WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapidio trade association

  1. RapidIO as a multi-purpose interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baymani, Simaolhoda; Alexopoulos, Konstantinos; Valat, Sébastien

    2017-10-01

    RapidIO (http://rapidio.org/) technology is a packet-switched high-performance fabric, which has been under active development since 1997. Originally meant to be a front side bus, it developed into a system level interconnect which is today used in all 4G/LTE base stations world wide. RapidIO is often used in embedded systems that require high reliability, low latency and scalability in a heterogeneous environment - features that are highly interesting for several use cases, such as data analytics and data acquisition (DAQ) networks. We will present the results of evaluating RapidIO in a data analytics environment, from setup to benchmark. Specifically, we will share the experience of running ROOT and Hadoop on top of RapidIO. To demonstrate the multi-purpose characteristics of RapidIO, we will also present the results of investigating RapidIO as a technology for high-speed DAQ networks using a generic multi-protocol event-building emulation tool. In addition we will present lessons learned from implementing native ports of CERN applications to RapidIO.

  2. 11 CFR 114.8 - Trade associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade associations. 114.8 Section 114.8 Federal... associations. (a) Definition. A trade association is generally a membership organization of persons engaging in... association. (c) Limitations. A trade association or a separate segregated fund established by a trade...

  3. UPPAAL in Practice: Quantitative Verication of a RapidIO Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xing, J.S.; Theelen, Bart D.; Langerak, Romanus; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Tretmans, G.J.; Voeten, J.P.M.; Margaria, Tiziana; Katoen, Joost P.; Steffen, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Packet switched networks are widely used for interconnecting distributed computing platforms. RapidIO (Rapid Input/Output) is an industry standard for packet switched networks to interconnect multiple processor boards. Key performance metrics for these platforms include average-case and worst-case

  4. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations. Book Trade Associations, United States and Canada; International and Foreign Book Trade Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Includes two lists: one of book trade associations in the U.S. and Canada, and one of international and foreign book trade associations. Concludes with National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Standards; calendar, 2002-2009; acronyms; index of organizations; and subject index. (LRW)

  5. Implementation of a Multichannel Serial Data Streaming Algorithm using the Xilinx Serial RapidIO Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxley, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    In the current world of applications that use reconfigurable technology implemented on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), there is a need for flexible architectures that can grow as the systems evolve. A project has limited resources and a fixed set of requirements that development efforts are tasked to meet. Designers must develop robust solutions that practically meet the current customer demands and also have the ability to grow for future performance. This paper describes the development of a high speed serial data streaming algorithm that allows for transmission of multiple data channels over a single serial link. The technique has the ability to change to meet new applications developed for future design considerations. This approach uses the Xilinx Serial RapidIO LOGICORE Solution to implement a flexible infrastructure to meet the current project requirements with the ability to adapt future system designs.

  6. Trade Associations and Their Environment from an Efficiency Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    clan implicitly regulates social relations through social integration, or what Durkheim (1933) referred to as organic solidarity. Whereas contractual...the governance mechanism of the clan is operating and trade associations can eff&iently have an impact on legislation. This is what Durkheim would refer... Durkheim envisaged corporations as moral communities: Perhaps the closest to what Durkheim expected would come into being at all levels of the

  7. Directory of Book Trade and Related Organizations. Books Trade Associations, United States and Canada; International and Foreign Book Trade Associations; National Information Standards Organization (NISO) Standards; Calendar, 2003-2012; Acronyms; Index of Organizations; Subject Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Includes two lists: one of book trade associations in the United States and Canada, and one of international and foreign book trade associations. Concludes with National Information Standards Organization (NISO) standards; calendar, 2003-2012; acronyms; index of organizations; and subject index. (LRW)

  8. Endogenous testosterone is not associated with the trade-off between paternal and mating effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaar, Cas; Whitham, Megan; Komdeur, Jan; van der Velde, Marco; Moore, Ignacio T.

    2011-01-01

    Males may face a trade-off between caring for offspring and pursuing additional matings. In birds, the androgen testosterone has been suggested to be a key proximate mediator in this trade-off for several reasons. At the population level, high testosterone is typically associated with the period of

  9. Assessing the Factors Associated With Iran's Intra-Industry Trade in Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Hadian, Mohammad; Abolghasem Gorji, Hassan; Ghaderi, Hossein

    2015-03-30

    Pharmaceutical industry is a sensitive and profitable industry. If this industry wants to survive, it should be able to compete well in international markets. So, study of Iran's intra-industry trade (IIT) in pharmaceuticals is essential in order to identify competitiveness potential of country and boost export capability in the global arena. This study assessed the factors associated with Iran's intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals with the rest of the world during the 2001-2012 periods using seasonal time series data at the four-digit SITC level. The data was collected from Iran's pharmaceutical Statistics, World Bank and International Trade Center. Finally, we discussed a number of important policy recommendations to increase Iran's IIT in pharmaceuticals. The findings indicated that economies of scale, market structure and degree of economic development had a significantly positive impact on Iran's intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals and tariff trade barriers were negatively related to IIT. Product differentiation and technological advancement didn't have the expected signs. In addition, we found that Iran's IIT in pharmaceuticals have shown an increasing trend during the study period. Thus, the composition of Iran trade in pharmaceuticals has changed from inter-industry trade to intra-industry trade. In order to get more prepared for integration into the global economy, the development of Iran's IIT in pharmaceuticals should be given priority. Therefore, paying attention to IIT could have an important role in serving pharmaceutical companies in relation to pharmaceutical trade.

  10. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world`s most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits.

  11. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world's most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits.

  12. Examining the associations between sex trade involvement, rape, and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Harris, Jennie; Lorvick, Jennifer; Cheng, Helen; Wenger, Lynn D; Bourgois, Philippe; Kral, Alex H

    2015-07-01

    The high prevalence of rape and sexual trauma symptomatology among women involved in street-based sex trades is well-established. Because prior research has lacked appropriate, non-sex trade involved comparison groups, it is unknown whether differences exist among similarly situated women who do and do not trade sex. This article explores experiences of childhood and adult rape and symptomatology of sexual abuse trauma among a community-based sample of 322 women who use methamphetamine in San Francisco, California, 61% of whom were involved in the sex trade. Study participants were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and eligible if they were cisgender women, aged 18 or older, current methamphetamine users, and sexually active with at least one cisgender man in the past 6 months. The dependent variable was sexual abuse trauma symptomatology, as measured by the Sexual Abuse Trauma Index (SATI) subscale of the Trauma Symptom Checklist-40 (TSC-40), and the explanatory variable was sex trade involvement. Potential covariates were age, current homelessness, methamphetamine dependence, and experiences of childhood and adult rape. Sixty-one percent of participants had a SATI subscale score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. The overall prevalence of rape in childhood and adulthood was 52% and 73%, respectively. In bivariate analysis, sex trade involvement and all of the potential covariates except for homelessness and age were associated with a SATI score suggestive of sexual abuse trauma. In multivariate models controlling for significant covariates, there was no longer a statistically significant association between sex trade involvement or childhood rape and an elevated SATI score. Elevated levels of psychological dependence on methamphetamine and experiences of rape as an adult were still associated with a high SATI score. These findings highlight that urban poor women, regardless of sex trade involvement, suffer high levels of rape and related trauma

  13. Assessing the Factors Associated With Iran’s Intra-Industry Trade in Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusefzadeh, Hassan; Hadian, Mohammad; Gorji, Hassan Abolghasem; Ghaderi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pharmaceutical industry is a sensitive and profitable industry. If this industry wants to survive, it should be able to compete well in international markets. So, study of Iran’s intra-industry trade (IIT) in pharmaceuticals is essential in order to identify competitiveness potential of country and boost export capability in the global arena. Methods: This study assessed the factors associated with Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals with the rest of the world during the 2001–2012 periods using seasonal time series data at the four-digit SITC level. The data was collected from Iran’s pharmaceutical Statistics, World Bank and International Trade Center. Finally, we discussed a number of important policy recommendations to increase Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals. Results: The findings indicated that economies of scale, market structure and degree of economic development had a significantly positive impact on Iran’s intra-industry trade in pharmaceuticals and tariff trade barriers were negatively related to IIT. Product differentiation and technological advancement didn’t have the expected signs. In addition, we found that Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals have shown an increasing trend during the study period. Thus, the composition of Iran trade in pharmaceuticals has changed from inter-industry trade to intra-industry trade. Conclusions: In order to get more prepared for integration into the global economy, the development of Iran’s IIT in pharmaceuticals should be given priority. Therefore, paying attention to IIT could have an important role in serving pharmaceutical companies in relation to pharmaceutical trade. PMID:26156931

  14. Under Stress: Europeanisation and Trade Associations in the Members States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Lehmkuhl

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Until today, it is relatively disputed how European integration impacts on domestic associations and the patterns of public-private interactions at the national level. While some predict a withering away of national corporatisms, others predict they would be reinforced. By making organization theory available to institution-theoretical approaches, the paper offers a conceptual means that makes it possible to present an encompassing and theory-guided picture of the impact of European integration on societal structures in the member states. Associations - in the presented cases, business associations of the transport sector in Germany and the Netherlands -, as intermediate organisations operate at the interface between private and public actors and incorporate the dynamics of their political and economic environments in both structural and strategic terms. It is argued that the way in which the configuration of associations within a sector changes in the course of European integration relates to efforts at this intermediate level to maintain or increase its relative autonomy from both its constituencies and its interlocutors.

  15. A Stock Trading Recommender System Based on Temporal Association Rule Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy B. Nair

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recommender systems capable of discovering patterns in stock price movements and generating stock recommendations based on the patterns thus discovered can significantly supplement the decision-making process of a stock trader. Such recommender systems are of great significance to a layperson who wishes to profit by stock trading even while not possessing the skill or expertise of a seasoned trader. A genetic algorithm optimized Symbolic Aggregate approXimation (SAX–Apriori based stock trading recommender system, which can mine temporal association rules from the stock price data set to generate stock trading recommendations, is presented in this article. The proposed system is validated on 12 different data sets. The results indicate that the proposed system significantly outperforms the passive buy-and-hold strategy, offering scope for a layperson to successfully invest in capital markets.

  16. Trade associations and labor organizations as intermediaries for disseminating workplace safety and health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Andrea H; Watkins, Janice P; Schulte, Paul A

    2017-09-01

    There has not been a systematic study of the nature and extent to which business and professional trade associations and labor organizations obtain and communicate workplace safety and health information to their members. These organizations can serve as important intermediaries and play a central role in transferring this information to their members. A sample of 2294 business and professional trade associations and labor organizations in eight industrial sectors identified by the National Occupational Research Agenda was surveyed via telephone. A small percent of these organizations (40.9% of labor organizations, 15.6% of business associations, and 9.6% of professional associations) were shown to distribute workplace safety and health information to their members. Large differences were also observed between industrial sectors with construction having the highest total percent of organizations disseminating workplace safety and health information. There appears to be significant potential to utilize trade and labor organizations as intermediaries for transferring workplace safety and health information to their members. Government agencies have a unique opportunity to partner with these organizations and to utilize their existing communication channels to address high risk workplace safety and health concerns. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. A novel application of mark-recapture to examine behaviour associated with the online trade in elephant ivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Lydia M; McCrea, Rachel S; Roberts, David L

    2017-01-01

    The illegal trade in elephant ivory is driving the unlawful killing of elephants such that populations are now suffering unsustainable reductions. The internet is increasingly being used as a platform to conduct illegal wildlife trade, including elephant ivory. As a globally accessible medium the internet is as highly attractive to those involved in the illegal trade as it is challenging to regulate. Characterising the online illegal wildlife (ivory) trade is complex, yet key to informing enforcement activities. We applied mark-recapture to investigate behaviour associated with the online trade in elephant ivory on eBay UK as a generalist online marketplace. Our results indicate that trade takes place via eBay UK, despite its policy prohibiting this, and that two distinct trading populations exist, characterised by the pattern of their ivory sales. We suggest these may represent a large number of occasional (or non-commercial) sellers and a smaller number of dedicated (or commercial) sellers. Directing resource towards reducing the volume of occasional sales, such as through education, would enable greater focus to be placed upon characterising the extent and value of the illegal, "commercial" online ivory trade. MRC has the potential to characterise the illegal trade in ivory and diverse wildlife commodities traded using various online platforms.

  18. A novel application of mark-recapture to examine behaviour associated with the online trade in elephant ivory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia M. Yeo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The illegal trade in elephant ivory is driving the unlawful killing of elephants such that populations are now suffering unsustainable reductions. The internet is increasingly being used as a platform to conduct illegal wildlife trade, including elephant ivory. As a globally accessible medium the internet is as highly attractive to those involved in the illegal trade as it is challenging to regulate. Characterising the online illegal wildlife (ivory trade is complex, yet key to informing enforcement activities. We applied mark-recapture to investigate behaviour associated with the online trade in elephant ivory on eBay UK as a generalist online marketplace. Our results indicate that trade takes place via eBay UK, despite its policy prohibiting this, and that two distinct trading populations exist, characterised by the pattern of their ivory sales. We suggest these may represent a large number of occasional (or non-commercial sellers and a smaller number of dedicated (or commercial sellers. Directing resource towards reducing the volume of occasional sales, such as through education, would enable greater focus to be placed upon characterising the extent and value of the illegal, “commercial” online ivory trade. MRC has the potential to characterise the illegal trade in ivory and diverse wildlife commodities traded using various online platforms.

  19. LEOMA and the US laser industry the good and bad moves for trade associations in emerging high-tech industries

    CERN Document Server

    Hitz, C

    2015-01-01

    Hitz addresses the urgent issues that the Laser and Electro-Optics Manufacturer’s Association (LEOMA) tackled in the late 1980s, which will help guide future trade associations to handle related political and infrastructural issues from the industry. LEOMA- the Laser and Electro-Optics Manufacturers’ Association – is in many ways similar to trade associations that exist, or will exist, in other emerging, high-technology industries. Having dealt successfully with these initial obstacles, LEOMA went on to tackle other issues, perhaps less urgent, that confronted the industry. LEOMA and the US Laser Industry: The Good and Bad Moves for Trade Associations in Emerging High-Tech Industries describes the approaches, both successful and not, to the political and infrastructure issues addressed by the trade association. The intent is to provide guidance to those confronting similar issues, and help them avoid unsuccessful approaches. The key fea ures highlight the problems that were dealt with, and solutions,...

  20. Multi-level risk factors associated with sex trading among women living with HIV in Kazakhstan: A neglected key population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alissa; Jiwatram-Negrón, Tina; Primbetova, Sholpan; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Bilokon, Yelena; Chubukova, Lyubov; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the prevalence and risk factors associated with sex trading among HIV-positive women. A total of 242 HIV-positive women were recruited in five regions in Kazakhstan. These women completed a survey containing items on socio-demographics, HIV stigma, intimate partner violence, and partner risk behaviors. Multivariate regression was used to examine associations between risk factors and sex trading after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Fifty-six (23.1%) women reported trading sex in the past 90 days. Women who reported recent sex trading were more likely than women who did not trade sex in the past 90 days to experience intimate partner violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.25; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-4.73), to have been homeless in the past 90 days (AOR: 4.12; 95% CI: 1.19-14.29), and to know or suspect a male partner had a sexually transmitted infection (AOR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.07-4.53), had sex with another partner (AOR: 4.53; 95% CI: 2.25-9.14), or injected drugs in the past year (AOR: 3.31; 95% CI: 1.64-6.65). These findings underscore the need for comprehensive HIV prevention and intervention programs that address the multi-level risk factors associated with sex trading for women infected with HIV.

  1. Real-time parallel implementation of Pulse-Doppler radar signal processing chain on a massively parallel machine based on multi-core DSP and Serial RapidIO interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klilou, Abdessamad; Belkouch, Said; Elleaume, Philippe; Le Gall, Philippe; Bourzeix, François; Hassani, Moha M'Rabet

    2014-12-01

    Pulse-Doppler radars require high-computing power. A massively parallel machine has been developed in this paper to implement a Pulse-Doppler radar signal processing chain in real-time fashion. The proposed machine consists of two C6678 digital signal processors (DSPs), each with eight DSP cores, interconnected with Serial RapidIO (SRIO) bus. In this study, each individual core is considered as the basic processing element; hence, the proposed parallel machine contains 16 processing elements. A straightforward model has been adopted to distribute the Pulse-Doppler radar signal processing chain. This model provides low latency, but communication inefficiency limits system performance. This paper proposes several optimizations that greatly reduce the inter-processor communication in a straightforward model and improves the parallel efficiency of the system. A use case of the Pulse-Doppler radar signal processing chain has been used to illustrate and validate the concept of the proposed mapping model. Experimental results show that the parallel efficiency of the proposed parallel machine is about 90%.

  2. WTO judicial Politics and EU Trade Policy: Business Associations as Vessels of Special Interest?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poletti, A.; De Bièvre, D.; Hanegraaff, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of the WTO’s quasi-judicial system of dispute resolution on the politics of trade policy making in the European Union (EU). We argue that this institutional innovation had a systematic transformative effect on EU trade politics, creating pressures for

  3. Paradise Lost: The Cost of Removing Tax and Trade Provisions from the Compact of Free Association

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brazys, Samuel Rueckert

    2014-01-01

    Upon implementing the C ompact of F ree A ssociation between the U nited S tates and the F ederated S tates of M icronesia, the US C ongress unilaterally stripped tax and trade provisions that would...

  4. Life-history strategies of North American elk: trade-offs associated with reproduction and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrina Morano; Kelley M. Stewart; James S. Sedinger; Christopher A. Nicolai; Marty Vavra

    2013-01-01

    The principle of energy allocation states that individuals should attempt to maximize fitness by allocating resources optimally among growth, maintenance, and reproduction. Such allocation may result in trade-offs between survival and reproduction, or between current and future reproduction. We used a marked population of North American elk (Cervus elaphus...

  5. No trade-off between learning speed and associative flexibility in bumblebees: a reversal learning test with multiple colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel E Raine

    Full Text Available Potential trade-offs between learning speed and memory-related performance could be important factors in the evolution of learning. Here, we test whether rapid learning interferes with the acquisition of new information using a reversal learning paradigm. Bumblebees (Bombus terrestris were trained to associate yellow with a floral reward. Subsequently the association between colour and reward was reversed, meaning bees then had to learn to visit blue flowers. We demonstrate that individuals that were fast to learn yellow as a predictor of reward were also quick to reverse this association. Furthermore, overnight memory retention tests suggest that faster learning individuals are also better at retaining previously learned information. There is also an effect of relatedness: colonies whose workers were fast to learn the association between yellow and reward also reversed this association rapidly. These results are inconsistent with a trade-off between learning speed and the reversal of a previously made association. On the contrary, they suggest that differences in learning performance and cognitive (behavioural flexibility could reflect more general differences in colony learning ability. Hence, this study provides additional evidence to support the idea that rapid learning and behavioural flexibility have adaptive value.

  6. Permit trading and credit trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan-Tjeerd; R. Dijstra, Bouwe

    This paper compares emissions trading based on a cap on total emissions (permit trading) and on relative standards per unit of output (credit trading). Two types of market structure are considered: perfect competition and Cournot oligopoly. We find that output, abatement costs and the number....... Environmental policy can lead to exit, but also to entry of firms. Entry and exit have a profound impact on the performance of the schemes, especially under imperfect competition. We find that it may be impossible to implement certain levels of total industry emissions. Under credit trading several levels...... of firms are higher under credit trading. Allowing trade between permit-trading and credit-trading sectors may increase in welfare. With perfect competition, permit trading always leads to higher welfare than credit trading. With imperfect competition, credit trading may outperform permit trading...

  7. Opportunities of Trade in Services between the EU and Ukraine: the Case of Telecommunications Services under the GATS and the Association Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batura, Olga; Kretova, Olga A.

    This working paper studies the legal and regulatory conditions for trade in ser- vices between the European Union (EU) and Ukraine on the example of tele- communications services that are important carrier services for various busi- ness activities in the cross-border trade. The paper outlines...... the general frame- work for trade in services under the GATS as expressed in the commitments undertaken by Ukraine and examines the detailed provisions of the EU- Ukraine Association Agreement on trade liberalisation and regulatory approx- imation that is a WTO-extra agreement. It also provides an overview......- ments of integration in the EU internal market. The paper argues that in short to middle term the Association Agreement does not offer much of value-added in comparison to the current GATS commitments in terms of services liberali- sation. The juiciest “carrot” of the Association Agreement...

  8. A simulation approach to reconciling customs and trade risk associated with cross-border freight movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman, Alwyn J.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa critically depends on increased exports to enable economic growth and job creation. Logistical inefficiencies, however, are hampering exports, with cross-border freight delays a key contributor that adds cost and unpredictability to the supply chain, making South Africa an unattractive participant in global just-in-time value chains. The detention of cargo consignments at border posts is intended to reduce the risk of customs duties not being paid and to prevent the smuggling of illegal contraband. These risks must be weighed against the risk to trade caused by unpredictable time delays, and the resulting harmful impact on the economy. The increased use of ICT technologies has been proposed to enable a more attractive compromise between customs and trade risks. This study investigates the impact of the proposed new measures, including the use of technology, on the efficiency of cross-border freight movements. The research approach will combine the analysis of historical electronic transaction data exchanged between customs and consignors, with the simulation of different scenarios for the ICT support of customs processes. The expected impact of the proposed measures on exports within and from the SADC region, and the direct impact on corridor users, are estimated and compared against the estimated cost of the proposed measures. It is shown that implementing the proposed improvements should represent an attractive investment for the regional economy.

  9. Drivers, constraints and trade-offs associated with recultivating abandoned cropland in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Schierhorn, Florian; Prishchepov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Further cropland expansion might be unavoidable to satisfy the growing demand for land-based products and ecosystem services. A crucial issue is thus to assess the trade-offs between social and ecological impacts and the benefits of converting additional land to cropland. In the former Soviet Union...... and habitat for biodiversity. Less cropland abandonment and more recultivation after 2000 occurred in areas with an increasing rural population and a younger labor force, but also improved yields. Synergies were observed between cropland recultivation and intensification over the 2000s. From 47.3 million......-economic constraints suggested that the remaining 30.6 (25.7– 30.6) Mha of abandoned croplands were unlikely to provide important contributions to future crop production at current wheat prices but could provide various ecosystem services, and some could support extensive livestock production. Political...

  10. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  11. Trade-Offs in Values Assigned to Ecological Goods and Services Associated with Different Coral Reef Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina C. Hicks

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Societies value ecosystems and the services they provide in a number of ways. These values can help inform the management of ecosystems such as coral reefs. However, the trade-offs in ecosystem goods and services associated with different social and management conditions are poorly understood. Consequently, we examined values assigned to the goods and services identified across three types of management on the Kenyan coast: (1 a government-imposed no-take area in the Mombasa Marine National Park; (2 co-management of gear between fishing communities and the government's fisheries department; and (3 community-initiated no-take area management, where a community independently initiated and controlled a small closed area. We compared the ecosystem goods and services and the broader total economic value to explore how the history of these sites, their social conditions, and different management choices were associated with these values. The highest total economic values were associated with government management interventions and were probably due to the government's priority to be involved in the high-value beach tourism destinations. This is, however, associated with losses in a range of local community-level values and the social capital of the resource-user community. For example, resource users near the government marine protected area had the lowest value for measures of biological knowledge. Sites displaying greater community-level values were characterized by high social capital, and users had the most confidence in their ability to manage the resource. This study suggests that trade-offs occur in values associated with the interests and responsibilities of the management. The ability to cope with disturbance and change will depend on these values and responsibilities, and local communities are less likely to respond when government management and interests are strong.

  12. Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk, Carsten; Riezman, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the most significant recent developments in the theory of trade agreements. The paper offers an integrated approach to evaluating trade agreements, and uses the approach to present results on preferential and multilateral trade agreements. The paper identifies also several questions for further research.

  13. A Review of Zoonotic Infection Risks Associated with the Wild Meat Trade in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantlay, Jennifer Caroline; Ingram, Daniel J; Meredith, Anna L

    2017-06-01

    The overhunting of wildlife for food and commercial gain presents a major threat to biodiversity in tropical forests and poses health risks to humans from contact with wild animals. Using a recent survey of wildlife offered at wild meat markets in Malaysia as a basis, we review the literature to determine the potential zoonotic infection risks from hunting, butchering and consuming the species offered. We also determine which taxa potentially host the highest number of pathogens and discuss the significant disease risks from traded wildlife, considering how cultural practices influence zoonotic transmission. We identify 51 zoonotic pathogens (16 viruses, 19 bacteria and 16 parasites) potentially hosted by wildlife and describe the human health risks. The Suidae and the Cervidae families potentially host the highest number of pathogens. We conclude that there are substantial gaps in our knowledge of zoonotic pathogens and recommend performing microbial food safety risk assessments to assess the hazards of wild meat consumption. Overall, there may be considerable zoonotic risks to people involved in the hunting, butchering or consumption of wild meat in Southeast Asia, and these should be considered in public health strategies.

  14. HTLV-1aA introduction into Brazil and its association with the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoussa, Adjile Edjide Roukiyath; Wilkinson, Eduan; Giovanetti, Marta; de Almeida Rego, Filipe Ferreira; Araujo, Thessika Hialla A; de Souza Gonçalves, Marilda; de Oliveira, Tulio; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior

    2017-03-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is an endemic virus in some parts of the world, with Africa being home to most of the viral genetic diversity. In Brazil, HTLV-1 is endemic amongst Japanese and African immigrant populations. Multiple introductions of the virus in Brazil from other epidemic foci were hypothesized. The long terminal repeat (LTR) region of HTLV-1 was used to infer the origin of the virus in Brazil, using phylogenetic analysis. LTR sequences were obtained from the HTLV-1 database (http://htlv1db.bahia.fiocruz.br). Sequences were aligned and maximum-likelihood and Bayesian tree topologies were inferred. Brazilian specific clusters were identified and molecular-clock and coalescent models were used to estimate each cluster's time to the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA). Three Brazilian clusters were identified with a posterior probability ranged from 0.61 to 0.99. Molecular clock analysis of these three clusters dated back their respective tMRCAs between the year 1499 and the year 1668. Additional analysis also identified a close association between Brazilian sequences and new sequences from South Africa. Our results support the hypothesis of a multiple introductions of HTLV-1 into Brazil, with the majority of introductions occurring in the post-Colombian period. Our results further suggest that HTLV-1 introduction into Brazil was facilitated by the trans-Atlantic slave trade from endemic areas of Africa. The close association between southern African and Brazilian sequences also suggested that greater numbers of the southern African Bantu population might also have been part of the slave trade than previously thought. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Analysis of virtual water flows associated with the trade of maize in the SADC region: importance of scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Dabrowski

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of virtual water encourages a country to view agricultural crops in terms of the amount of water required to produce those crops, with a view to implementing trading policies that promote the saving of scarce water resources. Recently, increased attention has focussed on partitioning the virtual water content of crops into green and blue water (derived from rainfall and irrigation, respectively as the latter has higher opportunity costs associated with its use and therefore impacts directly on scarcity. Maize is the most important crop traded within the SADC region. South Africa is the largest producer and exporter of maize, with the majority of its exports destined for other SADC countries. In comparison to other SADC countries, South Africa produces maize relatively efficiently, with a low virtual water content and a high green (868 m3 t−1 to blue (117 m3 t−1 water ratio. The blue water content is however higher than for maize produced in all other SADC countries, with the exception of Namibia (211 m3 t−1. Current trade patterns therefore result in a net expenditure of blue water (66×106 m3, almost all of which is exported by South Africa (65×106 m3. South Africa is one of the most water scarce countries in the region and analysis of virtual water flows indicates that current SADC maize trading patterns are influenced by national productivity as opposed to water scarcity. The virtual water content of maize was estimated for each of South Africa's nineteen Water Management Area's (WMA and used as a proxy to represent water use efficiency for maize production. The virtual water content varied widely across all of the WMAs, ranging from 360 m3 t−1 in the Ustutu Mhlatuze to 1000 m3 t−1 in the Limpopo. A comparison of the virtual water content and production of maize

  16. International trade. Multinational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Y

    2000-01-01

    Of numerous regional economic agreements, the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South American Common Market (MERCOSUR), the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and the Australia-New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Agreement are examples that are actively pursuing regional integration for freer trade of animals and animal products. The World Trade Organization (WTO) believes that regional and multinational integration initiatives are complements rather than alternatives in the pursuit of more open trade. In the efforts to harmonize SPS standards among multilateral trading nations, it is recommended that national requirements meet the standards developed by the OIE and the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission as the minimum requirements rather than adopting the standards of the lowest common denominator. Regional grouping may hinder multilateral or bilateral trade between the countries of a group and those of the other groups. How to eliminate such non-tariff barriers as traditional trade custom remains to be examined. Ongoing activities of VICH (Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medical Products) may pave the way for more open trade in pharmaceutical products between multilateral regional groups.

  17. Interspecific Demographic Trade-Offs and Soil-Related Habitat Associations of Tree Species along Resource Gradients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sabrina E. Russo; Patrick Brown; Sylvester Tan; Stuart J. Davies

    2008-01-01

    1. Interspecific relationships between fundamental demographic rates, often called demographic trade-offs, emerge from constraints within individuals related to morphology, physiology and resource allocation...

  18. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  19. The Netherlands: The representativeness of trade unions and employer associations in the live performance sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunell, M.

    2013-01-01

    Two factors make industrial relations in this sector atypical. Firstly, performing artists generally do not see themselves as an employee, and secondly there is the continuing trend towards commercialisation. These factors make it hard for employer associations and unions to organise employees and

  20. The Netherlands: The representativeness of trade unions and employer associations in the construction sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunell, M.

    2015-01-01

    The construction sector is an important sector in the Dutch economy. Significantly, the sector is often described as a lever for other essential parts of the economy and the consumer market. The social partner organisations in the sector, consisting of two employer associations – Bouwend Nederland

  1. The representativeness of trade unions and employer associations in the insurance sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2012-01-01

    The insurance sector is a small but important sector in the Dutch economy. There are two sub sections or domains, insurance companies and intermediaries. There are two employer organisations, the Association of Insurers (VvV) and Adfiz (previously Fidin), and four employee organisations: FNV

  2. The Netherlands: the representativeness of trade unions and employer associations in the private security sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2012-01-01

    The private security sector is a dynamic and growing part of the Dutch economy. The social partner for employers is the Association for Private Security Organisations (VPB), with the unions FNV Bondgenoten, CNV Dienstenbond and De Unie/MHP representing about 30% of the sector’s employees. The VPB

  3. Fitness Trade-Offs Associated with the Evolution of Resistance to Antifungal Drug Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Hill

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of drug resistance threatens human health worldwide. An emerging strategy to mitigate drug resistance is combination therapy. The fate of multidrug-resistant pathogens depends on their fitness relative to susceptible counterparts, yet the fitness consequences of multidrug resistance remain enigmatic. Here, we dissect fitness consequences of the evolution of resistance to antifungal drug combinations in the leading human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. We focus on the most widely deployed antifungals, the azoles, and inhibitors of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 and protein phosphatase calcineurin, which regulate cellular stress responses required for azole resistance. We find tradeoffs such that adaptation to drug combinations is associated with reduced fitness in distinct environments, including those relevant to the human host. We identify mutations associated with fitness tradeoffs in clinical isolates and that influence morphogenesis, a key virulence trait. Thus, we delineate evolutionary constraints that may minimize the evolution of resistance to antifungal combinations.

  4. Perceptual boundaries cause mnemonic trade-offs between local boundary processing and across-trial associative binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Andrew C; Ezzyat, Youssef; Shiff, Ilana; Davachi, Lila

    2018-02-19

    Episodic memories are not veridical records of our lives, but rather are better described as organized summaries of experience. Theories and empirical research suggest that shifts in perceptual, temporal, and semantic information lead to a chunking of our continuous experiences into segments, or "events." However, the consequences of these contextual shifts on memory formation and organization remains unclear. In a series of 3 behavioral studies, we introduced context shifts (or "event boundaries") between trains of stimuli and then examined the influence of the boundaries on several measures of associative memory. In Experiment 1, we found that perceptual event boundaries strengthened associative binding of item-context pairings present at event boundaries. In Experiment 2, we observed reduced temporal order memory for items encoded in distinct events relative to items encoded within the same event, and a trade-off between the speed of processing at boundaries, and temporal order memory for items that flanked those boundaries. Finally, in Experiment 3 we found that event organization imprinted structure on the order in which items were freely recalled. These results provide insight into how boundary- and event-related organizational processes during encoding shape subsequent representations of events in episodic memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  6. Organ Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.E. Ambagtsheer (Frederike)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractOrgan trade constitutes the sale and purchase of organs for financial or material gain. Although prohibited since the 1980s, an increasing number of reports indicate its proliferation across the globe. Yet, many knowledge gaps exist on organ trade, in particular on the demand -and

  7. Contraceptive Options and Their Associated Estrogenic Environmental Loads: Relationships and Trade-Offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman; Nicell, Jim A.

    2014-01-01

    This work explores the relationships between a user's choice of a given contraceptive option and the load of steroidal estrogens that can be associated with that choice. Family planning data for the USA served as a basis for the analysis. The results showed that collectively the use of contraception in the USA conservatively averts the release of approximately 4.8 tonnes of estradiol equivalents to the environment. 35% of the estrogenic load released over the course of all experienced pregnancies events and 34% the estrogenic load represented by all resultant legacies are a result of contraception failure and the non-use of contraception. A scenario analysis conducted to explore the impacts of discontinuing the use of ethinylestradiol-based oral contraceptives revealed that this would not only result in a 1.7-fold increase in the estrogenic loading of the users, but the users would also be expected to experience undesired family planning outcomes at a rate that is 3.3 times higher. Additional scenario analyses in which ethinylestradiol-based oral contraceptive users were modeled as having switched entirely to the use of male condoms, diaphragms or copper IUDs suggested that whether a higher or lower estrogenic load can be associated with the switching population depends on the typical failure rates of the options adopted following discontinuation. And, finally, it was estimated that, in the USA, at most 13% of the annual estrogenic load can be averted by fully meeting the contraceptive needs of the population. Therefore, while the issue of estrogen impacts on the environment cannot be addressed solely by meeting the population's contraceptive needs, a significant fraction of the estrogenic mass released to environment can be averted by improving the level with which their contraceptive needs are met. PMID:24670973

  8. Foreign Trade

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Foreign Trade database has monthly volume and value information for US imports, exports, and re-exports of fishery or fishery derived products. Data is...

  9. Fear Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Ardia, David

    2003-01-01

    Our trading strategy is inspired from the paper "implied volatility indices as leading indicators of stock index returns?", Giot (2002,[3]). It uses stylized facts observed in stock markets: the so called "leverage effect", the clustering and the mean-reverting behaviour of the implied volatility. Based on S&P100 and VIX data, we show that abnormally high levels of volatility can be used as a trading signals for long traders. A bootstrap procedure confirms the significant returns for the 1986...

  10. Analysis of virtual water flows associated with the trade of maize in the SADC region: importance of scale

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dabrowski, James M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available directly on scarcity. Maize is the most important crop traded within the SADC region. South Africa is the largest producer and exporter of maize, with the majority of its exports destined for other SADC countries. In comparison to other SADC countries...

  11. Historical invasions of the intertidal zone of Atlantic North America associated with distinctive patterns of trade and emigration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brawley, S.H.; Coyer, J.A.; Blakeslee, A.M.H.; Hoarau, G.G.; Johnson, L.E.; Byers, J.E.; Stam, W.T.; Olsen, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Early invasions of the North American shore occurred mainly via deposition of ballast rock, which effectively transported pieces of the intertidal zone across the Atlantic. From 1773- 1861, > 880 European ships entered Pictou Harbor, Nova Scotia, as a result of emigration and trade from Europe. The

  12. Socio-structural and behavioral risk factors associated with trafficked history of female bar/spa entertainers in the sex trade in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urada, Lianne A; Halterman, Sonja; Raj, Anita; Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Pimentel-Simbulan, Nymia; Silverman, Jay G

    2016-01-01

    To explore factors associated with trafficking (deceptive/coercive entry to sex trade) among female bar/spa entertainers who traded sex in the Philippines. Female bar/spa entertainers who traded sex in the past 6months were recruited from 25bar/spa venues in Metro Manila (April 2009-January 2010) and assessed via cross-sectional survey data collection for HIV-risk-related socio-structural factors associated with deceptive/coercive entry into the sex trade. The study employed hierarchical linear modeling. Of 166bar/spa entertainers assessed, 19 (11.4%) reported being deceived/coerced (i.e. trafficked) into their first jobs. Trafficking history was independently associated with current drug use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-3.97) decreased availability of condoms at venues for entertainers (AOR 0.18; 95% CI 0.05-0.71) and, conversely, increased peer support for practicing safer sex behaviors (AOR 3.08; 95% CI 1.63-5.09). Those deceived/coerced into their positions were more likely than non-trafficked women to have been recruited by an agency who came to their rural province (AOR 12.07; 95% CI 1.77-82.25) as opposed to getting the job from advertisement (AOR 0.10; 95% CI 0.02-0.65) or a friend/acquaintance (AOR 0.02; 95% CI 0.00-0.48). The findings have implications for designing interventions to prevent and target trafficked women in the Philippines who may be more vulnerable to substance use and, potentially, HIV infection. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. International trade and currency unions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bun, M.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    This short article critically reviews the existing empirical literature on the potential trade benefi ts of currency unions and, more in particular, the EMU. Joining a currency union decreases transaction and information costs associated with international trade. From the existing literature two

  14. Racial Trade Barriers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Jacob Halvas

    Aryanization is associated with Nazi Germany's policies to exclude Jews in the Germany from the economy in the pre-war years, but I will show it was a global policy from 1937. The utopian goal of international Aryanization was the total removal of Jews who traded with Germany anywhere in the world...

  15. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  16. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  17. Regional cooperation, infrastructure, and trade costs

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas H. Brooks

    2008-01-01

    International trade has played an essential role in Asia's remarkable growth, development, and integration in recent decades. Infrastructure, both hard and soft, has played an integral part in facilitating that trade, primarily through reducing the associated transaction costs. Regional coordination and cooperation can help to reduce negative externalities from trade and to capitalize more fully on positive spillover effects. This study explores the nexus between Asia's trade flows and patter...

  18. Human Factors in Financial Trading: An Analysis of Trading Incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W

    2016-09-01

    This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors-related issues in operational trading incidents. In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors-related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  19. Trade in mineral resources

    OpenAIRE

    Graham A. Davis

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. I first define what is meant by trade in mineral resources. I then discuss patterns of trade in mineral resources. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World Trade Organization: theoretical and empirical literature on international trade in minerals; trade impacts of mineral abundance and the resource curse; the political economy of mineral trade in resource-ab...

  20. Gender Inequality and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...

  1. Historical invasions of the intertidal zone of Atlantic North America associated with distinctive patterns of trade and emigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Susan H; Coyer, James A; Blakeslee, April M H; Hoarau, Galice; Johnson, Ladd E; Byers, James E; Stam, Wytze T; Olsen, Jeanine L

    2009-05-19

    Early invasions of the North American shore occurred mainly via deposition of ballast rock, which effectively transported pieces of the intertidal zone across the Atlantic. From 1773-1861, >880 European ships entered Pictou Harbor, Nova Scotia, as a result of emigration and trade from Europe. The rockweed Fucus serratus (1868) and the snail Littorina littorea ( approximately 1840) were found in Pictou during this same period. With shipping records (a proxy for propagule pressure) to guide sampling, we used F. serratus as a model to examine the introductions because of its relatively low genetic diversity and dispersal capability. Microsatellite markers and assignment tests revealed 2 introductions of the rockweed into Nova Scotia: 1 from Galway (Ireland) to Pictou and the other from Greenock (Scotland) to western Cape Breton Island. To examine whether a high-diversity, high-dispersing species might have similar pathways of introduction, we analyzed L. littorea, using cytochrome b haplotypes. Eight of the 9 Pictou haplotypes were found in snails collected from Ireland and Scotland. Our results contribute to a broader understanding of marine communities, because these 2 conspicuous species are likely to be the tip of an "invasion iceberg" to the NW Atlantic from Great Britain and Ireland in the 19th Century.

  2. ASEAN - China Free Trade Area : A quantitative study of Trade diversion and Trade creation effects on ASEAN - China trade flows

    OpenAIRE

    Duong Xuan, Vinh

    2011-01-01

    The Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and China have a long history of trading with each other. They are economic partners as well as competitors for many years. In order to push their economic relationship to a higher level, in November 2002, ASEAN and China signed the initial framework agreement, determined on establishing the ASEAN - China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) among the eleven countries by 2010 for the ASEAN-6 (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand)...

  3. Ukrainian Sanitary and Phytosanitary Laws Approximation to EU Acquis Under Association Agreement Including Agreement on Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kepych Taras

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the achievements to date in legal approximation in the sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS field in Ukraine. Effective regulatory approximation in the SPS field was critical to anchoring the reform process in Ukraine and to fostering further progress in EU’s relations with this Eastern Partnership (EaP country. This paper highlights three major problems in Ukraine that were hindering reform in the SPS field: inconsistency between Ukrainian and EU food safety legislation, lack of uniformity between animal health law regimes, absence of a single SPS regulator. Legal implementation of approximated legislation still remains as key challenge. The paper offers recommendations to improve the Ukraine’s approach so that the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (DCFTA is part of the Association Agreement (AA between the EU and the Republic of Ukraine could fulfill its potential.

  4. 78 FR 58285 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ...., Livingston, CA Fair Trade Corner, Inc., Chico, CA Fisher Nut Company, Modesto, CA Hilltop Ranch, Inc... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an amended Export Trade Certificate of Review to California Almond Export Association, LLC (``CAEA'') (Application...

  5. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  6. Free trade or just trade? The World Trade Organisation, human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author assesses these claims from a human rights perspective and explores the relationship between trade, human rights and development. The article sketches the history and functions of the WTO, discusses the linkages between trade liberalisation, human rights and development, and assesses the human rights ...

  7. State Trading Companies, Time Inconsistency, Imperfect Enforceability and Reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Melkonian, Tigran A.; Stanley R. Johnson

    1998-01-01

    Strategic trade in international markets is important for agricultural and other basic commodities. State trading companies (STCs) and large private firms control most of the trade volume. In this study the authors use concepts of modern game theory to treat time inconsistency issues associated with strategic trade. The results are particularly applicable to trade in commodities with lengthy production periods, such as agriculture. The model considered here provides an important context for e...

  8. Risky Trade: Individual and Neighborhood-Level Socio-Demographics Associated with Transactional Sex among Urban African American MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robin; Icard, Larry; Jemmott, John B; O'Leary, Ann; Rutledge, Scott; Hsu, Janet; Stephens-Shields, Alisa

    2017-08-01

    There is a clear, persistent association between poverty and HIV risk and HIV infection. Low educational attainment, neighborhood disadvantage, and residential instability are ways in which poverty is instrumentally experienced in urban America. We investigated the role of lived poverty at both the individual and neighborhood levels in transactional sex behavior among African American men who have sex with men (MSM) residing in urban neighborhoods. Using population-averaged models estimated by generalized estimating equation (GEE) models, we identified individual-level and neighborhood-level factors that are associated with exchanging sex for drugs and/or money. We tested the association between neighborhood and individual-level socioeconomic status and HIV risk behavior by combining area-based measures of neighborhood quality from the US Census with individual survey data from 542 low-income African American MSM. The primary outcome measure was self-reported transactional sex defined as exchanging sex for drugs or money. Individual-level covariates included high school non-completion, income, and problem drug use. Neighborhood-level covariates were high school non-completion and poverty rates. The findings suggested that educational attainment is associated with both the individual level and neighborhood level. Participants were more likely to engage in transactional sex if they did not complete high school (OR = 1.78), and similarly if their neighbors did not complete high school (OR = 7.70). These findings suggest potential leverage points for both community-level interventions and advocacy for this population, particularly related to transactional sex and education, and will aid HIV prevention efforts that seek to address the contextual constraints on individual risk behavior.

  9. Anxiety sensitivity mediates the association between post-traumatic stress symptom severity and interoceptive threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies among World Trade Center disaster-exposed smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Paulus, Daniel J; Gonzalez, Adam; Mahaffey, Brittain L; Bromet, Evelyn J; Luft, Benjamin J; Kotov, Roman; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (fear of internal anxiety-relevant bodily sensations) is an individual difference variable that is associated with the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and is also involved in the maintenance/relapse of smoking. Abstinence expectancies are crucial to smoking maintenance, yet, past work has not explored how PTSD symptom severity and anxiety sensitivity contribute to them. Participants were 122 treatment-seeking daily smokers (36.1% female; Mage=49.2, SD=9.7; cigarettes per day: M=18.3, SD=15.2) who were exposed to the World Trade Center disaster on September 11, 2001 and responded to an advertisement for a clinical smoking cessation trial. The indirect effect of anxiety sensitivity was tested in terms of the effect of PTSD symptom severity on smoking abstinence expectancies (i.e., anxiety sensitivity as a statistical mediator). PTSD symptom severity was positively associated with interoceptive threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies: expecting harmful consequences (β=.33, pseverity was also significantly associated with anxiety sensitivity (β=.27, p=.003). Anxiety sensitivity mediated the association between PTSD symptom severity and expectancies about the harmful consequences (β=.09, CI95%=.02-.21; ΔR(2)=.076) and somatic symptoms (β=.11, CI95%=.02-.24; ΔR(2)=.123) from smoking abstinence, with medium effect sizes (Κ(2)=.08 and .10, respectively). These data document the role of PTSD symptoms in threat-based expectancies about smoking abstinence and suggest anxiety sensitivity may underlie the associations between PTSD symptom severity and abstinence expectancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Expanding Trade within Africa: The Impact of Trade Facilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Njinkeu, Dominique; S. Wilson, John; Powo Fosso, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of trade facilitation on intra-African trade. The authors examine the role of trade facilitation reforms, such as increased port efficiency, improved customs, and regulatory environments, and upgrading services infrastructure on trade between African countries. They also consider how regional trade agreements relate to intra-African trade flows. Using trade d...

  11. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    2014-01-01

    The global financial crisis has contributed to the redirection of trade towards new markets outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift, based...... on Swedish firm-level trade data. Results suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduce the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Trade in industries that are characterized by a high frequency of trade conflicts and where transactions require extensive relationship......-specific investments are particularly difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....

  12. Redirecting International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Söderlund, Bengt; Tingvall, Patrik Gustavsson

    The global financial crisis has accelerated the redirection of trade towards new markets, outside the OECD area, where both demand patterns and the institutional environment differ from those in the OECD. This study provides an empirical examination of the consequences of this shift. Results...... suggest that weak institutions hamper trade and reduces the length of trade relations, especially for small firms. Furthermore, trade in industries that are characterized by a high degree of trade conflicts and that requires extensive relationship specific investments for trade to occur are comparatively...... difficult to redirect towards markets with weak institutions....

  13. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross......-border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law....

  14. 121 | Page WORLD TRADE ORGANISATION (WTO): TRADE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    of the current rules of WTO that reinforce the disadvantages faced by developing economies. This essay deals with these unfair trade rules and disadvantages inherent in the World Trade Organization (WTO) system by .... also expand their exports given the comparative advantage they have in respect of those national ...

  15. Factors associated with poor control of 9/11-related asthma 10–11 years after the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hannah T.; Stellman, Steven D.; Reibman, Joan; Farfel, Mark R.; Brackbill, Robert M.; Friedman, Stephen M.; Li, Jiehui; Cone, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify key factors associated with poor asthma control among adults in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry, a longitudinal study of rescue/recovery workers and community members who were directly exposed to the 2001 WTC terrorist attacks and their aftermath. Methods: We studied incident asthma diagnosed by a physician from 12 September 2001 through 31 December 2003 among participants aged ≥18 on 11 September 2001, as reported on an enrollment (2003–2004) or follow-up questionnaire. Based on modified National Asthma Education and Prevention Program criteria, asthma was considered controlled, poorly-controlled, or very poorly-controlled at the time of a 2011–2012 follow-up questionnaire. Probable post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and generalized anxiety disorder were defined using validated scales. Self-reported gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were obtained from questionnaire responses. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with poor or very poor asthma control. Results: Among 2445 participants, 33.7% had poorly-controlled symptoms and 34.6% had very poorly-controlled symptoms in 2011–2012. Accounting for factors including age, education, body mass index, and smoking, there was a dose–response relationship between the number of mental health conditions and poorer asthma control. Participants with three mental health conditions had five times the odds of poor control and 13 times the odds of very poor control compared to participants without mental health comorbidities. GERS and OSA were significantly associated with poor or very poor control. Conclusions: Rates of poor asthma control were very high in this group with post-9/11 diagnosed asthma. Comprehensive care of 9/11-related asthma should include management of mental and physical health comorbidities. PMID:25539137

  16. Factors associated with poor control of 9/11-related asthma 10-11 years after the 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Hannah T; Stellman, Steven D; Reibman, Joan; Farfel, Mark R; Brackbill, Robert M; Friedman, Stephen M; Li, Jiehui; Cone, James E

    2015-01-01

    To identify key factors associated with poor asthma control among adults in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry, a longitudinal study of rescue/recovery workers and community members who were directly exposed to the 2001 WTC terrorist attacks and their aftermath. We studied incident asthma diagnosed by a physician from 12 September 2001 through 31 December 2003 among participants aged ≥18 on 11 September 2001, as reported on an enrollment (2003-2004) or follow-up questionnaire. Based on modified National Asthma Education and Prevention Program criteria, asthma was considered controlled, poorly-controlled, or very poorly-controlled at the time of a 2011-2012 follow-up questionnaire. Probable post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and generalized anxiety disorder were defined using validated scales. Self-reported gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were obtained from questionnaire responses. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with poor or very poor asthma control. Among 2445 participants, 33.7% had poorly-controlled symptoms and 34.6% had very poorly-controlled symptoms in 2011-2012. Accounting for factors including age, education, body mass index, and smoking, there was a dose-response relationship between the number of mental health conditions and poorer asthma control. Participants with three mental health conditions had five times the odds of poor control and 13 times the odds of very poor control compared to participants without mental health comorbidities. GERS and OSA were significantly associated with poor or very poor control. Rates of poor asthma control were very high in this group with post-9/11 diagnosed asthma. Comprehensive care of 9/11-related asthma should include management of mental and physical health comorbidities.

  17. Identification of wood-boring beetles (Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) intercepted in trade-associated solid wood packaging material using DNA barcoding and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunke; Trepanowski, Nevada F; Molongoski, John J; Reagel, Peter F; Lingafelter, Steven W; Nadel, Hannah; Myers, Scott W; Ray, Ann M

    2017-01-16

    Global trade facilitates the inadvertent movement of insect pests and subsequent establishment of populations outside their native ranges. Despite phytosanitary measures, nonnative insects arrive at United States (U.S.) ports of entry as larvae in solid wood packaging material (SWPM). Identification of wood-boring larval insects is important for pest risk analysis and management, but is difficult beyond family level due to highly conserved morphology. Therefore, we integrated DNA barcoding and rearing of larvae to identify wood-boring insects in SWPM. From 2012 to 2015, we obtained larvae of 338 longhorned beetles (Cerambycidae) and 38 metallic wood boring beetles (Buprestidae) intercepted in SWPM associated with imported products at six U.S. ports. We identified 265 specimens to species or genus using DNA barcodes. Ninety-three larvae were reared to adults and identified morphologically. No conflict was found between the two approaches, which together identified 275 cerambycids (23 genera) and 16 buprestids (4 genera). Our integrated approach confirmed novel DNA barcodes for seven species (10 specimens) of woodborers not in public databases. This study demonstrates the utility of DNA barcoding as a tool for regulatory agencies. We provide important documentation of potential beetle pests that may cross country borders through the SWPM pathway.

  18. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tilahun_EK

    Italy. LL.M (Business Law) Addis Ababa .... section identifies the main trade facilitation challenges in Ethiopia that are mostly within customs law. ... Various international and regional organizations define trade facilitation according to their mandate ...

  19. Trade and insecure resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garfinkel, Michelle R; Skaperdas, Stergios; Syropoulos, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    .... Depending on world prices, free trade can intensify arming to such an extent that the additional security costs it brings swamp the traditional gains from trade and thus render autarky more desirable...

  20. Trade Agreements PTI

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The objective of the Trade Agreements PTI is to advance CBP’s mission by working with internal and external stakeholders to facilitate legitimate trade and address...

  1. Trade in goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards......An analysis of the rules governing trade in goods under the GATT agreement and the Agreement on Safeguards...

  2. Stochastic Trade Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Riccaboni; Stefano Schiavo

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a simple network model to describe the dynamic of the intensive and extensive margin of international trade flows. The result is achieved by means of the combination of two mechanisms of proportional growth: the first (discrete) determines the formation of trade links, the second (continuous) governs trade intensity. We show that our setup is able to simultaneously match a large number of empirical regularities, such as the fraction of zero trade flows across pairs of coun...

  3. Trade, development and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    1994-01-01

    Mainstream economic theory argues that trade, and especially free trade, is beneficial to everyone involved. This fundamental idea ? which has the character of a dogma ? still plays an important role in international discussions on trade issues, notably in relation to development and environment....

  4. Banking and Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2016-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term arm’s length activities of banks, called trading. We show that a bank can use the franchise value of its relationships to expand the scale of trading, but may allocate too much capital to trading ex post , compromising its ability

  5. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  6. External trade development in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Český statistický úřad

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the external trade development of the CR in total (turnover, export, import, trade balance). Main factors, which influence the external trade development. Territorial structure (by main blocks and selected countries) and commodity structure (by SITC, rev. 4) of the external trade. Comparisons of the CR external trade development with the external trade development of the other member states of the EU.

  7. Trade Facilitation in Ethiopia: The Role of WTO Accession in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia is one of the countries with excessive challenges in cross border trade. The high cost of doing business across borders in Ethiopia has become a major constraint. The focus of this article is trade facilitation which requires the examination of the dynamic gains associated with lowering trade transaction costs and ...

  8. Trade-Offs Associated with Photoprotective Green Fluorescent Protein Expression as Potential Drivers of Balancing Selection for Color Polymorphism in Reef Corals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Quick

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photodamage of symbiotic algae exposed to thermal stress is involved in mass coral bleaching, a major cause of reef decline. Photoprotection is therefore a vital part of coral stress physiology. Corals produce a variety of green fluorescent protein (GFP-like proteins, some of which screen the symbiotic algae from excess sun light. Different tissue concentrations of these GFP-like proteins distinguish color morphs that are characteristic for many coral species. The question arises whether these pigmentation differences may diversify the niches that can be occupied by corals along the steep light gradient that structures coral reef communities. We assessed the implications of GFP-like protein expression in two color morphs of the symbiotic coral Hydnophora grandis, both associated with the same Symbiodinium sp. (subclade C40. The color morphs of this species (high fluorescent, HF; and low fluorescent, LF, characterized by markedly different contents of a cyan fluorescent protein, were exposed to different quantities of blue light (470 nm that matched the major absorption band of the host pigment (473 nm. High intensities of blue light caused less photodamage to the symbiotic algae of the HF morph and resulted in higher growth rates of these corals compared to representatives of the LF morph. In contrast, under low intensities of blue light, the HF morph showed lower growth rates than the LF morph, indicating that trade-offs are associated with high levels of fluorescent protein expression under this condition. Both morphs showed highest growth rates at medium light intensities with no obvious influence of the tissue pigmentation. Reef coral color polymorphism caused by photoprotective GFP-like proteins may therefore be a product of balancing selection in which high pigment contents may be beneficial at the upper and detrimental at the lower end of the depth distribution range of symbiotic corals. Conversely, color morphs with GFP-like proteins

  9. Trade relations EEC-Developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1972-01-01

    textabstractInterview with Professor Jan Tinbergen, The Hague, Nobel Price in Economics and Chairman of the United Nations Development Planning Committee, on the consequences of the enlargement and association policy of the EEC for international trade and development.

  10. Potential Impact of TPP Trade Agreement on US Bilateral Agricultural Trade: Trade Creation or Trade Diversion?

    OpenAIRE

    Yeboah, Osei Agyeman; Shaik, Saleem; Agyekum, Afia Fosua

    2015-01-01

    Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement is a trade agreement U.S is negotiating with 11 other countries in the Asia-Pacific region (Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam) to reduce or eliminate tariffs on U.S. products exported to the TPP countries. With TPP, U.S expects to expand its trade with members of the partnership; resulting in GDP growth. However, there exist large concerns about the potential negative ...

  11. International emissions trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices....... The differences in impact of the design make that governments may prefer different designs of emissions trading in different situations. The thesis furthermore establishes that international emissions trading may lead to higher overall emissions, which may make it a less attractive instrument....

  12. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-05

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  13. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Vaal, A. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair.’ This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  14. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  15. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de; Maseland, R.K.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed fair . This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  16. Essays on asset trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieler, T.

    2014-01-01

    The overreaching methodology of my Ph.D. thesis is to substitute noise traders with rational traders. I do so by considering liquidity asymmetry between informed trader and uninformed traders. Liquidity asymmetry creates a motive for trade. Under this new setup, I study the impact of asset trade on

  17. Nitrogen Trading Tool (NTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) recently developed a prototype web-based nitrogen trading tool to facilitate water quality credit trading. The development team has worked closely with the Agriculture Research Service Soil Plant Nutrient Research Unit (ARS-SPNR) and the Environmenta...

  18. Banking and trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Ratnovski, L.

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction between relationship banking and short-term, scalable arm’s length finance which we call trading. Relationship banking is not scalable, has high franchise value, is long-term oriented and low risk. Trading is transaction-based: scalable, with lower margins (capital

  19. Identification of wood-boring beetles (Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) intercepted in trade-associated solid wood packaging material using DNA barcoding and morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Yunke Wu; Nevada F. Trepanowski; John J. Molongoski; Peter F. Reagel; Steven W. Lingafelter; Hannah Nadel; Scott W. Myers; Ann M. Ray

    2017-01-01

    Global trade facilitates the inadvertent movement of insect pests and subsequent establishment of populations outside their native ranges. Despite phytosanitary measures, nonnative insects arrive at United States (U.S.) ports of entry as larvae in solid wood packaging material (SWPM). Identification of wood-boring larval insects is important for pest risk analysis and management, but is difficult beyond family level due to highly conserved morphology. Therefore, we integrated DNA barcoding an...

  20. Prospective Associations of Co-Rumination with Friendship and Emotional Adjustment: Considering the Socioemotional Trade-Offs of Co-Rumination

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Amanda J.; Carlson, Wendy; Waller, Erika M.

    2007-01-01

    Co-ruminating, or excessively discussing problems, with friends is proposed to have adjustment trade-offs. Co-rumination is hypothesized to contribute both to positive friendship adjustment and to problematic emotional adjustment. Previous single-assessment research was consistent with this hypothesis, but whether co-rumination is an antecedent of adjustment changes was unknown. A six-month longitudinal study with middle childhood to mid-adolescent youth examined whether co-rumination is simu...

  1. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohindra Katia S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs. This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011. Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks.

  2. Framing international trade and chronic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    There is an emerging evidence base that global trade is linked with the rise of chronic disease in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This linkage is associated, in part, with the global diffusion of unhealthy lifestyles and health damaging products posing a particular challenge to countries still facing high burdens of communicable disease. We developed a generic framework which depicts the determinants and pathways connecting global trade with chronic disease. We then applied this framework to three key risk factors for chronic disease: unhealthy diets, alcohol, and tobacco. This led to specific 'product pathways', which can be further refined and used by health policy-makers to engage with their country's trade policy-makers around health impacts of ongoing trade treaty negotiations, and by researchers to continue refining an evidence base on how global trade is affecting patterns of chronic disease. The prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is now rising on global policy agendas, highlighted by the UN Summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (September 2011). Briefs and declarations leading up to this Summit reference the role of globalization and trade in the spread of risk factors for these diseases, but emphasis is placed on interventions to change health behaviours and on voluntary corporate responsibility. The findings summarized in this article imply the need for a more concerted approach to regulate trade-related risk factors and thus more engagement between health and trade policy sectors within and between nations. An explicit recognition of the role of trade policies in the spread of noncommunicable disease risk factors should be a minimum outcome of the September 2011 Summit, with a commitment to ensure that future trade treaties do not increase such risks. PMID:21726434

  3. Infectious diseases and the illegal wildlife trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Andrés; Aguirre, A Alonso

    2008-12-01

    We provide a compilation of pathogens directly associated with illegally traded wildlife. We find that these pathogens span the gamut of taxonomic origins, affect most vertebrate taxa, and can have negative consequences for human and animal health and the global economy. Significantly, published health assessments of illegally traded wild animals are extremely scarce, making the results of this survey an underestimation of the true extent of the problem. Concerted action aimed at preventing further negative health effects is warranted.

  4. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  5. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    methodologies. Forecasts for Vietnam greatly underestimated the impact of past agreements because tariff reform was not the main factor driving adjustments. Addressing market imperfections through institutional reform was central to bringing output and trade expansion. Key questions for future research......History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam's experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...... are whether policy reform will result in new institutional changes, and how resulting incentives determine the evolution of investment by sector....

  6. Trade and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Philip; Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Tarp, Finn

    2009-01-01

    methodologies. Forecasts for Vietnam greatly underestimated the impact of past agreements because tariff reform was not the main factor driving adjustments. Addressing market imperfections through institutional reform was central to bringing output and trade expansion. Key questions for future research......History, not predictions of CGE models or cross-country growth studies, shows a strong relationship between trade and development. Vietnam’s experience with bilateral trade agreements, comparing actual outcomes with predictions from existing models, demonstrates this and the limitations of research...... are whether policy reform will result in new institutional changes, and how resulting incentives determine the evolution of investment by sector....

  7. Carbon Trading. Literature Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerste, M.; Weda, J.; Rosenboom, N.

    2010-12-15

    From Pigou and Coase to the Kyoto Protocol, carbon trading has resulted in pricing of the negative externalities emanating from pollution. This report highlights leading literature and empirical findings on carbon trading, amongst others addressing the relevant carbon and related markets, the (lack of) success of carbon trading so far and room for improvement as well as its impact on investments in emission reduction. This report is part of a set of SEO-reports on finance and sustainability. The other reports deal with: Financing the Transition to Sustainable Energy; Innovations in financing environmental and social sustainability; and Sustainable investment.

  8. Les relations entre syndicats et associations en Belgique : Le cas de la réforme du minimex Relations between Trade Unions and Other Voluntary Associations in Belgium with Special Reference to Basic Income.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Faniel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available L’auteur se penche sur les relations entre organisations syndicales et milieux associatifs en Belgique. Dans la première partie, il passe en revue la littérature scientifique internationale consacrée au syndi­ca­lisme et aux “nouveaux mouvements sociaux” afin de dégager des hypothèses de travail spécifiquement applicables à l’étude, peu développée, des relations entre ces deux types d’acteurs. Dans la partie em­pirique, il aborde, dans le contexte belge, les positions adoptées par les syndicats et les mouvements as­sociatifs face à la réforme du “minimum de moyens d’existence” (minimex et les mo­bilisations engen­drées par cette réforme. Il souligne l’existence de différences importantes entre les atti­tudes de certaines associations (la Ligue des Droits de l’Homme, des organisations de sans-emploi et de pré­caires, etc. et la position officielle des grands syndicats. L’étude met également en lumière les diffé­rences de réaction perceptibles entre les associations elles-mêmes et au sein des deux principales orga­nisations syndicales nationales. L’auteur cherche enfin à expliquer les différentes logiques à l’œu­vre et confronte hypothèses de travail et étude empirique quant aux relations qu’entretiennent syndicats et associations.In the light of work on Trade Unions and New Social Movements, hypotheses as to their relationships in Belgium are here elaborated. Their respective positions and campaigns regarding basic income are empirically examined. Significant differences between the Union stance and that of given associations such those concerned with human rights or the unemployed, are highlighted. Divergences also appear amongst the associations themselves as well as between the two main Unions. The contribution concludes with an analysis of the various logics at stake and the empirical relevance of the afore mentioned hypotheses.

  9. Virtual water trade flows and savings under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Megan; Hussein, Zekarias; Hanasaki, Naota; Mauzerall, Denise; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-05-01

    The international trade of food commodities links water and food systems, with important implications for both water and food security. The embodied water resources associated with food trade are referred to as `virtual water trade'. We present the first study of the impact of climate change on global virtual water trade flows and associated savings for the year 2030. In order to project virtual water trade and savings under climate change, it is essential to obtain projections of both bilateral crop trade and the virtual water content of crops in each country of production. We use the Global Trade Analysis Project model to estimate bilateral crop trade under changes in agricultural productivity for rice, soy, and wheat. We use the H08 global hydrologic model to determine the impact of climatic changes to crop evapotranspiration for rice, soy, and wheat in each country of production. Then, we combine projections of bilateral crop trade with estimates of virtual water content to obtain virtual water trade flows under climate change. We find that the total volume of virtual water trade is likely to go down under climate change, due to decreased crop trade from higher crop prices under scenarios of declining crop yields and due to decreased virtual water content under high agricultural productivity scenarios. However, the staple food trade is projected to save more water across most climate change scenarios, largely because the wheat trade re-organizes into a structure where large volumes of wheat are traded from relatively water-efficient exporters to less efficient importers.

  10. Virtual water trade flows and savings under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The international trade of food commodities links water and food systems, with important implications for both water and food security. The embodied water resources associated with food trade are referred to as "virtual water trade". We present the first study of the impact of climate change on global virtual water trade flows and associated savings for the year 2030. In order to project virtual water trade and savings under climate change, it is essential to obtain projections of both bilateral crop trade and the virtual water content of crops in each country of production. We use the Global Trade Analysis Project model to estimate bilateral crop trade under changes in agricultural productivity for rice, soy, and wheat. We use the H08 global hydrologic model to determine the impact of climatic changes to crop evapotranspiration for rice, soy, and wheat in each country of production. Then, we combine projections of bilateral crop trade with estimates of virtual water content to obtain virtual water trade flows under climate change. We find that the total volume of virtual water trade is likely to go down under climate change, due to decreased crop trade from higher crop prices under scenarios of declining crop yields and due to decreased virtual water content under high agricultural productivity scenarios. However, the staple food trade is projected to save more water across most climate change scenarios, largely because the wheat trade re-organizes into a structure where large volumes of wheat are traded from relatively water-efficient exporters to less efficient importers.

  11. Environment, Trade, and Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environment, trade, and investment are fundamentally linked as the environment provides many basic inputs of economic activity – forests, fisheries, metals, minerals – as well as the energy used to process those materials.

  12. What Is Emissions Trading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the basics about how emissions trading uses a market-based policy tool used to control large amounts of pollution emissions from a group of sources in order to protect human health and the environment.

  13. A trade balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Kay, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) has been widely accepted as representing the legalisation of world trading rules. However, it is important to reflect on the limits of this legalisation thesis in terms of the interface between international and domestic policy processes....... By locating trading disputes in a political analysis of policy implementation, it is argued that it is difficult to establish conceptually how the WTO dispute settlement system could have authority separate from and above the conventional international politics of trade policy relations. Instead, the article...... argues that case outcomes should be expected to be largely the product of domestic political institutions and policy processes, and how these intersect with developments in the WTO dispute settlement system. Brief studies of the Australian government's dispute settlement strategy and two high-profile WTO...

  14. World Trade Center

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest

  15. Let's Talk Trade Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Thomas; Olson, Mary W.

    1992-01-01

    Describes strategies that use trade books to teach science to primary students. Strategies include (1) developing concepts and vocabulary; (2) using concrete manipulatives to reinforce learning; (3) encouraging retelling; (4) developing class summaries; and (5) developing visual imagery. (MDH)

  16. E-commerce trade in invasive plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humair, Franziska; Humair, Luc; Kuhn, Fabian; Kueffer, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Biological invasions are a major concern in conservation, especially because global transport of species is still increasing rapidly. Conservationists hope to anticipate and thus prevent future invasions by identifying and regulating potentially invasive species through species risk assessments and international trade regulations. Among many introduction pathways of non-native species, horticulture is a particularly important driver of plant invasions. In recent decades, the horticultural industry expanded globally and changed structurally through the emergence of new distribution channels, including internet trade (e-commerce). Using an automated search algorithm, we surveyed, on a daily basis, e-commerce trade on 10 major online auction sites (including eBay) of approximately three-fifths of the world's spermatophyte flora. Many recognized invasive plant species (>500 species) (i.e., species associated with ecological or socio-economic problems) were traded daily worldwide on the internet. A markedly higher proportion of invasive than non-invasive species were available online. Typically, for a particular plant family, 30-80% of recognized invasive species were detected on an auction site, but only a few percentages of all species in the plant family were detected on a site. Families that were more traded had a higher proportion of invasive species than families that were less traded. For woody species, there was a significant positive relationship between the number of regions where a species was sold and the number of regions where it was invasive. Our results indicate that biosecurity is not effectively regulating online plant trade. In the future, automated monitoring of e-commerce may help prevent the spread of invasive species, provide information on emerging trade connectivity across national borders, and be used in horizon scanning exercises for early detection of new species and their geographic source areas in international trade. © 2015 Society for

  17. Additive versus multiplicative trade costs and the gains from trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    This paper addresses welfare effects from trade liberalization in a heterogeneous-fi…rms trade model including the empirically important per-unit (i.e. additive) trade costs in addition to the conventional iceberg (i.e. multiplicative) and fi…xed trade costs. The novel contribution of the paper...... is the result that the welfare gain for a given increase in trade openness is higher for reductions in per-unit (additive) trade costs than for reductions in iceberg (multiplicative) trade costs. The ranking derives from differences in intra-industry reallocations and in particular from dissimilar impacts...

  18. Physicians and Insider Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Sinha, Michael S; Joffe, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Although insider trading is illegal, recent high-profile cases have involved physicians and scientists who are part of corporate governance or who have access to information about clinical trials of investigational products. Insider trading occurs when a person in possession of information that might affect the share price of a company's stock uses that information to buy or sell securities--or supplies that information to others who buy or sell--when the person is expected to keep such information confidential. The input that physicians and scientists provide to business leaders can serve legitimate social functions, but insider trading threatens to undermine any positive outcomes of these relationships. We review insider-trading rules and consider approaches to securities fraud in the health care field. Given the magnitude of the potential financial rewards, the ease of concealing illegal conduct, and the absence of identifiable victims, the temptation for physicians and scientists to engage in insider trading will always be present. Minimizing the occurrence of insider trading will require robust education, strictly enforced contractual provisions, and selective prohibitions against high-risk conduct, such as participation in expert consulting networks and online physician forums, by those individuals with access to valuable inside information.

  19. Comparative analysis on the conditions of production in two associations of fruit growers of western Colombia to participate in fair trade projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Santacoloma Varón

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis was performed on two fruit-farming organizations agro-ecologically and conventionally oriented and established its affinity with fair trade principles. A survey was done on fruit production, marketing systems and opportunities to sell "fair price" products. It was found that both groups are small farmers, agro-ecological producers offer a variety of fruit, because of not using chemicals the consumers recognize the quality by an extra charge, they sell their products in farmer markets and generate direct relationships with consumers.Conventional producers offer only Lulo (Solanum quitoense, chemicals are used, the indicator of quality is recognized by the size and presentation of the fruit and marketing is done in supermarkets. We conclude that agro-ecological producers would be close to a way of fair trade, provided that incorporate quality improvement programs, and use the product information and communication technologies for development of cooperation networks and identification of market niches. It is important to support public or private access to credit, infrastructure and market information to help in decision making improvement.

  20. Virtual water trade and bilateral conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Enrico; Metulini, Rodolfo; Bove, Vincenzo; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2017-12-01

    In light of growing water scarcity, virtual water, or the water embedded in key water-intensive commodities, has been an active area of debate among practitioners and academics alike. As of yet, however, there is no consensus on whether water scarcity affects conflict behavior and we still lack empirical research intending to account for the role of virtual water in affecting the odds of militarized disputes between states. Using quantitative methods and data on virtual water trade, we find that bilateral and multilateral trade openness reduce the probability of war between any given pair of countries, which is consistent with the strategic role of this important commodity and the opportunity cost associated with the loss of trade gains. We also find that the substantive effect of virtual water trade is comparable to that of oil and gas, the archetypal natural resources, in determining interstate conflicts' probability.

  1. Markets and Networks in International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkanson, Lars; Dow, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    is associated with a shift in the composition of trade towards goods requiring more extensive information exchange and personal interaction between buyers and sellers. An alternative explanation—‘the market view’—contends that improved availability of information and increasing transparency of markets have...... in support of the ‘market-view’, showing that the sensitivity of trade to psychic distance has declined dramatically for all categories of goods. The impact of geographic distance has increased markedly for homogenous goods, whereas for more differentiated goods it has decreased mildly.......The enduring importance of geographic distance as an impediment to international trade has recently become recognized as an empirical fact in need of explanation. According to one line of argument—the ‘network view’—the continuing high sensitivity of international trade to geographical distance...

  2. Networks of global bird invasion altered by regional trade ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reino, Luís; Figueira, Rui; Beja, Pedro; Araújo, Miguel B.; Capinha, César; Strubbe, Diederik

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife trade is a major pathway for introduction of invasive species worldwide. However, how exactly wildlife trade influences invasion risk, beyond the transportation of individuals to novel areas, remains unknown. We analyze the global trade network of wild-caught birds from 1995 to 2011 as reported by CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). We found that before the European Union ban on imports of wild-caught birds, declared in 2005, invasion risk was closely associated with numbers of imported birds, diversity of import sources, and degree of network centrality of importer countries. After the ban, fluxes of global bird trade declined sharply. However, new trade routes emerged, primarily toward the Nearctic, Afrotropical, and Indo-Malay regions. Although regional bans can curtail invasion risk globally, to be fully effective and prevent rerouting of trade flows, bans should be global. PMID:29181443

  3. Emissions trading: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tietenberg, Thomas H

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The Evolution of Emissions Trading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The Evolution of Design Features...

  4. Current Trends in Foreign Trade Theory and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław W. Puślecki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, Author focus on the current analysis trends in foreign trade theory and policy. Accordance with the foreign trade policy theory further trade liberalisation and improved framework policies would increase trade and promote growth. It must be emphasized that openness to trade is associated with higher incomes and growth and there is the need for new approaches to trade cooperation in light of the forces that are currently re-shaping international business. What indicates the importance and innovativeness of the research is the presentation of the new models of the foreign trade policy and trade interests. First of all, it must underline that in the new theoretical terms in demand for trade policy very important is factor specificity. The low specificity of factors means that factor returns are equalized throughout a region’s economy. On the other hand, some factors are stuck in their present uses; therefore, factor returns are not equalized throughout a region’s economy but are industry specific. The main objective of the research task is to give a comprehensive analysis of current trends in foreign trade theory and policy and in particular models of foreign trade policy, trade interests indicated by export orientation and import sensitivity, foreign trade policy in different types of authoritarian regimes, protectionist pressures in different political system, the level of protectionist pressures, the tendencies to bilateralism in the foreign trade policy. It should be stressed that free trade in itself is not responsible for economic growth, but more significant are the determining macroeconomic stability and increasing investment.

  5. How fair is fair trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost based and economies of scale models. It is found that whether or not fair trade is superior to free trade or protectionism is highly dependent on a number of characteristics of the products to which fa...

  6. Intention-Disguised Algorithmic Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, William; Syverson, Paul; Liu, Zhenming; Thorpe, Christopher

    Large market participants (LMPs) must often execute trades while keeping their intentions secret. Sometimes secrecy is required before trades are completed to prevent other traders from anticipating (and exploiting) the price impact of their trades. This is known as "front-running". In other cases, LMPs with proprietary trading strategies wish to keep their positions secret even after trading because their strategies and positions contain valuable information. LMPs include hedge funds, mutual funds, and other specialized market players.

  7. Maternal gestational cortisol and testosterone are associated with trade-offs in offspring sex and number in a free-living rodent (Urocitellus richardsonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Calen P; Anderson, W Gary; Berkvens, Charlene N; Hare, James F

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive manipulation of offspring sex and number has been of considerable interest to ecologists and evolutionary biologists. The physiological mechanisms that translate maternal condition and environmental cues into adaptive responses in offspring sex and number, however, remain obscure. In mammals, research into the mechanisms responsible for adaptive sex allocation has focused on two major endocrine axes: the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis and glucocorticoids, and the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis and sex steroids, particularly testosterone. While stress-induced activation of the HPA axis provides an intuitive model for sex ratio and litter size adjustment, plasma glucocorticoids exist in both bound and free fractions, and may be acting indirectly, for example by affecting plasma glucose levels. Furthermore, in female mammals, activation of the HPA axis stimulates the secretion of adrenal testosterone in addition to glucocorticoids (GCs). To begin to untangle these physiological mechanisms influencing offspring sex and number, we simultaneously examined fecal glucocorticoid metabolites, free and bound plasma cortisol, free testosterone, and plasma glucose concentration during both gestation and lactation in a free-living rodent (Urocitellus richardsonii). We also collected data on offspring sex and litter size from focal females and from a larger study population. Consistent with previous work in this population, we found evidence for a trade-off between offspring sex and number, as well as positive and negative correlations between glucocorticoids and sex ratio and litter size, respectively, during gestation (but not lactation). We also observed a negative relationship between testosterone and litter size during gestation (but not lactation), but no effect of glucose on either sex ratio or litter size. Our findings highlight the importance of binding proteins, cross-talk between endocrine systems, and temporal windows in the

  8. Maternal gestational cortisol and testosterone are associated with trade-offs in offspring sex and number in a free-living rodent (Urocitellus richardsonii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calen P Ryan

    Full Text Available The adaptive manipulation of offspring sex and number has been of considerable interest to ecologists and evolutionary biologists. The physiological mechanisms that translate maternal condition and environmental cues into adaptive responses in offspring sex and number, however, remain obscure. In mammals, research into the mechanisms responsible for adaptive sex allocation has focused on two major endocrine axes: the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis and glucocorticoids, and the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG axis and sex steroids, particularly testosterone. While stress-induced activation of the HPA axis provides an intuitive model for sex ratio and litter size adjustment, plasma glucocorticoids exist in both bound and free fractions, and may be acting indirectly, for example by affecting plasma glucose levels. Furthermore, in female mammals, activation of the HPA axis stimulates the secretion of adrenal testosterone in addition to glucocorticoids (GCs. To begin to untangle these physiological mechanisms influencing offspring sex and number, we simultaneously examined fecal glucocorticoid metabolites, free and bound plasma cortisol, free testosterone, and plasma glucose concentration during both gestation and lactation in a free-living rodent (Urocitellus richardsonii. We also collected data on offspring sex and litter size from focal females and from a larger study population. Consistent with previous work in this population, we found evidence for a trade-off between offspring sex and number, as well as positive and negative correlations between glucocorticoids and sex ratio and litter size, respectively, during gestation (but not lactation. We also observed a negative relationship between testosterone and litter size during gestation (but not lactation, but no effect of glucose on either sex ratio or litter size. Our findings highlight the importance of binding proteins, cross-talk between endocrine systems, and temporal windows

  9. Trade creation and trade diversion in the Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Clausing, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the changes in trade patterns introduced by the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement are examined. Variation in the extent of tariff liberalization under the agreement is used to identify the impact of tariff liberalization on the growth of trade both with member countries and non-member countries. Data at the commodity level are used, and the results indicate that the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement had substantial trade creation effects, with little evidence of ...

  10. Do Trade Agreements Stimulate International Trade Differently? Evidence from 296 Trade Agreements

    OpenAIRE

    Kohl, Tristan; Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry

    2013-01-01

    In a seminal paper, Rose (2004) found that the assumed positive impact of the WTO on international trade was questionable. This finding has been scrutinized and modified in subsequent research, using different datasets, econometric methods and separating the WTO from other forms of trade agreements. A key characteristic of this literature is the rather simplistic way in which trade agreements are treated whereby all trade agreements are lumped together. Trade agreements come, however, in many...

  11. Trade in tourism services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla; Zhang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses two questions related with tourism as a service trade. Can tourism be explained as other export activities? Does service liberalisation have a positive or negative impact on tourism receipts in destination countries? Previous research has either focused on the demand side...... factors (i.e. factors of demand in the origin countries) or on tourism as a long-run factor of economic growth. The research shows that a complementary perspective such as that offered by trade in a supply side perspective can render additional insights towards understanding tourism. This approach can...... to tourism are demonstrated: the general price competitiveness of the destination, tourism infrastructure and the provision of safety. The econometric models also confirm the relevance of other conventional explanatory factors of trade in services such as GDP per capita and internet usage. The last part...

  12. WORLD MERCHANDISE TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serghei MĂRGULESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly based on the most recent statistical data of the World Trade Organization and some aspects related to the evolution of world merchandise trade, in terms of volume and value, in 2015. The volume of world merchandise trade continued to grow slowly in 2015 while the dollar value of it declined sharply as exports fell 14 per cent to US$ 16 trillion, down from US$ 19 trillion in the previous year. It presents also the contribution of the volume change and of the change in unit values (which account for fluctuations in prices and exchange rates to the value trade growth (in current dollar terms. The discrepancy between trade growth in 2015 in terms of volume and value was mostly attributable to swings in commodity prices and exchange rates The course of economic globalization is also shortly looked on based on some data and considerations of Credit Suisse analysts. Three different scenarios were taken into account in this respect. First one in which globalization continues in the form we know it over the past thirty years, second one in which a multipolar world is a better representation of the state of affairs and third, a scenario in which globalization ends due to the rise of anti-globalization political movements. The second scenario seems to provide a better reflection of reality today, despite the fact that a certain slowdown is observable when taking into account the diminishing growth rate of physical trade, the slower penetration of foreign assets of the developed market companies and signs of reshoring of some business back home. Globalization remains intact in terms of consumption and marketing patterns, while companies seem more reluctant to invest abroad.

  13. Free Trade and Protectionism

    OpenAIRE

    Benoni DIMULESCU

    2008-01-01

    One of the most interesting debates in economics is about free trade and protectionism. The arguments in favor of both directions are described by the analysis of free trade case and protectionism case. These are based on the economists’ thoughts that, on a side, the state should not intervene in international flow of goods and services and, on another side, it should be created a system of tariffs, quotas and export subsidies in order to protect the national economy of each state in report w...

  14. The Rise of Middle Kingdoms: Emerging Economies in Global Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Gordon H.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I examine changes in international trade associated with the integration of low- and middle-income countries into the global economy. Led by China and India, the share of developing economies in global exports more than doubled between 1994 and 2008. One feature of new trade patterns is greater South-South trade. China and India have booming demand for imported raw materials, which they use to build cities and factories. Industrialization throughout the South has deepened globa...

  15. Trading Land: A Review of Approaches to Accounting for Upstream Land Requirements of Traded Products

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffartzik, Anke; Haberl, Helmut; Kastner, Thomas; Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Eisenmenger, Nina; Erb, Karl?Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Summary Land use is recognized as a pervasive driver of environmental impacts, including climate change and biodiversity loss. Global trade leads to ?telecoupling? between the land use of production and the consumption of biomass?based goods and services. Telecoupling is captured by accounts of the upstream land requirements associated with traded products, also commonly referred to as land footprints. These accounts face challenges in two main areas: (1) the allocation of land to products tr...

  16. Syllabus in Trade Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The syllabus outlines material for a course two academic years in length (minimum two and one-half hours daily experience) leading to entry-level occupational ability in several welding trade areas. Fourteen units covering are welding, gas welding, oxyacetylene welding, cutting, nonfusion processes, inert gas shielded-arc welding, welding cast…

  17. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    ....) authorize the imposition of duties if (1) the International Trade Administration (ITA) of the Department of Commerce determines that foreign merchandise is being, or likely to be sold in the United States at less than fair value, and (2) the U.S...

  18. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2007-01-01

    ....) authorize the imposition of duties if (1) the International Trade Administration (ITA) of the Department of Commerce determines that foreign merchandise is being, or likely to be sold in the United States at less than fair value, and (2) the U.S...

  19. Learning with Trade Unionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooton, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Recommends that the study of trade unions be included in the school curriculum. Argues that learning about relationships between unions and management through interviews, observations, and simulations can enhance the overall approach to teaching about controversial topics. Gives examples of some attempts to do this in schools. (TW)

  20. Trading health for money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Jeppe Zielinski Nguyen; Møller, Jeppe Lykke; Persson, Roger

    2017-01-01

    subjectivity. The analysis draws on interviews with 32 Danish construction workers as well as brief observations. The article shows how ‘trading health for money’ becomes a mode for maintaining positive social, occupational and masculine identity among construction workers. Furthermore, it shows how the agency...

  1. Globalization and world trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter discusses economic globalization and world trade in relation to forest sector modeling for the US/North American region. It discusses drivers of economic globalization and related structural changes in US forest product markets, including currency exchange rates and differences in manufacturing costs that have contributed to the displacement of global...

  2. Intra-industry trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIntra-industry trade arises if a country simultaneously imports and exports similar types of goods or services. Similarity is identified here by the goods or services being classified in the same “sector”. Suppose, for the sake of argument, that we focus on the sector “cars”.

  3. Applied International Trade Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie); H.P. Bowen (Harry); A. Hollander (Abraham)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe book was written with two objectives in mind. First, to give students, practioners and researchers a text that encompasses the important theoretical and applied developments in the field and bringst to the fore those questions, left unanswered by traditional trade models, which the

  4. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  5. Traits traded off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueffler, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The course of evolution is restricted by constraints. A special type of constraint is a trade-off where different traits are negatively correlated. In this situation a mutant type that shows an improvement in one trait suffers from a decreased performance through another trait. In a fixed fitness

  6. Trade Union Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Heribert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Excerpts addresses from an international symposium regarding workers' education, human rights, labor standards and law, socioeconomic factors, trade unions, workers' rights, professionalism, and globalization. Includes a background paper, "Participation of Workers and Their Organizations in the Field of International Labour Standards and the…

  7. 40 Dynamics of Foreign Trade and Trade Relation Problems: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... international economic system, and the obvious concomitant administrative inadequacies that profusely characterized GATT, another body known as the. World Trade Organization (WTO) came into existence in 1995, to officiate as the recognized international organization on trade and trade relations. The.

  8. On the relationship between investor sentiment, VIX and trading volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Man Shing So

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As noise traders affect stock market by trading, sentiment, as a signal of noise, may have relationships with trading volume. This paper explores the effect of sentiment on the stock market’s trading volume. Increase in Volatility Index (VIX can explain the percentage increase in trading volume, but only in high VIX period. Besides, higher level of VIX is likely to be associated with greater variability of trading volume. The noise traders add liquidity to the market and provide more chances for investors to time their trade as the volatility of liquidity increases. These two kinds of impact lower rational investors’ required return. The noise traders not only drive the price deviating from fundamental value, but also influence the liquidity dimensions.

  9. Trading network predicts stock price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-01-16

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem for studying financial markets. Existing studies are mainly based on the time series of stock price or the operation performance of listed company. In this paper, we propose to predict stock price based on investors' trading behavior. For each stock, we characterize the daily trading relationship among its investors using a trading network. We then classify the nodes of trading network into three roles according to their connectivity pattern. Strong Granger causality is found between stock price and trading relationship indices, i.e., the fraction of trading relationship among nodes with different roles. We further predict stock price by incorporating these trading relationship indices into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 51 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of trading relationship indices.

  10. Extracting geography from trade data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuke; Wu, Tianhao; Marshall, Nicholas; Steinerberger, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Understanding international trade is a fundamental problem in economics-one standard approach is via what is commonly called the "gravity equation", which predicts the total amount of trade Fi j between two countries i and j as

  11. Internal control over financial reporting and managerial rent extraction: Evidence from the profitability of insider trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A. Skaife (Hollis); D. Veenman (David); D. Wangerin (Daniel)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the association between ineffective internal control over financial reporting and the profitability of insider trading. We predict and find that the profitability of insider trading is significantly greater in firms disclosing material weaknesses

  12. The Promotion and Integration of Human Rights in EU External Trade Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Velluti, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has made the upholding of human rights an integral part of its external trade relations and requires that all trade, cooperation, partnership and association agreements with third countries...

  13. Into the Eighties--Trade Union Education in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, John

    1981-01-01

    This article reviews developments and trends in trade union education in the United Kingdom. Priorities for the eighties constituting a major concern for the Trades Union Congress and the Workers' Educational Association are analyzed. (CT)

  14. ENCOURAGING THE USE OF WETLANDS IN WATER QUALITY TRADING PROGRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest in water quality trading (WQT) has grown in recent years because of its potential to meet nutrient reduction goals at lower costs. However, one problem identified by researchers in most WQT programs has been few actual trades, usually associated with low numbers of ...

  15. Trade Liberalization and Trade Tax Revenues in African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Longoni, E

    2009-01-01

    We empirically investigate the e®ect of trade liberalization on trade tax revenues applying panel-data methods to a large sample of African countries from the period 1970-2000. The goal of this paper is to determine whether controlling for macroeconomic features of African economies and taking into account the existence of political constraints that might either support or weaken the power of the trade reform, a change in trade policy has a positive or negative e®ect on trade tax revenues. We...

  16. Life History Trade-offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; Kliman, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    Trade-offs play a central role in life history theory. This article explains why they exist, how they arise, how they can be measured, and briefly discusses their evolution. Three important trade-offs are discussed in detail: the trade-off between current reproduction and survival, between current

  17. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...... are to regain power. Third, especially in Anglo-Saxon countries, unions are building external coalitions with other social movements, including across borders, to compensate for the loss of power resources that were tied to national collective bargaining and policy-making. Research has shown that unions, even...

  18. The Carbon Trading Game

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Roger [Environmental Policy and Management Group, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

    2003-12-01

    In response to the Kyoto Protocol, an international market for carbon dioxide tradable permits is likely to be created. Two of the key issues involved are explaining the concepts of tradable permits to industrialists, policy-makers and the man on the street, and anticipating how the market will evolve. A simple game of the market for carbon dioxide tradable permits has been developed and used that can help deal with both issues. As a pedagogical tool, this game benefits from simplicity (just a few pieces of paper are needed) and enables students to grasp the concepts and remember them through the intensity and fun of a trading 'pit'. The experiences also provide substantial insights into the evolution of the carbon dioxide permit market, particularly related to the evolution of trade volume, permit prices and country strategies.

  19. Counterfeit-Product Trade.

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Gene M; Shapiro, Carl

    1988-01-01

    We analyze a two-country model of trade in both legitimate and counterfeit products. Domestic firms own trademarks and establish reputations for delivering high-quality products in a steady-state equilibrium. Foreign suppliers export legitimate low-quality merchandise and counterfeits of domestic brand-name goods. Heterogeneous home consumers either purchase low-quality imports or buy brand-name products, rationally expecting some degree of counterfeiting of the latter. We characterize a coun...

  20. Counterfeit Product Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Gene

    1986-01-01

    We analyze a two-country model of trade in both legitimate and counterfeit products. Domestic firms own trademarks and establish reputations for delivering high-quality products in a steady-state equilibrium. Foreign suppliers export legitimate low-quality merchandise and counterfeits of domestic brand-name goods. Heterogeneous home consumers either purchase low-quality imports or buy brand-name products, rationally expecting some degree of counterfeiting of the latter. We characterize a coun...

  1. Agricultural trade and employment in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrey, Ron; Plunt, Cecilia; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    This report provides an overview of policy changes in South African agriculture over the past three decades, and of some of the associated impacts on output, trade patterns and employment. In agriculture, the story is one of widespread substitution of labour for capital. While the sector has shed...... more than a million jobs over the past four decades, the paper highlights its continuing role as an employment creator in rural areas, albeit mainly in low-wage occupations. As for its principal analytical contribution, this paper considers future trade liberalisation in the agricultural sector. Using...... two different economic models, we find a remarkably consistent pattern whereby agricultural trade liberalisation in the region is predicted to increase agricultural employment....

  2. Accrual components and stock trading costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Qianhua

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between accrual components and stock trading costs in China and finds that both abnormal and normal accruals are associated with these costs. Moreover, negative accruals, both abnormal and normal, have a greater influence on stock trading costs than positive accruals because of short-selling constraints in the Chinese stock market. Further analysis reveals that investors who are fixated on accruals are unable to separate positive or negative abnormal accruals from earnings in general. Additionally, investors overestimate the persistence of both positive and negative normal accruals. These findings constitute further evidence of the low degree of market efficiency in China. Chinese investors seem to overestimate firm value when abnormal and normal accruals are positive and underestimate it when they are negative, thus leading to an asymmetric effect on trading costs between positive and negative accruals in the face of short-selling constraints in the Chinese stock market.

  3. International Trade of Biofuels (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the production and trade of biofuels has increased to meet global demand for renewable fuels. Ethanol and biodiesel contribute much of this trade because they are the most established biofuels. Their growth has been aided through a variety of policies, especially in the European Union, Brazil, and the United States, but ethanol trade and production have faced more targeted policies and tariffs than biodiesel. This fact sheet contains a summary of the trade of biofuels among nations, including historical data on production, consumption, and trade.

  4. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  5. Stopping the Traffic: the National Vigilance Association and the international fight against the ‘white slave’ trade (1899–c.1909)

    OpenAIRE

    Attwood, R.

    2014-01-01

    The National Vigilance Association was the most prominent organization to take on the fight against sex trafficking in turn-of-the-century Britain. In 1899, it established and presided over the first global multidenominational anti-trafficking task force, the International Bureau for the Suppression of the White Slave Traffic (later Traffic in Persons). This article focuses on the configuration of the National Vigilance Association's anti-trafficking work during the formative years of the Bur...

  6. Emission trading north - benefits for the economy and the environment. A pilot project of the Energy Foundation Schleswig-Holstein in co-operation with the Association of the Chambers of Industry and Commerce in Schleswig-Holstein and the Union of Employers' Associations in Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzantny, Katja [Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Hahn, Michael [ERM Lahmeyer Int. GmbH, Neu-Isenburg (Germany); Kruska, Martin [EUtech Energie plus Umwelt, Technik plus Management, Aachen (Germany); Klein, Michael [500 PPM Gesellschaft fuer Emissionshandel und Beratung mbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In co-operation with the Association of the Chambers of Industry and Commerce in Schleswig-Holstein and the Union of Employers' Associations in Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein the Energy Foundation Schleswig-Holstein is carrying out the pilot project Emission Trading North. Its primary target is the regional application of the flexible mechanisms (ET, JI, CDM) together with the industry of Schleswig-Holstein. In detail, it focuses on capacity building on behalf of the different parties involved, a smooth transition to real ET and the positioning of the Energy Foundation in a future ET system. The project cycle consists of 3 phases (Phase 0: preparatory work; Phase 1: development of emission inventories, identification and evaluation of emission reduction measures; Phase 2: simulation of ET). Participating companies located in Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg, representing the power sector, cement production, paper and pulp production, non-ferrous metals as well as the renewable energy sector, dealt with the central question of allocation of emission allowances. During in-depth energy analyses emission reduction measures were identified and evaluated with respect to their volume of emission reductions and related costs. Participating companies developed mid and long-term trading strategies taking into account investment cycles, project risks and market prices. The strategy was tested during a multi-period trading simulation. With respect to the national allocation plan, a central element of the future European emission trading system, the pilot project proposes consistent solutions relating to CHP, capacity limits, process emissions, fuel substitutes, new entrants and shut-down of installations.

  7. The continental free trade area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrey, Ron; Jensen, Hans Grinsted

    The Trade Law Centre (tralac) has recently capitalised upon the prerelease Version 9.2 of the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) database and the recent excellent data sets from the World Bank and other publishing quality data on trade barriers across the African continent. It undertook a series...... of simulations examining regional integration and intra-African trade barrier reductions. The results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising. But the real news is in confirming that these barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers except for tariffs. Especially...... outcome from all three are likely to be cumulative and generate very large gains to Africa. The overall results from especially time-in-transit costs support the current emphasis on projects such as the World Trade Organisation (WTO) infrastructural supports to Africa. In addition, the World Bank...

  8. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  9. Incorporating Wind Generation in Cap and Trade Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluestein, J.; Salerno, E.; Bird, L.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2006-07-01

    Cap and trade programs are increasingly being used to reduce emissions from electricity generation in the United States. Cap and trade programs primarily target emitting generators, but programs have also included renewable generators, such as wind generators. States cite several reasons why they have considered the policy option of including renewable generators in cap and trade programs: to provide an incentive for lower-emitting generation, to achieve emissions reductions in non-capped pollutants, and to gain local economic benefits associated with renewable energy projects. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency also notes these rationales for considering this policy alternative, and the National Association of Regulatory Commissioners (NARUC) passed a resolution supporting the inclusion of renewable energy in cap and trade programs. This report explores why states consider this policy option, what participation could mean for wind generators, and how wind generation can most effectively be included in state, federal, and regional cap and trade programs.

  10. Global trade and health: key linkages and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettcher, D. W.; Yach, D.; Guindon, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    Globalization of trade, marketing and investment has important implications for public health, both negative and positive. This article considers the implications of the single package of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements for public health research and policy, focusing on three themes: commodities, intellectual property rights, and health services. The main aims of the analysis are as follows: to identify how trade issues are associated with the transnationalization of health risks and possible benefits; to identify key areas of research; and to suggest policy-relevant advice and interventions on trade and health issues. The next wave of international trade law will need to take more account of global public health issues. However, to become more engaged in global trade debates, the public health community must gain an understanding of the health effects of global trade agreements. It must also ensure that its own facts are correct, so that public health is not blindly used for political ends, such as justifying unwarranted economic protectionism. "Healthy trade" policies, based on firm empirical evidence and designed to improve health status, are an important step towards reaching a more sustainable form of trade liberalization. PMID:10885181

  11. Aflatoxin regulations in a network of global maize trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Wu

    Full Text Available Worldwide, food supplies often contain unavoidable contaminants, many of which adversely affect health and hence are subject to regulations of maximum tolerable levels in food. These regulations differ from nation to nation, and may affect patterns of food trade. We soughtto determine whether there is an association between nations' food safety regulations and global food trade patterns, with implications for public health and policymaking. We developed a network model of maize trade around the world. From maize import/export data for 217 nations from 2000-2009, we calculated basic statistics on volumes of trade; then examined how regulations of aflatoxin, a common contaminant of maize, are similar or different between pairs of nations engaging in significant amounts of maize trade. Globally, market segregation appears to occur among clusters of nations. The United States is at the center of one cluster; European countries make up another cluster with hardly any maize trade with the US; and Argentina, Brazil, and China export maize all over the world. Pairs of nations trading large amounts of maize have very similar aflatoxin regulations: nations with strict standards tend to trade maize with each other, while nations with more relaxed standards tend to trade maize with each other. Rarely among the top pairs of maize-trading nations do total aflatoxin standards (standards based on the sum of the levels of aflatoxins B(1, B(2, G(1, and G(2 differ by more than 5 µg/kg. These results suggest that, globally, separate maize trading communities emerge; and nations tend to trade with other nations that have very similar food safety standards.

  12. Implementation of International Standards in Russia's Foreign Trade Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia E. Grigoruk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the basic documents of international organizations in recent years, which have become the global standard for the development and improvement of statistics of foreign economic relations of most countries, including the Russian Federation. The article describes the key features of the theory and practice of modern foreign trade statistics in Russia and abroad, with an emphasis on the methodological problems of its main parts - the external trade statistics. It shows their interpretation in the most recent recommendations by UN statistical apparatus and other international organizations; considers a range of problems associated with the implementation of the national statistical practices of countries, including Russia and the countries of the Customs Union, the main international standard of foreign trade statistics - UN document "International Merchandise Trade Statistics". The main attention is paid to methodological issues such as: the criteria for selecting the objects of statistical accounting in accordance with international standards, quantitative and cost parameters of foreign trade statistics, statistical methods and estimates of commodity exports and imports, the problems of comparability of data; to a comparison of international standards in 2010 with documents on key precursor methodology of foreign trade statistics, characterized by the practice of introducing these standards in the foreign trade statistics of Russia and the countries of the Customs Union. The article analyzes the content given in the official statistical manuals of Russia foreign trade and foreign countries, covers the main methodological problems of World Trade in conjunction with the major current international statistical standards - System of National Accounts, Manual on Statistics of International Trade in Services and other documents; provides specific data describing the current structure of Russian foreign trade and especially its

  13. Assessing the extent and nature of wildlife trade on the dark web

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Joe; Roberts, David L.; Hernandez-Castro, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Use of the internet as a trade platform has resulted in a shift in the illegal wildlife trade. Increased\\ud scrutiny of illegal wildlife trade has led to concerns that online trade of wildlife will move onto the dark web.\\ud To provide a baseline of illegal wildlife trade on the dark web, we downloaded and archived 9852 items\\ud (individual posts) from the dark web, then searched these based on a list of 121 keywords associated with\\ud illegal online wildlife trade, including 30 keywords asso...

  14. Trade Policy Preferences and the Factor Content of Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    This paper provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of public opinion towards free trade, investigating cleavages both between and within countries. We study the distributional effects of trade policy in a neoclassical economy with not just two, but many input factors in production. We...... demonstrate that the factor price changes induced by trade policy are negatively correlated with the factor content of free trade (and therefore factor abundance). Using large-scale international survey data, we test whether these predicted distributional effects are reflected in the trade policy preferences...... of workers with different labor market skills. In order to isolate the effects of factor abundance from other skill-related confounding factors, we employ a within-skill-group estimator that exploits the cross-country variation in the factor content of free trade. In line with theory, the data show...

  15. ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION ON TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBINCEA Lilia;

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On June 27, 2014 there was signed an Association Agreement between the Republic of Moldova, on one hand and the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and its Member States, on the other hand (hereinafter - the Association Agreement. The Association Agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016. The signing of the Association Agreement was as a result of the close ties between the parties established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, on the one hand, and the Republic of Moldova on the other hand, which develops within the European Neighborhood policy and the Eastern Partnership, as well as recognition of the shared desire of the parties to further develop, strengthen and expand their relationships. The Association Agreement contributes to the development of trade and economic relations between the parties. The Republic of Moldova is obliged to take necessary measures to ensure compliance with the objectives of Union's regulations and to follow the principles and practices set out in the relevant acquis of the Union. The Republic of Moldova will also gradually include relevant acquis of the Union in its legislation, in accordance with the provisions of the Association Agreement. The legislative background regulatory EU trade is subject studies only a small circle of researchers, approaches and sequential episodic in character, without being integrated into a systemic study, complex, integrated. The objectives of the research are to analyze the most important EU regulations on trade.

  16. Another look at trading costs and short-term reversal profits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. de Groot (Wilma ); J.J. Huij (Joop); W. Zhou (Weili)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSeveral studies report that abnormal returns associated with short-term reversal investment strategies diminish once trading costs are taken into account. We show that the impact of trading costs on the strategies' profitability can largely be attributed to excessively trading in small

  17. Aid for trade and the political economy of trade liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmann, Georg; Hoekstra, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The Aid for Trade (AfT) initiative has gained much popularity since its launch at the World Trade Organization's Ministerial Conference in 2005, and there are ongoing discussions on its effectiveness and potential to improve the integration of developing countries into the world economy. This paper contributes to the debate by analyzing AfT in a political economy context. We find that the delivery of AfT is a precondition for trade reform in developing countries, as well as for trade liberali...

  18. Act locally, trade globally. Emissions trading for climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    2005-07-01

    Climate policy raises a number of challenges for the energy sector, the most significant being the transition from a high to a low-CO2 energy path in a few decades. Emissions trading has become the instrument of choice to help manage the cost of this transition, whether used at international or at domestic level. Act Locally, Trade Globally, offers an overview of existing trading systems, their mechanisms, and looks into the future of the instrument for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Are current markets likely to be as efficient as the theory predicts? What is, if any, the role of governments in these markets? Can domestic emissions trading systems be broadened to activities other than large stationary energy uses? Can international emissions trading accommodate potentially diverse types of emissions targets and widely different energy realities across countries? Are there hurdles to linking emissions trading systems based on various design features? Can emissions trading carry the entire burden of climate policy, or will other policy instruments remain necessary? In answering these questions, Act Locally, Trade Globally seeks to provide a complete picture of the future role of emissions trading in climate policy and the energy sector.

  19. Assessing the extent and nature of wildlife trade on the dark web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Joseph R; Roberts, David L; Hernandez-Castro, Julio

    2016-08-01

    Use of the internet as a trade platform has resulted in a shift in the illegal wildlife trade. Increased scrutiny of illegal wildlife trade has led to concerns that online trade of wildlife will move onto the dark web. To provide a baseline of illegal wildlife trade on the dark web, we downloaded and archived 9852 items (individual posts) from the dark web, then searched these based on a list of 121 keywords associated with illegal online wildlife trade, including 30 keywords associated with illegally traded elephant ivory on the surface web. Results were compared with items known to be illegally traded on the dark web, specifically cannabis, cocaine, and heroin, to compare the extent of the trade. Of these 121 keywords, 4 resulted in hits, of which only one was potentially linked to illegal wildlife trade. This sole case was the sale and discussion of Echinopsis pachanoi (San Pedro cactus), which has hallucinogenic properties. This negligible level of activity related to the illegal trade of wildlife on the dark web relative to the open and increasing trade on the surface web may indicate a lack of successful enforcement against illegal wildlife trade on the surface web. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Trade policy and public goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Gregory P

    2003-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) was formed in 1994 as the first multilateral trade organization with enforcement authority over national governments. A country's domestic standards cannot be more restrictive than international standards for trade. WTO seeks to "harmonize" individual domestic policies into uniform global standards and encompasses trade-related aspects of health, public safety, and environmental protection. These issues are transnational and pose enormous challenges to traditional governance structures. Most governments are not equipped to manage problems that transcend their borders. Moreover, international governance in social issues--with the possible exception of public health--is still in its infancy. Many groups are concerned that local public interests will be subjugated to global corporate interests. The article looks at the social ramifications of world trade policy and concludes that world trade must be balanced with sustainable environments and human health.

  1. Fair trade international surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbyrd, Casey

    2009-12-01

    Since the development of assisted reproductive technologies, infertile individuals have crossed borders to obtain treatments unavailable or unaffordable in their own country. Recent media coverage has focused on the outsourcing of surrogacy to developing countries, where the cost for surrogacy is significantly less than the equivalent cost in a more developed country. This paper discusses the ethical arguments against international surrogacy. The major opposition viewpoints can be broadly divided into arguments about welfare, commodification and exploitation. It is argued that the only valid objection to international surrogacy is that surrogate mothers may be exploited by being given too little compensation. However, the possibility of exploitation is a weak argument for prohibition, as employment alternatives for potential surrogate mothers may be more exploitative or more harmful than surrogacy. It is concluded that international surrogacy must be regulated, and the proposed regulatory mechanism is termed Fair Trade Surrogacy. The guidelines of Fair Trade Surrogacy focus on minimizing potential harms to all parties and ensuring fair compensation for surrogate mothers.

  2. Trade Policy of Transition Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Moraga-Gonzalez, José Luis; Viaene, Jean-Marie

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on ignored issues regarding the impact of trade reforms in transition economies. These economies are primarily characterized by a low quality of their products, large depreciations of their currencies, and a high degree of government intervention in economic activity. These elements are embedded in a duopoly model of vertical product differentiation and international trade. First, we show that trade liberalization in transition economies reduces the output of lo...

  3. Trade facilitation: a conceptual review

    OpenAIRE

    Grainger, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    With falling tariff levels, it is probably not surprising that the non-tariff area and trade facilitation, in particular, are receiving growing attention. Apart from the World Trade Organization (WTO), trade facilitation is a subject of substance within a wide range of international organizations including several United Nations (UN)-type bodies, the World Customs Organization (WCO) as well as those concerned with economic development, supply chain security, and sector-specific issues such as...

  4. IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Ditescu

    2012-01-01

    Trade and globalization have brought many benefits to countries and their citizens because they allow countries access to more efficient production, increased labor productivity, supported extending the knowledge and new technologies planetary scale, and rich assortment of products to which population access. Also, through the multilateral trading system has been a significant reduction of customs protectionism, have mitigated the effects of non-tariff barriers, trade policy measures have bec...

  5. Harmonic Patterns in Forex Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Nemček, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis is committed to examination of validity of Harmonic Patterns in Forex trading. Scott Carney described existing and introduced new Harmonic Patterns in 1999 in his book Harmonic Trader. These patterns use the Fibonacci principle to analyze price action and to provide both bullish and bearish trading signals. The goal of this thesis is to find out whether harmonic trading strategy on selected pairs is profitable in FX market, which patterns are the most profitable and what i...

  6. Understanding the conventional arms trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, Rachel

    2017-11-01

    The global conventional arms trade is worth tens of billions of dollars every year and is engaged in by every country in the world. Yet, it is often difficult to control the legal trade in conventional arms and there is a thriving illicit market, willing to arm unscrupulous regimes and nefarious non-state actors. This chapter examines the international conventional arms trade, the range of tools that have been used to control it, and challenges to these international regimes.

  7. Climate Change Creates Trade Opportunity in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is an emerging challenge to developing economy like India however it also creates opportunity to grow through climate friendly goods production and new direction of trade. This paper focuses India’s potential export trade in climate friendly goods. The estimated gravity model is defined as the potential trade and potential trade gap is measured as how well a bilateral trade flow performs relative to the mean as predicted by the model. Potential trade gap means that actual trade...

  8. To the Question of Trade Facilitation Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Aminat A. Bishenova

    2017-01-01

    In the present article issues of trade facilitation in the context of current trends in global trade (paperless trade, digital economy) are discussed and view is focused on tools that regulate trade facilitation mechanisms. In the conclusion author emphasizes that the trade facilitation policy should take into account not only current realities, but also the prospects for the development of international trade in order to timely and adequately respond to the challenges of global trade.

  9. Biclustering Learning of Trading Rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Wang, Ting; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-10-01

    Technical analysis with numerous indicators and patterns has been regarded as important evidence for making trading decisions in financial markets. However, it is extremely difficult for investors to find useful trading rules based on numerous technical indicators. This paper innovatively proposes the use of biclustering mining to discover effective technical trading patterns that contain a combination of indicators from historical financial data series. This is the first attempt to use biclustering algorithm on trading data. The mined patterns are regarded as trading rules and can be classified as three trading actions (i.e., the buy, the sell, and no-action signals) with respect to the maximum support. A modified K nearest neighborhood ( K -NN) method is applied to classification of trading days in the testing period. The proposed method [called biclustering algorithm and the K nearest neighbor (BIC- K -NN)] was implemented on four historical datasets and the average performance was compared with the conventional buy-and-hold strategy and three previously reported intelligent trading systems. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed trading system outperforms its counterparts and will be useful for investment in various financial markets.

  10. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  11. Jack of all trades, master of all: a positive association between habitat niche breadth and foraging performance in pit-building antlion larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkae, Erez David; Scharf, Inon; Abramsky, Zvika; Ovadia, Ofer

    2012-01-01

    Species utilizing a wide range of resources are intuitively expected to be less efficient in exploiting each resource type compared to species which have developed an optimal phenotype for utilizing only one or a few resources. We report here the results of an empirical study whose aim was to test for a negative association between habitat niche breadth and foraging performance. As a model system to address this question, we used two highly abundant species of pit-building antlions varying in their habitat niche breadth: the habitat generalist Myrmeleon hyalinus, which inhabits a variety of soil types but occurs mainly in sandy soils, and the habitat specialist Cueta lineosa, which is restricted to light soils such as loess. Both species were able to discriminate between the two soils, with each showing a distinct and higher preference to the soil type providing higher prey capture success and characterizing its primary habitat-of-origin. As expected, only small differences in the foraging performances of the habitat generalist were evident between the two soils, while the performance of the habitat specialist was markedly reduced in the alternative sandy soil. Remarkably, in both soil types, the habitat generalist constructed pits and responded to prey faster than the habitat specialist, at least under the temperature range of this study. Furthermore, prey capture success of the habitat generalist was higher than that of the habitat specialist irrespective of the soil type or prey ant species encountered, implying a positive association between habitat niche-breadth and foraging performance. Alternatively, C. lineosa specialization to light soils does not necessarily confer upon its superiority in utilizing such habitats. We thus suggest that habitat specialization in C. lineosa is either an evolutionary dead-end, or, more likely, that this species' superiority in light soils can only be evident when considering additional niche axes.

  12. Jack of all trades, master of all: a positive association between habitat niche breadth and foraging performance in pit-building antlion larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erez David Barkae

    Full Text Available Species utilizing a wide range of resources are intuitively expected to be less efficient in exploiting each resource type compared to species which have developed an optimal phenotype for utilizing only one or a few resources. We report here the results of an empirical study whose aim was to test for a negative association between habitat niche breadth and foraging performance. As a model system to address this question, we used two highly abundant species of pit-building antlions varying in their habitat niche breadth: the habitat generalist Myrmeleon hyalinus, which inhabits a variety of soil types but occurs mainly in sandy soils, and the habitat specialist Cueta lineosa, which is restricted to light soils such as loess. Both species were able to discriminate between the two soils, with each showing a distinct and higher preference to the soil type providing higher prey capture success and characterizing its primary habitat-of-origin. As expected, only small differences in the foraging performances of the habitat generalist were evident between the two soils, while the performance of the habitat specialist was markedly reduced in the alternative sandy soil. Remarkably, in both soil types, the habitat generalist constructed pits and responded to prey faster than the habitat specialist, at least under the temperature range of this study. Furthermore, prey capture success of the habitat generalist was higher than that of the habitat specialist irrespective of the soil type or prey ant species encountered, implying a positive association between habitat niche-breadth and foraging performance. Alternatively, C. lineosa specialization to light soils does not necessarily confer upon its superiority in utilizing such habitats. We thus suggest that habitat specialization in C. lineosa is either an evolutionary dead-end, or, more likely, that this species' superiority in light soils can only be evident when considering additional niche axes.

  13. World Trade Organisation (WTO): Trade rules/agreements and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) rules of 1947 were seen as prejudicial to the economic and development concerns of developing countries. With the coming into effect of World Trade Organization (WTO), it was expected that some of the concerns of the developing countries will be addressed.

  14. Optimizing the scale of markets for water quality trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Martin W.; Patterson, Lauren A.; Chen, Yanyou; Schnier, Kurt E.; Yates, Andrew J.

    2014-09-01

    Applying market approaches to environmental regulations requires establishing a spatial scale for trading. Spatially large markets usually increase opportunities for abatement cost savings but increase the potential for pollution damages (hot spots), vice versa for spatially small markets. We develop a coupled hydrologic-economic modeling approach for application to point source emissions trading by a large number of sources and apply this approach to the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) within the watershed of the second largest estuary in the U.S. We consider two different administrative structures that govern the trade of emission permits: one-for-one trading (the number of permits required for each unit of emission is the same for every WWTP) and trading ratios (the number of permits required for each unit of emissions varies across WWTP). Results show that water quality regulators should allow trading to occur at the river basin scale as an appropriate first-step policy, as is being done in a limited number of cases via compliance associations. Larger spatial scales may be needed under conditions of increased abatement costs. The optimal scale of the market is generally the same regardless of whether one-for-one trading or trading ratios are employed.

  15. Propagation of crises in the virtual water trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The international trade of agricultural goods is associated to the displacement of the water used to produce such goods and embedded in trade as a factor of production. Water virtually exchanged from producing to consuming countries, named virtual water, defines flows across an international network of 'virtual water trade' which enable the assessment of environmental forcings and implications of trade, such as global water savings or country dependencies on foreign water resources. Given the recent expansion of commodity (and virtual water) trade, in both displaced volumes and network structure, concerns have been raised about the exposure to crises of individuals and societies. In fact, if one country had to markedly decrease its export following a socio-economical or environmental crisis, such as a war or a drought, many -if not all- countries would be affected due to a cascade effect within the trade network. The present contribution proposes a mechanistic model describing the propagation of a local crisis into the virtual water trade network, accounting for the network structure and the virtual water balance of all countries. The model, built on data-based assumptions, is tested on the real case study of the Argentinean crisis in 2008-09, when the internal agricultural production (measured as virtual water volume) decreased by 26% and the virtual water export of Argentina dropped accordingly. Crisis propagation and effects on the virtual water trade are correctly captured, showing the way forward to investigations of crises impact and country vulnerability based on the results of the model proposed.

  16. FREE TRADE OR FAIR TRADE? AN ENQUIRY INTO THE CAUSES OF FAILURE IN RECENT TRADE NEGOTIATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Shafaeddin, Mehdi

    2001-01-01

    Trade policy is at a crossroads. So is trade diplomacy. The failure of the “traditional import substitution” policies of the 1950s–1970s has been followed by the failure of trade liberalization in the 1980s and 1990s by developing countries. In particular, the deadlock in the negotiations during the recent meetings of WTO has demonstrated the severe differences among various groups of member countries. Focusing on frictions between developing countries and industrial economies in the particul...

  17. Self-sufficiency, free trade and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautonen, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between free trade, self-sufficiency and safety of blood and blood components has been a perennial discussion topic in the blood service community. Traditionally, national self-sufficiency has been perceived as the ultimate goal that would also maximize safety. However, very few countries are, or can be, truly self-sufficient when self-sufficiency is understood correctly to encompass the whole value chain from the blood donor to the finished product. This is most striking when plasma derived medicines are considered. Free trade of blood products, or competition, as such can have a negative or positive effect on blood safety. Further, free trade of equipment and reagents and several plasma medicines is actually necessary to meet the domestic demand for blood and blood derivatives in most countries. Opposing free trade due to dogmatic reasons is not in the best interest of any country and will be especially harmful for the developing world. Competition between blood services in the USA has been present for decades. The more than threefold differences in blood product prices between European blood services indicate that competition is long overdue in Europe, too. This competition should be welcomed but carefully and proactively regulated to avoid putting safe and secure blood supply at risk. Copyright 2009 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 40 CFR 90.206 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 90.206 Section 90.206... Trading Provisions § 90.206 Trading. (a) An engine manufacturer may exchange emission credits with other engine manufacturers in trading, subject to the trading restriction specified in § 90.207(c)(2). (b...

  19. 15 CFR 400.45 - Retail trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Retail trade. 400.45 Section 400.45... Administrative Requirements § 400.45 Retail trade. (a) In general. Retail trade is prohibited in zones, except... retail trade, subject to review by the Board when the zone grantee requests such a review with a good...

  20. Trade costs in empirical New Economic Geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, E.M.; Garretsen, J.H.

    Trade costs are a crucial element of New Economic Geography (NEG) models. Without trade costs there is no role for geography. In empirical NEG studies the unavailability of direct trade cost data calls for the need to approximate these trade costs by introducing a trade cost function. In doing so,

  1. Modelling Trade and Trust across Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Jonker, C.M.; Meijer, S.A.; Verwaart, D.

    2006-01-01

    Misunderstandings arise in international trade due to difference in cultural background of trade partners. Trust and the role it plays in trade are influenced by culture. Considering that trade always invloves working on the relationship with the trade partner, understanding the behaviour of the

  2. Trade Effects of Geographical Indications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution addresses the effects of geographical indications on intra-EU and international trade. Trade is hampered by the exclusiveness of indications like “Protected Designations of Origin or Protected Geographical Indications”, which at the same time is necessary to protect their value. As

  3. Trade preferences for developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.; Tongeren, van F.W.; Bruin, S.

    2003-01-01

    This report draws on a body of existing literature to assess the impact of trade preferences granted by the European Union on trade and welfare in developing countries. It is argued that the Everything But Arms amendment to the EU preference scheme will have limited effect on export potential and

  4. The Readability of Trade Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Alison; Wagner, Graham

    A 1982 study assessed the comparative reading comprehension levels and writing ability performance of Trades Certification Board (TCB) apprentices in five trades in New Zealand. Test data were collected for 1,389 apprentices and a comparison group of 361 secondary school students. The cloze procedure format was adopted for assessing apprentices'…

  5. Illegal trade in Barbary macaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Uhm, Daan

    2014-01-01

    While Morocco is well known as the main port between Africa and the EU for the illegal drugs trade and migration, the illegal trade in wildlife is flourishing as well. Next to the illegal large-scale trafficking of tortoises and birds, it is estimated that as few as 5,000 Barbary macaques remain in

  6. Trading strategies of corporate insiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, O.; Maug, E.; Schneider, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    We test two complementary theories of optimal trading strategies by analyzing the transaction patterns of corporate insiders. According to information-based theories, investors trade faster if they compete with others for exploiting the same information, while liquidity-based theories predict the

  7. Improving U.S. Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, Lloyd

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the need to formulate a coherent trade policy in response to international economic realities. The author argues against a return to trade protectionism and supports efforts to establish workable reciprocity agreements. Increasing import tariffs on high technology products would control access to American markets. (AM)

  8. Trade Fairs, Markets and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    and cognitive frames that they bring to bear and negotiate with other participants. They make actors aware of a ‘mutual correspondence’ in their interpretation of the goods in which they deal and of the social situations in which engage for the sake of such trade. Trade fairs both configure fields and make...

  9. Extension Resources for International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    With the opening of additional trade partnerships, the reduction of global transportation and communication costs, and the increase in demand for U.S. agricultural products and services, international trade is an area of great importance to more and more Extension clients and stakeholders. This article provides information about the primary…

  10. Takeover bids and insider trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Matthijs; Bainbridge, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the law and economics of insider trading in the context of takeover bids, focusing on the European regulatory framework. We distinguish between trading by the bidder, by the target and by classical insiders and first address the issue of precisely when information about potential

  11. The Characteristics of Informed Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslan, Hadiye; Easley, David; Hvidkjær, Søren

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the linkage of microstructure, accounting, and asset pricing. We determine the relationship between firm characteristics as captured by accounting and market data and a firm's probability of private information-based trade (PIN) as estimated from trade data. This allows us...

  12. Lumpy countries, urbanization, and trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; van Marrewijk, Charles

    Lumpiness of production factors within a country might overturn the Heckscher-Ohlin (HO) model's predictions for the factor content of trade. Trade patterns, as predicted by this model, can both be magnified or reversed by uneven concentration of production factors within a country. Cities are the

  13. Is Corruption Detrimental to Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Udo, E.

    2006-01-01

    Many regard corruption to be detrimental to international trade. Some, however, think that corruption greases commerce in case of low-quality institutions. Others argue that arbitrary corruption is more damaging to trade than predictable corruption. This is the first paper to test these hypotheses

  14. Stroke: a Hidden Danger of Margin Trading in Stock Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hui; Wang, Chien-Ho; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Chin-Shyan

    2015-10-01

    Using 10-year population data from 2000 through 2009 in Taiwan, this is the first paper to analyze the relationship between margin trading in stock markets and stroke hospitalizations. The results show that 3 and 6 days after an increase of margin trading in the Taiwan stock markets are associated with greater stoke hospitalizations. In general, a 1 % increase in total margin trading positions is associated with an increment of 2.5 in the total number of stroke hospitalizations, where the mean number of hospital admissions is 233 cases a day. We further examine the effects of margin trading by gender and age groups and find that the effects of margin trading are significant for males and those who are 45-74 years old only. In summary, buying stocks with money you do not have is quite risky, especially if the prices of those stocks fall past a certain level or if there is a sudden and severe drop in the stock market. There is also a hidden danger to one's health from margin trading. A person should be cautious before conducting margin trading, because while it can be quite profitable, danger always lurks just around the corner.

  15. Protecting Trade Secrets in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courage, Noel; Calzavara, Janice

    2015-05-18

    Patents in the life sciences industries are a key form of intellectual property (IP), particularly for products such as brand-name drugs and medical devices. However, trade secrets can also be a useful tool for many types of innovations. In appropriate cases, trade secrets can offer long-term protection of IP for a lower financial cost than patenting. This type of protection must be approached with caution as there is little room for error when protecting a trade secret. Strong agreements and scrupulous security can help to protect the secret. Once a trade secret is disclosed to the public, it cannot be restored as the owner's property; however, if the information is kept from the public domain, the owner can have a property right of unlimited duration in the information. In some situations patents and trade secrets may be used cooperatively to protect innovation, particularly for manufacturing processes. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  16. Geographies of High Frequency Trading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the geographies of high frequency trading. Today shares shift hands within micro seconds, giving rise to a form of financial geographies termed algorithmic capitalism. This notion refers to the different spatio-temporalities produced by high frequency trading, under...... the valuation of time. As high frequency trading accelerates financial markets, the paper examines the spatio-temporalities of automated trading by the ways in which the speed of knowledge exploitation in financial markets is not only of interest, but also the expansion between different temporalities....... The paper demonstrates how the intensification of time-space compression produces radical new dynamics in the financial market and develops information rent in HFT as convertible to a time rent and a spatio-temporal rent. The final section discusses whether high frequency trading only responds to crises...

  17. The welfare impact of a free trade agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron; Vink, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The African market has become increasingly important to South Africa’s agricultural trade. Exports have been increasing rapidly, although imports have not kept pace. This pattern is also evident in the general trade in manufactured goods. The purpose of this article is to look at the best estimate...... conditiuons that will prevail with respect to trade in agricultural and manufactured goods between South Africa (SACU) and the member countries of SADC, the East African Comminuity and COMESA. The analysis is conducted using the GTAP database and its associated general equilibrium model. The results show...

  18. Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers is EPA’s first “how-to” manual on designing and implementing water quality trading programs. It helps NPDES permitting authorities incorporate trading provisions into permits.

  19. Preferences, country bias, and international trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Roy (Santanu); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractAnalyzes international trade where consumer preferences exhibit country bias. Why country biases arise; How trade can occur in the presence of country bias; Implication for the pattern of trade and specialization.

  20. PATHOGEN LIFE-HISTORY TRADE-OFFS REVEALED IN ALLOPATRY

    OpenAIRE

    Susi, Hanna; Laine, Anna-Liisa

    2013-01-01

    Trade-offs in life-history traits is a central tenet in evolutionary biology, yet their ubiquity and relevance to realized fitness in natural populations remains questioned. Trade-offs in pathogens are of particular interest because they may constrain the evolution and epidemiology of diseases. Here, we studied life-history traits determining transmission in the obligate fungal pathogen, Podosphaera plantaginis, infecting Plantago lanceolata. We find that although traits are positively associ...

  1. Wage Effects of Trade Reform with Endogenous Worker Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Pravin Krishna; Poole, Jennifer P.; Mine Zeynep Senses

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we use a linked employer-employee database from Brazil to evaluate the wage effects of trade reform. With an aggregate (firm-level) analysis of this question, we find that a decline in trade protection is associated with an increase in average wages in exporting firms relative to domestic firms, consistent with earlier studies. However, using disaggregated, employer-employee level data, and allowing for the endogenous assignment of workers to firms due to match-specific product...

  2. Wildlife trade and global disease emergence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karesh, William B; Cook, Robert A; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Newcomb, James

    2005-01-01

    The global trade in wildlife provides disease transmission mechanisms that not only cause human disease outbreaks but also threaten livestock, international trade, rural livelihoods, native wildlife...

  3. Firm Based Trade Models and Turkish Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer ARGIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among all international trade models, only The Firm Based Trade Models explains firm’s action and behavior in the world trade. The Firm Based Trade Models focuses on the trade behavior of individual firms that actually make intra industry trade. Firm Based Trade Models can explain globalization process truly. These approaches include multinational cooperation, supply chain and outsourcing also. Our paper aims to explain and analyze Turkish export with Firm Based Trade Models’ context. We use UNCTAD data on exports by SITC Rev 3 categorization to explain total export and 255 products and calculate intensive-extensive margins of Turkish firms.

  4. Extracting Geography from Trade Data

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yuke; Marshall, Nicholas; Steinerberger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The gravity equation has been successful in establishing a connection between the amount of trade between two countries, their respective gross domestic products and "distance" (a complex notion including geographical, historical, linguistic and sociological components). We take the inverse route and show that it is possible to construct a meaningful 'distance' without any external information simply from knowing the bilateral trade volumes between countries. The main tool is a non-standard interpretation of trade flows data as a set of high-dimensional points and the use of mathematical tools to perform dimensionality reduction. This may have further applications for problems in long-term economic analysis, cartel detection and others.

  5. Do "sperm trading" simultaneous hermaphrodites always trade sperm?

    OpenAIRE

    Nils Anthes; Michiels, Nico K.

    2005-01-01

    Sperm trading can be a mechanism to solve the conflict over sex roles in hermaphrodites with copulation, sperm competition, and sperm digestion. If present, sperm donation depends on sperm receipt, resulting in conditional reciprocal inseminations. Conditional reciprocity can involve three traded commodities: penis intromissions on a yes-or-no basis, intromission durations (indicating ejaculate size), or sperm transfer. If present, animals that refuse to donate (cheaters) should be deserted b...

  6. Do baseline requirements hinder trades in water quality trading programs?

    OpenAIRE

    Ribaudo, Marc; Ghosh, Gaurav S.; Shortle, James S.

    2009-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Agriculture are promoting point/nonpoint trading as a way of reducing the costs of meeting water quality goals while giving nonpoint sources a larger role in meeting those goals. Farms can create offsets or credits in a point/nonpoint trading program by implementing management practices such as conservation tillage, nutrient management, and buffer strips. To be eligible to sell credits, farmers must first comply with baseline requ...

  7. Distributive trade\\'s significance in national economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Segetlija

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper analyzes a significance of distributive trade in contemporary national economies of select European countries (10 from the point of view of employment, gross value-added creation, supply chain establishment, and international expansion. A cause for the paper is a dissatisfactory level of economic development of certain transitional countries on one side and the high distributive trade shares (especially in the number of employees and in the GDP on the other side. Methods: Distributive trade's significance for a country is analyzed entirely and segmental. The data collected by Eurostat and Deloitte are analyzed and depicted graphically via usual statistical methods (relative numbers, indices and shares, tabulation and graphical depictions. Results: The results of the research conducted should confirm a thesis on distributive trade's significance based on its shares in the economic structure; however, as an integrator in the value-creating chains, distributive trade has different significance for certain national economies, for the large-sized companies and groups (especially the retailing ones are also expanded internationally, along with their supply chains. Conclusions: Distributive trade does not have an equal significance for the economic development in all countries. Equally, all the divisions within distributive trade do not have equal significance for the overall country's economy, as well as for a launch of its economic development. Nevertheless, it should be necessary to analyze concentration and internationalization in detail for the sake of an evaluation of distributive trade's significance as an integrator in value-creating chains. In that respect, some transitional countries observed do lag behind.

  8. Monitoring the impact of trade agreements on national food environments: trade imports and population nutrition risks in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravuvu, Amerita; Friel, Sharon; Thow, Anne-Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Wate, Jillian

    2017-06-13

    Trade agreements are increasingly recognised as playing an influential role in shaping national food environments and the availability and nutritional quality of the food supply. Global monitoring of food environments and trade policies can strengthen the evidence base for the impact of trade policy on nutrition, and support improved policy coherence. Using the INFORMAS trade monitoring protocol, we reviewed available food supply data to understand associations between Fiji's commitments under WTO trade agreements and food import volume trends. First, a desk review was conducted to map and record in one place Fiji's commitments to relevant existing trade agreements that have implications for Fiji's national food environment under the domains of the INFORMAS trade monitoring protocol. An excel database was developed to document the agreements and their provisions. The second aspect of the research focused on data extraction. We began with identifying food import volumes into Fiji by country of origin, with a particular focus on a select number of 'healthy and unhealthy' foods. We also developed a detailed listing of transnational food corporations currently operating in Fiji. The study suggests that Fiji's WTO membership, in conjunction with associated economic and agricultural policy changes have contributed to increased availability of both healthy and less healthy imported foods. In systematically monitoring the import volume trends of these two categories of food, the study highlights an increase in healthy foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables and whole-grain refined cereals. The study also shows that there has been an increase in less healthy foods including fats and oils; meat; processed dairy products; energy-dense beverages; and processed and packaged foods. By monitoring the trends of imported foods at country level from the perspective of trade agreements, we are able to develop appropriate and targeted interventions to improve diets and health. This

  9. Trade, Labour Markets and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Courtney; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-04-01

    Previous analyses indicate that there are a number of potentially serious health risks associated with the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). The objective of this work is to provide further insight into the potential health impacts of the TPP by investigating labour market pathways. The impact of the TPP on employment and working conditions is a major point of contention in broader public debates. In public health literature, these factors are considered fundamental determinants of health, yet they are rarely addressed in analyses of trade and investment agreements. We therefore undertake a prospective policy analysis of the TPP through a content analysis of the agreement's Labour Chapter. Provisions of the Chapter are analyzed with reference to the health policy triangle and four main areas through which labour markets influence health: power relations, social policies, employment conditions and working conditions. Findings indicate that implementation of the TPP can have important impacts on health through labour market pathways. While the Labour Chapter is being presented by proponents of the agreement as a vehicle for improvement in labour standards, we find little evidence to support this view. Instead, we find several ways the TPP may weaken employment relations to the detriment of health.

  10. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all......We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between four different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor (headquarter) intensity. Final-good...... increasing when intermediate-input trade or final-goods trade is liberalised. Finally, we provide guidance for testing the open-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data and surprisingly show that the relationship between factor (headquarter) intensity and the likelihood of vertical...

  11. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...... of the scale's reliability, factor structure, and validity on the basis of analyzing data from independent samples of exhibitors at the international trade shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne); and it concludes with a discussion of potential managerial applications and implications for future research. New...

  12. Japanese for Tourism and Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarberg, F.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the desirability of Japanese as a second language for Australians in tourism and trade industries. Initial instruction using Roman alphabet followed by job training in Japan is recommended. (RM)

  13. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  14. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND FAIR TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jelovac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will present different theoretical views and positions on social entrepreneurship, fair trade, buying consumer behaviour and ethical consumerism. The Fair Trade, which is well recognized throughout the world, is an example of good practice of social entrepreneurship. Similarly, globalization processes, the pressure of large corporations, the rapid transmission of information, more and more developed ethical consumer behaviour is clearly contributed to both, the successful development of fair trade and social entrepreneurships. In the empirical part we reviewed and confirmed three of three sets of hypotheses through the quantitative research in Slovenia on sample of 253 respondents. Through the results of our study we also recognized the existence of opportunities for the development of social entrepreneurships in Slovenia. In the discussion and conclusion of the article listed are recommendations for further exploration of ethical consumerism, the development of social entrepreneurship and rising the profile of Fair Trade in Slovenia.

  15. Topics on electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte, K.

    2001-07-01

    The first chapter in this thesis is a survey of studies on electricity trade, which has been included in order to show how subjects in this thesis fit into this aspect of energy research. Transitions from centralised monopolies to liberalised electricity markets have been inaugurated in the northern European countries during the last decade. The backgrounds and speed of transitions differ within the countries. Where Norway liberalised its electricity market in order to stabilise the prices, EU urged a liberalisation in order to make the electricity supply industry more effective. Together with national liberalisation, the opening of the cross border trade between the countries is also urged. The first paper in this thesis describes those different liberalisation processes within northern Europe and discusses problems that may arise in a transition period for integrating the countries into a common electricity market with efficient cross-border competition. Before the liberalisation process started, the electricity generation was determined by a central load dispatch at known prices. The introduction of competition has necessitated the creation of new competitive markets, power exchanges and financial markets where generation and prices are determined by demand and supply on the markets. One implication of this is that investments in new plants shall be made under levels of uncertainty about future prices. The second paper in this thesis analyses the importance of introducing uncertainty in energy-economic modelling of the electricity supply sector. Another implication, which arises on introducing a new market structure and power exchanges, is that the design of the power exchanges influences the price setting on the markets. The third paper of this thesis analyses the price setting on the regulating power market on the Nordic power exchange Nord Pool. More precisely, the paper reveals the pattern of the prices on the regulating power market by analysing the cost of

  16. Does mood affect trading behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaustia, Markku; Rantapuska, Elias

    2012-01-01

    We test whether investor mood affects trading with data on all stock market transactions in Finland, utilizing variation in daylight and local weather. We find some evidence that environmental mood variables (local weather, length of day, daylight saving and lunar phase) affect investors’ direction of trade and volume. The effect magnitudes are roughly comparable to those of classical seasonals, such as the Monday effect. The statistical significance of the mood variables is weak in many case...

  17. Rational Expectation Can Preclude Trades

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuhisa, Takashi; Ishikawa, Ryuichiro

    2003-01-01

    We consider a pure exchange economy under uncertainty in which the traders have the non-partition structure of information. They willing to trade the amounts of state-contingent commodities and they know their own expectations. Common knowledge of these conditions among all the traders can preclude trade if the initial endowments allocation is ex-ante Pareto optimal. Furthermore we introduce rational expectations equilibrium under the non-partition information, and prove the existence theorem...

  18. Complementarity in Northeast Asian Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Yirl Nam

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the degree of competition and complementarity among three Northeast Asian countries ? China, Japan and Korea. An attempt is made to identify sectors or commodities that are expected to potentially increase trade between Korea and China or Japan. For the analysis, bilateral, as well as total trade at a somewhat disaggregated commodity level, are considered. We try to analyze the extent of the structural similarities (between one's exports and the other's imports and vice ver...

  19. Autarkic Indeterminacy and Trade Determinacy

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Sim; Kong-Weng Ho

    2005-01-01

    Most existing evidences for indeterminacy are obtained from analyzing models that do not consider trade. This paper considers an extension of Nishimura and Shimomura (Journal of Economic Theory, 2002) Heckscher-Ohlin framework by removing sector-specific externalities in one country while maintaining all other assumptions previously made by the authors. We show that even though indeterminacy arises under autarky, it can be eliminated when trade takes place with another country exhibiting sadd...

  20. Trade Policy and Risk Diversification

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeffer, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyses the influence of trade policy on the investment decisions of a rep- resentative individual. In particular, the increased uncertainty of future income is con- sidered in the investment behaviour of individuals. The optimal portfolio-decision of a representative working individual is analysed in comparison to a non-working shareholder. The paper finds an important influence from trade policy on the saving and investment behaviour of a working individual. Yet the optimal deman...

  1. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    We build a three-country model of international trade in final goods and intermediate inputs and study the relation between different types of trade liberalisation and vertical integration. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to both productivity and factor intensity as observed in data. Final......-economy property rights theory of the firm using firm-level data. Finally, we notice that our model's sorting pattern is in line with recent evidence when the wage difference across countries is not too big....

  2. Heterogeneous Workers, Trade, and Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Heiland, Inga; Kohler, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    We argue that the narrative of variety-induced gains from trade in differentiated goods needs revision. If producing differentiated varieties of a good requires differentiated skills and if the work force is heterogeneous in these skills, then firms are likely to have monopsony power. We show that trade then has adverse labor market effects: It increases the monopsony power of firms and worsens the average quality of matches between firms and workers. We also show that international migration...

  3. Perception Of Trader Towards International Trade: A Diagnostic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffar Asad

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors have identified the significant factors that influence international trade in the light of traders. Foreign exchange transaction may prove to be helpful in managing currency risk which is associated with import and export of goods. The significance of multi-national firms over international trade has been discussed along with the impact of balance of payment over international trade and the measures taken by the government to create a balance in balance of payment and balance of trade. The considerations of countries while determining exchange rates have been elaborated in this paper. The numerous factors that affect decision making for International Traders and the rectifications are also discussed in this paper. The paper also discusses how various aspects induce an industry to change its course or completely shut down and how to deal with these lingering threats. On the basis of literature reviewed the variables that have been selected that may influence international trade include; trade quotas, brand name, WTO, NAFTA, SAFTA, ASIAN, GATT, e-commerce, international payment systems, product specialization, home industry, foreign reserves, government regulations, international market, dumping duties, trade policies, social crises, economic crises, balance of payments, change in value, and supply than demand. A questionnaire will be developed on the basis of above-mentioned variables. The respondents of questionnaire will be the traders in the international market, importers and exporters. The data will then be handled by the use of SPSS. Regression analysis will be conducted to identify the significant variables that have major impact on international trade. At the end the recommendations will be mentioned for getting maximum benefit from international trade.

  4. A NEW PERSPECTIVE ON CHINA TRADE GROWTH: APPLICATION OF A NEW INDEX OF BILATERAL TRADE INTENSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Edmonds; Yao Li

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes China’s trade relationships using a new trade intensity index, which incorporates gravity model estimation, to compare observed trade levels with levels would be expected to prevail given the economic, geographic, and cultural characteristics of the trading partners. The index is calculated to study China’s bilateral trade intensity, and uses Japan as a comparative case. Standard trade intensity index measures suggest China trades at a very intensive level with countries i...

  5. Trade credit: Elusive insurance of firm growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bams, Dennis; Bos, Jaap; Pisa, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Firms depend heavily on trade credit. This paper introduces a trade credit network into a structural model of the economy. In an empirical analysis of the model, we find that trade credit is an elusive insurance: as long as a firm is financially unconstrained and times are good, more trade credit

  6. 40 CFR 91.206 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 91.206 Section 91.206... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.206 Trading. (a... manufacturers in trading. These credits must be used in the same averaging set as generated. (b) Credits for...

  7. 40 CFR 91.1306 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 91.1306 Section 91.1306... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES In-Use Credit Program for New Marine Engines § 91.1306 Trading... engine manufacturers through trading. (b) In-use credits for trading can be obtained from credits banked...

  8. The trade of virtual water: do property rights matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ankai

    2016-04-01

    My paper examines the determinants of the virtual water trade - embodied in the trade of agriculture products - by estimating a structural gravity model. In particular, it tests the relationship between property rights and the export of water-intensive agricultural products based on water footprint data in Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2011, 2012). Using two different measures of property rights protection, I show that countries with weaker property rights have an apparent comparative advantage in the trade of water-intensive products. After controlling for the economic size, natural resource endowments, and possible effects of reverse causality, the trade flow of virtual water is negatively and significantly correlated with the property rights index of the exporting country. Holding other factors constant, one point increase in the property rights index of a country is associated with a 24% - 36% decrease in its virtual water export, whereas a 1% increase in the natural resource protection index of a country is associated with a 16% decrease in its virtual water export. This paper is the first empirical work that tests the relationship between property rights and trade of water-intensive products, offering a new perceptive in the debate of virtual water trade. The findings provide a possible explanation on the paradoxical evidence that some countries with scarce water resources export water-intensive products. The result is important not only in terms of its theoretical relevance, but also its policy implications. As prescribed by the model of trade and property rights, when countries with weaker property rights open to international trade, they are more likely to over-exploit and thus expedite the depletion of natural resources.

  9. BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF ONLINE TRADING VERSUS TRADITIONAL TRADING. EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN ONLINE TRADING

    OpenAIRE

    Petric (Iancu) Ioana Ancuta

    2015-01-01

    In terms of marketing, online trading is a new distribution channel and trading platforms are products of Investment and Financial Services Companies. Internet shortens the connection between the investor and the products they wish to purchase (shares, futures, CFDs, government securities, bonds, etc.), and in some cases it no longer needs a security broker. Increasing use of the Internet and increasing competitiveness between Investment and Financial Services Companies do the latter, to seek...

  10. Multi-Period Trading via Convex Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Stephen; Busseti, Enzo; Diamond, Steve

    2017-01-01

    We consider a basic model of multi-period trading, which can be used to evaluate the performance of a trading strategy. We describe a framework for single-period optimization, where the trades in each period are found by solving a convex optimization problem that trades off expected return, risk......, transaction cost and holding cost such as the borrowing cost for shorting assets. We then describe a multi-period version of the trading method, where optimization is used to plan a sequence of trades, with only the first one executed, using estimates of future quantities that are unknown when the trades...

  11. 77 FR 66797 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to South Africa and Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... and Expenses: After a company or trade association has been selected to participate on the mission, a... mission goals. Applicant's (or in the case of a trade association, represented companies') potential for... objectives with the stated scope of the mission. Diversity of company size, sector or subsector, and location...

  12. Photochemical modeling of emissions trading of highly reactive volatile organic compounds in Houston, Texas. 1. Reactivity based trading and potential for ozone hot spot formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Thompson, Tammy; McDonald-Buller, Elena C; Webb, Alba; Allen, David T

    2007-04-01

    As part of the State Implementation Plan for attaining the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, the Texas Commission of Environmental Quality has created a Highly Reactive Volatile Organic Compounds (HRVOC) Emissions Cap and Trade Program for industrial point sources in the Houston/Galveston/Brazoria area. This program has a number of unique features, including its focus on a limited group of ozone precursors and its provisions for trading emissions based on atmospheric reactivity. This series of papers examines the potential air quality impacts of this new emission trading program through photochemical modeling of potential trading scenarios; this first paper in the series describes the air quality modeling methods used to assess potential trades, the potential for localized increases in ozone concentrations (ozone "hot spots") due to HRVOC emission trading, and the use of reactivity scales in the trading. When HRVOC emissions are traded on a mass basis, the simulations indicate that trading of HRVOC allowances between facilities resulted in less than 0.15 ppb (ozone concentrations, respectively. Maximum decreases in ozone concentrations associated with trading, as opposed to across-the-board reductions, were larger than the increases. All of these changes are small compared to the maximum changes in ozone concentrations due to the VOC emissions from these sources (up to 5-10 ppb for 8 h averages; up to 30 ppb for 1-h averages). When emissions of HRVOCs are traded for other, less reactive emissions, on a reactivity weighted basis, air quality simulations indicate that daily maximum ozone concentrations increased by less than 0.3%. Because these relatively small changes (ozone concentrations (all emissions traded into localized regions), the simulations indicate that the implementation of the trading program, as currently configured and possibly expanded, is unlikely to cause localized increases in ozone concentrations ("hot spots").

  13. Gender and Sex Trading Among Active Methamphetamine Users in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, Ryan R; Watt, Melissa H; Wechsberg, Wendee M; Meade, Christina S

    2017-05-12

    South Africa has experienced a tremendous rise in methamphetamine use since the year 2000. Sex trading is a global phenomenon that has been observed in active drug users and has been associated with risks for HIV infection and violence. This paper describes and examines the correlates of sex trading among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa. Through peer referral, 360 (201 male; 159 female) active methamphetamine users were recruited in a peri-urban township. Demographics, sex trading, drug use, trauma, and mental health were assessed by a structured clinical interview and computer survey. Logistic regression models were used to examine predictors of sex trading for men and women. In the past 3 months, 40% of men and 33% of women endorsed trading sex for methamphetamine or money. Among these, they reported trading with same sex partners (33%), high rates of inconsistent condom use (73%), and incidences of physical (23%) and sexual (27%) assault when sex trading. Increased drug use severity was correlated with sex trading. Women with experiences of violence and trauma were also more likely to trade sex. Conclusions/importance: The results stress a need for linkage to drug treatment, as addiction may be fueling sex trading. Targeted interventions geared towards safe sex practices may reduce risky sexual behaviors. Women need interventions that are attuned to their specific vulnerabilities. More research is needed to explore the experiences of men who have sex with men given their particularly high rates of sex trading behavior.

  14. Commodity Trading and Illicit Financial Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonnier, Gilles; Zweynert de Cadena, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Commodity trading has come under increasing scrutiny as a conduit for illicit financial flows out of resource-rich developing countries, through trade mispricing and abusive transfer pricing. Assessing whether, and to what extent, commodity trading is subject to trade mispricing is of the essence to measure this phenomenon and evaluate the impact of corrective policies. This paper focuses on the world’s largest commodity trading hub, Switzerland. We will examine existing methodological approa...

  15. Use of technical analysis in FOREX trading

    OpenAIRE

    Vítovec, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The paper reacts to tremendous increase in popularity of FX trading among retail investors in recent years, caused mainly by easy accessibility through numerous online trading platforms and dramatic fall in trading costs. One of the accompanying trends along with increasing trading speed is a departure from fundamental analysis and shift towards more technical approach. In reaction to that, the paper aims to review the most popular technical trading rules and puts the findings in contrast wit...

  16. Trade Patterns in Japan's Machinery Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hitoshi Sasaki; Yuko Koga

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes trade patterns in Japan's machinery sector using disaggregated data of export and import commodities. It is found that the vertical intra-industry trade--the two-way trade of products differentiated by quality--with Asian countries expanded in the 1990s. According to the results of the empirical study, this trade pattern is closely related to differences in the capital/labor ratio between Japan and its trading partners, and to Japan's foreign direct investments. It suggest...

  17. Is the Classification of International Trade in Horizontal and Vertical Intra-Industry Trade Usable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Lüthje, Teit

    2001-01-01

    Abstract On the basis of OECD trade statistics at SITC 5 digit level for the period 1961-1999 we show the classification of international trade in (a) inter-industry trade and (b) horizontal intra-industry and (c) vertical intra-industry trade used in the empirical trade literature to be non stab...

  18. The World Trade Organization and organic food trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the global food regulation regime and its institutions, focussing upon the way in which these address organic food trade. While the WTO agreements have rules for scientifically based policy measures adopted to protect human, animal or plant health or life, there is some...... disagreement on whether the WTO's Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (addresses food labelling) covers production standards based on ethical values such as those defining organic food standards. Another problem is that two sets of international standards for organic food exist—the Codex Alimentarius...... to these private organisations. It is concluded that this current state of affairs entails that organic food standards can potentially be used by governments as technical barriers to trade to protect their domestic organic producers from international competition. In the concluding section, the potential...

  19. 78 FR 7752 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... trade associations representing companies interested in expansion into the North African and Middle... transmission lines, turbine generator units with associated equipment, and vibration dampers. The US&FCS will... Said Port: includes a duty free zone area, road and rail networks, a power station, communication...

  20. Scaling Effect In Trade Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, M.; Lin, X.; Rushforth, R.; Ruddell, B. L.; Reimer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Scaling is an important issue in the physical sciences. Economic trade is increasingly of interest to the scientific community due to the natural resources (e.g. water, carbon, nutrients, etc.) embodied in traded commodities. Trade refers to the spatial and temporal redistribution of commodities, and is typically measured annually between countries. However, commodity exchange networks occur at many different scales, though data availability at finer temporal and spatial resolution is rare. Exchange networks may prove an important adaptation measure to cope with future climate and economic shocks. As such, it is essential to understand how commodity exchange networks scale, so that we can understand opportunities and roadblocks to the spatial and temporal redistribution of goods and services. To this end, we present an empirical analysis of trade systems across three spatial scales: global, sub-national in the United States, and county-scale in the United States. We compare and contrast the network properties, the self-sufficiency ratio, and performance of the gravity model of trade for these three exchange systems.

  1. Robustness Trade-offs in Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Janssen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The governance of common-pool resources can be meaningfully examined from the somewhat broader perspective of the governance of social-ecological systems (SESs. Governance of SESs invariably involves trade-offs; trade-offs between different stakeholder objectives, trade-offs between risk and productivity, and trade-offs between short-term and long-term goals. This is especially true in the case of robustness in social-ecological systems - i.e. the capacity to continue to meet a performance objective in the face of uncertainty and shocks. In this paper we suggest that effective governance under uncertainty must include the ongoing analysis of trade-offs between robustness and performance, and between investments in robustness to different types of perturbations. The nature of such trade-offs will depend on society's perception of risk, the dynamics of the underlying resource, and the governance regime. Specifically, we argue that it is impossible to define robustness in absolute terms. The choice for society is not only whether to invest in becoming robust to a particular disturbance, but rather, what suit of disturbances to address and what set of associated vulnerabilities is it willing to accept as a necessary consequence.

  2. Trade Fairs, Markets and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how trade fairs act as a framing mechanism that enables participants to come together for the exchange of goods and services and to perceive themselves as acting in a social field. This way, trade fairs make markets possible. Based on ongoing participant observation at book....../material, social, situational, content/appreciative, and the use value of goods, values which are then equated with a commodity exchange value in the form of price. Trade fairs frame order, but they are also events where the respective field might be reconfigurated. The contingency of personal interaction......, the lightness of "talk" and the carnival-like setting of fairs make them a site where disorder might be created that in turn can lead to change of field and market...

  3. Unsustainable colletion and unfair trade?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Olsen, Carsten Smith

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The trade in medicinal plants for herbal remedies is large and probably increasing. The trade has attracted the attention of scientists and development planners interested in the impact on plant populations and the potential to improve rural livelihoods through community based management...... and conservation. This has resulted in a large number of publications and development activities, ranging from small NGO projects to new government policies. Through a review of 119 references from Nepal, 4 common assumptions regarding the medicinal plant collection and trade have been identified: I...... logically flawed argumentation. It is argued that the assumptions are leading to misguided conservation efforts, and an inclusive approach to conservation of commercial central Himalayan medicinal plant species is briefly outlined. Electronic Supplementary Material Supplementary material is available...

  4. Intraday Trading of Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skajaa, Anders; Edlund, Kristian; Morales González, Juan Miguel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we tackle the problem of a wind power producer participating in a short-term electricity market that allows for the continuous, but potentially illiquid, intraday trading of energy. Considering the realistic case of a wind farm operating in the western Danish price area of Nord Pool......, we build a simple but effective algorithm for the wind power producer to fully benefit from the Elbas intraday market. We then investigate the sensitivity of the obtained benefits to the maximum volume of energy the wind power producer is willing to trade in the intraday market, the ultimate aim...... of the trade (either to decrease energy imbalances or to increase profits) and to the installed capacity of the wind farm. Our numerical results reveal that the wind power producer can substantially increase his revenues by partaking in the intraday market but with diminishing returns to scale—a result that we...

  5. A Network of Networks Perspective on Global Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluck, Julian; Donner, Reik V

    2015-01-01

    these trends. The marked reorganization of trade patterns, associated with this economic crisis in comparison to "normal" annual fluctuations in the network structure is traced and quantified by a new widely applicable generalization of the Hamming distance to weighted networks.

  6. Complementarity in Northeast Asian Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yirl Nam

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the degree of competition and complementarity among three Northeast Asian countries ? China, Japan and Korea. An attempt is made to identify sectors or commodities that are expected to potentially increase trade between Korea and China or Japan. For the analysis, bilateral, as well as total trade at a somewhat disaggregated commodity level, are considered. We try to analyze the extent of the structural similarities (between one's exports and the other's imports and vice versa, therefore, comlementarity in international trade between the Northeast Asian countries with the index of trade conformity (ITC. The ITC analysis yielded the following implications. Korea's imports from Japan are much more likely to increase than those from China, in a potential sense. Potentially speaking, Korea's exports to the two other countries will increase relatively, somewhat more for Korea's exports to Japan than to China. Looking at it another way, in terms of potential, Korea's exports to China are much more likely to increase than are China's exports to Korea. The overall aggregate trade structures (between one's exports and the other's imports and vice versa of Japan and Korea are quite similar, therefore complementary, and Japan's exports to Korea are potentially a little more likely to increase than are Korea's exports to Japan. We also try to identify some commodities which are expected to increase bilateral trade between Korea and China or Japan. For example, Korea's exports to Japan have the potential to increase in apparel, bags, and textile articles; fish and meat; arts for office machines; miscellaneous manufactured goods; aluminum, copper; miscellaneous chemical products; and watches and clocks. It was possible to identify even more complementary relationships between the countries as the product classification was disaggregated further.

  7. Trade, Technology Diffusion and Misallocation : Trade Partner Matters (Replaces CentER DP 2011-125)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curuk, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper suggests that contingent on the productivity level of the trade partner; international trade may create resource misallocation in less productive countries. It theoretically shows how the interaction between technology diffusion induced by trade and cross sectoral heterogeneity

  8. English for International Trade Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilová Štĕpánka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Faculty of Law at Masaryk University in Brno, the Czech Re- public, offers several fields of studies, one of them being the three-year Bachelor’s degree programme of International Trade Law. This programme includes two semesters of English for specific purposes which the students take in their first year of studies. However, as the programme is offered as a part time study, there are only 10 lessons of English taught within two days per semester. Preparing a course which would develop the students’ language abilities and skills in the international trade law environment appears to be rather challenging under such conditions.

  9. Technological Progress, Exit and Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    The dynamics of export market exit and firm closure have found limited attention in heterogeneous-firms trade models. Accordingly, several of the predictions on exit stemming from new-new trade theory are at odds with the stylized facts. Empirically, higher productivity firms survive longer, higher...... productivity exporters are more likely to continue to export, and market exit is typically preceded by periods of contracting market shares. We show that the simple inclusion of exogenous economy wide technological progress into the standard Melitz (2003) model generates a tractable dynamic framework...

  10. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore......Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...

  11. Dynamics of the global virtual water trade network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, C.; Konar, M.; Hanasaki, N.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2011-12-01

    Water resources are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development and climate change. Since agriculture is by far the most freshwater-consuming process, the international food trade may be a way of transferring water resources to water-scarce countries, and of saving water globally by encouraging trade from water-efficient countries to less water-efficient countries. We applied complex network theory to analyze the dynamics of the global virtual water trade network. Our goal was to assess how the properties of the virtual water trade network changed in time, and how these changes are related to national policies, economic and weather conditions or events. We found that, on average, the number of trade partners of each country in the network doubled from 1986 to 2007, while the volume of water associated with food trade tripled. Despite this growth of the network, we found that the shape of the network properties distributions remained similar: for all years studied, the degree distribution is well fitted by an exponential distribution and the strength distribution compares well with a stretched exponential distribution, indicating high heterogeneity of flows between nations. Other global network structure characteristics, such as the power law relationship between node strength and node degree, dissasortative behavior and weighted rich club phenomenon were also stable through the 22 year-period. However, there are significant changes at the country and link scale of analysis. The USA has remained the world's top exporter of virtual water, while, since 2001, China has been the world's largest virtual water importer, a position formerly occupied by Russia and Japan. The sharp increase in China's virtual water imports is mostly due to its increased soybean imports, following a domestic policy shift regarding the soy trade in 2000 and 2001. Importantly, the food trade has led to enhanced savings in global water resources over the last few

  12. Empirical Analysis of Kyrgyz Trade Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira KURMANALIEVA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Being naturally located between two big markets in Europe and Asia, Kyrgyzstan together with other Central Asian countries does not have a direct access to sea ports. Landlockedness limits volumes of international trade and creates obstacles for economic growth. Results of statistical analysis show that Kyrgyz trade neither follows Heckscher-Ohlin model nor intra-industry trade model. Another finding is that open and liberal trade policy of Kyrgyzstan has a large positive effect on trade volumes, suggesting that bilateral trade will expand markedly if country continues liberalization of its trade policy with other countries. Quality of infrastructure and transportation costs play a crucial role for landlocked countries and a free trade agreement with other countries looks like a good opportunity to overcome natural barriers and diversify their trade.

  13. The U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement: Effects After Five Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    Thailand, and South Korea.3 Among these countries, only Thailand and South Korea have free trade agreements with Singapore . With respect to chewing gum ...International Chewing Gum association would not provide CRS with data on exports to Singapore . The U.S.- Singapore Free Trade Agreement: Effects After Five...a few products. Even though Singapore is largely a free-trade nation, it has restrictions on imports of specific controlled items (including chewing

  14. Directors' Dealings, Market Efficiency, and Strategic Insider Trading in the German Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Dickgießer, Carl Philipp Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation studies two distinct aspects of directors’ dealings in the German stock market. First, it is empirically examined if insiders trade strategically around news announcements. The results show that while insiders do trade prior to ad-hoc announcements, trading activity increases in particular after news events. This suggests that insiders delay their transactions to periods of time that are associated with low reputational and litigation risks. The second empirical study is con...

  15. Sunshine Trading: Flashes of Trading Intent at the NASDAQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Skjeltorp (Johannes); E. Sojli (Elvira); W.W. Tham (Wing Wah)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe use the introduction and the subsequent removal of the flash order facility (an actionable indication of interest, IOI) from the NASDAQ as a natural experiment to investigate the impact of voluntary disclosure of trading intent on market quality. We find that flash orders

  16. 40 Dynamics of Foreign Trade and Trade Relation Problems: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... findings reveal that the global trade configuration is imbalanced favouring nations of the North to the detriment of ... Mercantilist theory, the theory of Absolute advantage, Comparative. Advantage theory, Factor ... This has changed the culture of international businesses and serves as a medium for other ...

  17. Heavy Equipment. Trade and Industrial Education Trade Preparatory Training Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln. Div. of Vocational Education.

    One of a series of curriculum guides prepared for the building occupations cluster of the construction/fabrication occupational group, this guide identifies the essentials of the heavy equipment trade as recommended by the successful heavy equipment operator. An instructional program based upon the implementation of the guide is expected to…

  18. Syllabus in Trade Electricity-Electronics. Section II. Trade Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational Education Curriculum Development.

    This second section of a three-part syllabus for a flexible curriculum in trade electricity-electronics contains four semi-independent units: (1) Advanced Electricity, (2) Residential and Commercial Wiring, (3) Industrial Electricity, and (4) Motor Controls. Introductory sections describe development of the curriculum, outline the total trade…

  19. Dynamics of Foreign Trade and Trade Relation Problems: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nations of the North to the detriment of Southern nations, with Nigeria among the worst hit. As we bid farewell to the first decade of the twenty-first century, there has been a gradual shift in the balance of economic power as countries like Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC nations) have emerged as trade superpowers.

  20. Do we really know that trade agreements increase trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, T.

    This study surveys the empirical literature in which the gravity equation has been used to study the effect of economic integration agreements (EIAs) on international trade flows. We show that most studies either focus on improving the methodology to assess regionalism’s overall impact, or on a

  1. Trade Policies toward Developing Countries: The Multilateral Trade Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Lorenzo L., Ed.; Benedick, Gerald R., Ed.

    Proceedings are presented of a 1977 conference about aspects of international trade negotiations of importance to developing countries. Participants included staff from Washington-based international organizations, various United States departments, Congressional staff, and students of the Foreign Service Institute. Transcripts of three addresses…

  2. Broadening the benefits of trade: The Latin American trade network ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-13

    Jul 13, 2011 ... Competitors and their national governments argued that this practice gave Latin American companies an unfair competitive advantage. To offset this "subsidy," foreign governments frequently imposed a countervailing duty or tax on imports. This issue was finally dealt with during the Uruguay Round of trade ...

  3. Leveraged exchange-traded funds price dynamics and options valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an analysis, under both discrete-time and continuous-time frameworks, on the price dynamics of leveraged exchange-traded funds (LETFs), with emphasis on the roles of leverage ratio, realized volatility, investment horizon, and tracking errors. This study provides new insights on the risks associated with LETFs. It also leads to the discussion of new risk management concepts, such as admissible leverage ratios and admissible risk horizon, as well as the mathematical and empirical analyses of several trading strategies, including static portfolios, pairs trading, and stop-loss strategies involving ETFs and LETFs. The final part of the book addresses the pricing of options written on LETFs. Since different LETFs are designed to track the same reference index, these funds and their associated options share very similar sources of randomness. The authors provide a no-arbitrage pricing approach that consistently value options on LETFs with different leverage ratios with stochastic volatility and ...

  4. BENEFITS AND DRAWBACKS OF ONLINE TRADING VERSUS TRADITIONAL TRADING. EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN ONLINE TRADING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petric (Iancu Ioana Ancuta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In terms of marketing, online trading is a new distribution channel and trading platforms are products of Investment and Financial Services Companies. Internet shortens the connection between the investor and the products they wish to purchase (shares, futures, CFDs, government securities, bonds, etc., and in some cases it no longer needs a security broker. Increasing use of the Internet and increasing competitiveness between Investment and Financial Services Companies do the latter, to seek new distribution channels to specific products. The purpose of this paper is to examine to what extent the investor education level affects the decision to move from traditional trading to online trading and the benefits and disadvantages of these types of transactions. To whom should the Investment and Financial Services Companies guide their marketing campaign to attract more investors for online platforms? The work presented is part of a larger project that will be part of author thesis, studying other factors that influence the decision to move from traditional to online trading: cost factor, time factor, psychological and social attributes of investors, yield portfolios and technological capacities of Investment and Financial Services Companies. Starting from the idea that with the increase of experience in stock investments the investors will want to make their own decisions, Investment and Financial Services Companies should provide new products. Compared to competitors, an Investment and Financial Services Company must innovate, and information technology currently offers the tools for innovation facilities. At the same time, the existence and development of the Internet has made the transaction without assistance or with minimal human intervention possible (Voss, 2000. The difference is in the knowledge about stock market, the speed the transaction orders arrive in the stock market, direct access to multiple markets, transaction costs and the level

  5. Trade Policy of Transition Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis); J.M.A. Viaene (Jean-Marie)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on ignored issues regarding the impact of trade reforms in transition economies. These economies are primarily characterized by a low quality of their products, large depreciations of their currencies, and a high degree of government intervention in economic activity.

  6. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  7. Towards trusted trade-lanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.; Hofman, W.; Zomer, G.; Tan, Y.H.

    2016-01-01

    Customs administrations are exploring system-based approaches to regulatory supervision, taking the entire set of controls in a process into account. In addition to Trusted Traders, which are recognized by a certification process, customs are considering to identify so called Trusted Trade Lanes:

  8. Fair trade : meer dan verkopen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, P.

    2016-01-01

    Wie aan fair trade denkt, denkt aan de keurmerkkoffie in de schappen van de supermarkt. Maar sinds het ontstaan van de beweging voor eerlijke handel in de jaren 1960 ging het steeds om meer dan kopen en verkopen. Politieke campagnes, boycotacties, het verspreiden van informatie en inzamelingen waren

  9. Non-Preferential Trading Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    , that unambiguouslyincrease the welfare of these countries while leaving the welfare ofnon-members unaltered. In terms of economic policy implications, our resultsshow that there exist regional, MFN-consistent arrangements that leadto Pareto improvements in world welfare.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Trading clubs, non...

  10. Emissions trading under market imperfections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappi, P.

    2013-08-15

    In this thesis we consider emissions trading under various market imperfections such as uncertainty over permit price, imperfect competition and noncompliance. First, we study the effects of uncertain permit price on the firms choice of emission intensive and clean inputs in an multi-input production process. We also assess the risk aversion factors of some Finnish heat and power producers. Second, we study imperfect competition in output and permit markets with a two-stage model, where output decision is made before permit trades. The emphasis is on the strategic interaction between firms and on the efficiency increasing regulation. Third, we turn back to uncertainty and analyse the welfare difference between emissions trading and emission tax, when some of the firms may be noncompliant. The main finding is that welfare is greater with emission tax than with emissions trading, when at least one firm is noncompliant. Finally, we extend some existing models of permit banking and borrowing to encompass also noncompliant behavior of firms. Here, we analyse the incentives of compliant firms to become noncompliant at some point in time and also the time paths of the choice variables. (orig.)

  11. Price floors for emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Peter John, E-mail: Peter.J.Wood@anu.edu.a [Resource Management in Asia Pacific Program, Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Jotzo, Frank, E-mail: frank.jotzo@anu.edu.a [Resource Management in Asia Pacific Program, Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-03-15

    Price floors in greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes can guarantee minimum abatement efforts if prices are lower than expected, and they can help manage cost uncertainty, possibly as complements to price ceilings. Provisions for price floors are found in several recent legislative proposals for emissions trading. Implementation however has potential pitfalls. Possible mechanisms are government commitments to buy back permits, a reserve price at auction, or an extra fee or tax on acquittal of emissions permits. Our analysis of these alternatives shows that the fee approach has budgetary advantages and is more compatible with international permit trading than the alternatives. It can also be used to implement more general hybrid approaches to emissions pricing. - Research highlights: {yields} Price floors for emissions trading schemes guarantee a minimum carbon price. {yields} Price floors mean that emissions can be less than specified by the ETS cap. {yields} We examine how price floors can relate to different policy objectives. {yields} We compare different mechanisms for implementing a price floor. {yields} We find that a mechanism where there is an extra tax or fee has advantages.

  12. International trade of animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jingmeng; Liu, Qian; Hou, Yong; Qin, Wei; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; Oenema, Oene

    2017-01-01

    International trade of food and feed has facilitated the specialization and agglomeration of agricultural production systems in many countries. Confined animals in specialized production systems are increasingly supplied with soybean and maize, imported from other countries. This has increased

  13. [Falsified medicines in parallel trade].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckenfuß, Heide

    2017-11-01

    The number of falsified medicines on the German market has distinctly increased over the past few years. In particular, stolen pharmaceutical products, a form of falsified medicines, have increasingly been introduced into the legal supply chain via parallel trading. The reasons why parallel trading serves as a gateway for falsified medicines are most likely the complex supply chains and routes of transport. It is hardly possible for national authorities to trace the history of a medicinal product that was bought and sold by several intermediaries in different EU member states. In addition, the heterogeneous outward appearance of imported and relabelled pharmaceutical products facilitates the introduction of illegal products onto the market. Official batch release at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut offers the possibility of checking some aspects that might provide an indication of a falsified medicine. In some circumstances, this may allow the identification of falsified medicines before they come onto the German market. However, this control is only possible for biomedicinal products that have not received a waiver regarding official batch release. For improved control of parallel trade, better networking among the EU member states would be beneficial. European-wide regulations, e. g., for disclosure of the complete supply chain, would help to minimise the risks of parallel trading and hinder the marketing of falsified medicines.

  14. Global Trade and Indian Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina

    2015-01-01

    -British Western partners, which could support their struggle for industrial self-reliance. This particular alignment of interests facilitated cooperation and shows that the so-called European experience is more diverse than research has shown so far. The analysis highlights global trading networks beyond...

  15. Bonus Schemes and Trading Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders’ propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders’ performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold (convex) bonus schemes on traders’ behavior. Traders purchase and sell shares in an experimental stock

  16. Bonus schemes and trading activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders' propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders' performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold bonus schemes on traders' behavior. Traders buy and sell shares in an experimental stock market on the basis of

  17. Orion Flight Performance Design Trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mark C.; Straube, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    A significant portion of the Orion pre-PDR design effort has focused on balancing mass with performance. High level performance metrics include abort success rates, lunar surface coverage, landing accuracy and touchdown loads. These metrics may be converted to parameters that affect mass, such as ballast for stabilizing the abort vehicle, propellant to achieve increased lunar coverage or extended missions, or ballast to increase the lift-to-drag ratio to improve entry and landing performance. The Orion Flight Dynamics team was tasked to perform analyses to evaluate many of these trades. These analyses not only provide insight into the physics of each particular trade but, in aggregate, they illustrate the processes used by Orion to balance performance and mass margins, and thereby make design decisions. Lessons learned can be gleaned from a review of these studies which will be useful to other spacecraft system designers. These lessons fall into several categories, including: appropriate application of Monte Carlo analysis in design trades, managing margin in a highly mass-constrained environment, and the use of requirements to balance margin between subsystems and components. This paper provides a review of some of the trades and analyses conducted by the Flight Dynamics team, as well as systems engineering lessons learned.

  18. Organ trade using social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Alrogy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation is recognized worldwide as an effective treatment for organ failure. However, due to the increase in the number of patients requiring a transplant, a shortage of suitable organs for transplantation has become a global problem. Human organ trade is an illegal practice of buying or selling organs and is universally sentenced. The aim of this study was to search social network for organ trade and offerings in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted from June 22, 2015 to February 19, 2016. The search was conducted on Twitter, Google answers, and Facebook using the following terms: kidney for sale, kidneys for sale, liver for sale, kidney wanted, liver wanted, kidney donor, and liver donor. We found a total of 557 adverts on organ trade, 165 (30% from donors or sellers, and 392 (70% from recipients or buyers. On Twitter, we found 472 (85% adverts, on Google answers 61 (11%, and on Facebook 24 (4%. Organ trade is a global problem, and yet it is increasingly seen in many countries. Although the Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation by-laws specifically prohibits and monitors any form of commercial transplantation, it is still essential to enforce guidelines for medical professionals to detect and prevent such criminal acts.

  19. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  20. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  1. India's Trade in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  2. Emissions Trading: Trends and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This paper provides the latest developments of announced, proposed and existing greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes (ETS) around the world since 2006. It also examines different potential design options for ETS (e.g. coverage, allocation mode, provision for offsets), and how these options are treated in the existing, announced or proposed schemes.

  3. Trade microenterprises in EU economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of the analysis of positions of microenterprises in trade and repair in European Union (EU economy. The results show that microenterprises make up the most numerous group of economic subjects in EU. In terms of income generation, value added, labour productivity and financial efficiency the position of microenterprises in enterprises sector is conclusively the weakest.

  4. Hub-and-Spoke or else? Free trade agreements in the 'enlarged' European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta De Santis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to estimate if and how the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA and the Baltic Free Trade Agreement (BFTA exerted a significant impact on intra-European trade, effectively reducing the influence of the European Association Agreements (EAs in shaping the European trade structure as a hub-and-spoke system - with the EU15 being the hub and the CEECs the spoke. This paper analyses bilateral trade flows between eight CEECs and EU-23. We estimate a gravity equation using a system GMM dynamic panel data approach. Results support the assumptions that gravity forces and "persistence effects" matter. With respect to the effect of free trade agreements, evidence is found that Free trade agreements between CEECs matter: There is evidence that the presence of intra-periphery agreements helped expand intra-periphery trade and limited the emergence of a "hub-and-spoke" relationship between CEECs and EU. This results have important policy implications for the trade strategy of "future" EU members of the Southeastern European Countries as well as of the Southern Mediterranean Countries. According to the empirical results, these countries should move towards a regional free-trade area as exemplified by the CEFTA and the BFTA to avoid "hub-and-spoke" effects.

  5. Virtual water trade and country vulnerability: A network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Martina; Schiavo, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    This work investigates the relationship between countries' participation in virtual water trade and their vulnerability to external shocks from a network perspective. In particular, we investigate whether (i) possible sources of local national crises may interact with the system, propagating through the network and affecting the other countries involved; (ii) the topological characteristics of the international agricultural trade network, translated into virtual water-equivalent flows, may favor countries' vulnerability to external crises. Our work contributes to the debate on the potential merits and risks associated with openness to trade in agricultural and food products. On the one hand, trade helps to ensure that even countries with limited water (and other relevant) resources have access to sufficient food and contribute to the global saving of water. On the other hand, there are fears that openness may increase the vulnerability to external shocks and thus make countries worse off. Here we abstract from political considerations about food sovereignty and independence from imports and focus instead on investigating whether the increased participation in global trade that the world has witnessed in the last 30 years has made the system more susceptible to large shocks. Our analysis reveals that: (i) the probability of larger supply shocks has not increased over time; (ii) the topological characteristics of the VW network are not such as to favor the systemic risk associated with shock propagation; and (iii) higher-order interconnections may reveal further important information about the structure of a network. Regarding the first result, fluctuations in output volumes, among the sources of shock analyzed here, are more likely to generate some instability. The first implication is that, on one side, past national or regional economic crises were not necessarily brought about or strengthened by global trade. The second, more remarkable, implication is that, on

  6. Research on the Development of Green Finance in Shenzhen to Boost the Carbon Trading Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiping; Xiong, Siqin; Zhou, Yucheng; Zou, Zijian; Ma, Xiaoming

    2017-08-01

    This paper analyses the current development situations of Shenzhen carbon trading market and China’s green finance, and makes the policy recommendations for promoting the carbon trading market by developing green finance in Shenzhen. Shenzhen should take the lead in driving the localized application of green principle, and formulate Shenzhen green bond guidelines ASAP, to promote carbon trading associated enterprises to finance by using green bonds; it shall work to lower the threshold for financial institutions to participate in carbon trading market, and explore development of carbon derivatives.

  7. Do Trading Partners Matter for Labour Market Inequality? The Malaysian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Devadason, Evelyn

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the differential impact of major bilateral trade flows on labour market inequality for the period 1983 to 2000. The focus is on the key trading partners of Malaysia, which are the Association of the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the United States of America and Japan. The paper finds that the direction of trade or rather the “whom†aspects of trade matter for inequality trends. There are striking differences on the labour market when export destinations are considere...

  8. The Southern African Development Community trade legal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNISA

    consider the systemic implications of the agreements for the multilateral trading ..... addition, when dealing with intra-SADC trade, Member States shall adopt policies ..... systematic exclusion of any major sectors such as agriculture or textile.

  9. Trade Publications in the Marketing Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, William A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes how marketing teachers can use trade publications to enhance the quality of and provide relevance to the marketing education curriculum. Identifies representative trade publications; suggests how to get them for classroom use and how teachers can use them. (JOW)

  10. Trade Liberalization and Growth: New Evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Romain Wacziarg; Karen Horn Welch

    A new data set of on openness indicators and trade liberalization dates allows the 1995 Sachs and Warner study on the relationship between trade openness and economic growth to be extended to the 1990s...

  11. 77 FR 25678 - International Trade Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance Notification of Sunset Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration...

  12. GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND TRADE POLICY EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Frisvold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Where approved, producers have adopted genetically modified (GM crops extensively. Yet, areas not adopting GM crops account for large shares of production and consumption. GM crops differ from previous agricultural innovations because consumers may perceive them as fundamentally different from (and potentially inferior to conventionally grown crops. Many countries maintain restrictions on production and importation of GM crops. GM crop adoption affects producers and consumers, not only through technological change, but also through trade policy responses. This article reviews open economy analyses of impacts of GM crops. To varying degrees, commodities are segmented into GM, conventionally grown, and organic product markets. Recent advances in trade modeling consider the consequences of market segmentation, along with consequences of GM crop import restrictions, product segregation requirements, and coexistence policies.

  13. The Evolution of the Romanian Trade Balance in the Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzea Elena Ramona

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to analyse the evolution of the trade balance of Romania with the European Union Member States during the 22 years of transition from a centralised system to a democratic economic and social system and an efficient market economy. Nearly 25 years after the events of 1989, Romania has made great steps in order to resettle the entire economic system and to transform it into a functional one. However, the path was filled with inconsistent decisions and with a repositioning of the trajectory dictated by internal or external pressures. The research focuses on a brief analysis of the evolution of the trade between Romania and the EU Member States to determine the effect the integration had on the structural discrepancies between exports and imports.

  14. The globalization of international oilseeds trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittaine Jean-François

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In a globalised world, the trade of goods and services constitute the heart of the economic system. But the trade patterns may show extreme diversity depending upon the nature of the concerned products. The technical and functional constraints do impose their laws, particularly when they relate to biological products/commodities. The term globalization is generally used to describe a complex process of international integration. When referring to oilseeds, the term must also relate to agriculture and human nutritional requirements for a rising human population spread all over the world, particularly in large urban environment. With an annual harvest of about 450 Mn T, oilseeds are naturally “globalized” in their production patterns. The complexity of their production schemes associated with the diversity of their usage on widespread geographical regions gives this group of commodities a unique role on the world markets. This process of opened trade channels has enabled the sector to meet the supply requirements of a quickly rising demand coming from both the population and all the industrial usages including alternative “green” energy. However, for the time being, demand growth has not been fully counter-balanced by production growth. As a consequence, unless some strict reallocation of acreage is effectively organized or new high yielding technologies are developed, it is a fact that vegetable oil will keep a strong demand base for a long time, compounded by the mechanical demand from economic growth in highly populated emerging economies. The balancing of supply and demand is expected to remain a tight exercise every year. At the end of the day, the future of the entire industry largely lies in technology because the final stake is to ensure the proper feeding of a 9 billion people population in a not too far future.

  15. Indonesia's Intra -Industry Trade with ASEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Widarjono, Agus

    2008-01-01

    AFTA has been starting since 2003. This study will investigate Indonesia's bilateral trade with ASEAN member by examining intra-industry trade. The Grubel-Lloyd Index is applied to measure intra-industry trade. Intra –industry trade is classified based on factor intensity in the production process. There are natural resource intensive, unskilled labor intensive, physical capital intensive, human capital intensive and technological intensive. This research shows that level of Indonesia...

  16. 75 FR 5285 - Mission Statement; Franchise Trade Mission to Mexico; March 3-5, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... the Mexico City portion of the mission will be $2,305 for large firms and $2,265 for a small or medium... trade media, direct mail, notices by industry trade associations and other multiplier groups, and... the Mexican market. The mission will help participating firms gain market insight, make industry...

  17. Trade Blocs and the Future of Global Marketing | Ewah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is a review of trade blocs in global marketing. These blocs are in the form of trade groups, associations, union, etc, that are formed based on regional as well as continental background to protect their various interest in the world market. Their major objective is to remove all forms of barriers and tariffs that hinder ...

  18. International Illegal Trade in Wildlife: Threats and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-22

    42 Dog and Cat Protection Act of 2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Endangered Species Act of 1973...trade, who engage in the trade purely for profit. Another factor is the perceived low risk of capture or penalties associated with wildlife trafficking...species, changing the declared number of items shipped, changing the declared value of items, or declaring wild species as captive- bred species; or (3

  19. Internal Control Over Financial Reporting and Managerial Rent Extraction: Evidence from the Profitability of Insider Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skaife, H.A.; Veenman, D.; Wangerin, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the association between ineffective internal control over financial reporting and the profitability of insider trading. We predict and find that the profitability of insider trading is significantly greater in firms disclosing material weaknesses in internal control relative to

  20. Economic opportunities and trade-offs in collaborative forest landscape restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan A. Ager; Kevin C. Vogler; Michelle A. Day; John D. Bailey

    2017-01-01

    We modeled forest restoration scenarios to examine socioeconomic and ecological trade-offs associated with alternative prioritization scenarios. The study examined four US national forests designated as priorities for investments to restore fire resiliency and generate economic opportunities to support local industry. We were particularly interested in economic trade-...

  1. U.S. Timber production, trade, consumption, and price statistics 1965-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard

    1999-01-01

    This report presents statistical information on production, trade, consumption, and prices of forest products in the United States. Although national statistics are dealt with for the most part, some statistics are given for regions, states, and Canada. The tables presented in this report contain information collected from industry trade associations and government...

  2. U.S. timber production, trade, consumption, and price statistics, 1963-1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard

    1997-01-01

    This report presents information on trends in production, trade, consumption, and prices of forest product in the United States. Although national trends are dealt with for the most part, some information is given for regions, states, and Canada. The tables presented in this report are from information collected from industry trade associations and government agencies...

  3. Protocol to monitor trade agreement food-related aspects: the Fiji case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravuvu, Amerita; Friel, Sharon; Thow, Anne Marie; Snowdon, Wendy; Wate, Jillian

    2017-04-26

    Despite the growing rates of obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases, globally, public health attention has only relatively recently turned to the links between trade agreements and the nutritional risks associated with it. Specific trade agreements appear to have played an influential role in the volume and types of foods entering different countries, yet there is currently no systematic and objective monitoring of trade agreements for their impacts on food environments. Recently, INFORMAS was set up to monitor and benchmark food environments, government policies and private sector actions within countries and globally. One of its projects/modules focuses on trade policy and in particular the food-related aspects of trade agreements. This paper describes the INFORMAS trade protocol, an approach to collecting food-related information about four domains of trade: trade in goods; trade in services and foreign direct investment; domestic supports, and policy space. Specifically, the protocol is tested in Fiji. The development and testing of this protocol in Fiji represents the first effort to set out a framework and process for objectively monitoring trade agreements and their impacts on national food supply and the wider food environment. It has shown that entry into WTO trade agreements contributed to the nutrition transition in Fiji through the increased availability of imported foods with varying nutritional quality. We observed an increase in imports of both healthy and less healthy foods. The application of the monitoring protocol also highlights challenges for data collection associated with each trade domain that should be considered for future data collection and analysis in other low and middle income countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Coevolution of Human Speech and Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horan, R.D.; Bulte, E.H.; Shogren, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a paleoeconomic coevolutionary explanation for the origin of speech in modern humans. The coevolutionary process, in which trade facilitates speech and speech facilitates trade, gives rise to multiple stable trajectories. While a `trade-speech¿ equilibrium is not an inevitable outcome for

  5. 77 FR 52766 - Technology and Trading Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... COMMISSION Technology and Trading Roundtable AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Notice of... day roundtable entitled ``Technology and Trading: Promoting Stability in Today's Markets'' to discuss... ways in which market participants design, implement, and manage complex and inter-connected trading...

  6. 77 FR 56697 - Technology and Trading Roundtable

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ...] Technology and Trading Roundtable AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Notice of roundtable... entitled ``Technology and Trading: Promoting Stability in Today's Markets'' to discuss ways to promote... Trading and Markets, Securities and Exchange Commission, 100 F Street NE., Washington, DC 20549-7010. By...

  7. 40 CFR 89.206 - Trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading. 89.206 Section 89.206... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 89.206 Trading. (a) Requirements for Tier 1 engines rated at or above 37 kW. (1) A nonroad...

  8. Trade facilitation and Africa's manufactured goods export

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akinkugbe, Oluyele

    2006-01-01

    ... all forms of constraints to the free flow of goods--reducing trade and customs regulations--from current levels, could have a significant impact on trade expansion in Africa. Introduction The role of international trade in industrialization, economic growth and development has long been a topic of interest to economists and policy makers worldwi...

  9. INNOVATIONS OF THE TRADE MARKETING IN LATVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Spīča, Inese; Spīčs, Ernests

    2010-01-01

    In the rapidly changing environment contemporary marketing activities affects educational programms. The paper analyze the marketing and sales current events in Latvia. In this paper given a substantive explanation of trade marketing and trade marketing development opportunities for Latvia, trade marketing new development areas and to clarify their learning opportunities in Latvia.

  10. 7 CFR 987.11 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 987.11 Section 987.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.11 Trade demand. Trade demand means...

  11. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.21 Trade demand. Trade demand means the quantity of almonds...

  12. 7 CFR 984.22 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... walnuts that the trade will acquire from all handlers during a marketing year for distribution in the... trade will acquire from all handlers during a marketing year for distribution in the United States and... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 984.22 Section 984.22 Agriculture...

  13. International Trade and Investment Report 2001

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Forfás' International Trade and Investment Report 2001 examines in detail Ireland's performance in international trade and in flows of investment, both inwards and outwards. This report shows the vital place of international trade and investment in the Irish economy.

  14. Is Free Trade Out of Date?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dwight R.

    2009-01-01

    During the recent presidential campaign, some prominent politicians called for a "time out" in negotiating new agreements to expand international trade, and others wanted to reduce it by canceling existing trade agreements. The stated concern is that trade with countries with low labor costs forces American workers to either accept lower…

  15. An Ethical Analysis of Regulating Insider Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, P. J.; Liedekerke, L.

    Although there seems to be a broad consensus to prohibit insider trading among supervising authorities and market professionals, the debate on insider trading has not settled definitively. We introduce a distinction between insider trading and market manipulation on the one hand and corporate

  16. Confronting New Demands : Inclusive Growth, Inclusive Trade ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research agenda will cover four themes: linkages between trade and inclusive growth; negotiation issues with poorly understood implications, such as labour standards and intellectual property; liberalization of trade in services, and the emerging regional trade policy architecture. The idea is to promote a better ...

  17. The Southern African Development Community trade legal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNISA

    List of abbreviations and acronyms. ACP – African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States. BLNS- Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland. CRTA- Committee on Regional Trade Agreements. CTG- Council on Trade in Goods. EPA- Economic Partnership Agreements. EU- European Union. FTA- Free Trade Area.

  18. Smart trade logistics - Compliance as an opportunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer, G.R.

    2011-01-01

    Facilitation of trade logistics aims at simplification and harmonization of border procedures and related documentation. This is an accelerator for global trade and economic growth and therefore a priority in global trade policy. Trends in logistics and supply chain security and innovations in

  19. Opening the Black Box of Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Tristan; De Lombaerde, Philippe; Saucedo Accosta, Edgar J.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter the author presents a coding methodology to capture the heterogeneity of trade agreements and to facilitate quantitative analysis departing from qualitative legal differences in trade agreements. The coding is based on whether the provisions of the World Trade Organization (WTO) are

  20. The Option Value in Timing Derivative Trades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drost, Feico; van der Heijden, T.G.E.; Werker, Bas

    Risk-neutral traders executing derivative trades on behalf of portfolio managers maximize their expected profit compared to trading at pre-determined times by timing trades, using the quickly changing risk exposures of derivative baskets. The optimal order submission strategy is a sequence of stop

  1. Pacific Rim log trade: determinants and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald F. Flora; Andrea L. Anderson; Wendy J. McGinnls

    1991-01-01

    Pacific Rim trade in softwood logs amounts to about $3 billion annually, of which the U.S. share is about $2 billion. Log exporting is a significant part of the forest economy in the Pacific Northwest. The 10 major Pacific Rim log-trading client and competitor countries differ widely in their roles in trade and in their policies affecting the industry.

  2. Magnet Trade Books: Attracting and Repelling Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; Robinson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    A series of magnet trade books were analyzed against a validated list of magnet concepts (Barrow, 1990a) and their Flesch (1974) Readability was determined. These trade books were used to supplement a second grade unit on magnetism locally constructed from AIM's "Mostly Magnets" (1991). All trade books accurately described how like and unlike…

  3. Essays on Multinational Production and International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clementi, Federico

    This Thesis consists of an introduction followed by three independent chapters. Each chapter is a self-contained paper that can be read independently. They cover different topics of international economics with a specific focus on multinational production and international trade. A common feature...... the impact of foreign direct investment on the intensity of competition in the host economy. In this chapter I use firm-level data of Romanian manufacturing companies active between 2001 and 2008 and I measure the impact of foreign ownership on the market power of affiliates and local competitors....... The empirical evidence shows that foreign ownership is associated to a higher market power, which I proxy with firms’ estimated markups. Moreover, I find that higher competition of foreign affiliates is associated to a decrease in the markups charged by domestic firms. In the second chapter we analyze how...

  4. Reading Trade Books in a Freshman Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Murray; Moore, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Many college courses have historically been associated with large amounts of reading. For example, many biology courses required students to read trade books such as Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring" (Carson, 1962), or James Watson's "The Double Helix" (Watson, 1980), but now most instructors elect to focus students' reading on course textbooks and…

  5. The Trade and Gender Interface: A Perspective from Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: News on Pakistan’s trade performance is rarely found side by side, or even associated with, headlines on gender equality. Yet both are burning issues for Pakistani society. This article aims at highlighting their connections. Put differently, it shows how the world

  6. Mobile Money, Trade Credit and Economic Development : Theory and Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Pamuk, H.; Uras, R.B.; Ramrattan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Using a novel enterprise survey from Kenya (FinAccess Business), we document a strong positive association between the use of mobile money as a method to pay suppliers and access to trade credit. We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model with heterogeneous entrepreneurs, imperfect credit

  7. 75 FR 23667 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... national average price of apples compared to the average of the 3 preceding marketing years. The petition... review of a petition, for trade adjustment assistance by the Michigan Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Association on behalf of apple producers in Michigan. A public hearing to review the merits of the petition...

  8. 75 FR 41431 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... (No. 2010009) for trade adjustment assistance (TAA) for apples that was filed by the Michigan Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Association and accepted for review by USDA on May 4, 2010. SUPPLEMENTARY...) states that petitions must demonstrate, using data for the most recent, full marketing year or full...

  9. Terms of trade instability and balance of payments adjustment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... association between inflation and BOP should be a source of worry to policy makers. It is therefore imperative for economy to address exchange control problems to the effect that the naira does not depreciate beneath a managed floor value. Key Words: Terms of trade instability, Balance of payments adjustment, Nigeria ...

  10. Strategic importance of green water in international crop trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Aldaya, Maite; Allan, J.A.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2010-01-01

    Virtual water is the volume of water used to produce a commodity or service. Hitherto, most virtual water 'trade' studies have focused on its potential contribution to saving water, especially in water short regions. Very little, however, has been said about the opportunity cost of the associated

  11. Cancer and Longevity-Is There a Trade-off?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kaare; Pedersen, Jacob K; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B

    2012-01-01

    Animal models and a few human studies have suggested a complex interaction between cancer risk and longevity indicating a trade-off where low cancer risk is associated with accelerating aging phenotypes and, vice versa, that longevity potential comes with the cost of increased cancer risk. This h...

  12. The Trade and Gender Interface: A Perspective from Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractNews on Pakistan’s trade performance is rarely found side by side, or even associated with, headlines on gender equality. Yet both are burning issues for Pakistani society. This article aims at highlighting their connections. Put differently, it shows how the world market is tied to

  13. Mobile Money, Trade Credit and Economic Development : Theory and Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Pamuk, H.; Uras, R.B.; Ramrattan, R.

    Using a novel enterprise survey from Kenya (FinAccess Business), we document a strong positive association between the use of mobile money as a method to pay suppliers and access to trade credit. We develop a dynamic general equilibrium model with heterogeneous entrepreneurs, imperfect credit

  14. Trading Land: A Review of Approaches to Accounting for Upstream Land Requirements of Traded Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffartzik, Anke; Haberl, Helmut; Kastner, Thomas; Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Eisenmenger, Nina; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2015-10-01

    Land use is recognized as a pervasive driver of environmental impacts, including climate change and biodiversity loss. Global trade leads to "telecoupling" between the land use of production and the consumption of biomass-based goods and services. Telecoupling is captured by accounts of the upstream land requirements associated with traded products, also commonly referred to as land footprints. These accounts face challenges in two main areas: (1) the allocation of land to products traded and consumed and (2) the metrics to account for differences in land quality and land-use intensity. For two main families of accounting approaches (biophysical, factor-based and environmentally extended input-output analysis), this review discusses conceptual differences and compares results for land footprints. Biophysical approaches are able to capture a large number of products and different land uses, but suffer from a truncation problem. Economic approaches solve the truncation problem, but are hampered by the limited disaggregation of sectors and products. In light of the conceptual differences, the overall similarity of results generated by both types of approaches is remarkable. Diametrically opposed results for some of the world's largest producers and consumers of biomass-based products, however, make interpretation difficult. This review aims to provide clarity on some of the underlying conceptual issues of accounting for land footprints.

  15. Trading Land: A Review of Approaches to Accounting for Upstream Land Requirements of Traded Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Helmut; Kastner, Thomas; Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Eisenmenger, Nina; Erb, Karl‐Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Summary Land use is recognized as a pervasive driver of environmental impacts, including climate change and biodiversity loss. Global trade leads to “telecoupling” between the land use of production and the consumption of biomass‐based goods and services. Telecoupling is captured by accounts of the upstream land requirements associated with traded products, also commonly referred to as land footprints. These accounts face challenges in two main areas: (1) the allocation of land to products traded and consumed and (2) the metrics to account for differences in land quality and land‐use intensity. For two main families of accounting approaches (biophysical, factor‐based and environmentally extended input‐output analysis), this review discusses conceptual differences and compares results for land footprints. Biophysical approaches are able to capture a large number of products and different land uses, but suffer from a truncation problem. Economic approaches solve the truncation problem, but are hampered by the limited disaggregation of sectors and products. In light of the conceptual differences, the overall similarity of results generated by both types of approaches is remarkable. Diametrically opposed results for some of the world's largest producers and consumers of biomass‐based products, however, make interpretation difficult. This review aims to provide clarity on some of the underlying conceptual issues of accounting for land footprints. PMID:27547028

  16. The Politics of Trade: The Role of Research in Trade Policy and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 mai 2009 ... The Politics of Trade: The Role of Research in Trade Policy and Negotiation. Book cover The Politics of Trade: The Role of Research in Trade Policy and Negotiation. Directeur(s) : ... Grappes des technologies de l'information et de la communication, rendement des entreprises locales et création d'emplois.

  17. 76 FR 58774 - Trade Mission to Southeast Asia in Conjunction With Trade Winds-Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ...; education services; electronic components; electrical power systems; food processing and packaging equipment...) in Singapore next May. U.S. trade mission members will participate in the Trade Winds-- Asia business forum in Singapore (which is also open to U.S. companies not participating in the trade mission). Trade...

  18. Trade structure, trade mode and the urban-rural income gap in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the effect of foreign trade in China on the urban-rural income gap from certain angles including trade scale, trade structure and trade mode at the national and provincial levels. The empirical results indicate that, from the perspective of trade scale, the export and import in the eastern and national regions have an expansion effect on the urban-rural income gap, and, in the central regions, they have a reduction effect. Furthermore, export in the western regions has a reduction effect while import in these regions did not have a significant effect. From the perspective of trade structure, the trade of high-tech products and labour-intensive products in the national and eastern regions has an expansion effect, and the trade of the above-mentioned products in the central regions has a reduction effect. The trade of labour-intensive products in the western regions has a reduction effect, and that of high-tech products an expansion effect. From the perspective of trade mode, processing trade and general trade in the national and eastern regions have an expansion effect, while in the central regions they have a reduction effect. General trade in the western regions would expand the urban-rural income gap, and processing trade does not have a significant effect. Consequently, when the South African Government is working out trade multiplicative and corresponding policy, they should consider the development of foreign trade and should pay attention to the labour market structure.

  19. Preferential Trade Arrangements and the Pattern of Production and Trade when Inputs are Differentiated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper is concerned with rules of origin when intermediate goods are differentiated. An analytical model emphasizes trade patterns and the relative importance of trade in intermediates given trade preferences. Econometric evidence based on intra-OECD trade in motor vehicles and motor

  20. Additive versus Multiplicative Trade Costs and the Gains from Trade Liberalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses welfare e¤ects from trade liberalization in a Melitz (2003) heterogeneous-…rms trade model including the empirically important per-unit (i.e. additive) trade costs in addition to the conventional iceberg (i.e. multiplicative) and …xed trade costs. The novel contribution...... of the pa- per is the result that the welfare gain for a given increase in trade openness is higher for reductions in per-unit (additive) trade costs than for reductions in iceberg (multiplicative) trade costs. The ranking derives from di¤erences in intra-industry reallocations and in particular from...

  1. Trade-space Analysis for Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moigne, J.; Dabney, P.; de Weck, O. L.; Foreman, V.; Grogan, P.; Holland, M. P.; Hughes, S. P.; Nag, S.

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally, space missions have relied on relatively large and monolithic satellites, but in the past few years, under a changing technological and economic environment, including instrument and spacecraft miniaturization, scalable launchers, secondary launches as well as hosted payloads, there is growing interest in implementing future NASA missions as Distributed Spacecraft Missions (DSM). The objective of our project is to provide a framework that facilitates DSM Pre-Phase A investigations and optimizes DSM designs with respect to a-priori Science goals. In this first version of our Trade-space Analysis Tool for Constellations (TAT-C), we are investigating questions such as: "How many spacecraft should be included in the constellation? Which design has the best cost/risk value?" The main goals of TAT-C are to: Handle multiple spacecraft sharing a mission objective, from SmallSats up through flagships, Explore the variables trade space for pre-defined science, cost and risk goals, and pre-defined metrics Optimize cost and performance across multiple instruments and platforms vs. one at a time. This paper describes the overall architecture of TAT-C including: a User Interface (UI) interacting with multiple users - scientists, missions designers or program managers; an Executive Driver gathering requirements from UI, then formulating Trade-space Search Requests for the Trade-space Search Iterator first with inputs from the Knowledge Base, then, in collaboration with the Orbit & Coverage, Reduction & Metrics, and Cost& Risk modules, generating multiple potential architectures and their associated characteristics. TAT-C leverages the use of the Goddard Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) to compute coverage and ancillary data, streamlining the computations by modeling orbits in a way that balances accuracy and performance. TAT-C current version includes uniform Walker constellations as well as Ad-Hoc constellations, and its cost model represents an aggregate model

  2. Corridors of trade and power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias; Stepputat, Finn

    business between 1991 and today: from the heavily informalised economy of the 1980s, the violent markets of the early 1990s and the subsequent ‘duty-free shop’ period, to the emergence of a more regulated economy with a significant development of multi-clan shareholder companies since the mid-2000s....... In doing so, this paper offers numerous empirical and analytical insights into the relationship between trade, violence and regulation. With ongoing and future research on this topic in mind, we suggest a series of research questions and conceptualise the nexus between everyday economic activities...... and state formation dynamics. Finally, we propose a ‘corridor approach’, focussing on transnational corridors of trade and transport that traverse Somali East Africa, as a way of grasping the complex and dynamic interactions between state formation and everyday economic activity....

  3. Rationalities in trade union work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    as ‘customers’ tend to transform the role of the trade unions from the position of ‘political actors’ to ‘service providers’ in the advanced liberal societies. In closing, the paper will gesture to possible contestations, points of resistance and alternative discourses that are silenced in the strategy...... and exclusion, the territoriality of the unions, political ambitions, etc. By destabilizing the predominant neo-liberal discourses of the trade unions, the paper thus aims to point to alternative discursive resources and practices for strategy development....... papers. Using discourse analytic methods the paper will analyze, discuss and compare the current strategy papers of the three unions in order to investigate how they problematize their roles and objectives. This investigation will clarify the discursive premises of the unions and it will be shown how...

  4. Rethinking distance in international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870-2013

    CERN Document Server

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870-2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distances incorporate the different dimensions that affect international trade, beyond mere geography. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat, but hyperbolic. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; th...

  5. Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade

    OpenAIRE

    Б. В. Духницький; Т. В. Сіліфонов

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze peculiarities of Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade, the situation on the world market, and determine future prospects of its development. Methods. Analysis and synthesis, comparative evaluation, graphic procedure. Results. The role and place of Ukraine in a total grain supply to the world market was determined. Ukraine is a world’s top ten grain producer. Among domestic agricultural products, cereals, oilseeds and sunflower oil are in the highest demand in the w...

  6. Unit Values in International Trade and Product Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Is the unit value of traded goods representative of quality? To answer this question, we analyze unit value with respect to exporter country’s capacity to export, which is determined by its production cost, tariff, and distance. The change in a country’s export unit value is decomposed into the components associated with pure term-of-trade effect, quality effect, distance effect, and production cost effect. Our empirical results confirm that tariff, distance, and wages all significantly affect the unit values. Furthermore, by comparing CIF and FOB unit values, we show that quality is an important contributor on driving up the unit values: exporters increase unit price to distant trading partners through quality upgrading. This “Washington apple effect” is much larger than the pure distance effect or production cost increase.

  7. 76 FR 15294 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... analysis; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures.... Engage in promotional and marketing activities and collect information on trade opportunities in the... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of issuance of an Export...

  8. 75 FR 11842 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export management; export... marketing activities; b. Collect information on trade opportunities in the Export Markets and distribute... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application ( 10-00002...

  9. 75 FR 80456 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...; collection of information on trade opportunities; marketing; negotiations; joint ventures; shipping; export... marketing activities and collect information on trade opportunities in the Export Markets and distribute... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of application (Application...

  10. Causes and Remedies for Errors in International Forest Products Trade Data: Examples from the Hardwood Trade Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; William G. Luppold

    1995-01-01

    The quality of data concerning international hardwood products trade declined in the 1980s because of several problems associated with the collection and processing of individual export transaction records. This note examines the source, impact, and remedies for data problems caused by data screening procedures, nonreporting, recording errors, and alternative...

  11. ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL ASPECTS REGARDING INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Iren RADU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although subject to short term fluctuations as a result of the business cycle, the value of trade has continued to grow, reflecting the increased significance of trade and globalization. This paper focuses on the importance of accounting harmonisation on international trade showing the fiscal framework regarding trade in Romania. The study also presents the situation of exports and imports in our country in the last years, showing that the volume of goods and services trades is raising, leading also at the entire economy to grow.

  12. Determinants of retail trade in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Benazić, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that retail trade is one of the most important parts of any economy. Retail trade is also a very important component of GDP, whereby rising retail trade means a growth in consumption and a fall in unemployment. Therefore, policy makers must be able to recognise how changes in economic variables affect changes in retail trade. The main goal of this paper is to analyse the effects of changes in retail prices, net wages and short-term interest rate on nominal retail trade in ...

  13. Problems of Interplanetary and Interstellar Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, John

    2008-01-01

    If and when interplanetary and interstellar trade develops, it will be novel in two respects. First, the distances and time spans involved will reduce all or nearly all trade to the exchange of intangible goods. That threatens the possibility of conducting business in a genuinely common currency and of enforcing debt agreements, especially those involving sovereign debt. Second, interstellar trade suggests trade between humans and aliens. Cultural distance is a probable obstacle to initiating and sustaining such trade. Such exchange also threatens the release of new and potentially toxic memes.

  14. U.S. trade remedy law and agriculture: trade diversion and investigation effects

    OpenAIRE

    Colin A. Carter; Caroline Gunning-Trant

    2010-01-01

    We study U.S. agricultural antidumping and countervailing duty cases from 1980 to 2005, and gauge the effectiveness of trade remedy law as a form of protection. The purpose is to measure the resulting investigation and trade diversion effects. Previous research on trade in manufactured products has shown that the domestic protection offered by AD and CV duties is largely offset by trade diversion. In contrast, we find that for agriculture, trade diversion is relatively unimportant. So AD and ...

  15. Managing Carbon Footprints under the Trade Credit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how the retailer adjusts optimal ordering policy in the presence of cap-and-trade system and trade credit, and the corresponding changes of the retailer’s total costs and carbon footprint. Trade credit is one of the most used short-term financing tools. Our study shows that carbon emissions trading will shorten the ordering cycle for products that emit more carbon dioxide during the storage stage, and therefore reduce the buying behavior stimulation effect of trade credit on these products. Under the cap-and-trade system, the retailer’s total cost may increase or decrease, depending on the combination of carbon cap allocated to the retailer and the carbon price. Moreover, trade credit and the corresponding cost of capital affect the retailer’s carbon emission reduction strategy by changing the retailers’ consolidated cost during the ordering and inventory holding stages.

  16. 40 CFR 1042.720 - Trading emission credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trading emission credits. 1042.720..., Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1042.720 Trading emission credits. (a) Trading is the exchange of... further trading transactions. (b) You may trade actual emission credits as described in this subpart. You...

  17. Trade unions and social movements: methods and forms of interaction

    OpenAIRE

    O. L. Tupytsia

    2017-01-01

    The development of trade unions in the public and political dimension associated with maintaining by them socio-political movements, which in different periods of political history had the status of social movements. Among these movements are a social democratic and labor movements in Europe, which later acquired the status of parties. In addition, social movements are informal and very broad associations that need support group of values, or focused on single-step action, such as changing th...

  18. The hidden hyperbolic geometry of international trade: World Trade Atlas 1870–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Guillermo; Boguñá, Marián; Allard, Antoine; Serrano, M. Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the World Trade Atlas 1870–2013, a collection of annual world trade maps in which distance combines economic size and the different dimensions that affect international trade beyond mere geography. Trade distances, based on a gravity model predicting the existence of significant trade channels, are such that the closer countries are in trade space, the greater their chance of becoming connected. The atlas provides us with information regarding the long-term evolution of the international trade system and demonstrates that, in terms of trade, the world is not flat but hyperbolic, as a reflection of its complex architecture. The departure from flatness has been increasing since World War I, meaning that differences in trade distances are growing and trade networks are becoming more hierarchical. Smaller-scale economies are moving away from other countries except for the largest economies; meanwhile those large economies are increasing their chances of becoming connected worldwide. At the same time, Preferential Trade Agreements do not fit in perfectly with natural communities within the trade space and have not necessarily reduced internal trade barriers. We discuss an interpretation in terms of globalization, hierarchization, and localization; three simultaneous forces that shape the international trade system. PMID:27633649

  19. Carbon trading: Current schemes and future developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdan, Slobodan, E-mail: slobodan.perdan@manchester.ac.uk [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, Room F30, The Mill, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Azapagic, Adisa [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, Room F30, The Mill, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    This paper looks at the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading schemes and examines the prospects of carbon trading. The first part of the paper gives an overview of several mandatory GHG trading schemes around the world. The second part focuses on the future trends in carbon trading. It argues that the emergence of new schemes, a gradual enlargement of the current ones, and willingness to link existing and planned schemes seem to point towards geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading. However, such expansion would need to overcome some considerable technical and non-technical obstacles. Linking of the current and emerging trading schemes requires not only considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems, but also necessitates clear regulatory and policy signals, continuing political support and a more stable economic environment. Currently, the latter factors are missing. The global economic turmoil and its repercussions for the carbon market, a lack of the international deal on climate change defining the Post-Kyoto commitments, and unfavourable policy shifts in some countries, cast serious doubts on the expansion of emissions trading and indicate that carbon trading enters an uncertain period. - Highlights: > The paper provides an extensive overview of mandatory emissions trading schemes around the world. > Geographical, temporal and sectoral expansion of emissions trading are identified as future trends. > The expansion requires considerable technical fixes and harmonisation of different trading systems. > Clear policy signals, political support and a stable economic environment are needed for the expansion. > A lack of the post-Kyoto commitments and unfavourable policy shifts indicate an uncertain future for carbon trading.

  20. Free Trade Agreements: Impact on U.S. Trade and Implications for U.S. Trade Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    with Canada since 1989, which was expanded to include Mexico and became the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) effective in January 1994. U.S...Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement ( TPP ). The TPP is a free trade agreement that includes nations on both sides of the Pacific. The TPP , which... Mexico , went into effect in January 1994. U.S. interest in bilateral and regional free trade arrangements surged, and the Bush Administration

  1. Nutrition Labelling is a Trade Policy Issue: Lessons From an Analysis of Specific Trade Concerns at the World Trade Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes, C; Thow, A. M.; Jones, A; Ali, I.; Labonte, R

    2017-01-01

    Interpretive nutrition labels provide simplified nutrient-specific text and/or symbols on the front of pre-packaged foods, to encourage and enable consumers to make healthier choices. This type of labelling has been proposed as part of a comprehensive policy response to the global epidemic of non-communicable diseases. However, regulation of nutrition labelling falls under the remit of not just the health sector but also trade. Specific Trade Concerns have been raised at the World Trade Organ...

  2. Who Uses Free Trade Agreements?

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; Hiratsuka, Daisuke; Shiino, Kohei; Sukegawa, Seiya

    2009-01-01

    It is noted that utilization of ASEAN Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) is low by international standards. In order to clarify the reasons for such low utilization, this paper investigates what kinds of Japanese affiliates in ASEAN are more likely to use FTAs in their exporting, by employing unique affiliate-level data. Our findings are as follows. First, the larger the affiliate is, or the more diversified the origins of its procurements, the more likely it is to utilize an FTA scheme in its expo...

  3. Combination trading with limit orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Schellhorn

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We model the exchange of commodities that are contingent upon each other, when traders place mostly limit orders. Examples include: 1 a market of financial futures where future spreads are also traded, 2 a market of mutual funds and stocks, 3 a market of options and stocks, under the viewpoint that they are both combinations of Arrow-Debreu securities. We prove that consistent prices are optimal. We develop a fixed-point algorithm to compute an optimal price and allocation. The algorithm combines ideas from contraction mapping theory and from homotopy theory. It is much faster than a traditional linear programming approach.

  4. Employment Growth and International Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Rikke; Warzynski, Frederic; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    In this paper, we use a detailed dataset containing information about all international trade transactions of the population of Danish ?rms over more than a decade to analyze the relationship between export and import decisions and employment growth. We further distinguish between imports of ?nal...... goods and imports of intermedi­ate products. We ?nd that both imports and exports decisions are positively related to employment growth. Interestingly, both ?nished goods and intermediate goods imports have a positive link. We also control for the re-exporting process, i.e. ?rms importing ?nal goods...

  5. Non-preferential Trading Clubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the welfare implications of non-discriminatory tariff reforms by a subset of countries, which we term a non-preferential trading club. We show that there exist coordinated tariff reforms, accompanied by appropriate income transfers between the member countries, that unambiguou......, that unambiguously increase the welfare of these countries while leaving the welfare of non-members unaltered. In terms of economic policy implications, our results show that there exist regional, MFN-consistent arrangements that lead to Pareto improvements in world welfare....

  6. English for International Trade Law

    OpenAIRE

    Bilová Štĕpánka

    2014-01-01

    The Faculty of Law at Masaryk University in Brno, the Czech Re- public, offers several fields of studies, one of them being the three-year Bachelor’s degree programme of International Trade Law. This programme includes two semesters of English for specific purposes which the students take in their first year of studies. However, as the programme is offered as a part time study, there are only 10 lessons of English taught within two days per semester. Preparing a course which would develop the...

  7. LAVA Pressure Transducer Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, Samuel B.

    2016-01-01

    The Regolith and Environment Science and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload will transport the (LAVA) subsystem to hydrogen-rich locations on the moon supporting NASA's in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) programs. There, the LAVA subsystem will analyze volatiles that evolve from heated regolith samples in order to quantify how much water is present. To do this, the system needs resilient pressure transducers (PTs) to calculate the moles in the gas samples. The PT trade study includes a comparison of newly-procured models to a baseline unit with prior flight history in order to determine the PT model with the best survivability in flight-forward conditions.

  8. INTERACTION OF TRADE AND FINANCIAL LINKAGES IN THE FREE TRADE ZONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shevchenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Different models of free trade agreements (FTA and free trade zones (FTZ are considered in the article, argued the complex approach to their structures and results under unstable global economic environment. The typology of the free trade zones models and financial linkages types between countries have been developed. Approaches to the results of the free trade zones have been argued. It has been discovered that for the free trade zones of transitional countries the prevailing are tarde flows concentration whereas financial and investment linkages are acting with developed countries. The main directions of increasing of the financial linkages results in the free trade zones have been discovered.

  9. The political economy of International Emissions Trading Scheme Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J.T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    that industry will have most influence on government policy, with environmental organizations taking second place. Our conclusion is that most interest groups prefer a combination of government trading and credit trading even though permit trading is more efficient. Furthermore, some governments prefer......The Kyoto Protocol allows emission trade between the Annex B countries. We consider three schemes of emissions trading: government trading, permit trading and credit trading. The schemes are compared in a public choice setting focusing on group size and rent-seeking from interest groups. We find...... government trading because it retains the possibility of hot air trading. Udgivelsesdato: DEC...

  10. Trade and product innovations as sources for productivity increases: an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Paul; Butter, den Frank A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Commonly increases in total factor productivity (TFP) are associated with technological innovations measured by R and D expenditures. Empirical evidence seems to corroborate this relationship. However, in trading countries like the Netherlands, productivity increases, even in industry, can also be

  11. THE EU’S NEIGHBOURHOOD TRADE ARRANGEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila BORTA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The elusive outcome of the Doha Round has increased the importance of the preferential trade agreements worldwide. Currently, the EU`s trade policy is driven by preferential negotiations. European bilateralism is important and extremely challenging. This union aims to conclude a significant number of deep and comprehensive free trade agreements, particularly by eliminating tariffs, and also by facilitating the trade of services, investments, procurement and regulatory matters. The EU has granted unilateral preferences to developing countries through tariff free access to the EU market, thereby helping them to eradicate poverty and promote sustainable development. Based on the primary motives of Europe’s preferential trade agreements, we have analysed the trade agreements negotiated with geographically close neighbours to which the EU is prepared to offer commercial accession or some slightly less ambitious type of relationship.

  12. Time-Space Trade-Offs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagter, Jakob Illeborg

    In this dissertation we investigate the complexity of the time-space trade-off for sorting, element distinctness, and similar problems. We contribute new results, techniques, tools, and definitions pertaining to time-space trade-offs for the RAM (Random Access Machine), including new tight upper...... bounds on the time-space trade-off for Sorting in a variety of RAM models and a strong time-space trade-off lower bound for a decision problem in the RAM (in fact the branching program) model. We thus contribute to the general understanding of a number of fundamental combinatorial problems. Time...... and space are the two most fundamental resources studied in the areas of algorithms and computational complexity theory and it is clearly important to study how they are related. In 1966 Cobham founded the area of time-space trade-offs by formally proving the first time-space trade-off—for the language...

  13. The Formation of Russian Agrarian Trade Structure: Inter-industry vs. Intra-industry Trade Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ishchukova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on specialization of Russia’s foreign trade in agrarian products and foodstuffs in terms of inter-industry and intra-industry trade. The main objective of this study is to analyse the extent of intra-industry trade in Russia’s foreign trade in agricultural products and to identify significant changes in trade patterns at the industry level over the transformation period (1996–2012.The results coming from individual conducted analyses provide a systematic decomposition of Russia’s foreign trade into three trade types: inter-industry, intra-industry in horizontally and vertically differentiated products. Inter-industry type of trade dominates in Russian foreign trade in agricultural and food products and accounts for about a third of total trade flows. The analysis revealed significant differences in the intensity of intra-industry trade, depending on geographic region. The lowest level of intra-industry trade is observed in relation to Africa and South America, the highest - in relation to CIS countries. There were also found some trends, including the expanding intra-industry trade in relation to the CIS countries, as well as a decrease in relation to Asian and EU countries.

  14. Marketingová komunikace fair trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nídlová, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on how fair trade and its brand are communicated on the market. The theoretical part describes the basic concepts of marketing, marketing communication and marketing research. The practical part describes the general meaning of fair trade and its main principles and goals. The following section is devoted to the analysis of recent marketing activities. The main research investigates the level of knowledge of fair trade among Czech consumers. The conclusion summarizes the r...

  15. Trade and Environmental Issues in Forest Production

    OpenAIRE

    Markku Simula

    1999-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to clarify some of the key issues on trade and environment in the forestry sector. The two main emerging issues in the international trade of forest products within Latin America and the Caribbean to be studied are: 1) implications of the removal of trade barriers for the economic contribution and sustainability of production of the forest sector; and 2) prospects for "green" markets and eco-labelling of forest products based on improved management and harvesting prac...

  16. Japanese Trading Companies: Can they Be Copied?

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Sarathy

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of Japanese trading companies suggests that would-be U.S. trading companies could be emulate Japan's special, rather than general, trading companies. Factors likely to lead to success are: offering narrow high-margin product lines in geographically diversified markets; integration with manufacturing operations having strong domestic markets; well capitalized finances with access to ample credit, perhaps achieved through partnership with large international banks; efficient working ca...

  17. The Fair Trade Network in Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Fridell , Gavin

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the fair trade network within the context of the post-war international development regime. In recent years, sales of fair trade goods — both commodities and handicrafts — have grown substantially in Europe and North America, and the fair trade network has been relatively successful at gaining the support of public institutions, international financial institutions, and transnational corporations. This paper argues that this success, when viewed historically, can only be p...

  18. China: Exchange Rate Policy and Asian Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Alicia García-Herrero; Tuuli Koivu

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows empirically that China s trade balance is sensitive to fluctuations in the renminbi real effective exchange rate. However, the current size of the trade surplus is such that exchange rate policy, alone, will probably not be able to address the imbalance. The reduction in the trade surplus is limited mainly because Chinese imports do not react as expected to exchange rate appreciation. In fact, they tend to fall rather than increase. By estimating bilateral import equations fo...

  19. Linking GHG Emission Trading Systems and Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Several different types of links are possible between different GHG-mitigation systems. These include: Linking two or more emission trading schemes so that emissions trading can occur both within and between different schemes ('direct links'); and Linking emission trading systems to registries/mechanisms and systems that generate offsets from project based mechanisms or from direct purchases/transfers of AAUs ('indirect links').

  20. Trade union organization in employment relations

    OpenAIRE

    Čeledová, Jaroslava

    2012-01-01

    Trade unions organizations in employment relations The thesis deals with trade union organization as the most important representative of employees in collective employment relations. The purpose of this thesis is to describe a task of trade union organization as a legal subject from the view of legal theory, as well as from the view of contemporary legal regulation which has recently been substantially changed due to the recodification of private law. These contemporary amendments change a s...

  1. A Dialogical Approach to Trade and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Trujillo

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, supporters of free trade and environmentalists have regarded each other as the obstacle to development, and both sides have very different views as to what constitutes development. This article considers the various dimensions to international trade governance in the context of the environment and draws from the dialogic theory in comparative constitutional law to frame trade governance regarding the environment in a new way. It uses a dialogical approach to highlight primarily...

  2. Five essays on emissions trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godal, Odd

    2005-03-01

    The thesis discusses energy, environmental and economic aspects of polluting emissions with emphasis on greenhouse gas trade and political measures. 5 papers are included with titles: 1) Carbon trading across sources and periods constrained by the Marrakesh Accords which examines examine the potential effects on permit prices and abatement costs of four compliance rules governing emissions trade across sources and periods in the Kyoto Protocol: The banking rule that allows excess permits to be used later; the restoration rate rule that penalizes borrowing; the commitment period reserve rule that limits sales; and finally, the suspension rule that restricts borrowing and sales. Our framework is a two-period model where parties may be out of compliance in the Kyoto period, but are assumed to comply at a later time. Under varying assumptions about market power and US participation, we find that the rules may have pronounced effects on individual costs, but overall efficiency is not severely affected. 2) Affine price expectations and equilibrium in strategic markets which considers equilibrium in imperfect markets, featuring agents who exchange property rights. Important cases include trade in emission permits of greenhouse gases, or exchange of catch quotas of fish. Some players act strategically while others are price-takers. The ''demand curve'' is endogenous, and it affects all parties. The resulting, reduced objectives need not be concave. Therefore, existence of equilibrium is a delicate matter. To simplify things, and to ensure availability of ''equilibria up to first order'', we presume that all strategic agents form affine price expectations. 3) Greenhouse gases, quota exchange and oligopolistic competition that discusses the problem how quotas can be shared in the ''emissions market'' and how can the agents reach as overall equilibrium in the product market. 4) Strategic markets in property rights

  3. A Network of Networks Perspective on Global Trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Maluck

    superimposed to these trends. The marked reorganization of trade patterns, associated with this economic crisis in comparison to "normal" annual fluctuations in the network structure is traced and quantified by a new widely applicable generalization of the Hamming distance to weighted networks.

  4. Capacity building for global health diplomacy: Thailand's experience of trade and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiprayoon, Suriwan; Smith, Richard

    2015-11-01

    A rapid expansion of trade liberalization in Thailand during the 1990s raised a critical question for policy transparency from various stakeholders. Particular attention was paid to a bilateral trade negotiation between Thailand and USA concerned with the impact of the 'Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Rights (TRIPS) plus' provisions on access to medicines. Other trade liberalization effects on health were also concerning health actors. In response, a number of interagency committees were established to engage with trade negotiations. In this respect, Thailand is often cited as a positive example of a country that has proactively sought, and achieved, trade and health policy coherence. This article investigates this relationship in more depth and suggests lessons for wider study and application of global health diplomacy (GHD). This study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 people involved in trade-related health negotiations, together with observation of 9 meetings concerning trade-related health issues. Capacity to engage with trade negotiations appears to have been developed by health actors through several stages; starting from the Individual (I) understanding of trade effects on health, through Nodes (N) that establish the mechanisms to enhance health interests, Networks (N) to advocate for health within these negotiations, and an Enabling environment (E) to retain health officials and further strengthen their capacities to deal with trade-related health issues. This INNE model seems to have worked well in Thailand. However, other contextual factors are also significant. This article suggests that, in building capacity in GHD, it is essential to educate both health and non-health actors on global health issues and to use a combination of formal and informal mechanisms to participate in GHD. And in developing sustainable capacity in GHD, it requires long term commitment and strong leadership from both health and non-health sectors. Published by

  5. Work-related to musculoskeletal disorder amongst Malaysian construction trade workers: Bricklayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lop, Nor Suzila; Kamar, Izatul Farrita Mohd; Aziz, Mohd Nasiruddin Abdul; Abdullah, Lizawati; Akhir, Norizan Mt

    2017-10-01

    Construction sector is one of the highest risk industries contributing to the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. In general construction activities involve the composition of various construction trades, such as painting, plastering, concreting, paving and bricklaying. Different construction trades workers are exposed to risk factors depending their job and task. There are risk factors associated with the construction trade workers activities such as concrete work, brickwork, piling work excavation works and etc. Thus, the aim of this research is to document the critical activities that affect the musculoskeletal disorders amongst Malaysian construction trade workers, in particular to the bricklayers. The objective of this research is to identify the critical activities that affect to the musculoskeletal disorder among the bricklayers. The data for this research was collected via observation to the construction workers for the specific trades which are bricklayers in Perak. Finding of this research is by identifying the critical activities involved that affect the musculoskeletal disorder suffering among bricklayers.

  6. The nature and significance of intra-industry trade

    OpenAIRE

    Roy J. Ruffin

    1999-01-01

    In this article, Roy Ruffin gives an overview of intra-industry trade for the generalist. Intra-industry trade represents international trade within industries rather than between industries. Such trade is more beneficial than inter-industry trade because it stimulates innovation and exploits economies of scale. Moreover, since productive factors do not switch from one industry to another, but only within industries, intra-industry trade is less disruptive than inter-industry trade.

  7. Trade Unions, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michele Ford

    2015-01-01

    .... The International Labour Organization and elements of the international trade union movement have succeeded in getting forced labour on the policy agenda globally and within many national settings...

  8. Wildlife trade and global disease emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karesh, William B; Cook, Robert A; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Newcomb, James

    2005-07-01

    The global trade in wildlife provides disease transmission mechanisms that not only cause human disease outbreaks but also threaten livestock, international trade, rural livelihoods, native wildlife populations, and the health of ecosystems. Outbreaks resulting from wildlife trade have caused hundreds of billions of dollars of economic damage globally. Rather than attempting to eradicate pathogens or the wild species that may harbor them, a practical approach would include decreasing the contact rate among species, including humans, at the interface created by the wildlife trade. Since wildlife marketing functions as a system of scale-free networks with major hubs, these points provide control opportunities to maximize the effects of regulatory efforts.

  9. Feeding humanity through global food trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Carr, Joel A.; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca; Vandoni, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    The recent intensification of international trade has led to a globalization of food commodities and to an increased disconnection between human populations and the land and water resources that support them through crop and livestock production. Several countries are not self-sufficient and depend on imports from other regions. Despite the recognized importance of the role of trade in global and regional food security, the societal reliance on domestic production and international trade remains poorly quantified. Here we investigate the global patterns of food trade and evaluate the dependency of food security on imports. We investigate the relationship existing between the trade of food calories and the virtual transfer of water used for their production. We show how the amount of food calories traded in the international market has more than doubled between 1986 and 2009, while the number of links in the trade network has increased by more than 50%. Likewise, global food production has increased by more than 50% in the same period, providing an amount of food that is overall sufficient to support the global population at a rate of 2700-3000 kcal per person per day. About 23% of the food produced for human consumption is traded internationally. The water use efficiency of food trade (i.e., food calories produced per unit volume of water used) has declined in the last few decades. The water use efficiency of food production overall increases with the countries' affluence; this trend is likely due to the use of more advanced technology.

  10. Discovering Preferential Patterns in Sectoral Trade Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Cingolani

    Full Text Available We analyze the patterns of import/export bilateral relations, with the aim of assessing the relevance and shape of "preferentiality" in countries' trade decisions. Preferentiality here is defined as the tendency to concentrate trade on one or few partners. With this purpose, we adopt a systemic approach through the use of the tools of complex network analysis. In particular, we apply a pattern detection approach based on community and pseudocommunity analysis, in order to highlight the groups of countries within which most of members' trade occur. The method is applied to two intra-industry trade networks consisting of 221 countries, relative to the low-tech "Textiles and Textile Articles" and the high-tech "Electronics" sectors for the year 2006, to look at the structure of world trade before the start of the international financial crisis. It turns out that the two networks display some similarities and some differences in preferential trade patterns: they both include few significant communities that define narrow sets of countries trading with each other as preferential destinations markets or supply sources, and they are characterized by the presence of similar hierarchical structures, led by the largest economies. But there are also distinctive features due to the characteristics of the industries examined, in which the organization of production and the destination markets are different. Overall, the extent of preferentiality and partner selection at the sector level confirm the relevance of international trade costs still today, inducing countries to seek the highest efficiency in their trade patterns.

  11. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany (Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom))

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  12. EU-India migration and trade linkages

    OpenAIRE

    TUMBE, Chinmay

    2013-01-01

    CARIM-India: Developing a knowledge base for policymaking on India-EU migration This paper reviews the relationship between migration and trade between India and the European Union (EU). It provides an overview of EU-India trade across various dimensions and links it with migration in three specific contexts: (a) The $ 14 billion EU-India diamond trade that represents nearly 15% of total EU-India merchandise trade, and that is attributed to the direct and active role played by Indian immig...

  13. Trading people versus trading time: What is the difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Christine C

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Person trade-off (PTO elicitations yield different values than standard utility measures, such as time trade-off (TTO elicitations. Some people believe this difference arises because the PTO captures the importance of distributive principles other than maximizing treatment benefits. We conducted a qualitative study to determine whether people mention considerations related to distributive principles other than QALY-maximization more often in PTO elicitations than in TTO elicitations and whether this could account for the empirical differences. Methods 64 members of the general public were randomized to one of three different face-to-face interviews, thinking aloud as they responded to TTO and PTO elicitations. Participants responded to a TTO followed by a PTO elicitation within contexts that compared either: 1 two life-saving treatments; 2 two cure treatments; or 3 a life-saving treatment versus a cure treatment. Results When people were asked to choose between life-saving treatments, non-maximizing principles were more common with the PTO than the TTO task. Only 5% of participants considered non-maximizing principles as they responded to the TTO elicitation compared to 68% of participants who did so when responding to the PTO elicitation. Non-maximizing principles that emerged included importance of equality of life and a desire to avoid discrimination. However, these principles were less common in the other two contexts. Regardless of context, though, participants were significantly more likely to respond from a societal perspective with the PTO compared to the TTO elicitation. Conclusion When lives are at stake, within the context of a PTO elicitation, people are more likely to consider non-maximizing principles, including the importance of equal access to a life-saving treatment, avoiding prejudice or discrimination, and in rare cases giving treatment priority based purely on the position of being worse-off.

  14. Does AFTA Create More Trade for Thailand? An Investigation of Some Key Trade Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piriya Pholphirul

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA creates trade for Thailand or actually diverts it away from the country. It does this by analyzing various trade indicators: the Export Similarity Index, the Intra-Industry Trade Index, and Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA rank correlation. By examining the patterns of trade between Thailand and other members of ASEAN, it reveals a high degree of similarity regarding the trade structure between Thailand and AFTA, which indicates that there will be fewer trade-creation benefits from AFTA and a greater likelihood of trade diversion once the AFTA scheme has been fully implemented. This similarity pattern explains the reasons for future collaboration among member countries and supportive arguments for the future extension of ASEAN ("ASEAN+". Market-penetration and development strategies should be employed by Thai exporters when accessing the ASEAN market.

  15. DNA Barcoding Identifies Illegal Parrot Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Priscila F M; Oliveira-Marques, Adriana R; Matsumoto, Tania E; Miyaki, Cristina Y

    2015-01-01

    Illegal trade threatens the survival of many wild species, and molecular forensics can shed light on various questions raised during the investigation of cases of illegal trade. Among these questions is the identity of the species involved. Here we report a case of a man who was caught in a Brazilian airport trying to travel with 58 avian eggs. He claimed they were quail eggs, but authorities suspected they were from parrots. The embryos never hatched and it was not possible to identify them based on morphology. As 29% of parrot species are endangered, the identity of the species involved was important to establish a stronger criminal case. Thus, we identified the embryos' species based on the analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene [COI] and 16S ribosomal DNA). Embryonic COI sequences were compared with those deposited in BOLD (The Barcode of Life Data System) while their 16S sequences were compared with GenBank sequences. Clustering analysis based on neighbor-joining was also performed using parrot COI and 16S sequences deposited in BOLD and GenBank. The results, based on both genes, indicated that 57 embryos were parrots (Alipiopsitta xanthops, Ara ararauna, and the [Amazona aestiva/A. ochrocephala] complex), and 1 was an owl. This kind of data can help criminal investigations and to design species-specific anti-poaching strategies, and demonstrate how DNA sequence analysis in the identification of bird species is a powerful conservation tool. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Not so close but still extremely loud: recollection of the World Trade Center terror attack and previous hurricanes moderates the association between exposure to hurricane Sandy and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit; Hamama-Raz, Yaira; Palgi, Sharon; Goodwin, Robin; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2014-05-01

    The present study examined whether recollections of the World Trade Center (WTC) terror attack and previous hurricanes moderated the relationship between exposure to Hurricane Sandy and related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. An online sample of 1000 participants from affected areas completed self-report questionnaires a month after Hurricane Sandy hit the East Coast of the United States. Participants reported their exposure to Hurricane Sandy, their PTSD symptoms, and recollections of the WTC terror attack and previous hurricanes elicited due to Hurricane Sandy. Exposure to Hurricane Sandy was related to PTSD symptoms among those with high level of recollections of the WTC terror attack and past hurricanes, but not among those with low level of recollections. The aftermath of exposure to Hurricane Sandy is related not only to exposure, but also to its interaction with recollections of past traumas. These findings have theoretical and practical implications for practitioners and health policy makers in evaluating and interpreting the impact of past memories on future natural disasters. This may help in intervention plans of social and psychological services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Trade in Health Services and Globalization: The Role of Infinitesimal Changes of Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Tonmoy; Gupta, Kausik

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to integrate the issues related to health care, consumption efficiency hypothesis and international trade in the context of a developing economy. In this article we have framed a hybrid type of three sector general equilibrium trade model in the presence of a nutritional efficiency factor of health consumption, where first two sectors form a Heckscher-Ohlin nugget and the third one is a non-traded health service producing sector. Overall, we find little harm from trade, an...

  18. US Trade and Wages: The Misleading Implications of Conventional Trade Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence Edwards; Robert Z. Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Conventional trade theory, which combines the Heckscher-Ohlin theory and the Stolper-Samuelson theorem, implies that expanded trade between developed and developing countries will increase wage inequality in the developed countries. This theory is widely applied. It serves as the basis for estimating the impact of trade on wages using two-sector simulation models and the net factor content of trade. It leads naturally to the presumption that the rapid growth and declining relative prices of U...

  19. Water resources transfers through southern African food trade: water efficiency and climate signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Carole; Conway, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variability of precipitation in southern Africa is particularly high. The associated drought and flood risks, combined with a largely rain-fed agriculture, pose a challenge for water and food security in the region. As regional collaboration strengthens through the Southern Africa Development Community and trade with other regions increases, it is thus important to understand both how climate variability affects agricultural productivity and how food trade (regional and extra-regional) can contribute to the region's capacity to deal with climate-related shocks. We combine global hydrological model simulations with international food trade data to quantify the water resources embedded in international food trade in southern Africa and with the rest of the world, from 1986-2011. We analyze the impacts of socio-economic changes and climatic variability on agricultural trade and embedded water resources during this period. We find that regional food trade is efficient in terms of water use but may be unsustainable because water-productive exporters, like South Africa, rely on increasingly stressed water resources. The role of imports from the rest of the world in the region's food supply is important, in particular during severe droughts. This reflects how trade can efficiently redistribute water resources across continents in response to a sudden gap in food production. In a context of regional and global integration, our results highlight opportunities for improved water-efficiency and sustainability of the region's food supply via trade.

  20. Trade liberalization in the south east Europe: Effects and controversial issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pjerotić Ljiljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Included in the regional cooperation of SEE countries, trade liberalization is considered the most important factor of a sustainable economic growth which should contribute to the mutual trade among SEE countries, growth of the foreign direct investments, further production specialization and export structure change. Countries of the region have accepted liberalization as one of the conditions of the Stabilization and Association Process (SAP, hoping, each of them individually, that in that way they would improve proper position. Creating a free trade area will contribute to a further increase of intra-regional trade flows, but it shouldn't be expected that the relative importance of mutual exchange will prevail the importance which EU has for the SEE countries, except Moldova. Paper is divided into five sections. After the introduction, the trade liberalization process in the SEE region is explained in the second part (section 2. The third section analyses actual intra-regional trade flows and SEE countries trade relations with the EU (section 3. Some controversial issues raised in recent debates on trade liberalization in SEE are also discussed (section 4. The main conclusions are given at the end (section 5. .

  1. Fair trade for coffee producing small-scale farmers in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam kwon Mun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The agriculture played an important role in the industrialization process of Mexico. However, the agricultural policy of State has isolated small scale farmers, giving priority just to large agricultural exporters. This study analyzes the implications that can have fair trade for the Mexican small scale farmers. The fair trade tries to cover the production cost and basic necessities for the small scale farmers, making direct ties between producers and consumers. This type of linkage guarantees the minimum price and the extra social payment to the small scale farmers, grouped in cooperatives o associations.Coffee is one of the most known fair trade product, and Mexico is one of the most important coffer exporters of the world. The fair trade of coffee production where many small farmers work is carried out by cooperative like UCIRI (Unión de Comunidades Indígenas de la Región Istmo. The case study shows that fair trade cannot provide complete answers to the all problems that have small farmers. But, since fair trade tries to promote small farmers well-being and many small farmers could get rid of extreme poverty thanks to fair trade, it might be possible to say that fair trade can be one valuable option for the sustainable development of small farmers.

  2. Trade-driven relocation of air pollution and health impacts in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haikun; Zhang, Yanxu; Zhao, Hongyan; Lu, Xi; Zhang, Yanxia; Zhu, Weimo; Nielsen, Chris P; Li, Xin; Zhang, Qiang; Bi, Jun; McElroy, Michael B

    2017-09-29

    Recent studies show that international trade affects global distributions of air pollution and public health. Domestic interprovincial trade has similar effects within countries, but has not been comprehensively investigated previously. Here we link four models to evaluate the effects of both international exports and interprovincial trade on PM2.5 pollution and public health across China. We show that 50-60% of China's air pollutant emissions in 2007 were associated with goods and services consumed outside of the provinces where they were produced. Of an estimated 1.10 million premature deaths caused by PM2.5 pollution throughout China, nearly 19% (208,500 deaths) are attributable to international exports. In contrast, interprovincial trade leads to improved air quality in developed coastal provinces with a net effect of 78,500 avoided deaths nationwide. However, both international export and interprovincial trade exacerbate the health burdens of air pollution in China's less developed interior provinces. Our results reveal trade to be a critical but largely overlooked consideration in effective regional air quality planning for China.International and domestic interprovincial trade of China are entangled, but their health impacts have been treated separately in earlier studies. Here Wang. quantify the complex impacts of trade on public health across China within an integrative framework.

  3. Implications of the South Korea-U.S. Free Trade Agreement on South Korean Dairy Product Imports.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Keithly G.; Blayney, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    This study empirically estimates the South Korean short-run and long-run import demand parameters for source-based dairy products and assess the impacts of the KORUS FTA on dairy product trade. These estimates were derived using a Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) demand system. The impact of the tariff reductions associated with the free trade agreement was calculated. Based on the results, it appears that the free trade agreements open up the South Korean dairy product markets primarily by...

  4. CINNAMON, CASSIA AND ANCIENT TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen George Haw

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: There is a widespread assumption that ancient “cinnamon” and “cassia” were the same as the spices now known by those names; that is, products obtained from trees of the genus Cinnamomum. This article argues that this is not the case, but that the “cinnamon” and “cassia” of ancient writers very probably came from plants native to northeast Africa, as several early writers actually state. Possible African sources of ancient “cinnamon” and “cassia” are suggested. The most probable principal source is identified as Cassia abbreviata. It is also argued that alleged identifications of cinnamon or cassia at archaeological sites in the Mediterranean region are questionable. It is shown that cinnamon and cassia did not figure in Southeast Asian and Chinese trade at an early period, and that Austronesian settlement of Madagascar occurred after the Classical period, probably during the second half of the first millennium CE, too late for Southeast Asians to have played any major role in trade with the Roman Empire. There is no good reason to believe that true cinnamon and cassia were traded to the western Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean region at any very early date. This article truly takes an interdisciplinary approach to its subject: the author is a botanist as well as a historian, and is able to use original Chinese sources. The question of whether ancient “cinnamon” and “cassia” were the same as modern cinnamon and cassia (products of trees of the genus Cinnamomum is a thorny one, which has been repeatedly debated in the past, usually with no very conclusive result. The most recent thorough discussion of the issue, by Lionel Casson, concluded that the ancient and modern products were the same. This article refutes that view: it is clear that Casson lacked the botanical knowledge necessary to reach a sound conclusion. The article deals with its subject thoroughly, examining archaeological as well as textual

  5. Trade Relations between New Zealand and China: An Empirical Analysis in the Context of a Free Trade Agreement

    OpenAIRE

    Sayeeda Bano

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the bilateral trade relations between New Zealand and China from 1980 to 2012. It examines the strength of the trade relationship using export and import intensity indices; identifies the degree of trade reciprocity using a 'trade reciprocity index'; estimates the magnitude of intra-industry trade using the Grubel-Lloyd and Aquino indices; and analyses these indices to consider how trade patterns and relations have changed between 1980 and 2012. Significant growth in trade...

  6. Risk-trading in flood management: An economic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiung Ting

    2017-09-15

    Although flood management is no longer exclusively a topic of engineering, flood mitigation continues to be associated with hard engineering options. Flood adaptation or the capacity to adapt to flood risk, as well as a demand for internalizing externalities caused by flood risk between regions, complicate flood management activities. Even though integrated river basin management has long been recommended to resolve the above issues, it has proven difficult to apply widely, and sometimes even to bring into existence. This article explores how internalization of externalities as well as the realization of integrated river basin management can be encouraged via the use of a market-based approach, namely a flood risk trading program. In addition to maintaining efficiency of optimal resource allocation, a flood risk trading program may also provide a more equitable distribution of benefits by facilitating decentralization. This article employs a graphical analysis to show how flood risk trading can be implemented to encourage mitigation measures that increase infiltration and storage capacity. A theoretical model is presented to demonstrate the economic conditions necessary for flood risk trading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Resilience of the global virtual water trade system

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Laio, F.; Ridolfi, L.; Carr, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    The food security of human societies partly depends on the trade and transport of food commodities around the world. The trade of these goods is associated with a virtual exchange of the water needed for their production. The intensification of international trade has recently led to a globalization of water resources through a network of virtual water trade. We investigate the resilience of the virtual water network and the societal ability to cope with droughts and water stress conditions in a world of globalized water resources. Specifically, we evaluate the effect of the removal of vertices from the virtual water network, due to the choice or inability of a vertex to participate in the import and export of virtual water (e.g., embargo, autarchy, or other economical or environmental reasons). The resilience of the virtual water network is assessed by calculating changes in the average virtual flow between pairs of vertices and the emergence or intensification of water deficit conditions as a function of the number of vertices removed. When coupled with a model of population growth, this analysis sheds light on the fragility of the food security system and of the underlying virtual water network.

  8. International trade and employment: trade partner country effects on jobs and wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortanier, F.N.; Jaarsma, M.; Korvorst, M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent academic research has consistently identified trading firms - both exporters and importers - to be larger, and to pay higher wages than their non-trading counterparts. However, not all trade is equal: imports from low-wage countries may destroy employment, particularly among low-skilled

  9. 78 FR 42084 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade Organization's Standards and Trade Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... Bank, World Health Organization (WHO) and the WTO. The STDF supports developing countries in building... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement to Support the World Trade...) to the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF). DATES...

  10. Greenhouse gas credits trade versus biomass trade – weighing (Workshop Summary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Robertson, K.; Woes-Gallasch, S.; Schlamadinger, B.

    2006-01-01

    A workshop entitled ‘Greenhouse gas credits trade versus biomass trade – weighing the benefits’, jointly organised by IEA Bioenergy Tasks 38 (GHG Balances of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems) and 40 (Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand), and ENOVA, took place in

  11. Heterogeneous trade agreements, WTO membership and international trade : an analysis using matching econometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Tristan; Trojanowska, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the heterogeneous effects of trade agreements (TAs) and World Trade Organization (WTO) membership on the volume of international trade. We extend Baier and Bergstrand’s (2009a) application of matching econometrics by distinguishing between different types of TAs and WTO

  12. 31 CFR 515.322 - Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory. 515.322 Section 515.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... CUBAN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.322 Authorized trade territory; member of the...

  13. 31 CFR 500.322 - Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorized trade territory; member of the authorized trade territory. 500.322 Section 500.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 500.322 Authorized trade territory; member of the...

  14. Trade reform in Iran for accession to the World Trade Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farajzadeh, Zakariya; Zhu, Xueqin; Bakhshoodeh, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    We developed a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to study the potential welfare and environmental impacts of Iran's trade reform for accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO). Our results show that removing trade barriers not only results in higher welfare and GDP as well as lower

  15. Trade tensions between EU and Russia: Possible effects on trade in agricultural commodities for Visegrad countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erokhin, V.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Ivolga, A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper includes overview of the current state of the EU-CIS and the EU-Russia trade flows with particular attention to trade in agricultural commodities, as well as contemporary tendencies in agricultural production and foreign trade in agricultural commodities and food in Russia. The paper

  16. Nutrition labelling is a trade policy issue: lessons from an analysis of specific trade concerns at the World Trade Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Jones, Alexandra; Hawkes, Corinna; Ali, Iqra; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-01-12

    Interpretive nutrition labels provide simplified nutrient-specific text and/or symbols on the front of pre-packaged foods, to encourage and enable consumers to make healthier choices. This type of labelling has been proposed as part of a comprehensive policy response to the global epidemic of non-communicable diseases. However, regulation of nutrition labelling falls under the remit of not just the health sector but also trade. Specific Trade Concerns have been raised at the World Trade Organization's Technical Barriers to Trade Committee regarding interpretive nutrition labelling initiatives in Thailand, Chile, Indonesia, Peru and Ecuador. This paper presents an analysis of the discussions of these concerns. Although nutrition labelling was identified as a legitimate policy objective, queries were raised regarding the justification of the specific labelling measures proposed, and the scientific evidence for effectiveness of such measures. Concerns were also raised regarding the consistency of the measures with international standards. Drawing on policy learning theory, we identified four lessons for public health policy makers, including: strategic framing of nutrition labelling policy objectives; pro-active policy engagement between trade and health to identify potential trade issues; identifying ways to minimize potential 'practical' trade concerns; and engagement with the Codex Alimentarius Commission to develop international guidance on interpretative labelling. This analysis indicates that while there is potential for trade sector concerns to stifle innovation in nutrition labelling policy, care in how interpretive nutrition labelling measures are crafted in light of trade commitments can minimize such a risk and help ensure that trade policy is coherent with nutrition action. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. 40 CFR 96.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 96.140 Section...) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual...

  18. 40 CFR 97.140 - State trading budgets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading budgets. 97.140 Section...) FEDERAL NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS CAIR NOX Allowance Allocations § 97.140 State trading budgets. The State trading budgets for annual allocations of CAIR NOX allowances...

  19. 78 FR 59004 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... Trade Facilitation Services; 2. Engage in promotional and marketing activities and collect information... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Application for an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Emporia Trading LLC, Application No. 13-00001. SUMMARY: The Export...

  20. 78 FR 78818 - Export Trade Certificate of Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... for the provision of Export Trade Facilitation Services; 2. Engage in promotional and marketing... International Trade Administration Export Trade Certificate of Review ACTION: Notice of Issuance of an Export Trade Certificate of Review to Emporia Trading LLC, Application No. 13-00001. SUMMARY: The U.S...

  1. 40 CFR 96.40 - State trading program budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State trading program budget. 96.40... (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS NOX Allowance Allocations § 96.40 State trading program budget. The State trading program budget...

  2. 75 FR 70973 - Registration of Foreign Boards of Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... prospectively to facilitate direct access to the electronic trading system of a foreign board of trade by its U... Trading Corporation 17 CFR Part 48 Registration of Foreign Boards of Trade; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 48 RIN 3038-AD19 Registration of Foreign Boards of Trade AGENCY: Commodity Futures...

  3. 77 FR 35353 - Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia AGENCY: International Trade... Biotech Life Sciences trade mission to Australia, October 29-November 2, 2012. The mission to Australia is... of the trade mission to Australia are to (1) increase U.S. exports to Australia, (2) introduce U.S...

  4. System Losses and Assessment Trade Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Shropshire; Steve Piet; Nick Soelberg; Robert Cherry; Roger Henry; David Meikrantz; Greg Teske; Eric Shaber; Candido Pereira

    2009-09-01

    This Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) study has developed new analysis methods to examine old and new technology options toward the goal of improving fuel cycle systems. We have integrated participants and information from AFCI Systems Analysis, Transmutation Fuels, Separations, and Waste Form Campaigns in the Systems Losses and Assessment Trade Study. The initial objectives of this study were to 1) increase understanding of system interdependencies and thereby identify system trade-offs that may yield important insights, 2) define impacts of separations product purity on fuel manufacture and transmutation reactivity, 3) define impacts from transuranic (TRU) losses to waste, 4) identify the interrelationships involved in fuels and separations technology performance, and 5) identify system configuration adjustments with the greatest potential for influencing system losses. While bounding and analyzing this initial problem, we also identified significantly higher-level programmatic drivers with broad implications to the current fuel cycle research charter and the general issue of a DOE complex wide need for a comprehensive and integrated nuclear material management as addressed by the new DOE Order 410.2 titled “Management of Nuclear Materials”. The initial modeling effort developed in this study for a much smaller subset of material (i.e., commercial fuel) and a selected transmutation scheme (i.e., fast reactor recycling) is a necessary first step towards examining a broader set of nuclear material management options, dispositioning strategies and integrated waste management options including potential areas of research leverage. The primary outcome from this initial study has been an enhanced integration among Campaigns and associated insights and analysis methods. Opportunities for improved understanding between the groups abound. The above lanthanide-actinide example highlights the importance of evaluating options via integration across the Campaigns

  5. Exploring hubness in Regional Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de

    2016-01-01

    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries take in a more central position than others in the sense that some countries are much more engaged with other countries through RTAs. Furthermore, the position of some countries is that of a hub: they have (many) trade

  6. Hubs and spokes in Regional Trade Agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de

    2017-01-01

    In the plethora of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) some countries are involved in much more RTAs than others. Furthermore, some countries take in a position as a hub: they have trade agreements with many other countries, while their partner countries are much less involved in RTA relations. Even

  7. Global Trade Alert | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Global Trade Alert. As many economies witness the sharpest fall in exports in decades, and with unemployment rising to levels not seen since the 1980s, governments might be tempted to resort to protectionist policies. Although the world has not seen a return to the trade-distorting reactions of the 1930s, governments have ...

  8. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    2009-01-01

    It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country...

  9. Malta and the Nineteenth Century Grain Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    It is often assumed that Britain's colonies followed the British doctrine of free trade in the second half of the nineteenth century. Malta, which became a British colony in 1814, did indeed become an early free trader. However, she failed to liberalize the grain trade, even when the mother country...

  10. Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations : Knowledge ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-10-07

    Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations : Knowledge and Power in Latin America. Couverture du livre Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations: Knowledge and Power in Latin America. Editor(s):. Mercedes Botto. Publisher(s):. Routledge, CRDI. October 7, 2009. ISBN: 9780415801911. 246 pages.

  11. Competitiveness and linking of emission trading systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausotter, Tobias; Steuwer, Sibyl; Taenzler, Dennis [adelphi, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    The establishment of emission trading systems raises concerns among industries regarding international competitive disadvantages for the industries under an emissions cap. This study aims to assess competitiveness exposure of industrial sectors and presents policy measures to address these concerns. Moreover, the study provides a comparison of different existing approaches to competitiveness concerns proposed by regional emission trading systems. (orig.)

  12. Canada's Changing Geography of Jobs and Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, David

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of globalization on the jobs and trade of Canada. Emphasizes new relationships with countries in Latin America and Africa. Notes the types of trade that Canada enjoys with these two areas and encourages expansion of business into them. (DSK)

  13. the europeanisation of emissions trading gerard h.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLAWUYI

    ABSTRACT. The adoption of carbon market trading in the European Union (EU) was far from assured. Prior to the Kyoto Protocol, the EU had been critical of market trading and had expressed grave reservations regarding its potential contribution to climate governance. Given this historical backdrop, the EU's conversion to ...

  14. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tari¤ reduction on the op- timal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the

  15. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the

  16. Review Existing and Proposed Emissions Trading Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews key design features of mandatory emissions trading systems that had been established or were under consideration in 2010, with a particular focus on implications for the energy sector. Putting a price on greenhouse gas emissions is a cornerstone policy in climate change mitigation. To this end, many countries have implemented or are developing domestic emissions trading systems.

  17. 12 CFR 335.241 - Unlisted trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unlisted trading. 335.241 Section 335.241 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY SECURITIES OF NONMEMBER INSURED BANKS § 335.241 Unlisted trading. The provisions of the applicable and...

  18. International Emissions Trading : Design and Political Acceptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, Jan Tjeerd

    2006-01-01

    This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at the national level that have a different impact on output and thereby related factors such as employment and consumer prices.

  19. Legal insider trading and stock market liquidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, Hans; de Jong, Frank; Lefebvre, J.J.G.

    This paper assesses the impact of legal trades by corporate insiders on the liquidity of the firm’s stock. For this purpose, we analyze two liquidity measures and one information asymmetry measure. The analysis allows us to study as well the effect of a change in insider trading regulation, namely

  20. The Trading Axis in Irkutsk Downtown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals a linear concentration of the trading function in the historical center of Irkutsk. It features historical prerequisites and continuation of the tradition in the post-Soviet period, given the conversion of plants and factories. The article analyses the current state and prospects of modernization of the trading axis with its transformation into a modern public space.

  1. Trade Space Analysis: Rotational Analyst Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A., & Sundararaj, G. J. (2000, May). Interactive Physical Programming: Tradeoff Analysis and Decision Making in Multicriteria Optimization. AIAA...TRAC-M-TR-15-028 September 2015 Trade Space Analysis : Rotational Analyst Research Project TRADOC Analysis ...PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK TRAC-M-TR-15-028 September 2015 Trade Space Analysis : Rotational Analyst Research Project

  2. Mainstreaming fair trade: the role of retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Rossing, G.; Hendriksen, A.; Voerman, K.

    2014-01-01

    In just two decades, fair trade has evolved from a niche market supplying products for a small group of dedicated consumers to a well-established market in several European countries, including the Netherlands. This transition has led to important changes in the dynamics in the fair-trade supply

  3. Foreign experience of regulating international trade transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko L. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the international experience of state regulating international trade transactions; nature, directions and contradictions of contemporary processes of globalization are defined; components of regulatory and incentive means in system of state supporting foreign trade activity of commodity producers are considered; general provisions for the improvement of state regulation mechanisms of export-import activities in Ukraine are determined.

  4. 75 FR 1029 - International Trade Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... officials in India to learn about various regulatory procedures and policies; and (3) introduce companies to... Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Mission Statement Medical Trade Mission to India: March 8-13, 2010. Mission Description The United States Department of Commerce, International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign...

  5. Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-12-05

    Dec 5, 2008 ... Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution will be of interests to students and scholars of trade, international relations, and conflict studies. ... This project will provide evidence on the role of high-quality, affordable daycare in allowing mothers to work in paid employment in poor urban contexts.

  6. Emission Trading under the Kyoto Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtsmark, Bjart; Hagem, Cathrine

    1998-12-01

    This report discusses the potential gains from emission trading and raises some crucial questions. It shows that the total costs of the Kyoto Protocol could be reduced by about 95% through emission trading. Emission trading is an option also in the domestic arenas. The governments of the Annex B countries may allocate emission quotas to local enterprises as emission permits. Thus new markets for greenhouse gas emission quotas may emerge, domestically and internationally. It is emphasized that emission trading at the national and international levels must be discussed separately. The Nordic governments, for example, will find several good reasons for supporting emission trading at the international level if not necessarily domestically. The Nordic countries have already implemented domestic taxes on CO{sub 2} emissions and this tax policy could be sustained while these governments support and take part in emission trading at the international level.The report also considers a possible side effect of emission trading: free emission trading among Annex B countries could reduce the total abatement compared to a non-tradable policy as a consequence of the fact that some of the countries that are in transition to a market economy may be given emission limitations above their business-as-usual emissions. 40 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Virtual water trade and development in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A debate has long existed on the relationships between human population, natural resources, and development. Recent research has expanded this debate to include the impacts of trade; specifically, virtual water trade, or the water footprint of traded commodities. We conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between virtual water trade, population, and development in Africa. We find that increases in virtual water imports do not lead to increases in population growth nor do they diminish human welfare. We establish a new index of virtual water trade openness and show that levels of undernourishment tend to fall with increased values of virtual water trade openness. Countries with small dam storage capacity obtain a higher fraction of their agricultural water requirements from external sources, which may indicate implicit "infrastructure sharing" across nations. Globally, increased crop exports tend to correlate with increased crop water use efficiency, though this relationship does not hold for Africa. However, internal African trade is much more efficient in terms of embodied water resources than any other region in the world. Thus, internal African trade patterns may be compensating for poor internal production systems.

  8. The determinants of trade credit use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels; Kihanga, Ernest; Lensink, Robert; Lutz, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Most small businesses in the developing economies suffer from a lack of access to formal external finance. One important alternative source of finance for these entrepreneurs is trade credit. Applying a unique data-set containing data on specific trade relations between rice wholesalers and rice

  9. Trade and Growth under Limited Liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Bakanova; L. Vinhas de Souza

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies the connection between trade and growth in the context of a partial and inconsistent liberalization process in a specific Eastern European country in transition towards market economy, namely, the Republic of Belarus. The analysis of the country trade patterns during

  10. THE CAUSAL TEXTURE OF TRADE UNION ENVIRONMENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    This paper is an attempt to fill an important gap in the existing literature on trade unions by providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, ...

  11. Teaching through Trade Books: Teaming Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Christine Anne

    2017-01-01

    This column includes activities inspired by children's literature. This month's trade books teach students about external and internal structures that allow animals and humans to survive. This months trade books are: (1) "Creature Features" (Steve Jenkins and Robin Page); and (2) "Body Actions" (Shelley Rotner and David A.…

  12. Fishers, Fair Trade, and finding middle ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, Megan; Bush, Simon; Oosterveer, Peter; Larastiti, Laksmi

    2016-01-01

    The goal of Fair Trade certification is to contribute to sustainable development by offering trading conditions that are transparent and equitable. One important condition is improved market access and strengthened producer organizations. In regions like Southeast Asia this goal can be hard to

  13. Trade Credit Insurance and Asymmetric Information Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolovska Olena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of different risk factors in international trade gives evidence of the necessity of support in gaps that may affect exporters’ activity. To maximize the trade volumes and in the same time to minimize the exporters’ risks the stakeholders use trade credit insurance. The paper provides analysis of conceptual background of the trade credit insurance in the world. We analyzed briefly the problems, arising in insurance markets due to asymmetric information, such as adverse selection and moral hazard. Also we discuss the main stages of development of trade credit insurance in countries worldwide. Using comparative and graphical analysis we provide a brief evaluation of the dynamics of claims and recoveries for different forms of trade credit insurance. We found that the claims related to the commercial risk for medium and long trade credits in recent years exceed the recoveries, while with the political risk the reverse trend holds. And we originally consider these findings in terms of information asymmetry in the trade credit insurance differentiated by type of risk.

  14. THE CAUSAL TEXTURE OF TRADE UNION ENVIRONMENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    providing a more adequate theoretical formulation of trade union environments. The discussion suggests that unlike the environment of business and related organisations whose causal texture is understood in terms of uncertainty, complexity, instability and turbulence that of trade unions needs to be understood in terms of ...

  15. Virtual water flows and trade liberalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Vallejo, J; Rogers, P

    2004-01-01

    The linkages between agricultural trade and water resources need to be identified and analyzed to better understand the potential impacts that a full liberalization, or lack thereof, will have on water resources. This paper examines trade of virtual water embodied in agricultural products for most countries of the world. The main purpose of the paper, however, is to examine the impact of trade liberalization on virtual-water trade in the future. Based on a simulation of global agricultural trade, a scenario of full liberalization of agriculture was used to assess the net effect of virtual water flows from the relocation of meat and cereals' trade. The paper also identifies the main reasons behind the changes in the magnitude and direction of the net virtual water trade over time, and shows that virtual water trade flows are independent of water resource endowments, contrary to what the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem states. Finally, based on a formal model, some input demand functions at the country level are estimated. The estimates of the income and agricultural support elasticities of demand for import of virtual water have the expected sign, and are statistically significant. Variables found to have some explanatory power of the variance of virtual water imports are average income; population; agriculture as value added; irrigated area, and exports of goods and services.

  16. International trade disputes in modern regulatory paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Gordeeva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the latest trends observed in the area of contradictory relations between countries with regard to international trade, which cause changes in the paradigm of international trade disputes. It has been found out that any state of inconsistent relations between the countries is recently characterized as a «trade war». It has been analyzed the notions of «dispute», «conflict», «war» according to international regulatory documents and determined the applicability of these terms depending on a number of criteria. It has been studied the evolution of the objects of international trade disputes since the time of ancient Greece until today, and new trends based on this have been revealed with regard to use of trade policy instruments that cause disputes between countries. Several specific examples of international trade disputes and causes of their occurrence have been considered. A quantitative analysis of international trade disputes in general and in relations between the leading countries in terms of a number of the trade disputes in which they were involved has been performed.

  17. The Kyoto Agreement: Trade and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Agreement from 1997 allows trade of CO2 emission quotas between the 38 industrialized countries which have committed themselves to an emission ceiling. However, it does not define how this potential trade system should be designed. The intention was to clarify these matters during the 1...

  18. Trade Unions and the Humanisation of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchobanian, R.

    1975-01-01

    After pointing out possible prejudicial consequences of job restructuring both for occupational and economic interests of workers and for the structure and activities of the trade union movement, various trade union reactions and attitudes to work humanization are analyzed. Available from: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211,…

  19. Redefining trade-based market manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, Matthijs

    2008-01-01

    Trade-based market manipulation, which is usually described as trading shares to initiate a price change or to cause an artificial price, has received wide attention in policy and academic discussions, although the behavior is still poorly defined in both legal and economic literature. This Article

  20. Analysis of Ukraine’s foreign trade turnover in context of free trade zone with European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К.Shymanska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the free trade zone between Ukraine and the European Union has many advantages and disadvantages for our country. The changes in Ukraine’s economic integration vector cause much dispute about its prospects and profitability. Nevertheless, the strengthening of economic and political crisis leads to the reduction in foreign trade of Ukraine with the EU. Although in recent years, many institutional limitations for the Ukrainian producers’ entrance to European markets have been removed. The analysis of Ukraine's foreign trade turnover with EU countries showed the indicators of exports and imports structure in the partner countries and allowed to reveal decreasing of intensity of these operations. This can be a negative indicator of activities for the implementation of the Association Agreement with the EU. The study has formulated the perspective directions of foreign trade policy of Ukraine, in particular with respect to the modernization of informational and technical support of the customs clearance of the goods movement, increasing control over the quality of Ukrainian goods and opportunities for the small and mediumsized entities entrance to the European markets.

  1. Water Footprint and Virtual Water Trade of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva, Vicente de Paulo R.; de Oliveira, Sonaly D.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Neto, Jose Dantas; Campos, João Hugo B.C.; Braga, Celia C.; Araújo, Lincoln Eloi; Oliveira Aleixo, Danilo; de Brito, Jose Ivaldo B.; de Souza, Marcio Dionisio; de Holanda, Romildo M.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity has increased at an alarming rate worldwide; improved water management plays a vital role in increasing food production and security. This study aims to determine the water footprint of Brazil’s national food consumption, the virtual water flows associated with international trade in the main agricultural commodities, as well as water scarcity, water self-sufficiency and water dependency per Brazilian region. While previous country studies on water footprints and virtual w...

  2. How E-Commerce Affects The Trading System

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Albinsaad

    2015-01-01

    Electronic commerce is a commercial activity through computer systems and networks. E-commerce is not limited to selling but extends to include business operations electronic data interchange and point of sale systems. Also the associated growth of e-commerce relies on the growth techniques and security of financial transactions. This paper will help to show how e-commerce impacted the trading system by indication to some of its benefits and limitations.

  3. How E-Commerce Affects The Trading System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Albinsaad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce is a commercial activity through computer systems and networks. E-commerce is not limited to selling but extends to include business operations electronic data interchange and point of sale systems. Also the associated growth of e-commerce relies on the growth techniques and security of financial transactions. This paper will help to show how e-commerce impacted the trading system by indication to some of its benefits and limitations.

  4. Recent history and geography of virtual water trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel A Carr

    Full Text Available The global trade of goods is associated with a virtual transfer of the water required for their production. The way changes in trade affect the virtual redistribution of freshwater resources has been recently documented through the analysis of the virtual water network. It is, however, unclear how these changes are contributed by different types of products and regions of the world. Here we show how the global patterns of virtual water transport are contributed by the trade of different commodity types, including plant, animal, luxury (e.g., coffee, tea, and alcohol, and other products. Major contributors to the virtual water network exhibit different trade patterns with regard to these commodity types. The net importers rely on the supply of virtual water from a small percentage of the global population. However, discrepancies exist among the different commodity networks. While the total virtual water flux through the network has increased between 1986 and 2010, the proportions associated with the four commodity groups have remained relatively stable. However, some of the major players have shown significant changes in the virtual water imports and exports associated with those commodity groups. For instance, China has switched from being a net exporter of virtual water associated with other products (non-edible plant and animal products typically used for manufacturing to being the largest importer, accounting for 31% of the total water virtually transported with these products. Conversely, in the case of The United states of America, the commodity proportions have remained overall unchanged throughout the study period: the virtual water exports from The United States of America are dominated by plant products, whereas the imports are comprised mainly of animal and luxury products.

  5. Stock Market Reactions to Conflict Diamond Trading Restrictions and Controversies

    OpenAIRE

    William Seitz

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the reactions of financial market participants to news relating to the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS), a body that regulates aspects of global diamond production and trade. I use an event study approach with data on the returns for shares of leading global mining and jewelry retail companies over the period from 1999 to 2011. I show that the most influential dates related to the KPCS for diamond mining companies were associated with regulatory actions i...

  6. Coal trade means shipbuilders' goldmine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgeway, J.

    1980-03-01

    Nowhere is the advent of a new international trade in coal more important than in the shipping industry. Since the middle of the last decade the world shipping industry has been in the doldrums. As the world switches slowly away from oil, the trade in coal probably will increase dramatically. As it does, the structure of the trade will change. Much of the coal will be shipped by water. During the past decade, US influence declined as the energy crisis changed the nature of the trade away from metallurgical coals to thermal coals. Shipping experts predict the dry bulk carriers that are used for coal, grain, and iron ore (a commodity whose trade is expected to increase) will replace the oil tankers as the most-important class of ships on the high seas by the year 2000.

  7. Trading Zones in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pamela O

    2015-12-01

    This essay adopts the concept of trading zones first developed for the history of science by Peter Galison and redefines it for the early modern period. The term "trading zones" is used to mean arenas in which substantive and reciprocal communication occurred between individuals who were artisanally trained and learned (university-trained) individuals. Such trading zones proliferated in the sixteenth century. They tended to arise in certain kinds of places and not in others, but their existence must be determined empirically. The author's work on trading zones differs from the ideas of Edgar Zilsel, who emphasized the influence of artisans on the scientific revolution. In contrast, in this essay, the mutual influence of artisans and the learned on each other is stressed, and translation is used as a modality that was important to communication within trading zones.

  8. Contemporary Management Development Of Retail Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Segetlija

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of retail trade concentration brought to further changes in its structure and accordingly to changes in economic subjects management in retail trade. In connection with it, the former paradigm of retail trade market also changes since industrial design assortment becomes more and more important due to being founded on the progamme of category management and other forms of vertical marketing. On the other side, beside having the knowledge of natural development of new forms of business units, new technologies and human potentials, the new circumstances reveal more and more ways of connection with the buyers in the retail trade. This is, of course, in accordance with the newest phase in the development of marketing that is based on the orientation on the buyers and processes. Such an access is in direct function of suppositions for achieving more efficient and effective economic growth and development in the retail trade sector.

  9. Ethical food standard schemes and global trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Botterill, Linda Courtenay

    2012-01-01

    Global food trade embodies a range of different interpretations of the nature of food and its role in society. On the one hand, the WTO food regulation regime, in particular the SPS agreement, is based upon a somewhat instrumental value of food consumption in which food is seen as a commodity...... to be traded in accordance with international trade rules. At the same time, a number of private standards, such as GlobalG.A.P and various organic standards, are emerging which embody broadly postmaterialist values that suggest that food purchasing and consumption are also social, ethical and perhaps even...... political activities. This paper analyses the relationship between the WTO food trade regime on the one hand and the GlobalG.A.P and organic food trade regimes on the other. We suggest that competing values can co-exist in parallel institutions and in a commensalistic relationship which protects the values...

  10. GMM Estimator: An Application to Intraindustry Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos Leitão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of intraindustry trade (IIT, horizontal IIT (HIIT, and Vertical IIT (VIIT in the automobile industry in Portugal. The trade in this sector between Portugal and the European Union (EU-27 was examined, between 1995 and 2008, using a dynamic panel data. We apply the GMM system to solve the problems of serial correlation and the endogeneity of some explanatory variables. The findings are consistent with the literature. The difference between per capita incomes and factor endowments present a positive sign. These results are according to Heckscher-Ohlin predictions. The economic dimension has a positive impact on trade. A negative effect of the distance on bilateral trade was expected and the results confirm this, underlining the importance of neighbour partnerships for all trade.

  11. A FRAMEWORK FOR TRANSPARENCY IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Turnes, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to cover the gap in literature about transparency in the context of international trade facilitation. It focuses on the importance of transparency in achieving growth in international trade and the differences between non-transparent practices and corruption in global trade. Managing the disclosure of information about rules, regulations and laws is not the only trade policy instrument where transparency becomes important. To build a framework on levels of transparency we developed a matrix classifying the transparency of each country based on ease of doing business and levels of bribery. Four different strategies are explained based on the different scenarios of transparency in international trade. The main conclusions reflect that disclosure of information is not enough to guarantee transparency and monitoring of transparency must be improved.

  12. Research and Development Costs in Retail Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojko LUKIC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research and development expenses are crucial business performance factors for all enterprises, including trading companies. The size and structure of these expenses depend largely on the nature of a company’s activities. Due to such importance and specificity, the research focus of this article is on R&D expenses in trading companies with particular emphasis on retail companies. Their share in the sales revenue of trading companies is increasingly important and determined by many factors, such as innovation, size, location, product categories, and others. Due to varying intensity of influence of these and other factors, research and development expenses in commercial companies differ among countries, trade types (wholesale, retail, wholesale and retail, retail formats (store types and product categories. Understanding the factors of these differences is important for efficient management of research and development costs in trade, particularly retail companies. They are the focus of research in this work.

  13. Trade Unions, Forced Labour and Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Ford

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the dilemmas facing trade unions seeking to engage on questions of forced labour and human trafficking. The International Labour Organization and elements of the international trade union movement have succeeded in getting forced labour on the policy agenda globally and within many national settings. However, trade unions have limited capacity to effect real change in relation to these issues because of limitations on their influence, determined largely by membership density and the limited number of sectors in which they are present, but also internal assessments of what constitutes ‘core business’. As a consequence, while trade unions may advocate for legislative or policy change, partner with non-governmental organisations to deal with particular cases, or even engage directly with vulnerable populations, the integration of those populations into the day to day concerns of trade unions necessarily remains elusive—particularly in the global south, where forced labour is most prevalent.

  14. 77 FR 66072 - Designation of New Grantee; Foreign Trade Zone 66, Wilmington, NC, and Foreign-Trade Zone 67...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Designation of New Grantee; Foreign Trade Zone 66, Wilmington, NC, and Foreign-Trade Zone 67, Morehead City, NC Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), and the Foreign-Trade Zones Board Regulations (15 CFR part 400...

  15. 76 FR 50287 - Request for Public Comments To Compile the National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Foreign Trade Barriers and Reports on Sanitary and Phytosanitary and Standards-Related Foreign Trade... Representative (USTR) is required to publish annually the National Trade Estimate Report on Foreign Trade... statutory mandate and the Obama Administration's commitment to focus on the most significant foreign trade...

  16. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier M Krings

    Full Text Available We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect counterparts to traditional (or direct measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network.

  17. Trade Integration and Trade Imbalances in the European Union: A Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, Gautier M.; Carpantier, Jean-François; Delvenne, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal) trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network. PMID:24465381

  18. Trade in water and commodities as adaptations to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, R. B.; Hertel, T. W.; Prousevitch, A.; Baldos, U. L. C.; Frolking, S. E.; Liu, J.; Grogan, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The human capacity for altering the water cycle has been well documented and given the expected change due to population, income growth, biofuels, climate, and associated land use change, there remains great uncertainty in both the degree of increased pressure on land and water resources and in our ability to adapt to these changes. Alleviating regional shortages in water supply can be carried out in a spatial hierarchy through i) direct trade of water between all regions, ii) development of infrastructure to improve water availability within regions (e.g. impounding rivers), iii) via inter-basin hydrological transfer between neighboring regions and, iv) via virtual water trade. These adaptation strategies can be managed via market trade in water and commodities to identify those strategies most likely to be adopted. This work combines the physically-based University of New Hampshire Water Balance Model (WBM) with the macro-scale Purdue University Simplified International Model of agricultural Prices Land use and the Environment (SIMPLE) to explore the interaction of supply and demand for fresh water globally. In this work we use a newly developed grid cell-based version of SIMPLE to achieve a more direct connection between the two modeling paradigms of physically-based models with optimization-driven approaches characteristic of economic models. We explore questions related to the global and regional impact of water scarcity and water surplus on the ability of regions to adapt to future change. Allowing for a variety of adaptation strategies such as direct trade of water and expanding the built water infrastructure, as well as indirect trade in commodities, will reduce overall global water stress and, in some regions, significantly reduce their vulnerability to these future changes.

  19. Landing on the Beaches: the Functioning of the Brazilian Slave Trade After 1831

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus J. M. de Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available After 1831, the slave trade moved to natural harbors on the littoral, where it employed scores of people catering, healing, guarding the survivors, burying the dead. Smaller boats also helped the slave ships to reach the coast. The local population found new opportunities of employment and trade. Slave dealers had to buy or rent those lands, or associate themselves with their owners. The illegal slave trade would change the local economy and politics.

  20. 75 FR 68808 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Free Trade Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ..., including the validity of the methodology and assumptions used; (3) Enhance the quality, utility, and... claims under these free trade agreements by going to http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/trade/trade_programs...