by the variation of nuclide composition in neutron absorbing material caused by the irradiation of neutrons. So, neutron absorbing materials are continuously faced with spent fuels with boric acid solution or inert gas environment. Major nuclides in neutron absorbing material are Al{sup 27}, C{sup 12}, B{sup 11}, B{sup 10} and they are changed to numerous other ones as radioactive decay or neutron absorption reaction. The B{sup 10} content in neutron absorbing material dominates the neutron absorbing ability, so, the variation of nuclide composition including the decrease of B{sup 10} content is the critical factor on neutron absorbing ability. In this study, neutron flux in spent fuel, the activation of neutron absorbing material and the variation of nuclide composition are calculated. And, the minimum neutron flux causing the decrease of B{sup 10} content is calculated in spent fuel storage facility. Finally, the variation of neutron multiplication factor is identified according to the one of B{sup 10} content in neutron absorbing material. The minimum neutron flux to impact the neutron absorbing ability is 10{sup 10} order, however, usual neutron flux from spent fuel is 10{sup 8} order. Therefore, even though neutron absorbing material is irradiated for over 40 years, B{sup 10} content is little decreased, so, initial neutron absorbing ability could be kept continuously.

  10. Analgesic efficacy with rapidly absorbed ibuprofen sodium dihydrate in postsurgical dental pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholt, Sven Erik; Hallmer, F; Hartlev, Jens

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the onset of analgesic effect for a new formulation of ibuprofen sodium dihydrate versus conventional ibuprofen (ibuprofen acid).......To evaluate the onset of analgesic effect for a new formulation of ibuprofen sodium dihydrate versus conventional ibuprofen (ibuprofen acid)....

  11. The rapid determination of 230Th by preconcentration of charcoal absorbing N-1923

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jiayuan; Wu Hanzhen.

    1986-01-01

    Investigation was made on concentration of 230 Th using charcoal, which had adsorbed amine N-1923 before hand. The separation of α-emitter U, Ra, Po also has been investigated. α-source was prepared by Powder-Pulp method. This method is simple, convenient and esay to operate

  12. Thermal Shielding Effects of a Damaged Shock Absorber and an Intact Shock Absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Kim, K. Y.; Seo, C. S.; Seo, K. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    In order to safely transport the radioactive waste arising from the hot test of an ACP(Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process) a shipping package is required. Therefore, KAERI is developing a shipping package to transport the radioactive waste arising from the ACPF during a hot test. The regulatory requirements for a Type B package are specified in the Korea Most Act 2009-37, IAEA Safety Standard Series No. TS-R-1, and US 10 CFR Part. These regulatory guidelines classify the hot cell cask as a Type B package, and state that the Type B package for transporting radioactive materials should be able to withstand a test sequence consisting of a 9 m drop onto an unyielding surface, a 1 m drop onto a puncture bar, and a 30 minute fully engulfing fire. Greiner et al. investigated the thermal protection provided by shock absorbers by using the CAFE computer code. To evaluate the thermal shielding effect of the shock absorber, the thermal test was performed by using a 1/2 scale model with a shock absorber which was damaged by both a 9 m drop test and a 1 m puncture test. For the purpose of comparison, the thermal test was also carried out by using a 1/2 scale model with the intact shock absorber

  13. Microwave absorbing property of a hybrid absorbent with carbonyl irons coating on the graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yonggang, E-mail: xuyonggang221@163.com [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai, 200438 (China); Yan, Zhenqiang; Zhang, Deyuan [Bionic and Micro/Nano/Bio Manufacturing Technology Research Center, School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: The absorbing property could be enhanced as the CIPs coated on the graphite. - Highlights: • Absorbers filled with CIPs coating on the graphite was fabricated. • The permittivity and permeability increased as CIPs coated. • The CIP materials enhanced the electromagnetic property. • The graphite coated CIPs were effective in 2–18 GHz. - Abstract: The hybrid absorbent filled with carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) coating on the graphite was prepared using a chemical vapor decomposition (CVD) process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were done to analyze the particle crystal grain structure. The complex permittivity and permeability were measured using a vector network analyzer in the frequency range of 2–18 GHz. The results showed that α-Fe appeared in the super-lattice diffraction peaks in XRD graph. The composites added CIPs coating on the graphite had a higher permittivity and imaginary permeability due to the superior microwave dielectric loss and magnetic loss of the CIPs. The reflection loss (RL) result showed that composites filled with 5 vol% Fe-graphite had an excellent absorbing property in the 2–18 GHz, the minimum RL was −25.14 dB at 6 mm and −26.52 dB at 8 mm, respectively.

  14. Effects of Carbohydrate Source on Genetic Competence in Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Zachary D; Son, Minjun; Rosa-Alberty, Ariana E; Zeng, Lin; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Hagen, Stephen J; Burne, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    The capacity to internalize and catabolize carbohydrates is essential for dental caries pathogens to persist and cause disease. The expression of many virulence-related attributes by Streptococcus mutans, an organism strongly associated with human dental caries, is influenced by the peptide signaling pathways that control genetic competence. Here, we demonstrate a relationship between the efficiency of competence signaling and carbohydrate source. A significant increase in the activity of the promoters for comX, comS, and comYA after exposure to competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) was observed in cells growing on fructose, maltose, sucrose, or trehalose as the primary carbohydrate source, compared to cells growing on glucose. However, only cells grown in the presence of trehalose or sucrose displayed a significant increase in transformation frequency. Notably, even low concentrations of these carbohydrates in the presence of excess glucose could enhance the expression of comX, encoding a sigma factor needed for competence, and the effects on competence were dependent on the cognate sugar:phosphotransferase permease for each carbohydrate. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter fusions, we observed that growth in fructose or trehalose resulted in a greater proportion of the population activating expression of comX and comS, encoding the precursor of comX-inducing peptide (XIP), after addition of CSP, than growth in glucose. Thus, the source of carbohydrate significantly impacts the stochastic behaviors that regulate subpopulation responses to CSP, which can induce competence in S. mutans The signaling pathways that regulate development of genetic competence in Streptococcus mutans are intimately intertwined with the pathogenic potential of the organism, impacting biofilm formation, stress tolerance, and expression of known virulence determinants. Induction of the gene for the master regulator of competence, ComX, by competence-stimulating peptide (CSP

  15. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Surender K; McFarlane, Samy I

    2005-07-14

    A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by a significant decrease in fat consumption and an increase in carbohydrate consumption. This apparent failure of the traditional diet, from a public health point of view, indicates that alternative dietary approaches are needed. Because carbohydrate is the major secretagogue of insulin, some form of carbohydrate restriction is a prima facie candidate for dietary control of diabetes. Evidence from various randomized controlled trials in recent years has convinced us that such diets are safe and effective, at least in short-term. These data show low carbohydrate diets to be comparable or better than traditional low fat high carbohydrate diets for weight reduction, improvement in the dyslipidemia of diabetes and metabolic syndrome as well as control of blood pressure, postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion. Furthermore, the ability of low carbohydrate diets to reduce triglycerides and to increase HDL is of particular importance. Resistance to such strategies has been due, in part, to equating it with the popular Atkins diet. However, there are many variations and room for individual physician planning. Some form of low carbohydrate diet, in combination with exercise, is a viable option for patients with diabetes. However, the extreme reduction of carbohydrate of popular diets (<30 g/day) cannot be recommended for a diabetic population at this time without further study. On the other hand, the dire objections continually raised in the literature appear to have very little scientific

  16. Effects of Carbohydrate Source on Genetic Competence in Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Zachary D.; Son, Minjun; Rosa-Alberty, Ariana E.; Zeng, Lin; Ahn, Sang-Joon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The capacity to internalize and catabolize carbohydrates is essential for dental caries pathogens to persist and cause disease. The expression of many virulence-related attributes by Streptococcus mutans, an organism strongly associated with human dental caries, is influenced by the peptide signaling pathways that control genetic competence. Here, we demonstrate a relationship between the efficiency of competence signaling and carbohydrate source. A significant increase in the activity of the promoters for comX, comS, and comYA after exposure to competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) was observed in cells growing on fructose, maltose, sucrose, or trehalose as the primary carbohydrate source, compared to cells growing on glucose. However, only cells grown in the presence of trehalose or sucrose displayed a significant increase in transformation frequency. Notably, even low concentrations of these carbohydrates in the presence of excess glucose could enhance the expression of comX, encoding a sigma factor needed for competence, and the effects on competence were dependent on the cognate sugar:phosphotransferase permease for each carbohydrate. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter fusions, we observed that growth in fructose or trehalose resulted in a greater proportion of the population activating expression of comX and comS, encoding the precursor of comX-inducing peptide (XIP), after addition of CSP, than growth in glucose. Thus, the source of carbohydrate significantly impacts the stochastic behaviors that regulate subpopulation responses to CSP, which can induce competence in S. mutans. IMPORTANCE The signaling pathways that regulate development of genetic competence in Streptococcus mutans are intimately intertwined with the pathogenic potential of the organism, impacting biofilm formation, stress tolerance, and expression of known virulence determinants. Induction of the gene for the master regulator of competence, ComX, by competence

  17. A chiral microwave absorbing absorbent of Fe–CoNiP coated on spirulina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yonggang, E-mail: xuyonggang221@163.com [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai, 200438 (China); Yuan, Liming [Science and Technology on Electromagnetic Scattering Laboratory, Shanghai, 200438 (China); Zhang, Deyuan [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191 (China)

    2015-11-15

    A chiral bio-absorbent of Fe–CoNiP coated on the spirulina was fabricated by the electroless and chemical vapor decomposition. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the spirulina cells particle morphology. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were done to analyze the particle crystal grain structure. The permittivity and permeability was measured by a vector network analyzer in frequency 8–18 GHz, and the reflection loss (RL) was calculated. The results showed the carbonyl iron particles (CIPs) and CoNiP were bonded to the spirulina surface, the permittivity and permeability could be enlarged as Fe films coated on the particles compared with the CoNiP spirulina, it was attributed to the excellent electromagnetic property of CIPs. The chiral Fe–CoNiP composites had a better absorbing property at 8–18 GHz than the CoNiP spirulina composite, the RL was −16.26 dB at 10.48 GHz, the absorbing band was 9.5–11.5 GHz of RL less than −10 dB, which indicated the Fe–CoNiP spirulina could be an effective absorbent used in 8–18 GHz. - Highlights: • Absorbers filled with Fe–CoNiP coating on the spirulina were fabricated. • The permittivity and permeability increased as CIPs coated. • The Fe material enhanced the electromagnetic property. • The spirulina coated Fe–CoNiP was effective in 8–18 GHz.

  18. Enzymatic regulation of glucose disposal in human skeletal muscle after a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehleman, Tanya L; Peters, Sandra J; Heigenhauser, George J F; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2005-01-01

    Whole body glucose disposal and skeletal muscle hexokinase, glycogen synthase (GS), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), and PDH kinase (PDK) activities were measured in aerobically trained men after a standardized control diet (Con; 51% carbohydrate, 29% fat, and 20% protein of total energy intake) and a 56-h eucaloric, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet (HF/LC; 5% carbohydrate, 73% fat, and 22% protein). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; 1 g/kg) was administered after the Con and HF/LC diets with vastus lateralis muscle biopsies sampled pre-OGTT and 75 min after ingestion of the oral glucose load. The 90-min area under the blood glucose and plasma insulin concentration vs. time curves increased by 2-fold and 1.25-fold, respectively, after the HF/LC diet. The pre-OGTT fraction of GS in its active form and the maximal activity of hexokinase were not affected by the HF/LC diet. However, the HF/LC diet increased PDK activity (0.19 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.08 +/- 0.02 min(-1)) and decreased PDH activation (0.38 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.79 +/- 0.10 mmol acetyl-CoA.kg wet muscle(-1).min(-1)) before the OGTT vs. Con. During the OGTT, GS and PDH activation increased by the same magnitude in both diets, such that PDH activation remained lower during the HF/LC OGTT (0.60 +/- 0.11 vs. 1.04 +/- 0.09 mmol acetyl-CoA.kg(-1).min(-1)). These data demonstrate that the decreased glucose disposal during the OGTT after the 56-h HF/LC diet was in part related to decreased oxidative carbohydrate disposal in skeletal muscle and not to decreased glycogen storage. The rapid increase in PDK activity during the HF/LC diet appeared to account for the reduced potential for oxidative carbohydrate disposal.

  19. Electromagnetic radiation absorbers and modulators comprising polyaniline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Arthur J.; Ginder, John M.; Roe, Mitchell G.; Hajiseyedjavadi, Hamid

    1992-01-01

    A composition for absorbing electromagnetic radiation, wherein said electromagnetic radiation possesses a wavelength generally in the range of from about 1000 Angstroms to about 50 meters, wherein said composition comprises a polyaniline composition of the formula ##STR1## where y can be equal to or greater than zero, and R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are independently selected from the group containing of H, --OCH.sub.3, --CH.sub.3, --F, --Cl, --Br, --I, NR.sup.3 .sub.2, --NHCOR.sup.3, --OH, --O.sup.-, SR.sup.3, --OCOR.sup.3, --NO.sub.2, --COOH, --COOR.sup.3, --COR.sup.3, --CHO, and --CN, where R.sup.3 is a C.sub.1 to C.sub.8 alkyl, aryl or aralkyl group.

  20. Modelling and validation of electromechanical shock absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonoli, Andrea; Amati, Nicola; Girardello Detoni, Joaquim; Galluzzi, Renato; Gasparin, Enrico

    2013-08-01

    Electromechanical vehicle suspension systems represent a promising substitute to conventional hydraulic solutions. However, the design of electromechanical devices that are able to supply high damping forces without exceeding geometric dimension and mass constraints is a difficult task. All these challenges meet in off-road vehicle suspension systems, where the power density of the dampers is a crucial parameter. In this context, the present paper outlines a particular shock absorber configuration where a suitable electric machine and a transmission mechanism are utilised to meet off-road vehicle requirements. A dynamic model is used to represent the device. Subsequently, experimental tests are performed on an actual prototype to verify the functionality of the damper and validate the proposed model.

  1. Novel active vibration absorber with magnetorheological fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, T; Ehrlich, J; Boese, H [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Silicatforschung ISC, Neunerplatz 2, D-97082 Wuerzburg (Germany)], E-mail: thomas.gerlach@isc.fraunhofer.de

    2009-02-01

    Disturbing vibrations diminish the performance of technical high precision devices significantly. In search of a suitable solution for reducing these vibrations, a novel concept of active vibration reduction was developed which exploits the special properties of magnetorheological fluids. In order to evaluate the concept of such an active vibration absorber (AVA) a demonstrator was designed and manufactured. This demonstrator generates a force which counteracts the motion of the vibrating body. Since the counterforce is generated by a centrifugal exciter, the AVA provides the capability to compensate vibrations even in two dimensions. To control the strength of the force transmitted to the vibrating body, the exciter is based on a tunable MR coupling. The AVA was integrated in an appropriate testing device to investigate its performance. The recorded results show a significant reduction of the vibration amplitudes by an order of magnitude.

  2. Corundum-based transparent infrared absorbers

    KAUST Repository

    Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2009-10-01

    Hypothetical corundum-based compounds are studied by electronic structure calculations. One quarter of the Al atoms in Al2O3 is replaced by a 3d transition metal from the M = Ti, ..., Zn (d1, ..., d9) series. Structure optimisations are performed for all the M-Al2O3 compounds and the electronic states are evaluated. Due to the M substitutes, narrow partially filled bands are formed at the Fermi energy. Beyond, for M = Ni and M = Cu the optical properties of Al2O3 in the visible range are conserved, while for M = Ti, ..., Co the systems form high accuracy optical filters. Since the compounds absorb the infrared radiation, the M = Ni and M = Cu systems are good candidates for heat-protective coatings. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Moisture buffering capacity of highly absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerolini, S.; D' Orazio, M.; Stazi, A. [Department of Architecture, Construction and Structures (DACS), Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy); Di Perna, C. [Department of Energetics, Faculty of Engineering, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60100 Ancona (Italy)

    2009-02-15

    This research investigates the possibility to use highly absorbing materials to dampen indoor RH% variations. The practical MBV of sodium polyacrylate, cellulose-based material, perlite and gypsum is evaluated for a daily cyclic exposure that alternates high (75%) and low (33%) RH% levels for 8 h and 16 h, respectively. The adjustment velocity to RH% variations and the presence of hysteretic phenomena are also presented. The cellulose-based material proves to be the most suitable for moisture buffering applications. Starting from this material's properties, the effect of thickness, vapour resistance factor ({mu}) and mass surface exchange coefficient (Z{sub v}) on sorption capacity is evaluated by the use of a numerical model. (author)

  4. Ultrathin microwave metamaterial absorber utilizing embedded resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ju; Hwang, Ji Sub; Yoo, Young Joon; Khuyen, Bui Xuan; Rhee, Joo Yull; Chen, Xianfeng; Lee, YoungPak

    2017-10-01

    We numerically and experimentally studied an ultrathin and broadband perfect absorber by enhancing the bandwidth with embedded resistors into the metamaterial structure, which is easy to fabricate in order to lower the Q-factor and by using multiple resonances with the patches of different sizes. We analyze the absorption mechanism in terms of the impedance matching with the free space and through the distribution of surface current at each resonance frequency. The magnetic field, induced by the antiparallel surface currents, is formed strongly in the direction opposite to the incident electromagnetic wave, to cancel the incident wave, leading to the perfect absorption. The corresponding experimental absorption was found to be higher than 97% in 0.88-3.15 GHz. The agreement between measurement and simulation was good. The aspects of our proposed structure can be applied to future electronic devices, for example, advanced noise-suppression sheets in the microwave regime.

  5. Transport in coherently absorbing or amplifying media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, A.K.

    1995-11-01

    We study electronic transport in a one-dimensional ordered chain in the presence of either absorption or amplification at each site (the site-potential having an imaginary positive or negative part) within a single-band tightbinding Hamiltonian. The spectrum in either case for the isolated (closed) quantum system is found to become broader compared to the regular Bloch case where there is no absorption or amplification at any site. Interestingly for the transport through an infinitely long ordered chain (open quantum system), the reflectance saturates to a value greater (lesser) than unity in the amplifying (absorbing) case and the transmittance decays to zero in either case. This fact implies that the transmittance does not grow indefinitely even for an ordered, amplifying (active or lasing) medium and that it is not necessary to have any disorder or interaction induced confining mechanism on the transmitted wave, so as to achieve an amplification in the backscattered wave. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  6. Neutron absorbed dose in a pacemaker CMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borja H, C. G.; Guzman G, K. A.; Valero L, C. Y.; Banuelos F, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Paredes G, L., E-mail: candy_borja@hotmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    The absorbed dose due to neutrons by a Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) has been estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Eventually a person with a pacemaker becomes a patient that must be treated by radiotherapy with a linear accelerator; the pacemaker has integrated circuits as CMOS that are sensitive to intense and pulsed radiation fields. When the Linac is working in Bremsstrahlung mode an undesirable neutron field is produced due to photoneutron reactions; these neutrons could damage the CMOS putting the patient at risk during the radiotherapy treatment. In order to estimate the neutron dose in the CMOS a Monte Carlo calculation was carried out where a full radiotherapy vault room was modeled with a W-made spherical shell in whose center was located the source term of photoneutrons produced by a Linac head operating in Bremsstrahlung mode at 18 MV. In the calculations a phantom made of tissue equivalent was modeled while a beam of photoneutrons was applied on the phantom prostatic region using a field of 10 x 10 cm{sup 2}. During simulation neutrons were isotropically transported from the Linac head to the phantom chest, here a 1 {theta} x 1 cm{sup 2} cylinder made of polystyrene was modeled as the CMOS, where the neutron spectrum and the absorbed dose were estimated. Main damages to CMOS are by protons produced during neutron collisions protective cover made of H-rich materials, here the neutron spectrum that reach the CMOS was calculated showing a small peak around 0.1 MeV and a larger peak in the thermal region, both connected through epithermal neutrons. (Author)

  7. Radiation absorbed dose from medically administered radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roedler, H.D.; Kaul, A.

    1975-01-01

    The use of radiopharmaceuticals for medical examinations is increasing. Surveys carried out in West Berlin show a 20% average yearly increase in such examinations. This implies an increased genetic and somatic radiation exposure of the population in general. Determination of radiation exposure of the population as well as of individual patients examined requires a knowledge of the radiation dose absorbed by each organ affected by each examination. An extensive survey of the literature revealed that different authors reported widely different dose values for the same defined examination methods and radiopharmaceuticals. The reason for this can be found in the uncertainty of the available biokinetic data for dose calculations and in the application of various mathematical models to describe the kinetics and calculation of organ doses. Therefore, the authors recalculated some of the dose values published for radiopharmaceuticals used in patients by applying biokinetic data obtained from exponential models of usable metabolism data reported in the literature. The calculation of organ dose values was done according to the concept of absorbed fractions in its extended form. For all radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine the energy dose values for the most important organs (ovaries, testicles, liver, lungs, spleen, kidneys, skeleton, total body or residual body) were recalculated and tabulated for the gonads, skeleton and critical or examined organs respectively. These dose values are compared with those reported in the literature and the reasons for the observed deviations are discussed. On the basis of recalculated dose values for the gonads and bone-marrow as well as on the basis of results of statistical surveys in West Berlin, the genetically significant dose and the somatically (leukemia) significant dose were calculated for 1970 and estimated for 1975. For 1970 the GSD was 0.2 mrad and the LSD was 0.7 mrad. For 1975 the GSD is estimated at < 0.5 mrad and the

  8. Determination of absorbed dose in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    There are many areas in the use and operation of research reactors where the absorbed dose and the neutron fluence are required. These include work on the determination of the radiolytic stability of the coolant and moderator and on the determination of radiation damage in structural materials, and reactor experiments involving radiation chemistry and radiation biology. The requirements range from rough estimates of the total heating due to radiation to precise values specifying the contributions of gamma rays, thermal neutrons and fast neutrons. To meet all these requirements a variety of experimental measurements and calculations as well as a knowledge of reactor radiations and their interactions is necessary. Realizing the complexity and importance of this field, its development at widely separated laboratories and the need to bring the experts in this work together, the IAEA has convened three panel meetings. These were: 'In-pile dosimetry', held in July 1964 (published by the Agency as Technical Reports Series No. 46); 'Neutron fluence measurements', in October 1965; and 'In-pile dosimetry', in November 1966. The recommendations of these three panels led the Agency to form a Working Group on Reactor Radiation Measurements and to commission the writing of this book and a book on Neutron Fluence Measurements. The latter was published in May 1970 (Technical Reports Series No. 107). The material on neutron fluence and absorbed dose measurements is widely scattered in reports and reviews. It was considered that it was time for all relevant information to be evaluated and put together in the form of a practical guide that would be valuable both to experienced workers and beginners in the field

  9. Burnable absorber for the PIK reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gostev, V.V.; Smolskii, S.L.; Tchmshkyan, D.V.; Zakharov, A.S.; Zvezdkin, V.S.; Konoplev, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    In the reactor PIK design a burnable absorber is not used and the cycle duration is limited by the rods weight. Designed cycle time is two weeks and seams to be not enough for the 100 MW power research reactor equipped by many neutron beams and experimental facilities. Relatively frequent reloading reduces the reactor time on full power and in this way increases the maintenance expenses. In the reactor core fuel elements well mastered by practice are used and its modification was not approved. We try to find the possibilities of installation in the core separate burnable elements to avoid poison of the fuel. It is possible to replace a part of the fuel elements by absorbers, since the fuel elements are relatively small (diameter 5.15mm, uranium 235 content 7.14g) and there are more then 3800 elements in the core. Nevertheless, replacing decreases the fuel burnup and its consumption. In the PIK fuel assembles a little part of the volume is occupied by the dumb elements to create a complete package of the assembles shroud, that is necessary in the hydraulic reasons. In the presented report the assessment of such a replacement is done. As a burnable material Gadolinium was selected. The measurements or the beginning of cycle were performed on the critical facility PIK. The burning calculation was confirmed by measurements on the 18MW reactor WWR-M. The results give the opportunity to twice the cycle duration. The proposed modification of the fuel assembles does not lead to alteration in the other reactor systems, but it touch the burned fuel reprocessing technology. (author)

  10. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  11. Fructose and Sucrose Intake Increase Exogenous Carbohydrate Oxidation during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommelen, Jorn; Fuchs, Cas J.; Beelen, Milou; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Jeukendrup, Asker E.; Cermak, Naomi M.; van Loon, Luc J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates typically reach ~1 g·min−1 during exercise when ample glucose or glucose polymers are ingested. Fructose co-ingestion has been shown to further increase exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of fructose co-ingestion provided either as a monosaccharide or as part of the disaccharide sucrose on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2peak: 65 ± 2 mL·kg−1·min−1) cycled on four different occasions for 180 min at 50% Wmax during which they consumed a carbohydrate solution providing 1.8 g·min−1 of glucose (GLU), 1.2 g·min−1 glucose + 0.6 g·min−1 fructose (GLU + FRU), 0.6 g·min−1 glucose + 1.2 g·min−1 sucrose (GLU + SUC), or water (WAT). Peak exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates did not differ between GLU + FRU and GLU + SUC (1.40 ± 0.06 vs. 1.29 ± 0.07 g·min−1, respectively, p = 0.999), but were 46% ± 8% higher when compared to GLU (0.96 ± 0.06 g·min−1: p exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during the latter 120 min of exercise were 46% ± 8% higher in GLU + FRU or GLU + SUC compared with GLU (1.19 ± 0.12, 1.13 ± 0.21, and 0.82 ± 0.16 g·min−1, respectively, p exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during prolonged exercise in trained cyclists. PMID:28230742

  12. Predicting water-soluble carbohydrates and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates in cool-season grasses with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazing animals may require a high or low total nonstructural carbohydrate diet for optimal health and production. Understanding how nonstructural carbohydrates fluctuate in Kentucky pastures and being able to quantify and monitor nonstructural carbohydrates in a timely manner will greatly aid in m...

  13. Analysis of periodically patterned metallic nanostructures for infrared absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sha; Yuan, Ying; Long, Huabao; Liu, Runhan; Wei, Dong; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Haiwei; Xie, Changsheng

    2018-02-01

    With rapid advancement of infrared detecting technology in both military and civil domains, the photo-electronic performances of near-infrared detectors have been widely concerned. Currently, near-infrared detectors demonstrate some problems such as low sensitivity, low detectivity, and relatively small array scale. The current studies show that surface plasmons (SPs) stimulated over the surface of metallic nanostructures by incident light can be used to break the diffraction limit and thus concentrate light into sub-wavelength scale, so as to indicate a method to develop a new type of infrared absorber or detector with very large array. In this paper, we present the design and characterization of periodically patterned metallic nanostructures that combine nanometer thickness aluminum film with silicon wafer. Numerical computations show that there are some valleys caused by surface plasmons in the reflection spectrum in the infrared region, and both red shift and blue shift of the reflection spectrum were observed through changing the nanostructural parameters such as angle α and diameters D. Moreover, the strong E-field intensity is located at the sharp corner of the nano-structures.

  14. Effect of Unshaven Hair with Absorbable Sutures and Early Postoperative Shampoo on Cranial Surgery Site Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won-Oak; Yeom, Insun; Kim, Dong-Seok; Park, Eun-Kyung; Shim, Kyu-Won

    2018-01-01

    Cranial surgical site infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitals. Preoperative hair shaving for cranial neurosurgical procedures is performed traditionally in an attempt to protect patients against complications from infections at cranial surgical sites. However, preoperative shaving of surgical incision sites using traditional surgical blades without properly washing the head after surgery can cause infections at surgical sites. Therefore, a rapid protocol in which the scalp remains unshaven and absorbable sutures are used for scalp closure with early postoperative shampooing is examined in this study. A retrospective comparative study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2012. A total of 2,641 patients who underwent unshaven cranial surgery with absorbable sutures for scalp closure were enrolled in this study. Data of 1,882 patients who underwent surgery with the traditional protocol from January 2005 to December 2007 were also analyzed for comparison. Of 2,641 patients who underwent cranial surgery with the rapid protocol, all but 2 (0.07%) patients experienced satisfactory wound healing. Of 1,882 patients who underwent cranial surgery with the traditional protocol, 3 patients (0.15%) had infections. Each infection occurred at the superficial incisional surgical site. Unshaven cranial surgery using absorbable sutures for scalp closure with early postoperative shampooing is safe and effective in the cranial neurosurgery setting. This protocol has a positive psychological effect. It can help patients accept neurosurgical procedures and improve their self-image after the operation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Determination of subcellular concentrations of soluble carbohydrates in rose petals during opening by nonaqueous fractionation method combined with infiltration-centrifugation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kunio; Norikoshi, Ryo; Suzuki, Katsumi; Imanishi, Hideo; Ichimura, Kazuo

    2009-11-01

    Petal growth associated with flower opening depends on cell expansion. To understand the role of soluble carbohydrates in petal cell expansion during flower opening, changes in soluble carbohydrate concentrations in vacuole, cytoplasm and apoplast of petal cells during flower opening in rose (Rosa hybrida L.) were investigated. We determined the subcellular distribution of soluble carbohydrates by combining nonaqueous fractionation method and infiltration-centrifugation method. During petal growth, fructose and glucose rapidly accumulated in the vacuole, reaching a maximum when petals almost reflected. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the volume of vacuole and air space drastically increased with petal growth. Carbohydrate concentration was calculated for each compartment of the petal cells and in petals that almost reflected, glucose and fructose concentrations increased to higher than 100 mM in the vacuole. Osmotic pressure increased in apoplast and symplast during flower opening, and this increase was mainly attributed to increases in fructose and glucose concentrations. No large difference in osmotic pressure due to soluble carbohydrates was observed between the apoplast and symplast before flower opening, but total osmotic pressure was much higher in the symplast than in the apoplast, a difference that was partially attributed to inorganic ions. An increase in osmotic pressure due to the continued accumulation of glucose and fructose in the symplast may facilitate water influx into cells, contributing to cell expansion associated with flower opening under conditions where osmotic pressure is higher in the symplast than in the apoplast.

  16. Effect of Carbohydrate, Caffeine, and Carbohydrate + Caffeine Mouth Rinsing on Intermittent Running Performance in Collegiate Male Lacrosse Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Patrick; Witherbee, Kyle E; Peterson, Kimi M; Kerksick, Chad M

    2017-09-01

    Dolan, P, Witherbee, KE, Peterson, KM, and Kerksick, CM. Effect of carbohydrate, caffeine, and carbohydrate + caffeine mouth rinsing on intermittent running performance in collegiate male lacrosse athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2473-2479, 2017-Recently, an interest has developed in the potential to rinse the oral cavity with key nutrients to impact various types of exercise and presumably sporting performance. Although multiple studies examining carbohydrate mouth rinsing have been completed, conflicting evidence surrounding caffeine mouth rinsing persists, and no research has explored its ability to impact high-intensity, intermittent running performance. This study investigated the independent and synergistic ability of carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinsing to improve intermittent running performance. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test-Level 1 (Yo-Yo Level 1) was completed in 10 collegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association [NCAA] Division II) male lacrosse players after a 10-second mouth rinse with a solution of either carbohydrate (CHO), caffeine (CAF), carbohydrate + caffeine (CHO + CAF), placebo (H2O), or a no rinse control (CON). No significant improvements in Yo-Yo IRT-1 performance were found (p > 0.05). Perceptual indications of effort (i.e., rating of their perceived exertion [RPE]) were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in CHO and CHO + CAF when compared with CON after speed level 11. Interestingly, RPE levels were nonsignificantly lower in all but one level of the Yo-Yo Level 1 for CHO in comparison with other groups. Carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinsing seems to exert no impact on running performance before maximal intermittent running in a group of male collegiate lacrosse players.

  17. Pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical, and traditional applications of marine carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdul Bakrudeen Ali; Adel, Mohaddeseh; Karimi, Pegah; Peidayesh, Mahvash

    2014-01-01

    Marine carbohydrates are most important organic molecules made by photosynthetic organisms. It is very essential for humankind: the role in being an energy source for the organism and they are considered as an important dissolve organic compound (DOC) in marine environment's sediments. Carbohydrates found in different marine environments in different concentrations. Polysaccharides of carbohydrates play an important role in various fields such as pharmaceutical, food production, cosmeceutical, and so on. Marine organisms are good resources of nutrients, and they are rich carbohydrate in sulfated polysaccharide. Seaweeds (marine microalgae) are used in different pharmaceutical industries, especially in pharmaceutical compound production. Seaweeds have a significant amount of sulfated polysaccharides, which are used in cosmeceutical industry, besides based on the biological applications. Since then, traditional people, cosmetics products, and pharmaceutical applications consider many types of seaweed as an important organism used in food process. Sulfated polysaccharides containing seaweed have potential uses in the blood coagulation system, antiviral activity, antioxidant activity, anticancer activity, immunomodulating activity, antilipidepic activity, etc. Some species of marine organisms are rich in polysaccharides such as sulfated galactans. Various polysaccharides such as agar and alginates, which are extracted from marine organisms, have several applications in food production and cosmeceutical industries. Due to their high health benefits, compound-derived extracts of marine polysaccharides have various applications and traditional people were using them since long time ago. In the future, much attention is supposed to be paid to unraveling the structural, compositional, and sequential properties of marine carbohydrate as well. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Phosphorous Nutritional Level, Carbohydrate Reserves and Flower Quality in Olives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Erel

    Full Text Available The olive tree is generally characterized by relatively low final fruit set consequential to a significant rate of undeveloped pistils, pistil abortion, and flower and fruitlet abscission. These processes are acknowledged to be governed by competition for resources between the developing vegetative and reproductive organs. To study the role of phosphorus (P nutritional level on reproductive development, trees were grown under four levels of P for three years in large containers. Phosphorus nutritional level was positively related to rate of reproductive bud break, inflorescence weight, rate of hermaphrodite flowers, pistil weight, fruitlet persistence, fruit set and the consequential total number of fruits. The positive impact of P nutrition on the productivity parameters was not related to carbohydrate reserves or to carbohydrate transport to the developing inflorescence. Phosphorous deficient trees showed significant impairment of assimilation rate, and yet, carbohydrates were accumulated in inflorescences at levels comparable to or higher than trees receiving high P. In contrast to female reproductive organs, pollen viability was consistently higher in P deficient trees, possibly due to the enhanced carbohydrate availability. Overall, the positive effect of P on female reproductive development was found to be independent of the total carbohydrate availability. Hence, P is speculated to have a direct influence on reproductive processes.

  19. Phosphorous Nutritional Level, Carbohydrate Reserves and Flower Quality in Olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, Ran; Yermiyahu, Uri; Yasuor, Hagai; Cohen Chamus, Dan; Schwartz, Amnon; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    The olive tree is generally characterized by relatively low final fruit set consequential to a significant rate of undeveloped pistils, pistil abortion, and flower and fruitlet abscission. These processes are acknowledged to be governed by competition for resources between the developing vegetative and reproductive organs. To study the role of phosphorus (P) nutritional level on reproductive development, trees were grown under four levels of P for three years in large containers. Phosphorus nutritional level was positively related to rate of reproductive bud break, inflorescence weight, rate of hermaphrodite flowers, pistil weight, fruitlet persistence, fruit set and the consequential total number of fruits. The positive impact of P nutrition on the productivity parameters was not related to carbohydrate reserves or to carbohydrate transport to the developing inflorescence. Phosphorous deficient trees showed significant impairment of assimilation rate, and yet, carbohydrates were accumulated in inflorescences at levels comparable to or higher than trees receiving high P. In contrast to female reproductive organs, pollen viability was consistently higher in P deficient trees, possibly due to the enhanced carbohydrate availability. Overall, the positive effect of P on female reproductive development was found to be independent of the total carbohydrate availability. Hence, P is speculated to have a direct influence on reproductive processes.

  20. The statolith compartment in Chara rhizoids contains carbohydrate and protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Cahill, F.; Kiss, J. Z.

    1995-01-01

    In contrast to higher plants, the alga Chara has rhizoids with single membrane-bound compartments that function as statoliths in gravity perception. Previous work has demonstrated that these statoliths contain barium sulfate crystals. In this study, we show that statoliths in Chara rhizoids react with a Coomassie Brilliant Blue cytochemical stain for proteins. While statoliths did not react with silver methenamine carbohydrate cytochemistry, the monoclonal antibody CCRC-M2, which is against a carbohydrate (sycamore-maple rhamnogalacturonan I), labeled the statolith compartment. These results demonstrate that in addition to barium sulfate, statoliths in Chara rhizoids have an organic matrix that consists of protein and carbohydrate moieties. Since the statoliths were silver methenamine negative, the carbohydrate in this compartment could be a 3-linked polysaccharide. CCRC-M2 also labeled Golgi cisternae, Golgi-associated vesicles, apical vesicles, and cell walls in the rhizoids. The specificity of CCRC-M2 immunolabeling was verified by several control experiments, including the demonstration that labeling was abolished when the antibody was preabsorbed with its antigen. Since in this and a previous study (John Z. Kiss and L. Andrew Staehelin, American Journal of Botany 80: 273-282, 1993) antibodies against higher plant carbohydrates crossreacted with cell walls of Chara in a specific manner, Characean algae may be a useful model system in biochemical and molecular studies of cell walls.

  1. Impact of Carbohydrate Restriction on Healthy Adolescent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Hannah M; Duriancik, David M

    2017-09-01

    Carbohydrate-restricted diets are known for their impact on weight loss; however, research is still required to determine if low-carbohydrate diets are safe for adolescents. Carbohydrates directly stimulate an insulin response, and studies have recently shown that insulin and binding to respective insulin receptors (IRs) are critical in Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neuronal development. These neurons directly stimulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which activates the pituitary-gonadal axis during puberty. This information suggests that carbohydrate restriction may delay pubertal development in adolescents due to the impact on insulin and Kiss1 transcription. Studies have observed disturbed insulin metabolism in Type I Diabetics leading to delayed puberty, along with overfeeding stimulating early pubertal onset. Additionally, recent clinical trials bred female mice with IR deletions on Kiss1 neurons and observed delayed vaginal opening and estrus. Current animal research suggests low carbohydrate intake may delay pubertal onset, however additional research is required to determine outcome in human subjects. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  2. Carbohydrate digestion in Lutzomyia longipalpis' larvae (Diptera - Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Vladimir F; Moreira, Bruno H; Moraes, Caroline S; Pereira, Marcos H; Genta, Fernando A; Gontijo, Nelder F

    2012-10-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the principal species of phlebotomine incriminated as vector of Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the Americas. Despite its importance as vector, almost nothing related to the larval biology, especially about its digestive system has been published. The objective of the present study was to obtain an overview of carbohydrate digestion by the larvae. Taking in account that phlebotomine larvae live in the soil rich in decaying materials and microorganisms we searched principally for enzymes capable to hydrolyze carbohydrates present in this kind of substrate. The principal carbohydrases encountered in the midgut were partially characterized. One of them is a α-amylase present in the anterior midgut. It is probably involved with the digestion of glycogen, the reserve carbohydrate of fungi. Two other especially active enzymes were present in the posterior midgut, a membrane bound α-glucosidase and a membrane bound trehalase. The first, complete the digestion of glycogen and the other probably acts in the digestion of trehalose, a carbohydrate usually encountered in microorganisms undergoing hydric stress. In a screening done with the use of p-nitrophenyl-derived substrates other less active enzymes were also observed in the midgut. A general view of carbohydrate digestion in L. longipalpis was presented. Our results indicate that soil microorganisms appear to be the main source of nutrients for the larvae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation and characterization of super absorbent polymer from sugarcane bagasse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiwien Andriyanti; Suyanti; Ngasifudin

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a source of biomass which large enough numbers and has not been fully exploited. At this time has developed a super absorbent polymer material of sugarcane bagasse that can absorb water up to several times of its own weight and keep this water. Super absorbent polymers can be used as a soil conditioner that can be used as an absorber and storage of ground water, the giver of nutrients for plants, and can improve soil properties. The purpose of this study is to make and characterization of super absorbent polymer (PCS) from sugarcane bagasse. Preparation of super absorbent polymers (PCS) has been done by grafting method using ionizing radiation from Electron Beam Engineering (MBE) 350 mA keV/10. Irradiation process carried out with a dose variation of 20, 35, and 50 kGy. Increasing doses of radiation will increase the percentage fraction of transplantation (grafting) and the fraction of water absorption ability (swelling ratio). (author)

  4. Absorbed dose in CT. Comparison by CT dose index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Kenji; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Andou, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    Few reports have discussed the absorbed dose on CT units with increased scanning capacity even with the current widespread adoption of multi-slice CT units. To compare and investigate the dose indexes among CT units, we measured the absorbed dose on CT units operating in Nagano Prefecture Japan. The measurements showed proportionality between phantom absorbed dose and the exposured mAs values in conventional scanning operation. Further, the measurements showed that the absorbed dose in the center of the phantom differed by about 2.1-fold between the highest and lowest levels on individual CT units. Within a single company, multi-slice CT units of the same company gave absorbed doses of about 1.3 to 1.5 times those of conventional single-slice CT units under the same exposured conditions of conventional scanning. When the scanning pitch was reduced in helical scanning, the absorbed dose at the center of the phantom increased. (author)

  5. Precision test method by x-ray absorbent clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakadai, Toru; Matsukawa, Hideyuki; Sekita, Jun-ichiro; Murakoshi, Atsushi.

    1982-01-01

    In X-ray penetration photography of such as welds with reinforcing metal and castings of complex shape, the X-ray absorbent clay developed to eliminate various disadvantages of the conventional absorbents was further studied for better application. The results of the usage are as follows. Because the X-ray absorbent is clay, it is flexible in form, and gives good adhesion to test objects. In the welds and castings mentioned, it is effective for reducing the scattered ray, accordingly, it results in superior images. The following matters are described: contrast in radiographs, the required conditions for X-ray absorbents in general, the properties of the absorbent (absorption coefficient, consistency, density), improvement in radiographs by means of the X-ray absorbent clay (wall thickness compensation, masking, the application together with narrow-field irradiation photography). (Mori, K.)

  6. The effects of consuming carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages on gastric emptying and fluid absorption during and following exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R

    1987-01-01

    of stomach contents reveals that solutions containing up to 10% carbohydrate empty at rates similar to plain water. There is ample physiological justification for the addition of glucose, fructose, sodium, potassium and chloride to fluid replacement beverages. Fluid absorption in the small intestine is stimulated by glucose and sodium (and to a lesser extent by fructose and other electrolytes). Glucose and sodium are absorbed via a common membrane carrier in the mucosal epithelium of the proximal small intestine. The potentiation of sodium uptake by glucose establishes an osmotic gradient for fluid absorption.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  7. Microscopic analysis of saturable absorbers: Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors versus graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V. [Nonlinear Control Strategies, Inc., 3542 N. Geronimo Ave., Tucson, Arizona 85705 (United States); College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Yang, H.-J.; Scheller, M. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Koch, S. W. [Department of Physics and Materials Sciences Center, Philipps Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2016-02-07

    Fully microscopic many-body calculations are used to study the influence of strong sub-picosecond pulses on the carrier distributions and corresponding optical response in saturable absorbers used for mode-locking—semiconductor (quantum well) saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) and single layer graphene based saturable absorber mirrors (GSAMs). Unlike in GSAMs, the saturation fluence and recovery time in SESAMs show a strong spectral dependence. While the saturation fluence in the SESAM is minimal at the excitonic bandgap, the optimal recovery time and least pulse distortion due to group delay dispersion are found for excitation higher in the first subband. For excitation near the SESAM bandgap, the saturation fluence is about one tenth of that in the GSAM. At energies above the bandgap, the fluences in both systems become similar. A strong dependence of the saturation fluence on the pulse width in both systems is caused by carrier relaxation during the pulse. The recovery time in graphene is found to be about two to four times faster than that in the SESAMs. The occurrence of negative differential transmission in graphene is shown to be caused by dopant related carriers. In SESAMs, a negative differential transmission is found when exciting below the excitonic resonance where excitation induced dephasing leads to an enhancement of the absorption. Comparisons of the simulation data to the experiment show a very good quantitative agreement.

  8. NASA's Bio-Inspired Acoustic Absorber Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Transportation noise pollutes our worlds cities, suburbs, parks, and wilderness areas. NASAs fundamental research in aviation acoustics is helping to find innovative solutions to this multifaceted problem. NASA is learning from nature to develop the next generation of quiet aircraft.The number of road vehicles and airplanes has roughly tripled since the 1960s. Transportation noise is audible in nearly all the counties across the US. Noise can damage your hearing, raise your heart rate and blood pressure, disrupt your sleep, and make communication difficult. Noise pollution threatens wildlife when it prevents animals from hearing prey, predators, and mates. Noise regulations help drive industry to develop quieter aircraft. Noise standards for aircraft have been developed by the International Civil Aviation Organization and adopted by the US Federal Aviation Administration. The US National Park Service is working with the Federal Aviation Administration to try to balance the demand for access to the parks and wilderness areas with preservation of the natural soundscape. NASA is helping by conceptualizing quieter, more efficient aircraft of the future and performing the fundamental research to make these concepts a reality someday. Recently, NASA has developed synthetic structures that can absorb sound well over a wide frequency range, and particularly below 1000 Hz, and which mimic the acoustic performance of bundles of natural reeds. We are adapting these structures to control noise on aircraft, and spacecraft. This technology might be used in many other industrial or architectural applications where acoustic absorbers have tight constraints on weight and thickness, and may be exposed to high temperatures or liquids. Information about this technology is being made available through reports and presentations available through the NASA Technical Report Server, http:ntrs.nasa.gov. Organizations who would like to collaborate with NASA or commercialize NASAs technology

  9. Electron cyclotron resonance ion stream etching of tantalum for x-ray mask absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masatoshi; Ozawa, Akira; Yoshihara, Hideo

    1993-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion stream etching of Ta film was investigated for preparing x-ray mask absorber patterns. Ta is etched by the system at a high rate and with high selectivity. Using Cl 2 as etching gas, the etch rate decreases rapidly with decreasing pattern width below 0.5 μm and large undercutting is observed. The problems are reduced by adding Ar or O 2 gas to the Cl 2 . Etching with a mixture of Cl 2 and O 2 produces highly accurate Ta absorber patterns for x-ray masks. The pattern width dependence of the etch rate and the undercutting were simulated with a model that takes account of the angular distribution of active species incident on the sample. The experimental results agree well with those calculated assuming that the incidence angles are distributed between -36 degrees and 36 degrees. The addition of O 2 or Ar enhances ion assisted etching. 16 refs., 16 figs

  10. Air box shock absorber for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.V.; George, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is an air box type shock absorber primarily for use in an ice condenser compartment of a nuclear reactor. The shock absorber includes a back plate member and sheet metal top, bottom, and front members. The front member is prefolded, and controlled clearances are provided among the members for predetermined escape of air under impact and compression. Prefolded internal sheet metal stiffeners also absorb a portion of the kinetic energy imparted to the shock absorber, and limit rebound. An external restraining rod guided by restraining straps insures that the sheet metal front member compresses inward upon impact. 6 claims, 11 figures

  11. The Australian Commonwealth standard of measurement for absorbed radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock, S.L.

    1990-06-01

    This report documents the absorbed dose standard for photon beams in the range from 1 to 25 MeV. Measurements of absorbed dose in graphite irradiated by a beam of cobalt-60 gamma rays from an Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) E1 Dorado 6 teletherapy unit are reported. The measurements were performed using a graphite calorimeter, which is the primary standard for absorbed dose. The measurements are used to calibrate a working standard ion chamber in terms of absorbed dose in graphite. Details of the methods, results and correction factors applied are given in Appendices. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs

  12. Wideband aural acoustic absorbance predicts conductive hearing loss in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Douglas H; Sanford, Chris A; Ellison, John C; Fitzpatrick, Denis F; Gorga, Michael P

    2012-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that wideband aural absorbance predicts conductive hearing loss (CHL) in children medically classified as having otitis media with effusion. Absorbance was measured in the ear canal over frequencies from 0.25 to 8 kHz at ambient pressure or as a swept tympanogram. CHL was defined using criterion air-bone gaps of 20, 25, and 30 dB at octaves from 0.25 to 4 kHz. A likelihood-ratio predictor of CHL was constructed across frequency for ambient absorbance, and across frequency and pressure for absorbance tympanometry. Performance was evaluated at individual frequencies and for any frequency at which a CHL was present. Absorbance and conventional 0.226-kHz tympanograms were measured in children of age three to eight years with CHL and with normal hearing. Absorbance was smaller at frequencies above 0.7 kHz in the CHL group than the control group. Based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, wideband absorbance in ambient and tympanometric tests were significantly better predictors of CHL than tympanometric width, the best 0.226-kHz predictor. Accuracies of ambient and tympanometric wideband absorbance did not differ. Absorbance accurately predicted CHL in children and was more accurate than conventional 0.226-kHz tympanometry.

  13. ABSORBENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF PESHTAMALS: TRADITIONAL TURKISH WOVEN CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KESKIN Reyhan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Absorbency of textiles is defined as the ability of taking in a fluid in the manner of a sponge. Absorbency is required for comfort properties in so me clothes such as sportswear and underwear clothing, for drying properties in napkins, towels and bathrobes, for health concerns in some medical textiles such as bandages, gauze and absorbent cotton, and for cleaning properties in washclothes and mops. In this study five different fabric samples (three woven 100% cotton fabrics A, B and P respectively at plain, twill, and peshtamal weaving patterns and two 100% cotton terry towels T1 and T2 were tested. The absorbency properties of the samples were evaluated according to the droplet test, sinking time test and wicking height tests (pottasium chromate test. Peshtamal samples showed better absorbency results than plain and twill weaves and lower but close results to towel samples according to the droplet test, sinking time test and wicking height tests. The absorbency properties of peshtamals showed results close to towel samples. The void content of peshtamals is higher than plain and twill samples but closer and lower than towel samples. The good absorbency results of peshtamals might be due to the void content of peshtamals which is higher than plain and twill samples but closer and lower than towel samples. Peshtamals which are good in absorbency and light in weight might be used widespreadly in daily life for their high absorbency, and on travel for weight saving purposes.

  14. A CESA from Griffithsia monilis (Rhodophyta, Florideophyceae) has a family 48 carbohydrate-binding module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Peter R; Schindler, Michael; Howles, Paul; Arioli, Tony; Williamson, Richard E

    2010-10-01

    Cellulose synthases form rosette terminal complexes in the plasma membranes of Streptophyta and various linear terminal complexes in other taxa. The sequence of a putative CESA from Griffithsia monilis (Rhodophyta, Floridiophyceae) was deduced using a cloning strategy involving degenerate primers, a cDNA library screen, and 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). RACE identified two alternative transcriptional starts and four alternative polyadenylation sites. The first translation start codon provided an open reading frame of 2610 bp encoding 870 amino acids and was PCR amplified without introns from genomic DNA. Southern hybridization indicated one strongly hybridizing gene with possible weakly related genes or pseudogenes. Amino acid sequence analysis identified a family 48 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) upstream of the protein's first predicted transmembrane domain. There are broad similarities in predicted 3D structures of the family 48 modules from CESA, from several glycogen- and starch-binding enzymes, and from protein kinases, but there are substitutions at some residues thought to be involved in ligand binding. The module in G. monilis CESA will be on the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane so that it could potentially bind either low molecular weight ligands or starch which is cytosolic rather than inside membrane-bound plastids in red algae. Possible reasons why red algal CESAs have evolved family 48 modules perhaps as part of a system to regulate cellulose synthase activity in relation to cellular carbohydrate status are briefly discussed.

  15. A CESA from Griffithsia monilis (Rhodophyta, Florideophyceae) has a family 48 carbohydrate-binding module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Peter R.; Schindler, Michael; Howles, Paul; Arioli, Tony; Williamson, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Cellulose synthases form rosette terminal complexes in the plasma membranes of Streptophyta and various linear terminal complexes in other taxa. The sequence of a putative CESA from Griffithsia monilis (Rhodophyta, Floridiophyceae) was deduced using a cloning strategy involving degenerate primers, a cDNA library screen, and 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). RACE identified two alternative transcriptional starts and four alternative polyadenylation sites. The first translation start codon provided an open reading frame of 2610 bp encoding 870 amino acids and was PCR amplified without introns from genomic DNA. Southern hybridization indicated one strongly hybridizing gene with possible weakly related genes or pseudogenes. Amino acid sequence analysis identified a family 48 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) upstream of the protein's first predicted transmembrane domain. There are broad similarities in predicted 3D structures of the family 48 modules from CESA, from several glycogen- and starch-binding enzymes, and from protein kinases, but there are substitutions at some residues thought to be involved in ligand binding. The module in G. monilis CESA will be on the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane so that it could potentially bind either low molecular weight ligands or starch which is cytosolic rather than inside membrane-bound plastids in red algae. Possible reasons why red algal CESAs have evolved family 48 modules perhaps as part of a system to regulate cellulose synthase activity in relation to cellular carbohydrate status are briefly discussed. PMID:20702566

  16. Digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment was carried out to determine the digestion kinetics of carbohydrate fractions of citrus by-products. Grapefruit pulp (GP), lemon pulp (LE), lime pulp (LI) and orange pulp (OP) were the test feed. Digestion kinetic of whole citrus by-products and neutral detergent fiber (NDF......) fraction and acid detergent fiber (ADF) fractions of citrus by-products were measured using the in vitro gas production technique. Fermentation kinetics of the neutral detergent soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) fraction and hemicelluloses were calculated using a curve subtraction. The fermentation rate...... of whole was the highest for the LE (p by-products lag time was longer for hemicellulose than other carbohydrate fractions. There was no significant difference among potential gas production (A) volumes of whole test feeds (p

  17. Glucuronoyl esterase--novel carbohydrate esterase produced by Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spániková, Silvia; Biely, Peter

    2006-08-21

    The cellulolytic system of the wood-rotting fungus Schizophyllum commune contains an esterase that hydrolyzes methyl ester of 4-O-methyl-d-glucuronic acid. The enzyme, called glucuronoyl esterase, was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity from a cellulose-spent culture fluid. Its substrate specificity was examined on a number of substrates of other carbohydrate esterases such as acetylxylan esterase, feruloyl esterase and pectin methylesterase. The glucuronoyl esterase attacks exclusively the esters of MeGlcA. The methyl ester of free or glycosidically linked MeGlcA was not hydrolysed by other carbohydrate esterases. The results suggest that we have discovered a new type of carbohydrate esterase that might be involved in disruption of ester linkages connecting hemicellulose and lignin in plant cell walls.

  18. Microalgal carbohydrates. An overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markou, Giorgos; Georgakakis, Dimitris [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering; Angelidaki, Irini [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2012-11-15

    Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several cultivation techniques, such as nutrient starvation or other stressed environmental conditions, which cause the microalgae to accumulate carbohydrates. This paper attempts to give a general overview of techniques that can be used for increasing the microalgal biomass carbohydrate content. In addition, biomass conversion technologies, related to the conversion of carbohydrates into biofuels are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Digestible and indigestible carbohydrates: interactions with postprandial lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairon, Denis; Play, Barbara; Jourdheuil-Rahmani, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    The balance between fats and carbohydrates in the human diet is still a matter of very active debate. Indeed, the processing of ordinary mixed meals involves complex processes within the lumen of the upper digestive tract for digestion, in the small intestine mucosa for absorption and resecretion, and in peripheral tissues and in the circulation for final handling. The purpose of this review is to focus on available knowledge on the interactions of digestible or indigestible carbohydrates with lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in the postprandial state. The observations made in humans after test meals are reported and interpreted in the light of recent findings on the cellular and molecular levels regarding possible interplays between carbohydrates and lipid moieties in some metabolic pathways. Digestible carbohydrates, especially readily digestible starches or fructose, have been shown to exacerbate and/or delay postprandial lipemia, whereas some fiber sources can lower it. While interactions between dietary fibers and the process of lipid digestion and absorption have been studied mainly in the last decades, recent studies have shown that dietary carbohydrate moieties (e.g., glucose) can stimulate the intestinal uptake of cholesterol and lipid resecretion. In addition to the well-known glucose/fructose transporters, a number of transport proteins have recently been involved in intestinal lipid processing, whose implications in such interactions are discussed. The potential importance of postprandial insulinemia in these processes is also evaluated in the light of recent findings. The interactions of carbohydrates and lipid moieties in the postprandial state may result from both acute and chronic effects, both at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

  20. On the Optimization of Point Absorber Buoys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Sjökvist

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A point absorbing wave energy converter (WEC is a complicated dynamical system. A semi-submerged buoy drives a power take-off device (PTO, which acts as a linear or non-linear damper of the WEC system. The buoy motion depends on the buoy geometry and dimensions, the mass of the moving parts of the system and on the damping force from the generator. The electromagnetic damping in the generator depends on both the generator specifications, the connected load and the buoy velocity. In this paper a velocity ratio has been used to study how the geometric parameters buoy draft and radius, assuming constant generator damping coefficient, affects the motion and the energy absorption of a WEC. It have been concluded that an optimal buoy geometry can be identified for a specific generator damping. The simulated WEC performance have been compared with experimental values from two WECs with similar generators but different buoys. Conclusions have been drawn about their behaviour.

  1. Thoron exhalation rate monitor with absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Detao; Zhao Guizhi

    2003-01-01

    A measurement method of thoron exhalation rate is developed based on the characteristic of thorium C' which emits a α particle with higher energy than those of α particles released from radon and radon progenies. The principles of discriminating radon and realizing thoron exhalation rate measurement on the material surface with absorber, the passive and integrated thoron exhalation rate monitor studied, and its calibration coefficient determination method are introduced. The effectiveness of mitigating thoron exhalation rate of wall surface by depressurization inside wall and thoron exhalation rates on some materials surfaces were measured by using the studied monitors. The calibration coefficient of the studied monitor is R=0.246 cm -2 ·(kBq·m -3 ·h) -1 . The lower limit of detection is LLD=18.4 mBq·m -2 ·s -1 when the sampling period is 7 days and the standard deviation of background track densities of the adopted CR-39 SSNTD is s T =1.6 cm -2

  2. Ultrathin microwave absorber based on metamaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y J; Yoo, Y J; Hwang, J S; Lee, Y P

    2016-01-01

    We suggest that ultrathin broadband metamaterial is a perfect absorber in the microwave regime by utilizing the properties of a resistive sheet and metamaterial. Meta-atoms are composed of four-leaf clover-shape metallic patterns and a metal plane separated by three intermediate resistive sheet layers between four dielectric layers. We interpret the absorption mechanism of the broadband by using the distribution of surface currents at specific frequencies. The simulated absorption was over 99% in 1.8–4.2 GHz. The corresponding experimental absorption was also over 99% in 2.62–4.2 GHz; however, the absorption was slightly lower than 99% in 1.8–2.62 GHz because of the sheet resistance and the changed values for the dielectric constant. Furthermore, it is independent of incident angle. The results of this research indicate the possibility of applications, due to the suppression of noxious exposure, in cell phones, computers and microwave equipments. (paper)

  3. Radiologist and angiographic procedures. Absorbed radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tryhus, M.; Mettler, F.A. Jr.; Kelsey, C.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation dose absorbed by the angiographer during angiographic procedures is of vital importance to the radiologist. Nevertheless, most articles on the subject are incomplete, and few measure gonadal dose. In this study, three TLDs were used for each of the following sites: radiologist's eyes, thyroid, gonads with and without shielding apron, and hands. The average dose during carotid angiograms was 2.6, 4.1, 0.4, 4.7, and 7.1 mrads to the eyes, thyroid, gonads with and without .5 mm of lead shielding, and hands, respectively. Average dose during abdominal and peripheral vascular angiographic procedures was 5.2, 7.5, 1.2, 8.5, and 39.9 mrads to the eyes, thyroid, gonads with and without shielding, and hands, respectively. A literature review demonstrates a significant reduction in radiation dose to the angiographer after the advent of automated injectors. Our measured doses for carotid angiography are compatible with contemporary reported values. There was poor correlation with fluoroscopy time and measured dose to the angiographer

  4. Experimental use of new absorbable tracheal stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, Luciano F; Fraga, José Carlos; Porto, Rodrigo; Santos, Luis A; Marques, Douglas R; Sanchez, Paulo R; Meyer, Fabíola S; Ulbrich, Jane M

    2017-11-16

    Silicone and metallic stents are not effective in children with tracheobronchial stenosis or tracheomalacia. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the clinical manifestations and histological reaction of rabbit trachea to the presence of a new poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) with polyisoprene (PLGA/PI) polymer absorbable stent. Fourteen adult white rabbits (weight, 3.0-3.5kg) were randomly assigned to three groups: Group I (n=6): PLGA/PI spiral stent; Group II (n=6): PLGA/PI fragment; and Group III (n=2): controls. After a longitudinal incision on three cervical tracheal rings, the stents and fragments were inserted into the trachea and fixed onto the lateral wall with nonabsorbable sutures. The stented group showed significantly more stridor at rest (p=0.0041), agitation (p=0.014), and use of accessory muscles (p=0.0002) and required more emergency endoscopies than the fragment group. Further, it showed significantly more remarkable histological inflammatory damage than the fragment and control groups (p=0.002). The new PLGA/PI polymeric stent implanted into the trachea of rabbits caused more clinical manifestations and histologically verified inflammatory reaction than the PLGA/PI polymeric fragment. Future studies should be aimed at reducing the stent-wall thickness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Absorbing multicultural states in the Axelrod model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Federico; Redner, Sidney

    2005-03-01

    We determine the ultimate fate of a limit of the Axelrod model that consists of a population of leftists, centrists, and rightists. In an elemental interaction between agents, a centrist and a leftist can both become centrists or both become leftists with equal rates (similarly for a centrist and a rightist), but leftists and rightists do not interact. This interaction is applied repeatedly until the system can no longer evolve. The constraint between extremists can lead to a frustrated final state where the system consists of only leftists and rightists. In the mean field limit, we can view the evolution of the system as the motion of a random walk in the 3-dimensional space whose coordinates correspond to the density of each species. We find the exact final state probabilities and the time to reach consensus by solving for the first-passage probability of the random walk to the corresponding absorbing boundaries. The extension to a larger number of states will be discussed. This approach is a first step towards the analytic solution of Axelrod-like models.

  6. Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Stephan, Ryan; Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

    2012-01-01

    A system for non-venting thermal control for spacesuits was built by integrating two previously developed technologies, namely NASA s Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare s flexible version of the Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). This SEAR system was tested in relevant thermal vacuum conditions. These tests show that a 1 m2 radiator having about three times as much absorption media as in the test article would be required to support a 7 hour spacewalk. The serial flow arrangement of the LCAR of the flexible version proved to be inefficient for venting non-condensable gas (NCG). A different LCAR packaging arrangement was conceived wherein the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) housing would be made with a high-strength carbon fiber composite honeycomb, the cells of which would be filled with the chemical absorption media. This new packaging reduces the mass and volume impact of the SEAR on the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) compared to the flexible design. A 0.2 sq m panel with flight-like honeycomb geometry is being constructed and will be tested in thermal and thermal vacuum conditions. Design analyses forecast improved system performance and improved NCG control. A flight-like regeneration system also is also being built and tested. Design analyses for the structurally integrated prototype as well as the earlier test data show that SEAR is not only practical for spacesuits but also has useful applications in spacecraft thermal control.

  7. Multifunctional Space Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chen, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    A system for non-venting thermal control for spacesuits was built by integrating two previously developed technologies, namely NASA's Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare's flexible version of the Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). This SEAR system was tested in relevant thermal vacuum conditions. These tests show that a 1 sq m radiator having about three times as much absorption media as in the test article would be required to support a 7 hour spacewalk. The serial flow arrangement of the LCAR of the flexible version proved to be inefficient for venting non-condensable gas (NCG). A different LCAR packaging arrangement was conceived wherein the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) housing would be made with a high-strength carbon fiber composite honeycomb, the cells of which would be filled with the chemical absorption media. This new packaging reduce the mass and volume impact of the SEAR on the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) compared to the flexible design. A 0.2 sq m panel with flight-like honeycomb geometry is being constructed and will be tested in thermal and thermal vacuum conditions. Design analyses forecast improved system performance and improved NCG control. A flight-like regeneration system also is also being built and tested. Design analyses for the structurally integrated prototype as well as the earlier test data show that SEAR is not only practical for spacesuits but also has useful applications in spacecraft thermal control.

  8. Continuous fermentation of carbohydrate-containing liquids to alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldenhauer, O; Lechner, R

    1955-08-25

    Rate of alcohol fermentation depends mostly on the biological state of the yeast. The process described avoids retardation during the final fermentation phase by increasing the concentration of yeast as the fermentation proceeds. The method is especially suitable for dilute carbohydrate solutions. Thus, to a solution containing 4% carbohydrates, 66 g pressed yeast was added. This mash was passed continuously through several fermentation vessels. The temperature was adjusted to 29 to 35 degrees according to the type of yeast. Before entering the next vessel, another portion of pressed yeast (66 g/1 of mash) is added. The yeast is recovered from the fermented mash by means of a yeast separator.

  9. Continuous fermentation of carbohydrate-containing liquids to alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moldenhauer, O; Lechner, R

    1955-08-29

    Rate of alcohol fermentation depends mostly on the biological state of the yeast. The process described avoids retardation during the final fermentation phase by increasing the concentration of yeast as the fermentation proceeds. The method is especially suitable for dilute carbohydrate solutions. Thus, to a solution containing 4% carbohydrates, 66 g pressed yeast was added. This mash was passed continuously through several fermentation vessels. The temperature was adjusted to 29 to 35/sup 0/ according to the type of yeast. Before entering the next vessel, another portion of pressed yeast (66 g/l of mash) is added. The yeast is recovered from the fermented mash by means of a yeast separator.

  10. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Berni Canani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment.

  11. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Canani, Roberto; Pezzella, Vincenza; Amoroso, Antonio; Cozzolino, Tommaso; Di Scala, Carmen; Passariello, Annalisa

    2016-03-10

    Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment.

  12. Interactions of polyphenols with carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobek, Lidija

    2015-05-15

    Polyphenols are secondary metabolites in plants, investigated intensively because of their potential positive effects on human health. Their bioavailability and mechanism of positive effects have been studied, in vitro and in vivo. Lately, a high number of studies takes into account the interactions of polyphenols with compounds present in foods, like carbohydrates, proteins or lipids, because these food constituents can have significant effects on the activity of phenolic compounds. This paper reviews the interactions between phenolic compounds and lipids, carbohydrates and proteins and their impact on polyphenol activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cell surface carbohydrate changes during embryonic and fetal skin development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik; Holbrook, K; Clausen, H

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to four type 2 chain carbohydrate antigens were used for immunohistochemical studies of embryonic and fetal skin. The antibodies detected N-acetyllactosamine and 3 fucosyl substitutes of this, blood group antigen H, Lex, and Ley. Periderm consistently stained for N-acetyllac......Monoclonal antibodies to four type 2 chain carbohydrate antigens were used for immunohistochemical studies of embryonic and fetal skin. The antibodies detected N-acetyllactosamine and 3 fucosyl substitutes of this, blood group antigen H, Lex, and Ley. Periderm consistently stained for N...

  14. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in pleomorphic adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M

    1993-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures, T, Tn and sialosyl-Tn, are regarded as general markers of carcinomas in several epithelial tissues as a result of incomplete synthesis with precursor accumulation. The structures have a very limited distribution in normal tissues and secretions, including...... saliva and salivary glands. The expression of simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures and ABH(O) variants was studied in paraffin-embedded and frozen tissue sections from 37 pleomorphic adenomas with associated normal parotid tissue, using immunohistology and a panel of MAbs with well...

  15. Importance of low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall RM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary M Hall, Amber Parry Strong, Jeremy D KrebsCentre for Endocrine, Diabetes and Obesity Research, Capital and Coast District Health Board, Wellington, New Zealand Abstract: Dietary strategies are fundamental in the management of diabetes. Historically, strict dietary control with a low carbohydrate diet was the only treatment option. With increasingly effective medications, the importance of dietary change decreased. Recommendations focused on reducing dietary fat to prevent atherosclerotic disease, with decreasing emphasis on the amount and quality of carbohydrate. As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes escalates, attention has returned to the macronutrient composition of the diet. Very low carbohydrate diets (VLCD's have demonstrated effective initial weight loss and improvement in glycemic control, but difficult long-term acceptability and worsening lipid profile. Modifications to the very low carbohydrate (VLC have included limiting saturated fat and increasing carbohydrate (CHO and protein. Reducing saturated fat appears pivotal in reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and may mitigate adverse effects of traditional VLCD's. Increased dietary protein enhances satiety, reduces energy intake, and improves glycemic homeostasis, but without sustained improvements in glycemic control or cardiovascular risk over and above the effect of weight loss. Additionally, recent studies in type 1 diabetes mellitus suggest promising benefits to diabetes control with low carbohydrate diets, without concerning effects on ketosis or hypoglycemia. Dietary patterns may highlight pertinent associations. For example, Mediterranean-style and paleolithic-type diets, low in fat and carbohydrate, are associated with reduced body weight and improved glycemic and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. A feature of these dietary patterns is low refined CHO and sugar and higher fiber, and it is possible that increasing sugar

  16. Does caffeine alter muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Terry E; Battram, Danielle S; Dela, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    and carbohydrate metabolism. While caffeine certainly mobilizes fatty acids from adipose tissue, rarely have measures of the respiratory exchange ratio indicated an increase in fat oxidation. However, this is a difficult measure to perform accurately during exercise, and small changes could be physiologically...... important. The few studies examining human muscle metabolism directly have also supported the fact that there is no change in fat or carbohydrate metabolism, but these usually have had a small sample size. We combined the data from muscle biopsy analyses of several similar studies to generate a sample size...

  17. Action of ionizing radiation on the carbohydrate metabolism enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkasova, L.S.; Mironova, T.M.

    1976-01-01

    It follows from data reported in literature and those obtained in our laboratory that ionizing radiation does not drastically change the activity of enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism in tissues of an animal organism. The data are reported on the effect of a whole-body single, fractionated or continuous irradiation of the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and the accompanying interrelated co-operative redistributions within the processes of aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis, and the pentose route of their conversion. The dependence of the postirradiation changes in the activity of enzymes on the neuroendocrine system response to irradiation has been demonstrated

  18. Carbohydrate composition, viscosity, solubility, and sensory acceptance of sweetpotato- and maize-based complementary foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagloh, Francis Kweku; Mutukumira, Anthony N.; Brough, Louise; Weber, Janet L.; Hardacre, Allan; Coad, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Background Cereal-based complementary foods from non-malted ingredients form a relatively high viscous porridge. Therefore, excessive dilution, usually with water, is required to reduce the viscosity to be appropriate for infant feeding. The dilution invariably leads to energy and nutrient thinning, that is, the reduction of energy and nutrient densities. Carbohydrate is the major constituent of food that significantly influences viscosity when heated in water. Objectives To compare the sweetpotato-based complementary foods (extrusion-cooked ComFa, roller-dried ComFa, and oven-toasted ComFa) and enriched Weanimix (maize-based formulation) regarding their 1) carbohydrate composition, 2) viscosity and water solubility index (WSI), and 3) sensory acceptance evaluated by sub-Sahara African women as model caregivers. Methods The level of simple sugars/carbohydrates was analysed by spectrophotometry, total dietary fibre by enzymatic-gravimetric method, and total carbohydrate and starch levels estimated by calculation. A Rapid Visco™ Analyser was used to measure viscosity. WSI was determined gravimetrically. A consumer sensory evaluation was used to evaluate the product acceptance of the roller-dried ComFa, oven-toasted ComFa, and enriched Weanimix. Results The sweetpotato-based complementary foods were, on average, significantly higher in maltose, sucrose, free glucose and fructose, and total dietary fibre, but they were markedly lower in starch content compared with the levels in the enriched Weanimix. Consequently, the sweetpotato-based complementary foods had relatively low apparent viscosity, and high WSI, than that of enriched Weanimix. The scores of sensory liking given by the caregivers were highest for the roller-dried ComFa, followed by the oven-toasted ComFa, and, finally, the enriched Weanimix. Conclusion The sweetpotato-based formulations have significant advantages as complementary food due to the high level of endogenous sugars and low starch content that

  19. Application of high rate, high temperature anaerobic digestion to fungal thermozyme hydrolysates from carbohydrate wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, C; O'Reilly, C; McLaughlin, L; Gilleran, G; Tuohy, M; Colleran, E

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of using a two-step, fully biological and sustainable strategy for the treatment of carbohydrate rich wastes. The primary step in this strategy involves the application of thermostable enzymes produced by the thermophilic, aerobic fungus, Talaromyces emersonii, to carbohydrate wastes producing a liquid hydrolysate discharged at elevated temperatures. To assess the potential of thermophilic treatment of this hydrolysate, a comparative study of thermophilic and mesophilic digestion of four sugar rich thermozyme hydrolysate waste streams was conducted by operating two high rate upflow anaerobic hybrid reactors (UAHR) at 37 degrees C (R1) and 55 degrees C (R2). The operational performance of both reactors was monitored from start-up by assessing COD removal efficiencies, volatile fatty acid (VFA) discharge and % methane of the biogas produced. Rapid start-up of both R1 and R2 was achieved on an influent composed of the typical sugar components of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW). Both reactors were subsequently challenged in terms of volumetric loading rate (VLR) and it was found that a VLR of 9 gCOD l(-1)d(-1) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 1 day severely affected the thermophilic reactor with instability characterised by a build up of volatile fatty acid (VFA) intermediates in the effluent. The influent to both reactors was changed to a simple glucose and sucrose-based influent supplied at a VLR of 4.5 gCOD l(-1)d(-1) and HRT of 2 days prior to the introduction of thermozyme hydrolysates. Four unique thermozyme hydrolysates were subsequently supplied to the reactors, each for a period of 10 HRTs. The applied hydrolysates were derived from apple pulp, bread, carob powder and cardboard, all of which were successfully and comparably converted by both reactors. The % total carbohydrate removal by both reactors was monitored during the application of the sugar rich thermozyme

  20. Consumption of blueberries with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast decreases postprandial serum markers of oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacker, Bryan C; Snyder, Shannon M; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2013-05-01

    We sought to determine whether consumption of blueberries could reduce postprandial oxidation when consumed with a typical high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast. Participants (n 14) received each of the three treatments over 3 weeks in a cross-over design. Treatments consisted of a high blueberry dose (75 g), a low blueberry dose (35 g) and a control (ascorbic acid and sugar content matching that of the high blueberry dose). Serum oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), serum lipoprotein oxidation (LO) and serum ascorbate, urate and glucose were measured at fasting, and at 1, 2 and 3 h after sample consumption. The mean serum ORAC was significantly higher in the 75 g group than in the control group during the first 2 h postprandially, while serum LO lag time showed a significant trend over the 3 h for both blueberry doses. Changes in serum ascorbate, urate and glucose were not significantly different among the groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report that has demonstrated that increased serum antioxidant capacity is not attributable to the fructose or ascorbate content of blueberries. In summary, a practically consumable quantity of blueberries (75 g) can provide statistically significant oxidative protection in vivo after a high-carbohydrate, low-fat breakfast. Though not tested directly, it is likely that the effects are due to phenolic compounds, either directly or indirectly, as they are a major family of compounds in blueberries with potential bioactive activity.