WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid separation method

  1. Rapid separation method for actinides in emergency air filter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L; Culligan, Brian K; Noyes, Gary W

    2010-12-01

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and strontium in air filter samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations. The actinides and strontium in air filter method utilizes a rapid acid digestion method and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and Sr Resin cartridges. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time. Alpha emitters are prepared using cerium fluoride microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified (90)Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. This new procedure was applied to emergency air filter samples received in the NRIP Emergency Response exercise administered by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in April, 2009. The actinide and (90)Sr in air filter results were reported in less than 4 h with excellent quality. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  3. RAPID SEPARATION METHOD FOR 237NP AND PU ISOTOPES IN LARGE SOIL SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.; Culligan, B.; Noyes, G.

    2010-07-26

    A new rapid method for the determination of {sup 237}Np and Pu isotopes in soil and sediment samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used for large soil samples. The new soil method utilizes an acid leaching method, iron/titanium hydroxide precipitation, a lanthanum fluoride soil matrix removal step, and a rapid column separation process with TEVA Resin. The large soil matrix is removed easily and rapidly using this two simple precipitations with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. Vacuum box technology and rapid flow rates are used to reduce analytical time.

  4. A method of rapidly estimating the position of the laminar separation point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Doenhoff, Albert E

    1938-01-01

    A method is described of rapidly estimating the position of the laminar separation point from the given pressure distribution along a body; the method is applicable to a fairly wide variety of cases. The laminar separation point is found by the von Karman-Millikan method for a series of velocity distributions along a flat plate, which consist of a region of uniform velocity followed by a region of uniform decreased velocity. It is shown that such a velocity distribution can frequently replace the actual velocity distribution along a body insofar as the effects on laminar separation are concerned. An example of the application of the method is given by using it to calculate the position of the laminar separation point on the NACA 0012 airfoil section at zero lift. The agreement between the position of the separation point calculated according to the present method and that found from more elaborate computations is very good.

  5. Apparatus and method for rapid separation and detection of hydrocarbon fractions in a fluid stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluder, Charles S.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A.

    2013-01-22

    An apparatus and method for rapid fractionation of hydrocarbon phases in a sample fluid stream are disclosed. Examples of the disclosed apparatus and method include an assembly of elements in fluid communication with one another including one or more valves and at least one sorbent chamber for removing certain classifications of hydrocarbons and detecting the remaining fractions using a detector. The respective ratios of hydrocarbons are determined by comparison with a non separated fluid stream.

  6. Development of a Capillary Zone Electrophoretic Method for the Rapid Separation and Detection of Hepatotoxic Microcystins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Paul C.H.; Hu, Shen; Lam, Paul K.S

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of trace amounts of various hepatotoxic microcystins in marine and freshwater samples is very important since these toxins, especially microcystin-LR, have been demonstrated to have tumour-promoting activity. In this study, instead of measuring the total amount of microcystins, we developed a capillary zone electrophoretic method for the separation and detection of individual toxin standards. No additives were used for enhancement of resolution. This technique is characterized by a high separation efficiency, short analysis time and small sample volume. In order to improve the detection sensitivity, a laser-induced fluorescence detector was used, and the labelling of microcystins was accomplished through a two-step procedure. First, the microcystin standards were converted into cysteine conjugates, followed by derivatization with Fluorescein 5-Isothiocyanate (FITC). After derivatization, the FITC-labelled microcystins were directly injected, separated and detected in 8 min. This method was shown to be a promising technique for sensitive and rapid analysis of individual microcystin toxins.

  7. Meselect - A Rapid and Effective Method for the Separation of the Main Leaf Tissue Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svozil, Julia; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Baerenfaller, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Individual tissues of complex eukaryotic organisms have specific gene expression programs that control their functions. Therefore, tissue-specific molecular information is required to increase our understanding of tissue-specific processes. Established methods in plants to obtain specific tissues or cell types from their organ or tissue context typically require the enzymatic degradation of cell walls followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) using plants engineered for localized expression of green fluorescent protein. This has facilitated the acquisition of valuable data, mainly on root cell type-specific transcript and protein expression. However, FACS of different leaf cell types is difficult because of chlorophyll autofluorescence that interferes with the sorting process. Furthermore, the cell wall composition is different in each cell type. This results in long incubation times for refractory cell types, and cell sorting itself can take several hours. To overcome these limitations, we developed Meselect (mechanical separation of leaf compound tissues), a rapid and effective method for the separation of leaf epidermal, vascular and mesophyll tissues. Meselect is a novel combination of mechanical separation and rapid protoplasting, which benefits from the unique cell wall composition of the different tissue types. Meselect has several advantages over cell sorting: it does not require expensive equipment such as a cell sorter and does not depend on specific fluorescent reporter lines, the use of blenders as well as the inherent mixing of different cell types and of intact and damaged cells can be avoided, and the time between wounding of the leaf and freezing of the sample is short. The efficacy and specificity of the method to enrich the different leaf tissue types has been confirmed using Arabidopsis leaves, but it has also been successfully used for leaves of other plants such as tomato or cassava. The method is therefore useful for plant

  8. Meselect – A rapid and effective method for the separation of the main leaf tissue types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Svozil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Individual tissues of complex eukaryotic organisms have specific gene expression programs that control their functions. Therefore, tissue-specific molecular information is required to increase our understanding of tissue-specific processes. Established methods in plants to obtain specific tissues or cell types from their organ or tissue context typically require the enzymatic degradation of cell walls followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS using plants engineered for localized expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP. This has facilitated the acquisition of valuable data, mainly on root cell type-specific transcript and protein expression. However, FACS of different leaf cell types is difficult because of chlorophyll autofluorescence that interferes with the sorting process. Furthermore, the cell wall composition is different in each cell type. This results in long incubation times for refractory cell types, and cell sorting itself can take several hours. To overcome these limitations, we developed Meselect (mechanical separation of leaf compound tissues, a rapid and effective method for the separation of leaf epidermal, vascular and mesophyll tissues. Meselect is a novel combination of mechanical separation and rapid protoplasting, which benefits from the unique cell wall composition of the different tissue types. Meselect has several advantages over cell sorting: it does not require expensive equipment such as a cell sorter and does not depend on specific fluorescent reporter lines, the use of blenders as well as the inherent mixing of different cell types and of intact and damaged cells can be avoided, and the time between wounding of the leaf and freezing of the sample is short. The efficacy and specificity of the method to enrich the different leaf tissue types has been confirmed using Arabidopsis leaves, but it has also been successfully used for leaves of other plants such as tomato or cassava. The method is therefore

  9. A rapid method for the extraction, enantiomeric separation and quantification of amphetamines in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano-Rossi, Sabina; Botrè, Francesco; Bermejo, Ana Maria; Tabernero, Maria Jesús

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents a rapid and sensitive method for the determination and chiral separation of amphetamines and related designer drugs in hair samples. The substances are extracted from hair matrix by a 30 min treatment with a saturated carbonate buffer at pH 10 under ultrasonication. A commercial chiral derivatizing agent, trifluoroacetyl-prolyl chloride, is then added to the solution that is directly extracted with hexane and subsequently analyzed by GC/MS in SIM mode. R and S isomers of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, MDMA and MDEA can be separated and detected with a limit of detection of 0.1 ng/mg for amphetamine, methamphetamine and MDA, and of 0.2 ng/mg for MDMA and MDEA. The method was then applied to 12 samples from suspected amphetamines abusers, showing the presence of both isomers of amphetamine and MDMA in one sample (27 and 1.5 ng/mg, respectively) and of MDMA in further eight samples, in concentrations ranging from traces to 2.7 ng/mg. No differences were observed in the disposition of different isomers in hair.

  10. A simple-rapid method to separate uranium, thorium, and protactinium for U-series age-dating of materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew W; Eitrheim, Eric S; Nelson, Andrew W; Nelson, Steven; Schultz, Michael K

    2014-08-01

    Uranium-series dating techniques require the isolation of radionuclides in high yields and in fractions free of impurities. Within this context, we describe a novel-rapid method for the separation and purification of U, Th, and Pa. The method takes advantage of differences in the chemistry of U, Th, and Pa, utilizing a commercially-available extraction chromatographic resin (TEVA) and standard reagents. The elution behavior of U, Th, and Pa were optimized using liquid scintillation counting techniques and fractional purity was evaluated by alpha-spectrometry. The overall method was further assessed by isotope dilution alpha-spectrometry for the preliminary age determination of an ancient carbonate sample obtained from the Lake Bonneville site in western Utah (United States). Preliminary evaluations of the method produced elemental purity of greater than 99.99% and radiochemical recoveries exceeding 90% for U and Th and 85% for Pa. Excellent purity and yields (76% for U, 96% for Th and 55% for Pa) were also obtained for the analysis of the carbonate samples and the preliminary Pa and Th ages of about 39,000 years before present are consistent with (14)C-derived age of the material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A rapid method for detection of genetically modified organisms based on magnetic separation and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Burcu; Boyacı, İsmail Hakkı; Tamer, Ugur; Çalık, Pınar

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a new method combining magnetic separation (MS) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was developed to detect genetically modified organisms (GMOs). An oligonucleotide probe which is specific for 35 S DNA target was immobilized onto gold coated magnetic nanospheres to form oligonucleotide-coated nanoparticles. A self assembled monolayer was formed on gold nanorods using 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and the second probe of the 35 S DNA target was immobilized on the activated nanorod surfaces. Probes on the nanoparticles were hybridized with the target oligonucleotide. Optimization parameters for hybridization were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography. Optimum hybridization parameters were determined as: 4 μM probe concentration, 20 min immobilization time, 30 min hybridization time, 55 °C hybridization temperature, 750 mM buffer salt concentration and pH: 7.4. Quantification of the target concentration was performed via SERS spectra of DTNB on the nanorods. The correlation between the target concentration and the SERS signal was found to be linear within the range of 25-100 nM. The analyses were performed with only one hybridization step in 40 min. Real sample analysis was conducted using Bt-176 maize sample. The results showed that the developed MS-SERS assay is capable of detecting GMOs in a rapid and selective manner.

  12. Comparison of immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate rapid method to traditional culture-based method for E. coli and enterococci enumeration in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushon, Rebecca N; Likirdopulos, Christina A; Brady, Amie M G

    2009-11-01

    Untreated wastewater samples from California, North Carolina, and Ohio were analyzed by the immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (IMS/ATP) method and the traditional culture-based method for E. coli and enterococci concentrations. The IMS/ATP method concentrates target bacteria by immunomagnetic separation and then quantifies captured bacteria by measuring bioluminescence induced by release of ATP from the bacterial cells. Results from this method are available within 1h from the start of sample processing. Significant linear correlations were found between the IMS/ATP results and results from traditional culture-based methods for E. coli and enterococci enumeration for one location in California, two locations in North Carolina, and one location in Ohio (r values ranged from 0.87 to 0.97). No significant linear relation was found for a second location in California that treats a complex mixture of residential and industrial wastewater. With the exception of one location, IMS/ATP showed promise as a rapid method for the quantification of faecal-indicator organisms in wastewater.

  13. Comparison of immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate rapid method to traditional culture-based method for E. coli and enterococci enumeration in wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushon, R.N.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Brady, A.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Untreated wastewater samples from California, North Carolina, and Ohio were analyzed by the immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (IMS/ATP) method and the traditional culture-based method for E. coli and enterococci concentrations. The IMS/ATP method concentrates target bacteria by immunomagnetic separation and then quantifies captured bacteria by measuring bioluminescence induced by release of ATP from the bacterial cells. Results from this method are available within 1 h from the start of sample processing. Significant linear correlations were found between the IMS/ATP results and results from traditional culture-based methods for E. coli and enterococci enumeration for one location in California, two locations in North Carolina, and one location in Ohio (r??values ranged from 0.87 to 0.97). No significant linear relation was found for a second location in California that treats a complex mixture of residential and industrial wastewater. With the exception of one location, IMS/ATP showed promise as a rapid method for the quantification of faecal-indicator organisms in wastewater.

  14. Comparison of the Immunomagnetic Separation/Adenosine Triphosphate Rapid Method and the Modified mTEC Membrane-Filtration Method for Enumeration of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Amie M.G.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Bertke, Erin E.

    2009-01-01

    Water quality at beaches is monitored for fecal indicator bacteria by traditional, culture-based methods that can take 18 to 24 hours to obtain results. A rapid detection method that provides estimated concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria within 1 hour from the start of sample processing would allow beach managers to post advisories or close the beach when the conditions are actually considered unsafe instead of a day later, when conditions may have changed. A rapid method that couples immunomagnetic separation with adenosine triphosphate detection (IMS/ATP rapid method) was evaluated through monitoring of Escherichia coli (E. coli) at three Lake Erie beaches in Ohio (Edgewater and Villa Angela in Cleveland and Huntington in Bay Village). Beach water samples were collected between 4 and 5 days per week during the recreational seasons (May through September) of 2006 and 2007. Composite samples were created in the lab from two point samples collected at each beach and were shown to be comparable substitutes for analysis of two individual samples. E. coli concentrations in composite samples, as determined by the culture-based method, ranged from 4 to 24,000 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters during this study across all beaches. Turbidity also was measured for each sample and ranged from 0.8 to 260 neophelometric turbidity ratio units. Environmental variables were noted at the time of sampling, including number of birds at the beach and wave height. Rainfall amounts were measured at National Weather Service stations at local airports. Turbidity, rainfall, and wave height were significantly related to the culture-based method results each year and for both years combined at each beach. The number of birds at the beach was significantly related to the culture-based method results only at Edgewater during 2006 and during both years combined. Results of the IMS/ATP method were compared to results of the culture-based method for samples by year for each beach

  15. Rapid Separation of Fission Product 141La

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA; Wen; YE; Hong-sheng; LIN; Min; CHEN; Ke-sheng; XU; Li-jun; ZHANG; Wei-dong; CHEN; Yi-zhen

    2013-01-01

    141La was separated and purified from fission products in this work for physical measurements aimed at improving the accuracy of its decay parameters.As the impact of 142La and other fission products,cesium(141Cs,142Cs included)was rapid separated from the fission products,141Cs and 142Ba separation was prepared after a cooling time about 25 s when 142Cs decays to daughter 142Ba,141La purification then

  16. Acoustophoresis separation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for acoustophoresis, i.e., the separation of species via acoustic waves. An ultrasonic transducer applies an acoustic wave to one end of a sample container containing at least two species having different acoustic absorptions. The wave has a frequency tuned to or harmonized with the point of resonance of the species to be separated. This wave causes the species to be driven to an opposite end of the sample container for removal. A second ultrasonic transducer may be provided to apply a second, oppositely directed acoustic wave to prevent undesired streaming. In addition, a radio frequency tuned to the mechanical resonance and coupled with a magnetic field can serve to identify a species in a medium comprising species with similar absorption coefficients, whereby an acoustic wave having a frequency corresponding to this gyrational rate can then be applied to sweep the identified species to one end of the container for removal.

  17. A rapid method for the detection of trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen after electrophoretic separation of pancreas extract on polyacrylamide gel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhof, J.; Poort, C.

    1974-01-01

    Several methods have been described for the visualization of proteolytic activity on electropherograms obtained with starch (1,2), agar and agarose (3–6), paper (7), and cellulose acetate (8–11) as supporting media. In most of these reports casein was used as a (nonspecific) substrate. In only one c

  18. Rapid Separation of Bacteria from Blood?Review and Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Pitt, William G.; Alizadeh, Mahsa; Husseini, Ghaleb A.; McClellan, Daniel S.; Buchanan, Clara M.; Bledsoe, Colin G.; Robison, Richard A.; Blanco, Rae; Roeder, Beverly L.; Melville, Madison; Hunter, Alex K.

    2016-01-01

    The high morbidity and mortality rate of bloodstream infections involving antibiotic-resistant bacteria necessitate a rapid identification of the infectious organism and its resistance profile. Traditional methods based on culturing the blood typically require at least 24 h, and genetic amplification by PCR in the presence of blood components has been problematic. The rapid separation of bacteria from blood would facilitate their genetic identification by PCR or other methods so that the prop...

  19. Performance and specificity of the covalently linked immunomagnetic separation-ATP method for rapid detection and enumeration of enterococci in coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Faust, Amity G; Thulsiraj, Vanessa; Ferguson, Donna; Jay, Jennifer A

    2014-05-01

    The performance and specificity of the covalently linked immunomagnetic separation-ATP (Cov-IMS/ATP) method for the detection and enumeration of enterococci was evaluated in recreational waters. Cov-IMS/ATP performance was compared with standard methods: defined substrate technology (Enterolert; IDEXX Laboratories), membrane filtration (EPA Method 1600), and an Enterococcus-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay (EPA Method A). We extend previous studies by (i) analyzing the stability of the relationship between the Cov-IMS/ATP method and culture-based methods at different field sites, (ii) evaluating specificity of the assay for seven ATCC Enterococcus species, (iii) identifying cross-reacting organisms binding the antibody-bead complexes with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and evaluating specificity of the assay to five nonenterococcus species, and (iv) conducting preliminary tests of preabsorption as a means of improving the assay. Cov-IMS/ATP was found to perform consistently and with strong agreement rates (based on exceedance/compliance with regulatory limits) of between 83% and 100% compared to the culture-based Enterolert method at a variety of sites with complex inputs. The Cov-IMS/ATP method is specific to five of seven different Enterococcus spp. tested. However, there is potential for nontarget bacteria to bind the antibody, which may be reduced by purification of the IgG serum with preabsorption at problematic sites. The findings of this study help to validate the Cov-IMS/ATP method, suggesting a predictable relationship between the Cov-IMS/ATP method and traditional culture-based methods, which will allow for more widespread application of this rapid and field-portable method for coastal water quality assessment.

  20. PLUTONIUM SEPARATION METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufait, L.J. Jr.; Stevenson, F.R.; Rollefson, G.K.

    1958-11-18

    The recovery of plutonium ions from neutron irradiated uranium can be accomplished by bufferlng an aqueous solutlon of the irradiated materials containing tetravalent plutonium to a pH of 4 to 7, adding sufficient acetate to the solution to complex the uranyl present, adding ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide, plutonlum, and associated fission products, removing and dissolving the colloid in aqueous nitric acid, oxldizlng the plutonium to the hexavalent state by adding permanganate or dichromate, treating the resultant solution with ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide and associated fission products, and separating the colloid from the plutonlum left in solution.

  1. RAPID SEPARATION OF ACTINIDES AND RADIOSTRONTIUM IN VEGETATION SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, S.

    2010-06-01

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides and radiostrontium in vegetation samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis. The actinides in vegetation method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a streamlined column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Lanthanum was separated rapidly and effectively from Am and Cm on DGA Resin. Alpha emitters are prepared using rare earth microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The purified {sup 90}Sr fractions are mounted directly on planchets and counted by gas flow proportional counting. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The actinide and {sup 90}Sr in vegetation sample analysis can be performed in less than 8 h with excellent quality for emergency samples. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory actinide particles or vegetation residue after furnace heating is effectively digested.

  2. Separable programming theory and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanov, Stefan M

    2001-01-01

    In this book, the author considers separable programming and, in particular, one of its important cases - convex separable programming Some general results are presented, techniques of approximating the separable problem by linear programming and dynamic programming are considered Convex separable programs subject to inequality equality constraint(s) and bounds on variables are also studied and iterative algorithms of polynomial complexity are proposed As an application, these algorithms are used in the implementation of stochastic quasigradient methods to some separable stochastic programs Numerical approximation with respect to I1 and I4 norms, as a convex separable nonsmooth unconstrained minimization problem, is considered as well Audience Advanced undergraduate and graduate students, mathematical programming operations research specialists

  3. Bacteriophage-based nanoprobes for rapid bacteria separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juhong; Duncan, Bradley; Wang, Ziyuan; Wang, Li-Sheng; Rotello, Vincent M.; Nugen, Sam R.

    2015-10-01

    The lack of practical methods for bacterial separation remains a hindrance for the low-cost and successful development of rapid detection methods from complex samples. Antibody-tagged magnetic particles are commonly used to pull analytes from a liquid sample. While this method is well-established, improvements in capture efficiencies would result in an increase of the overall detection assay performance. Bacteriophages represent a low-cost and more consistent biorecognition element as compared to antibodies. We have developed nanoscale bacteriophage-tagged magnetic probes, where T7 bacteriophages were bound to magnetic nanoparticles. The nanoprobe allowed the specific recognition and attachment to E. coli cells. The phage magnetic nanprobes were directly compared to antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoprobes. The capture efficiencies of bacteriophages and antibodies on nanoparticles for the separation of E. coli K12 at varying concentrations were determined. The results indicated a similar bacteria capture efficiency between the two nanoprobes.The lack of practical methods for bacterial separation remains a hindrance for the low-cost and successful development of rapid detection methods from complex samples. Antibody-tagged magnetic particles are commonly used to pull analytes from a liquid sample. While this method is well-established, improvements in capture efficiencies would result in an increase of the overall detection assay performance. Bacteriophages represent a low-cost and more consistent biorecognition element as compared to antibodies. We have developed nanoscale bacteriophage-tagged magnetic probes, where T7 bacteriophages were bound to magnetic nanoparticles. The nanoprobe allowed the specific recognition and attachment to E. coli cells. The phage magnetic nanprobes were directly compared to antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoprobes. The capture efficiencies of bacteriophages and antibodies on nanoparticles for the separation of E. coli K12 at varying

  4. Rapid Separation of Bacteria from Blood—Review and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Mahsa; Husseini, Ghaleb A.; McClellan, Daniel S.; Buchanan, Clara M.; Bledsoe, Colin G.; Robison, Richard A.; Blanco, Rae; Roeder, Beverly L.; Melville, Madison; Hunter, Alex K.

    2017-01-01

    The high morbidity and mortality rate of bloodstream infections involving antibiotic-resistant bacteria necessitate a rapid identification of the infectious organism and its resistance profile. Traditional methods based on culturing the blood typically require at least 24 h, and genetic amplification by PCR in the presence of blood components has been problematic. The rapid separation of bacteria from blood would facilitate their genetic identification by PCR or other methods so that the proper antibiotic regimen can quickly be selected for the septic patient. Microfluidic systems that separate bacteria from whole blood have been developed, but these are designed to process only microliter quantities of whole blood or only highly diluted blood. However, symptoms of clinical blood infections can be manifest with bacterial burdens perhaps as low as 10 CFU/mL, and thus milliliter quantities of blood must be processed to collect enough bacteria for reliable genetic analysis. This review considers the advantages and shortcomings of various methods to separate bacteria from blood, with emphasis on techniques that can be done in less than 10 min on milliliter-quantities of whole blood. These techniques include filtration, screening, centrifugation, sedimentation, hydrodynamic focusing, chemical capture on surfaces or beads, field-flow fractionation, and dielectrophoresis. Techniques with the most promise include screening, sedimentation, and magnetic bead capture, as they allow large quantities of blood to be processed quickly. Some microfluidic techniques can be scaled up. PMID:27160415

  5. Rapid Statistical Methods: Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some rapid statistical methods which are intended for use by physics teachers. Part one of this article gives some of the simplest and most commonly useful rapid methods. Part two gives references to the relevant theory together with some alternative and additional methods. (HM)

  6. Magnetic separation apparatus and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibbe, Arjan; Scholtens, Tycho M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Apparatuses and methods for separating, immobilizing, and quantifying biological substances from within a fluid medium. Biological substances are observed by employing a vessel (6) having a chamber therein, the vessel comprising a transparent collection wall (5). A high internal gradient magnetic ca

  7. The Signal Space Separation method

    CERN Document Server

    Taulu, S; Simola, J; Taulu, Samu; Kajola, Matti; Simola, Juha

    2004-01-01

    Multichannel measurement with hundreds of channels essentially covers all measurable degrees of freedom of a curl and source free vector field, like the magnetic field in a volume free of current sources (e.g. in magnetoencephalography, MEG). A functional expansion solution of Laplace's equation enables one to separate signals arising from the sphere enclosing the interesting sources, e.g. the currents in the brain, from the rest of the signals. The signal space separation (SSS) is accomplished by calculating individual basis vectors for each term of the functional expansion solution to create a signal basis covering all measurable signal vectors. Any signal vector has a unique SSS decomposition with separate coefficients for the interesting signals and signals coming from outside the interesting volume. Thus, SSS basis provides an elegant method to remove external disturbances, and to transform the interesting signals to virtual sensor configurations. SSS can also be used in compensating the movements of the...

  8. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.

    2013-03-12

    A method for separating CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures uses a slurried media impregnated with buffer compounds and coating the solid media with a catalyst or enzyme that promotes the transformation of CO.sub.2 to carbonic acid. Buffer sorbent pebbles with a catalyst or enzyme coating are provided for rapid separation of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures.

  9. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D

    2015-03-31

    A method for separating CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures uses a slurried media impregnated with buffer compounds and coating the solid media with a catalyst or enzyme that promotes the transformation of CO.sub.2 to carbonic acid. Buffer sorbent pebbles with a catalyst or enzyme coating are provided for rapid separation of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures.

  10. Rapid separation of elemental species by multicapillary GC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenkranz, B. [Camelot IDPro AG, Janderstrasse 9, 68199 Mannheim (Germany); Bettmer, J. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Multicapillary gas chromatography has been applied to the speciation of organomercury compounds. Basic investigation of the fundamental properties of multicapillary columns, to evaluate their potential and limitations as a rapid separation unit, are presented. For analysis of methylated and ethylated mercury compounds a complete separation can be performed within 45 s under isothermal conditions. The adaptation of the technique for use with a purge and trap system and with an element-selective plasma-emission detector results in a compact and effective system for mercury speciation. Results from analysis of certified reference materials were in good agreement with certified values within the significance levels. (orig.)

  11. Rapid separation of elemental species by multicapillary GC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, B; Bettmer, J

    2002-07-01

    Multicapillary gas chromatography has been applied to the speciation of organomercury compounds. Basic investigation of the fundamental properties of multicapillary columns, to evaluate their potential and limitations as a rapid separation unit, are presented. For analysis of methylated and ethylated mercury compounds a complete separation can be performed within 45 s under isothermal conditions. The adaptation of the technique for use with a purge and trap system and with an element-selective plasma-emission detector results in a compact and effective system for mercury speciation. Results from analysis of certified reference materials were in good agreement with certified values within the significance levels.

  12. Convolutive Blind Source Separation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Larsen, Jan; Kjems, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, much attention has been given to the separation of mixed sources, in particular for the blind case where both the sources and the mixing process are unknown and only recordings of the mixtures are available. In several situations it is desirable to recover all sources from....... This may help practitioners and researchers new to the area of convolutive source separation obtain a complete overview of the field. Hopefully those with more experience in the field can identify useful tools, or find inspiration for new algorithms....

  13. Rapid cell separation with minimal manipulation for autologous cell therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alban J.; O’Rorke, Richard D.; Kale, Akshay; Rimsa, Roberts; Tomlinson, Matthew J.; Kirkham, Jennifer; Davies, A. Giles; Wälti, Christoph; Wood, Christopher D.

    2017-02-01

    The ability to isolate specific, viable cell populations from mixed ensembles with minimal manipulation and within intra-operative time would provide significant advantages for autologous, cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine. Current cell-enrichment technologies are either slow, lack specificity and/or require labelling. Thus a rapid, label-free separation technology that does not affect cell functionality, viability or phenotype is highly desirable. Here, we demonstrate separation of viable from non-viable human stromal cells using remote dielectrophoresis, in which an electric field is coupled into a microfluidic channel using shear-horizontal surface acoustic waves, producing an array of virtual electrodes within the channel. This allows high-throughput dielectrophoretic cell separation in high conductivity, physiological-like fluids, overcoming the limitations of conventional dielectrophoresis. We demonstrate viable/non-viable separation efficacy of >98% in pre-purified mesenchymal stromal cells, extracted from human dental pulp, with no adverse effects on cell viability, or on their subsequent osteogenic capabilities.

  14. Rapid cell separation with minimal manipulation for autologous cell therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alban J.; O’Rorke, Richard D.; Kale, Akshay; Rimsa, Roberts; Tomlinson, Matthew J.; Kirkham, Jennifer; Davies, A. Giles; Wälti, Christoph; Wood, Christopher D.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to isolate specific, viable cell populations from mixed ensembles with minimal manipulation and within intra-operative time would provide significant advantages for autologous, cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine. Current cell-enrichment technologies are either slow, lack specificity and/or require labelling. Thus a rapid, label-free separation technology that does not affect cell functionality, viability or phenotype is highly desirable. Here, we demonstrate separation of viable from non-viable human stromal cells using remote dielectrophoresis, in which an electric field is coupled into a microfluidic channel using shear-horizontal surface acoustic waves, producing an array of virtual electrodes within the channel. This allows high-throughput dielectrophoretic cell separation in high conductivity, physiological-like fluids, overcoming the limitations of conventional dielectrophoresis. We demonstrate viable/non-viable separation efficacy of >98% in pre-purified mesenchymal stromal cells, extracted from human dental pulp, with no adverse effects on cell viability, or on their subsequent osteogenic capabilities. PMID:28150746

  15. Centrifugal separator devices, systems and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H.; Law, Jack D.; Garn, Troy G.; Todd, Terry A.; Macaluso, Lawrence L.

    2012-03-20

    Centrifugal separator devices, systems and related methods are described. More particularly, fluid transfer connections for a centrifugal separator system having support assemblies with a movable member coupled to a connection tube and coupled to a fixed member, such that the movable member is constrained to movement along a fixed path relative to the fixed member are described. Also, centrifugal separator systems including such fluid transfer connections are described. Additionally, methods of installing, removing and/or replacing centrifugal separators from centrifugal separator systems are described.

  16. Centrifugal separators and related devices and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H.; Law, Jack D.; Garn, Troy G.; Macaluso, Lawrence L.; Todd, Terry A.

    2012-03-06

    Centrifugal separators and related methods and devices are described. More particularly, centrifugal separators comprising a first fluid supply fitting configured to deliver fluid into a longitudinal fluid passage of a rotor shaft and a second fluid supply fitting sized and configured to sealingly couple with the first fluid supply fitting are described. Also, centrifugal separator systems comprising a manifold having a drain fitting and a cleaning fluid supply fitting are described, wherein the manifold is coupled to a movable member of a support assembly. Additionally, methods of cleaning centrifugal separators are described.

  17. Rapid separation of phosphopeptides by microchip electrophoresis-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollikainen, Elisa; Bonabi, Ashkan; Nordman, Nina; Jokinen, Ville; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto; Sikanen, Tiina

    2016-04-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a significant biological process, but separation of phosphorylated peptide isomers is often challenging for many analytical techniques. We developed a microchip electrophoresis (MCE) method for rapid separation of phosphopeptides with on-chip electrospray ionization (ESI) facilitating online sample introduction to the mass spectrometer (MS). With the method, two monophosphorylated positional isomers of insulin receptor peptide (IR1A and IR1B) and a triply phosphorylated insulin receptor peptide (IR3), all with the same amino acid sequence, were separated from the nonphosphorylated peptide (IR0) in less than one minute. For efficient separation of the positional peptide isomers from each other derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl reagents (either chloroformate, Fmoc-Cl, or N-succinimidyl carbonate, Fmoc-OSu) was required before the analysis. The derivatization improved not only the separation of the monophosphorylated positional peptide isomers in MCE, but also identification of the phosphorylation site based on MS/MS.

  18. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods...

  19. Rapid methods for detection of bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Andersen, B.Ø.; Miller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Traditional methods for detection of bacteria in drinking water e.g. Heterotrophic Plate Counts (HPC) or Most Probable Number (MNP) take 48-72 hours to give the result. New rapid methods for detection of bacteria are needed to protect the consumers against contaminations. Two rapid methods...

  20. Method of separating thorium from plutonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, D.G.; Blum, T.W.

    A method of chemically separating plutonium from thorium is claimed. Plutonium and thorium to be separated are dissolved in an aqueous feed solution, preferably as the nitrate salts. The feed solution is acidified and sodium nitrite is added to the solution to adjust the valence of the plutonium to the +4 state. A chloride salt, preferably sodium chloride, is then added to the solution to induce formation of an anionic plutonium chloride complex. The anionic plutonium chloride complex and the thorium in solution are then separated by ion exchange on a strong base anion exchange column.

  1. Eddy current separation apparatus, separation module, separation method and method for adjusting an eddy current separation apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Bakker, M.C.M.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Rahman, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Eddy current separation apparatus (1) for separating particles (20) from a particle stream (w), wherein the apparatus (1) comprises a separator drum (4) adapted to create a first particle fraction (21) and a second particle fraction (23), a feeding device (2) upstream of the separator drum (4) for s

  2. Predictions for rapid methods and automation in food microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Daniel Y C

    2002-01-01

    A discussion is presented on the present status of rapid methods and automation in microbiology. Predictions are also presented for development in the following areas: viable cell counts; real-time monitoring of hygiene; polymerase chain reaction, ribotyping, and genetic tests in food laboratories; automated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunotests; rapid dipstick technology; biosensors for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point programs; instant detection of target pathogens by computer-generated matrix; effective separation and concentration for rapid identification of target cells; microbiological alert systems in food packages; and rapid alert kits for detecting pathogens at home.

  3. SIMAC - A phosphoproteomic strategy for the rapid separation of mono-phosphorylated from multiply phosphorylated peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Jensen, Ole N; Robinson, Phillip J

    2008-01-01

    spectrometric analysis, such as immobilized metal affinity chromatography or titanium dioxide the coverage of the phosphoproteome of a given sample is limited. Here we report a simple and rapid strategy - SIMAC - for sequential separation of mono-phosphorylated peptides and multiply phosphorylated peptides from...... and an optimized titanium dioxide chromatographic method. More than double the total number of identified phosphorylation sites was obtained with SIMAC, primarily from a three-fold increase in recovery of multiply phosphorylated peptides....

  4. Separation of Waves by Interpolation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鹤泉; 王永学

    2003-01-01

    The separation of waves by an interpolation method is presented in detail. The composite wave sequences measured with two wave gauges in the wave flume are separated very quickly into two series of incident and reflected waves in time domain via the simple interpolation and difference operations. Then, the reflection coefficient can be estimated easily and accurately without calculation of wave heights and phases. The intial phase of reflection can also be detected easily for improvement of the accuracy of calculation. The present method is applicable to both regular and irregular trains of waves based on the linear wave theory which are proved to be accurate through numerical sample tests. Physical experiments are conducted and compared with Goda′s method and analytical method with satisfactory results. Furthermore, the present method can be used for the absorbing wave-maker to extract reflected waves in real time.

  5. Generalized Analysis of a Distribution Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Separating two probability distributions from a mixture model that is made up of the combinations of the two is essential to a wide range of applications. For example, in information retrieval (IR, there often exists a mixture distribution consisting of a relevance distribution that we need to estimate and an irrelevance distribution that we hope to get rid of. Recently, a distribution separation method (DSM was proposed to approximate the relevance distribution, by separating a seed irrelevance distribution from the mixture distribution. It was successfully applied to an IR task, namely pseudo-relevance feedback (PRF, where the query expansion model is often a mixture term distribution. Although initially developed in the context of IR, DSM is indeed a general mathematical formulation for probability distribution separation. Thus, it is important to further generalize its basic analysis and to explore its connections to other related methods. In this article, we first extend DSM’s theoretical analysis, which was originally based on the Pearson correlation coefficient, to entropy-related measures, including the KL-divergence (Kullback–Leibler divergence, the symmetrized KL-divergence and the JS-divergence (Jensen–Shannon divergence. Second, we investigate the distribution separation idea in a well-known method, namely the mixture model feedback (MMF approach. We prove that MMF also complies with the linear combination assumption, and then, DSM’s linear separation algorithm can largely simplify the EM algorithm in MMF. These theoretical analyses, as well as further empirical evaluation results demonstrate the advantages of our DSM approach.

  6. Rapid coal proximate analysis by thermogravimetric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao Jianxiong; Yang Dezhong; Zhao Baozhong

    1987-09-01

    A rapid coal proximate analysis by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) can be used as an alternative method for the standard proximate analysis. This paper presents a program set up to rapidly perform coal proximate analysis by using a thermal analyzer and TGA module. A comparison between coal proximate analyses by standard method (GB) and TGA is also given. It shows that most data from TGA fall within the tolerance limit of standard method.

  7. [Rapid prototyping: a very promising method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverman, T M; Karagozoglu, K H; Prins, H-J; Schulten, E A J M; Forouzanfar, T

    2013-03-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization, laminated object manufacturing, three-dimensional printing, three-dimensional plotting, polyjet inkjet technology,fused deposition modelling, vacuum casting and milling. The various methods currently being used in the biomedical sector differ in production, materials and properties of the three-dimensional model which is produced. Rapid prototyping is mainly usedforpreoperative planning, simulation, education, and research into and development of bioengineering possibilities.

  8. Method and device for ion mobility separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Smith, Richard D.

    2017-07-11

    Methods and devices for ion separations or manipulations in gas phase are disclosed. The device includes a single non-planar surface. Arrays of electrodes are coupled to the surface. A combination of RF and DC voltages are applied to the arrays of electrodes to create confining and driving fields that move ions through the device. The DC voltages are static DC voltages or time-dependent DC potentials or waveforms.

  9. Rapid and efficient filtration-based procedure for separation and safe analysis of CBRN mixed samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Bentahir

    Full Text Available Separating CBRN mixed samples that contain both chemical and biological warfare agents (CB mixed sample in liquid and solid matrices remains a very challenging issue. Parameters were set up to assess the performance of a simple filtration-based method first optimized on separate C- and B-agents, and then assessed on a model of CB mixed sample. In this model, MS2 bacteriophage, Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis baculovirus (AcNPV, Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores were used as biological agent simulants whereas ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA and pinacolyl methylphophonic acid (PMPA were used as VX and soman (GD nerve agent surrogates, respectively. Nanoseparation centrifugal devices with various pore size cut-off (30 kD up to 0.45 µm and three RNA extraction methods (Invisorb, EZ1 and Nuclisens were compared. RNA (MS2 and DNA (AcNPV quantification was carried out by means of specific and sensitive quantitative real-time PCRs (qPCR. Liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS methods was used for quantifying EMPA and PMPA. Culture methods and qPCR demonstrated that membranes with a 30 kD cut-off retain more than 99.99% of biological agents (MS2, AcNPV, Bacillus Atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores tested separately. A rapid and reliable separation of CB mixed sample models (MS2/PEG-400 and MS2/EMPA/PMPA contained in simple liquid or complex matrices such as sand and soil was also successfully achieved on a 30 kD filter with more than 99.99% retention of MS2 on the filter membrane, and up to 99% of PEG-400, EMPA and PMPA recovery in the filtrate. The whole separation process turnaround-time (TAT was less than 10 minutes. The filtration method appears to be rapid, versatile and extremely efficient. The separation method developed in this work constitutes therefore a useful model for further evaluating and comparing additional separation alternative procedures for a safe handling and

  10. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  11. Test method for oil mist separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bemer, D. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite (INRS), Vandoeuvre (France); Ginestet, A. [Centre Technique des Industries Aerauliques et Thermiques (CETIAT), Villeurbanne (France)

    1999-10-01

    Since May 1993 the French standard NF X 44-060 describes a method of testing oil mist separators with an air flow rate lower than 5 000 m{sup 3} x h{sup -1}. The tests are designed to qualify oil mist separators in the initial state as well as after loading phases using aerosols produced from a mineral oil. The testing method includes both the measurement of the gravimetric and the fractional (by particle size) separation efficiency. An air filter used in general ventilation and an electrostatic air cleaner were tested according to the standard. The results show that the gravimetric method is not necessary and can be preferably replaced by a determination using an optical counter in the particle size range 1 to 2 {mu}m for the mists produced from a mineral oil. Concerning the mists produced from aqueous emulsions the range 0.7 to 1 {mu}m is proposed. These improvements could simplify the tests and thus reduce the costs. (orig.) [German] Seit Mai 1993 enthaelt die franzoesische Norm NF X 44-060 ein Verfahren zur Pruefung von Oelnebelabscheidern bei einem Luftdurchsatz von weniger als 5 000 m{sup 3}/h. Die vorgeschriebenen Tests mit einem Aerosol aus Mineraloel eignen sich zur Bewertung von Oelnebelabscheidern sowohl zu Beginn des Einsatzes als auch nach Beaufschlagung. Das Pruefverfahren umfasst sowohl die gravimetrisch bestimmte als auch die fraktionsweise nach Partikelgroesse gemessene Abscheideeffizienz. Ein ueblicher Luftfilter und ein elektrostatischer Abscheider wurden nach dem Pruefverfahren untersucht. Nach den Messergebnissen ist die Verwendung der gravimetrischen Methode nicht erforderlich. Sie kann fuer Mineraloelnebel bevorzugt durch einen optischen Partikelzaehler fuer Teilchengroessen im Bereich von 1 bis 2 {mu}m ersetzt werden. Entsprechend wird fuer Aerosole aus waessrigen Emulsionen eine Messung im Bereich von 0,7 bis 1 {mu}m vorgeschlagen. (orig.)

  12. Water Refining By the Membrane Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Bolanca

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigations in this paper refer to the possibility of wastewater refining from deinking flotation process by the method of membrane separation. The offset impressions made with the conventional printing inks as wellas the models based on the raw materials of renewable origin were used in the recycling process. Before andafter the water treatment, the concentration of the sulphate, chloride, nitrate, total organic substance, oxygenconsumption, pH and electric conductivity was determinedin all the samples by standard analytical methods.The results point at the dependence of the concentration of the investigated inorganic and organic pollution with the characteristics of the prints used in the recycling process. The concentration decrease of the investigated pollution using the method of the membrane separation in relation to the boundary values of the water quality necessary for the paper production has been discussed. Besides the specific scientific contribution, the practical application of the investigation is the contribution to the closing of water circuit in paper production.

  13. Azimuthal Decorrelation of Jets Widely Separated in Rapidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abachi, S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alitti, J.; Álvarez, G.; Alves, G. A.; Amidi, E.; Amos, N.; Anderson, E. W.; Aronson, S. H.; Astur, R.; Avery, R. E.; Baarmand, M. M.; Baden, A.; Balamurali, V.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bantly, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bazizi, K.; Bendich, J.; Beri, S. B.; Bertram, I.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bhattacharjee, M.; Bischoff, A.; Biswas, N.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, P.; Boehnlein, A.; Bojko, N. I.; Borcherding, F.; Borders, J.; Boswell, C.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoi, V. S.; Butler, J. M.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, D.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chang, S.-M.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choi, S.; Chopra, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Chung, M.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M. A.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; de, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisenko, N.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; di Loreto, G.; Dixon, R.; Draper, P.; Drinkard, J.; Ducros, Y.; Dugad, S. R.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eno, S.; Eppley, G.; Ermolov, P.; Eroshin, O. V.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fahey, S.; Fahland, T.; Fatyga, M.; Fatyga, M. K.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Frame, K. C.; Franzini, P.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, A. N.; Geld, T. L.; Genik, R. J., II; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gibbard, B.; Glebov, V.; Glenn, S.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez, B.; Gomez, G.; Goncharov, P. I.; González Solís, J. L.; Gordon, H.; Goss, L. T.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Griffin, G.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Grünendahl, S.; Gu, W. X.; Guglielmo, G.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Guryn, W.; Gurzhiev, S. N.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutnikov, Y. E.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hahn, K. S.; Hall, R. E.; Hansen, S.; Hatcher, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hernández-Montoya, R.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hsieh, F.; Hu, Tao; Hu, Ting; Hu, Tong; Huehn, T.; Igarashi, S.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jaques, J.; Jerger, S. A.; Jiang, J. Z.-Y.; Joffe-Minor, T.; Johari, H.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnstad, H.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jun, S. Y.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kalbfleisch, G.; Kang, J. S.; Kehoe, R.; Kelly, M. L.; Kerth, L.; Kim, C. L.; Kim, S. K.; Klatchko, A.; Klima, B.; Klochkov, B. I.; Klopfenstein, C.; Klyukhin, V. I.; Kochetkov, V. I.; Kohli, J. M.; Koltick, D.; Kostritskiy, A. V.; Kotcher, J.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozlovski, E. A.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lami, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrat, J.-F.; Leflat, A.; Li, H.; Li, J.; Li, Y. K.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G.; Lincoln, D.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y. C.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lökös, S.; Lueking, L.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Mani, S.; Mao, H. S.; Margulies, S.; Markeloff, R.; Markosky, L.; Marshall, T.; Martin, M. I.; May, B.; Mayorov, A. A.; McCarthy, R.; McKibben, T.; McKinley, J.; McMahon, T.; Melanson, H. L.; de Mello Neto, J. R.; Merritt, K. W.; Miettinen, H.; Mincer, A.; de Miranda, J. M.; Mishra, C. S.; Mokhov, N.; Mondal, N. K.; Montgomery, H. E.; Mooney, P.; da Motta, H.; Mudan, M.; Murphy, C.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Narayanan, A.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neis, E.; Nemethy, P.; NešiĆ, D.; Nicola, M.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Padley, P.; Pang, M.; Para, A.; Park, C. H.; Park, Y. M.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Paterno, M.; Perkins, J.; Peryshkin, A.; Peters, M.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Pušeljić, D.; Qian, J.; Quintas, P. Z.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Ramirez, O.; Rao, M. V.; Rapidis, P. A.; Rasmussen, L.; Read, A. L.; Reucroft, S.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rockwell, T.; Roe, N. A.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Schellman, H.; Sculli, J.; Shabalina, E.; Shaffer, C.; Shankar, H. C.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Shupe, M.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, A.; Smith, R. P.; Snihur, R.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Solomon, J.; Sood, P. M.; Sosebee, M.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stephens, R. W.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stoianova, D. A.; Stoker, D.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Sznajder, A.; Tamburello, P.; Tarazi, J.; Tartaglia, M.; Taylor, T. L.; Thompson, J.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Virador, P. R.; Vititoe, D.; Volkov, A. A.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, G.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weerts, H.; Wen, F.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J. A.; Wilcox, J.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wirjawan, J. V.; Womersley, J.; Won, E.; Wood, D. R.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yang, J.; Yasuda, T.; Yepes, P.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhu, Q.; Zhu, Z. H.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zverev, E. G.; Zylberstejn, A.

    1996-07-01

    This study reports the first measurement of the azimuthal decorrelation between jets with pseudorapidity separation up to five units. The data were accumulated using the D0 detector during the 1992-1993 collider run of the Fermilab Tevatron at s = 1.8 TeV. These results are compared to next-to-leading order (NLO) QCD predictions and to two leading-log approximations (LLA) where the leading-log terms are resummed to all orders in αS. The final state jets as predicted by NLO QCD show less azimuthal decorrelation than the data. The parton showering LLA Monte Carlo HERWIG describes the data well; an analytical LLA prediction based on Balitsky-Fadin-Kuraev-Lipatov resummation shows more decorrelation than the data.

  14. The azimuthal decorrelation of jets widely separated in rapidity

    CERN Document Server

    Abachi, S; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adam, I; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Ahn, S; Aihara, H; Alitti, J; Alvarez, G; Alves, G A; Amidi, E; Amos, N; Anderson, E W; Aronson, S H; Astur, R; Avery, R E; Baden, A; Balamurali, V; Balderston, J; Baldin, B Yu; Bantly, J; Bartlett, J F; Bazizi, K; Bendich, J; Beri, S B; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Bhattacharjee, M; Bischoff, A; Biswas, N; Blazey, G C; Blessing, S K; Bloom, P; Böhnlein, A; Bozhko, N; Borcherding, F O; Borders, J; Boswell, C; Brandt, A; Brock, R L; Bross, A D; Buchholz, D A; Burtovoi, V S; Butler, J M; Casey, D; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakraborty, D; Chang, S M; Chekulaev, S V; Chen, L P; Chen, W; Chevalier, L; Chopra, S; Choudhary, B C; Christenson, J H; Chung, M; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Cobau, W G; Cochran, J; Cooper, W E; Cretsinger, C E; Cullen-Vidal, D E; Cummings, M; Cutts, D; Dahl, O I; De, K; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisenko, K; Denisenko, N; Denisov, D S; Denisov, S P; Dharmaratna, W; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; DiLoreto, G; Dixon, R; Draper, P; Drinkard, J; Ducros, Y; Dugad, S R; Durston-Johnson, S; Edmunds, D L; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Engelmann, R; Eno, S; Eppley, G; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Evdokimov, V N; Fahey, S; Fahland, T; Fatyga, M K; Featherly, J; Fehér, S; Fein, D K; Ferbel, T; Finocchiaro, G; Fisk, H E; Fisyak, Yu; Flattum, E M; Forden, G E; Fortner, M R; Frame, K C; Franzini, P; Fredriksen, S; Fuess, S; Galjaev, A N; Gallas, E J; Gao, C S; Gao, S; Geld, T L; Genik, R J; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gibbard, B; Glebov, V Yu; Glenn, S; Gobbi, B; Glicenstein, J F; Goforth, M; Goldschmidt, A; Gómez, B; Good, M L; Goncharov, P I; Gordon, H; Goss, L T; Graf, N; Grannis, P D; Green, D R; Green, J; Greenlee, H B; Griffin, G; Grossman, N L; Grudberg, P M; Grünendahl, S; Gu, W; Guida, J A; Guida, J M; Guryn, W; Gurzhev, S N; Gutnikov, Yu E; Hadley, N J; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S L; Hagopian, V; Hahn, K S; Hall, R; Hansen, S; Hatcher, R; Hauptman, J M; Hedin, D; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hernández-Montoya, R; Heuring, T C; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoftun, J S; Hsieh, F; Ting, H; Hu Tong; Hühn, T; Igarashi, S; Ito, A S; James, E; Jaques, J; Jerger, S A; Jiang, J Z Y; Joffe-Minor, T M; Johari, H; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnstad, H; Jonckheere, A M; Jones, M; Jöstlein, H; Jun, S Y; Jung, C K; Kahn, S; Kang, J S; Kehoe, R; Kelly, M; Kernan, A; Kerth, L T; Kim, C L; Klatchko, A; Klima, B; Klochkov, B I; Klopfenstein, C; Klioukhine, V I; Kochetkov, V I; Kohli, J M; Koltick, D S; Kotcher, J; Kostritskii, A V; Kourlas, J; Kozelov, A V; Kozlovskii, E; Krishnaswamy, M R; Krzywdzinski, S; Kunori, S; Lami, S; Landsberg, G L; Lanou, R E; Lebrat, J F; Leflat, A; Li, H; Li, J; Li, R B; Li, Y K; Li-Demarteau, Q Z; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J T; Lipton, R; Liu, Y C; Lobkowicz, F; Loch, P; Loken, S C; Lökös, S; Lueking, L H; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Madden, R; Mandrichenko, I V; Mangeot, Philippe; Mani, S; Mansoulié, B; Mao, H S; Margulies, S; Markeloff, R; Markosky, L A; Marshall, T; Martin, M I; Marx, M; May, B; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McKibbens, T; McKinley, J; Melanson, H L; De Mello-Neto, J R T; Merritt, K W B; Miettinen, H; Milder, A J; Mincer, A; De Miranda, J M; Mishra, C S; Mohammadi-Baarmand, M; Mokhov, N V; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Mooney, P; Mudan, M S; Murphy, C; Murphy, C T; Nang, F; Narain, M; Narasimham, V S; Narayanan, A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neis, E; Némethy, P; Nesic, D; Norman, D; Oesch, L H; Oguri, V; Oltman, E; Oshima, N; Owen, D; Padley, P; Pang, M; Para, A; Park, C H; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Paterno, M; Perkins, J; Peryshkin, A N; Peters, M; Piekarz, H; Pishchalnikov, Yu M; Pluquet, A; Podstavkov, V M; Pope, B G; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Puseljic, D; Qian, J; Quintas, P Z; Raja, R; Rajagopalan, S; Ramírez, O; Rao, M V S; Rapidis, P A; Rasmussen, L; Read, A L; Reucroft, S; Rijssenbeek, M; Rockwell, T; Roe, N A; Rubinov, P M; Ruchti, R C; Rusi, S; Rutherfoord, John P; Santoro, A F S; Sawyer, L; Schamberger, R D; Schellman, H; Scully, J R; Shabbalina, E; Shaffer, C; Shankar, H C; Shivpuri, R K; Shupe, M A; Singh, J B; Sirotenko, V I; Smart, W M; Smith, A; Smith, R P; Snihur, R; Snow, G A; Snyder, S; Solomon, J; Sood, P M; Sosebee, M; Souza, M; Spadafora, A L; Stephens, R W; Stevenson, M L; Stewart, D; Stocker, F; Stoyanova, D A; Stoker, D P; Streets, K; Strovink, M; Taketani, A; Tamburello, P D; Tarazi, J; Tartaglia, M; Taylor, T L; Teiger, J; Thompson, J; Trippe, T G; Tuts, P M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Virador, P; Vititoe, D L; Volkov, A A; Vorobev, A P; Wahl, H D; Wang, D C; Wang, L Z; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Weerts, H; Wenzel, W A; White, A; White, J T; Wightman, J A; Wilcox, J; Willis, S; Wimpenny, S J; Wirjawan, J V D; Womersley, J; Won, E; Wood, D R; Xu, H; Yamada, R; Yamin, P; Yanagisawa, C; Yang, J; Yang, M J; Yasuda, T; Yoshikawa, C; Youssef, S; Yu, J; Yu, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhou, Y H; Zhu, Q; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z H; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zylberstejn, A

    1996-01-01

    This study reports the first measurement of the azimuthal decorrelation between jets with pseudorapidity separation up to five units. The data were accumulated using the D\\O\\ detector during the 1992--1993 collider run of the Fermilab Tevatron at \\sqrt{s}= 1.8 TeV. These results are compared to next--to--leading order (NLO) QCD predictions and to two leading--log approximations (LLA) where the leading--log terms are resummed to all orders in \\alpha_{\\scriptscriptstyle S}. The final state jets as predicted by NLO QCD show less azimuthal decorrelation than the data. The parton showering LLA Monte Carlo {\\small HERWIG} describes the data well; an analytical LLA prediction based on BFKL resummation shows more decorrelation than the data.

  15. A Rapid and Sensitive UPLC-MS/MS-Method for the Separation and Quantification of Branched-Chain Amino Acids from Dried Blood Samples of Patients with Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Fingerhut

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Newborn screening for MSUD is a special challenge since patients with MSUD can metabolically decompensate rapidly without adequate treatment within the first two weeks of life. However, the screening method does not detect the actual marker metabolite (alloisoleucine specifically, but only as part of the group of the other isobaric amino acids leucine, isoleucine and hydroxyproline. We describe a sensitive and rapid second-tier UPLC-MS/MS method to determine branched-chain amino acids from the initial extraction of the screening sample. Quantification is based on a seven-point calibration curve. Reference ranges (mean ± SD in µmol/L were determined from 179 normal, not pre-selected samples from the newborn screening: leucine: 72 ± 27; isoleucine: 37 ± 19; valine: 98 ± 46; hydroxyproline: 23 ± 13. The concentration of alloisoleucine was below the detection limit in about 55% of the cases, and the highest concentration was 1.9 µmol/L. In all 30 retrospectively studied screening samples from patients with confirmed MSUD the concentration of alloisoleucine was significantly increased. In 238 samples with false-positive newborn screening due to a significant increase in the combined concentration of leucine + isoleucine + alloisoleucine + hydroxyproline (400 to >4000 µmol/L, alloisoleucine was below 6.5 µmol/L (n = 57 or not detectable (n = 181. The application of this assay markedly reduces the false-positive rate and the associated anxiety and costs. It is also suitable for routinely monitoring blood spots of patients with MSUD.

  16. Rapid methods for deoxynivalenol and other trichothecenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Elisabeth; Curtui, Valeriu; Seidler, Caroline; Dietrich, Richard; Usleber, Ewald; Märtlbauer, Erwin

    2004-10-10

    Method development for deoxynivalenol (DON) and other trichothecenes in recent years was driven by the analytical necessities arising from its widespread (and increasing) occurrence in foods and feeds. This has resulted in the establishment of guideline levels for animal feed, tolerable daily intake (TDI) levels for humans, and most importantly, in the prospect of low-tolerance levels for these toxins in foods in the near future. In order to ensure reliable determination of the toxin content at the tolerance levels, routine analytical methods must have detection limits of less than the tolerance level. This paper intends to give an overview of current analytical developments of rapid testing for deoxynivalenol and other trichothecene mycotoxins, with a special focus on antibody-based techniques. This includes high-throughput instrumental analysis for the laboratory environment, as well as rapid visual tests for on-site testing. The applicability of rapid tests within an integrated detection system for mycotoxins in foods is discussed.

  17. Method of magnetic separation and apparatus therefore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oder, Robin R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for magnetically separating and collecting particulate matter fractions of a raw sample according to relative magnetic susceptibilities of each fraction so collected is disclosed. The separation apparatus includes a splitter which is used in conjunction with a magnetic separator for achieving the desired fractionation.

  18. Using a Microscale Approach to Rapidly Separate and Characterize Three Photosynthetic Pigment Species from Fern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayudhya, Theppawut Israsena Na; Posey, Frederick T.; Tyus, Jessica C.; Dingra, Nin N.

    2015-01-01

    A rapid separation of three photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll "a" and "b" and xanthophyll) from fern ("Polystichum acrostichoides") is described using microscale solvent extraction and traditional thin layer chromatography that minimizes use of harmful chemicals and lengthy procedures. The experiment introduces…

  19. Rapid detection and purification of sequence specific DNA binding proteins using magnetic separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIJANA SAVIC

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for the rapid identification and purification of sequence specific DNA binding proteins based on magnetic separation is presented. This method was applied to confirm the binding of the human recombinant USF1 protein to its putative binding site (E-box within the human SOX3 protomer. It has been shown that biotinylated DNA attached to streptavidin magnetic particles specifically binds the USF1 protein in the presence of competitor DNA. It has also been demonstrated that the protein could be successfully eluted from the beads, in high yield and with restored DNA binding activity. The advantage of these procedures is that they could be applied for the identification and purification of any high-affinity sequence-specific DNA binding protein with only minor modifications.

  20. Phase separation and rapid solidification of liquid Cu60Fe30Co10 ternary peritectic alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI FuPing; CAO ChongDe; WEI BingBo

    2007-01-01

    The metastable liquid phase separation and rapid solidification of Cu60Fe30Co10 ternary peritectic alloy were investigated by using the drop tube technique and the differential scanning calorimetry method. It was found that the critical temperature of metastable liquid phase separation in this alloy is 1623.5 K, and the two separated liquid phases solidify as Cu(Fe,Co) and Fe(Cu,Co) solid solutions, respectively. The undercooling and cooling rate of droplets processed in the drop tube increase with the decrease of their diameters. During the drop tube processing, the structural morphologies of undercooled droplets are strongly dependent on the cooling rate. With the increase of the cooling rate, Fe(Cu,Co) spheres are refined greatly and become uniformly dispersed in the Cu-rich matrix. The calculations of Marangoni migration velocity (VM) and Stokes motion velocity (VS) of Fe(Cu,Co) droplets indicated that Marangoni migration contributes more to the coarsening and congregation of the minor phase during free fall. At the same undercooling, the VM/VS ratio increases drastically as Fe(Cu,Co) droplet size decreases. On the other hand, a larger undercooling tends to increase the VM/VS value for Fe(Cu,Co) droplets with the same size.

  1. Rapid Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Amperometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, David F.; Hew, Brian E.; Holdaway, Charlie; Jen, Michael; Peckham, Gabriel D.

    2016-01-01

    Portable detection and quantitation methods for Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) spores in pure culture or in environmental samples are lacking. Here, an amperometric immunoassay has been developed utilizing immunomagnetic separation to capture the spores and remove potential interferents from test samples followed by amperometric measurement on a field-portable instrument. Antibody-conjugated magnetic beads and antibody-conjugated glucose oxidase were used in a sandwich format for the capture and detection of target spores. Glucose oxidase activity of spore pellets was measured indirectly via amperometry by applying a bias voltage after incubation with glucose, horseradish peroxidase, and the electron mediator 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid). Target capture was mediated by polyclonal antisera, whereas monoclonal antibodies were used for signal generation. This strategy maximized sensitivity (500 target spores, 5000 cfu/mL), while also providing a good specificity for Bacillus anthracis spores. Minimal signal deviation occurs in the presence of environmental interferents including soil and modified pH conditions, demonstrating the strengths of immunomagnetic separation. The simultaneous incubation of capture and detection antibodies and rapid substrate development (5 min) result in short sample-to-signal times (less than an hour). With attributes comparable or exceeding that of ELISA and LFDs, amperometry is a low-cost, low-weight, and practical method for detecting anthrax spores in the field. PMID:27999382

  2. [Rapid detection of rotavirus in water samples using immunomagnetic separation combined with real time PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan; He, Miao; Li, Dan; Shi, Han-Chang; Liu, Li

    2009-05-15

    A quantitative and rapid detection method for rotavirus in water samples was developed, by using immunomagnetic separation combined with reverse transcription and real time polymerase chain reaction (IMS-RT-real time PCR). Magnetic beads coated with antibodies directed against group A rotavirus were used to capture and purify the virus in water samples. The experimental results showed that IMS was optimized when 1 mL samples were supplemented with 10 microL of immunomagnetic beads, 2.5 microL of Tween 20 and incubated for 2 h. The IMS method was employed in the detection of rotavirus in seeded virus eluant such as 3% beef extract successfully and thus manifested its compatibility with established virus concentration methods. The IMS-RT-real time PCR method could yield quantitative results within about 5 h with a detection limit at 1 x 10(4) copies/mL (equivalent to 3-4 PFU/mL). The method exhibited a high level correlation (R2 = 0.9816) with cell culture assay, indicating that it could perform as well as cell culture assay does in infection tests. And the method functioned satisfactorily in seeded concentrate of secondary waste water treatment plant effluent, reclaimed water, surface water and tap water.

  3. Automated Methods to Maintain Aircraft Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, Todd

    2011-01-01

    The air traffic control system in the United States has a great track-record for safety. As more aircraft enter the system at a given time, the situation becomes more complex though. Researchers at NASA are attempting to leverage advances in many fields including optimization, data mining, and numerical modeling of systems to improve the air-transportation system maintaining safety while increasing throughput and reducing delays. This talk will give a brief overview of the research at NASA towards modernizing the air-transportation system. It will then focus on the specific area of automation tools for maintaining physical separation between aircraft known as Separation Assurance.

  4. A simple, rapid method for HPLC analysis of lycopene isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, B K; Ma, J; Chan, B

    2001-01-01

    A rapid method for the extraction, separation and quantification of the geometric isomers of lycopene and beta-carotene from tomato fruit is described. Carotenoids in tomato were separated and eluted using a reversed-phase HPLC with a C30 column and a mobile phase consisting of methyl-t-butyl ether, methanol and ethyl acetate. The system provided sharp resolution of cis- and trans-isomers of lycopene within approximately 23 min in contrast to the longer and more complex gradient procedures required by previously described methods. Experiments indicate that the stability of extracts of fresh tomato may be improved if stored at -20 degrees C, and that the presence of the antioxidant BHA has no apparent effect on stability.

  5. Phase separation and rapid solidification of liquid Cu60Fe30Co10 ternary peritectic alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The metastable liquid phase separation and rapid solidification of Cu60Fe30Co10 ternary peritectic alloy were investigated by using the drop tube technique and the differential scanning calorimetry method. It was found that the critical temperature of metastable liquid phase separation in this alloy is 1623.5 K, and the two sepa- rated liquid phases solidify as Cu(Fe,Co) and Fe(Cu,Co) solid solutions, respec- tively. The undercooling and cooling rate of droplets processed in the drop tube increase with the decrease of their diameters. During the drop tube processing, the structural morphologies of undercooled droplets are strongly dependent on the cooling rate. With the increase of the cooling rate, Fe(Cu,Co) spheres are refined greatly and become uniformly dispersed in the Cu-rich matrix. The calculations of Marangoni migration velocity (VM) and Stokes motion velocity (VS) of Fe(Cu,Co) droplets indicated that Marangoni migration contributes more to the coarsening and congregation of the minor phase during free fall. At the same undercooling, the VM/VS ratio increases drastically as Fe(Cu,Co) droplet size decreases. On the other hand, a larger undercooling tends to increase the VM/VS value for Fe(Cu,Co) drop- lets with the same size.

  6. Fetal magnetocardiography: Methods for rapid data reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, John C.; Flynn, Edward R.; Quinn, A.; Weir, A.; Shahani, U.; Bain, R. J. P.; Maas, P.; Donaldson, G. B.

    1997-03-01

    Fetal magnetocardigraphy (fMCG) provides a unique method for noninvasive observations of the fetal heart. Electrical currents generated by excitable tissues within the fetal heart yield measurable external magnetic fields. Measurements are performed with superconducting quantum interference devices inductively coupled to magnetometer or gradiometer coils, and the resulting signals are converted to digital form in the data acquisition system. The measured fields are usually contaminated by fetal and maternal movements (usually respiration), other physiological fields such as skeletal muscle contraction, the maternal cardiac signal, and environmental electromagnetic fields. Sensitivity to relatively distant sources, both physiological and environmental, is substantially reduced by the use of magnetic gradiometers. Other contaminants may be removed by proper signal conditioning which may be automatically applied using "black box" algorithms that are transparent to the user and highly efficient. These procedures can rapidly reduce the complex signal plus noise waveforms to the desired fMCG with minimal operator interference.

  7. Rapid, sensitive and specific derivatization methods with 9-(hydroxymethyl)anthracene for the fluorimetric detection of carboxylic acids prior to reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lingeman, H.; Hulshoff, A.; Underberg, W.J.M.; Offermann, F.B.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Three derivatization procedures are described for the pre-column fluorescence labelling of carboxylic acids. The methods are based on esterification with 9-(hydroxymethyl)anthracene. The carboxylic acid function is activated with 2-bromo-l-methylpyridinium iodide, N,N′-carbonyldiimidazole or N-ethyl

  8. Cyclic electrophoretic and chromatographic separation methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Berg, van den Albert; Manz, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    A review is given of the application of cyclic analytical methods in capillary electroseparation (CE) and liquid chromatography (LC) systems. Cyclic methods have been used since the early sixties in chromatographic systems to overcome pressure limitations to resolution. From the early nineties on th

  9. Separate versus Concurrent Calibration Methods in Vertical Scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, Thakur; Lewis, Daniel M.; Hoskens, Machteld; Yao, Lihua; Haug, Carolyn

    Two methods to establish a common scale across grades within a content area using a common item design (separate and concurrent) have previously been studied under simulated conditions. Separate estimation is accomplished through separate calibration and grade-by-grade chained linking. Concurrent calibration established the vertical scale in a…

  10. Wet separation processes as method to separate limestone and oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurme, Martin; Karu, Veiko

    2015-04-01

    Biggest oil shale industry is located in Estonia. Oil shale usage is mainly for electricity generation, shale oil generation and cement production. All these processes need certain quality oil shale. Oil shale seam have interlayer limestone layers. To use oil shale in production, it is needed to separate oil shale and limestone. A key challenge is find separation process when we can get the best quality for all product types. In oil shale separation typically has been used heavy media separation process. There are tested also different types of separation processes before: wet separation, pneumatic separation. Now oil shale industry moves more to oil production and this needs innovation methods for separation to ensure fuel quality and the changes in quality. The pilot unit test with Allmineral ALLJIG have pointed out that the suitable new innovation way for oil shale separation can be wet separation with gravity, where material by pulsating water forming layers of grains according to their density and subsequently separates the heavy material (limestone) from the stratified material (oil shale)bed. Main aim of this research is to find the suitable separation process for oil shale, that the products have highest quality. The expected results can be used also for developing separation processes for phosphorite rock or all others, where traditional separation processes doesn't work property. This research is part of the study Sustainable and environmentally acceptable Oil shale mining No. 3.2.0501.11-0025 http://mi.ttu.ee/etp and the project B36 Extraction and processing of rock with selective methods - http://mi.ttu.ee/separation; http://mi.ttu.ee/miningwaste/

  11. A method for experimental modal separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallauer, W. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for the numerical simulation of multiple-shaker modal survey testing using simulated experimental data to optimize the shaker force-amplitude distribution for the purpose of isolating individual modes of vibration. Inertia, damping, stiffness, and model data are stored on magnetic disks, available by direct access to the interactive FORTRAN programs which perform all computations required by this relative force amplitude distribution method.

  12. A method for the rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of 4,4-dimethyl sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, G F; Mitropoulos, K A; Ramananda, K

    1973-09-01

    A simple and relatively rapid technique has been developed for the separation of several 4,4-dimethyl steryl acetates, some of which contain sterically hindered nuclear double bonds. The method involves thin-layer chromatography on silver nitrate-impregnated silica gel and silver nitrate-impregnated alumina. The separated steryl acetates may then be analyzed quantitatively by gas-liquid chromatography.

  13. Rapid, high-purity chemical separation of molybdenum from iron meteorites for isotopic analysis by using thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi-Lu; Masuda, Akimasa (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-05-01

    A chemical procedure has been developed, which combines both solvent extraction and anion exchange, so that microgram amounts of Mo can be cleanly, rapidly and efficiently separated from gram amounts of iron meteorites. Particular attention was directed to the complete separation of Mo from Zr and Ru. The isotopic abundance ratios of Mo can subsequently be determined with high accuracy by using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The experiments indicate that the behaviour of Mo during solvent extraction and anion exchange is considerably different from that reported previously. In particular, it was found that there is a very narrow range of HCl concentrations within which it is possible to separate Mo from Fe by solvent extraction. The reproducibility and recovery of the method were examined by using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. (Author).

  14. Method for preparing membranes with adjustable separation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, E.S.; Orme, C.J.; Stone, M.L.

    1995-01-31

    Methods for adjustable separation of solutes and solvents involve the combination of the use of a maximally swollen membrane and subsequent vacuum depressurization exerted on the permeate side of that membrane. By adjusting the extent of depressurization it is possible to separate solvent from solutes and solutes from each other. Improved control of separation parameters as well as improved flux rates characterize the present invention. 2 figs.

  15. Rapid separation of Arabidopsis male gametophyte developmental stages using a Percoll gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupl'áková, Nikoleta; Dobrev, Petre I; Reňák, David; Honys, David

    2016-10-01

    Research investigating the dynamics of male gametophyte (MG) development has proven to be challenging for the plant science community. Here we describe our protocol for separating Arabidopsis MG developmental stages, which is based on the centrifugation of pollen through a discontinuous Percoll concentration gradient. This Percoll gradient can be formed using a pipette, and it does not require a gradient maker. The purity of the isolated developing spores is as high as 70%, and in most separations it is well above 80%. Using this protocol, we can separate four different stages of pollen development-uninucleate microspore (UNM), bicellular pollen (BCP), tricellular immature pollen (TCP) and mature pollen grain (MPG). The duration of the separation procedure, excluding the cutting of flower inflorescences, is 6 h. This is reduced to 4 h when using a vacuum cleaning method to remove the MPGs before the Percoll density separation.

  16. Method of separating a surfactant from a liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, A.W.; Lems, S.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of separating a surfactant from a liquid, such as a wastewater stream from an industrial laundry. In accordance with the invention, the liquid is cooled to below the Krafft temperature of the surfactant and subjected to centrifugal forces for the separation

  17. Method and device for the separation of particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Van Kooy, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of in a liquid separating a mixture of particles that within chosen limits have different physical property values, wherein the particles to be separated are supplied via a feeder to a screen upon which a layer of facilitating particles is disposed, the size of the

  18. Separation Method of Neptunium From Large Amount of Plutonium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN; Hua; SU; Yu-lan; YING; Zhe-cong; ZHAO; Sheng-yang

    2013-01-01

    A new separation method of neptunium from large amount of plutonium by TEVA column has been developed.A series of influence factors are studied such as resin’s types,valence adjusting of Np and Pu,extraction and elution behavior of Np on TEVA resin.According to above works,a separation procedure is recommended as follows:1)Adjusting the

  19. Rapid and label-free separation of Burkitt's lymphoma cells from red blood cells by optically-induced electrokinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Liang

    Full Text Available Early stage detection of lymphoma cells is invaluable for providing reliable prognosis to patients. However, the purity of lymphoma cells in extracted samples from human patients' marrow is typically low. To address this issue, we report here our work on using optically-induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP force to rapidly purify Raji cells' (a type of Burkitt's lymphoma cell sample from red blood cells (RBCs with a label-free process. This method utilizes dynamically moving virtual electrodes to induce negative ODEP force of varying magnitudes on the Raji cells and RBCs in an optically-induced electrokinetics (OEK chip. Polarization models for the two types of cells that reflect their discriminate electrical properties were established. Then, the cells' differential velocities caused by a specific ODEP force field were obtained by a finite element simulation model, thereby established the theoretical basis that the two types of cells could be separated using an ODEP force field. To ensure that the ODEP force dominated the separation process, a comparison of the ODEP force with other significant electrokinetics forces was conducted using numerical results. Furthermore, the performance of the ODEP-based approach for separating Raji cells from RBCs was experimentally investigated. The results showed that these two types of cells, with different concentration ratios, could be separated rapidly using externally-applied electrical field at a driven frequency of 50 kHz at 20 Vpp. In addition, we have found that in order to facilitate ODEP-based cell separation, Raji cells' adhesion to the OEK chip's substrate should be minimized. This paper also presents our experimental results of finding the appropriate bovine serum albumin concentration in an isotonic solution to reduce cell adhesion, while maintaining suitable medium conductivity for electrokinetics-based cell separation. In short, we have demonstrated that OEK technology could be a promising tool for

  20. Rapid separation of strychnine and brucine on a dynamically modified poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip followed by electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q L; Xu, J J; Lian, H Z; Li, X Y; Chen, H Y

    2006-01-01

    A method has been developed for rapidly separating and detecting strychnine and brucine using a poly(dimethysiloxane) (PDMS) microchip and electrochemical (EC) detection. PDMS microchannels dynamically modified by Brij35 are shown to be more efficient than native ones. The two analytes are well separated within 90 s in 70 mmol/L acetate buffer (pH 5.5) containing 0.01% (v/v) Brij35. Detection limits were found to be 1.0 micromol/L for strychnine and 0.2 micromol/L for brucine at S/N = 3. The method was used to determine trace strychnine and brucine in rat serum, and the results obtained correlate well with those obtained via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

  1. Generalized non-separable two-dimensional Dammann encoding method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junjie; Zhou, Changhe; Zhu, Linwei; Lu, Yancong; Wu, Jun; Jia, Wei

    2017-01-01

    We generalize for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the Dammann encoding method into non-separable two-dimensional (2D) structures for designing various pure-phase Dammann encoding gratings (DEGs). For examples, three types of non-separable 2D DEGs, including non-separable binary Dammann vortex gratings, non-separable binary distorted Dammann gratings, and non-separable continuous-phase cubic gratings, are designed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Correspondingly, it is shown that 2D square arrays of optical vortices with topological charges proportional to the diffraction orders, focus spots shifting along both transversal and axial directions with equal spacings, and Airy-like beams with controllable orientation for each beam, are generated in symmetry or asymmetry by these three DEGs, respectively. Also, it is shown that a more complex-shaped array of modulated beams could be achieved by this non-separable 2D Dammann encoding method, which will be a big challenge for those conventional separable 2D Dammann encoding gratings. Furthermore, the diffractive efficiency of the gratings can be improved around ∼10% when the non-separable structure is applied, compared with their conventional separable counterparts. Such improvement in the efficiency should be of high significance for some specific applications.

  2. A dry-surface coating method for visualization of separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, W. Z.; Brauer, H. J.; Durgin, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    A simple and reasonably accurate dry-surface coating method for the visualization of the separation line on a bluff body is described. This method is not restricted to any particular Reynolds-number range and it supplies a clear permanent record of good photographic quality. Examination of this technique in visualizing the separation angle on a circular cylinder indicated that it is accurate within about + or - 4 percent.

  3. Methods for selective functionalization and separation of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor); Marek, legal representative, Irene Marie (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  4. Separable approximation method for two-body relativistic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandy, P.C.; Thaler, R.M.

    1988-03-01

    A method for defining a separable approximation to a given interaction within a two-body relativistic equation, such as the Bethe-Salpeter equation, is presented. The rank-N separable representation given here permits exact reproduction of the T matrix on the mass shell and half off the mass shell at N selected bound state and/or continuum values of the invariant mass. The method employed is a four-space generalization of the separable representation developed for Schroedinger interactions by Ernst, Shakin, and Thaler, supplemented by procedures for dealing with the relativistic spin structure in the case of Dirac particles.

  5. Separable approximation method for two-body relativistic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.

    1988-03-01

    A method for defining a separable approximation to a given interaction within a two-body relativistic equation, such as the Bethe-Salpeter equation, is presented. The rank-N separable representation given here permits exact reproduction of the T matrix on the mass shell and half off the mass shell at N selected bound state and/or continuum values of the invariant mass. The method employed is a four-space generalization of the separable representation developed for Schrödinger interactions by Ernst, Shakin, and Thaler, supplemented by procedures for dealing with the relativistic spin structure in the case of Dirac particles.

  6. Rapid separation and highly sensitive detection methodology for sulfonamides in shrimp using a monolithic column coupled with BDD amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangjarusvichai, Haruthai; Dungchai, Wijitar; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2009-09-15

    In this report, we aimed to extend our previous efforts toward the evaluation of sulfonamides (SAs) with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode. We improved this method by reducing the analysis time using a monolithic column coupled with amperometric detection to determine seven sulfonamides (sulfaguanidine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and sulfaquinoxaline). Because of its rapid separation, low back-pressure and high separation efficiency compared to a particle-packed column, a monolithic column (100 mm x 4.6mm) was used for sulfonamide separation. Chromatographic separation was performed in less than 8 min. The analysis was carried out using phosphate buffer (0.1M, pH 3): acetonitrile: methanol in a ratio of 80:15:5 (v/v/v) as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.5 mL min(-1). The optimal detection potential using hydrodynamic voltammetry was found to be 1.2V versus Ag/AgCl. The method was applied to determine seven sulfonamides in shrimp after sample preparation by solid-phase extraction. The recoveries of the sulfonamides in spiked shrimp samples at 1.5, 5 and 10 microg g(-1) were in the range of 81.7 to 97.5% with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) between 1.0 and 4.6%. Our methodology produced results that were highly correlated with HPLC-MS data. Therefore, we propose a method that can be used for the rapid, selective and sensitive evaluation of sulfonamides in contaminated food.

  7. Rapid selective separation of americium/curium from simulated nuclear forensic matrices using triazine ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginson, Matthew A.; Livens, Francis R.; Heath, Sarah L. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Radiochemistry Research; Thompson, Paul; Marsden, Olivia J. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading (United Kingdom); Harwood, Laurence M.; Hudson, Michael J. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Lewis, Frank W. [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Northumbria Univ., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical and Forensic Sciences

    2015-07-01

    In analysis of complex nuclear forensic samples containing lanthanides, actinides and matrix elements, rapid selective extraction of Am/Cm for quantification is challenging, in particular due the difficult separation of Am/Cm from lanthanides. Here we present a separation process for Am/Cm(III) which is achieved using a combination of AG1-X8 chromatography followed by Am/Cm extraction with a triazine ligand. The ligands tested in our process were CyMe{sub 4}-BTPhen, CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP, CA-BTP and CA-BTPhen. Our process allows for purification and quantification of Am and Cm (recoveries 80% - 100%) and other major actinides in < 2 d without the use of multiple columns or thiocyanate. The process is unaffected by high level Ca(II)/Fe(III)/Al(III) (10 mg mL{sup -1}) and thus requires little pre-treatment of samples.

  8. Rapid Detection and Identification of Yersinia pestis from Food Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley K. Amoako

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest has recently been renewed in the possible use of Y. pestis, the causative agent of plague, as a biological weapon by terrorists. The vulnerability of food to intentional contamination coupled with reports of humans having acquired plague through eating infected animals that were not adequately cooked or handling of meat from infected animals makes the possible use of Y. pestis in a foodborne bioterrorism attack a reality. Rapid, efficient food sample preparation and detection systems that will help overcome the problem associated with the complexity of the different matrices and also remove any ambiguity in results will enable rapid informed decisions to be made regarding contamination of food with biothreat agents. We have developed a rapid detection assay that combines the use of immunomagnetic separation and pyrosequencing in generating results for the unambiguous identification of Y. pestis from milk (0.9 CFU/mL, bagged salad (1.6 CFU/g, and processed meat (10 CFU/g. The low detection limits demonstrated in this assay provide a novel tool for the rapid detection and confirmation of Y. pestis in food without the need for enrichment. The combined use of the iCropTheBug system and pyrosequencing for efficient capture and detection of Y. pestis is novel and has potential applications in food biodefence.

  9. Rapid method for detection of salmonella in meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a rapid method for the detection of Salmonella in meat as well as to a kit for performing said method. The method provides a time-to-result of less than 8 hours.......The present invention relates to a rapid method for the detection of Salmonella in meat as well as to a kit for performing said method. The method provides a time-to-result of less than 8 hours....

  10. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2015-10-27

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  11. Methods and compositions for rapid thermal cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Benett, William J.; Frank, James M.; Deotte, Joshua R.; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2015-10-27

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A microfluidic heat exchanger with an internal porous medium is coupled to tanks containing cold fluid and hot fluid. Fluid flows alternately from the cold tank and the hot tank into the porous medium, cooling and heating samples contained in the microfluidic heat exchanger's sample wells. A valve may be coupled to the tanks and a pump, and switching the position of the valve may switch the source and direction of fluid flowing through the porous medium. A controller may control the switching of valve positions based on the temperature of the samples and determined temperature thresholds. A sample tray for containing samples to be thermally cycled may be used in conjunction with the thermal cycling system. A surface or internal electrical heater may aid in heating the samples, or may replace the necessity for the hot tank.

  12. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for rapid separation and identification of main constituents in Chinese herbal formula Xuan Hu Suo San.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Huaqi; Zhang, Xinyue; Luo, Shilin; Shang, Fei; Chen, Jianping; Wang, Jinghong; Duan, Xiaojie; Gao, Xiaoyan; Sun, Yikun

    2017-02-15

    Xuan Hu Suo San (XHSS) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been extensively applied in the treatment of osteoarthritis for many years, however, its chemical composition has not yet been elucidated. Thus, a rapid, efficient, and precise method based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied in both positive- and negative-ion modes to rapidly separate and identify the main chemical ingredients in XHSS for the first time. Finally, with the optimised separation and detection method, a total of 57 compounds were simultaneously separated within 13 min, among which 14 compounds were confirmed by comparing retention time and MS data with reference standards and others were tentatively identified by comparing with reference literatures. This rapid and sensitive approach is highly useful for the identification and characterisation of chemical constituents, and provides fundamental and extensive information supporting further metabolic and pharmacokinetic studies of XHSS.

  13. A rapid method of ferromanganese nodule mounting

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Banerjee, R.

    for ferromanganese nodules (Sorem and Foster, 1973; Margolis and Glasby, 1973). In most cases vacuum impregnation is an essential requirement, but treatment of vacuum may cause production of artifact mineral (cf. Ostwald and Dubrawski, 1987). A simple method...

  14. Rapid Separation of 239Pu and 241Am in Environment Soil Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Jin-ling; ZHANG; Ji-qiao; HUANG; Kun; DING; You-qian; ZHAO; Ya-ping

    2015-01-01

    In the nuclear sites and the surroundings which are the main environmental monitored area,the allowances of 239Pu and 241 Am are less than0.1Bq/g as the extremely toxic species.So it is very important and practical to establish rapid and convenient analysis methods for them.With

  15. Multi-dimensional blind separation method for STBC systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minggang Luo; Liping Li; Guobing Qian; Huaguo Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Intercepted signal blind separation is a research topic with high importance for both military and civilian communication systems. A blind separation method for space-time block code (STBC) systems is proposed by using the ordinary independent component analysis (ICA). This method cannot work when spe-cific complex modulations are employed since the assumption of mutual independence cannot be satisfied. The analysis shows that source signals, which are group-wise independent and use multi-dimensional ICA (MICA) instead of ordinary ICA, can be applied in this case. Utilizing the block-diagonal structure of the cumulant matrices, the JADE algorithm is generalized to the multi-dimensional case to separate the received data into mutual y in-dependent groups. Compared with ordinary ICA algorithms, the proposed method does not introduce additional ambiguities. Sim-ulations show that the proposed method overcomes the drawback and achieves a better performance without utilizing coding infor-mation than channel estimation based algorithms.

  16. A method of separating scrap, and a device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.C.M.; Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of and a device for separating scrap comprising scrap items of a first type and of a second type, at least one of said types of scrap comprising metal. According to the invention, the method comprises the steps of passing a spot of light over the surface of a scrap

  17. Rapid separation of beryllium and lanthanide derivatives by capillary gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Scott D.; Lucke, Richard B.; Douglas, Matt

    2012-09-04

    Previous studies describe derivatization of metal ions followed by analysis using gas chromatography, usually on packed columns. In many of these studies, stable and volatile derivatives were formed using fluorinated β-diketonate reagents. This paper extends previous work by investigating separations of the derivatives on small-diameter capillary gas chromatography columns and exploring on-fiber, solid-phase microextraction derivatization techniques for beryllium. The β-diketonate used for these studies was 1,1,1,2,2,6,6,7,7,7-decafluoro-3,5-heptanedione. Derivatization of lanthanides also required addition of a neutral donor, dibutyl sulfoxide, in addition to 1,1,1,2,2,6,6,7,7,7-decafluoro-3,5-heptanedione. Unoptimized separations on a 100-μm i.d. capillary column proved capable of rapid separations (within 15 min) of lanthanide derivatives that are adjacent to one another in the periodic table. Full-scan mass spectra were obtained from derivatives containing 5 ng of each lanthanide. Studies also developed a simple on-fiber solid-phase microextraction derivatization of beryllium. Beryllium could be analyzed in the presence of other alkali earth elements (Ba(II) and Sr(II)) without interference. Finally, extension of the general approach was demonstrated for several additional elements (i.e. Cu(II), Cr(III), and Ga(III)).

  18. Rapid vegetative propagation method for carob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many fruit species are propagated by vegetative methods such as budding, grafting, cutting, suckering, layering etc. to avoid heterozygosity. Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua L.) are of highly economical value and it is among the most difficult-to-propagate fruit species. In this study, air-layering p...

  19. Rapid Vegetative Propagation Method for Carob

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamide GUBBUK

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of fruit species are propagated by vegetative methods such as budding, grafting, cutting, suckering, layering etc. to avoid heterozygocity. Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua L. are of highly economical value and are among the most difficult to propagate fruit species. In the study, air-layering propagation method was investigated first time to compare wild and cultivated (�Sisam� carob types. In the experiment, one year old carob limbs were air-layered on coco peat medium by wrapping with aluminum foil and polyethylene film. Initial roots were observed after three months of treatment and the well rooted limbs were cut-off after six months of treatment. Root length, diameter, and the number of roots were recorded on treated shoots and the rooted shoots were transferred into soil. As a result, it has been found that air-layering is successful in carob. This method is more labor intensive and thus it is recommend the method only for genetically important carob types propagation.

  20. Orbiter Repair Maneuver Contingency Separation Methods and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machula, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Repairing damaged thermal protection system tile requires the Space Shuttle to be oriented such that repair platform access from the International Space Station (ISS) is possible. To do this, the Space Shuttle uses the Orbiter Repair Maneuver (ORM), which utilizes the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) to rotate the Space Shuttle in relation to the ISS, for extended periods of time. These positions cause difficulties and challenges to performing a safe separation (no collision or thruster plume damage to sensitive ISS structures) should an inadvertent release occur or a contingency procedure require it. To help protect for an SRMS failure or other failures, a method for separating without collision and the ability to redock to ISS from the ORM configuration was needed. The contingency ORM separation solution elegantly takes advantage of orbital mechanics between ISS and the separating Space Shuttle. By pitching the ISS down approximately 45 degrees, in a majority of the ORM repair positions, the altitude difference between the ISS and Space Shuttle center of gravity is maximized. This altitude difference results in different orbital energies (orbital periods) causing objects to separate from each other without requiring translational firings. Using this method, a safe contingency ORM separation is made possible in many odd positions even though some separation positions point high powered thrusters directly at fragile ISS and Soyuz solar arrays. Documented in this paper are the development simulations and procedures of the contingency ORM separation and the challenges encountered with large constraints to work around. Lastly, a method of returning to redock with the ISS to pick up the stranded crew members (or transfer the final crew members) is explained as well as the thruster and ISS loads analysis.

  1. Rapid and robust detection methods for poison and microbial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehl, Melanie M; Lu, Peter J; Sims, Peter A; Slocum, Alexander H

    2012-06-27

    Real-time on-site monitoring of analytes is currently in high demand for food contamination, water, medicines, and ingestible household products that were never tested appropriately. Here we introduce chemical methods for the rapid quantification of a wide range of chemical and microbial contaminations using a simple instrument. Within the testing procedure, we used a multichannel, multisample, UV-vis spectrophotometer/fluorometer that employs two frequencies of light simultaneously to interrogate the sample. We present new enzyme- and dye-based methods to detect (di)ethylene glycol in consumables above 0.1 wt % without interference and alcohols above 1 ppb. Using DNA intercalating dyes, we can detect a range of pathogens ( E. coli , Salmonella , V. Cholera, and a model for Malaria) in water, foods, and blood without background signal. We achieved universal scaling independent of pathogen size above 10(4) CFU/mL by taking advantage of the simultaneous measurement at multiple wavelengths. We can detect contaminants directly, without separation, purification, concentration, or incubation. Our chemistry is stable to ± 1% for >3 weeks without refrigeration, and measurements require <5 min.

  2. Article separation apparatus and method for unit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Allan F.; Gervais, Kevin L.; Mathews, Royce A.; Hockey, Ronald L.

    2010-06-22

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for separating articles from a group of articles. The apparatus includes a container for containing one or more articles coupled to a suitable fluidizer for suspending articles within the container and transporting articles to an induction tube. A portal in the induction tube introduces articles singly into the induction tube. A vacuum pulls articles through the induction tube separating the articles from the group of articles in the container. The apparatus and method can be combined with one or more unit operations or modules, e.g., for inspecting articles, assessing quality of articles, or ascertaining material properties and/or parameters of articles, including layers thereof.

  3. Advances in rapid detection methods for foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xihong; Lin, Chii-Wann; Wang, Jun; Oh, Deog Hwan

    2014-03-28

    Food safety is increasingly becoming an important public health issue, as foodborne diseases present a widespread and growing public health problem in both developed and developing countries. The rapid and precise monitoring and detection of foodborne pathogens are some of the most effective ways to control and prevent human foodborne infections. Traditional microbiological detection and identification methods for foodborne pathogens are well known to be time consuming and laborious as they are increasingly being perceived as insufficient to meet the demands of rapid food testing. Recently, various kinds of rapid detection, identification, and monitoring methods have been developed for foodborne pathogens, including nucleic-acid-based methods, immunological methods, and biosensor-based methods, etc. This article reviews the principles, characteristics, and applications of recent rapid detection methods for foodborne pathogens.

  4. Improved Method of Blind Speech Separation with Low Computational Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunobu Kondo

    2011-01-01

    a frame-wise spectral soft mask method based on an interchannel power ratio of tentative separated signals in the frequency domain. The soft mask cancels the transfer function between sources and separated signals. A theoretical analysis of selection criteria and the soft mask is given. Performance and effectiveness are evaluated via source separation simulations and a computational estimate, and experimental results show the significantly improved performance of the proposed method. The segmental signal-to-noise ratio achieves 7 [dB] and 3 [dB], and the cepstral distortion achieves 1 [dB] and 2.5 [dB], in anechoic and reverberant conditions, respectively. Moreover, computational complexity is reduced by more than 80% compared with unmodified FDICA.

  5. Rapid separation of mononuclear hodgkin from multinuclear reed-sternberg cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongruttanachok, Narisorn; Cayre, Yvon E; Knecht, Hans; Mai, Sabine

    2014-03-01

    We describe a method to isolate small mononucleated Hodgkin (H) cells from multinucleated Reed Sternberg (RS) cells of Hodgkin lymphoma using the ScreenCell filter device. This filtration-based approach lends itself to future clinical applications in that it enables the separation of H and RS cells from lymph node biopsies, bone marrow aspirates, pleural effusions, and blood, including the isolation of monoclonal Hodgkin precursor cells from the blood.

  6. Rapid separation of polysaccharides using a novel spiral coil column by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weili; Wu, Tao

    2016-04-01

    The separation of polysaccharides is time consuming. We developed and optimized a type-J counter-current chromatography system with a novel tri-rotor spiral coil column for the rapid separation of polysaccharides. The optimal composition of an aqueous PEG1000/K2 HPO4 /KH2 PO4 system was found to be 14:16:14 w/w/w where the lower phase was the mobile phase. Optimal performance was achieved at a column rotational speed, temperature, and flow rate of 1200 rpm, 45°C, and 3.0 mL/min, respectively. The mobile phase was pumped from the inner terminal in a ''head-to-tail'' elution mode. Polysaccharide LCP-1 (10.7 mg) was successfully obtained in high purity in one step from 50.0 mg of a crude polysaccharide extracted from the lychee fruit (Litchi chinensis) within 100 min. LCP-1 possess a number-average molecular weight and weight-average molecular weight of 1.05 × 10(5) and 1.59 × 10(5) kDa, respectively. The monosaccharide composition consists of the molar ratio of glucose, galactose, and arabinose of 1.3:3.5:1.

  7. Optimization of biomolecule separation by combining microscale filtration and design-of-experiment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Amir S; Kawka, Karina; Latulippe, David R

    2016-10-01

    There is considerable interest in developing microscale (i.e., high-throughput) methods that enable multiple filtration experiments to be run in parallel with smaller sample amounts and thus reduce the overall required time and associated cost to run the filtration tests. Previous studies to date have focused on simply evaluating the filtration capacity, not the separation performance. In this work, the stirred-well filtration (SWF) method was used in combination with design-of-experiment (DOE) methods to optimize the separation performance for three binary mixtures of bio-molecules: protein-protein, protein-polysaccharide, and protein-DNA. Using the parallel based format of the SWF method, eight constant-flux ultrafiltration experiments were conducted at once to study the effects of stirring conditions, permeate flux, and/or solution conditions (pH, ionic strength). Four separate filtration tests were conducted for each combination of process variables; in total, over 100 separate tests were conducted. The sieving coefficient and selectivity results are presented to match the DOE design format and enable a greater understanding of the effects of the different process variables that were studied. The method described herein can be used to rapidly determine the optimal combination of process factors that give the best separation performance for a range of membrane-based separations applications and thus obviate the need to run a large number of traditional lab-scale tests. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2131-2139. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. How to evaluate the separation efficiency of CZE methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner-Merz, C; Holzgrabe, U

    2011-06-01

    In trying to estimate the separation efficiency of Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) methods, the resolution (RS), the number of theoretical plates (N) and the peak-to-valley ratio (p/v) are often used assessment criteria. This study demonstrates that these criteria are not as suitable to describe the separation efficiency in case of Capillary Zone Electrophoresis (CZE) methods as they are for Liquid Chromatography (LC) methods. The investigations were performed by means of a validated CZE method for the evaluation of tetracyclines and their related substances. Four impurities of tetracycline hydrochloride are described in the European Pharmacopoeia. Three were found in the sample used for our investigations, i.e. epi-tetracycline formed by keto-enol-tautomerism, anhydrotetracyclin and epi-anhydrotetracyline. It could be shown that higher values of these assessment criteria like RS do not necessarily represent better separation. Thus, a discussion on the usefulness of separation selectivity and efficiency as assessment criteria for capillary electrophoresis as well as on the introduction of additional parameters is needed.

  9. Separation of interleukins by a preparative chromatofocusing-like method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkarsh, S P; Russoman, E A; Roy, S K

    1993-02-12

    A chromatofocusing-like method used in the large-scale separation of deamidated from amidated recombinant human interleukin-1 alpha (amino acids 117-271), derived from Escherichia coli, is described. Two major protein species having isoelectric points (pI) of approximately 5.3 and 5.1 were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography using a sulfopropyl strong cation-exchange column. Unlike standard chromatofocusing technique, this method does not use carrier ampholytes during gradient separation of proteins, nor does it employ increased ionic strength for protein elution, the usual method for performing standard ion-exchange chromatography. N-Terminal sequence analysis of the protein with a pI of 5.3 revealed an Asn residue at position 32 as predicted by the cDNA sequence. The pI 5.1 species showed an Asp residue at the same position as a result of deamidation of Asn. This method was also used in the large-scale separation of N-Met from des-Met recombinant human interleukin-1 beta.

  10. An Improved Method for Extraction and Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Nobuyasu; Kanaizuka, Yasuhiro; Sudarmi, Rini; Yokohama, Yasutsugu

    2003-01-01

    The method for extracting and separating hydrophobic photosynthetic pigments proposed by Katayama "et al." ("Japanese Journal of Phycology," 42, 71-77, 1994) has been improved to introduce it to student laboratories at the senior high school level. Silica gel powder was used for removing water from fresh materials prior to extracting pigments by a…

  11. Rapid methods : for food and feed quality determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerongen, van A.; Barug, D.; Lauwaars, M.

    2007-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing need for rapid methods and instrumentation in the field of food and feed quality. Key issues dealt with in the food and feed industry include: monitoring of processes at all stages; showing due diligence in the control of food and nutritional quality; achieving rapid

  12. Rapid methods : for food and feed quality determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerongen, van A.; Barug, D.; Lauwaars, M.

    2007-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing need for rapid methods and instrumentation in the field of food and feed quality. Key issues dealt with in the food and feed industry include: monitoring of processes at all stages; showing due diligence in the control of food and nutritional quality; achieving rapid resu

  13. Expediting systematic reviews: methods and implications of rapid reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciliska Donna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers and others often require synthesis of knowledge in an area within six months or less. Traditional systematic reviews typically take at least 12 months to conduct. Rapid reviews streamline traditional systematic review methods in order to synthesize evidence within a shortened timeframe. There is great variation in the process of conducting rapid reviews. This review sought to examine methods used for rapid reviews, as well as implications of methodological streamlining in terms of rigour, bias, and results. Methods A comprehensive search strategy--including five electronic databases, grey literature, hand searching of relevant journals, and contacting key informants--was undertaken. All titles and abstracts (n = 1,989 were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Relevance criteria included articles published between 1995 and 2009 about conducting rapid reviews or addressing comparisons of rapid reviews versus traditional reviews. Full articles were retrieved for any titles deemed relevant by either reviewer (n = 70. Data were extracted from all relevant methodological articles (n = 45 and from exemplars of rapid review methods (n = 25. Results Rapid reviews varied from three weeks to six months; various methods for speeding up the process were employed. Some limited searching by years, databases, language, and sources beyond electronic searches. Several employed one reviewer for title and abstract reviewing, full text review, methodological quality assessment, and/or data extraction phases. Within rapid review studies, accelerating the data extraction process may lead to missing some relevant information. Biases may be introduced due to shortened timeframes for literature searching, article retrieval, and appraisal. Conclusions This review examined the continuum between diverse rapid review methods and traditional systematic reviews. It also examines potential implications of streamlined review methods. More of

  14. Separation methods for taurine analysis in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Shifen; Ding, Xiaojing; Liu, Yongjian

    2002-12-05

    Taurine plays an important role in a variety of physiological functions, pharmacological actions and pathological conditions. Many methods for taurine analysis, therefore, have been reported to monitor its levels in biological samples. This review discusses the following techniques: sample preparation; separation and determination methods including high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, ion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and hyphenation procedures. It covers articles published between 1990 and 2001.

  15. Rapid Separation of Elemental Species by Fast Multicapillary Gas Chromatography with Multichannel Optical Spectrometry Detection following Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Giersz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for conducting fast and efficient gas chromatography based on short multicapillaries in straight alignment combined with atomic emission detection was developed for field analysis. The strategy enables for speciation analysis of organometallic compounds. The analytes are simultaneously ethylated and preconcentrated on a solid phase microextraction (SPME fiber placed in the headspace over the sample for 25 min. The ethylated species are then completely separated and selectively quantified within 25 s under isothermal conditions. A new miniaturized speciation analyzer has been constructed and evaluated. The system consists of a GC injection port and a lab-made miniaturized GC unit directly coupled with miniaturized plasma excitation source. The emitted light is transferred via optical fiber and registered with a miniaturized charged coupled device (CCD based spectrometer. Working parameters for multicapillary column gas chromatography with atomic emission detector, including carrier gas flow rate, desorption temperature, and GC column temperature, were optimized to achieve good separation of analytes. Basic investigations of the fundamental properties of 5 cm-long multicapillary column, to evaluate its potential and limitations as a rapid separation unit, are presented. The adaptation of the technique for use with a SPME system and with a multichannel element-selective plasma-emission detector is highlighted.

  16. Method and apparatus for detecting laminar flow separation and reattachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, John P. (Inventor); Mangalam, Sivaramakrishnan M. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for simultaneously detecting laminar separation and reattachment of a fluid stream such as an airstream from and to the upper surface of an airfoil by simultaneously sensing and comparing a plurality of output signals. Each signal represents the dynamic shear stress at one of an equal number of sensors spaced along a straight line on the surface of the airfoil that extends parallel to the airstream. The output signals are simultaneously compared to detect the sensors across which a reversal in phase of said output signal occurs, said detected sensors being in the region of laminar separation or reattachment.

  17. A method based on a separation of variables in magnetohydrodynamics (MHD); Une methode de separation des variables en magnetohydrodynamique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cessenat, M.; Genta, P.

    1996-12-31

    We use a method based on a separation of variables for solving a system of first order partial differential equations, in a very simple modelling of MHD. The method consists in introducing three unknown variables {phi}1, {phi}2, {phi}3 in addition of the time variable {tau} and then searching a solution which is separated with respect to {phi}1 and {tau} only. This is allowed by a very simple relation, called a `metric separation equation`, which governs the type of solutions with respect to time. The families of solutions for the system of equations thus obtained, correspond to a radial evolution of the fluid. Solving the MHD equations is then reduced to find the transverse component H{sub {Sigma}} of the magnetic field on the unit sphere {Sigma} by solving a non linear partial differential equation on {Sigma}. Thus we generalize ideas due to Courant-Friedrichs and to Sedov on dimensional analysis and self-similar solutions. (authors).

  18. Combined electrophoretic-separation and electrospray method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.D.; Olivares, J.A.

    1989-06-27

    A system and method for analyzing molecular constituents of a composition sample includes: forming a solution of the sample, separating the solution by capillary zone electrophoresis into an eluent of constituents longitudinally separated according to their relative electrophoretic mobilities, electrospraying the eluent to form a charged spray in which the molecular constituents have a temporal distribution; and detecting or collecting the separated constituents in accordance with the temporal distribution in the spray. A first high-voltage (e.g., 5--100 kVDC) is applied to the solution. The spray is charged by applying a second high voltage (e.g., [+-]2--8 kVDC) between the eluent at the capillary exit and a cathode spaced in front of the exit. A complete electrical circuit is formed by a conductor which directly contacts the eluent at the capillary exit. 10 figs.

  19. Methods of separation of variables in turbulence theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, S.

    1978-01-01

    Two schemes of closing turbulent moment equations are proposed both of which make double correlation equations separated into single-point equations. The first is based on neglected triple correlation, leading to an equation differing from small perturbed gasdynamic equations where the separation constant appears as the frequency. Grid-produced turbulence is described in this light as time-independent, cylindrically-isotropic turbulence. Application to wall turbulence guided by a new asymptotic method for the Orr-Sommerfeld equation reveals a neutrally stable mode of essentially three dimensional nature. The second closure scheme is based on an assumption of identity of the separated variables through which triple and quadruple correlations are formed. The resulting equation adds, to its equivalent of the first scheme, an integral of nonlinear convolution in the frequency describing a role due to triple correlation of direct energy-cascading.

  20. Rapid Detection of Melamine in Milk Using Immunological Separation and Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiyuan; Feng, Shaolong; Hu, Yaxi; Sheng, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Shifang; Zeng, Haishan; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-06-01

    We integrated immunological separation and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect melamine in milk. Antimelamine was produced by New Zealand white rabbits following the injection with melamine hapten-ovalbumin immunogen. Melamine was separated from milk by binding to the converted protein G-antimelamine complex. After releasing antimelamine and melamine from the complex, the eluents were deposited directly onto the silver dendrite SERS-active substrate for spectral collection. Multivariate statistical analysis including unsupervised principal component analysis and supervised soft independent modeling of class analogy validated the feasibility of applying this method to detect trace levels of melamine in milk. The limit of detection can be as low as 0.79×10(-3) mmol/L. The overall analysis can be completed in 20 min, thus, it is a high-throughput technique to screen for melamine in milk samples.

  1. Analysis of low Reynolds number separation bubbles using semiempirical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gordon S.; Mueller, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    The formation and growth of transitional separation bubbles can significantly affect boundary-layer development on airfoils operating at low chord Reynolds numbers. Of primary concern is the change in boundary-layer thickness between laminar separation and turbulent reattachment. This can be estimated using semiempirical methods, such as the one devised by Horton (1968), which are based on solutions to the integral forms of the boundary-layer equations. The applicability of these methods at low Reynolds numbers was investigated using hot-wire measurements of bubbles formed on an NACA 66(3)-018 airfoil at chord Reynolds numbers of 50,000-200,000. The momentum thickness growth between separation and transition was found to be similar to that predicted for a laminar half-jet and appears to be influenced by the momentum thickness Reynolds number at separation. This parameter also was found to have a noticeable effect on the Reynolds number based on the length of a bubble's laminar portion.

  2. Rapid method of proximate analysis of coals from Indian coalfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, N.; Paul, S.K. [CFRI, Dhanbad (India)

    2001-07-01

    The proximate analysis has been useful in finding out the percentage of ash in coal, which is the threshold requirement by which the commercial value of coal is adjudged. In the present study, a rapid method for determination of ash percentage in coal has been discussed. Rapid method is always warranted to release more quality parameters within scheduled time. The results obtained by this method were found to be satisfactory and comparable with the results obtained by the British Standard specifications. It is concluded that this method can be effectively adopted where sulphur, carbonates and alkalis are present in low amounts. 4 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. A Method to Separate Stochastic and Deterministic Information from Electrocardiograms

    CERN Document Server

    Gutíerrez, R M

    2004-01-01

    In this work we present a new idea to develop a method to separate stochastic and deterministic information contained in an electrocardiogram, ECG, which may provide new sources of information with diagnostic purposes. We assume that the ECG has information corresponding to many different processes related with the cardiac activity as well as contamination from different sources related with the measurement procedure and the nature of the observed system itself. The method starts with the application of an improuved archetypal analysis to separate the mentioned stochastic and deterministic information. From the stochastic point of view we analyze Renyi entropies, and with respect to the deterministic perspective we calculate the autocorrelation function and the corresponding correlation time. We show that healthy and pathologic information may be stochastic and/or deterministic, can be identified by different measures and located in different parts of the ECG.

  4. Separating method and dynamic processes of Nano-Al13

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Baoyu; CHU Yongbao; YUE Qinyan; KONG Chunyan; WANG Xiaona

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the characteristics of pure Nano-Al13,Nano-Al13 was separated and purified from a series of poly-aluminum chloride (PAC) solutions which had the same Al13 percentage but different total Al concentrations,by using column chromatography,ethanol-acetone resolving and SO2-4/Ba2+ displacement.The Al13 species yield was characterized,by Al-ferron timed complexation spectropho-tometry and 27Al-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance).The coagulation efficiency of Nano-Al13,PAC and AlCl3 in synthetic water was also investigated by Jar tests.The dynamic process and aggregation state of kaolin suspensions coagulating with Nano-Al13,PAC and AlCl3 were similarly investigated using a photometric dispersion analyzer 2000 (PDA2000).The experimental results indicated that the ethanol-acetone resolving method was simple and could separate the PAC solution at different concentrations,while column chromatography could separate PAC solutions at low concentrations.The SO42-/Ba2+ displacement method could separate PAC solutions at high concentrations.However,extra inorganic cation and anion could be added in the solution during separation.The coagulation efficiency and dynamic experimental results showed that Nano-Al13 with high positive-charged species was effective in removing turbidity and color.The dynamic process results showed that Nano-Al13 also had the best recovery capability after shearing compared with PAC and AlCl3 because the Nano-Al13 conformation is more effective in charge neutralization.

  5. Separation methods in the chemistry of humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janos, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    Separation methods are widely used to isolate humic substances (HSs), to fractionate them before further investigation, and to obtain information about their structure and properties. Among the chromatographic methods, techniques based on a size-exclusion effect appear to be most useful, as they allow us to relate elution data to the molecular mass distribution of HSs. The limitations of this approach are discussed in this review. Gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection is typically used to identify the products of pyrolysis or thermochemolysis of HSs; this technique is considered most important in the structural investigation of HSs. Electrophoretic methods (especially capillary zone electrophoresis) provide detailed characterization of HSs, but it is very difficult to relate the electrophoretic data to any specific subfraction, structure or properties of HSs. The electrophoretic patterns are often called "fingerprints" and can potentially be used for the identification and classification of HSs. This is limited, however, by the great diversity of the procedures employed and by the low degree of harmonization--no data on reproducibility and between-laboratory comparability are available. The same holds true, to a certain degree, for most methods utilized for the characterization of HSs. Separation methods play an important role in the examination of the interactions of HSs with heavy metals and other chemical pollutants. They allow us to determine binding constants and other data necessary to predict the mobility of chemical pollutants in the environment.

  6. Feature separability analysis for SAR ATR using data description method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weiwei; Du, Xiaoyong; Hu, WeiDong; Yu, Wenxian

    2007-11-01

    Feature extraction and selection play an important role in radar target recognition. This paper focuses on evaluating feature separability for SAR ATR and selecting the best subset of features. In details, fifteen features extracted from T72, BTR70 and BMP2 in MSTAR standard public dataset are examined, which are divided into seven categories: standard deviation, fractal dimension, weighted-rank fill ratio, size-related features, contrast-based features, count feature, projection feature, and moment features. Since the number of samples is small, a new separability criterion based on the overlap degree of each two class regions is proposed to assess the separability of these features. Here the class region is described by support vector data description (SVDD) method for good generalization. Based on the proposed criterion, a forward feature selection method is adopted to choose the best subset of features. Because of the strong variability of the feature against aspect, the features are analyzed under different aspect sectors within 360°angle range stepped by 15°, 30 °, and 60°, respectively. Experiments using MSTAR dataset validate the criterion, and the best subset of features is determined.

  7. Rapid Measurement of Spectral Characteristics by Correlation Matching Method

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chol-Sun; Im, Song-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have established the couple system of a spectroscope, CCD and computer and proposed a method of the rapid measurement on spectral characteristics such as central wavelengths, relative intensities, sensitivity lines and the wavelength range and image pixel of the spectral images of a material by using the correlation matching method for the image discernment of digital spectra.

  8. Novel core-shell cerium(IV)-immobilized magnetic polymeric microspheres for selective enrichment and rapid separation of phosphopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Cheng, Gong; Liu, Yan-Lin; Zhang, Ji-Lin; Sun, De-Hui; Ni, Jia-Zuan

    2014-03-01

    In this work, novel magnetic polymeric core-shell structured microspheres with immobilized Ce(IV), Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV), were designed rationally and synthesized successfully via a facile route for the first time. Magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres were first prepared by directly coating a thin layer of silica onto Fe3O4 magnetic particles using a sol-gel method, a poly(vinylphosphonic acid) (PVPA) shell was then coated on the Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres to form Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA microspheres through a radical polymerization reaction, and finally Ce(IV) ions were robustly immobilized onto the Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA microspheres through strong chelation between Ce(IV) ions and phosphate moieties in the PVPA. The applicability of the Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV) microspheres for selective enrichment and rapid separation of phosphopeptides from proteolytic digests of standard and real protein samples was investigated. The results demonstrated that the core-shell structured Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV) microspheres with abundant Ce(IV) affinity sites and excellent magnetic responsiveness can effectively purify phosphopeptides from complex biosamples for MS detection taking advantage of the rapid magnetic separation and the selective affinity between Ce(IV) ions and phosphate moieties of the phosphopeptides. Furthermore, they can be effectively recycled and show good reusability, and have better performance than commercial TiO2 beads and homemade Fe3O4@PMAA-Ce(IV) microspheres. Thus the Fe3O4@SiO2@PVPA-Ce(IV) microspheres can benefit greatly the mass spectrometric qualitative analysis of phosphopeptides in phosphoproteome research.

  9. A rapid ultrasound particle agglutination method for HIV antibody detection: Comparison with conventional rapid HIV tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystryak, Simon; Ossina, Natalya

    2017-08-24

    We present the results of the feasibility and preliminary studies on analytical performance of a rapid test for detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in human serum or plasma that is an important advance in detecting HIV infection. Current methods for rapid testing of antibodies against HIV are qualitative and exhibit poor sensitivity (limit of detection). In this paper, we describe an ultrasound particle agglutination (UPA) method that leads to a significant increase of the sensitivity of conventional latex agglutination tests for HIV antibody detection in human serum or plasma. The UPA method is based on the use of: 1) a dual mode ultrasound, wherein a first single-frequency mode is used to accelerate the latex agglutination process, and then a second swept-frequency mode of sonication is used to disintegrate non-specifically bound aggregates; and 2) a numerical assessment of results of the agglutination process. The numerical assessment is carried out by optical detection and analysis of moving patterns in the resonator cell during the swept-frequency mode. The single-step UPA method is rapid and more sensitive than the three commercial rapid HIV test kits analyzed in the study: analytical sensitivity of the new UPA method was found to be 510-, 115-, and 80-fold higher than that for Capillus™, Multispot™ and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen HIV antibody rapid test kits, respectively. The newly developed UPA method opens up additional possibilities for detection of a number of clinically significant markers in point-of-care settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  11. Cross-ocean GPS long distance rapid static positioning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The method of cross-ocean GPS long distance rapid static positioning has become one of the main technical means of GPS static positioning away from the mainland. The key technology had been analyzed including data preprocessing and quality control, long distance integer ambiguity resolution and static Kalman filter parameter estimation. Effective data processing method of cross-ocean GPS long baseline rapid static positioning had been proposed. Through the analysis of practical examples of coastal and ocean, the feasibility of cross-ocean GPS long distance rapid static positioning based on the method is testified and verified. The results show that the accuracy of one-hour single baseline static positioning for the 500–600 km distance can be better than 10 cm in the three-dimensional coordinates, which can suffice static positioning accuracy in the special ocean environment.

  12. Methods and systems for rapid prototyping of high density circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jeremy A.; Davis, Donald W.; Chavez, Bart D.; Gallegos, Phillip L.; Wicker, Ryan B.; Medina, Francisco R.

    2008-09-02

    A preferred embodiment provides, for example, a system and method of integrating fluid media dispensing technology such as direct-write (DW) technologies with rapid prototyping (RP) technologies such as stereolithography (SL) to provide increased micro-fabrication and micro-stereolithography. A preferred embodiment of the present invention also provides, for example, a system and method for Rapid Prototyping High Density Circuit (RPHDC) manufacturing of solderless connectors and pilot devices with terminal geometries that are compatible with DW mechanisms and reduce contact resistance where the electrical system is encapsulated within structural members and manual electrical connections are eliminated in favor of automated DW traces. A preferred embodiment further provides, for example, a method of rapid prototyping comprising: fabricating a part layer using stereolithography and depositing thermally curable media onto the part layer using a fluid dispensing apparatus.

  13. Rapid, sensitive separation of the three main isoflavones in soybean using immunoaffinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Huihua; Qu, Baoping; Wang, Xueqian; Zhang, Yue; Cheng, Jinjun; Zeng, Wenhao; Liu, Shuchen; Wang, Qingguo; Zhao, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Daidzin, genistin, and glycitein are major isoflavone compounds in soybean that are indispensable nutrients in traditional Chinese foods. Generally, strategies for detecting and separating soy isoflavones have been based on HPLC and chromatographic techniques, which are tedious and time-consuming procedures. In the present study, we developed an ELISA-based approach for daidzin detection using a broad-specificity monoclonal antibody (clone number: AA9) with an effective detection range of 10-10 000 ng/mL. Subsequently, we prepared an immunoaffinity column by coupling the monoclonal antibody AA9 to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. Our results demonstrate that the immunoaffinity column can efficiently and specifically extract daidzin, glycitein, and genistin from numerous structurally similar soy isoflavones in leguminous plants, thereby providing a new method for the extraction of target components from similar compounds in natural products.

  14. Method for Cs-137 separation from the decontamination solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toropov, I.G.; Efremenkov, V.M.; Toropova, V.V.; Satsukevich, V.M.; Davidov, Yu.P.

    1995-12-31

    In this work results of investigations are presented on separation of radiocaesium from the decontamination solutions containing reducing agents (thiocarbamide). The scientific basis for radiocaesium removal from the solution focuses on the state of the radionuclide and its sorption behavior in the solution with a complicated composition. Then using a combination of sorption and ultrafiltration methods it would be possible to concentrate the radionuclide in a small volume and to purify the main part of the solution. As a sorbent for radiocaesium removal from the solution, a ferrocyanide based sorbent is proposed. Use of this sorbent is justified since its high selectivity and effectiveness for radiocaesium sorption from the solutions of different composition is well known. When synthesis of the sorbent is performed directly in the treating solution, two components as a minimum should be added to it, namely K{sub 4}Fe(CN){sub 6} and metal ions of Ni-II, Co-II, Cu-II, etc. The results are presented which show the possibility of radiocaesium separation from the decontamination solutions (containing 60--100 g/l of salts) using sorption and membrane separation methods without the use of metal salts. At the same time by using FE-2 in solution in the presence of cyanide ions and thiocarbamide, it is possible to avoid the addition of metal salts (Ni, Cu, etc.). Utilization of the proposed method for spent decontamination solution treatment allows a relatively easy way to reduce the concentration of radiocaesium in solution on 2--4 orders of magnitudes, and to exclude the utilization of relatively expensive metal salts.

  15. Integral methods for shallow free-surface flows with separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, S.; Putkaradze, V.; Bohr, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    eddy and separated flow. Assuming a variable radial velocity profile as in Karman-Pohlhausen's method, we obtain a system of two ordinary differential equations for stationary states that can smoothly go through the jump. Solutions of the system are in good agreement with experiments. For the flow down......, and stationary jumps, obtained, for instance, behind a sluice gate. We then include time dependence in the model to study the stability of these waves. This allows us to distinguish between sub- and supercritical flows by calculating dispersion relations for wavelengths of the order of the width of the layer.......We study laminar thin film flows with large distortions of the free surface, using the method of averaging across the flow. Two specific problems are studied: the circular hydraulic jump and the flow down an inclined plane. For the circular hydraulic jump our method is able to handle an internal...

  16. Development of electrochemical separation methods from molten fluoride salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straka, M.; Tulackova, R.; Chuchvalcova Bimova, K. [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc, 250 68 Husinec, Rez 130, (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-01

    Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is liquid-fueled reactor that can be used for actinide burning, production of electricity, production of hydrogen, and production of fissile fuels (breeding). The MSR concept was identified, along with five other concepts, as a suitable candidate of cooperative development by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). The MSR concept takes into account a circulating molten fluoride salts fuel mixture. Use of liquid fuel mixture results in possibility of its continuous (online) reprocessing. Within the proposed MSR fuel cycle, the electro-separation methods are considered as important techniques. The main aim of this work is to determine the electrochemical behaviour of selected actinides and lanthanides, which represents the fissile material and fission products, in suitable molten fluoride media as the general framework of our work is to verify the separation capability of the electrochemical methods and proposal of its integration into the MSR fuel cycle. Presented results were obtained by the method of cyclic voltammetry. The experimental set-up, preparation of the melt and results of selected measurements are presented in this paper and electrochemical behaviour of uranium and selected lanthanides are demonstrated by respective voltammograms evaluation. (authors)

  17. Soil separator and sampler and method of sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Barry H [Idaho Falls, ID; Ritter, Paul D [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-16

    A soil sampler includes a fluidized bed for receiving a soil sample. The fluidized bed may be in communication with a vacuum for drawing air through the fluidized bed and suspending particulate matter of the soil sample in the air. In a method of sampling, the air may be drawn across a filter, separating the particulate matter. Optionally, a baffle or a cyclone may be included within the fluidized bed for disentrainment, or dedusting, so only the finest particulate matter, including asbestos, will be trapped on the filter. The filter may be removable, and may be tested to determine the content of asbestos and other hazardous particulate matter in the soil sample.

  18. Methods of calculating engineering parameters for gas separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    A group additivity method has been generated which makes it possible to estimate, from the structural formulas alone, the energy of vaporization and the molar volume at 25 C of many nonpolar organic liquids. From these two parameters and appropriate thermodynamic relationships it is then possible to predict the vapor pressure of the liquid phase and the solubility of various gases in nonpolar organic liquids. The data are then used to evaluate organic and some inorganic liquids for use in gas separation stages or as heat exchange fluids in prospective thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production.

  19. Rotational particle separator: a new method for separating fine particles and mists from gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Bert

    1996-01-01

    An account is given of the patented technique of the rotational particle separator for separating solid and liquid particles of diameter 0.1 µm and larger from gases. Attention is focused on the working principle, fluid mechanical constraints, particle design, separation performance, power consumpti

  20. Rapid and selective detection of E. coli O157:H7 combining phagomagnetic separation with enzymatic colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Yan, Chenghui; Yang, Hang; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2017-11-01

    Mammal IgG antibodies are normally used in conventional immunoassays for E. coli O157:H7, which could lead to false positive results from the presence of protein A producing S. aureus. In this study, a natural specific bacteriophage was isolated and then conjugated with magnetic beads as a capture element in a sandwich format for the rapid and selective detection of E. coli O157:H7. To the best of our knowledge, it was the first time to utilize a natural bacteriophage to develop a phagomagnetic separation combined with colorimetric assay for E. coli O157:H7. The method has an overall time less than 2h with a detection limit of 4.9×10(4)CFU/mL. No interference from S. aureus was observed. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully applied to detect E. coli O157:H7 in spiked skim milk. The proposed detection system provided a potential method for E. coli O157:H7 and other pathogenic bacteria in food samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A separable shadow Hamiltonian hybrid Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Christopher R; Hampton, Scott S; Skeel, Robert D; Izaguirre, Jesús A

    2009-11-07

    Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) is a rigorous sampling method that uses molecular dynamics (MD) as a global Monte Carlo move. The acceptance rate of HMC decays exponentially with system size. The shadow hybrid Monte Carlo (SHMC) was previously introduced to reduce this performance degradation by sampling instead from the shadow Hamiltonian defined for MD when using a symplectic integrator. SHMC's performance is limited by the need to generate momenta for the MD step from a nonseparable shadow Hamiltonian. We introduce the separable shadow Hamiltonian hybrid Monte Carlo (S2HMC) method based on a formulation of the leapfrog/Verlet integrator that corresponds to a separable shadow Hamiltonian, which allows efficient generation of momenta. S2HMC gives the acceptance rate of a fourth order integrator at the cost of a second-order integrator. Through numerical experiments we show that S2HMC consistently gives a speedup greater than two over HMC for systems with more than 4000 atoms for the same variance. By comparison, SHMC gave a maximum speedup of only 1.6 over HMC. S2HMC has the additional advantage of not requiring any user parameters beyond those of HMC. S2HMC is available in the program PROTOMOL 2.1. A Python version, adequate for didactic purposes, is also in MDL (http://mdlab.sourceforge.net/s2hmc).

  2. Seed oil polyphenols: rapid and sensitive extraction method and high resolution-mass spectrometry identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubaa, Mohamed; Mhemdi, Houcine; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic content is a primary parameter for vegetables oil quality evaluation, and directly involved in the prevention of oxidation and oil preservation. Several methods have been reported in the literature for polyphenols extraction from seed oil but the approaches commonly used remain manually handled. In this work, we propose a rapid and sensitive method for seed oil polyphenols extraction and identification. For this purpose, polyphenols were extracted from Opuntia stricta Haw seed oil, using high frequency agitation, separated, and then identified using a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method. Our results showed good sensitivity and reproducibility of the developed methods.

  3. A rapid, quantitative GLC method for the simultaneous determination of nicotine and cotinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verebey, K G; DePace, A; Mulé, S J; Kanzler, M; Jaffe, J H

    1982-01-01

    Published gas-liquid chromatographic (GLC) methods for the determination of nicotine and cotinine have proved impractical for the analysis of a large number of clinical samples. Significant improvements over other methods have been achieved, being low sample volume (0.5 mL plasma), rapid two-step extraction from plasma, no evaporation step, and good separation. The lower limits of sensitivity for nicotine and cotinine were 1 and 5 ng/mL, respectively. The method was validated by the analysis of plasma samples from cigarette-smoking volunteers. The method described permits the quick, routine determination of nicotine and cotinine in a large number of samples.

  4. Gamma Hadron Separation using Pairwise Compactness Method with HAWC

    CERN Document Server

    Hampel-Arias, Zigfried

    2015-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is a ground based air-shower array deployed on the slopes of Volcan Sierra Negra in the state of Puebla, Mexico. While HAWC is optimized for the detection of gamma-ray induced air-showers, the background flux of hadronic cosmic-rays is four orders of magnitude greater, making background rejection paramount for gamma-ray observations. On average, gamma-ray and cosmic-ray showers are characterized by different topologies at ground level. We will present a method to identify the primary particle type in an air-shower that uses the spatial relationship of triggered PMTs (or "hits") in the detector. For a given event hit-pattern on the HAWC array, we calculate the mean separation distance of the hits for a subset of hit pairs weighted by their charges. By comparing the mean charge and mean separating distance for the selected hits, we infer the identity of the event's primary. We will report on the efficiency for identifying gamma-rays and the performance of the...

  5. Properties of phase separation method synthesized superhydrophobic polystyrene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aruna, S.T., E-mail: aruna_reddy@nal.res.in [Surface Engineering Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research - National Aerospace Laboratories, Post Bag No. 1779, Bangalore 560 017 (India); Binsy, P.; Richard, Edna; Basu, Bharathibai J. [Surface Engineering Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research - National Aerospace Laboratories, Post Bag No. 1779, Bangalore 560 017 (India)

    2012-01-15

    Polystyrene (PS) based superhydrophobic films were prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation method using tetrahydrofuran (THF) as the solvent and different alcohols as non-solvents. Flory Huggins interaction parameter values of different alcohols and acetone with PS were calculated to qualify them as non-solvents for phase separation. The films were characterized using contact angle analyser, field emission scanning electron microscope, surface roughness profilometer, IR spectrometer and Raman spectrometer. The coatings exhibited a maximum water contact angle (WCA) of 159 Degree-Sign and a sliding angle (SA) < 2 Degree-Sign . With increase in the vol% of non-solvent, WCA increased and SA decreased. The microstructures of the films varied with the vol% of non-solvent and the amount of PS. The work of adhesion of PS films decreased with increasing WCA. The Raman spectral studies showed isotactic to atactic transformation of PS with the addition of non-solvents and these results corroborated well with the IR spectral studies.

  6. Materials and methods for the separation of oxygen from air

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2003-07-15

    Metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes having the formula: O.sub.5+z where: x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides, Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof and B" is Co or Mg, with the exception that when B" is Mg, A' and A" are not Mg. The metal oxides are useful for preparation of dense membranes which may be formed from dense thin films of the mixed metal oxide on a porous metal oxide element. The invention also provides methods and catalytic reactors for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula.

  7. Rapid chromatographic separation of dissoluble Ag(I) and silver-containing nanoparticles of 1-100 nanometer in antibacterial products and environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2014-12-16

    Sensitive and rapid methods for speciation analysis of nanoparticulate Ag (NAg) and Ag(I) in complex matrices are urgently needed for understanding the environmental effects and biological toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Herein we report the development of a universal liquid chromatography (LC) method for rapid and high resolution separation of dissoluble Ag(I) from nanoparticles covering the entire range of 1-100 nm in 5 min. By using a 500 Å poresize amino column, and an aqueous mobile phase containing 0.1% (v/v) FL-70 (a surfactant) and 2 mM Na2S2O3 at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min, all the nanoparticles of various species such as Ag and Ag2S were eluted in one fraction, while dissoluble Ag(I) was eluted as a baseline separated peak. The dissoluble Ag(I) was quantified by the online coupled ICP-MS with a detection limit of 0.019 μg/L. The NAg was quantified by subtracting the dissoluble Ag(I) from the total Ag content, which was determined by ICP-MS after digestion of the sample without LC separation. While the addition of FL-70 and Na2S2O3 into the mobile phase is essential to elute NAg and Ag(I) from the column, the use of 500 Å poresize column is the key to baseline separation of Ag(I) from ∼ 1 nm AgNPs. The feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated in speciation analysis of dissoluble Ag(I) and NAg in antibacterial products and environmental waters, with very good chromatographic repeatability (relative standard deviations) in both peak area (Ag(I) and 81.3-106.3% for NAg. Our work offers a novel approach to rapid and baseline separation of dissoluble metal ions from their nanoparticulate counterparts covering the whole range of 1-100 nm.

  8. A RAPID PCR-QUALITY DNA EXTRACTION METHOD IN FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhong; LIANG Hong-Wei; ZOU Gui-Wei

    2012-01-01

    PCR has been a general preferred method for biological research in fish, and previous research have enabled us to extract and purify PCR-quality DNA templates in laboratories[1-4]. The same problem among these procedures is waiting for tissue digesting for a long time. The overabundance time spent on PCR-quality DNA extraction restricts the efficiency of PCR assay, especially in large-scale PCR amplification, such as SSR-based genetic-mapping construction [5,6], identification of germ plasm resource[7,8] and evolution research [9,10], etc. In this study, a stable and rapid PCR-quality DNA extraction method was explored, using a modified alkaline lysis protocol. Extracting DNA for PCR only takes approximately 25 minutes. This stable and rapid DNA extraction method could save much laboratory time and promotes.%PCR has been a general preferred method for biological research in fish,and previous research have enabled us to extract and purify PCR-quality DNA templates in laboratories [1-4].The same problem among these procedures is waiting for tissue digesting for a long time.The overabundance time spent on PCR-quality DNA extraction restricts the efficiency of PCR assay,especially in large-scale PCR amplification,such as SSR-based genetic-mapping construction [5,6],identification of germ plasm resource[7,8] and evolution research [9,10],etc.In this study,a stable and rapid PCR-quality DNA extraction method was explored,using a modified alkaline lysis protocol.Extracting DNA for PCR only takes approximately 25 minutes.This stable and rapid DNA extraction method could save much laboratory time and promotes.

  9. Membrane for distillation including nanostructures, methods of making membranes, and methods of desalination and separation

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Zhiping

    2016-01-21

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure provide membranes, methods of making the membrane, systems including the membrane, methods of separation, methods of desalination, and the like.

  10. Method for producing a selectively permeable separation module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mark L.; Orme, Christopher J.; Peterson, Eric S.

    2000-03-14

    A method and apparatus is provided for casting a polymeric membrane on the inside surface of porous tubes to provide a permeate filter system capable of withstanding hostile operating conditions and having excellent selectivity capabilities. Any polymer in solution, by either solvent means or melt processing means, is capable of being used in the present invention to form a thin polymer membrane having uniform thickness on the inside surface of a porous tube. Multiple tubes configured as a tubular module can also be coated with the polymer solution. By positioning the longitudinal axis of the tubes in a substantially horizontal position and rotating the tube about the longitudinal axis, the polymer solution coats the inside surface of the porous tubes without substantially infiltrating the pores of the porous tubes, thereby providing a permeate filter system having enhanced separation capabilities.

  11. Polymer Recovery from Auto Shredder Residue by Projectile Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yang Wu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of vehicles on the road has been increasing at an enormous rate over the last decade. By 2015, the number of vehicles that reach the end of their life will be close to a million per year in Australia. Most metallic parts of the vehicle can be recycled but the plastic components and components of other materials are normally shredded and disposed in landfills. As more vehicles are using composite materials, the percentage of materials sent to landfill is alarming. This paper reviews existing polymer recycling techniques for End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs and proposes a more efficient electrostatic based projectile separation method. The test rig is at the preliminary stage of development and initial outcomes are promising.

  12. Development of an Immunomagnetic Separation Method for Viable Salmonella Typhimurium Detected by Flow Cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Shakil; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Erdmann, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    for detection of food-related bacteria. In this study, a flow cytometry based immunomagnetic separation (IMS) method for the isolation and enrichment of Salmonella Typhimurium from liquid samples was developed and optimized. Both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have been used to couple with 1 micron sized......A very small number of bacterial pathogens may have fatal effects on food safety. In spite of having great advancements in bioanalytical methods, most of the accepted detection methods are still cultivation based and thus time consuming. This leads to an intense need for efficient and rapid methods...... and bacteria, immunocapture time, staining and buffering conditions for the viability assays were optimized. The capture efficiency of IMS was>98% for a range of Salmonella Typhimurium cell concentrations from 103 to 105/mL using 108/mL bead concentration. The method proved to have high (98%) specificity...

  13. Integral methods for shallow free-surface flows with separation

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, S; Bohr, T; Watanabe, Shinya; Putkaradze, Vachtang; Bohr, Tomas

    2000-01-01

    We study laminar thin film flows with large distortions in the free surface using the method of averaging across the flow. Two concrete problems are studied: the circular hydraulic jump and the flow down an inclined plane. For the circular hydraulic jump our method is able to handle an internal eddy and separated flow. Assuming a variable radial velocity profile like in Karman-Pohlhausen's method, we obtain a system of two ordinary differential equations for stationary states that can smoothly go through the jump where previous studies encountered a singularity. Solutions of the system are in good agreement with experiments. For the flow down an inclined plane we take a similar approach and derive a simple model in which the velocity profile is not restricted to a parabolic or self-similar form. Two types of solutions with large surface distortions are found: solitary, kink-like propagating fronts, obtained when the flow rate is suddenly changed, and stationary jumps, obtained, e.g., behind a sluice gate. We ...

  14. Rapid selective separation of americium/curium\\ud from simulated nuclear forensic matrices using\\ud triazine ligands

    OpenAIRE

    Higginson, Matthew A.; Thompson, Paul; Marsden, Olivia J.; Livens, Francis R.; Harwood, Laurence M.; Lewis, Frank W.; Hudson, Michael J.; Heath, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    In analysis of complex nuclear forensic samples\\ud containing lanthanides, actinides and matrix elements,\\ud rapid selective extraction of Am/Cm for quantification\\ud is challenging, in particular due the difficult separation\\ud of Am/Cm from lanthanides. Here we present\\ud a separation process for Am/Cm(III) which is achieved\\ud using a combination of AG1-X8 chromatography followed\\ud by Am/Cm extraction with a triazine ligand. The ligands\\ud tested in our process were CyMe4-BTPhen, CyMe4-\\u...

  15. Radiometric Methods for Rapid Diagnosis of Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

    4, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours postinfection, infection time beginning when the 14C-labeled medium was added. Nucleic acid sT, thesis system. Stationary...coccus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter caloaceticus var. anitratus) had no effect on the DNA synthesis of HSV-1 infected or...7 UNCLASS 41 RADIOMETRIC METHODS FOR RAPID DIAGNIS F VIRA ~ /fl INFECTION (U) JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MDUNC . IFEDH N WAG ER FT AL. NOV 75

  16. Methods for separating oxygen from oxygen-containing gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Richard; Schwartz, Michael; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    This invention provides mixed conducting metal oxides particularly useful for the manufacture of catalytic membranes for gas-phase oxygen separation processes. The materials of this invention have the general formula: A.sub.x A'.sub.x A".sub.2-(x+x') B.sub.y B'.sub.y B".sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z ; where x and x' are greater than 0; y and y' are greater than 0; x+x' is less than or equal to 2; y+y' is less than or equal to 2; z is a number that makes the metal oxide charge neutral; A is an element selected from the f block lanthanide elements; A' is an element selected from Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; A" is an element selected from the f block lanthanides or Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba and Ra; B is an element selected from the group consisting of Al, Ga, In or mixtures thereof; and B' and B" are different elements and are independently selected from the group of elements Mg or the d-block transition elements. The invention also provides methods for oxygen separation and oxygen enrichment of oxygen deficient gases which employ mixed conducting metal oxides of the above formula. Examples of the materials used for the preparation of the membrane include A.sub.x Sr.sub.x' B.sub.y Fe.sub.y' Co.sub.2-(y+y') O.sub.5+z, where x is about 0.3 to about 0.5, x' is about 1.5 to about 1.7, y is 0.6, y' is between about 1.0 and 1.4 and B is Ga or Al.

  17. Rapid radiochemical method for determination of actinides in emergency concrete and brick samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L; Culligan, Brian K; Kelsey-Wall, Angel; Shaw, Patrick J

    2011-09-02

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in emergency concrete and brick samples has been developed at the Savannah River Site Environmental Lab (Aiken, SC, USA) that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis. If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or nuclear accident occurs, there will be a urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including building materials such as concrete and brick, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean-up. The new method for actinides in concrete and brick method utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion method, a lanthanum fluoride matrix removal step, and a column separation process with stacked TEVA, TRU and DGA Resin cartridges. Alpha emitters are prepared using rare earth microprecipitation for counting by alpha spectrometry. The method showed high chemical recoveries and effective removal of interferences. The determination of actinides in concrete and brick sample analysis can be performed in less than 8h with excellent quality for emergency samples. The rapid fusion technique is a rugged sample digestion method that ensures that any refractory actinide particles are effectively digested.

  18. Preparing silica aerogel monoliths via a rapid supercritical extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Mary K; Anderson, Ann M; Gorka, Caroline A

    2014-02-28

    A procedure for the fabrication of monolithic silica aerogels in eight hours or less via a rapid supercritical extraction process is described. The procedure requires 15-20 min of preparation time, during which a liquid precursor mixture is prepared and poured into wells of a metal mold that is placed between the platens of a hydraulic hot press, followed by several hours of processing within the hot press. The precursor solution consists of a 1.0:12.0:3.6:3.5 x 10(-3) molar ratio of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS):methanol:water:ammonia. In each well of the mold, a porous silica sol-gel matrix forms. As the temperature of the mold and its contents is increased, the pressure within the mold rises. After the temperature/pressure conditions surpass the supercritical point for the solvent within the pores of the matrix (in this case, a methanol/water mixture), the supercritical fluid is released, and monolithic aerogel remains within the wells of the mold. With the mold used in this procedure, cylindrical monoliths of 2.2 cm diameter and 1.9 cm height are produced. Aerogels formed by this rapid method have comparable properties (low bulk and skeletal density, high surface area, mesoporous morphology) to those prepared by other methods that involve either additional reaction steps or solvent extractions (lengthier processes that generate more chemical waste).The rapid supercritical extraction method can also be applied to the fabrication of aerogels based on other precursor recipes.

  19. Study of the separation method of structural isomer using Magneto-Archimedes method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, T.; Kobayadhi, T.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, Shigehiro [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Organic compounds have a problem that the separation of structural isomer in the preparation process requires high energy consumption. This study proposes a new separation method of structural isomer using Magneto- Archimedes method. Firstly, the levitation height of 1, 6-DDA and 1, 10-DDA was respectively calculated by simulation of the forces acting on the particles under magnetic field, and it was indicated that they could be separated by the difference of levitation height. To confirm the phenomenon experimentally, white powders of 1, 6-DDA and 1, 10-DDA were formed into pellets, and were soaked in manganese chloride solution. Then the solution was put on the center of the cryostat of HTS bulk magnet (maximum magnetic flux density is 3T). As a result, it was confirmed that the separation of structural isomer by difference of levitation height could be possible.

  20. Rapid quantification method for Legionella pneumophila in surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Anika; Torggler, Carmen; Elsässer, Dennis; Lück, Christian; Niessner, Reinhard; Seidel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    World-wide legionellosis outbreaks caused by evaporative cooling systems have shown that there is a need for rapid screening methods for Legionella pneumophila in water. Antibody-based methods for the quantification of L. pneumophila are rapid, non-laborious, and relatively cheap but not sensitive enough for establishment as a screening method for surface and drinking water. Therefore, preconcentration methods have to be applied in advance to reach the needed sensitivity. In a basic test, monolithic adsorption filtration (MAF) was used as primary preconcentration method that adsorbs L. pneumophila with high efficiency. Ten-liter water samples were concentrated in 10 min and further reduced to 1 mL by centrifugal ultrafiltration (CeUF). The quantification of L. pneumophila strains belonging to the monoclonal subtype Bellingham was performed via flow-based chemiluminescence sandwich microarray immunoassays (CL-SMIA) in 36 min. The whole analysis process takes 90 min. A polyclonal antibody (pAb) against L. pneumophila serogroup 1-12 and a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against L. pneumophila SG 1 strain Bellingham were immobilized on a microarray chip. Without preconcentration, the detection limit was 4.0 × 10(3) and 2.8 × 10(3) CFU/mL determined by pAb and mAb 10/6, respectively. For samples processed by MAF-CeUF prior to SMIA detection, the limit of detection (LOD) could be decreased to 8.7 CFU/mL and 0.39 CFU/mL, respectively. A recovery of 99.8 ± 15.9% was achieved for concentrations between 1-1000 CFU/mL. The established combined analytical method is sensitive for rapid screening of surface and drinking water to allow fast hygiene control of L. pneumophila.

  1. Radiometric Methods for Rapid Diagnosis of Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    6/ NL IL 1-2 1-N6 U..V. -- V-- 1** ’~r I Ii’sW - -Kw RADIOMETRIC METHODS FOR RAPID DIAGNOSIS OF VIRAL INFECTION o Annual Report Min-Fu Tsan, M.D...REPORT DATE Command November 22, 1976 *U. S.. Army Medical Research and Development/ 13 NUMBER OF P!AGES Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD1 21701,5012 21...by black number) , Radiometric methods Virus r; fV 20. AISSY fRACT (Continue on, reverse sie it nwc. urr and ldvntity by block nuaibe,) -Vrtwo

  2. SIMS: a hybrid method for rapid conformational analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Gipson

    Full Text Available Proteins are at the root of many biological functions, often performing complex tasks as the result of large changes in their structure. Describing the exact details of these conformational changes, however, remains a central challenge for computational biology due the enormous computational requirements of the problem. This has engendered the development of a rich variety of useful methods designed to answer specific questions at different levels of spatial, temporal, and energetic resolution. These methods fall largely into two classes: physically accurate, but computationally demanding methods and fast, approximate methods. We introduce here a new hybrid modeling tool, the Structured Intuitive Move Selector (sims, designed to bridge the divide between these two classes, while allowing the benefits of both to be seamlessly integrated into a single framework. This is achieved by applying a modern motion planning algorithm, borrowed from the field of robotics, in tandem with a well-established protein modeling library. sims can combine precise energy calculations with approximate or specialized conformational sampling routines to produce rapid, yet accurate, analysis of the large-scale conformational variability of protein systems. Several key advancements are shown, including the abstract use of generically defined moves (conformational sampling methods and an expansive probabilistic conformational exploration. We present three example problems that sims is applied to and demonstrate a rapid solution for each. These include the automatic determination of "active" residues for the hinge-based system Cyanovirin-N, exploring conformational changes involving long-range coordinated motion between non-sequential residues in Ribose-Binding Protein, and the rapid discovery of a transient conformational state of Maltose-Binding Protein, previously only determined by Molecular Dynamics. For all cases we provide energetic validations using well

  3. A novel method for rapidly diagnosing the causes of diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probert, C S J; Jones, P R H; Ratcliffe, N M

    2004-01-01

    Background: The microbiological diagnosis of infectious diarrhoea may take several days using conventional techniques. In order to determine whether flatus can be used to make a rapid diagnosis, the volatile organic compounds associated with diarrhoea were analysed. Methods: Stool samples were collected from 35 patients with infectious diarrhoea and from six healthy controls. Gaseous compounds were extracted from a headspace using solid phase microextraction and analysed using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. Results: Characteristic patterns of volatile gases were found for the main causes of infectious diarrhoea in hospitals. Furan species without indoles indicated Clostridium difficile, ethyl dodecanoate indicated rotavirus, ammonia without ethyl dodecanoate suggested other enteric viruses, and the absence of hydrocarbons and terpenes indicated Campylobacter infection. Conclusion: These results could be the basis of rapid near patient diagnosis of infectious diarrhoea. PMID:14684577

  4. An ultra-low energy method for rapidly pre-concentrating microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Teodora Rutar; Mason, Gregory; Marsolek, Michael D; Lin, Yizhou; Reeve, Daniel; Schacht, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    This study demonstrates that Nannochloropsis sp. can be effectively separated from its growth medium (0.2-0.3g/L) using electro-coagulation-flocculation in a 100mL batch reactor with nickel electrodes and a treatment time of only 4s. Minimum energy density input for effective separation is 0.03 kWh/m(3). Both energy input and treatment time are much smaller than reported elsewhere. The process results in rapid separation of microalgae (over 90% in 120 min) with minimal damage to algal cells (>90% still alive after processing). At around 4V input, algae can be effectively separated even in very low concentrations. Pulsing is equally effective in separating microalgae as continuous direct current of same magnitude and total exposure time. Algae can separate from their growth medium even if the suspension itself is not treated, but is mixed with treated saltwater with same conductivity. The described method has significant advantages including applicability to continuous processing and water reuse.

  5. A direct and rapid method to determine cyanide in urine by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiyang; Maddukuri, Naveen; Gong, Maojun

    2015-10-02

    Cyanides are poisonous chemicals that widely exist in nature and industrial processes as well as accidental fires. Rapid and accurate determination of cyanide exposure would facilitate forensic investigation, medical diagnosis, and chronic cyanide monitoring. Here, a rapid and direct method was developed for the determination of cyanide ions in urinary samples. This technique was based on an integrated capillary electrophoresis system coupled with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Cyanide ions were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and a primary amine (glycine) for LIF detection. Three separate reagents, NDA, glycine, and cyanide sample, were mixed online, which secured uniform conditions between samples for cyanide derivatization and reduced the risk of precipitation formation of mixtures. Conditions were optimized; the derivatization was completed in 2-4min, and the separation was observed in 25s. The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.0nM at 3-fold signal-to-noise ratio for standard cyanide in buffer. The cyanide levels in urine samples from smokers and non-smokers were determined by using the method of standard addition, which demonstrated significant difference of cyanide levels in urinary samples from the two groups of people. The developed method was rapid and accurate, and is anticipated to be applicable to cyanide detection in waste water with appropriate modification. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Rapid assessment methods in eye care: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Marmamula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable information is required for the planning and management of eye care services. While classical research methods provide reliable estimates, they are prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Rapid assessment (RA methods are indispensable tools in situations where data are needed quickly and where time- or cost-related factors prohibit the use of classical epidemiological surveys. These methods have been developed and field tested, and can be applied across almost the entire gamut of health care. The 1990s witnessed the emergence of RA methods in eye care for cataract, onchocerciasis, and trachoma and, more recently, the main causes of avoidable blindness and visual impairment. The important features of RA methods include the use of local resources, simplified sampling methodology, and a simple examination protocol/data collection method that can be performed by locally available personnel. The analysis is quick and easy to interpret. The entire process is inexpensive, so the survey may be repeated once every 5-10 years to assess the changing trends in disease burden. RA survey methods are typically linked with an intervention. This article provides an overview of the RA methods commonly used in eye care, and emphasizes the selection of appropriate methods based on the local need and context.

  7. Appropriate Separator Sizing: A Modified Stewart and Arnold Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Boukadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas separators were one of the first pieces of production equipment to be used in the petroleum industry. The different stages of separation are completed using the following three principles: gravity, centrifugal force, and impingement. The sizes of the oil droplets, in the production water, are based mainly on the choke valve pressure drop. The choke valve pressure drop creates a shearing effect; this reduces the ability of the droplets to combine. One of the goals of oil separation is to reduce the shearing effect of the choke. Separators are conventionally designed based on initial flow rates; as a result, the separator is no longer able to accommodate totality of produced fluids. Changing fluid flow rates as well as emulsion viscosity effect separator design. The reduction in vessel performance results in recorded measurements that do not match actual production levels inducing doubt into any history matching process and distorting reservoir management programs. In this paper, the new model takes into account flow rates and emulsion viscosity. The generated vessel length, vessel diameter, and slenderness ratio monographs are used to select appropriate separator size based on required retention time. Model results are compared to API 12J standards.

  8. Comparison of several methods for predicting separation in a compressible turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhart, P. M.; Bober, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Several methods for predicting the separation point for a compressible turbulent boundary layer were applied to the flow over a bump on a wind-tunnel wall. Measured pressure distributions were used as input. Two integral boundary-layer methods, three finite-difference boundary-layer methods, and three simple methods were applied at five free-stream Mach numbers ranging from 0.354 to 0.7325. Each of the boundary-layer methods failed to explicitly predict separation. However, by relaxing the theoretical separation criteria, several boundary-layer methods were made to yield reasonable separation predictions, but none of the methods accurately predicted the important boundary-layer parameters at separation. Only one of the simple methods consistently predicted separation with reasonable accuracy in a manner consistent with the theory. The other methods either indicated several possible separation locations or only sometimes predicted separation.

  9. Development of bufferless gel electrophoresis chip for easy preparation and rapid DNA separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksandrov, Sergiy; Aman, Abdurazak; Lim, Wanyoung; Kim, Younghee; Bae, Nam Ho; Lee, Kyoung G; Lee, Seok Jae; Park, Sungsu

    2017-09-27

    This work presents a handy, fast, and compact bufferless gel electrophoresis chip (BGEC), which consists of precast agarose gel confined in a disposable plastic body with electrodes. It does not require large volumes of buffer to fill reservoirs, or the process of immersing the gel in the buffer. It withstands voltages up to 28.4 V/cm, thereby allowing DNA separation within 10 minutes with a similar separation capability to the standard gel electrophoresis. The results suggest that our BGEC is highly suitable for in situ gel electrophoresis in forensic, epidemiological settings and crime scenes where standard gel electrophoresis equipment cannot be brought in while quick results are needed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. A Rapid Usability Evaluation (RUE) Method for Health Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Alissa L; Baker, Darrell A; Fahner, W Jeffrey; Milligan, Bryce S; Cox, Leeann; Hagg, Heather K; Saleem, Jason J

    2010-11-13

    Usability testing can help generate design ideas to enhance the quality and safety of health information technology. Despite these potential benefits, few healthcare organizations conduct systematic usability testing prior to software implementation. We used a Rapid Usability Evaluation (RUE) method to apply usability testing to software development at a major VA Medical Center. We describe the development of the RUE method, provide two examples of how it was successfully applied, and discuss key insights gained from this work. Clinical informaticists with limited usability training were able to apply RUE to improve software evaluation and elected to continue to use this technique. RUE methods are relatively simple, do not require advanced training or usability software, and should be easy to adopt. Other healthcare organizations may be able to implement RUE to improve software effectiveness, efficiency, and safety.

  11. Rapid testing methods for food contaminants and toxicants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiachi Chiou; Arthur Ho Hon Leung; Hang Wai Lee; Wing-tak Wong

    2015-01-01

    Food safety is one of the major concerns in every country regardless of the economic and social development. The frequent occurrence of food scandals in the world has led the Chinese government to implement several strategies to fortify the food supply system to a high food safety standard. This relies heavily on laboratory testing services but conventional methods for detection of food contaminants and toxicants are limited by sophisticated sample preparation procedures, long analysis time, large instruments and professional personnel to meet the increasing demands. In this review, we have incorporated most of the current and potential rapid detection methods for many notorious food contaminants and toxicants including microbial agents, toxic ions, pesticides, veterinary drugs and preservatives, as wel as detection of geneticaly modiifed food genes and adulterated edible oil. Development of rapid, accurate, easy-to-use and affordable testing methods could urge food handlers and the public to actively screen for food contaminants and toxicants instead of passively relying on monitoring by the government examination facility. This review also provides several recommendations including how to encourage the public to engage in the food safety management system and provide optimal education and ifnancial assistance that may improve the current Chinese food safety control system.

  12. Rapid coulometric method for the Kjeldahl determination of nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, C A; Cedergren, A; Johansson, G; Pettersson, I

    1974-11-01

    A rapid coulometric method for the Kjeldahl determination of nitrogen is described. The samples are digested by means of the Tecator AB digestion system which permits forty samples to be digested at the same time. The digestion products are diluted to 75 ml and 1 ml is coulometrically titrated in 1-2 min: 20-30 determinations can be performed per hour. For substances containing nitrogen in the per cent range the relative standard deviations for eight different substances were 0.1-1%.

  13. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  14. Method for Monitored Separation and Collection of Biological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, George William (Inventor); Willson, Richard Coale (Inventor); Fox, George Edward (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A device for separating and purifying useful quantities of particles comprises: (a) an anolyte reservoir connected to an anode, the anolyte reservoir containing an electrophoresis buffer; (b) a catholyte reservoir connected to a cathode, the catholyte reservoir also containing the electrophoresis buffer; (c) a power supply connected to the anode and to the cathode; (d) a column having a first end inserted into the anolyte reservoir, a second end inserted into the catholyte reservoir, and containing a separation medium; (e) a light source; (f) a first optical fiber having a first fiber end inserted into the separation medium, and having a second fiber end connected to the light source; (g) a photo detector; (h) a second optical fiber having a third fiber end inserted into the separation medium, and having a fourth fiber end connected to the photo detector; and (i) an ion-exchange membrane in the anolyte reservoir.

  15. Optimal Rapid Restart of Heuristic Methods of NP Hard Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯越先; 王芳

    2004-01-01

    Many heuristic search methods exhibit a remarkable variability in the time required to solve some particular problem instances. Their cost distributions are often heavy-tailed. It has been demonstrated that, in most cases, rapid restart (RR) method can prominently suppress the heavy-tailed nature of the instances and improve computation efficiency. However, it is usually time-consuming to check whether an algorithm on a specific instance is heavy-tailed or not. Moreover, if the heavy-tailed distribution is confirmed and the RR method is relevant, an optimal RR threshold should be chosen to facilitate the RR mechanism. In this paper, an approximate approach is proposed to quickly check whether an algorithm on a specific instance is heavy-tailed or not.The method is realized by means of calculating the maximal Lyapunov exponent of its generic running trace.Then a statistical formula to estimate the optimal RR threshold is educed. The method is based on common nonparametric estimation, e. g. , Kernel estimation. Two heuristic methods are selected to verify our method. The experimental results are consistent with the theoretical consideration perfectly.

  16. Advanced Extraction Methods for Actinide/Lanthanide Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.

    2005-12-01

    The separation of An(III) ions from chemically similar Ln(III) ions is perhaps one of the most difficult problems encountered during the processing of nuclear waste. In the 3+ oxidation states, the metal ions have an identical charge and roughly the same ionic radius. They differ strictly in the relative energies of their f- and d-orbitals, and to separate these metal ions, ligands will need to be developed that take advantage of this small but important distinction. The extraction of uranium and plutonium from nitric acid solution can be performed quantitatively by the extraction with the TBP (tributyl phosphate). Commercially, this process has found wide use in the PUREX (plutonium uranium extraction) reprocessing method. The TRUEX (transuranium extraction) process is further used to coextract the trivalent lanthanides and actinides ions from HLLW generated during PUREX extraction. This method uses CMPO [(N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyl) octylphenylphosphineoxide] intermixed with TBP as a synergistic agent. However, the final separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides still remains a challenging task. In TRUEX nitric acid solution, the Am(III) ion is coordinated by three CMPO molecules and three nitrate anions. Taking inspiration from this data and previous work with calix[4]arene systems, researchers on this project have developed a C3-symmetric tris-CMPO ligand system using a triphenoxymethane platform as a base. The triphenoxymethane ligand systems have many advantages for the preparation of complex ligand systems. The compounds are very easy to prepare. The steric and solubility properties can be tuned through an extreme range by the inclusion of different alkoxy and alkyl groups such as methyoxy, ethoxy, t-butoxy, methyl, octyl, t-pentyl, or even t-pentyl at the ortho- and para-positions of the aryl rings. The triphenoxymethane ligand system shows promise as an improved extractant for both tetravalent and trivalent actinide recoveries form

  17. Rapid direct methods for enumeration of specific, active bacteria in water and biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFeters, G. A.; Pyle, B. H.; Lisle, J. T.; Broadaway, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    Conventional methods for detecting indicator and pathogenic bacteria in water may underestimate the actual population due to sublethal environmental injury, inability of the target bacteria to take up nutrients and other physiological factors which reduce bacterial culturability. Rapid and direct methods are needed to more accurately detect and enumerate active bacteria. Such a methodological advance would provide greater sensitivity in assessing the microbiological safety of water and food. The principle goal of this presentation is to describe novel approaches we have formulated for the rapid and simultaneous detection of bacteria plus the determination of their physiological activity in water and other environmental samples. The present version of our method involves the concentration of organisms by membrane filtration or immunomagnetic separation and combines an intracellular fluorochrome (CTC) for assessment of respiratory activity plus fluorescent-labelled antibody detection of specific bacteria. This approach has also been successfully used to demonstrate spatial and temporal heterogeneities of physiological activities in biofilms when coupled with cryosectioning. Candidate physiological stains include those capable of determining respiratory activity, membrane potential, membrane integrity, growth rate and cellular enzymatic activities. Results obtained thus far indicate that immunomagnetic separation can provide a high degree of sensitivity in the recovery of seeded target bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7) in water and hamburger. The captured and stained target bacteria are then enumerated by either conventional fluorescence microscopy or ChemScan(R), a new instrument that is very sensitive and rapid. The ChemScan(R) laser scanning instrument (Chemunex, Paris, France) provides the detection of individual fluorescently labelled bacterial cells using three emission channels in less than 5 min. A high degree of correlation has been demonstrated between

  18. A rapid method for the presurgical cleansing of hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, L A; Gross, A; Miller, F C; Read, J A; Cutright, D E; Devine, J

    1978-01-01

    A new rapid method of presurgical cleansing of the hands has been evaluated in a clinical setting. The effectiveness of a 90 second jet wash has been compared with a standard 10-minute presurgical scrub. Bacteriologic cultures were obtained from the fingertips of interns, residents, and staff of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center before and after 90-second jet washings and 10-minute conventional scrubs. The results showed that the 90-second jet wash was more effective in degerming the hands than the 10-minute standard brush scrub. Other advantages of the new method, such as the amount of time saved, the standardization of cleansing, and reduced skin irritation are discussed.

  19. Immunomagnetic separation and rapid detection of bacteria using bioluminescence and microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jingmin; Zhou, Yun; Chen, Hui; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2009-08-15

    This paper describes an immunomagnetic separation of target bacterial cells from others by using magnetic bead. The surface of bead was coated with antibodies which can capture specific organism. The binding efficiency of immunomagnetic bead (IMB) capturing target bacterial cells was higher than 98% when the concentrations of target and interferent bacterial cells were at the same level. The concentration of bacteria was determined indirectly by detecting adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) employing bioluminescence (BL) reaction of firefly luciferin-ATP. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) was used as an ATP extractant from living bacterial cells. We found that BAC could enhance the light emission when the concentration of BAC was less than 5.3 x 10(-2)% (w/v) and the BL intensity reached its maximum at the concentration of BAC was 2.7 x 10(-2)%, which was 10-fold stronger than that without BAC. Based on the principle of the IMB, a microfluidic chip combined with immunofluorescence assay for separating and detecting bacteria simultaneously was also developed. The IMBs were magnetically fixed in the bead-beds of chip channels with a 3-mm diameter of NdFeB permanent magnet. The target bacterial cells can be captured magnetically and observed by a fluorescent microscope.

  20. A method for rapid similarity analysis of RNA secondary structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Na

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Owing to the rapid expansion of RNA structure databases in recent years, efficient methods for structure comparison are in demand for function prediction and evolutionary analysis. Usually, the similarity of RNA secondary structures is evaluated based on tree models and dynamic programming algorithms. We present here a new method for the similarity analysis of RNA secondary structures. Results Three sets of real data have been used as input for the example applications. Set I includes the structures from 5S rRNAs. Set II includes the secondary structures from RNase P and RNase MRP. Set III includes the structures from 16S rRNAs. Reasonable phylogenetic trees are derived for these three sets of data by using our method. Moreover, our program runs faster as compared to some existing ones. Conclusion The famous Lempel-Ziv algorithm can efficiently extract the information on repeated patterns encoded in RNA secondary structures and makes our method an alternative to analyze the similarity of RNA secondary structures. This method will also be useful to researchers who are interested in evolutionary analysis.

  1. Separation in liquid and the formation of supersaturated solid solutions in Fe-Cu alloys upon rapid laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharanzhevskiy, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    The structure of compacted specimens produced using the rapid laser melting of ultradispersed Fe-50 wt % Cu powders has been studied. The original powder was produced via the mechanical milling of iron and copper powders in a planetary-type ball mill. It has been found that the structure of the compacted specimens produced using rapid laser melting exhibits signs of the initial stages of separation in supercooled liquid. It has been shown using X-ray diffraction analysis as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy that the final structure contains a supersaturated (Fe; Cu) solid solution formed from the high-speed movement of the solidification front and the nonequilibrium capture of copper by the moving front.

  2. Just in time-selection: A rapid semiautomated SELEX of DNA aptamers using magnetic separation and BEAMing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünniger, Tim; Wessels, Hauke; Fischer, Christin; Paschke-Kratzin, Angelika; Fischer, Markus

    2014-11-04

    A semiautomated two-step method for in vitro selection of DNA aptamers using magnetic separation and solid-phase emulsion polymerase chain reaction has been developed. The application of a magnetic separator allows the simultaneous processing of up to 12 SELEXs (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) with different targets or buffer conditions. Using a magnetic separator and covalent target immobilization on magnetic beads, the selection process was simplified and the substeps of aptamer/target incubation, washing, and elution of the aptamers were merged into one automated procedure called "FISHing". Without further processing the resulting FISHing eluates are suitable for BEAMing (beads, emulsion, amplification, and magnetics), which includes the amplification by emPCR (emulsion polymerase chain reaction) and strand separation by the implementation of covalently immobilized reverse primers on magnetic beads. The novel selection process has been proved and validated by selecting and characterization of aptamers to the wine fining agent lysozyme.

  3. Rapid preparative separation of six bioactive compounds from Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk. using microwave-assisted extraction coupled with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jinru; Ito, Yoichiro; Zhang, Xinxin; He, Jiao; Sun, Wenji

    2013-12-01

    A rapid method combining microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was applied for preparative separation of six bioactive compounds including loganic acid (I), isoorientin-4'-O-glucoside (II), 6'-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl gentiopicroside (III), swertiamarin (IV), gentiopicroside (V), sweroside (VI) from traditional Tibetan medicine Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk. MAE parameters were predicted by central composite design response surface methodology. That is, 5.0 g dried roots of G. crassicaulis were extracted with 50 mL 57.5% aqueous ethanol under 630 W for 3.39 min. The extract (gentian total glycosides) was separated by HSCCC with n-butanol/ethyl acetate/methanol/1% acetic acid water (7.5:0.5:0.5:3.5, v/v/v/v) using upper phase mobile in tail-to-head elution mode. 16.3, 8.8, 12., 25.1, 40.7, and 21.8 mg of compounds I-VI were obtained with high purities in one run from 500 mg of original sample. The purities and identities of separated components were confirmed using HPLC with photo diode array detection and quadrupole TOF-MS and NMR spectroscopy. The study reveals that response surface methodology is convenient and highly predictive for optimizing extraction process, MAE coupled with HSCCC could be an expeditious method for extraction and separation of phytochemicals from ethnomedicine.

  4. Method of making a partial interlaminar separation composite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elber, W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An interlaminar separation system for composites is disclosed a thin layer of a perforated foil film is interposed between adjacent laminae of a composite formed from prepreg tapes. Laminae adherence takes place through the perforations and a composite structure with improved physical property characteristics is produced.

  5. Rapid assessment methods of resilience for natural and agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrico, Juan C; Janssens, Marc J J

    2010-12-01

    The resilience, ecological function and quality of both agricultural and natural systems were evaluated in the mountainous region of the Atlantic Rain Forest of Rio de Janeiro through Rapid Assessment Methods. For this goal new indicators were proposed, such as eco-volume, eco-height, bio-volume, volume efficiency, and resilience index. The following agricultural and natural systems have been compared according: (i) vegetables (leaf, fruit and mixed); (ii) citrus; (iii) ecological system; (iv) cattle, (v) silvo-pastoral system, (vi) forest fragment and (vii) forest in regeneration stage (1, 2 and 3 years old). An alternative measure (index) of resilience was proposed by considering the actual bio-volume as a function of the potential eco-volume. The objectives and hypotheses were fulfilled; it is shown that there does exist a high positive correlation between resilience index, biomass, energy efficiency and biodiversity. Cattle and vegetable systems have lowest resilience, whilst ecological and silvo-pastoral systems have greatest resilience. This new approach offers a rapid, though valuable assessment tool for ecological studies, agricultural development and landscape planning, particularly in tropical countries.

  6. Direct Separation of Molybdenum from Solid Uranium Matrices Employing Pyrohydrolysis, a Green Separation Method, and Its Determination by Ion Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vivekchandra G; Thakur, Uday K; Shah, Dipti J; Gupta, Neeraj K; Jeyakumar, Subbiah; Tomar, Bhupendra S; Ramakumar, Karanam L

    2015-11-01

    Pyrohydrolysis is a well-established separation method, and it is being used as a sample preparation method for several materials for further determination of non-metals such as halogens, boron, and sulfur. Analytes are retained in a diluted solution that is suitable for carrying out analysis by several determination techniques and minimizing the use of concentrated reagents. Pyrohydrolysis separation of metals has not been reported yet. The present study demonstrates the pyrohydrolysis separation of Mo as MoO4(2-) from uranium materials and its subsequent determination using ion chromatography coupled with suppressed conductivity detector. With use of TGA and XRD the volatilization behavior of Mo was studied. Important parameters for the pyrohydrolysis method required for the quantitative separation of Mo were evaluated. The precision of the method was better than 5% at 25 ppm of Mo. The accuracy was evaluated by analysis of a CRM (U3O8-ILCE-IV). The method was applied to determine Mo in ammonium diuranate samples, where the conventional methods suffer from the loss of Mo.

  7. Novel cell separation method for molecular analysis of neuron-astrocyte cocultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eGoudriaan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the importance of astrocyte-neuron communication in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity has become increasingly clear. Since neuron-astrocyte interactions represent highly dynamic and reciprocal processes, we hypothesized that many astrocyte genes may be regulated as a consequence of their interactions with maturing neurons. In order to identify such neuron-responsive astrocyte genes in vitro, we sought to establish an expedite technique for separation of neurons from co-cultured astrocytes. Our newly established method makes use of cold jet, which exploits different adhesion characteristics of subpopulations of cells (Jirsova et al., 1997, and is rapid, performed under ice-cold conditions and avoids protease-mediated isolation of astrocytes or time-consuming centrifugation, yielding intact astrocyte mRNA with approximately 90% of neuronal RNA removed. Using this purification method, we executed genome-wide profiling in which RNA derived from astrocyte-only cultures was compared with astrocyte RNA derived from differentiating neuron-astrocyte co-cultures. Data analysis determined that many astrocytic mRNAs and biological processes are regulated by neuronal interaction. Our results validate the cold jet as an efficient method to separate astrocytes from neurons in co-culture, and reveals that neurons induce robust gene-expression changes in co-cultured astrocytes.

  8. Modified Maxium Likelihood Estimation Method for Completely Separated and Quasi-Completely Separated Data for a Dose-Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a...quasi-completely separated, the traditional maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method generates infinite estimates. The bias -reduction (BR) method...which is a variant of the bias -correction method, removes the first-order bias term by applying a modified score function, and it always produces

  9. Rapid separation and determination of process-related substances of paracetamol using reversed-phase HPLC with photo diode array as a detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R Nageswara; Narasaraju, A

    2006-02-01

    A simple and rapid gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous separation and determination of paracetamol and its related compounds in bulk drugs and pharmaceutical formulations has been developed. As many as nine process impurities and one degradation product of paracetamol have been separated on a Symmetry C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm i.d., particle size 5 microm) with gradient elution using 0.01 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) and acetonitrile as mobile phase and photo diode array detection at 215 nm. The chromatographic behavior of all the compounds was examined under variable compositions of different solvents, temperatures, buffer concentrations and pH values. The correlation coefficients for calibration curves for paracetamol as well as impurities were in the range of 0.9951 - 0.9994. The proposed RP-LC method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercial formulations; the recoveries of paracetamol were in the range of 99-101%. The method could be of use not only for rapid and routine evaluation of the quality of paracetamol in bulk drug manufacturing units but also for detection of its impurities in pharmaceutical formulations.

  10. Simple filter microchip for rapid separation of plasma and viruses from whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang SQ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ShuQi Wang,1 Dusan Sarenac,1 Michael H Chen,1 Shih-Han Huang,1 Francoise F Giguel,2 Daniel R Kuritzkes,3 Utkan Demirci1,41Bio-acoustic MEMS in Medicine Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Infectious Diseases Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 3Section of Retroviral Therapeutics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 4Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA, USAAbstract: Sample preparation is a significant challenge for detection and sensing technologies, since the presence of blood cells can interfere with the accuracy and reliability of virus detection at the nanoscale for point-of-care testing. To the best of our knowledge, there is not an existing on-chip virus isolation technology that does not use complex fluidic pumps. Here, we presented a lab-on-a-chip filter device to isolate plasma and viruses from unprocessed whole blood based on size exclusion without using a micropump. We demonstrated that viruses (eg, HIV can be separated on a filter-based chip (2-µm pore size from HIV-spiked whole blood at high recovery efficiencies of 89.9% ± 5.0%, 80.5% ± 4.3%, and 78.2% ± 3.8%, for viral loads of 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 copies/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, 81.7% ± 6.7% of red blood cells and 89.5% ± 2.4% of white blood cells were retained on 2 µm pore–sized filter microchips. We also tested these filter microchips with seven HIV-infected patient samples and observed recovery efficiencies ranging from 73.1% ± 8.3% to 82.5% ± 4.1%. These results are first steps towards developing disposable point-of-care diagnostics and monitoring devices for resource-constrained settings, as well as hospital and primary care settings.Keywords: microchip, filtration, virus isolation, plasma separation, point-of-care

  11. A method and apparatus for sizing and separating warp yarns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheen, Shuh-Haw; Chien, Hual-Te; Raptis, Apostolos C.; Kupperman, David S.

    1997-12-01

    A slashing process for preparing warp yarns for weaving operations includes the steps of sizing and/or desizing the yarns in an acoustic resonance box and separating the yarns with a leasing apparatus comprised of a set of acoustically agitated lease rods. The sizing step includes immersing the yarns in a size solution contained in an acoustic resonance box. Acoustic transducers are positioned against the exterior of the box for generating an acoustic pressure field within the size solution. Ultrasonic waves that result from the acoustic pressure field continuously agitate the size solution to effect greater mixing and more uniform application and penetration of the size onto the yarns. The sized yarns are then separated by passing the warp yarns over and under lease rods. Electroacoustic transducers generate acoustic waves along the longitudinal axis of the lease rods, creating a shearing motion on the surface of the rods for splitting the yarns.

  12. Non-Hamiltonian systems separable by Hamilton Jacobi method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Krzysztof; Błaszak, Maciej

    2008-05-01

    We show that with every separable classical Stäckel system of Benenti type on a Riemannian space one can associate, by a proper deformation of the metric tensor, a multi-parameter family of non-Hamiltonian systems on the same space, sharing the same trajectories and related to the seed system by appropriate reciprocal transformations. These systems are known as bi-cofactor systems and are integrable in quadratures as the seed Hamiltonian system is. We show that with each class of bi-cofactor systems a pair of separation curves can be related. We also investigate the conditions under which a given flat bi-cofactor system can be deformed to a family of geodesically equivalent flat bi-cofactor systems.

  13. Investigation of the Photochemical Method for Uranium Isotope Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urey, H. C.

    1943-07-10

    To find a process for successful photochemical separation of isotopes several conditions have to be fulfilled. First, the different isotopes have to show some differences in the spectrum. Secondly, and equally important, this difference must be capable of being exploited in a photochemical process. Parts A and B outline the physical and chemical conditions, and the extent to which one might expect to find them fulfilled. Part C deals with the applicability of the process.

  14. Electrochemical method for rapid synthesis of Zinc Pentacyanonitrosylferrate Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogaieh Bargeshadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a rapid and simple approach was developed for the preparation of zinc pentacyanonitrosylferrate nanotubes (ZnPCNF NTs within the cylindrical pores of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template by electrochemical method. The AAO was fabricated in two steps anodizing from aluminum foil. The first anodization of aluminum foil was performed in 0.2 mol L-1 H2C2O4 followed by removal of the formed porous oxide film by a solution of 6 wt% of phosphoric acid. The second anodization step was then performed using the same conditions as the previous step. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD method were employed to characterize the resulting highly oriented uniform hollow tube array which its diameter was in the range of 25-75 nm depending on the applied voltage and the length of nanotubes was equal to the thickness of AAO which was about 2 m. The growth properties of the ZnPCNF NTs array film can be achieved by controlling the structure of the template and applied potential across the cell.

  15. 40 CFR 246.202-4 - Recommended procedures: Methods of separation and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Procedures § 246.202-4 Recommended procedures: Methods of separation and storage. The method selected will...-effectiveness of using the various methods. All of the following suggested modes of separation and storage... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Methods of...

  16. Study on Separation of Structural Isomer with Magneto-Archimedes method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Mori, T.; Akiyama, Y.; Mishima, F.; Nishijima, S.

    2017-09-01

    Organic compounds are refined by separating their structural isomers, however each separation method has some problems. For example, distillation consumes large energy. In order to solve these problems, new separation method is needed. Considering organic compounds are diamagnetic, we focused on magneto-Archimedes method. With this method, particle mixture dispersed in a paramagnetic medium can be separated in a magnetic field due to the difference of the density and magnetic susceptibility of the particles. In this study, we succeeded in separating isomers of phthalic acid as an example of structural isomer using MnCl2 solution as the paramagnetic medium. In order to use magneto-Archimedes method for separating materials for food or medicine, we proposed harmless medium using oxygen and fluorocarbon instead of MnCl2 aqueous solution. As a result, the possibility of separating every structural isomer was shown.

  17. Recent innovations in protein separation on microchips by electrophoretic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Youyuan; Pallandre, Antoine; Tran, N Thuy; Taverna, Myriam

    2008-01-01

    Microchips for analytical purposes have attracted great attention over the last 20 years. In the present review, we focus on the most recent development of microchips for electrophoretic separation of proteins. This review starts with a short recalling about the microchips covering the basic microchip layout for CE and the commercial chips and microchip platforms. A short paragraph is dedicated to the surface treatment of microchips, which is of paramount importance in protein analysis. One section is dedicated to on-line sample pretreatment in microchips and summarizes different strategies to pre-concentrate or to purify proteins from complex matrixes. Most of the common modes used for CE of proteins have already been adapted to the chip format, while multidimensional approaches are still in progress. The different routes to achieve detection in microchip are also presented with a special attention to derivatization or labeling of proteins. Finally, several recent applications are mentioned. They highlight the great potential of electrophoretic separations of proteins in numerous fields such as biological, pharmaceutical or agricultural and food analysis. A bibliography with 151 references is provided covering papers published from 2000 to the early 2007.

  18. Rapid detection of Salmonella in raw chicken breast using real-time PCR combined with immunomagnetic separation and whole genome amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Deng, Xiangyu

    2017-05-01

    We presented the first attempt to combine immunomagnetic separation (IMS), whole genome amplification by multiple displacement amplification (MDA) and real-time PCR for detecting a bacterial pathogen in a food sample. This method was effective in enabling real-time PCR detection of low levels of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis (SE) (∼10 CFU/g) in raw chicken breast without culture enrichment. In addition, it was able to detect refrigeration-stressed SE cells at lower concentrations (∼0.1 CFU/g) in raw chicken breast after a 4-h culture enrichment, shortening the detection process from days to hours and displaying no statistical difference in detection rate in comparison with a culture-based detection method. By substantially improving performance in SE detection over conventional real-time PCR, we demonstrated the potential of IMS-MDA real-time PCR as a rapid, sensitive and affordable method for detecting Salmonella in food.

  19. High performance liquid chromatography method for rapid and accurate determination of homocysteine in plasma and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Birte; Rasmussen, K

    1991-01-01

    Determination of homocysteine in plasma or serum for evaluation of cobalamin and folate deficiency is becoming an important diagnostic procedure. Accurate, rapid and low cost methods for measuring homocysteine are therefore required. We have improved an HPLC method and made it suitable for clinical...... application. The more important changes are the addition of an internal standard, mercaptopropionylglycine, and the use of a plasma/serum based calibration material. The method consists of the following steps: reduction of the sample with tri-n-butylphosphine, precipitation of proteins, derivatisation...... with ammonium 7-fluorobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-4-sulphonate, and HPLC separation followed by fluorescence detection. The linearity of the assays is established and the coefficient of variation is 3.0%. Stability studies show that blood samples must be cooled or centrifuged immediately after venipuncture...

  20. Optimization of spectral indices and long-term separability analysis for classification of cereal crops using multi-spectral RapidEye imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstmann, Henning; Möller, Markus; Gläßer, Cornelia

    2016-10-01

    Crop monitoring using remotely sensed image data provides valuable input for a large variety of applications in environmental and agricultural research. However, method development for discrimination between spectrally highly similar crop species remains a challenge in remote sensing. Calculation of vegetation indices is a frequently applied option to amplify the most distinctive parts of a spectrum. Since no vegetation index exist, that is universally best-performing, a method is presented that finds an index that is optimized for the classification of a specific satellite data set to separate two cereal crop types. The η2 (eta-squared) measure of association - presented as novel spectral separability indicator - was used for the evaluation of the numerous tested indices. The approach is first applied on a RapidEye satellite image for the separation of winter wheat and winter barley in a Central German test site. The determined optimized index allows a more accurate classification (97%) than several well-established vegetation indices like NDVI and EVI (covering the years 2010-2014. The optimized index for the spectral separation of winter barley and winter wheat for each acquisition date was calculated and its ability to distinct the two classes was assessed. The results indicate that the calculated optimized indices perform better than the standard indices for most seasonal parts of the time series. The red edge spectral region proved to be of high significance for crop classification. Additionally, a time frame of best spectral separability of wheat and barley could be detected in early to mid-summer.

  1. Rapid simulation of spatial epidemics: a spectral method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Samuel P C; Tildesley, Michael J; Keeling, Matthew J

    2015-04-07

    Spatial structure and hence the spatial position of host populations plays a vital role in the spread of infection. In the majority of situations, it is only possible to predict the spatial spread of infection using simulation models, which can be computationally demanding especially for large population sizes. Here we develop an approximation method that vastly reduces this computational burden. We assume that the transmission rates between individuals or sub-populations are determined by a spatial transmission kernel. This kernel is assumed to be isotropic, such that the transmission rate is simply a function of the distance between susceptible and infectious individuals; as such this provides the ideal mechanism for modelling localised transmission in a spatial environment. We show that the spatial force of infection acting on all susceptibles can be represented as a spatial convolution between the transmission kernel and a spatially extended 'image' of the infection state. This representation allows the rapid calculation of stochastic rates of infection using fast-Fourier transform (FFT) routines, which greatly improves the computational efficiency of spatial simulations. We demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of this fast spectral rate recalculation (FSR) method with two examples: an idealised scenario simulating an SIR-type epidemic outbreak amongst N habitats distributed across a two-dimensional plane; the spread of infection between US cattle farms, illustrating that the FSR method makes continental-scale outbreak forecasting feasible with desktop processing power. The latter model demonstrates which areas of the US are at consistently high risk for cattle-infections, although predictions of epidemic size are highly dependent on assumptions about the tail of the transmission kernel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Methods of rapid orbit forecasting after maneuvers for geostationary satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XuHai; LI ZhiGang; FENG ChuGang; GUO Ji; SHI HuLi; AI GuoXiang; WU FengLei; QIAO RongChuan

    2009-01-01

    A geostationary (GEO) satellite may serve as a navigation satellite,but there is a problem that maneuvers frequently occur and the forces are difficult to model.Based on the technique of determining setellite orbits by transfer,a predicted orbit with high accuracy may be achieved by the method of statistical orbit determination in case of no maneuver force.The predicted orbit will soon be invalid after the maneuver starts,and it takes a long time to get a valid orbit after the maneuver ends.In order to improve ephemeris usability,the method of rapid orbit forecasting after maneuvers is studied.First,GEO satellite movement is analyzed in case of maneuvers based on the observation from the orbit measurement system by transfer.Then when a GEO satellite is in the free status just after maneuvers,the short arc observation is used to forecast the orbit.It is assumed that the common system bias and biases of each station are constant,which can be obtained from orbit determination with long arc observations.In this way,only 6 orbit elements would be solved by the method of statistical orbit determination,and the ephemeris with high accuracy may be soon obtained.Actual orbit forecasting with short arc observation for SlNOSAT-1 satellite shows that,with the tracking network available,the precision of the predicted orbit (RMS of O-C) can reach about 5 m with 15 min arc observation,and about 3 m with 30 min arc observation.

  3. Methods of rapid orbit forecasting after maneuvers for geostationary satellites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A geostationary(GEO) satellite may serve as a navigation satellite,but there is a problem that maneuvers frequently occur and the forces are difficult to model.Based on the technique of determining satellite orbits by transfer,a predicted orbit with high accuracy may be achieved by the method of statis-tical orbit determination in case of no maneuver force.The predicted orbit will soon be invalid after the maneuver starts,and it takes a long time to get a valid orbit after the maneuver ends.In order to improve ephemeris usability,the method of rapid orbit forecasting after maneuvers is studied.First,GEO satellite movement is analyzed in case of maneuvers based on the observation from the orbit meas-urement system by transfer.Then when a GEO satellite is in the free status just after maneuvers,the short arc observation is used to forecast the orbit.It is assumed that the common system bias and biases of each station are constant,which can be obtained from orbit determination with long arc observations.In this way,only 6 orbit elements would be solved by the method of statistical orbit determination,and the ephemeris with high accuracy may be soon obtained.Actual orbit forecasting with short arc observation for SINOSAT-1 satellite shows that,with the tracking network available,the precision of the predicted orbit(RMS of O-C) can reach about 5 m with 15 min arc observation,and about 3 m with 30 min arc observation.

  4. Physical Cleaning of Lakhra Coal by Dense Medium Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Ali Channa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is an attempt to upgrade Lakhra Lignite Coal using ?Dense Medium Separation? technique, to make it techno-environmentally acceptable product for different industries. The air-dried samples of ROM (Run of Mine coal were crushed, screened, ground and subjected to initial analysis and specific gravity based sink-float tests. The initial analysis of air-dried samples shows the average values of moisture 19%, volatile matter 22.33%, ash 27.41%, fixed carbon 31.26% and sulphur 4.98%. The investigational results of sink-float analysis indicate that physical cleaning at particle size range from -5.6 to +0.3 mm and 75% clean coal recovery can potentially reduce the ash yield and sulphur content of Lakhra coal up to 41 and 42.4% respectively. This washed coal is techno-environmentally acceptable yield and simultaneously qualifies the quality parameters set by various industries of Pakistan

  5. Separation of combustion noise and piston-slap in diesel engine—Part II: Separation of combustion noise and piston-slap using blind source separation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servière, C.; Lacoume, J.-L.; El Badaoui, M.

    2005-11-01

    This paper is devoted to blind separation of combustion noise and piston-slap in diesel engines. The two phenomena are recovered only from signals issued from accelerometers placed on one of the cylinders. A blind source separation (BSS) method is developed, based on a convolutive model of non-stationary mixtures. We introduce a new method based on the joint diagonalisation of the time varying spectral matrices of the observation records and a new technique to handle the problem of permutation ambiguity in the frequency domain. This method is then applied to real data and the estimated sources are validated by several physical arguments. So, the contribution of the piston-slap and the combustion noise can be recovered for all the sensors. The energy of the two phenomena can then be given with regards to the position of the accelerometers.

  6. A Rapid Reversed-Phase HPLC Method for Analysis of Trans-Resveratrol in PLGA Nanoparticulate Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Gurinder; Pai, Roopa S.

    2014-01-01

    A rapid reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the determination of trans-resveratrol (t-RVT) in PLGA nanoparticle formulation. A new formulation of t-RVT loaded PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) with potential stealth properties was prepared by nanoprecipitation method in our laboratory. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex C18 column under isocratic conditions using UV detection at 306 nm. The optimized mobile phase con...

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility of rapidly growing mycobacteria using the rapid colorimetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramis, I B; Cnockaert, M; von Groll, A; Nogueira, C L; Leão, S C; Andre, E; Simon, A; Palomino, J C; da Silva, P E A; Vandamme, P; Martin, A

    2015-07-01

    Drug susceptibility testing (DST) of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are recommended for guiding the antimicrobial therapy. We have evaluated the use of resazurin in Mueller-Hinton medium (MHR) for MIC determination of RGM and compared the results with those obtained with the reference standard broth microdilution in Mueller-Hinton (MH) and with the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) in 7H9 broth. The MIC of eight drugs: amikacin (AMI), cefoxitin (FOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), clarithromycin (CLA), doxycycline (DOX), linezolid (LZD), moxifloxacin (MXF) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) were evaluated against 76 RGM (18 species) using three methods (MH, MHR, and REMA) in a 96-well plate format incubated at 37 °C over 3-5 days. Results obtained in the MH plates were interpreted by the appearance of turbidity at the bottom of the well before adding the resazurin. MHR and 7H9-REMA plates were read by visual observation for a change in color from blue to pink. The majority of results were obtained at day 5 for MH and 1 day after for MHR and 7H9-REMA. However, the preliminary experiment on time to positivity results using the reference strain showed that the resazurin can be added to the MH at day 2 to produce the results at day 3, but future studies with large sets of strains are required to confirm this suggestion. A high level of agreement (kappa 1.000-0.884) was obtained between the MH and the MHR. Comparison of results obtained with 7H9-REMA, on the other hand, revealed several discrepancies and a lower level of agreement (kappa 1.000-0.111). The majority of the strains were resistant to DOX and TMP-SMX, and the most active antimicrobials for RGM were AMI and FOX. In the present study, MHR represented an excellent alternative for MIC determination of RGM. The results could be read reliably, more easily, and more quickly than with the classical MH method.

  8. Epsilon-net method for optimizations over separable states

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Yaoyun

    2011-01-01

    We give algorithms for the optimization problem: $\\max_\\rho \\ip{Q}{\\rho}$, where $Q$ is a Hermitian matrix, and the variable $\\rho$ is a bipartite {\\em separable} quantum state. This problem lies at the heart of several problems in quantum computation and information, such as the complexity of QMA(2). While the problem is NP-hard, our algorithms are better than brute force for several instances of interest. In particular, they give PSPACE upper bounds on promise problems admitting a QMA(2) protocol in which the verifier performs only logarithmic number of elementary gate on both proofs, as well as the promise problem of deciding if a bipartite local Hamiltonian has large or small ground energy. For $Q\\ge0$, our algorithm runs in time exponential in $\\|Q\\|_F$. While the existence of such an algorithm was first proved recently by Brand{\\~a}o, Christandl and Yard [{\\em Proceedings of the 43rd annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computation}, 343--352, 2011], our algorithm is conceptually simpler.

  9. 40 CFR 246.201-5 - Recommended procedures: Methods of separation and collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Recommended Procedures § 246.201-5 Recommended procedures: Methods of separation and collection. Following separation within the home, any of the following methods of collection may be used: (a) Materials may be... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Methods of...

  10. 40 CFR 246.200-5 - Recommended procedures: Methods of separation and collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Recommended Procedures § 246.200-5 Recommended procedures: Methods of separation and collection. (a) Systems... desk-top system has been designed to minimize these problems. (d) The precise method of separation and... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Methods of...

  11. Rapid Separation of Elemental Species by Fast Multicapillary Gas Chromatography with Multichannel Optical Spectrometry Detection following Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Giersz; Krzysztof Jankowski; Monika Truskolaska

    2015-01-01

    A method for conducting fast and efficient gas chromatography based on short multicapillaries in straight alignment combined with atomic emission detection was developed for field analysis. The strategy enables for speciation analysis of organometallic compounds. The analytes are simultaneously ethylated and preconcentrated on a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fiber placed in the headspace over the sample for 25 min. The ethylated species are then completely separated and selectively quant...

  12. Azimuthal decorrelation of jets widely separated in rapidity in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2016-01-25

    The decorrelation in the azimuthal angle between the most forward and the most backward jets (Mueller-Navelet jets) is measured in data collected in pp collisions with the CMS detector at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 7 TeV. The measurement is presented in the form of distributions of azimuthal-angle differences, $\\Delta\\phi$, between the Mueller-Navelet jets, the average cosines of $(\\pi-\\Delta\\phi)$, $2(\\pi-\\Delta\\phi)$, and $3(\\pi-\\Delta\\phi)$, and ratios of these cosines. The jets are required to have transverse momenta, $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$, in excess of 35 GeV and rapidities, $| y |$, of less than 4.7. The results are presented as a function of the rapidity separation, $\\Delta{y}$, between the Mueller-Navelet jets, reaching $\\Delta{y}$ up to 9.4 for the first time. The results are compared to predictions of various Monte Carlo event generators and to analytical predictions based on the DGLAP and BFKL parton evolution schemes.

  13. Azimuthal decorrelation of jets widely separated in rapidity in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; El-khateeb, Esraa; Elkafrawy, Tamer

    2016-08-24

    The decorrelation in the azimuthal angle between the most forward and the most backward jets (Mueller-Navelet jets) is measured in data collected in pp collisions with the CMS detector at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 7 TeV. The measurement is presented in the form of distributions of azimuthal-angle differences, $\\Delta\\phi$, between the Mueller-Navelet jets, the average cosines of $(\\pi-\\Delta\\phi)$, $2(\\pi-\\Delta\\phi)$, and $3(\\pi-\\Delta\\phi)$, and ratios of these cosines. The jets are required to have transverse momenta, $p_{\\mathrm{T}}$, in excess of 35 GeV and rapidities, $| y |$, of less than 4.7. The results are presented as a function of the rapidity separation, $\\Delta{y}$, between the Mueller-Navelet jets, reaching $\\Delta{y}$ up to 9.4 for the first time. The results are compared to predictions of various Monte Carlo event generators and to analytical predictions based on the DGLAP and BFKL parton evolution schemes.

  14. On-line simultaneous and rapid separation of anions and cations from a single sample using dual-capillary sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Adam J; Guijt, Rosanne M; Macka, Mirek; Hutchinson, Joseph P; Johns, Cameron; Hilder, Emily F; Dicinoski, Greg W; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Haddad, Paul R; Breadmore, Michael C

    2013-06-05

    A novel capillary electrophoresis (CE) approach has been developed for the simultaneous rapid separation and identification of common environmental inorganic anions and cations from a single sample injection. The method utilised a sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis instrument (SI-CE) with capacitively-coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) constructed in-house from commercial-off-the-shelf components. Oppositely charged analytes from a single sample plug were simultaneously injected electrokinetically onto two separate capillaries for independent separation and detection. Injection was automated and may occur from a syringe or be directly coupled to an external source in a continuous manner. Software control enabled high sample throughput (17 runs per hour for the target analyte set) and the inclusion of an isolation valve allowed the separation capillaries to be flushed, increasing throughput by removing slow migrating species as well as improving repeatability. Various environmental and industrial samples (subjected only to filtering) were analysed in the laboratory with a 3 min analysis time which allowed the separation of 23 inorganic and small organic anions and cations. Finally, the system was applied to an extended automated analysis of Hobart Southern Water tap water for a period of 48 h. The overall repeatability of the migration times of a 14 analyte standard sample was less than 0.74% under laboratory conditions. LODs ranged from 5 to 61 μg L(-1). The combination of automation, high confidence of peak identification, and low limits of detection make this a useful system for the simultaneous identification of a range of common inorganic anions and cations for discrete or continuous monitoring applications.

  15. Open microfluidic gel electrophoresis: Rapid and low cost separation and analysis of DNA at the nanoliter scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzweiler, Ludwig; Gleichmann, Tobias; Tanguy, Laurent; Koltay, Peter; Zengerle, Roland; Riegger, Lutz

    2017-07-01

    Gel electrophoresis is one of the most applied and standardized tools for separation and analysis of macromolecules and their fragments in academic research and in industry. In this work we present a novel approach for conducting on-demand electrophoretic separations of DNA molecules in open microfluidic (OM) systems on planar polymer substrates. The approach combines advantages of slab gel, capillary- and chip-based methods offering low consumable costs (gel line acting as separation channel interconnecting the reservoirs and sample injected into the line via non-contact droplet dispensing and thus enabling the precise control of the injection plug and sample concentration. Evaporation is prevented by covering aqueous structures with PCR-grade mineral oil while maintaining surface temperature at 15°C. The liquid gel line exhibits a semi-circular cross section of adaptable width (∼200-600 μm) and height (∼30-80 μm) as well as a typical length of 15-55 mm. Layout of such liquid structures is adaptable on-demand not requiring time consuming and repetitive fabrication steps. The approach was successfully demonstrated by the separation of a standard label-free DNA ladder (100-1000 bp) at 100 V/cm via in-line staining and laser induced fluorescent end-point detection using an automated prototype. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Method of separating bacteria from free living amoebae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyndall, Richard L. (Clinton, TN)

    1994-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  17. Method of separating bacteria from free living amoebae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1994-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  18. RAPID TEST METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF ANTIFREEZE ADDITIVE EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gushchin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Usage of chemical additives while executing concrete works at negative temperatures is considered as a convenient and economical method. Range of the used antifreeze additives is rather wide. A great number of new additives are advertised but their characteristics have not been practically studied. Evaluation of the antifreeze additive efficiency is unfortunately rather long process and it does not provide comprehensive data on concrete structure formation processes. Due to this development of rapid and comprehensive methodology for construction companies is urgently required.Freezing processes of antifreeze additive aqueous solutions and hardening of cement paste with them have been investigated in the paper. The paper proposes a methodology for determination of freezing point for aqueous solutions of chemical additives of various applications. Identity of  freezing point for a chemical additive aqueous solution and cement paste with an equal concentration of the additive in the paste pore fluid has been determined while taking  calcium nitrate and sodium formate additives as an example. The paper demonstrates the possibility to evaluate efficiency of antifreeze additive action on the basis of kinetics in temperature changes of the cement paste with additives by its consecutive freezing and defrosting.  A methodology for operational evaluation in the field of chemical additive application for concreting items at negative temperatures has been offered in the paper.  The methodology does not require  deficient and expensive test-equipment. It can be applied at ordinary construction companies and it is comprehensible for personnel of low-qualification.  The paper shows the possibility to develop an original methodology for designing concrete structure which is based on operating efficiency determinations  for single and integrated antifreeze additives.

  19. A Method for Separating PCBs and OCPs in Biota Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GONG Fu-qiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic fraction and cleanup method was developed for PCBs and OCPs in biota samples, using a self-developing chro- matographic fraction instrument and solid phase mixture. The solid phase was composed of florisil(30%-35%, acid-treated silica gel(50%-60%and anhydrous sodiumsulphate(10%-15%. The recoveriesof spiked PCBsand OCPs in column ranged from 96.4% to 119% and from 78.4% to 103% respectively, while in fish fat tissue ranged from 74.4% to 100% and from 78.3% to 102% respectively. This approach was proved to be an efficient, fast, simple and cost-effective method for fraction and cleanup of PCBs and OCPs in biota samples.

  20. Methods of using adsorption media for separating or removing constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Troy J.; Herbst, R. Scott; Mann, Nicholas R.; Todd, Terry A.

    2011-10-25

    Methods of using an adsorption medium to remove at least one constituent from a feed stream. The method comprises contacting an adsorption medium with a feed stream comprising at least one constituent and removing the at least one constituent from the feed stream. The adsorption medium comprises a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) matrix and at least one metal hydroxide homogenously dispersed therein. The adsorption medium may comprise from approximately 15 wt % to approximately 90 wt % of the PAN and from approximately 10 wt % to approximately 85 wt % of the at least one metal hydroxide. The at least one metal hydroxide may be selected from the group consisting of ferric hydroxide, zirconium hydroxide, lanthanum hydroxide, cerium hydroxide, titanium hydroxide, copper hydroxide, antimony hydroxide, and molybdenum hydroxide.

  1. Systems and methods for preparation and separation of products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, Ryan J.; Boggs, Bryan; Self, Kyle; Leclerc, Margarete K.; Gorer, Alexander; Weiss, Michael J.; Miller, John H.; Mohanta, Samaresh

    2015-12-01

    There are provided methods and systems for an electrochemical cell including an anode and a cathode where the anode is contacted with a metal ion that converts the metal ion from a lower oxidation state to a higher oxidation state. The metal ion in the higher oxidation state is reacted with hydrogen gas, an unsaturated hydrocarbon, and/or a saturated hydrocarbon to form products.

  2. Electrophoretic separation method for membrane pore-forming proteins in multilayer lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yukihiro; Tsujimoto, Yusuke; Umakoshi, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report on a novel electrophoretic separation and analysis method for membrane pore-forming proteins in multilayer lipid membranes (MLMs) in order to overcome the problems related to current separation and analysis methods of membrane proteins, and to obtain a high-performance separation method on the basis of specific properties of the lipid membranes. We constructed MLMs, and subsequently characterized membrane pore-forming protein behavior in MLMs. Through the use of these MLMs, we were able to successfully separate and analyze membrane pore-forming proteins in MLMs. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first example of membrane pore-forming protein separation in lipid membranes. Our method can be expected to be applied for the separation and analysis of other membrane proteins including intrinsic membrane proteins and to result in high-performance by utilizing the specific properties of lipid membranes.

  3. A new rapid method for rockfall energies and distances estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Anna; Ferrari, Federica; Thoeni, Klaus; Lambert, Cedric

    2016-04-01

    and distances at the base to block and slope features. The validation of the proposed approach was conducted by comparing predictions to experimental data collected in the field and gathered from the scientific literature. The method can be used for both natural and constructed slopes and easily extended to more complicated and articulated slope geometries. The study shows its great potential for a quick qualitative hazard assessment providing indication about impact energy and horizontal distance of the first impact at the base of a rock cliff. Nevertheless, its application cannot substitute a more detailed quantitative analysis required for site-specific design of mitigation measures. Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP). References Dorren, L.K.A. (2003) A review of rockfall mechanics and modelling approaches, Progress in Physical Geography 27(1), 69-87. Agliardi, F., Crosta, G.B., Frattini, P. (2009) Integrating rockfall risk assessment and countermeasure design by 3D modelling techniques. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 9(4), 1059-1073. Ferrari, F., Thoeni, K., Giacomini, A., Lambert, C. (2016) A rapid approach to estimate the rockfall energies and distances at the base of rock cliffs. Georisk, DOI: 10.1080/17499518.2016.1139729.

  4. Dry rehydratable film method for rapid enumeration of coliforms in foods (3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate): collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinneberg, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2002-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for coliforms in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate method, was compared with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual method for nondairy foods and the American Public Health Association's Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) method for dairy foods. Six food types, vanilla ice cream, cheddar cheese, fresh refrigerated uncooked pasta, wheat flour, prepared frozen macaroni and cheese, and frozen hash browns, were analyzed for coliforms by 11 collaborating laboratories. For each food product tested, the collaborators received 8 blind samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count method at 14 and 24 h were not significantly different from those of the standard methods.

  5. Rapid Methods for detection of Veterinary Drug residues in Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan

    2010-10-01

    methodologies, the variety of residues to search per sample and the need to invest on powerful new instruments for identification and confirmatory purposes. Rapid and versatile screening methodologies make its control easier and reduce the number of non-compliant samples to be confirmed through tedious and costly confirmatory analytical methodologies. For instance, the multiresidue analysis can be performed better by using fast LC methods. Thus, the availability of new screening methodologies and the improvement of the existing ones will contribute to a better safety assurance of meat and other foods of animal origin. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 241-246

  6. Rapid separation of desloratadine and related compounds in solid pharmaceutical formulation using gradient ion-pair chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinjian; Rustum, Abu M

    2010-01-01

    We reported the development of an ion-pair chromatographic method to separate desloratadine and all known related compounds in Clarinex Tablets, which use desloratadine as active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). For the first time, baseline separation for desloratadine and all known related compounds was achieved by utilizing a YMC-Pack Pro C(18) column (150 mm x 4.6 mm I.D., 3 microm particle size, 120A pore size) and a gradient elution method. The mobile phase A contains 3 mM sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS), 15 mM sodium citrate buffer at pH 6.2, and 40 mM sodium sulfate, while the mobile phase B is acetonitrile. Chromsword, an artificial intelligence method development tool, was used to optimize several key chromatographic parameters simultaneously including buffer pH/solvent strength, and temperature/gradient profile. The resolution of desloratadine and desloratadine 3,4-dehydropiperidine derivative, one of the critical pairs was improved by adding 40 mM sodium sulfate. Ultraviolet detection at 267 nm was used to achieve the detection for desloratadine and all compounds. This method has been successfully validated according to ICH guidelines in terms of linearity, accuracy, quantitation limit/detection limit, precision, specificity and robustness. It could be used as a stability indicating method for desloratadine drug substances or drug products that use desloratadine as active pharmaceutical ingredient.

  7. An improved electroelution method for separation of DNA from humic substances in marine sediment DNA extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallmeyer, Jens; Smith, David C

    2009-07-01

    We present a method for the rapid and simple extraction of DNA from marine sediments using electroelution. It effectively separates DNA from compounds, including humic substances, that interfere with subsequent DNA quantification and amplification. After extraction of the DNA from the sediment into an aqueous solution, the crude sample is encased in 2% agarose gel and exposed to an electrical current, which draws the DNA out of the gel into a centrifugal filter vial. After electroelution, the sample is centrifuged to remove contaminants method is quantitative and does not discriminate on the basis of size, as determined using DNA standards and DNA extracts from environmental samples. Amplification of DNA is considerably improved due to removal of PCR inhibitors. For Archaea, only these purified extracts yielded PCR products. This method allows for the use of relatively large volumes of sediment and is particularly useful for sediments containing low biomass such as deeply buried marine sediments. It works with both organic-rich and -poor sediment, as well as with sediment where calcium carbonate is abundant and sediment where it is limited; consequently, adjustment of protocols is unnecessary for samples with very different organic and mineral contents.

  8. A promising method of liquid separation in orbital station's life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitsa Anna, A.

    2012-11-01

    A combined method of liquid separation from a gas-liquid flow is presented based on an analysis of existing methods of separation and experience gained from the Russian space stations Salut, Mir and the International Space Station. This method combines the advantages of both water-holding materials and semi-permeable membranes. The paper describes an actual device as well as laboratory test results for materials and the separator. The separator described has successfully been in experimental operation on the ISS since the 1st of September 2009.

  9. Large Rapidity Gap Method to Select Soft Diffraction Dissociation at the LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Nurse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In proton-proton (pp collisions, any process involves exchanging the vacuum quantum numbers is known as diffractive process. A diffractive process with no large Q2 is called soft diffractive process. The diffractive processes are important for understanding nonperturbative QCD effects and they also constitute a significant fraction of the total pp cross section. The diffractive events are typically characterized by a region of the detector without particles, known as a rapidity gap. In order to observe diffractive events in this way, we consider the pseudorapidity acceptance in the forward region of the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC and discuss the methods to select soft diffractive dissociation for pp collisions at s=7 TeV. It is shown that, in the limited detector rapidity acceptance, it is possible to select diffractive dissociation events by requiring a rapidity gap in the event; however, without using forward detectors, it seems not possible to fully separate single and double diffractive dissociation events. The Zero Degree Calorimeters can be used to distinguish the type of the diffractive processes up to a certain extent.

  10. Separation methods that are capable of revealing blood-brain barrier permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Alekha K; Elmquist, William F

    2003-11-25

    The objective of this review is to emphasize the application of separation science in evaluating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability to drugs and bioactive agents. Several techniques have been utilized to quantitate the BBB permeability. These methods can be classified into two major categories: in vitro or in vivo. The in vivo methods used include brain homogenization, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling, voltametry, autoradiography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, positron emission tomography (PET), intracerebral microdialysis, and brain uptake index (BUI) determination. The in vitro methods include tissue culture and immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) technology. Separation methods have always played an important role as adjunct methods to the methods outlined above for the quantitation of BBB permeability and have been utilized the most with brain homogenization, in situ brain perfusion, CSF sampling, intracerebral microdialysis, in vitro tissue culture and IAM chromatography. However, the literature published to date indicates that the separation method has been used the most in conjunction with intracerebral microdialysis and CSF sampling methods. The major advantages of microdialysis sampling in BBB permeability studies is the possibility of online separation and quantitation as well as the need for only a small sample volume for such an analysis. Separation methods are preferred over non-separation methods in BBB permeability evaluation for two main reasons. First, when the selectivity of a determination method is insufficient, interfering substances must be separated from the analyte of interest prior to determination. Secondly, when large number of analytes is to be detected and quantitated by a single analytical procedure, the mixture must be separated to each individual component prior to determination. Chiral separation in particular can be essential to evaluate the stereo-selective permeation and distribution of agents into the

  11. Status of the Reactive Extraction as a Method of Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipaloy Datta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospective function of a novel energy efficient fermentation technology has been getting great attention in the past fifty years due to the quick raise in petroleum costs. Fermentation chemicals are still limited in the modern market in huge part because of trouble in recovery of carboxylic acids. Therefore, it is needed considerable development in the current recovery technology. Carboxylic acids have been used as the majority of fermentation chemicals. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review on the reactive extraction of carboxylic acids from fermentation broths. This paper principally focuses on reactive extraction that is found to be a capable option to the proper recovery methods.

  12. Midpalatal suture maturation: Classification method for individual assessment before rapid maxillary expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelieri, Fernanda; Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Franchi, Lorenzo; Gonçalves, João R.; Benavides, Erika; McNamara, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we present a novel classification method for individual assessment of midpalatal suture morphology. Methods Cone-beam computed tomography images from 140 subjects (ages, 5.6-58.4 years) were examined to define the radiographic stages of midpalatal suture maturation. Five stages of maturation of the midpalatal suture were identified and defined: stage A, straight high-density sutural line, with no or little interdigitation; stage B, scalloped appearance of the high-density sutural line; stage C, 2 parallel, scalloped, high-density lines that were close to each other, separated in some areas by small low-density spaces; stage D, fusion completed in the palatine bone, with no evidence of a suture; and stage E, fusion anteriorly in the maxilla. Intraexaminer and interexaminer agreements were evaluated by weighted kappa tests. Results Stages A and B typically were observed up to 13 years of age, whereas stage C was noted primarily from 11 to 17 years but occasionally in younger and older age groups. Fusion of the palatine (stage D) and maxillary (stage E) regions of the midpalatal suture was completed after 11 years only in girls. From 14 to 17 years, 3 of 13 (23%) boys showed fusion only in the palatine bone (stage D). Conclusions This new classification method has the potential to avoid the side effects of rapid maxillary expansion failure or unnecessary surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion for late adolescents and young adults. PMID:24182592

  13. Application of an efficient strategy based on liquid-liquid extraction, high-speed counter-current chromatography, and preparative HPLC for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of four anthraquinones from Rheum tanguticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Liu, Yongling; Zou, Denglang; Chen, Chen; You, Jinmao; Zhou, Guoying; Sun, Jing; Li, Yulin

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an efficient strategy based on liquid-liquid extraction, high-speed counter-current chromatography, and preparative HPLC for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of four anthraquinones from Rheum tanguticum. A new solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/water (4:2:1, v/v/v) was developed for the liquid-liquid extraction of the crude extract from R. tanguticum. As a result, emodin, aloe-emodin, physcion, and chrysophanol were greatly enriched in the organic layer. In addition, an efficient method was successfully established to separate and purify the above anthraquinones by high-speed counter-current chromatography and preparative HPLC. This study supplies a new alternative method for the rapid enrichment, separation, and purification of emodin, aloe-emodin, physcione, and chrysophanol. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A New Method of Separation of Four Benzodiazepines by RP-CEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Lan ZHANG; Tong Hui ZHOU

    2004-01-01

    A new method to separate diazepam, nitrazepam, estazolam, alprazolam was established on both C18 and C8 CEC columns.The influence of separation voltage, Tris concentration, column temperature and the percentage of acetonitrile on the resolution and retention behavior of four benzodiazepines was investigated.The results showed that the percentage of acetonitrile had the largest effect on the resolution and retention behavior of the four benzodiazepines.Other separation conditions had also effects on the resolution and retention behavior, but smaller than the concentration of acetonitrile.Optimum separation conditions were obtained to separate four benzodiazepines on C18 and C8 CEC columns.

  15. Towards a method of rapid extraction of strontium-90 from urine: urine pretreatment and alkali metal removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dietz, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kaminski, M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mertz, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shkrob, I. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-01

    A technical program to support the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention is being developed to provide an analytical method for rapid extraction of Sr-90 from urine, with the intent of assessing the general population’s exposure during an emergency response to a radiological terrorist event. Results are presented on the progress in urine sample preparation and chemical separation steps that provide an accurate and quantitative detection of Sr-90 based upon an automated column separation sequence and a liquid scintillation assay. Batch extractions were used to evaluate the urine pretreatment and the column separation efficiency and loading capacity based upon commercial, extractant-loaded resins. An efficient pretreatment process for decolorizing and removing organics from urine without measurable loss of radiostrontium from the sample was demonstrated. In addition, the Diphonix® resin shows promise for the removal of high concentrations of common strontium interferents in urine as a first separation step for Sr-90 analysis.

  16. A rapid cloning method employing orthogonal end protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakobi, A.J.; Huizinga, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a novel in vitro cloning strategy that combines standard tools in molecular biology with a basic protecting group concept to create a versatile framework for the rapid and seamless assembly of modular DNA building blocks into functional open reading frames. Analogous to chemical

  17. Petrifilm rapid S. aureus Count Plate method for rapid enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in selected foods: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, K M; Lindberg, K G

    2001-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for Staphylococcus aureus in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method, was compared with AOAC Official Method 975.55 (Staphylococcus aureus in Foods). Nine foods-instant nonfat dried milk, dry seasoned vegetable coating, frozen hash browns, frozen cooked chicken patty, frozen ground raw pork, shredded cheddar cheese, fresh green beans, pasta filled with beef and cheese, and egg custard-were analyzed for S. aureus by 13 collaborating laboratories. For each food tested, the collaborators received 8 blind test samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated test sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable for pasta filled with beef and cheese; frozen hash browns; cooked chicken patty; egg custard; frozen ground raw pork; and instant nonfat dried milk. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid S. aureus Count Plate method were similar to those of the standard method.

  18. Dissolved carbon dioxide flotation: an effective way for phase separation in emulsification microextraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei, Saeideh; Saleh, Abolfazl; Ghoulipour, Vanik; Seidi, Shahram

    2015-04-03

    Dissolved carbon dioxide flotation after emulsification microextraction (DCF-EME) technique coupled with gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) was introduced for preconcentration and determination of six organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in seawater samples. DCF-EME method is based on the rapid and simple phase separation of low density organic solvent from the aqueous phase via introducing of a saturated NaHCO3 solution (9.6% w/v) into the acidified sample solution (0.1M of HCl) containing analytes. Thanks to the in situ generation of carbon dioxide (CO2) bobbles intensified by ultrasound radiation, the dispersed extraction solvent was collected to the surface of the aqueous sample and then was narrowed to the capillary part of a special home-made extraction cell for facile retrieving. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection were at the range of 2.6-9.2 ng L(-1) and preconcentration factors were varied between 271 and 307 for different OCPs. The applicability of the developed method was evaluated by the extraction and determination of the target analytes from Caspian seawater samples.

  19. Regional distribution of methionine adenosyltransferase in rat brain as measured by a rapid radiochemical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiemke, C.; Ghraf, R.

    1981-09-01

    The distribution of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) in the CNS of the rat was studied by use of a rapid, sensitive and specific radiochemical method. The S-adenosyl-(methyl-/sup 14/C)L-methionine ((/sup 14/C)SAM) generated by adenosyl transfer from ATP to (methyl-/sup 14/C)L-methionine is quantitated by use of a SAM-consuming transmethylation reaction. Catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT), prepared from rat liver, transfers the methyl-/sup 14/C group of SAM to 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. The /sup 14/C-labelled methylation products, vanillic acid and isovanillic acid, are separated from unreacted methionine by solvent extraction and quantitated by liquid scintillation counting. Compared to other methods of MAT determination, which include separation of generated SAM from methionine by ion-exchange chromatography, the assay described exhibited the same high degree of specificity and sensitivity but proved to be less time consuming. MAT activity was found to be uniformly distributed between various brain regions and the pituitary gland of adult male rats. In the pineal gland the enzyme activity is about tenfold higher.

  20. A Rapid, Safe Drinking Water Supply Production Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-24

    water contaminated with E. coli as a demonstration of electrolytic water pui-ification. For this series of tests, water was collected from Frijoles ...electrolysis unit. The tank which corresponds to raw water intake - (Figure 4-1) was filled with 110 gallons of turbid Frijoles Creek water spiked 28 i~~i...chlorine-hypochlorite. This increased ozone satisfied the ozone demand due to organic material in the Frijoles Creek water more rapidly, which may

  1. A Multifunctional Mn(II) Phosphonate for Rapid Separation of Methyl Orange and Electron-Transfer Photochromism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao-Ying; Yang, Yang; Ai, Jing; Tian, Hong-Rui; Li, Lei-Jiao; Yang, Weiting; Dang, Song; Sun, Zhong-Ming

    2016-08-08

    A Mn(II) phosphonate of the general formula [Mn(H2 L)2 (H2 O)2 (H2 bibp)] adopts a layered motif with protonated H2 bibp(2+) cations embedded in the channels (H4 L=thiophene-2-phosphonic acid; bibp=4,4'-bis(1-imidazolyl)biphenyl). The title compound exhibits excellent adsorptive removal of methyl orange (MO) dye from aqueous solution. Its advantageous features include fast adsorption, high uptake capacity, selective removal, and reusability, which are of great significance for practical application in wastewater treatment. Meanwhile, the compound displays rapid photochromism upon irradiation with visible light at room temperature. Extensive research has demonstrated that such behavior is based on a ligand-to-ligand charge-transfer (LLCT) mechanism. The irradiated sample possesses an ultra-long-lived charge-separated state. Moreover, not only is the compound the first Mn-based photochromic MOF, but it is also one of the very few examples showing LLCT with non-photochromic components. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Nonstandard Analysis Methods for Separations in [0,1]-topological Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA CHUN-HUI; SHI YAN-WEI; Lei Feng-chun

    2012-01-01

    In nonstandard enlargement,the separations are characterized by non-standard analysis methods in [0,1]-topological spaces.Firstly,the monads of fuzzy point in [0,1]-topological spaces are described with remote-neighborhoods in non-standard enlarged model.Then the nonstandard characterizations of separations in [0,1]-topological space are given by the monads.At last,relations of these separations are investigated.

  3. Method and system for producing hydrogen using sodium ion separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N; Klingler, Kerry M; Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M; Frost, Lyman

    2013-05-21

    A method of producing hydrogen from sodium hydroxide and water is disclosed. The method comprises separating sodium from a first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream in a sodium ion separator, feeding the sodium produced in the sodium ion separator to a sodium reactor, reacting the sodium in the sodium reactor with water, and producing a second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream and hydrogen. The method may also comprise reusing the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream by combining the second aqueous sodium hydroxide stream with the first aqueous sodium hydroxide stream. A system of producing hydrogen is also disclosed.

  4. Method and apparatus for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Method for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap, wherein the ferrous scrap is conveyed to a processing device for separating the non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from the remainder of the ferrous scrap. The processing device supplies a beam of water, and the fer

  5. Method and apparatus for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Method for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap, wherein the ferrous scrap is conveyed to a processing device for separating the non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from the remainder of the ferrous scrap. The processing device supplies a beam of water, and the

  6. Decomposition Methods For a Piv Data Analysis with Application to a Boundary Layer Separation Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav URUBA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Separation of the turbulent boundary layer (BL on a flat plate under adverse pressure gradient was studied experimentally using Time-Resolved PIV technique. The results of spatio-temporal analysis of flow-field in the separation zone are presented. For this purpose, the POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and its extension BOD (Bi-Orthogonal Decomposition techniques are applied as well as dynamical approach based on POPs (Principal Oscillation Patterns method. The study contributes to understanding physical mechanisms of a boundary layer separation process. The acquired information could be used to improve strategies of a boundary layer separation control.

  7. Rapid separation and identification of 54 major constituents in Buyang Huanwu decoction by ultra-fast HPLC system coupled with DAD-TOF/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, E-Hu; Qi, Lian-Wen; Peng, Yong-Bo; Cheng, Xiao-Lan; Wu, Qian; Li, Ping; Li, Chang-Yin

    2009-08-01

    Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD), is a well-known traditional Chinese preparation consisting of Radix Astragali, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Rhizoma Ligustici Chuanxiong, Radix paeoniae Rubra, Flos Carthami, Semen Persicae and Lumbricus. An ultra-fast high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled with diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF/MS) has been developed for rapid separation and structural identification of constituents in BYHWD. Using an ultra-fast HPLC system with short columns (4.6 x 50 mm, 1.8 microm), the total analysis time for this complex prescription is less than 30 min. With various fragmentor voltages in TOF/MS, accurate mass measurements (less than 5 ppm error) for molecular ions and characteristic fragment ions could represent reliable identification criteria for these compounds. Fifty-four major constituents from BYHWD sample, including four C-glycosyl quinochalcones, four flavonoid O-glycosides, sixteen isoflavones, six monoterpene glycosides, eight saponins, four organic acids and five amino acids, were identified or tentatively characterized based on their retention times, DAD and TOF/MS data. All the compounds were further assigned in the seven individual crude drugs. In conclusion, the ultra-fast HPLC with DAD-TOF/MS is a highly useful and efficient technique to separate and identify constituents in complex matrices of herbal medicines or preparations.

  8. A simple separation method for downstream biochemical analysis of aquatic microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Cody E; Bochdansky, Alexander B

    2015-04-01

    In order to study the chemical composition of aquatic microbes it is necessary to obtain completely separated fractions of subpopulations. Size separation by filtration is usually unsuccessful because the smaller group of organisms contaminates the larger fractions due to being trapped on filter surfaces of nominally much larger pore sizes. Here we demonstrate that a simple sucrose density separation method allowed us to separate microorganisms of even subtle size differences and to determine their bulk biochemical composition (proteins, polysaccharides+nucleic acids, and lipids). Both autotrophs and heterotrophs (through anaplerotic pathways) were labeled with (14)C-bicarbonate for biochemical fractionation. We provided proof of concept that eukaryotic microbes could be cleanly separated from prokaryotes in cultures and in field samples, enabling detection of differences in their biochemical makeup. We explored methodological issues regarding separation mechanisms, fixation, and pre-concentration via tangential flow filtration of oligotrophic marine waters where abundances of microorganisms are comparably low. By selecting an appropriate centrifugal force, two processes (i.e., isopycnal and rate-zonal separation) can be exploited simultaneously resulting in finely-separated density fractions, which also resulted in size separation. Future applications of this method include exploration of the stoichiometric, biochemical and genetic differences among subpopulations of microbes in a wide variety of aquatic environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of several passive and active methods for turbulent flow separation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. C.; Howard, F. G.; Bushnell, D. M.; Selby, G. V.

    1990-01-01

    Relative performance of several passive and active methods for controlling two-dimensional turbulent separated flow associated with a curved backward-facing ramp were investigated at low speeds. Surface static pressure measurement and oil flow visualization results indicate that submerged vortex generators, vortex generator jets, elongated arches at +-alpha, and large-eddy breakup devices at +-alpha placed near the baseline separation location reduce flow separation and increase pressure recovery. Spanwise cylinders reduce flow separation but decrease pressure recovery downstream. Arches with alpha = 0 deg, Helmholtz resonators, and Viets' fluidic flappers examined so far have no significant effect in reducing separation. Wall cooling computation indicates that separation delay on a partially cooled ramp is nearly the same as on a fully-cooled ramp while minimizing the frictional drag increase associated with the wall cooling process.

  10. Ex vitro composite plants: an inexpensive, rapid method for root biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collier, Ray; Fuchs, Beth; Walter, Nathalie; Kevin Lutke, William; Taylor, Christopher G

    2005-01-01

    .... The novel, rapid and inexpensive ex vitro method for producing composite plants described in this report represents a significant advance over existing composite plant induction protocols, which rely...

  11. A TIME-FREQUENCY BLIND SEPARATION METHOD FOR UNDERDETERMINED SPEECH MIXTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Yao; Li Shuangtian

    2008-01-01

    The proposed Blind Source Separation method (BSS),based on sparse representations,fuses time-frequency analysis and the clustering approach to separate underdetermined speech mixtures in the anechoic case regardless of the number of sources. The method remedies the insufficiency of the Degenerate Unmixing Estimation Technique (DUET) which assumes the number of sources a priori. In the proposed algorithm,the Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) is used to obtain the sparse rep-resentations,a clustering method called Unsupervised Robust C-Prototypes (URCP) which can accurately identify multiple clusters regardless of the number of them is adopted to replace the histo-gram-based technique in DUET,and the binary time-frequency masks are constructed to separate the mixtures. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method results in a substantial increase in the average Signal-to-Interference Ratio (SIR),and maintains good speech quality in the separation results.

  12. Oxidation mechanisms in real food emulsions : Method for separation of mayonnaise by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    1998-01-01

    With the aim of studying partition coefficients of antioxidants and secondary oxidation products in a real food emulsion a method,for the separation of mayonnaise was developed. The method included freezing and a mild precentrifugation step followed by ultracentrifugation at 197,500 x g. The prec......With the aim of studying partition coefficients of antioxidants and secondary oxidation products in a real food emulsion a method,for the separation of mayonnaise was developed. The method included freezing and a mild precentrifugation step followed by ultracentrifugation at 197,500 x g....... The precentrifugation separated most of the oil (96%) from the rest of the mayonnaise. The ultracentrifugation separated the remaining fraction into four phases: a small oil phase constituting 0.25% of the total, a relatively small emulsion phase (approximately 5% w/w), an almost translucent aqueous phase...

  13. Rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in foods using an electrochemical immunosensor based on screen-printed interdigitated microelectrode and immunomagnetic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng; Wang, Ronghui; Li, Yanbin

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens have continuously been a serious food safety issue and there is a growing demand for a rapid and sensitive method to screen the pathogens for on-line or in-field applications. Therefore, an impedimetric immunosensor based on the use of magnetic beads (MBs) for separation and a screen-printed interdigitated microelectrode (SP-IDME) for measurement was studied for the rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in foods. Streptavidin coated MBs were functionalized with corresponding biotinylated antibodies (Ab) to capture the target bacteria. The glucose oxidase (GOx)-Ab conjugates were employed to label the MBs-Ab-cell complexes. The yielded MBs-Ab-cell-Ab-GOx biomass was mixed with the glucose solution to trigger an enzymatic reaction which produced gluconic acid. This increased the ion strength of the solution, thus decreasing the impedance of the solution measured on the SP-IDME. Our results showed that the immunosensor was capable of specifically detecting E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium within the range of 10(2)-10(6) cfu ml(-1) in the pure culture samples. E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef and S. Typhimurium in chicken rinse water were also examined. The limits of detection (LODs) for the two bacteria in foods were 2.05×10(3) cfu g(-1) and 1.04×10(3) cfu ml(-1), respectively. This immunosensor required only a bare electrode to measure the impedance changes, and no surficial modification on the electrode was needed. It was low-cost, reproducible, easy-to-operate, and easy-to-preserve. All these merits demonstrated this immunosensor has great potential for the rapid and on-site detection of pathogenic bacteria in foods.

  14. A sensitive impedance biosensor based on immunomagnetic separation and urease catalysis for rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes using an immobilization-free interdigitated array microelectrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Lin, Jianhan; Gan, Chengqi; Wang, Yuhe; Wang, Dan; Xiong, Yonghua; Lai, Weihua; Li, Yuntao; Wang, Maohua

    2015-12-15

    In this study, we described a novel impedance biosensor combining immunomagnetic separation with urease catalysis for sensitive detection of foodborne bacteria using Listeria monocytogenes as model and an immobilization-free microelectrode as detector. The monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were immobilized on the surface of the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with the diameter of 180 nm by biotin-streptavidin system for specifically and efficiently separating Listeria cells from sample background. The polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) and the urease were modified onto the surface of the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with the diameter of 20 nm and the modified AuNPs were used to react with Listera to form the MNP-MAb-Listeria-PAb-AuNP-urease sandwich complexes. The urease in the complexes could catalyze the hydrolysis of the urea into ammonium carbonate and this led to an increase in the ionic strength of the media, which could be detected by the microelectrode. The magnetic separation efficiencies for L. monocytogenes at the concentrations ranging from 3.0×10(1) to 3.0×10(4) CFU/mL were over 95% for the pure cultures and over 85% for the spiked lettuce samples. The lower detection limit of this biosensor for L. monocytogenes was found to be 300 CFU/mL in both the pure cultures and the spiked lettuce samples. The microelectrode was demonstrated to be reusable for over 50 times with thorough cleaning by deionized water. This biosensor showed its potential to provide a simple, low-cost and sensitive method for rapid screening of foodborne pathogens and could be extended for detection of other biological or chemical targets.

  15. Comparison of rapid colorimetric method with conventional method in the isolation of mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberoi A

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate two methods (colorimetric and conventional for isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A total of 500 clinical specimens were processed by modified Petroff′s method and then inoculated into MB/BacT-240 system bottles and on LJ medium slopes. The specimens included 242 sputum, 95 gastric aspirates, 47 pleural fluids, 45 CSF, 32 urine, 18 pus, 11 bronchoalveolar lavage, 3 tissue, 2 stool, 2 lymphnode specimens, 2 synovial fluid and 1 bronchial wash specimens. The isolation rate was 16.4% by the colorimetric method and 2.2% by the conventional method. The mean detection time was 16 days and 26 days respectively. Among 36 direct smear positive samples, 63.9%(23/36 and 30%(11/36 were positive by colorimetric and conventional methods respectively. Out of 464 direct smear negative samples 12.9%(60/464 and 0.6%(3/464 were positive by colorimetric and conventional methods respectively. Therefore, colorimetric method enables rapid detection leading to early diagnosis and drug susceptibility testing.

  16. Tracking method based on separation and combination of the measurements for radar and IR fusion system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qingchao; Wang Wenfei

    2009-01-01

    A new distributed fusion method of radar/infrared (IR) tracking system based on separation and combination of the measurements is proposed by analyzing the influence of rate measurement. The rate information separated from the radar measurements together with measurements of IR form a pseudo vector of IR, and the corresponding filter is designed. The results indicate that the method not only makes a great improvement to the local tracker's performance, but also improves the global tracking precision efficiently.

  17. Extension of a vortex-lattice method to include the effects of leading-edge separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, D. T.; Maddox, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Vortex-lattice methods have been used successfully to obtain the aerodynamic coefficients of lifting surfaces without leading-edge separation. It is shown how an existing vortex-lattice method can be modified to include the effects of leading-edge separation. The modified version is then used to calculate the aerodynamic loads on a highly swept delta wing. The results are compared with Peckham's (1958) experimental data.

  18. Rapid method for sampling metals for materials identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    Nondamaging process similar to electrochemical machining is useful in obtaining metal samples from places inaccessible to conventional sampling methods or where methods would be hazardous or contaminating to specimens. Process applies to industries where metals or metal alloys play a vital role.

  19. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously-produced chemical routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function, sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffe (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change,...

  20. A Rapid and Improved Method to Generate Recombinant Dengue Virus Vaccine Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Dhanasekaran; Guan, Liming; Meschino, Steven; Fridman, Arthur; Bagchi, Ansu; Pak, Irene; ter Meulen, Jan; Casimiro, Danilo R; Bett, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most important mosquito-borne infections accounting for severe morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently, the tetravalent chimeric live attenuated Dengue vaccine Dengvaxia® was approved for use in several dengue endemic countries. In general, live attenuated vaccines (LAV) are very efficacious and offer long-lasting immunity against virus-induced disease. Rationally designed LAVs can be generated through reverse genetics technology, a method of generating infectious recombinant viruses from full length cDNA contained in bacterial plasmids. In vitro transcribed (IVT) viral RNA from these infectious clones is transfected into susceptible cells to generate recombinant virus. However, the generation of full-length dengue virus cDNA clones can be difficult due to the genetic instability of viral sequences in bacterial plasmids. To circumvent the need for a single plasmid containing a full length cDNA, in vitro ligation of two or three cDNA fragments contained in separate plasmids can be used to generate a full-length dengue viral cDNA template. However, in vitro ligation of multiple fragments often yields low quality template for IVT reactions, resulting in inconsistent low yield RNA. These technical difficulties make recombinant virus recovery less efficient. In this study, we describe a simple, rapid and efficient method of using LONG-PCR to recover recombinant chimeric Yellow fever dengue (CYD) viruses as potential dengue vaccine candidates. Using this method, we were able to efficiently generate several viable recombinant viruses without introducing any artificial mutations into the viral genomes. We believe that the techniques reported here will enable rapid and efficient recovery of recombinant flaviviruses for evaluation as vaccine candidates and, be applicable to the recovery of other RNA viruses.

  1. A water-fat separation imaging method for the brain on low field magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-jun Tian; Si-ping Chen; Tian-fu Wang; Xian-fen Diao; Chong-xun Zheng

    2009-01-01

    Water-fat separation is a particularly important problem for magnetic resonance imaging. Although many methods have been proposed, the reliability is still challenging. In this work, we have presented a method based on the combination of the branch-cut method and multigrid algorithm to get a more robust performance of water-fat separation. First, the branch-cut method is applied to identify residues, which violates the requirement that the interacting phase gradient around a closed path be zero. Residues and branches are marked to be zeros and filled to the weighting factor array. Then, the unwrapped phase array can be given by the multigrid algorithm. Finally, the Dixon method for water-fat separation is applied to the unwrapped phase array. Experiments for brain scanning on the 0.3T low field MRI system demonstrate the successful application of the proposed method.

  2. Source separation of municipal solid waste: The effects of different separation methods and citizens' inclination-case study of Changsha, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haibin; Yang, Yan; Jiang, Wei; Song, Mengjie; Wang, Ying; Xiang, Tiantian

    2017-02-01

    A case study on the source separation of municipal solid waste (MSW) was performed in Changsha, the capital city of Hunan Province, China. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of different separation methods and compare their effects with citizens' attitudes and inclination. An effect evaluation method based on accuracy rate and miscellany rate was proposed to study the performance of different separation methods. A large-scale questionnaire survey was conducted to determine citizens' attitudes and inclination toward source separation. Survey result shows that the vast majority of respondents hold consciously positive attitudes toward participation in source separation. Moreover, the respondents ignore the operability of separation methods and would rather choose the complex separation method involving four or more subclassed categories. For the effects of separation methods, the site experiment result demonstrates that the relatively simple separation method involving two categories (food waste and other waste) achieves the best effect with the highest accuracy rate (83.1%) and the lowest miscellany rate (16.9%) among the proposed experimental alternatives. The outcome reflects the inconsistency between people's environmental awareness and behavior. Such inconsistency and conflict may be attributed to the lack of environmental knowledge. Environmental education is assumed to be a fundamental solution to improve the effect of source separation of MSW in Changsha. Important management tips on source separation, including the reformation of the current pay-as-you-throw (PAYT) system, are presented in this work. A case study on the source separation of municipal solid waste was performed in Changsha. An effect evaluation method based on accuracy rate and miscellany rate was proposed to study the performance of different separation methods. The site experiment result demonstrates that the two-category (food waste and other waste) method achieves the

  3. Proceedings of the XVIIth International Conference on Electromagnetic Isotope Separators and Related Topics (EMIS2015), Grand Rapids, MI, U.S.A., 11-15 May 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Georg; Mittig, Wolfgang; Morrissey, Dave; Schwarz, Stefan; Villari, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    The 17th International Conference on Electromagnetic Isotope Separators and Related Topics (EMIS-2015) was held in Grand Rapids, Michigan, in the United States, from May 11th to 15th, 2015. The EMIS-2015 conference was hosted by Michigan State University. The present volume contains the proceedings of the event.

  4. A rapid cloning method employing orthogonal end protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobi, Arjen J; Huizinga, Eric G

    2012-01-01

    We describe a novel in vitro cloning strategy that combines standard tools in molecular biology with a basic protecting group concept to create a versatile framework for the rapid and seamless assembly of modular DNA building blocks into functional open reading frames. Analogous to chemical synthesis strategies, our assembly design yields idempotent composite synthons amenable to iterative and recursive split-and-pool reaction cycles. As an example, we illustrate the simplicity, versatility and efficiency of the approach by constructing an open reading frame composed of tandem arrays of a human fibronectin type III (FNIII) domain and the von Willebrand Factor A2 domain (VWFA2), as well as chimeric (FNIII)(n)-VWFA2-(FNIII)(n) constructs. Although we primarily designed this strategy to accelerate assembly of repetitive constructs for single-molecule force spectroscopy, we anticipate that this approach is equally applicable to the reconstitution and modification of complex modular sequences including structural and functional analysis of multi-domain proteins, synthetic biology or the modular construction of episomal vectors.

  5. A rapid cloning method employing orthogonal end protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen J Jakobi

    Full Text Available We describe a novel in vitro cloning strategy that combines standard tools in molecular biology with a basic protecting group concept to create a versatile framework for the rapid and seamless assembly of modular DNA building blocks into functional open reading frames. Analogous to chemical synthesis strategies, our assembly design yields idempotent composite synthons amenable to iterative and recursive split-and-pool reaction cycles. As an example, we illustrate the simplicity, versatility and efficiency of the approach by constructing an open reading frame composed of tandem arrays of a human fibronectin type III (FNIII domain and the von Willebrand Factor A2 domain (VWFA2, as well as chimeric (FNIII(n-VWFA2-(FNIII(n constructs. Although we primarily designed this strategy to accelerate assembly of repetitive constructs for single-molecule force spectroscopy, we anticipate that this approach is equally applicable to the reconstitution and modification of complex modular sequences including structural and functional analysis of multi-domain proteins, synthetic biology or the modular construction of episomal vectors.

  6. A Fluorescence-Based Method for Rapid and Direct Determination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimei Shan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method was developed for rapid and direct measurement of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs in aqueous samples using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence spectra of tri- to deca-BDE (BDE 28, 47, 99, 153, 190, and 209 commonly found in environment were measured at variable emission and excitation wavelengths. The results revealed that the PBDEs have distinct fluorescence spectral profiles and peak positions that can be exploited to identify these species and determine their concentrations in aqueous solutions. The detection limits as determined in deionized water spiked with PBDEs are 1.71–5.82 ng/L for BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 190, and BDE 209 and 45.55–69.95 ng/L for BDE 99 and BDE 153. The effects of environmental variables including pH, humic substance, and groundwater chemical composition on PBDEs measurements were also investigated. These environmental variables affected fluorescence intensity, but their effect can be corrected through linear additivity and separation of spectral signal contribution. Compared with conventional GC-based analytical methods, the fluorescence spectroscopy method is more efficient as it only uses a small amount of samples (2–4 mL, avoids lengthy complicated concentration and extraction steps, and has a low detection limit of a few ng/L.

  7. Rapid method of determining factors limiting bacterial growth in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Aldén Demoling, Louise; Demoling, Fredrik; Bååth, Erland

    2001-01-01

    A technique to determine which nutrients limit bacterial growth in soil was developed. The method was based on measuring the thymidine incorporation rate of bacteria after the addition of C, N, and P in different combinations to soil samples. First, the thymidine incorporation method was tested in two different soils: an agricultural soil and a forest humus soil. Carbon (as glucose) was found to be the limiting substance for bacterial growth in both of these soils. The effect of adding differ...

  8. Rapid method to determine proximate analysis and pyritic sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.W.; Hyman, M.

    1985-05-01

    The use of thermomagnetogravimetry has been proposed as an alternative to the ASTM methods for measuring the pyritic sulphur content of coal and for proximate analysis. This paper presents a comparison of the results of thermogravimetry for proximate analysis and thermomagnetometry for pyritic sulphur with ASTM values on the same samples. The thermomagnetogravimetric technique is quicker and easier than the ASTM methods, and of comparable accuracy.

  9. A Novel Method for Separating and Locating Multiple Partial Discharge Sources in a Substation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Zhou, Wenjun; Yang, Shuai; Liu, Yushun; Tian, Yan; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-27

    To separate and locate multi-partial discharge (PD) sources in a substation, the use of spectrum differences of ultra-high frequency signals radiated from various sources as characteristic parameters has been previously reported. However, the separation success rate was poor when signal-to-noise ratio was low, and the localization result was a coordinate on two-dimensional plane. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to improve the separation rate and the localization accuracy. A directional measuring platform is built using two directional antennas. The time delay (TD) of the signals captured by the antennas is calculated, and TD sequences are obtained by rotating the platform at different angles. The sequences are separated with the TD distribution feature, and the directions of the multi-PD sources are calculated. The PD sources are located by directions using the error probability method. To verify the method, a simulated model with three PD sources was established by XFdtd. Simulation results show that the separation rate is increased from 71% to 95% compared with the previous method, and an accurate three-dimensional localization result was obtained. A field test with two PD sources was carried out, and the sources were separated and located accurately by the proposed method.

  10. Rapid quantitative method for the detection of phenylalanine and tyrosine in human plasma using pillar array columns and gradient elution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanting; Takatsuki, Katsuya; Sekiguchi, Tetsushi; Funatsu, Takashi; Shoji, Shuichi; Tsunoda, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    This study reports a fast and quantitative determination method for phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr) in human plasma using on-chip pressure-driven liquid chromatography. A pillar array column with low-dispersion turns and a gradient elution system was used. The separation of fluorescent derivatives of Phe, Tyr, and other hydrophobic amino acids was successfully performed within 140 s. Under the optimized conditions, Phe and Tyr in human plasma were quantified. The developed method is promising for rapid diagnosis in the clinical field.

  11. 咸鸭蛋清抗生物素蛋白的分离纯化及快速测定方法的建立%The Separation and a Rapid Concentration Detection Method of Avidin From Salted Duck Eggs White

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯朝波; 王炜军

    2011-01-01

    采用2-亚氨基生物素琼脂糖凝胶4B从酸热变性后咸鸭蛋清中亲和分离了抗生物素蛋白,并利用生物素化的过氧化物酶偶联起显色反应,建立了一种简便的抗生物素蛋白含量测定新方法.进而对咸鸭蛋清抗生物素蛋白进行了普查。实验结果表明:咸鸭蛋清抗生物索蛋白回收率达60.1%±5.0%,纯化倍数为222.5,纯化蛋白经SDS—PAGE电泳均显示单一蛋白染色带,其对应的分子量约为67.8K,咸鸭蛋清抗生物素蛋白质量分数约为0.05%,是抗生物索蛋白潜在的资源,本研究为咸鸭蛋清的回收利用打下了基础。%Avidin was purified by 2 -imminobiotin -agarose affinity gel chromatography from salted duck eggs white (SDEW). A measuring method of avidin in SDEW was established by using biotinylated peroxidase to couple its coloring reaction. Then the content of avidin in SDEW was determined. Experimental results showed that avidin was purified to give single protein staining band in SDS - PAGE with 60. 1% recovery and 222. 5 purification folds by 2 - imminobiotin - agarose affinity gel chromatography from salted duck eggs white. The subunit molecular weights of the avidin was 67.8KD. The content of protein in SDEW was determined to be 0.05%. Thus, SDEW was an excellent alternative resource for preparation of avidin. This study laid a foundation for the utilization of the salted duck eggs white waste in future.

  12. [Methods for the rapid preparation of paraffin blocks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmurun, R I

    1992-01-01

    Two accelerated chloroform-paraffin processings of materials with the use of ultrasound (US) and microwave (MW) irradiation in the stove "Electronica" as well as a combined method with US- and MW-irradiation are proposed to shorten drastically the duration of the prehistologic processing.

  13. Rapid prototyping methods for the manufacture of fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The potential for the application of this method for the manufacture of metallic bipolar plates (BPP for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs is presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to the fabrication of light elements for the construction of PEMFC stacks designed for mobile applications such as aviation technology and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs.

  14. A simple and rapid nucleic acid preparation method for reverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-03-29

    Mar 29, 2010 ... detergent (0.5% Triton XL-80 N) buffers, vortexed for 3 min and then 2.5 µl of this aliquots was used in. RT-PCR. ... 2003). However, successful application of these methods .... used non-ionic detergents, and have involved a multitude .... potato S carlavirus (PVS) revealed by analysis of RT-PCR-amplified.

  15. Theory and Experimental Research of Rapid Separation Process by Explosion Ignition%爆炸点火快速分离过程的理论与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬龙; 黄正祥; 顾晓辉; 郑应民

    2012-01-01

    为了使前级分离体达到快速分离和快速增速的目的,以满足工程应用的要求,设计了一种快速分离装置.利用爆炸点火方式点燃发射药,实现前级分离体的快速分离、发射,并应用密闭爆发器原理和内弹道理论,建立爆炸点火方式下快速分离、发射的理论模型.结合四阶龙格库塔法,对上述理论进行数值计算,得到了爆炸点火分离过程各物理参数的规律,并通过静态台架实验进行验证.结果表明,分离时间达到μm级,分离速度达到200m/s,理论计算与实验结果吻合较好.%In order to make the pre-stage separate&body separate rapidly and accelerate rapidly,and meet the requirements of engineering application, a kind of fast separation device was designed. Explosion ignition method was designed to realize rapid separation of the pre-stage separated-body. Based on the outbreak of airtight device principle and interior ballistic theory,a theoretical calculation model of rapid separation by explosion ignition was established. Combined with four-order Runge-Kutta method, the law of each physical parameter of the blast ignition separation process was obtained by numerical simulation, and it was verfied by the static bench experiment. The experimental results indicate that the separation time reaches microsecond level,and the separation speed reaches 200 m/s. The experimental results are coincident with the theory results.

  16. Structure overset grid method and its applications to simulation of multi-body separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, HaiRui; Fan, JingJing; Yuan, Wu; Zhang, WeiHua

    2015-09-01

    This paper proposes an automatic structure overset grid method, which utilizes the hole-surface optimization with one-step searching, wall-surface grid oversetting, and dynamic overset grid approaches to achieve the high adaptability of overset grids for complex multi-body aircrafts. Specifically, based on the automatic structure overset grids, the method first solves the coupling of Navier-Stokes (N-S) unsteady flow equation and 6DOF motion equation, and establishes the multi-body collision model. Then, the numerical simulation of unsteady flow for complex aircrafts' multi-body separation, the simulation of multi-body separating trajectory and the separation safety analysis are accomplished. Thus, the method can properly handle practical engineering problems including the wing/drop tank separation, aircraft/mount separation, and cluster bomb projection. Experiments show that our numerical results match well with experimental results, which demonstrates the effectiveness of our methods in solving the multi-body separation problem for aircrafts with complex shapes.

  17. The Most Probable Limit of Detection (MPL) for rapid microbiological methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, G.P.H.T.; Willemse, M.J.; Hoefs, S.G.G.; Cremers, G.; Heuvel, E.R. van den

    Classical microbiological methods have nowadays unacceptably long cycle times. Rapid methods, available on the market for decades, are already applied within the clinical and food industry, but the implementation in pharmaceutical industry is hampered by for instance stringent regulations on

  18. Rapid method for culturing embryonic neuron-glial cell cocultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Åsa Fex; Shan, Wei-Song; Colman, David R;

    2003-01-01

    A streamlined, simple technique for primary cell culture from E17 rat tissue is presented. In an attempt to standardize culturing methods for all neuronal cell types in the embryo, we evaluated a commercial medium without serum and used similar times for trypsinization and tested different surfaces...... for plating. In 1 day, using one method and a single medium, it is possible to produce robust E17 cultures of dorsal root ganglia (DRG), cerebellum, and enteric plexi. Allowing the endogenous glial cells to repopulate the cultures saves time compared with existing techniques, in which glial cells are added...... to cultures first treated with antimitotic agents. It also ensures that all the cells present in vivo will be present in the culture. Myelination commences after approximately 2 weeks in culture for dissociated DRG and 3-4 weeks in cerebellar cultures. In enteric cultures, glial wrapping of the enteric...

  19. Time evolution of the wave equation using rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.

    2010-07-01

    Forward modeling of seismic data and reverse time migration are based on the time evolution of wavefields. For the case of spatially varying velocity, we have worked on two approaches to evaluate the time evolution of seismic wavefields. An exact solution for the constant-velocity acoustic wave equation can be used to simulate the pressure response at any time. For a spatially varying velocity, a one-step method can be developed where no intermediate time responses are required. Using this approach, we have solved for the pressure response at intermediate times and have developed a recursive solution. The solution has a very high degree of accuracy and can be reduced to various finite-difference time-derivative methods, depending on the approximations used. Although the two approaches are closely related, each has advantages, depending on the problem being solved. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  20. Improved Training Method for Rapid Rehabilitation of Amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    transtibial or transfemoral amputation at the Naval Medical Center San Diego. The training was a secondary rehabilitation program, implemented after...indicate that task-specific training is an effective rehabilitation method to reduce falls in warfighters with lower limb amputations . 15. SUBJECT...are at risk for diminished quality of life. The goal of this research effort was to rehabilitate warfighters with a lower extremity amputation to

  1. Rapid Mapping Method Based on Free Blocks of Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianwen; Wang, Huiqing; Wang, Jinling

    2016-06-01

    While producing large-scale larger than 1:2000 maps in cities or towns, the obstruction from buildings leads to difficult and heavy tasks of measuring mapping control points. In order to avoid measuring the mapping control points and shorten the time of fieldwork, in this paper, a quick mapping method is proposed. This method adjusts many free blocks of surveys together, and transforms the points from all free blocks of surveys into the same coordinate system. The entire surveying area is divided into many free blocks, and connection points are set on the boundaries between free blocks. An independent coordinate system of every free block is established via completely free station technology, and the coordinates of the connection points, detail points and control points in every free block in the corresponding independent coordinate systems are obtained based on poly-directional open traverses. Error equations are established based on connection points, which are determined together to obtain the transformation parameters. All points are transformed from the independent coordinate systems to a transitional coordinate system via the transformation parameters. Several control points are then measured by GPS in a geodetic coordinate system. All the points can then be transformed from the transitional coordinate system to the geodetic coordinate system. In this paper, the implementation process and mathematical formulas of the new method are presented in detail, and the formula to estimate the precision of surveys is given. An example has demonstrated that the precision of using the new method could meet large-scale mapping needs.

  2. Polysulfide transport through separators measured by a linear voltage sweep method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yi; Fu, Yongzhu

    2015-07-01

    Shuttle of polysulfide from the sulfur cathode to lithium metal anode in rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries is a critical issue hindering cycling efficiency and life. Several approaches have been developed to minimize it including polysulfide-blocking separators; there is a need for measuring polysulfide transport through separators. We here show a linear voltage sweep method to measure anodic (oxidization) current of polysulfide crossed separators, which can be used as a quantitative measurement of the polysulfide transport. The electrochemical oxidation of polysulfide is diffusion controlled. The electrical charge in Coulombs produced by the oxidation of polysulfide is linearly related to the concentration of polysulfide within a certain range (≤0.5 M). Separators with a high porosity (large pore size) show high anodic currents, resulting in fast capacity degradation and low Coulombic efficiencies in Li-S cells. These results demonstrate this method can be used to correlate the polysulfide transport through separators with the separator structure and battery performance, therefore provide guidance for developing new separators for lithium-sulfur batteries.

  3. Separation of glucose and bioethanol in biomass with current methods and sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2013-09-01

    Glucose is primarily derived from plant metabolism; it is the primary source of energy for cellular respiration in living organisms. Bioethanol, which is used as fuel, can be obtained from the fermentation of biomass. This article summarizes the current methods of separating glucose and bioethanol. Glucose is generally analyzed by liquid chromatography using a range of sorbents. In the fermentation broth of glucose, the primary produced compound, ethanol, is dissolved in water. Nevertheless, ethanol should be separated to obtain high purity. Distillation is a widely used method and ionic liquids are added to ethanol-water systems to increase separation efficiency. This review discusses the application of new materials (based on silica and membrane) in the separation of ethanol from ethanol-water systems.

  4. A method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1997-12-01

    The present invention relates to a method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction. In particular, the method includes extracting the organic species into a polymer-rich phase of an aqueous biphase system in which the process stream comprises the salt-rich phase, and, next, separating the polymer from the extracted organic species by contacting the loaded, polymer-rich phase with a water-immiscible organic phase. Alternatively, the polymer can be separated from the extracted organic species by raising the temperature of the loaded, polymer-rich phase above the cloud point, such that the polymer and the water-soluble organic species separate into two distinct aqueous phases. In either case, a substantially salt-free, concentrated aqueous solution containing the organic species is recovered.

  5. A dry-surface coating method for visualization of separation. [bluff bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, W. Z.; Brauer, H. J.; Durgin, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    A relatively simple and reasonably accurate dry-surface coating method for visualization of the separation line on a bluff body was devised and successfully tested. This technique is based on the color reaction of a dry film containing a pH indicator with an appropriate gas released in the body wake. The dry-surface coating method is effective at any Reynolds number and for both incident laminar and turbulent flows. It further supplies a colorful permanent of consistently good photographic quality of the separation line. The effectiveness and accuracy of this technique were tested in visualizing the separation angle on a circular cylinder in both laminar and turbulent crossflows at subcritical Reynolds numbers. Separation angles revealed by the visualization were within + or - 4 percent of their counterparts deduced from the mean wall pressure distribution.

  6. [Comparative characteristics of 2 methods of separating mouse T- and B-lymphocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudin, V M; Fedorovskaia, M I

    1975-10-01

    The results of separation of T- and B-cells of the C3H/Sn and AKR/j micr lymph nodes with AKR-anti-theta3H and C3H-thetaAKR isosera and cellular immunosorbents containing the antigen-antibody complexes were analyzed in this work. The strain differences in the theta+-cells (T-lymphocytes) level were demonstrated in the untreated mice of the noted strains. Populations enriched by B-lymphocytes under different methods of separation differed somewhat in composition. The cellular immunosorption had many advantages in comparison with the cytotoxic-immune sera used for the T- and B-cell separation.

  7. A Nonlinear Blind Source Separation Method Based On Radial Basis Function and Quantum Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Pidong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Blind source separation is a hot topic in signal processing. Most existing works focus on dealing with linear combined signals, while in practice we always encounter with nonlinear mixed signals. To address the problem of nonlinear source separation, in this paper we propose a novel algorithm using radial basis function neutral network, optimized by multi-universe parallel quantum genetic algorithm. Experiments show the efficiency of the proposed method.

  8. A Novel Method for Modification of SMPU by Micro-phase Separation Promoters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A novel method of controlling the shape memory properties of shape memory polyurethane (SMPU) by addition of micro-phase separation promoters including 1-octadecanol (ODO) and liquid paraffin (LP) is reported. The results indicate that the strain recovery temperature and the strain modulus rate (Eg/Er) were increased significantly with addition of small amount of micro-phase separation promoters. Thus it can increase the shape memory fixity rate and other shape memory behaviors of SMPU.

  9. A method to separate process contributions in impedance spectra by variation of test conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Hauch, Anne; Hendriksen, Peter Vang;

    2007-01-01

    Many processes contribute to the overall impedance of an electrochemical cell, and these may be difficult to separate in the impedance spectrum. Here, we present an investigation of a solid oxide fuel cell based on differences in impedance spectra due to a change of operating parameters and present...... the result as the derivative of the impedance with respect to ln(f). The method is used to separate the anode and cathode contributions and to identify various types of processes....

  10. Systems and methods for rapid processing and storage of data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalzer, Mark A.

    2017-01-24

    Systems and methods of building massively parallel computing systems using low power computing complexes in accordance with embodiments of the invention are disclosed. A massively parallel computing system in accordance with one embodiment of the invention includes at least one Solid State Blade configured to communicate via a high performance network fabric. In addition, each Solid State Blade includes a processor configured to communicate with a plurality of low power computing complexes interconnected by a router, and each low power computing complex includes at least one general processing core, an accelerator, an I/O interface, and cache memory and is configured to communicate with non-volatile solid state memory.

  11. Systems and methods for rapid processing and storage of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalzer, Mark A.

    2017-01-24

    Systems and methods of building massively parallel computing systems using low power computing complexes in accordance with embodiments of the invention are disclosed. A massively parallel computing system in accordance with one embodiment of the invention includes at least one Solid State Blade configured to communicate via a high performance network fabric. In addition, each Solid State Blade includes a processor configured to communicate with a plurality of low power computing complexes interconnected by a router, and each low power computing complex includes at least one general processing core, an accelerator, an I/O interface, and cache memory and is configured to communicate with non-volatile solid state memory.

  12. Oxidation mechanisms in real food emulsions : Method for separation of mayonnaise by ultracentrifugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    1998-01-01

    With the aim of studying partition coefficients of antioxidants and secondary oxidation products in a real food emulsion a method,for the separation of mayonnaise was developed. The method included freezing and a mild precentrifugation step followed by ultracentrifugation at 197,500 x g...... that constituted the largest fraction (88%, w/w), and lastly a precipitate (6%, w/w). The objective of the present investigation was to test the efficiency of the method to separate a hydrophobic compound, the methyl ester of C23:0, and a hydrophilic compound, NaCl. The oil soluble compound (C23:0) was almost...... completely recovered (96%) in the oil phase after the preseparation step, whereas the water soluble compound (NaCl) was almost completely recovered (86%) in the aqueous Chase obtained after ultracentrifugation. This investigation thus demonstrated that the separation method may be useful in studies...

  13. A simple immunoblotting method after separation of proteins in agarose gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, C; Skjødt, K; Laursen, I

    1985-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method for immunoblotting of proteins after separation in agarose gels is described. It involves transfer of proteins onto nitrocellulose paper simply by diffusion through pressure, a transfer which only takes about 10 min. By this method we have demonstrated the existence...... of multiple molecular forms of the complement factors C3 and factor B in serum from 2 species, man and chicken, after electrophoretic separation in agarose. We have also demonstrated the usefulness of the method for determining the isoelectric point of proteins after isoelectric focusing in agarose....

  14. Rapid methods to extract DNA and RNA from Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolano, A; Stinchi, S; Preziosi, R; Bistoni, F; Allegrucci, M; Baldelli, F; Martini, A; Cardinali, G

    2001-12-01

    Extraction of nucleic acids from the pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is normally hampered by a thick and resistant capsule, accounting for at least 70% of the whole cellular volume. This paper presents procedures based on mechanical cell breakage to extract DNA and RNA from C. neoformans and other capsulated species. The proposed system for DNA extraction involves capsule relaxation by means of a short urea treatment and bead beating. These two steps allow a consistent extraction even from strains resistant to other procedures. Yield and quality of DNA obtained with the proposed method were higher than those obtained with two earlier described methods. This protocol can be extended to every yeast species and particularly to those difficult to handle for the presence of a capsule. RNA purification is accomplished using an original lysing matrix and the FastPrep System (Bio101) after a preliminary bead beating treatment. Yields range around 1 mg RNA from 15 ml overnight culture (10(9) cells), RNA appears undegraded, making it suitable for molecular manipulations.

  15. Development of a Rapid Assessment Method for Quantifying Carbon Sequestration on Reclaimed Coal Mine Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, S.; Barton, C. D.; Karathanasis, A. D.

    2005-12-01

    Projected climate change resulting from elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide has given rise to various strategies designed to sequester carbon in various terrestrial ecosystems. Reclaimed coal mine soils present one such potential carbon sink where traditional reclamation objectives can complement carbon sequestration. However, quantifying new carbon (carbon that has been added to soil through recent biological processes) on reclaimed mine soils have proven to be difficult due to carbonates and coal particles present in the reclaimed coal mine spoils. Visible coal particles can be removed, but the microscopic coal dust particles remain. Additionally, with the advent of carbon trading on the stock market, rapid quantification of newly sequestered carbon has proven to be elusive. The focus of this project is to assess the potential of thermogravimetric analysis as a rapid, simple and direct method for differentiating and quantifying new carbon from old carbon (carbon of geologic origin) on reclaimed coal mine sites and provide a standard procedure for determining carbon sequestered in soil sinks. Thermogravimetry is a physico-chemical technique where the weight change is measured and recorded during the incremental heating of the soil sample over a temperature range of 25 to 1000 ° C. Grass litter and limestone were used as representative organic and inorganic carbon fractions, while coal was used to differentiate the old and new carbon within the organic fraction. Recoveries of mixtures at the 95 % confidence interval were found to be 94.49 ± 4.23 % (coal) , 93.67 ± 2.11 % (litter) , and 108.88 ± 2.88 % (limestone) respectively. Each of the above components appeared as distinct separate peaks on the thermograph, with litter appearing between 260 to 390 ° C, coal 425 to 480 ° C, and limestone 640 to 740 ° C. Overlapping peaks for the organic carbon represented by the grass litter may be indicative of cellulose and lignin fractions. Ongoing work in this area is

  16. Evaluation of Methods used for Separation of Vibrations Produced by Gear Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dočekal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates methods used for separating vibrations produced by a gear transmission from the vibration signal acquired on the gearbox. The paper presents a novel method for evaluating the algorithms used for this separation. The evaluation method takes into account the statistical reliability of the results achieved on multiple sets of signals acquired on the same machine and conditions. The signal separation was applied in order to process data obtained during an experiment carried out with the aim of analyzing the influence of a torque load affecting a gearbox on the vibrations produced by the gear transmission. It is supposed that the vibration characteristics of the gear transmission are strongly affected by the value of the torque load influencing the gearbox shafts. This influence is analyzed using the vibration signal acquired on the gearbox housing. The vibration signal contains significant disturbances, and its interpretation is unclear. The vibration signal generated by the gear transmission can be separated using methods that make it possible to select the valid features included in the signal. Methods for feature selection which implement a systematic search in the state space and methods based on the genetic algorithm were applied. The genetic algorithm poses a robust stochastic global search in the state space that is well suited to deal with nonlinear problems and also shortens the necessary computing time. The evaluation and comparison of the results achieved during the separation process using different methods have to be taken into account. In the case of signal separation, it is important to evaluate differences between the results achieved during particular executions of the separation process performed by the same method on different datasets which were acquired in the case of the same experiment and conditions. Methods with results that vary, or that are different from the results given by other methods, are assumed

  17. A method for blind separation of components information from mixed pixel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Wenjie; XU Xiru

    2006-01-01

    In the field of remote sensing, it is important to separate the component information from mixed pixel. If the physical process of remote sensing can be expressed by a set of linear equations, the remote sensing information matrix is equal to the weight matrix multiplied by the component information matrix. Generally speaking, the precondition of retrieval of component information matrix is that the weight matrix is known. However, the blind signal separation (BSS) method can separate the matrix unconditionally, whose basic principle is that the additive information needing separation can be achieved from the statistical characteristics contained in a mass of samples in the remotely sensed information matrix. Therefore, the values of the component information matrix and the weight matrix can be estimated. The wave shape of components can be retrieved by BSS, but the amplitude cannot. In this paper, the plant-soil mixed pixels were chosen as the studying targets in this paper to quantitatively separate the component information and solve the uncertainty of BSS.Simulation and field test verify the reliability of the method. Results show that the BSS can be one of the effective methods of mixed pixel separation, and the foreground of application is very promising.

  18. Numerical study and control method of interaction of nucleation and boundary layer separation in condensing flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liansuo AN; Zhi WANG; Zhonghe HAN

    2009-01-01

    The spontaneous nucleation flow in turbine cascade was numerically studied. The model was imple-mented within a full Navier-Stokes viscous flow solution procedure and the process of condensation was calculated by the quadrature method of moments that shows good accuracy with very broad size distributions.Results were presented for viscous and inviscous flow,showing the influence of boundary layer separation and wake vortices on spontaneous nucleation. The results show that the degree of flow separation in wet steam flow is greater than that in superheated steam flow due to condensation shock and that the loss cannot be neglected.Furthermore, the impact of boundary layer separation and wake vortices on velocity profiles and its implications for profile loss were considered. The calculations showed that layer separation and wake vortices influence nucleation rate, leading to different droplet distributions. A method for controlling homogeneous nucleation and for reducing degree of flow separation in high-speed transonic wet steam flow was presented. The liquid phase parameter distribution is sensitive to the suction side profile of turbine cascade, which impacts the nucleation rate distribution leading to different droplet distributions and affects the degree of flow separation. The numerical study provides a practical design method for turbine blade to reduce wetness losses.

  19. Development of Advanced Nuclide Separation and Recovery Methods using Ion-Exchanhge Techniques in Nuclear Backend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hitoshi

    The development of compact separation and recovery methods using selective ion-exchange techniques is very important for the reprocessing and high-level liquid wastes (HLLWs) treatment in the nuclear backend field. The selective nuclide separation techniques are effective for the volume reduction of wastes and the utilization of valuable nuclides, and expected for the construction of advanced nuclear fuel cycle system and the rationalization of waste treatment. In order to accomplish the selective nuclide separation, the design and synthesis of novel adsorbents are essential for the development of compact and precise separation processes. The present paper deals with the preparation of highly functional and selective hybrid microcapsules enclosing nano-adsorbents in the alginate gel polymer matrices by sol-gel methods, their characterization and the clarification of selective adsorption properties by batch and column methods. The selective separation of Cs, Pd and Re in real HLLW was further accomplished by using novel microcapsules, and an advanced nuclide separation system was proposed by the combination of selective processes using microcapsules.

  20. Water-compatible magnetic imprinted microspheres for rapid separation and determination of triazine herbicides in environmental water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Fengxia; Row, Kyung Ho; Wang, Mengge

    2014-04-15

    A novel kind of water-compatible magnetic imprinted cyromazine microsphere (WCMM) was synthesized by water/oil/water suspension polymerization. The obtained WCMM was homogenously spherical with porous morphology and strong magnetic properties. The microspheres were successfully used as adsorbent in dispersive solid-phase extraction (WCMM-dSPE) to selectively extract cyanazine and atrazine from environmental water. Good linearity of the two analytes was observed in the range from 2.5 to 200.0ngmL(-1). The average recoveries at three spiking levels ranged from 84.8% to 104.3% with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 6.9%. Compared with magnetic non-imprinted particles (WCMN), the proposed WCMM adsorbent of dSPE efficiently improved the efficiency of extracting cyanazine and atrazine from environmental water samples and eliminated the effect of cyromazine leakage on the quantitative analysis of cyanazine and atrazine. The proposed WCMM-dSPE method combined the advantages of magnetic separation, molecular imprinted microspheres and dSPE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The quasi-vortex-lattice method for wings with edge vortex separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, J. L.; Lan, E.

    1980-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of wings with leading-edge vortex separation were predicted using a method based on a flow model with free vortex elements which are allowed to merge into a concentrated core. The calculated pressure distribution is more accurate than that predicted by methods with discrete vortex filaments alone. In addition, the computer time is reduced approximately by half.

  2. Flotation of Mineral and Dyes: A Laboratory Experiment for Separation Method Molecular Hitchhikers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappon, Tim; Sylvestre, Jarrett A.; Rappon, Manit

    2016-01-01

    Flotation as a method of separation is widely researched and is applied in many industries. It has been used to address a wide range of environmental issues including treatment of wastewater, recovery of heavy metals for recycling, extraction of minerals in mining, and so forth. This laboratory attempts to show how such a simple method can be used…

  3. Microemulsion liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous separation and determination of six flavonoids of Apocynum venetum leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rui juan; Zhou, Jun

    2015-07-15

    A simple, cost-effective, and efficient method was developed for the rapid simultaneous separation and determination of six flavonoids (rutin, hyperoside, quercetin-3-O-sophoroside, isoquercitrin, astragalin and quercetin) of Apocynum venetum leaf extract by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography using a microemulsion system mixture as the mobile phase. Separations were performed on the Zorbax Extend-C18 column with UV detection at 360nm. The flow rate was 0.8mLmin(-1). The optimized microemulsion mobile phase consisted of 2.5% (v/v) n-butanol, 1.2% (v/v) of Genapol X-080, 0.5% (v/v) ethyl acetate and 95.8% (w/v) of aqueous 20mM phosphoric acid, pH adjusted to 6.0 with 0.3% triethylamine. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve for six flavonoids was linear in the range of 5-1000μgmL(-1) with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.9994. The intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD) were below 8.11% and the limits of detection (LOD) for the six flavonoids were 1.7-6.0μgmL(-1) (S/N=3). The microemulsion liquid chromatography (MELC) method was successfully applied to separate and determine the six flavonoids of A. venetum leaf extract.

  4. Rapid and simple method of qPCR primer design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Brenda; Basu, Chhandak

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a powerful tool for analysis and quantification of gene expression. It is advantageous compared to traditional gel-based method of PCR, as gene expression can be visualized "real-time" using a computer. In qPCR, a reporter dye system is used which intercalates with DNA's region of interest and detects DNA amplification. Some of the popular reporter systems used in qPCR are the following: Molecular Beacon(®), SYBR Green(®), and Taqman(®). However, success of qPCR depends on the optimal primers used. Some of the considerations for primer design are the following: GC content, primer self-dimer, or secondary structure formation. Freely available software could be used for ideal qPCR primer design. Here we have shown how to use some freely available web-based software programs (such as Primerquest(®), Unafold(®), and Beacon designer(®)) to design qPCR primers.

  5. Rapid and Specific Enrichment of Culturable Gram Negative Bacteria Using Non-Lethal Copper-Free Click Chemistry Coupled with Magnetic Beads Separation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Fugier

    Full Text Available Currently, identification of pathogenic bacteria present at very low concentration requires a preliminary culture-based enrichment step. Many research efforts focus on the possibility to shorten this pre-enrichment step which is needed to reach the minimal number of cells that allows efficient identification. Rapid microbiological controls are a real public health issue and are required in food processing, water quality assessment or clinical pathology. Thus, the development of new methods for faster detection and isolation of pathogenic culturable bacteria is necessary. Here we describe a specific enrichment technique for culturable Gram negative bacteria, based on non-lethal click chemistry and the use of magnetic beads that allows fast detection and isolation. The assimilation and incorporation of an analog of Kdo, an essential component of lipopolysaccharides, possessing a bio-orthogonal azido function (Kdo-N3, allow functionalization of almost all Gram negative bacteria at the membrane level. Detection can be realized through strain-promoted azide-cyclooctyne cycloaddition, an example of click chemistry, which interestingly does not affect bacterial growth. Using E. coli as an example of Gram negative bacterium, we demonstrate the excellent specificity of the technique to detect culturable E. coli among bacterial mixtures also containing either dead E. coli, or live B. subtilis (as a model of microorganism not containing Kdo. Finally, in order to specifically isolate and concentrate culturable E. coli cells, we performed separation using magnetic beads in combination with click chemistry. This work highlights the efficiency of our technique to rapidly enrich and concentrate culturable Gram negative bacteria among other microorganisms that do not possess Kdo within their cell envelope.

  6. Rapid microbiochemical method for presumptive identification of gastroenteritis-associated members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, D C; Thompson, J S; Prytula, A

    1985-06-01

    A method for rapid screening of isolates of pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is described. Flow charts are used in conjunction with triple sugar iron agar, o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside-phenylalanine-motility sulfate screening media, oxidase test, and six rapid biochemical tests, namely, lysine decarboxylase, urease, indole, esculin hydrolysis, malonate, and xylose. This scheme is used to provide an inexpensive but rapid presumptive identification of Salmonella, Shigella, Edwardsiella, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, Vibrio, and Yersinia isolates from stool cultures.

  7. Rapid microbiochemical method for presumptive identification of gastroenteritis-associated members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, D C; Thompson, J. S.; Prytula, A

    1985-01-01

    A method for rapid screening of isolates of pathogenic members of the family Enterobacteriaceae is described. Flow charts are used in conjunction with triple sugar iron agar, o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside-phenylalanine-motility sulfate screening media, oxidase test, and six rapid biochemical tests, namely, lysine decarboxylase, urease, indole, esculin hydrolysis, malonate, and xylose. This scheme is used to provide an inexpensive but rapid presumptive identification of Salmonella, Sh...

  8. A New Algorithm of Roundness Error Separation Technique of Three-point Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Xian-qing; LI Ji-shun; XUE Yu-jun; MA Wei; CUI Feng-kui; HU Dong-fang

    2008-01-01

    Through the analysis of roundness error separation technique of three-point method and based on the invariability and periodicity of the geometrical characteristic of measured round contour, a new matrix algorithm, which can be used to solve directly the roundness of the measured round contour without Fourier transform, is presented. On the basis of the research and analysis of the rotation error movement which is separated by using the three-point method, a mathematical equation is derived, which can be used to separate the eccentric motion of least square center of measured round contour and the pure rotation motion error of spindle in rotation motion. The correctness of this method is validated by means of simulation.

  9. An Evaluation of Two Hydrograph Separation Methods of Potential Use in Regional Water Quality Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, D.D.

    1999-01-01

    Streamflow data are more useful for evaluating hydrologic model results and studying water quality once baseflow and storm runoff have been separated. However, it is important to select an appropriate hydrograph separation method. They examined tow methods and evaluated their conceptual basis, ease of application, cost of data processing, and acceptability of results. they chose the quick flow hydrograph separation method, which is in use at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, because it gives acceptable results and is easy and inexpensive to use. For regional assessment, they anticipate that the Coweeta program will be useful as an aid in developing general quantitative relationships between changes in land use and the associated changes in surface runoff yield and water quality degradation.

  10. Fully automated objective-based method for master recession curve separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavec, Kristijan; Parlov, Jelena; Nakić, Zoran

    2010-01-01

    The fully automated objective-based method for master recession curve (MRC) separation was developed by using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) code. The core of the program code is used to construct an MRC by using the adapted matching strip method (Posavec et al. 2006). Criteria for separating the MRC into two or three segments are determined from the flow-duration curve and are represented as the probable range of percent of flow rate duration. Successive separations are performed automatically on two and three MRCs using sets of percent of flow rate duration from selected ranges and an optimal separation model scenario, having the highest average coefficient of determination R(2), is selected as the most appropriate one. The resulting separated master recession curves are presented graphically, whereas the statistics are presented numerically, all in separate sheets. Examples of field data obtained from two springs in Istria, Croatia, are used to illustrate its application. The freely available Excel spreadsheet and VBA program ensures the ease of use and applicability for larger data sets.

  11. A Novel Real-time Fluorescence Mutant-allele-specific Amplification Method for Rapid Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Current methods for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis are timeconsuming and complicated. We aimed at development of one-step real-time fluorescence mutant-allele-specific amplification (MASA) method for rapid SNP analysis. The method is a marriage of two technologies: MASA primers for target DNA and a double-stranded DNA-selective fluorescent dye, SYBR Green I. Genotypes are separated according to the different threshold cycles of the wild-type and mutant primers. K-ras oncogene was used as a target to validate the feasibility of the method. The experimental results showed that the different genotypes can be clearly discriminated by the assay. The real-time fluorescence MASA method will have an enormous potential for fast and reliable SNP analysis due to its simplicity and low cost.

  12. A new method for geochemical anomaly separation based on the distribution patterns of singularity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Zhou, Kefa; Cheng, Qiuming

    2017-08-01

    Singularity analysis is one of the most important models in the fractal/multifractal family that has been demonstrated as an efficient tool for identifying hybrid distribution patterns of geochemical data, such as normal and multifractal distributions. However, the question of how to appropriately separate these patterns using reasonable thresholds has not been well answered. In the present study, a new method termed singularity-quantile (S-Q) analysis was proposed to separate multiple geochemical anomaly populations based on integrating singularity analysis and quantile-quantile plot (QQ-plot) analysis. The new method provides excellent abilities for characterizing frequency distribution patterns of singularity indices by plotting singularity index quantiles vs. standard normal quantiles. From a perspective of geochemical element enrichment processes, distribution patterns of singularity indices can be evidently separated into three groups by means of the new method, corresponding to element enrichment, element generality and element depletion, respectively. A case study for chromitite exploration based on geochemical data in the western Junggar region (China), was employed to examine the potential application of the new method. The results revealed that the proposed method was very sensitive to the changes of singularity indices with three segments when it was applied to characterize geochemical element enrichment processes. And hence, the S-Q method can be considered as an efficient and powerful tool for separating hybrid geochemical anomalies on the basis of statistical and inherent fractal/multifractal properties.

  13. Systems and methods for separating particles and/or substances from a sample fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Dougherty, George M.; Dzenitis, John M.; Miles, Robin R.; Clague, David S.

    2016-11-01

    Systems and methods for separating particles and/or toxins from a sample fluid. A method according to one embodiment comprises simultaneously passing a sample fluid and a buffer fluid through a chamber such that a fluidic interface is formed between the sample fluid and the buffer fluid as the fluids pass through the chamber, the sample fluid having particles of interest therein; applying a force to the fluids for urging the particles of interest to pass through the interface into the buffer fluid; and substantially separating the buffer fluid from the sample fluid.

  14. Systems and methods for separating particles and/or substances from a sample fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Dougherty, George M.; Dzenitis, John M.; Miles, Robin R.; Clague, David S.

    2016-11-01

    Systems and methods for separating particles and/or toxins from a sample fluid. A method according to one embodiment comprises simultaneously passing a sample fluid and a buffer fluid through a chamber such that a fluidic interface is formed between the sample fluid and the buffer fluid as the fluids pass through the chamber, the sample fluid having particles of interest therein; applying a force to the fluids for urging the particles of interest to pass through the interface into the buffer fluid; and substantially separating the buffer fluid from the sample fluid.

  15. Heuristics methods for the flow shop scheduling problem with separated setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Seido Nagano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the permutation flow shop scheduling problem with separated machine setup times. As a result of an investigation on the problem characteristics, four heuristics methods are proposed with procedures of the construction sequencing solution by an analogy with the asymmetric traveling salesman problem with the objective of minimizing makespan. Experimental results show that one of the new heuristics methods proposed provide high quality solutions in comparisons with the evaluated methods considered in the literature.

  16. Simultaneous determination of clobazam and its major metabolite in human plasma by a rapid HPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouini, Mohammadreza; Ardakani, Yalda H; Hakemi, Lida; Mokhberi, Maryam; Badri, Gheise

    2005-09-05

    A rapid and specific HPLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of clobazam, the anticonvulsant agent, and its major metabolite in human plasma. The sample preparation was a liquid-liquid extraction with tuloene yielding almost near 100% recoveries of two compounds. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Chromolith Performance RP-18e 100 mm x 4.6mm column, using a mixture of a phosphate buffer (pH 3.5; 10mM)-acetonitrile (70:30, v/v), in isocratic mode at 2 ml/min at a detection wave-length of 228 nm. The calibration curves were linear (r(2)>0.998) in the concentration range of 5-450 ng ml(-1). The lower limit of quantification was 5 ng ml(-1) for two compounds studied. The within- and between-day precisions in the measurement of QC samples at four tested concentrations were in the range of 0.89-9.1% and 2.1-10.1% R.S.D., respectively. The developed procedure was applied to assess the pharmacokinetics of clobazam and its major metabolite following administration of a single 10mg oral dose of clobazam to healthy volunteers.

  17. Rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens: principles, applications, advantages and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases. PMID:25628612

  18. Rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens: principles, applications, advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases.

  19. Rapid Methods for the Detection of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens: Principles, Applications, Advantages and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law eJodi Woan-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR, multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases.

  20. Determination of Strong Acidic Drugs in Biological Matrices: A Review of Separation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli Mu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strong acidic drugs are a class of chemical compounds that normally have high hydrophilicity and large negative charges, such as organophosphatic compounds and organosulphonic compounds. This review focuses on sample preparation and separation methods for this group of compounds in biological matrices in recent years. A wide range of separation techniques, especially chromatographic method, are presented and critically discussed, which include liquid chromatography (e.g., ion-pair and ion-exchange chromatography, capillary electrophoresis (CE, and other types. Due to the extremely low concentration level of target analytes as well as the complexity of biological matrices, sample pretreatment methods, such as dilute and shoot methods, protein precipitation (PP, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE, solid-phase extraction (SPE, degradation, and derivatization strategy, also play important roles for the development of successful analytical methods and thus are also discussed.

  1. A Comprehensive Review on Separation Methods and Techniques for Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Komatsu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural control of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs is attracting enormous interest in view of their applications to nanoelectronics and nanooptics. Actually, more than 200 papers regarding separation of SWNTs have been published since 1998. In this review, they are classified into the following five sections according to the separation methods; electrophoresis, centrifugation, chromatography, selective solubilization and selective reaction. In each method, all literature is summarized in tables showing the separated objects (metallic/semiconducting (M/S, length, diameter, (n, m structure and/or handedness, the production process of the used SWNTs (CoMoCAT, HiPco, arc discharge and/or laser vaporization and the employed chemicals, such as detergents and polymers. Changes in annual number of publications related to this subject are also discussed.

  2. A new chromatographic-method for fast separation of active proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE CongYu; GENG XinDu

    2008-01-01

    A new method with only a single chromatographic column to accomplish the separation of intact pro-tein molecules by the combination of ion exchange chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography is firstly presented. By selecting twice a suitable stationary phase, mobile phase, buffer exchange condition, and sample injection, some proteins usually required to separate with two-dimensional chromatography can now be accomplished only using the single column in one hour. In addition, the separated proteins can maintain their original three- or four-dimensional molecular structure. It would be expected that this method can also provide a new thought for sample pre-frac-tionation in proteomic investigation, especially, for the limitation of sample source.

  3. Separation of cold medicine ingredients using a precise MEKC method at elevated pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasemann, Phillip; ter Balk, Marieke; Preu, Lutz; Wätzig, Hermann

    2007-06-01

    An MEKC method was developed in order to separate a cold medicine formulation containing acetaminophen, ephedrine sulfate, doxylamine succinate, and dextromethorphan hydrobromide as active pharmaceutical ingredients. Because of their similar physical and chemical properties, it was a challenge to separate the basic compounds without sample pretreatment. In addition, the high content of alcohol and sucrose together with the variety of further excipients had to be considered. Thus, the complex matrix required several optimization steps. These included the search for the optimum pH and for a suitable sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration to avoid matrix-capillary wall interaction and to ensure precision. As a second developing step, an internal standard (benzocaine) was chosen to guarantee a high level of quantitative performance. An RSD% value of the peak areas between 1.0 and 2.0 was reached. The employed method development strategy can be generalized to similar separation approaches in the future.

  4. Microwave-emitting rotor, separator apparatus including same, methods of operation and design thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H.

    2006-12-19

    An apparatus for use in separating, at least in part, a mixture, including at least one chamber and at least one microwave generation device configured for communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber is disclosed. The rotor assembly may comprise an electric generator for generating electricity for operating the microwave generation device. At least one microwave generation device may be positioned within a tubular interior shaft extending within the rotor assembly. At least a portion of the tubular interior shaft may be substantially transparent to microwave energy. Microwave energy may be emitted in an outward radial direction or toward an anticipated boundary surface defined between a mixture and a separated constituent thereof. A method including flowing a mixture through at least one chamber and communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber while rotating same is disclosed. Methods of operating a centrifugal separator and design thereof are disclosed.

  5. Methods and Magnitudes of Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Over Pre-Competition Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kons Rafael Lima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aimed to analyse the methods and magnitudes of rapid weight loss (RWL in judo team members in distinct periods before the biggest state competition in Southern Brazil.

  6. Interconnection blocks: a method for providing reusable, rapid, multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Snakenborg, Detlef; Dufva, Hans Martin

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented for creating 'interconnection blocks' that are re-usable and provide multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Interconnection blocks made from polydimethylsiloxane allow rapid testing of microfluidic chips and unobstructed microfluidic...

  7. Balancing precision and risk: should multiple detection methods be analyzed separately in N-mixture models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha A Graves

    Full Text Available Using multiple detection methods can increase the number, kind, and distribution of individuals sampled, which may increase accuracy and precision and reduce cost of population abundance estimates. However, when variables influencing abundance are of interest, if individuals detected via different methods are influenced by the landscape differently, separate analysis of multiple detection methods may be more appropriate. We evaluated the effects of combining two detection methods on the identification of variables important to local abundance using detections of grizzly bears with hair traps (systematic and bear rubs (opportunistic. We used hierarchical abundance models (N-mixture models with separate model components for each detection method. If both methods sample the same population, the use of either data set alone should (1 lead to the selection of the same variables as important and (2 provide similar estimates of relative local abundance. We hypothesized that the inclusion of 2 detection methods versus either method alone should (3 yield more support for variables identified in single method analyses (i.e. fewer variables and models with greater weight, and (4 improve precision of covariate estimates for variables selected in both separate and combined analyses because sample size is larger. As expected, joint analysis of both methods increased precision as well as certainty in variable and model selection. However, the single-method analyses identified different variables and the resulting predicted abundances had different spatial distributions. We recommend comparing single-method and jointly modeled results to identify the presence of individual heterogeneity between detection methods in N-mixture models, along with consideration of detection probabilities, correlations among variables, and tolerance to risk of failing to identify variables important to a subset of the population. The benefits of increased precision should be weighed

  8. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mego, W.A.

    1999-09-07

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  9. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, David J. (Naperville, IL); Mego, William A. (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  10. Biorefinery methods for separation of protein and oil fractions from rubber seed kernel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widyarani, R.; Ratnaningsih, E.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Bruins, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Biorefinery of rubber seeds can generate additional income for farmers, who already grow rubber trees for latex production. The aim of this study was to find the best method for protein and oil production from rubber seed kernel, with focus on protein recovery. Different pre-treatments and oil separ

  11. Method and apparatus for the separation of solid particles having different densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    A method and apparatus for separating solid particles of different densities, using a magnetic process fluid. The solid particles are thoroughly mixed in a small partial flow of the process fluid. The small turbulent partial flow is added to a large laminar partial flow of the process fluid, after w

  12. Filtering apparatus and method for mixing, extraction and/or separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a filtering apparatus and method for mixing a compound of solid and fluid phases, separating the phases and/or extracting fluid from the compound. One embodiment of the invention discloses a filtering apparatus comprising a first filter section accommodating a fir...... in a beer brewing procedure....

  13. Preparation of asymmetric gas separation membranes with high selectivity by a dual-bath coagulation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Hof, J.A.; van 't Hof, J.A.; Reuvers, A.J.; Reuvers, A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Boom, R.M.; Rolevink, Hendrikus H.M.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for the preparation of gas separation membranes in a one-step procedure is presented, where common, non-volatile solvents can be used in the polymer solution. It concerns contacting of a polymer solution with two successive nonsolvent baths, whereby the first bath initiates the formatio

  14. Method and apparatus for the separation of solid particles having different densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    A method and apparatus for separating solid particles of different densities, using a magnetic process fluid. The solid particles are thoroughly mixed in a small partial flow of the process fluid. The small turbulent partial flow is added to a large laminar partial flow of the process fluid, after

  15. Method and apparatus for separating parts, in particular seeds, having different densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; De Koning, J.R.A.

    2009-01-01

    A method for separating seeds of different densities in a process stream, wherein the seeds are introduced into a magnetic process fluid for the formation of the process stream, which process stream is subjected to a magnetic field for the realization of a density stratification in the process strea

  16. Separation Method of Uranium and Plutonium From Large Amount of Neptunium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Yu-lan; JIN; Hua; YING; Zhe-cong; ZHAO; Sheng-yang

    2013-01-01

    Uranium and plutonium are limited strictly in the neptunium product.To eliminate the influence of neptunium matrix on determination of uranium and plutonium,a new separation method of uranium and plutonium from large amount of neptunium by TEVA column has been developed,which is illustrated in Fig.1.

  17. Filtering apparatus and method for mixing, extraction and/or separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a filtering apparatus and method for mixing a compound of solid and fluid phases, separating the phases and/or extracting fluid from the compound. One embodiment of the invention discloses a filtering apparatus comprising a first filter section accommodating a first...

  18. Experimental and Analytical Method for Determining a Drag Coefficient of the Double-Layer Liquid Separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Pozhalostin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem of small axisymmetric oscillations of two-layer liquid with a foam-based separator. The separator is supposed to be rigid and non-deformable, liquid flow through the separator is modeled as a stream with a certain linear-viscous resistance. The liquid is assumed to be ideal and incompressible, its stream being potential. The paper presents experimental and analytical method for finding such a drag coefficient.The work [1] considered the problem of oscillations of a two-layer liquid divided by nondeforming permeable separator where, taking into consideration the interaction between liquid and separator, a reduced drag coefficient is introduced, which is expected to be determined experimentally, thereby generalizing the results of works [4] and [5] in case of moving two-layer liquid through a resistance. The work [6] investigated the motion of ideal incompressible and non-stratified liquid together with the elastic bottom. The work [7] studied a stability of the free liquid surface in low gravity. The paper [8] examined free axially symmetric oscillations of a two-layer liquid with an impermeable separator.Analytical dependence for the drag coefficient obtained in the paper [1] contains the frequency values of free harmonic oscillation system with no resistance (with a missing delimiter and the damping coefficient for the system with resistance (with a separator available. These values can be obtained experimentally if the tank model oscillations with a separator and without it are excited and the natural frequencies of these oscillations are determined. The model under consideration can be used to analyze dynamic interaction between liquid and phase separator of the upper stage or launch vehicle stage and provide ground experimental method for the starting systems from the gravity-free state and low gravity one.The article shows the relationship of the analytic dependence of the damping coefficient at symmetric

  19. Comparison of chiral electrophoretic separation methods for phenethylamines and application on impurity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Claudia; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2010-12-15

    A chiral microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography method has been developed for the separation of the enantiomers of the phenethylamines ephedrine, N-methylephedrine, norephedrine, pseudoephedrine, adrenaline (epinephrine), 2-amino-1-phenylethanol, diethylnorephedrine, and 2-(dibutylamino)-1-phenyl-1-propanol, respectively. The separations were achieved using an oil-in-water microemulsion consisting of the oil-component ethyl acetate, the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate, the cosurfactant 1-butanol, the organic modifier propan-2-ol and 20mM phosphate buffer pH 2.5 as aqueous phase. For enantioseparation sulfated beta-cyclodextrin was added. The method was compared to an already described CZE method, which made use of heptakis(2,3-di-O-diacetyl-6-O-sulfo)-beta-cyclodextrin (HDAS) as chiral selector. Additionally, the developed method was successfully applied to the related substances analysis of noradrenaline, adrenaline, dipivefrine, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine monographed in the European Pharmacopoeia 6.

  20. A blind separation method of overlapped multi-components based on time varying AR model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A method utilizing single channel recordings to blindly separate the multicomponents overlapped in time and frequency domains is proposed in this paper. Based on the time varying AR model, the instantaneous frequency and amplitude of each signal component are estimated respectively, thus the signal component separation is achieved. By using prolate spheroidal sequence as basis functions to expand the time varying parameters of the AR model, the method turns the problem of linear time varying parameters estimation to a linear time invariant parameter estimation problem, then the parameters are estimated by a recursive algorithm. The computation of this method is simple, and no prior knowledge of the signals is needed. Simulation results demonstrate validity and excellent performance of this method.

  1. A comparison of methods for separation of transient and oscillatory signals in EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jmail, Nawel; Gavaret, Martine; Wendling, Fabrice; Kachouri, Abdennaceur; Hamadi, Ghariani; Badier, Jean-Michel; Bénar, Christian-George

    2011-08-15

    Brain oscillations constitute a prominent feature of electroencephalography (EEG), in both physiological and pathological states. An efficient separation of oscillation from transient signals in EEG is important not only for detection of oscillations, but also for advanced signal processing such as source localization. A major difficulty lies in the fact that filtering transient phenomena can lead to spurious oscillatory activity. Therefore, in the presence of a mixture of transient and oscillatory events, it is not clear to which extent filtering methods are able to separate them efficiently. The objective of this study was to evaluate methods for separating oscillations from transients. We compared three methods: finite impulse response (FIR) filtering, wavelet analysis with stationary wavelet transform (SWT), time-frequency sparse decomposition with Matching Pursuit (MP). We evaluated the quality of reconstruction and the results of automatic detection of oscillations intermingled with transients. The emphasis of our study was on epileptic signals and single channel processing. In both simulations and on real data, FIR performed generally worse than the time-frequency methods. Both SWT and MP showed good results in separation and detection, each method having its advantages and its limitations. The SWT had good results in separation and detection of transients due to the time invariance property, but still did not completely resolve the frequency overlap for the oscillation during the time-frequency thresholding. The MP provides a sparse representation, and gave good results for simulated data. However, in the real data, we observed distortions introduced by the subtractive approach, and departure from dictionary waveforms. Future directions are proposed for overcoming these limitations.

  2. Method and apparatus for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap

    OpenAIRE

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Method for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap, wherein the ferrous scrap is conveyed to a processing device for separating the non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from the remainder of the ferrous scrap. The processing device supplies a beam of water, and the ferrous scrap is conveyed and released into the waterbeam so as to cause that the ferrous scrap is allowed to fall and move further, subject to the forces of gravity and the waterbeam.

  3. Current Developments in Electrophoretic and Chromatographic Separation Methods on Microfabricated Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2000-01-01

    a brief overview of current developments in electrophoretic and chromatographic separation methods on microfabricated devices, and highlight some of the trends emerging from recent research results (published or pre-published before November 1999). (C)2000 Published by Elsevier Science B.V, All rights......Microchip-based separation techniques are essential elements in the development of fully integrated micro-total analysis systems, which are envisioned to become powerful instruments for obtaining and assessing analytical data in research, industry, and everyday life. This article's goal is to give...

  4. Rapid identification of salmonella serotypes with stereo and hyperspectral microscope imaging Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) method can reduce detection time within 8 hours including incubation process. The early and rapid detection with this method in conjunction with the high throughput capabilities makes HMI method a prime candidate for implementation for the food industry. Th...

  5. A Rapid Grid Search Method for Solving Dynamic Programming Problems in Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Hui He; Hao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a rapid grid search method in solving dynamic programming problems in economics. Compared to mainstream grid search methods, by using local information of the Bellman equation, this method can significantly increase the efficiency in solving dynamic programming problems by reducing the grid points searched in the control space.

  6. A Note on a Rapid Grid Search Method for Solving Dynamic Programming Problems in Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Hui He; Hao Zhang

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a rapid grid search method in solving the dynamic programming problems in economics. Compared to mainstream grid search methods, by using local information of the Bellman equation, this method can significantly increase the efficiency in solving dynamic programming problems by reducing the grid points searched in the control space.

  7. Development of Novel Method for Rapid Extract of Radionuclides from Solution Using Polymer Ligand Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Jung H.

    Accurate and fast determination of the activity of radionuclides in a sample is critical for nuclear forensics and emergency response. Radioanalytical techniques are well established for radionuclides measurement, however, they are slow and labor intensive, requiring extensive radiochemical separations and purification prior to analysis. With these limitations of current methods, there is great interest for a new technique to rapidly process samples. This dissertation describes a new analyte extraction medium called Polymer Ligand Film (PLF) developed to rapidly extract radionuclides. Polymer Ligand Film is a polymer medium with ligands incorporated in its matrix that selectively and rapidly extract analytes from a solution. The main focus of the new technique is to shorten and simplify the procedure necessary to chemically isolate radionuclides for determination by alpha spectrometry or beta counting. Five different ligands were tested for plutonium extraction: bis(2-ethylhexyl) methanediphosphonic acid (H2DEH[MDP]), di(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), trialkyl methylammonium chloride (Aliquat-336), 4,4'(5')-di-t-butylcyclohexano 18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), and 2-ethylhexyl 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid (HEH[EHP]). The ligands that were effective for plutonium extraction further studied for uranium extraction. The plutonium recovery by PLFs has shown dependency on nitric acid concentration and ligand to total mass ratio. H2DEH[MDP] PLFs performed best with 1:10 and 1:20 ratio PLFs. 50.44% and 47.61% of plutonium were extracted on the surface of PLFs with 1M nitric acid for 1:10 and 1:20 PLF, respectively. HDEHP PLF provided the best combination of alpha spectroscopy resolution and plutonium recovery with 1:5 PLF when used with 0.1M nitric acid. The overall analyte recovery was lower than electrodeposited samples, which typically has recovery above 80%. However, PLF is designed to be a rapid field deployable screening technique and consistency is more important

  8. Method for enhancing the resolving power of ion mobility separations over a limited mobility range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvartsburg, Alexandre A; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D

    2014-09-23

    A method for raising the resolving power, specificity, and peak capacity of conventional ion mobility spectrometry is disclosed. Ions are separated in a dynamic electric field comprising an oscillatory field wave and opposing static field, or at least two counter propagating waves with different parameters (amplitude, profile, frequency, or speed). As the functional dependencies of mean drift velocity on the ion mobility in a wave and static field or in unequal waves differ, only single species is equilibrated while others drift in either direction and are mobility-separated. An ion mobility spectrum over a limited range is then acquired by measuring ion drift times through a fixed distance inside the gas-filled enclosure. The resolving power in the vicinity of equilibrium mobility substantially exceeds that for known traveling-wave or drift-tube IMS separations, with spectra over wider ranges obtainable by stitching multiple segments. The approach also enables low-cutoff, high-cutoff, and bandpass ion mobility filters.

  9. Method for concentration and separation of biological organisms by ultrafiltration and dielectrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Blake A.; Hill, Vincent R.; Fintschenko, Yolanda; Cummings, Eric B.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed is a method for monitoring sources of public water supply for a variety of pathogens by using a combination of ultrafiltration techniques together dielectrophoretic separation techniques. Because water-borne pathogens, whether present due to "natural" contamination or intentional introduction, would likely be present in drinking water at low concentrations when samples are collected for monitoring or outbreak investigations, an approach is needed to quickly and efficiently concentrate and separate particles such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites in large volumes of water (e.g., 100 L or more) while simultaneously reducing the sample volume to levels sufficient for detecting low concentrations of microbes (e.g., <10 mL). The technique is also designed to screen the separated microbes based on specific conductivity and size.

  10. Nonnegative matrix factorization: a blind spectra separation method for in vivo fluorescent optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montcuquet, Anne-Sophie; Hervé, Lionel; Navarro, Fabrice; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Mars, Jérôme I

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging in diffusive media is an emerging imaging modality for medical applications that uses injected fluorescent markers that bind to specific targets, e.g., carcinoma. The region of interest is illuminated with near-IR light and the emitted back fluorescence is analyzed to localize the fluorescence sources. To investigate a thick medium, as the fluorescence signal decreases with the light travel distance, any disturbing signal, such as biological tissues intrinsic fluorescence (called autofluorescence) is a limiting factor. Several specific markers may also be simultaneously injected to bind to different molecules, and one may want to isolate each specific fluorescent signal from the others. To remove the unwanted fluorescence contributions or separate different specific markers, a spectroscopic approach is explored. The nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) is the blind positive source separation method we chose. We run an original regularized NMF algorithm we developed on experimental data, and successfully obtain separated in vivo fluorescence spectra.

  11. Proposal of a New Hf(IV)/Zr(IV)Separation System by the Solvent Extraction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SABERYAN Kamal; MEYSAMI Amir Hosein; RASHCHI Fereshteh; ZOLFONOUN Ehsan

    2008-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction study has been conducted to separate hafnium from zirconium,using Cyanex 301 in kerosene.Noticeably,it is the first time that Cyanex 301 is utilized to separate Hf(Ⅳ)from Zr(Ⅳ).In this series of experiments,several parameters influencing the separation have been investigated,such as the initial pH,the extractant concentration,the metal ion concentration,the temperature,the type of the diluents and the salt addition.Regarding the aging of the Zr(Ⅳ)and Hf(Ⅳ)solutions,the solutions with a maximum 3 d aging time could be used with no difficulties.It was observed that the initial pH increase caused an increase in the Zr(Ⅳ)/Hf(Ⅳ)separation factor.Moreover,the distribution decreased with the temperature increase,suggesting that the reaction is exothermic.In agreement with the resulting data,the optimum separation factor illustrates the value of 7 at a pH of 4.00 in the presence of NaCI as an added salt.The attractive characteristics of the presently designed method are the use of low acidic nitrate solutions,the lack of using thiocyanate and a higher extractability of hafnium-Cyanex 301 relative to zirconium-Cyanex 301 complexes.

  12. Base flow separation: A comparison of analytical and mass balance methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Darline A.; Stewart, Mark T.

    2016-04-01

    Base flow is the ground water contribution to stream flow. Many activities, such as water resource management, calibrating hydrological and climate models, and studies of basin hydrology, require good estimates of base flow. The base flow component of stream flow is usually determined by separating a stream hydrograph into two components, base flow and runoff. Analytical methods, mathematical functions or algorithms used to calculate base flow directly from discharge, are the most widely used base flow separation methods and are often used without calibration to basin or gage-specific parameters other than basin area. In this study, six analytical methods are compared to a mass balance method, the conductivity mass-balance (CMB) method. The base flow index (BFI) values for 35 stream gages are obtained from each of the seven methods with each gage having at least two consecutive years of specific conductance data and 30 years of continuous discharge data. BFI is cumulative base flow divided by cumulative total discharge over the period of record of analysis. The BFI value is dimensionless, and always varies from 0 to 1. Areas of basins used in this study range from 27 km2 to 68,117 km2. BFI was first determined for the uncalibrated analytical methods. The parameters of each analytical method were then calibrated to produce BFI values as close to the CMB derived BFI values as possible. One of the methods, the power function (aQb + cQ) method, is inherently calibrated and was not recalibrated. The uncalibrated analytical methods have an average correlation coefficient of 0.43 when compared to CMB-derived values, and an average correlation coefficient of 0.93 when calibrated with the CMB method. Once calibrated, the analytical methods can closely reproduce the base flow values of a mass balance method. Therefore, it is recommended that analytical methods be calibrated against tracer or mass balance methods.

  13. The quantum and mechanical justification of intensification by magnetic field of amalgam isotope separation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myshkin V. F.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The steady increase in demand for isotopes requires the development of methods to increase the efficiency of isotope separation technologies. Methods of isotope separation based on thermodynamic differences of isotopic forms of the molecules don't require significant investment, but characterized by a low rate of exchange. It's known that the magnetic effect leads to a change the vibrational frequency of the molecules, and therefore their thermodynamic parameters. The change increases the thermodynamic parameters, including the exchange rate. The results of the experimental determination of the thermal effect of dissolving the salts of NaCl, KCl, CuSO4, sodium amalgam decomposition by distillate in a magnetic field and without field were shown. Magnetic interference can have a significant effect on the amalgam exchange method which was shown by quantum and mechanical analysis of the results

  14. Non-parametric method for separating domestic hot water heating spikes and space heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; de Saint-Aubain, Philip Anton; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a method for separating spikes from a noisy data series, where the data change and evolve over time, is presented. The method is applied on measurements of the total heat load for a single family house. It relies on the fact that the domestic hot water heating is a process generating...... short-lived spikes in the time series, while the space heating changes in slower patterns during the day dependent on the climate and user behavior. The challenge is to separate the domestic hot water heating spikes from the space heating without affecting the natural noise in the space heating...... measurements. The assumption behind the developed method is that the space heating can be estimated by a non-parametric kernel smoother, such that every value significantly above this kernel smoother estimate is identified as a domestic hot water heating spike. First, it is showed how a basic kernel smoothing...

  15. Comparison of different base flow separation methods in a lowland catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Gonzales

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of water resources kept in different storages and moving along different pathways in a catchment is important for its optimal use and protection, and also for the prediction of floods and low flows. Moreover, understanding of the runoff generation processes is essential for assessing the impacts of climate and land use changes on the hydrological response of a catchment. Many methods for base flow separation exist, but hardly one focuses on the specific behaviour of temperate lowland areas. This paper presents the results of a base flow separation study carried out in a lowland area in the Netherlands. In this research, field observations of precipitation, groundwater and surface water levels and discharges, together with tracer analysis are used to understand the runoff generation processes in the catchment. Several tracer and non-tracer based base flow separation methods were applied to the discharge time series, and their results are compared.

    The results show that groundwater levels react fast to precipitation events in this lowland area with shallow groundwater tables. Moreover, a good correlation was found between groundwater levels and discharges meaning that most of the measured discharge also during floods comes from the groundwater storage. It was determined using tracer hydrological approaches that approximately 90% of the total discharge is groundwater displaced by event water infiltrating in the northern part of the catchment, and only the remaining 10% is surface runoff. The impact of remote recharge causing displacement of near channel groundwater during floods could also be motivated with hydraulic approximations. The results show further that when base flow separation is meant to separate groundwater contributions to stream flow, process based methods (e.g. rating curve method; Kliner and Knezek, 1974 are more reliable than other simple non-tracer based methods. Also, the recursive filtering method (proposed

  16. Evaluation of a column classification method using the separation of alfuzosin from its related substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulfer, Jarosław; Plenis, Alina; Bączek, Tomasz

    2012-03-16

    The popularity and commercial availability of reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) stationary phases cause analysts to be often confronted with the problem of column selection. For this reason, general test methods to characterize RP-LC columns have been extensively studied since the 1970s. This paper focuses on correlating the column classification based on a method developed at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KUL method) with the selectivity obtained for a real separation. The analysis of alfuzosin hydrochloride and related compounds was carried out according to the method prescribed in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monograph. This separation was performed on 36 new RP-LC stationary phases which had been previously characterized chromatographically. For deeper comparative analysis of KUL classification of the stationary RP-LC brands and their column performance in pharmaceutical practice two chemometric tools, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA), have been used. It was shown that stationary phase classes closely related by KUL method gave comparable separation for alfuzosin and related compounds. Therefore, the column ranking system based on the evaluation of F-values can be considered as a helpful tool in the selection of a suitable column for pharmaceutical analyses.

  17. Isocratic RP-HPLC Method for Simultaneous Separation and Estimation of Zofenopril and Hydrochlorthiazide in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Devika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate isocratic reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC method has been developed and subsequently validated for the simultaneous determination of Zofenopril and Hydrochlorthiazide in combined dosage form. Chromatographic separation of the two drugs was performed on a Purospher BDS C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm id, 5 μm particle size. The mobile phase comprising of acetonitrile methanol: 0.02M NaH22PO4 buffer (40:20:40 was delivered at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min. The pH of the mobile phase is adjusted to 7.2 with Sodium hydroxide solution. Detection was performed at 245 nm.The separation was completed within 10 min and the retention time of hydrochlorthiazide is 4.62 and Zofenopril is 6.86 min respectively. Calibration curves were linear with R2 between 0.99-1.0 over a concentration range of 100-600 μg/ml for Zofenopril calcium and 50-300 μg/ml for hydrochlorthiazide..The developed method was successfully applied to determi

  18. A Line-Search-Based Partial Proximal Alternating Directions Method for Separable Convex Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-hua Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an appealing line-search-based partial proximal alternating directions (LSPPAD method for solving a class of separable convex optimization problems. These problems under consideration are common in practice. The proposed method solves two subproblems at each iteration: one is solved by a proximal point method, while the proximal term is absent from the other. Both subproblems admit inexact solutions. A line search technique is used to guarantee the convergence. The convergence of the LSPPAD method is established under some suitable conditions. The advantage of the proposed method is that it provides the tractability of the subproblem in which the proximal term is absent. Numerical tests show that the LSPPAD method has better performance compared with the existing alternating projection based prediction-correction (APBPC method if both are employed to solve the described problem.

  19. A simple and rapid method for calixarene-based selective extraction of bioactive molecules from natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segneanu, Adina-Elena; Damian, Daniel; Hulka, Iosif; Grozescu, Ioan; Salifoglou, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    Natural products derived from medicinal plants have gained an important role in drug discovery due to their complex and abundant composition of secondary metabolites, with their structurally unique molecular components bearing a significant number of stereo-centers exhibiting high specificity linked to biological activity. Usually, the extraction process of natural products involves various techniques targeting separation of a specific class of compounds from a highly complex matrix. Aiding the process entails the use of well-defined and selective molecular extractants with distinctly configured structural attributes. Calixarenes conceivably belong to that class of molecules. They have been studied intensely over the years in an effort to develop new and highly selective receptors for biomolecules. These macrocycles, which display remarkable structural architectures and properties, could help usher a new approach in the efficient separation of specific classes of compounds from complex matrices in natural products. A simple and rapid such extraction method is presented herein, based on host-guest interaction(s) between a calixarene synthetic receptor, 4-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene, and natural biomolecular targets (amino acids and peptides) from Helleborus purpurascens and Viscum album. Advanced physicochemical methods (including GC-MS and chip-based nanoESI-MS analysis) suggest that the molecular structure and specifically the calixarene cavity size are closely linked to the nature of compounds separated. Incorporation of biomolecules and modification of the macrocyclic architecture during separation were probed and confirmed by scanning electronic microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The collective results project calixarene as a promising molecular extractant candidate, facilitating the selective separation of amino acids and peptides from natural products.

  20. Simulated moving bed system for CO.sub.2 separation, and method of same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Jeannine Elizabeth; Copeland, Robert James; Lind, Jeff; Leta, Daniel P.; McCall, Patrick P.

    2016-09-20

    A system and method for separating and/or purification of CO.sub.2 gas from a CO.sub.2 feed stream is described. The system and method include a plurality of fixed sorbent beds, adsorption zones and desorption zones, where the sorbent beds are connected via valve and lines to create a simulated moving bed system, where the sorbent beds move from one adsorption position to another adsorption position, and then into one regeneration position to another regeneration position, and optionally back to an adsorption position. The system and method operate by concentration swing adsorption/desorption and by adsorptive/desorptive displacement.

  1. A Three-Point Method for Separating Incident and Reflected Waves over A Sloping Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Hsien-Kuo

    2002-01-01

    This study presents a three-point method for separating incident and reflected waves to explain normally incident waves' propagating over a sloping bed. Linear wave shoaling is used to determine changes in wave amplitude and phase in response to variations of bathymetry. The wave reflection coefficient and incident amplitude are estimated from wave heights measured at three fixed wave gauges with unequal spacing. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the proposed method can predict the reflection and amplitude of waves over a sloping bed more accurately than the two-point method.

  2. Surface hot-film method for the measurement of transition, separation and reattachment points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Akihiko; Stack, John P.; Lin, John C.; Valarezo, Walter O.

    1993-01-01

    A real-time method of determining positions of laminar-to-turbulent transition region, separation and reattachment points and stagnation points using an array of simultaneously operated surface-mounted hot-film sensors has been developed and applied to a wind-tunnel test of a multielement airfoil model. Determination of various types of transitions and flow directions in various regimes of flows seen on multielement airfoils are possible without precise sensor calibration or laborious post-test data analysis. The results agree with established method and theoretical methods, but determination of turbulent reattachment points are not yet satisfactory.

  3. Spatiotemporal signal space separation method for rejecting nearby interference in MEG measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taulu, S; Simola, J [Elekta Neuromag Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-04-07

    Limitations of traditional magnetoencephalography (MEG) exclude some important patient groups from MEG examinations, such as epilepsy patients with a vagus nerve stimulator, patients with magnetic particles on the head or having magnetic dental materials that cause severe movement-related artefact signals. Conventional interference rejection methods are not able to remove the artefacts originating this close to the MEG sensor array. For example, the reference array method is unable to suppress interference generated by sources closer to the sensors than the reference array, about 20-40 cm. The spatiotemporal signal space separation method proposed in this paper recognizes and removes both external interference and the artefacts produced by these nearby sources, even on the scalp. First, the basic separation into brain-related and external interference signals is accomplished with signal space separation based on sensor geometry and Maxwell's equations only. After this, the artefacts from nearby sources are extracted by a simple statistical analysis in the time domain, and projected out. Practical examples with artificial current dipoles and interference sources as well as data from real patients demonstrate that the method removes the artefacts without altering the field patterns of the brain signals.

  4. New method for Gamma/Hadron separation in HAWC using neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Capistrán, T; Altamirano, L

    2015-01-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) gamma-ray observatory is located at an altitude of 4100 meters in Sierra Negra, Puebla, Mexico. HAWC is an air shower array of 300 water Cherenkov detectors (WCD's), each with 4 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). Because the observatory is sensitive to air showers produced by cosmic rays and gamma rays, one of the main tasks in the analysis of gamma-ray sources is gamma/hadron separation for the suppression of the cosmic-ray background. Currently, HAWC uses a method called compactness for the separation. This method divides the data into 10 bins that depend on the number of PMTs in each event, and each bin has its own value cut. In this work we present a new method which depends continuously on the number of PMTs in the event instead of binning, and therefore uses a single cut for gamma/hadron separation. The method uses a Feedforward Multilayer Perceptron net (MLP) fed with five characteristics of the air shower to create a single output value. We used simulated cosmic-ray...

  5. Assessment criteria and approaches for rapid detection methods to be used in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmann, Martin; Wang, Siyun; Post, Laurie; Nightingale, Kendra

    2014-04-01

    The number of commercially available kits and methods for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens continues to increase at a considerable pace, and the diversity of methods and assay formats is reaching a point where it is very difficult even for experts to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of different methods and to decide which methods to choose for a certain testing need. Although a number of documents outline quantitative criteria that can be used to evaluate different detection methods (e.g., exclusivity and inclusivity), a diversity of criteria is typically used by industry to select specific methods that are used for pathogen detection. This article is intended to provide an overall outline of criteria that the food industry can use to evaluate new rapid detection methods, with a specific focus on nucleic acid-based detection methods.

  6. Method for the rapid synthesis of large quantities of metal oxide nanowires at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar (Louisville, KY); Vaddiraju, Sreeram (Mountain View, CA); Mozetic, Miran (Ljubljan, SI); Cvelbar, Uros (Idrija, SI)

    2009-09-22

    A process for the rapid synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles at low temperatures and methods which facilitate the fabrication of long metal oxide nanowires. The method is based on treatment of metals with oxygen plasma. Using oxygen plasma at low temperatures allows for rapid growth unlike other synthesis methods where nanomaterials take a long time to grow. Density of neutral oxygen atoms in plasma is a controlling factor for the yield of nanowires. The oxygen atom density window differs for different materials. By selecting the optimal oxygen atom density for various materials the yield can be maximized for nanowire synthesis of the metal.

  7. RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SEPARATION OF PARACETAMOL, TIZANIDINE, ACECLOFENAC, CHLORZOXAZONE: APPLICATION TO TIZANIDINE DETERMINATION IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravisankar P

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New, rapid, precise, accurate and specific chromatographic method with UV detection was developed and validated for the separation of paracetamol, tizanidine, diclofenac and chlorzoxazone and applied for the determination of tizanidine in tablet dosage forms. RP-HPLC method was developed by using Welchrom C18 Column (4.6 mm i.d. X 250 mm, 5 µm particle size, Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence Liquid Chromatography. The mobile phase constituted of Phosphate buffer (pH-6.65: acetonitrile (60:40, v/v.The flow rate was set to 1.0 mL/min with the responses measured at 280 nm using Shimadzu SPD-20A Prominence UV-Visible detector. The retention times of paracetamol, tizanidine, aceclofenac and chlorzoxazone were found to be 3.200 min, 3.593 min, 7.717 min and 8.857 min respectively. This method successfully separated all the fore mentioned drugs in less than 10 min. tizanidine was found to give linear response in the concentration range of 2-10µg/mL. Recovery studies were executed to ascertain the accuracy by standard addition method and average recovery was found to be 98.824 to 100.126 %.The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 0.1761µg/mL and 0.5336µg/mL respectively. The proposed method is simple, economical, fast and hence can be applied for routine quality control analysis of tizanidine in tablet dosage form. It can also be extended for the determination of paracetamol, chlorzoxazone and aceclofenac.

  8. Auto white balance method using a pigmentation separation technique for human skin color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satomi; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Kamijo, Naohiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2017-02-01

    The human visual system maintains the perception of colors of an object across various light sources. Similarly, current digital cameras feature an auto white balance function, which estimates the illuminant color and corrects the color of a photograph as if the photograph was taken under a certain light source. The main subject in a photograph is often a person's face, which could be used to estimate the illuminant color. However, such estimation is adversely affected by differences in facial colors among individuals. The present paper proposes an auto white balance algorithm based on a pigmentation separation method that separates the human skin color image into the components of melanin, hemoglobin and shading. Pigment densities have a uniform property within the same race that can be calculated from the components of melanin and hemoglobin in the face. We, thus, propose a method that uses the subject's facial color in an image and is unaffected by individual differences in facial color among Japanese people.

  9. Successively separation method of uranium and rare earth element having supercritical fluid as extracting medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iso, Shuichi; Meguro, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki

    1996-08-30

    In a method of separating by extraction of coolants uranium and rare earth elements by using supercritical fluid in a supercritical state and a hydrophobic organic chelating agent, a plurality of extraction steps having different extraction efficiencies are provided. As the fluid in the supercritical state, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, sulfur tetrafluoride and nitrogen are mentioned. A hydrophobic organic chelating agent can form a chelating compound with uranium and rare earth elements, and the formed complex compounds are easily dissolved into the supercritical fluid thereby enabling to provide an excellent extraction effect. A suitable hydrophobic organic chelating agent includes organic phosphor compounds, {beta}-diketone compounds and microcyclic compounds. Then, there can be provided an extraction method using a supercritical liquid as an extraction medium capable of successively separating uranium and rare earth elements selectively having high safety and performed safely and also performed in a case where a plurality of rare earth elements exist together. (N.H.)

  10. Auto white balance method using a pigmentation separation technique for human skin color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satomi; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Kamijo, Naohiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2016-11-01

    The human visual system maintains the perception of colors of an object across various light sources. Similarly, current digital cameras feature an auto white balance function, which estimates the illuminant color and corrects the color of a photograph as if the photograph was taken under a certain light source. The main subject in a photograph is often a person's face, which could be used to estimate the illuminant color. However, such estimation is adversely affected by differences in facial colors among individuals. The present paper proposes an auto white balance algorithm based on a pigmentation separation method that separates the human skin color image into the components of melanin, hemoglobin and shading. Pigment densities have a uniform property within the same race that can be calculated from the components of melanin and hemoglobin in the face. We, thus, propose a method that uses the subject's facial color in an image and is unaffected by individual differences in facial color among Japanese people.

  11. Ionic Liquids for Absorption and Separation of Gases: An Extensive Database and a Systematic Screening Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yongsheng; Gani, Rafiqul; Afzal, Raja Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have attracted considerable attention in both the academic and industrial communities for absorbing and separating gases. However, a data-rich and well-structured systematic database has not yet been established, and screening for highly efficient ILs meeting various requireme......Ionic liquids (ILs) have attracted considerable attention in both the academic and industrial communities for absorbing and separating gases. However, a data-rich and well-structured systematic database has not yet been established, and screening for highly efficient ILs meeting various...... requirements remains a challenging task. In this study, an extensive database of estimated Henry's law constants of twelve gases in more than ten thousand ILs at 313.15 K is established using the COSMO-RS method. Based on the database, a new systematic and efficient screening method for IL selection...

  12. Multitracer and filter-separated half-cell method for measuring solute diffusion in undisturbed soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægdsmand, Mette; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2010-01-01

    Solute diffusion controls important processes in soils: plant uptake of nutrients, sorption-desorption processes, degradation of organic matter, and leaching of radionuclides through clay barriers. We developed a new method for measuring the solute diffusivity (solute diffusion coefficient...... in the soil relative to water) in intact soil samples (the Multiple Tracer, Filter Separated half-cell method using a Dynamic Model for parameter estimation [MT-FS-DM]). The MT-FS-DM method consists of half-cell diffusion of two pairs of counterdiffusing anionic tracers and a parameter estimation scheme...... that the MT-FS-DM method provided reliable results. We compared diffusivities measured on a sandy loam soil using the MT-FS-DM method with diffusivities from six sandy loam test soils from the literature. The new method can be used to estimate solute diffusivity in intact structured soil and provides a more...

  13. Comparison of different base flow separation methods in a lowland catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Uhlenbrook

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of water resources available in different storages and moving along different pathways in a catchment is important for its optimal use and protection, and also for the prediction of floods and low flows. Moreover, understanding of the runoff generation processes is essential for assessing the impacts of climate and land use changes on the hydrological response of a catchment. Many methods for base flow separation exist, but hardly one focuses on the specific behaviour of temperate lowland areas. This paper presents the results of a base flow separation study carried out in a lowland area in the Netherlands. In this study, field observations of precipitation, groundwater and surface water levels and discharges, together with tracer analysis are used to understand the runoff generation processes in the catchment. Several tracer and non-tracer based base flow separation methods were applied to the discharge time series, and their results are compared.

    The results show that groundwater levels react fast to precipitation events in this lowland area with shallow groundwater tables. Moreover, a good correlation was found between groundwater levels and discharges suggesting that most of the measured discharge also during floods comes from groundwater storage. It was estimated using tracer hydrological approaches that approximately 90% of the total discharge is groundwater displaced by event water mainly infiltrating in the northern part of the catchment, and only the remaining 10% is surface runoff. The impact of remote recharge causing displacement of near channel groundwater during floods could also be motivated with hydraulic approximations. The results show further that when base flow separation is meant to identify groundwater contributions to stream flow, process based methods (e.g. the rating curve method; Kliner and Knezek, 1974 are more reliable than other simple non-tracer based methods. Also, the recursive filtering method

  14. Evaluation of two methods of rapid blood-glucose monitoring by unskilled personnel during surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, S; Adelhøj, B; Bigler, Dennis Richard

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of two rapid methods of blood-glucose monitoring without (Haemo-glucotest 1-44) and with a reflectance meter (Hypocount B) was compared using a laboratory method. The assessment was carried out by personnel with no previous experience in measuring blood glucose. Eighty-five percent...

  15. A rapid method for determining salinomycin and monensin sensitivity in Eimeria tenella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standard methods of determining the ionophore sensitivity of Eimeria rely on infecting chickens with an isolate or a mixture of Eimeria spp. oocysts in the presence of different anti-coccidial drugs. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid in vitro method for assessing salinomycin and mone...

  16. An improved method for rapid generation and screening of Bacillus thuringiensis phage-resistant mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-11-01

    A simple method to isolate, screen and select phage-resistant mutants of Bacillus thuringiensis was developed. The traditional double-layer agar method was improved by a combination of the spotting assay using a lytic phage, to generate the bacterial-resistant mutants, with an inverted spotting assay (ISA), to rapidly screen the candidate-resistant mutants.

  17. Thermophilic composting – a hygienization method of source-separated faecal toilet waste

    OpenAIRE

    Holmkvist, A; Møller, J.; Dalsgaard, A.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the sanitizing effect of thermophilic composting of faecal material from urine diverting toilets as a function of temperature and exposure-time. Methods and Results: A composting lab with reactors imitating centralized in-vessel composting systems was used. The elimination of indicator organisms was investigated at temperatures between 50 and 65C. Salmonella serotype Senftenberg 775W and thermotolerant coliforms were rapidly inactivated during less than one day at all te...

  18. A simple method of separation of Pneumocystis carinii from rat lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Read, J. A.; Burns, S M

    1991-01-01

    Existing methods for purification of Pneumocystis carinii are unsatisfactory. Dialysis is a simple, non-stressful treatment which aided purification of organisms from rat cells. Yields were quantitated using a Petroff-Hausser chamber and nuclear staining. Following dialysis overnight, three times the yields of similar, undialysed preparations were obtained, with less than 0.2% contamination by lung cells. Overnight incubation at 4 degrees C also improved separation, but yields were only half ...

  19. Development and validation of LC methods for the separation of misoprostol related substances and diastereoisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahsay, Getu; Song, Huiying; Eerdekens, Fran; Tie, Yaxin; Hendriks, Danny; Van Schepdael, Ann; Cabooter, Deirdre; Adams, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    Misoprostol is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analogue which is mainly used for prevention and treatment of gastric ulcers, but also for abortion due to its labour inducing effect. Misoprostol exists as a mixture of diastereoisomers (1:1) and has several related impurities owing to its instability at higher temperatures and moisture. A simple and robust reversed phase liquid chromatographic (RPLC) method is described for the separation of the related substances and a normal phase (NP) LC method for the separation of misoprostol diastereoisomers. The RPLC method was performed using an Ascentis Express C18 (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column kept at 35 °C. The mobile phase was a gradient mixture of mobile phase A (ACN-H2O-MeOH, 28:69:3 v/v/v) and mobile phase B (ACN-H2O-MeOH, 47:50:3 v/v/v) eluted at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. UV detection was performed at 200 nm. The NPLC method was undertaken by using an XBridge bare silica (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 μm) column at 35 °C. The mobile phase contained 1-propanol-heptane-TFA (4:96:0.1%, v/v/v), pumped at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. UV detection was performed at 205 nm. This LC method can properly separate the two diastereoisomers (Rs > 2) within an analysis time of less than 20 min. Both methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines. Furthermore, these new LC methods have been successfully applied for purity control and diastereoisomers ratio determination of misoprostol bulk drug, tablets and dispersion.

  20. Carotenoids from Foods of Plant, Animal and Marine Origin: An Efficient HPLC-DAD Separation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Irini F.; Sinanoglou, Vassilia J.; Kora, Lintita; Miniadis-Meimaroglou, Sofia; Oreopoulou, Vassiliki

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids are important antioxidant compounds, present in many foods of plant, animal and marine origin. The aim of the present study was to describe the carotenoid composition of tomato waste, prawn muscle and cephalothorax and avian (duck and goose) egg yolks through the use of a modified gradient elution HPLC method with a C30 reversed-phase column for the efficient separation and analysis of carotenoids and their cis-isomers. Elution time was reduced from 60 to 45 min without affecting the separation efficiency. All-trans lycopene predominated in tomato waste, followed by all-trans-β-carotene, 13-cis-lutein and all-trans lutein, while minor amounts of 9-cis-lutein, 13-cis-β-carotene and 9-cis-β-carotene were also detected. Considering the above findings, tomato waste is confirmed to be an excellent source of recovering carotenoids, especially all-trans lycopene, for commercial use. Xanthophylls were the major carotenoids of avian egg yolks, all-trans lutein and all-trans zeaxanthin in duck and goose egg yolk, respectively. In the Penaeus kerathurus prawn, several carotenoids (zeaxanthin, all-trans-lutein, canthaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, optical and geometrical astaxanthin isomers) were identified in considerable amounts by the same method. A major advantage of this HPLC method was the efficient separation of carotenoids and their cis-isomers, originating from a wide range of matrices.

  1. Some Remarks on the Riccati Equation Expansion Method for Variable Separation of Nonlinear Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Peng; Dai, Chao-Qing

    2015-10-01

    Based on the Riccati equation expansion method, 11 kinds of variable separation solutions with different forms of (2+1)-dimensional modified Korteweg-de Vries equation are obtained. The following two remarks on the Riccati equation expansion method for variable separation are made: (i) a remark on the equivalence of different solutions constructed by the Riccati equation expansion method. From analysis, we find that these seemly independent solutions with different forms actually depend on each other, and they can transform from one to another via some relations. We should avoid arbitrarily asserting so-called "new" solutions; (ii) a remark on the construction of localised excitation based on variable separation solutions. For two or multi-component systems, we must be careful with excitation structures constructed by all components for the same model lest the appearance of some un-physical structures. We hope that these results are helpful to deeply study exact solutions of nonlinear models in physical, engineering and biophysical contexts.

  2. A Novel Separation Method of Microthrix parvicella Filaments from Activated Sludge by a Hydrophobic Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xuening; Li, Songya; Cao, Lingyun; Yan, Weiguo; Ma, Huaji; Jia, Guozhi

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a novel method to separate Microthrix parvicella (M. parvicella) filaments from activated sludge easily and quickly, as there are a few difficulties in the isolation of M. parvicella filaments, such as complicated isolation process, time consuming, etc. In this work, a series of hydrophobic plate with and without microchannels have been prepared for the separation of M. parvicella filaments. The results showed that the presence of microchannels and hydrophobic property of the hydrophobic plates affected the separation efficiency of M. parvicella significantly. The scanning electron microscope and Keyence Digital Microscope analysis results showed that the diameter of microchannels was similar to the width of M. parvicella filament, which was beneficial for the fastening of M. parvicella filaments on the plate. The hydrophobic property of the prepared plates was tested by contact angle of water droplets, and the results displayed that the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) plate possessed the highest contact angle compared with that of other plates, like polymethylmethacrylate, polystyrene plate, and PDMS plate with no hydrophobic microchannels. Thus, it was concluded that the high separation efficiency of PDMS plates to M. parvicella filaments was due to its best hydrophobic property.

  3. Two approaches to hydrograph separation of the glacial river runoff using isotopic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Chizhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of the stable isotope method in the balance equations used to calculate separation of the runoff hydrograph from the Djankuat Glacier basin is demonstrated. Simultaneous solution of equations of water, isotope and ion balances is applied to estimate contributions of different components and processes to formation of the Djankuat River runoff regime. For June 2014, we made calculations for the purpose to separate contributions of the spring (isotopically weighted snow and winter (isotopically depleted snow. Field works in the glacial basin Djankuat were performed during two ablation seasons, i.e. from June to September of 2013 and 2014. Two approaches were used when calculating separation of the runoff hydrograph by means of solution of systems of equations for isotopic and ion balances: 1 taking account of the isotope fractionation during snow melting, and 2 with no account for the fractionation. Separation of the hydrograph for June 2014 have shown that about 15–20% of the Djankuat River runoff is formed by spring snow melting, sometimes increasing up to 36%. Contribution of spring meltwater to the total runoff increases when the isotope fractionation during the snow melting is taken into account for the calculations. In this case, the contribution of spring snow changes from 30 to 50%.

  4. Liquid Phase Separation and the Aging Effect on Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Laser Rapidly Solidified Cu100−xCrx Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Hua Si

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Duplex structure Cu-Cr alloys are widely used as contact materials. They are generally designed by increasing the Cr content for the hardness improvement, which, however, leads to the unfavorable rapid increase of the electrical resistivity. The solidification behavior of Cu100−xCrx (x = 4.2, 25 and 50 in wt.% alloys prepared by laser rapid solidification is studied here, and their hardness and electrical conductivity after aging are measured. The results show that the Cu-4.2%Cr alloy has the most desirable combination of hardness and conductive properties after aging in comparison with Cu-25%Cr and Cu-50%Cr alloys. Very importantly, a 50% improvement in hardness is achieved with a simultaneous 70% reduction in electrical resistivity. The reason is mainly attributed to the liquid phase separation occurring in the Cu-4.2%Cr alloy, which introduces a large a

  5. Hanbury–Brown–Twiss measurements at large rapidity separations, or can we measure the proton radius in p-A collisions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altinoluk, Tolga [Departamento de Fíõsica de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia-Spain (Spain); Armesto, Néstor, E-mail: nestor.armesto@usc.es [Departamento de Fíõsica de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia-Spain (Spain); Beuf, Guillaume [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Kovner, Alex [Physics Department, University of Connecticut, 2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States); Lublinsky, Michael [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2016-01-10

    We point out that current calculations of inclusive two-particle correlations in p-A collisions based on the Color Glass Condensate approach exhibit a contribution from Hanbury–Brown–Twiss correlations. These HBT correlations are quite distinct from the standard ones, in that they are apparent for particles widely separated in rapidity. The transverse size of the emitter which is reflected in these correlations is the gluonic size of the proton. This raises an interesting possibility of measuring the proton size directly by the HBT effect of particle pairs produced in p-A collisions.

  6. Rapid ion-pair liquid chromatographic method for the determination of fenbendazole marker residue in fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vousdouka, Venetia I; Papapanagiotou, Elias P; Angelidis, Apostolos S; Fletouris, Dimitrios J

    2017-04-15

    A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatographic method that allows for the quantitative determination of fenbendazole residues in fermented dairy products is described. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile-phosphoric acid and the extracts were defatted with hexane to be further partitioned into ethyl acetate. The organic layer was evaporated to dryness and the residue was reconstituted in mobile phase. Separation of fenbendazole and its sulphoxide, sulphone, and p-hydroxylated metabolites was carried out isocratically with a mobile phase containing both positively and negatively charged pairing ions. Overall recoveries ranged from 79.8 to 88.8%, while precision data, based on within and between days variations, suggested an overall relative standard deviation of 6.3-11.0%. The detection and quantification limits were lower than 9 and 21μg/kg, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to quantitate fenbendazole residues in Feta cheese and yoghurt made from spiked and incurred ovine milk.

  7. Rapid One-Step Selection Method for Generating Nucleic Acid Aptamers: Development of a DNA Aptamer against alpha-Bungarotoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Lasse Holm; Shamaileh, Hadi A.; Edwards, Stacey L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nucleic acids based therapeutic approaches have gained significant interest in recent years towards the development of therapeutics against many diseases. Recently, research on aptamers led to the marketing of Macugen (R), an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF...... by PCR enrichment of the selected aptamers. One round of selection successfully identified a DNA aptamer sequence with a binding affinity of 7.58 mu M. Conclusion: We have demonstrated a one-step method for rapid production of nucleic acid aptamers. Although the reported binding affinity is in the low...... micromolar range, we believe that this could be further improved by using larger targets, increasing the stringency of selection and also by combining a capillary electrophoresis separation prior to the one-step selection. Furthermore, the method presented here is a user-friendly, cheap and an easy way...

  8. Phase-Separation Control of KxFe2-ySe2 Superconductor through Rapid-Quenching Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Yusuke; Tanaka, Masashi; Yamashita, Aichi; Suzuki, Kouji; Hara, Hiroshi; ElMassalami, Mohammed; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2017-04-01

    KxFe2-ySe2 exhibits iron-vacancy ordering at Ts ˜ 270 °C and separates into two phases: a minor superconducting (iron-vacancy-disordered) phase and a major non-superconducting (iron-vacancy-ordered) phase. The microstructural and superconducting properties of this intermixture can be tuned by an appropriate control of the quenching process through Ts. A faster quenching rate leads to a finer microstructure and a suppression of formation of the non-superconducting phase by up to 50%. Nevertheless, such a faster cooling rate induces a monotonic reduction in the superconducting transition temperature (from 30.7 to 26.0 K) and, simultaneously, a decrease in the iron content within the superconducting phase such that the compositional ratio changed from K0.35Fe1.83Se2 to K0.58Fe1.71Se2.

  9. Method of Separating Oxygen From Spacecraft Cabin Air to Enable Extravehicular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Extravehicular activities (EVAs) require high-pressure, high-purity oxygen. Shuttle EVAs use oxygen that is stored and transported as a cryogenic fluid. EVAs on the International Space Station (ISS) presently use the Shuttle cryo O2, which is transported to the ISS using a transfer hose. The fluid is compressed to elevated pressures and stored as a high-pressure gas. With the retirement of the shuttle, NASA has been searching for ways to deliver oxygen to fill the highpressure oxygen tanks on the ISS. A method was developed using low-pressure oxygen generated onboard the ISS and released into ISS cabin air, filtering the oxygen from ISS cabin air using a pressure swing absorber to generate a low-pressure (high-purity) oxygen stream, compressing the oxygen with a mechanical compressor, and transferring the high-pressure, high-purity oxygen to ISS storage tanks. The pressure swing absorber (PSA) can be either a two-stage device, or a single-stage device, depending on the type of sorbent used. The key is to produce a stream with oxygen purity greater than 99.5 percent. The separator can be a PSA device, or a VPSA device (that uses both vacuum and pressure for the gas separation). The compressor is a multi-stage mechanical compressor. If the gas flow rates are on the order of 5 to 10 lb (.2.3 to 4.6 kg) per day, the compressor can be relatively small [3 16 16 in. (.8 41 41 cm)]. Any spacecraft system, or other remote location that has a supply of lowpressure oxygen, a method of separating oxygen from cabin air, and a method of compressing the enriched oxygen stream, has the possibility of having a regenerable supply of highpressure, high-purity oxygen that is compact, simple, and safe. If cabin air is modified so there is very little argon, the separator can be smaller, simpler, and use less power.

  10. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  11. A plateau–valley separation method for textured surfaces with a deterministic pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godi, Alessandro; Kühle, Anders; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The effective characterization of textured surfaces presenting a deterministic pattern of lubricant reservoirs is an issue with which many researchers are nowadays struggling. Existing standards are not suitable for the characterization of such surfaces, providing at times values without physical...... division of the two regions, which can be studied separately according to their specific function. The case of a turned multifunctional profile is presented depicting the lacks in efficacy of standardized methods and therefore studied with this new methodology. Limitations of the method are eventually...

  12. Ramsey's Method of Separated Oscillating Fields and its Application to Gravitationally Induced Quantum Phaseshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Abele, H; Leeb, H; Schmiedmayer, J

    2009-01-01

    We propose to apply Ramsey's method of separated oscillating fields to the spectroscopy of the quantum states in the gravity potential above a vertical mirror. This method allows a precise measurement of quantum mechanical phaseshifts of a Schr\\"odinger wave packet bouncing off a hard surface in the gravitational field of the earth. Measurements with ultra-cold neutrons will offer a sensitivity to Newton's law or hypothetical short-ranged interactions, which is about 21 orders of magnitude below the energy scale of electromagnetism.

  13. Computer Aided Methods & Tools for Separation & Purification of Fine Chemical & Pharmaceutical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afonso, Maria B.C.; Soni, Vipasha; Mitkowski, Piotr Tomasz

    2006-01-01

    aided system. The methods and tools are linked through the problems they are able to solve and the associated data-flow. The integrated computer aided system has been used to solve a number of industrial problems and summarized results from a selection, involving separation and purification issues......An integrated approach that is particularly suitable for solving problems related to product-process design from the fine chemicals, agrochemicals, food and pharmaceutical industries is presented together with the corresponding methods and tools, which forms the basis for an integrated computer...

  14. Improved method for immunostaining of mucin separated by supported molecular matrix electrophoresis by optimizing the matrix composition and fixation procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Yu-Ki; Dong, Weijie; Yokoyama, Seiya; Yonezawa, Suguru; Saito, Takuro; Gotoh, Mitsukazu; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Kameyama, Akihiko

    2011-07-01

    Mucins are a family of heavily glycosylated high molecular mass proteins that have great potential as novel clinical biomarkers for the diagnosis of various malignant tumors. Supported molecular matrix electrophoresis (SMME) is a new type of membrane electrophoresis that can be used to characterize mucins. In SMME, mucins migrate in a molecular matrix supported by membrane materials. Here, we have developed an immunostaining method for the identification of SMME-separated mucins. The novel method involves stably fixing the mucins onto the SMME membrane and optimizing the molecular matrix for the fixation process. We applied this technique for the detection of MUC1 produced from three cancer cell lines (T47D, HPAF-II and BxPC3) and also analyzed their O-linked glycans by mass spectrometry. Our results revealed that properties of the MUC1 molecules from the three cell lines are different in terms of migrating position in SMME and glycan profile. The present method allows simple and rapid characterization of mucins in terms of both glycans and core proteins. The method will be a useful tool for the exploration of mucin alterations associated with various diseases such as cancer.

  15. Validation study of a rapid ELISA for detection of aflatoxin in corn. Performance Tested Method 050901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Anthony; Roebuck, Chris; Dutcher, Monica; Kennedy, Justina; Abouzied, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Neogen Corp. developed the Veratox aflatoxin test kit for the detection of total aflatoxin. The purpose of this study was to validate the method under the requirements of the AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested Methods (PTM) program. There are several AOAC Official Methods for total aflatoxin detection in corn (994.08, 990.33, 979.18, 993.17, 990.32, 993.16, 991.31, and 990.74), varying between rapid and analytical-based methods and one rapid method that has been performance tested by the AOAC Research Institute (PTM 030701). However, the widely used reference method is AOAC Official Method 994.08, which is an HPLC method and is referred to as the reference method in this paper. Although considered the reference method, the HPLC procedure is complicated and requires the investment of both expensive equipment and a highly skilled technician. A rapid (e.g., ELISA) test kit to be validated by the AOAC Research Institute is needed.

  16. Edge Effect Correction in the S-A Method for Geochemical Anomaly Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Yong; Cheng Qiuming; Zhang Shenyuan

    2004-01-01

    Anomaly separation using geochemical data often involves operations in the frequency domain, such as filtering and reducing noise/signal ratios. Unfortunately, the abrupt edge truncation of an image along edges and holes (with missing data) often causes frequency distribution distortion in the frequency domain. For example, bright strips are commonly seen in frequency distribution when using a Fourier transform. Such edge effect distortion may affect information extraction results; sometimes severely, depending on the edge abruptness of the image. Traditionally, edge effects are reduced by smoothing the image boundary prior to applying a Fourier transform. Zero-padding is one of the most commonly used smoothing methods. This simple method can reduce the edge effect to some degree but still distorts the image in some cases. Moreover, due to the complexity of geoscience images, which can include irregular shapes and holes with missing data, zero-padding does not always give satisfactory results. This paper proposes the use of decay functions to handle edge effects when extracting information from geoscience images. As an application, this method has been used in a newly developed multifractal method (S-A) for separating geochemical anomalies from background patterns. A geochemical dataset chosen from a mineral district in Nova Scotia, Canada was used to validate the method.

  17. Some theoretical and practical aspects in the separation of humic substances by combined liquid chromatography methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutta, Milan; Góra, Róbert; Halko, Radoslav; Chalányová, Mária

    2011-12-01

    Permanent need to understand nature, structure and properties of humic substances influences also separation methods that are in a wide scope used for fractionation, characterization and analysis of humic substances (HS). At the first glance techniques based on size-exclusion phenomena are the most useful and utilized for relating elution data to the molecular mass distribution of HS, however, with some limitations and exceptions, respectively, in the structural investigation of HS. The second most abundant separation mechanism is reversed-phase based on weak hydrophobic interactions beneficially combined with the step gradients inducing distinct features in rather featureless analytical signal of HS. Relatively great effort is invested to the developments of immobilized-metal affinity chromatography mimicking chelate-forming properties of HS as ligands in the environment. Surprisingly, relatively less attention is given to the ion-ion interactions based ion-exchange chromatography of HS. Chromatographic separation methods play also an important role in the examination of interactions of HS with pesticides. They allow us to determine binding constants and the other data necessary to predict the mobility of chemical pollutants in the environment. HS is frequently adversely acting in analytical procedures as interfering substance, so more detailed information is desired on manifestation of its numerous properties in analytical procedures. The article topic is covered by the review emphasizing advances in the field done in the period of last 10 years from 2000 till 2010.

  18. Rapid high temperature field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcite scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.

    1982-08-01

    A test method is described which allows the rapid field testing of calcite scale inhibitors in high- temperature geothermal brines. Five commercial formulations, chosen on the basis of laboratory screening tests, were tested in brines with low total dissolved solids at ca 500 F. Four were found to be effective; of these, 2 were found to be capable of removing recently deposited scale. One chemical was tested in the full-flow brine line for 6 wks. It was shown to stop a severe surface scaling problem at the well's control valve, thus proving the viability of the rapid test method. (12 refs.)

  19. Connection method of separated luminal regions of intestine from CT volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Masahiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Osamu; Ando, Takafumi; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a connection method of separated luminal regions of the intestine for Crohn's disease diagnosis. Crohn's disease is an inflammatory disease of the digestive tract. Capsule or conventional endoscopic diagnosis is performed for Crohn's disease diagnosis. However, parts of the intestines may not be observed in the endoscopic diagnosis if intestinal stenosis occurs. Endoscopes cannot pass through the stenosed parts. CT image-based diagnosis is developed as an alternative choice of the Crohn's disease. CT image-based diagnosis enables physicians to observe the entire intestines even if stenosed parts exist. CAD systems for Crohn's disease using CT volumes are recently developed. Such CAD systems need to reconstruct separated luminal regions of the intestines to analyze intestines. We propose a connection method of separated luminal regions of the intestines segmented from CT volumes. The luminal regions of the intestines are segmented from a CT volume. The centerlines of the luminal regions are calculated by using a thinning process. We enumerate all the possible sequences of the centerline segments. In this work, we newly introduce a condition using distance between connected ends points of the centerline segments. This condition eliminates unnatural connections of the centerline segments. Also, this condition reduces processing time. After generating a sequence list of the centerline segments, the correct sequence is obtained by using an evaluation function. We connect the luminal regions based on the correct sequence. Our experiments using four CT volumes showed that our method connected 6.5 out of 8.0 centerline segments per case. Processing times of the proposed method were reduced from the previous method.

  20. Method of quantitatively separating uranium from specimens of natural water by sorption on silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putral, A.; Schwochau, K.

    1981-08-11

    A method of quantitatively separating uranium from specimens of natural water, especially sea water or from solutions which as to their composition are comparable to such specimens, while silica gel is provided for adsorbing the uranium. The liquid of the specimens or solution is conveyed over granular silica gel having an average grain diameter not exceeding 0.5 mm. The through-flow speed is so selected that the contact time period for the liquid with the silica gel amounts to at least 50 seconds, whereupon the uranium adsorbed on the silica gel is separated therefrom by elutriation with at least 0.1 normal oxidizing mineral acid. The volume of the elutriate utilized, should amount to at least twice the volume of the silica gel, and this proportion of the elutriate should, if possible, not be exceeded.

  1. Strict lower bounds with separation of sources of error in non-overlapping domain decomposition methods

    CERN Document Server

    Rey, Valentine; Rey, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with the computation of guaranteed lower bounds of the error in the framework of finite element (FE) and domain decomposition (DD) methods. In addition to a fully parallel computation, the proposed lower bounds separate the algebraic error (due to the use of a DD iterative solver) from the discretization error (due to the FE), which enables the steering of the iterative solver by the discretization error. These lower bounds are also used to improve the goal-oriented error estimation in a substructured context. Assessments on 2D static linear mechanic problems illustrate the relevance of the separation of sources of error and the lower bounds' independence from the substructuring. We also steer the iterative solver by an objective of precision on a quantity of interest. This strategy consists in a sequence of solvings and takes advantage of adaptive remeshing and recycling of search directions.

  2. SYSTEM IDENTIFICATION METHOD OF LINEAR AND NON—LINEAR LIQUID PREPARATIVE CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShuWenli; LiZhong; 等

    1997-01-01

    The paper proposes the identification method of linear and non-linear chromatographic system.Isotherms and lumped mass transfer coefficients of chromatography separating isomer sorbitol and mannitol on D80 adsorbent are determined.The analyses of root mean square error of chromatography elution curves are carried out.The results show that the system studied is non-linear and the theoretical elution curves of the non-linear chromatographic model are more accurate than those of the linear chromatographic model,Results of parameter sensitivity analyses show that elution curves of non-linear chromatopraphic separation aremore sensitive to the variation of parameter “ai” in the adsorption isotherms Qi=Ci*/(ai+biCi*) than to the variation of parameter "bi”as well as lumped mass transfer coefficients.

  3. Device and method for automated separation of a sample of whole blood into aliquots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.

    1989-01-01

    A device and a method for automated processing and separation of an unmeasured sample of whole blood into multiple aliquots of plasma. Capillaries are radially oriented on a rotor, with the rotor defining a sample chamber, transfer channels, overflow chamber, overflow channel, vent channel, cell chambers, and processing chambers. A sample of whole blood is placed in the sample chamber, and when the rotor is rotated, the blood moves outward through the transfer channels to the processing chambers where the blood is centrifugally separated into a solid cellular component and a liquid plasma component. When the rotor speed is decreased, the plasma component backfills the capillaries resulting in uniform aliquots of plasma which may be used for subsequent analytical procedures.

  4. Traction force microscopy in rapidly moving cells reveals separate roles for ROCK and MLCK in the mechanics of retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Timothy R; Ghassem-Zadeh, Sean A; Lee, Juliet

    2014-08-15

    Retraction is a major rate-limiting step in cell motility, particularly in slow moving cell types that form large stable adhesions. Myosin II dependent contractile forces are thought to facilitate detachment by physically pulling up the rear edge. However, retraction can occur in the absence of myosin II activity in cell types that form small labile adhesions. To investigate the role of contractile force generation in retraction, we performed traction force microscopy during the movement of fish epithelial keratocytes. By correlating changes in local traction stress at the rear with the area retracted, we identified four distinct modes of retraction. "Recoil" retractions are preceded by a rise in local traction stress, while rear edge is temporarily stuck, followed by a sharp drop in traction stress upon detachment. This retraction type was most common in cells generating high average traction stress. In "pull" type retractions local traction stress and area retracted increase concomitantly. This was the predominant type of retraction in keratocytes and was observed mostly in cells generating low average traction stress. "Continuous" type retractions occur without any detectable change in traction stress, and are seen in cells generating low average traction stress. In contrast, to many other cell types, "release" type retractions occur in keratocytes following a decrease in local traction stress. Our identification of distinct modes of retraction suggests that contractile forces may play different roles in detachment that are related to rear adhesion strength. To determine how the regulation of contractility via MLCK or Rho kinase contributes to the mechanics of detachment, inhibitors were used to block or augment these pathways. Modulation of MLCK activity led to the most rapid change in local traction stress suggesting its importance in regulating attachment strength. Surprisingly, Rho kinase was not required for detachment, but was essential for localizing

  5. Interactions between discontinuities for binary mixture separation problem and hodograph method

    CERN Document Server

    Elaeva, M S; Yu, Zhukov M

    2016-01-01

    The Cauchy problem for first-order PDE with the initial data which have a piecewise discontinuities localized in different spatial points is completely solved. The interactions between discontinuities arising after breakup of initial discontinuities are studied with the help of the hodograph method. The solution is constructed in analytical implicit form. To recovery the explicit form of solution we propose the transformation of the PDEs into some ODEs on the level lines (isochrones) of implicit solution. In particular, this method allows us to solve the Goursat problem with initial data on characteristics. The paper describes a specific problem for zone electrophoresis (method of the mixture separation). However, the method proposed allows to solve any system of two first-order quasilinear PDEs for which the second order linear PDE, arising after the hodograph transformation, has the Riemann-Green function in explicit form.

  6. Functional hydrophilic polystyrene beads with uniformly size and high cross-linking degree facilitated rapid separation of exenatide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Zhao, Lan; Zhang, Rongyue; Huang, Yongdong; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Kun; Wu, Xuexing; Zhang, Zhigang; Gong, Fangling; Su, Zhiguo; Ma, Guanghui

    2016-04-01

    A high cross-linking polystyrene(PSt)-based anion-exchange material with uniformly size, high ion exchange capacity, and high hydrophilicity was synthesized by a novel surface functionalization approach in this study. Uniformly sized PSt microspheres were prepared by the membrane emulsion polymerization strategy, and then modified by (1) conversing resid ual surface vinyl groups to epoxy groups followed by quaternization, and (2) decorating aromatic ring matrix including nitration, reduction and attachment of glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride. The 3-D morphology and porous features of microspheres were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surface of the modified PSt became roughness but the particle size remained same. Meanwhile, FT-IR spectra and laser scanning confocal microscope (LCSM) indicated that the modification groups had been successfully covalently coated onto the PSt microspheres. Modified PSt microspheres showed greatly improved hydrophilicity and biocompatibility with 0.387mmol/mL ion exchange capacity (IEC). In the application evaluation procedure, exenatide can be purified from 42.9% (peptide crudes) to 88.6% by modified PSt column with 97.1% recovery yield. This modified PSt microspheres had a large potential in application for efficient separation of peptides.

  7. Separation of Cyclic Dipeptides (Diketopiperazines from Their Corresponding Linear Dipeptides by RP-HPLC and Method Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Perzborn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple, rapid, sensitive, precise, and accurate methods for detection and separation of seven diketopiperazines (DKPs, cyclo(Gly-Gly, cyclo(dl-Ala-dl-Ala, cyclo(l-Asp-l-Phe, cyclo(l-Asp-l-Asp, cyclo(Gly-l-Phe, cyclo(l-Pro-l-Tyr, and cyclo(l-Arg-l-Arg, from their corresponding linear dipeptides and related amino acids l-Phe and l-Tyr by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC were established. Moreover, for the racemic DKP cyclo(dl-Ala-dl-Ala and dipeptide dl-Ala-dl-Ala, separation of the diastereomers was achieved. All methods can be performed within 15 min. For all DKPs, dipeptides, and amino acids, linear ranges with correlation coefficients R2 greater than 0.998 were determined. Lowest limits of detection were found to be between 0.05 and 10 nmol per 10 μL injection, depending on the substance. For all tested substances intrarun and interrun precision ranged from 0.5 to 4.7% and 0.7 to 9.9% relative standard deviation, and accuracy was between −4.2 and 8.1% relative error. Short-term and freeze-thaw stabilities were 93% or greater for all substances. Recovery rate after heat treatment was determined to be at least 97%. These methods will be useful for quantitative determination of DKPs and their potential biodegradation products: dipeptides and amino acids

  8. A Rapid Detection Method of Brucella with Quantum Dots and Magnetic Beads Conjugated with Different Polyclonal Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dandan; Qu, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yushen; Li, Li; Yin, Dehui; Li, Juan; Xu, Kun; Xie, Renguo; Zhai, Yue; Zhang, Huiwen; Bao, Hao; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Juan; Song, Xiuling; Song, Wenzhi

    2017-03-01

    Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause zoonotic disease of brucellosis worldwide. Traditional methods for detection of Brucella spp. take 48-72 h that does not meet the need of rapid detection. Herein, a new rapid detection method of Brucella was developed based on polyclonal antibody-conjugating quantum dots and antibody-modified magnetic beads. First, polyclonal antibodies IgG and IgY were prepared and then the antibody conjugated with quantum dots (QDs) and immunomagnetic beads (IMB), respectively, which were activated by N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)- N'-ethylcar-bodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) to form probes. We used the IMB probe to separate the Brucella and labeled by the QD probe, and then detected the fluorescence intensity with a fluorescence spectrometer. The detection method takes 105 min with a limit of detection of 103 CFU/mL and ranges from 10 to 105 CFU/mL ( R 2 = 0.9983), and it can be well used in real samples.

  9. A rapid quantitative method for the analysis of synthetic cannabinoids by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freijo, Tom D; Harris, Steve E; Kala, Subbarao V

    2014-10-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids represent an emerging drug problem in the USA, as these compounds are constantly being modified and rapidly sold as soon as they become available. Laboratories around the world are constantly improving the analytical methods to detect and identify these newly available designer drugs. This study used a simple approach to detect and quantify a variety of synthetic cannabinoids (14 parent compounds and 15 metabolites including series XLR, AM, JWH, UR, RCS, PB, HU and AB-FUBINACA) using LC-MS-MS. Drug-free urine samples spiked with various synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites were separated on a C18-Hypersil Gold column using an Agilent 1290 ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and detected by an AB Sciex API 4000 tandem mass spectrometer. Studies were carried out to determine limit of detection, limit of quantitation, upper limit of linearity, ion suppression, interference, precision and accuracy to validate the method. Urine samples from patients and known users were hydrolyzed with β-glucuronidase prior to the analysis by LC-MS-MS, and the data are presented. The method described here is rapid, highly sensitive and specific for the identification of a variety of synthetic cannabinoids. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Temporal Unmixing of Dynamic Fluorescent Images by Blind Source Separation Method with a Convex Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duofang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By recording a time series of tomographic images, dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT allows exploring perfusion, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics of labeled substances in vivo. Usually, dynamic tomographic images are first reconstructed frame by frame, and then unmixing based on principle component analysis (PCA or independent component analysis (ICA is performed to detect and visualize functional structures with different kinetic patterns. PCA and ICA assume sources are statistically uncorrelated or independent and don’t perform well when correlated sources are present. In this paper, we deduce the relationship between the measured imaging data and the kinetic patterns and present a temporal unmixing approach, which is based on nonnegative blind source separation (BSS method with a convex analysis framework to separate the measured data. The presented method requires no assumption on source independence or zero correlations. Several numerical simulations and phantom experiments are conducted to investigate the performance of the proposed temporal unmixing method. The results indicate that it is feasible to unmix the measured data before the tomographic reconstruction and the BSS based method provides better unmixing quality compared with PCA and ICA.

  11. Signal Separation and Reconstruction Method for Simultaneously Received Multi-System Signals in Flexible Wireless System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takayuki; Lee, Doohwan; Shiba, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yo; Akabane, Kazunori; Uehara, Kazuhiro

    We previously proposed a unified wireless system called “Flexible Wireless System”. Comprising of flexible access points and a flexible signal processing unit, it collectively receives a wideband spectrum that includes multiple signals from various wireless systems. In cases of simultaneous multiple signal reception, however, reception performance degrades due to the interference among multiple signals. To address this problem, we propose a new signal separation and reconstruction method for spectrally overlapped signals. The method analyzes spectral information obtained by the short-time Fourier transform to extract amplitude and phase values at each center frequency of overlapped signals at a flexible signal processing unit. Using these values enables signals from received radio wave data to be separated and reconstructed for simultaneous multi-system reception. In this paper, the BER performance of the proposed method is evaluated using computer simulations. Also, the performance of the interference suppression is evaluated by analyzing the probability density distribution of the amplitude of the overlapped interference on a symbol of the received signal. Simulation results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. A novel separation and calibration method for DVL and compass error in dead reckoning navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanshun; Guo, Yajing; Yang, Tao; Li, Chunyu; Wang, Zhanqing

    2016-06-01

    The scale factor error δ C of the Doppler velocity log (DVL) and the heading angle error δ \\psi of a compass are so integrated in dead reckoning (DR) navigation systems that it is difficult to separate them. This paper aims to solve this problem by putting forward an online separation and calibration method for δ C and δ \\psi based on an ‘arc and linear’ trajectory. This method introduces the high-accuracy location information of a long base line (LBL) acoustic positioning system. At first, the relationship between the displacements on the ‘arc’ trajectory in directions of east and north, output by the LBL and DR systems, serves to judge the carrier direction and calibrate δ C . And then by compensating δ C , the displacement on the ‘linear’ trajectory is used to calibrate δ \\psi . Finally, a semi-physical simulation experiment is conducted to test and verify this calibration method to see how effective and accurate it is. Experimental results show that after calibration the residual error ratios of δ C and δ \\psi are 8.24% and 3.70% respectively. Therefore, online calibration of δ C and δ \\psi is realized effectively. What’s more, when the DR system is working alone in 400 s, this method reduces position error by up to 93.39%, from 18.91 m to 1.25 m.

  13. Smoothing methods comparison for CMB E- and B-mode separation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yi-Fan; Zhao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    The anisotropies of the B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background radiation play a crucial role for the study of the very early Universe. However, in the real observation, the mixture of the E-mode and B-mode can be caused by the partial sky surveys, which must be separated before applied to the cosmological explanation. The separation method developed by Smith (\\citealt{PhysRevD.74.083002}) has been widely adopted, where the edge of the top-hat mask should be smoothed to avoid the numerical errors. In this paper, we compare three different smoothing methods, and investigate the leakage residuals of the E-B mixture. We find that, if the less information loss is needed and the smaller region is smoothed in the analysis, the \\textit{sin}- and \\textit{cos}-smoothing methods are better. However, if we need a clean constructed B-mode map, the larger region around the mask edge should be smoothed. In this case, the \\textit{Gaussian}-smoothing method becomes much better. In addition, we find that the le...

  14. Spectral-based color separation method for a multi-ink printer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binyu Wang; Haisong Xu; M.Ronnier Luo; Jinyi Guo

    2011-01-01

    @@ A spectral-based 8-ink characterization model is developed to accurately predict the recipe for a multi-ink printer.The 8-ink color separation method is a union of five 3-ink and six 4-ink combinations based on the cellular Yule-Nielsen spectral Neugebauer model with a recipe selection strategy.The performance levels of the forward and backward models are evaluated for individual ink combinations using printed testing samples.Furthermore, the spectral-based method performs better compared with the XYZ-based approach.On the basis of the backward model performance, a novel fast recipe selection strategy is proposed and estimated.%A spectral-based 8-ink characterization model is developed to accurately predict the recipe for a multi-ink printer. The 8-ink color separation method is a union of five 3-ink and six 4-ink combinations based on the cellular Yule-Nielsen spectral Neugebauer model with a recipe selection strategy. The performance levels of the forward and backward models are evaluated for individual ink combinations using printed testing samples. Furthermore, the spectral-based method performs better compared with the XYZ-based approach. On the basis of the backward model performance, a novel fast recipe selection strategy is proposed and estimated.

  15. Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction method for the selective separation and preconcentration of ultra trace molybdenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasvand, A R; Shadabi, S; Mohagheghzadeh, E; Hashemi, P

    2005-05-15

    A new simple and efficient homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction method for the selective separation and preconcentration of molybdenyl ions was developed. alpha-Benzoin oxime (ABO) was investigated as a complexing ligand, and perfluorooctanoate ion (PFOA(-)) was applied as a phase-separator agent under strongly acidic conditions. Under the optimal conditions ([ABO]=2.1x10(-3)M, [PFOA(-)]=1.8x10(-2)M, [HNO(3)]=1.7M, [acetone]=11.8% (v/v)), 10mug of molybdenum in 5ml aqueous phase could be extracted quantitatively into 40mul of the sedimented phase. The maximum concentration factor was 125-fold. Thiocyanate was applied as a chromogenic reagent for the direct spectrophotometric determination of molybdenum in the sedimented phase. The reproducibility of the proposed method is at the most 2.4%. The influence of the type and concentration of acid solution, the concentration of ABO, the type and volume of the water-miscible organic solvent, the concentration of PFOA(-), and the effect of different diverse ions on the extraction and determination of molybdenum(VI) were investigated. The proposed method was applied to the extraction and determination of molybdenum(VI) in natural water, Spinach, and Lucerne samples. A satisfactory agreement exists between the results obtained by the proposed method and those reported by GF-AAS.

  16. New rapid transfer alignment method for SINS of airborne weapon systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Chen; Yan Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Transfer alignment is an effective alignment method for the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) of airborne weapon systems. The traditional transfer alignment methods for large misalignment angles alignment use nonlinear transfer align-ment models and incorporate nonlinear filtering. A rapid transfer alignment method with linear models and linear filtering for ar-bitrary misalignment angles is presented. Through the attitude quaternion decomposition, the purpose of transfer alignment is converted to estimate a constant quaternion. Employing special manipulations on measurement equation, velocity and attitude linear measurement equations are derived. Then the linear trans-fer alignment model for arbitrary misalignment angles is built. An adaptive Kalman filter is developed to handle modeling errors of the measurement noise statistics. Simulation results show feasibili-ty and effectiveness of the proposed method, which provides an alternative rapid transfer alignment method for airborne weapons.

  17. A rapid and accurate two-point ray tracing method in horizontally layered velocity model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yue; CHEN Xiao-fei

    2005-01-01

    A rapid and accurate method for two-point ray tracing in horizontally layered velocity model is presented in this paper. Numerical experiments show that this method provides stable and rapid convergence with high accuracies, regardless of various 1-D velocity structures, takeoff angles and epicentral distances. This two-point ray tracing method is compared with the pseudobending technique and the method advanced by Kim and Baag (2002). It turns out that the method in this paper is much more efficient and accurate than the pseudobending technique, but is only applicable to 1-D velocity model. Kim(s method is equivalent to ours for cases without large takeoff angles, but it fails to work when the takeoff angle is close to 90o. On the other hand, the method presented in this paper is applicable to cases with any takeoff angles with rapid and accurate convergence. Therefore, this method is a good choice for two-point ray tracing problems in horizontally layered velocity model and is efficient enough to be applied to a wide range of seismic problems.

  18. Development of a rapid RP-UHPLC-MS method for analysis of modifications in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Jeong, Justin; Burgess, Braydon; Jazayri, Mansour; Tang, Yun; Taylor Zhang, Yonghua

    2016-10-01

    Chemical or enzymatic modifications of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that have high risk to safety and efficacy are defined as critical quality attributes (CQAs). During therapeutic MAbs process development, thorough characterization and quantitative monitoring of CQAs requires a variety of analytical techniques. This paper describes the development of a rapid analytical method to assess modifications in MAbs, based on the analysis of subdomains with molecular weights of ∼25kDa. These subdomains were generated by digestion with a highly specific IdeS protease, followed by disulfide bond reduction. A reversed phase UHPLC-MS method was developed that provides efficient separation and identification of the subdomains (Fc, LC, and Fd) and related variants within 10min. Sample preparation and UHPLC instrument parameters were systematically evaluated. The methodology was applied to MAb stress panel characterization to capture the degradations induced by various stress conditions. Among the CQAs monitored by this method, Fc oxidation levels were compared with the values obtained by the more complicated and time-consuming peptide mapping method. The similar trends observed by the two methods demonstrated that the IdeS-UHPLC method is valuable as a higher throughput alternative to peptide mapping for monitoring modifications. In particular, a high-throughput methodology is preferred for analysis of the many samples associated with process development studies. Overall the method has been demonstrated as a fast, convenient and informative platform approach for analysis of therapeutic MAbs modifications including CQAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Novel Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatographic Method for Separation of Metal-DDTC Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfana Mallah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC was examined for the separation and determination of Mo(VI, Cr(VI, Ni(II, Pd(II, and Co(III as diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDTC chelates. The separation was achieved from fused silica capillary (52 cm × 75 m id with effective length 40 cm, background electrolyte (BGE borate buffer pH 9.1 (25 mM, CTAB 30% (100 mM, and 1% butanol in methanol (70 : 30 : 5 v/v/v with applied voltage of −10 kV using reverse polarity. The photodiode array detection was achieved at 225 nm. The linear calibration for each of the element was obtained within 0.16–10 g/mL with a limit of detection (LOD 0.005–0.0167 g/mL. The separation and determination was repeatable with relative standard deviation (RSD within 2.4–3.3% (=4 in terms of migration time and peak height/peak area. The method was applied for the determination of Mo(VI from potatoes and almond, Ni(II from hydrogenated vegetable oil, and Co(III from pharmaceutical preparations with RSD within 3.9%. The results obtained were checked by standard addition and rechecked by atomic absorption spectrometry.

  20. Sludge Water Characteristics Under Different Separation Methods from a Membrane Bioreactor

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2013-11-22

    The concept of sludge water was proposed to integrate the relative terminologies and its characteristics under different separation methods from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) were investigated in this study. Based on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and three-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM), and compared with the control (gravitational sedimentation), some suspended particulate organics or biopolymer clusters (mainly proteins) were released from sludge flocs into the supernatant after centrifugation under low to middle centrifugal forces (10-4000 g) and then aggregated into a pellet under high centrifugal forces (10000-20000 g). Filtration (1.2 μm glass fiber filter) produced sludge water with a lower biopolymers concentration than the control (gravitational sedimentation followed by filtration) due to cake layer formation during filtration. As for centrifugation followed by filtration, low to middle centrifugal forces did not significantly affect sludge water characteristics but high centrifugal forces reduced the concentrations of some proteins in sludge water from advanced analytical protocols including F-EEM and liquid chromatography with on-line organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), demonstrating a low to middle centrifugal force suitable for MBR sludge water separation. From LC-OCD, the main fractions of sludge water were humic substances and building blocks, low molecular weight neutrals and biopolymers (mainly proteins rather than polysaccharides). Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher\\'s online edition of Separation Science and Technology to view the supplemental file. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  1. New separation method of no-carrier-added {sup 47}Sc from titanium targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, B.; Majkowska, A.; Kasperek, A.; Krajewski, S.; Bilewicz, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warszawa (Poland). Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry Center

    2012-07-01

    Radionuclides with medium energy beta emission and a several day half-life are attractive candidates for radioimmunotherapy. Among the most promising in this category is {sup 47}Sc produced by fast neutron irradiation (E{sub n} > 1 MeV) of titanium target with high energy neutrons in {sup 47}Ti(n,p){sup 47}Sc nuclear reaction. In the previously reported production scheme the dissolution of the TiO{sub 2} target in hot concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and evaporation of the resulting solution were the most time-consuming steps. The present paper describes new, simple and efficient production method of {sup 47}Sc, where the slow dissolution of the target is avoided. After irradiation in fast neutron flux {sup 47}TiO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}{sup 47}TiF{sub 6} targets were dissolved in HF solutions. Next {sup 47}Sc was separated from the target using anion exchange resin Dowex 1 with 0.4 M HF + 0.06 M HNO{sub 3} solution as eluent. The eluted {sup 47}Sc was adsorbed on cation exchange resin and eluted with 0.5 M of ammonium acetate. The 47Sc separation yield in the proposed procedure is about 90% with the separation time less than 2 h. The obtained no-carrier-added {sup 47}Sc was used to label DOTATATE conjugate with 96% labeling yield. (orig.)

  2. Splitting K-symplectic methods for non-canonical separable Hamiltonian problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Beibei; Zhang, Ruili; Tang, Yifa; Tu, Xiongbiao; Zhao, Yue

    2016-10-01

    Non-canonical Hamiltonian systems have K-symplectic structures which are preserved by K-symplectic numerical integrators. There is no universal method to construct K-symplectic integrators for arbitrary non-canonical Hamiltonian systems. However, in many cases of interest, by using splitting, we can construct explicit K-symplectic methods for separable non-canonical systems. In this paper, we identify situations where splitting K-symplectic methods can be constructed. Comparative numerical experiments in three non-canonical Hamiltonian problems show that symmetric/non-symmetric splitting K-symplectic methods applied to the non-canonical systems are more efficient than the same-order Gauss' methods/non-symmetric symplectic methods applied to the corresponding canonicalized systems; for the non-canonical Lotka-Volterra model, the splitting algorithms behave better in efficiency and energy conservation than the K-symplectic method we construct via generating function technique. In our numerical experiments, the favorable energy conservation property of the splitting K-symplectic methods is apparent.

  3. Establishment and application of an efficient, economic, and rapid rice DNA extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid, economic, and efficient method for DNA extraction from rice leaf, root and seed was developed, and the extracted DNA was used as a template to successfully amplify the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta. Profiles of Pi-ta in 165 breeding lines detected by DNA markers were verified using diff...

  4. A Rapid and Sensitive Method for the Quantitation of Legionella Pneumophila Antigen from Human Urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-12

    reverse% passive hemagglutination test was developed to assay concentrations of solubl4 antigen of Legionnaires’ Disease ( Legionella pneumophila ) in... Legionella pneumophila Antigen from Humanl Urine JOSEPH A. MANGIAFICO, KENNETH W. HEDLUND, AND ALLEN R. KNOTT Running title: L. PNEUMOPHILA ANTIGEN IN...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited A Rapid and Sensitive Method for the Quantitation of Legionella pneumophila Antigen from Human

  5. A critical analysis of methods for rapid and nondestructive determination of wood density in standing trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan Gao; Xiping Wang; Michael C. Wiemann; Brian K. Brashaw; Robert J. Ross; Lihai Wang

    2017-01-01

    Key message Field methods for rapid determination of wood density in trees have evolved from increment borer, torsiometer, Pilodyn, and nail withdrawal into sophisticated electronic tools of resistance drilling measurement. A partial resistance drilling approach coupled with knowledge of internal tree density distribution may...

  6. Collision-induced fragmentation accurate mass spectrometric analysis methods to rapidly characterize phytochemicals in plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid advances in analytical chromatography equipment have made the reliable and reproducible measurement of a wide range of plant chemical components possible. Full chemical characterization of a given plant material is possible with the new mass spectrometers currently available. New methods a...

  7. A Rapid Method for Measuring Strontium-90 Activity in Crops in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lingjing Pan; Yu, Guobing; Wen, Deyun; Chen, Zhi; Sheng, Liusi; Liu, Chung-King; Xu, X. George

    2017-09-01

    A rapid method for measuring Sr-90 activity in crop ashes is presented. Liquid scintillation counting, combined with ion exchange columns 4`, 4"(5")-di-t-butylcyclohexane-18-crown-6, is used to determine the activity of Sr-90 in crops. The yields of chemical procedure are quantified using gravimetric analysis. The conventional method that uses ion-exchange resin with HDEHP could not completely remove all the bismuth when comparatively large lead and bismuth exist in the samples. This is overcome by the rapid method. The chemical yield of this method is about 60% and the MDA for Sr-90 is found to be 2:32 Bq/kg. The whole procedure together with using spectrum analysis to determine the activity only takes about one day, which is really a large improvement compared with the conventional method. A modified conventional method is also described here to verify the value of the rapid one. These two methods can meet di_erent needs of daily monitoring and emergency situation.

  8. Searching-and-averaging method of underdetermined blind speech signal separation in time domain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Underdetermined blind signal separation (BSS) (with fewer observed mixtures than sources) is discussed. A novel searching-and-averaging method in time domain (SAMTD) is proposed. It can solve a kind of problems that are very hard to solve by using sparse representation in frequency domain. Bypassing the disadvantages of traditional clustering (e.g., K-means or potential-function clustering), the durative- sparsity of a speech signal in time domain is used. To recover the mixing matrix, our method deletes those samples, which are not in the same or inverse direction of the basis vectors. To recover the sources, an improved geometric approach to overcomplete ICA (Independent Component Analysis) is presented. Several speech signal experiments demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method.

  9. An analytic method for separating local from regional effects on macroseismic intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gasparini

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available nterpretation of macroseismic data is hazardous, due to its qualitative nature. This, linked with errors in eval- uation, and the variations of local intensity, makes it difficult to draw valid conclusions. This study presents a statistical method as the basis for distinguishing the diverse components that constitute a macroseismic field. The method is based on the polar transformation of the coordinate system and on the analysis of the fractal di- mension of the intensity values, exposed to the gradually increasing action of a two-dimensional filter. The fractal dimension is shown to be an ideaI parameter with which to measure out the filtering process in order to separate the local components from the regional trend. This method has been applied to two Italian events and to an earthquake which took pIace in the Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM.

  10. Established DFT methods lose sigma/pi separation in double bonds having hyperconjugative interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Sharley, John N

    2015-01-01

    Accurate treatment of amide resonance is important in electronic structure calculation of protein, for Resonance Assisted Hydrogen Bonding in hydrogen bonded chains of backbone amides in protein secondary structure types such as beta sheet and alpha helix is determined by amide resonance. Variation in amide resonance is the means by which the hydrogen bonding in these chains is cooperative. Amide carbonyl orbitals are revealed by Natural Bond Orbital analysis to substantially maintain sigma/pi separation in the presence of non-amide plane hyperconjugative interactions with wavefunction methods but not with established DFT methods. This DFT error is most pronounced with small basis sets such as are used with DFT for proteins to reduce the basis function count. This error disturbs calculation of a range of amide donor/acceptor and steric interactions. This finding has important implications for the selection of electronic structure methods and basis sets for protein calculations. For example, great caution is n...

  11. Convolution-variation separation method for efficient modeling of optical lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyuan; Zhou, Xinjiang; Lv, Wen; Xu, Shuang; Wei, Haiqing

    2013-07-01

    We propose a general method called convolution-variation separation (CVS) to enable efficient optical imaging calculations without sacrificing accuracy when simulating images for a wide range of process variations. The CVS method is derived from first principles using a series expansion, which consists of a set of predetermined basis functions weighted by a set of predetermined expansion coefficients. The basis functions are independent of the process variations and thus may be computed and stored in advance, while the expansion coefficients depend only on the process variations. Optical image simulations for defocus and aberration variations with applications in robust inverse lithography technology and lens aberration metrology have demonstrated the main concept of the CVS method.

  12. Simultaneous LC/ESI-MS separation method for the enantioseparation of some new anticonvulsant drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Maria; Pekala, Elzbieta; Waszkielewicz, Anna M; Marona, Henryk

    2014-03-01

    A sensitive and specific method for the simultaneous determination of the enantiomeric purity of 2,6-dimethylphenoxyacetyl derivatives as trans or cis racemic and enantiomeric forms with 2- or 4-aminocyclohexanol moiety (1, 2, 3, 6) and their amine analogs (8, 9) was developed. The compounds studied are known for their anticonvulsant activity and the most interesting pharmacological results were those for (±)-trans-2-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-N-(2-hydroxycyclohexyl)acetamide (1) as well as (±)-trans-2-[(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)ethyl]aminocyclohexanol (8). The analytical method for determining the enantiomeric purity of the compounds studied is based on direct separation of the analytes using a chiral stationary phase (Chiralpak AS column). The mass spectrometric analysis was done on a coupled liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometer system with an electrospray ionization source (LC/ESI-MS). For the compounds 1, 8, and 9, the method allows an excellent separation of enantiomers, with a resolution higher than 3.2, and a tailing factor of less than 1.67 with a final enantiomer purity better than 97.5%. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Full-Scale Turbofan Engine Noise-Source Separation Using a Four-Signal Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Arechiga, Rene O.

    2016-01-01

    Contributions from the combustor to the overall propulsion noise of civilian transport aircraft are starting to become important due to turbofan design trends and expected advances in mitigation of other noise sources. During on-ground, static-engine acoustic tests, combustor noise is generally sub-dominant to other engine noise sources because of the absence of in-flight effects. Consequently, noise-source separation techniques are needed to extract combustor-noise information from the total noise signature in order to further progress. A novel four-signal source-separation method is applied to data from a static, full-scale engine test and compared to previous methods. The new method is, in a sense, a combination of two- and three-signal techniques and represents an attempt to alleviate some of the weaknesses of each of those approaches. This work is supported by the NASA Advanced Air Vehicles Program, Advanced Air Transport Technology Project, Aircraft Noise Reduction Subproject and the NASA Glenn Faculty Fellowship Program.

  14. Comparison of different methods for estimating the geoid-to-quasi-geoid separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Ismael; Tenzer, Robert

    2017-08-01

    In Molodensky's definition of the normal height, the mean normal gravity is computed explicitly. In definition of the orthometric height, however, the actual mean gravity along the plumbline within the topography could only be estimated approximately, because our knowledge about the actual topographic density distribution is still restricted. This practical limitation resulted in implementing various approximations to the orthometric height based on adopting a particular density hypothesis. Helmert's orthometric heights are the most commonly used for a vertical datum realization, because of their simple definition by assuming a planar topography of uniform density. To improve the accuracy, several different numerical models have been proposed by taking into consideration the terrain geometry, topographic density heterogeneities and implicitly also the mass density distributed below the geoid surface. Consequently, different formulae have been derived for conversion from the normal to orthometric heights (or vice versa), practically realized by computing the geoid-to-quasi-geoid separation (i.e. the difference between the geoid and the quasi-geoid). In this study, we review these methods and apply them at the regional study area of Himalaya and Tibet, characterized by the largest vertical displacement between the geoid and the quasi-geoid. We show that the maximum geoid-to-quasi-geoid separation reaches -4.06 m, when computed with a spectral resolution complete to the spherical harmonic degree of 2160. We further investigate the dependence of the geoid-to-quasi-geoid separation on the spectral resolution of used gravity and topographic models, showing that a higher degree harmonic spectrum (from 360 to 2160) modifies the geoid-to-quasi-geoid separation 2 m or even more, especially at the foothills of Himalaya. Our results also reveal that the topographic density variations within sediments and bedrock modify the geoid-to-quasi-geoid separation typically less than 5

  15. Gas chromatography of volatile fatty acids. Method involving separation from biological material by vacuum distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, J E; Dibdin, G H

    1975-02-19

    A method is described for the quantitation of C2-C5 volatile fatty acids present in biological tissues. It involved recovery of the acids from their biological matrix by vacuum micro-distillation at room temperature, followed by gas phase separation of aqueous solutions on orthophosphoric acid-modified Phasepak Q columns. The subsequent gas chromatographic procedure resolved iso from normal isomers and showed a linear response for each volatile acid over the range 10-400 ng. There was no evidence of ghosting, isomer peak broadening, or peak tailing. Relative molar response values were shown to be linear with carbon number for all the volatile fatty acids studied.

  16. Dry-surface coating method for visualization of separation on a bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, W. Z.; Brauer, H. J.; Durgin, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    A simple and relatively accurate dry-surface coating method for visualization of the flow separation on a circular cylinder (or any bluff body) during wind tunnel tests is described. The technique consists of (1) application of a thin coating composed of an indicator and a paint carrier; (2) drying of the film; (3) conditioning of the coating with an acidic solution to ensure a suitable color reaction; (4) release into the body wake of a gas able to produce a base through chemical reaction with the solvent of the conditioning solution; and (5) color reaction according to pH.

  17. A rapid and sensitive method to detect mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA by fluorescence polarization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玉杰; 赵锦荣; 薛丽; 刘爱翔; 张文红; 郭晏海; 闫小君

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To develop a new high sensitivity, rapid and simple mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA detection method using fluorescence polarization technology. Methods: In our asymmetric PCR protocol, 100 times mole of TB-R primer was added than in the usual symmetric PCR to get enough single strands PCR product. The probe TB-5'-TAMRA and PCR products were mixed in a tube and incubate for 5 - 15 min at 46 C. The polarization (mp) was measured using victor2Multilabel Plate Reader. Results: Asymmetric and symmetric PCR products were analyzed by the FP method. Asymmetric PCR products are detected more sensitively than symmetric ones. The polarization values of probe associated with asymmetric products were much higher than with symmetric products. Conclusion: This fluorescence polarization assay in conjunction with asymmetric PCR is a powerful and widely applicable method for the rapid and sensitive detection of micro-organisms in clinical laboratories.

  18. An economical and combined method for rapid and efficient isolation of fungal DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, T; Syguła-Cholewinska, J; Szostak-Kot, J

    2014-12-18

    DNA isolation is a crucial step of conducting genetic studies in any organism. However, this process is quite difficult when studying fungi because of the need to damage the fungal cell walls of specific structures. In this study, we developed a method for the rapid and efficient isolation of fungal DNA based on simultaneous mechanical and enzymatic cell wall degradation. There are several typical modifications of the standard phenol-chloroform DNA extraction method. This method can be modified to degrade the fungal cell wall. The first step of the presented DNA extraction included manual homogenization in modified lysis buffer. Next, enzymatic digestion using 2 enzymes was conducted, including lyticase and proteinase K. To carefully select the most favorable conditions, we developed an economical, rapid, and reliable method for fungal DNA extraction that ensures both high efficiency and proper purity, which are essential for further analyses.

  19. A Lattice Boltzmann Method for Simulating the Separation of Red Blood Cells at Microvascular Bifurcations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Zai-Yi; HE Ying

    2012-01-01

    A computational simulation for the separation of red blood cells (RBCs) is presented.The deformability of RBCs is expressed by the spring network model,which is based on the minimum energy principle.In the computation of the fluid flow,the lattice Boltzmann method is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations.Coupling of the fluid-membrane interaction is carried out by using the immersed boundary method.To verify our method,the motions of RBCs in shear flow are simulated.Typical motions of RBCs observed in the experiments are reproduced,including tank-treading,swinging and tumbling.The motions of 8 RBCs at the bifurcation are simulated when the two daughter vessels have different ratios.The results indicate that when the ratio of the daughter vessel diameter becomes smaller,the distribution of RBCs in the two vessels becomes more non-uniform.%A computational simulation for the separation of red blood cells (RBCs) is presented. The deformability of RBCs is expressed by the spring network model, which is based on the minimum energy principle. In the computation of the fluid Bow, the lattice Boltzmann method is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. Coupling of the fluid-membrane interaction is carried out by using the immersed boundary method. To verify our method, the motions of RBCs in shear How are simulated. Typical motions of RBCs observed in the experiments are reproduced, including tank-treading, swinging and tumbling. The motions of 8 RBCs at the bifurcation are simulated when the two daughter vessels have different ratios. The results indicate that when the ratio of te daughter vessel diameter becomes smaller, the distribution of RBCs in the two vessels becomes more non-uniform.

  20. New time-domain three-point error separation methods for measurement roundness and spindle error motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenwen; Tao, Tingting; Zeng, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Error separation is a key technology for online measuring spindle radial error motion or artifact form error, such as roundness and cylindricity. Three time-domain three-point error separation methods are proposed based on solving the minimum norm solution of the linear equations. Three laser displacement sensors are used to collect a set of discrete measurements recorded, by which a group of linear measurement equations is derived according to the criterion of prior separation form (PSF), prior separation spindle error motion (PSM) or synchronous separation both form and spindle error motion (SSFM). The work discussed the correlations between the angles of three sensors in measuring system, rank of coefficient matrix in the measurement equations and harmonics distortions in the separation results, revealed the regularities of the first order harmonics distortion and recommended the applicable situation of the each method. Theoretical research and large simulations show that SSFM is the more precision method because of the lower distortion.

  1. Rapid qualitative research methods during complex health emergencies: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ginger A; Vindrola-Padros, Cecilia

    2017-09-01

    The 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted both the successes and limitations of social science contributions to emergency response operations. An important limitation was the rapid and effective communication of study findings. A systematic review was carried out to explore how rapid qualitative methods have been used during global heath emergencies to understand which methods are commonly used, how they are applied, and the difficulties faced by social science researchers in the field. We also asses their value and benefit for health emergencies. The review findings are used to propose recommendations for qualitative research in this context. Peer-reviewed articles and grey literature were identified through six online databases. An initial search was carried out in July 2016 and updated in February 2017. The PRISMA checklist was used to guide the reporting of methods and findings. The articles were assessed for quality using the MMAT and AACODS checklist. From an initial search yielding 1444 articles, 22 articles met the criteria for inclusion. Thirteen of the articles were qualitative studies and nine used a mixed-methods design. The purpose of the rapid studies included: the identification of causes of the outbreak, and assessment of infrastructure, control strategies, health needs and health facility use. The studies varied in duration (from 4 days to 1 month). The main limitations identified by the authors were: the low quality of the collected data, small sample sizes, and little time for cross-checking facts with other data sources to reduce bias. Rapid qualitative methods were seen as beneficial in highlighting context-specific issues that need to be addressed locally, population-level behaviors influencing health service use, and organizational challenges in response planning and implementation. Recommendations for carrying out rapid qualitative research in this context included the early designation of community leaders as a point of

  2. Simple and rapid method for postmortem radiographic investigation of lung fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, W.S.; Hauenstein, K.; Mittermayer, C.; Volk, P.

    1980-01-01

    Radiologic pathologic correlation of lung specimens requires a gas content identical to intravital conditions. Methods of air drying and formalin steam fixation are well known but time consuming. A new, rapid method is presented: the lungs are inflated with compressed air, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and cut into slices. Radiographs taken with soft tissue technique demonstrate structural details down to 200-300 ..mu... The excellent state of preservation also permits excellent quality of microscopic slides.

  3. Rapid method for identification of group B streptococci in neonatal blood cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, R. L.; Harada, W A

    1981-01-01

    A rapid technique used for the identification of Streptococcus agalactiae, Lancefield group B, from the blood cultures of two neonatal infants is reported. The method utilized the Phadebact Streptococcus Test System (Pharmacia Diagnostics, Piscataway, N.J.) and the supernatant from 13- and 14-h blood cultures. Additional studies with simulated neonatal blood cultures revealed that this method was reproducible. Additional studies also revealed that some non-specific agglutination did occur, wh...

  4. Towards mosquito sterile insect technique programmes: exploring genetic, molecular, mechanical and behavioural methods of sex separation in mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Jeremie R L; Schetelig, Marc F; Scolari, Francesca; Marec, František; Capurro, Margareth L; Franz, Gerald; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2014-04-01

    When considering a mosquito release programme, one of the first issues to be addressed is how to eliminate/separate the females. The greatest number of options might eventually be available for those who can use transgenic mosquitoes, but the inherent characteristics of the target species may also provide possibilities for interim measures until more efficient methods can be developed. Differences in intrinsic size, in behaviour and in development rate between females and males are often available and useful for sexing. Efficient species-specific systems for eliminating females at the embryo stage have been developed, but most have since been discarded due to lack of use. Ideal systems specifically kill female embryos using some treatment that can be manipulated during production. Such killing systems are far more efficient than using intrinsic sexual differences, but they systems require selectable genetic markers and sex-linkage created by rare random chromosomal rearrangements. While intrinsic sexual differences should not be considered as long-term candidates for the development of robust and efficient sexing approaches, in the absence of these, the accessibility and integration of less efficient systems can provide a stop-gap measure that allows rapid start up with a minimum of investment. The International Atomic Energy Agency is funding over a 5 year period (2013-2018) a new Coordinated Research Project on "Exploring Genetic, Molecular, Mechanical and Behavioural Methods of Sex Separation in Mosquitoes" to network researchers and to address the critical need of genetic sexing strains for the implementation of the sterile insect technique (using radiation-sterilised or transgenic male mosquitoes) and for insect incompatibility technique programmes against disease-transmitting mosquitoes. Copyright © 2013 International Atomic Energy Agency. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An investigation of the reliability of Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) as a method of assessment of children's computing posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockrell, Sara; O'Grady, Eleanor; Bennett, Kathleen; Mullarkey, Clare; Mc Connell, Rachel; Ruddy, Rachel; Twomey, Seamus; Flannery, Colleen

    2012-05-01

    Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is a quick observation method of posture analysis. RULA has been used to assess children's computer-related posture, but the reliability of RULA on a paediatric population has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the use of RULA with children. Video recordings of 24 school children were independently viewed by six trained raters who assessed their postures using RULA, on two separate occasions. RULA demonstrated higher intra-rater reliability than inter-rater reliability although both were moderate to good. RULA was more reliable when used for assessing the older children (8-12 years) than with the younger children (4-7 years). RULA may prove useful as part of an ergonomic assessment, but its level of reliability warrants caution for its sole use when assessing children, and in particular, younger children.

  6. Rapid methods for the extraction and archiving of molecular grade fungal genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Andrew M; Palmer, Michael; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2013-01-01

    The rapid and inexpensive extraction of fungal genomic DNA that is of sufficient quality for molecular approaches is central to the molecular identification, epidemiological analysis, taxonomy, and strain typing of pathogenic fungi. Although many commercially available and in-house extraction procedures do eliminate the majority of contaminants that commonly inhibit molecular approaches, the inherent difficulties in breaking fungal cell walls lead to protocols that are labor intensive and that routinely take several hours to complete. Here we describe several methods that we have developed in our laboratory that allow the extremely rapid and inexpensive preparation of fungal genomic DNA.

  7. Application of a rapid screening method to detect irradiated meat in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Mancini-Filho, J. E-mail: jmancini@usp.br; Delincee, H. E-mail: henrydelincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de

    2000-03-01

    Based on the enormous potential for food irradiation in Brazil, and to ensure free consumer choice, there is a need to find a convenient and rapid method for detection of irradiated food. Since treatment with ionising radiation causes DNA fragmentation, the analysis of DNA damage might be promising. In this paper, the DNA Comet Assay was used to identify exotic meat (boar, jacare and capybara), irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays. The applied radiation doses were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy. Analysis of the DNA migration enabled a rapid identification of the radiation treatment.

  8. Application of a rapid screening method to detect irradiated meat in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H. A. L. C. H.; Mancini-Filho, J. J.; Delincée, H.

    2000-03-01

    Based on the enormous potential for food irradiation in Brazil, and to ensure free consumer choice, there is a need to find a convenient and rapid method for detection of irradiated food. Since treatment with ionising radiation causes DNA fragmentation, the analysis of DNA damage might be promising. In this paper, the DNA Comet Assay was used to identify exotic meat (boar, jacaré and capybara), irradiated with 60Co gamma rays. The applied radiation doses were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy. Analysis of the DNA migration enabled a rapid identification of the radiation treatment.

  9. The use of rapid review methods in health technology assessments: 3 case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kaltenthaler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid reviews are of increasing importance within health technology assessment due to time and resource constraints. There are many rapid review methods available although there is little guidance as to the most suitable methods. We present three case studies employing differing methods to suit the evidence base for each review and outline some issues to consider when selecting an appropriate method. Methods Three recently completed systematic review short reports produced for the UK National Institute for Health Research were examined. Different approaches to rapid review methods were used in the three reports which were undertaken to inform the commissioning of services within the NHS and to inform future trial design. We describe the methods used, the reasoning behind the choice of methods and explore the strengths and weaknesses of each method. Results Rapid review methods were chosen to meet the needs of the review and each review had distinctly different challenges such as heterogeneity in terms of populations, interventions, comparators and outcome measures (PICO and/or large numbers of relevant trials. All reviews included at least 10 randomised controlled trials (RCTs, each with numerous included outcomes. For the first case study (sexual health interventions, very diverse studies in terms of PICO were included. P-values and summary information only were presented due to substantial heterogeneity between studies and outcomes measured. For the second case study (premature ejaculation treatments, there were over 100 RCTs but also several existing systematic reviews. Data for meta-analyses were extracted directly from existing systematic reviews with new RCT data added where available. For the final case study (cannabis cessation therapies, studies included a wide range of interventions and considerable variation in study populations and outcomes. A brief summary of the key findings for each study was presented and

  10. Direct PCR: Alternative Diagnostic Method for Diagnosis of Diphtheria Rapidly, Easily and Cost Effective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarno Sunarno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some diseases require immediate and appropriate treatment to decrease the fatality risk patients incident, for example diphtheria. Time to help patients is very crucial since delay of therapy may increase the mortality cases up to 20 times. In other hands, conventional diagnostic methods (the gold standard for diagnosis of diphtheria is time consuming and laborious. Therefore, an alternative diagnostic method which is rapid, easy and inexpensive is needed. In this case, direct PCR has been proved to reduce time and cost in laboratory examination. This study aimed to develop direct PCR as alternative diagnostic method for diagnosis of diphtheria rapidly, easily, and inexpensive. Fifteen samples include 10 isolates of Corynebacterium diphtheriae (toxigenic and 3 isolates of Corynebacterium non- diphtheriae (nontoxigenic and 2 clinical specimens (throat swab was examined by performing direct PCR method and a standard PCR method was used for optimizing the protocols. Result showed that direct PCR can be used to amplify target genes correctly as well as standard PCR. All of C. diphtheriae samples showed bands at 168 bp (dtxR gene marker and 551 bp (tox gene marker while no band appeared in others. Direct PCR detected at least 71 CFU/uL of bacterial cells in samples. We concluded that direct PCR can be used for alternative diagnostic method for diagnosis of diphtheria which is rapid, easy and cost effective.

  11. A facile label-free G-quadruplex based fluorescent aptasensor method for rapid detection of ATP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haisheng; Ma, Changbei; Ning, Feng; Chen, Hanchun; He, Hailun; Wang, Kemin; Wang, Jun

    2017-03-01

    The present work demonstrates a simple, rapid and label-free ATP detection method using a fluorescent aptasensor that is based on G-quadruplex formation. In the absence of ATP, the Thioflavin T (ThT) dye binds to the G-rich ATP aptamer and forms an ATP aptamer/ThT G-quadruplex complex, which results in high fluorescence intensity. Upon addition of ATP, the ATP aptamer/ThT complex will be replaced by the formation of an ATP aptamer/ATP complex. During this process, separation of the ThT dye from the ATP aptamer/ThT complex decreases the fluorescence intensity of the reaction mixture dramatically. This fluorescence aptasensor is highly sensitive and rapid, with a detection limit of 18 nM and a total reaction time of only 10 min. Furthermore, this method is cost-effective and simple, removing the requirement for labeling the detection reagents with a fluorophore-quencher pair.

  12. A rapid method for direct detection of metabolic conversion and magnetization exchange with application to hyperpolarized substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Peder E. Z.; Kerr, Adam B.; Leon Swisher, Christine; Pauly, John M.; Vigneron, Daniel B.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we present a new MR spectroscopy approach for directly observing nuclear spins that undergo exchange, metabolic conversion, or, generally, any frequency shift during a mixing time. Unlike conventional approaches to observe these processes, such as exchange spectroscopy (EXSY), this rapid approach requires only a single encoding step and thus is readily applicable to hyperpolarized MR in which the magnetization is not replenished after T1 decay and RF excitations. This method is based on stimulated-echoes and uses phase-sensitive detection in conjunction with precisely chosen echo times in order to separate spins generated during the mixing time from those present prior to mixing. We are calling the method Metabolic Activity Decomposition Stimulated-echo Acquisition Mode or MAD-STEAM. We have validated this approach as well as applied it in vivo to normal mice and a transgenic prostate cancer mouse model for observing pyruvate-lactate conversion, which has been shown to be elevated in numerous tumor types. In this application, it provides an improved measure of cellular metabolism by separating [1-13C]-lactate produced in tissue by metabolic conversion from [1-13C]-lactate that has flowed into the tissue or is in the blood. Generally, MAD-STEAM can be applied to any system in which spins undergo a frequency shift.

  13. Cellufine sulfate column chromatography as a simple, rapid, and effective method to purify dengue virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-08-01

    Conventional method to purify/concentrate dengue virus (DENV) is time-consuming with low virus recovery yield. Herein, we applied cellufine sulfate column chromatography to purify/concentrate DENV based on the mimicry between heparan sulfate and DENV envelope protein. Comparative analysis demonstrated that this new method offered higher purity (as determined by less contamination of bovine serum albumin) and recovery yield (as determined by greater infectivity). Moreover, overall duration used for cellufine sulfate column chromatography to purify/concentrate DENV was approximately 1/20 of that of conventional method. Therefore, cellufine sulfate column chromatography serves as a simple, rapid, and effective alternative method for DENV purification/concentration.

  14. Development of rapid method for the estimation of reactive silica in fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.K. Katyal; J.M. Sharma; A.K. Dhawan; M.M. Ali; K. Mohan [National Council for Cement and Building Materials, Haryana (India)

    2008-01-15

    Reactive silica (SiO{sub 2}) is an important component of fly ash controlling its use in cement and building materials. Literature search shows that the methods available for the estimation of reactive silica are very time consuming and tedious. It requires a minimum of four days by the conventional gravimetric method described in the standards. In the current paper a rapid volumetric method has been developed where it is possible to estimate reactive silica in fly ash in 4 h. Besides this a gravimetric method has been developed which takes two and half days.

  15. A Rapid Gas Chromatography Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Ornidazole and Miconazole from Cream Formulations: Development, Validation and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetal M. Phatak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Combination drug formulations are better in terms of effectiveness and hence are used many times for treatment of diseases. The physico-chemical properties of the different API used in a formulation have a significant impact in the development of a single method for the analysis of such drugs. In the current research a rapid analytical method employing GC-FID has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of the active ingredients Ornidazole and Miconazole from the cream formulation. The analytes were extracted from cream base and filtered. Adimethyl polysiloxane column is used for the separation of the analytes. The method involves simple temperature gradient and FID detection. Validation of the method showed response was a linear function of concentration in the range 50-150 µg mL−1 for both Ornidazole and Miconazole. The method was suitably validated and was found to be precise and robust, with recoveries for both the analytes being consistent and complete. The method has been successfully applied for the analysis of samples from marketed cream formulations.

  16. Rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging by a novel method: theory, simulation testing and proof of principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Black

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological challenge imaging has mapped, but rarely quantified, the sensitivity of a biological system to a given drug. We describe a novel method called rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging. This method combines pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling, repeated small doses of a challenge drug over a short time scale, and functional imaging to rapidly provide quantitative estimates of drug sensitivity including EC50 (the concentration of drug that produces half the maximum possible effect. We first test the method with simulated data, assuming a typical sigmoidal dose-response curve and assuming imperfect imaging that includes artifactual baseline signal drift and random error. With these few assumptions, rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging reliably estimates EC50 from the simulated data, except when noise overwhelms the drug effect or when the effect occurs only at high doses. In preliminary fMRI studies of primate brain using a dopamine agonist, the observed noise level is modest compared with observed drug effects, and a quantitative EC50 can be obtained from some regional time-signal curves. Taken together, these results suggest that research and clinical applications for rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging are realistic.

  17. RAPID AND EFFICIENT METHOD FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DNA EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION FROM SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hamedi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Large proportion of microbial population in the world is unculturable. Extraction of total DNA from soil is usually a crucial step considering to the difficulties of study the uncultivable microorganisms. Humic acid is considered as the main inhibitory agent in the environmental DNA studies. Here, we introduced a rapid and efficient method for DNA extraction and purification from soil. Yield of DNA extraction by the presented method was 130 ng/µl. Three conventional methods of DNA extraction including liquid nitrogen incursion, bead beating and sonication were performed as control methods. Yield of DNA extraction by these methods were 110, 90 and 50 ng/µl, respectively. A rapid and efficient one step DNA purification method was introduced instead of hazardous conventional phenol-chloroform methods. Humic acid removal percentage by the introduced method was 95.8 % that is comparable with 97 % gained by the conventional gel extraction method and yield of DNA after purification was 84 % and 73 %, respectively. This study could be useful in molecular ecology and metagenomics study as a fast and reliable method.

  18. Advanced fire-resistant forms of activated carbon and methods of adsorbing and separating gases using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yongliang; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-02-03

    Advanced, fire-resistant activated carbon compositions useful in adsorbing gases; and having vastly improved fire resistance are provided, and methods for synthesizing the compositions are also provided. The advanced compositions have high gas adsorption capacities and rapid adsorption kinetics (comparable to commercially-available activated carbon), without having any intrinsic fire hazard. They also have superior performance to Mordenites in both adsorption capacities and kinetics. In addition, the advanced compositions do not pose the fibrous inhalation hazard that exists with use of Mordenites. The fire-resistant compositions combine activated carbon mixed with one or more hydrated and/or carbonate-containing minerals that release H.sub.2O and/or CO.sub.2 when heated. This effect raises the spontaneous ignition temperature to over 500.degree. C. in most examples, and over 800.degree. C. in some examples. Also provided are methods for removing and/or separating target gases, such as Krypton or Argon, from a gas stream by using such advanced activated carbons.

  19. A fast and sensitive method for the separation of carotenoids using ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaah, Firas; Plaza, Merichel; Abrahamsson, Victor; Turner, Charlotta; Sandahl, Margareta

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a rapid and sensitive ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPSFC-MS) method has been developed and partially validated for the separation of carotenoids within less than 6 min. Six columns of orthogonal selectivity were examined, and the best separation was obtained by using a 1-aminoanthracene (1-AA) column. The length of polyene chain as well as the number of hydroxyl groups in the structure of the studied carotenoids determines their differences in the physiochemical properties and thus the separation that is achieved on this column. All of the investigated carotenoids were baseline separated with resolution values greater than 1.5. The effects of gradient program, back pressure, and column temperature were studied with respect to chromatographic properties such as retention and selectivity. Electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) were compared in both positive and negative mode, using both direct infusion and hyphenated with UHPSFC. The ESI in positive mode provided the highest response. The coefficient of determination (R (2)) for all calibration curves were greater than 0.998. Limit of detection (LOD) was in the range of 2.6 and 25.2 ng/mL for α-carotene and astaxanthin, respectively, whereas limit of quantification (LOQ) was in the range of 7.8 and 58.0 ng/mL for α-carotene and astaxanthin, respectively. Repeatability and intermediate precision of the developed UHPSFC-MS method were determined and found to be RSD supercritical fluid extracts of microalgae and rosehip. Graphical Abstract Ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-a rapid separation method for the analysis of carotenoids in rosehip and microalgae samples.

  20. Inference of biological S-system using the separable estimation method and the genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Zhi; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Zhang, W J

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of a biological system from its experimental time series data is a challenging task in systems biology. The S-system which consists of a group of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is an effective model to characterize molecular biological systems and analyze the system dynamics. However, inference of S-systems without the knowledge of system structure is not a trivial task due to its nonlinearity and complexity. In this paper, a pruning separable parameter estimation algorithm (PSPEA) is proposed for inferring S-systems. This novel algorithm combines the separable parameter estimation method (SPEM) and a pruning strategy, which includes adding an l₁ regularization term to the objective function and pruning the solution with a threshold value. Then, this algorithm is combined with the continuous genetic algorithm (CGA) to form a hybrid algorithm that owns the properties of these two combined algorithms. The performance of the pruning strategy in the proposed algorithm is evaluated from two aspects: the parameter estimation error and structure identification accuracy. The results show that the proposed algorithm with the pruning strategy has much lower estimation error and much higher identification accuracy than the existing method.

  1. Method for the separation of high impact polystyrene (HIPS) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Arman, Bayram; Karvelas, Dimitrios E.; Pomykala, Jr., Joseph A.; Daniels, Edward J.

    1997-01-01

    An improved method is provided for separating acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) plastics from each other. The ABS and HIPS plastics are shredded to provide a selected particle size. The shredded particles of the ABS and HIPS plastics are applied to a solution having a solution density in a predefined range between 1.055 gm/cm.sup.3 and 1.07 gm/cm.sup.3, a predefined surface tension in a range between 22 dynes/cm to 40 dynes/cm and a pH in the range of 1.77 and 2.05. In accordance with a feature of the invention, the novel method is provided for separating ABS and HIPS, two solid thermoplastics which have similar densities by selectively modifying the effective density of the HIPS using a binary solution with the appropriate properties, such as pH, density and surface tension, such as a solution of acetic acid and water or a quaternary solution having the appropriate density, surface tension, and pH.

  2. Magnetic Field Separation Around Planets Using an Adjoint-Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabert, Christian; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Heyner, Daniel; Othmer, Carsten

    The two spacecraft of the BepiColombo mission will reach planet Mercury in 2022. The magnetometers on-board these polar orbiting spacecraft will provide a detailed map of the magnetic field in Mercury's environment. Unfortunately, a separation of the magnetic field into internal and external parts using the classical Gauss-algorithm is not possible due to strong electric currents in the orbit region of the spacecraft. These currents are due to the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury's planetary magnetic field. We use an MHD code to simulate this interaction process. This requires a first choice of Mercury's planetary field which is used and modified until the simulation results fit to the actual measurements. This optimization process is carried out most efficiently using an adjoint-method. The adjoint-method is well known for its low computational cost in order to determine sensitivities required for the minimization. In a first step, the validity of our approach to separate magnetic field contributions into internal and external parts is demonstrated using synthetic generated data. Furthermore, we apply our approach to satellite measurements of the Earth's magnetic field. We can compare the results with the well known planetary field of the Earth to prove practical suitability.

  3. PWC-ICA: A Method for Stationary Ordered Blind Source Separation with Application to EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Mullen, Tim; Robbins, Kay

    2016-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a class of algorithms widely applied to separate sources in EEG data. Most ICA approaches use optimization criteria derived from temporal statistical independence and are invariant with respect to the actual ordering of individual observations. We propose a method of mapping real signals into a complex vector space that takes into account the temporal order of signals and enforces certain mixing stationarity constraints. The resulting procedure, which we call Pairwise Complex Independent Component Analysis (PWC-ICA), performs the ICA in a complex setting and then reinterprets the results in the original observation space. We examine the performance of our candidate approach relative to several existing ICA algorithms for the blind source separation (BSS) problem on both real and simulated EEG data. On simulated data, PWC-ICA is often capable of achieving a better solution to the BSS problem than AMICA, Extended Infomax, or FastICA. On real data, the dipole interpretations of the BSS solutions discovered by PWC-ICA are physically plausible, are competitive with existing ICA approaches, and may represent sources undiscovered by other ICA methods. In conjunction with this paper, the authors have released a MATLAB toolbox that performs PWC-ICA on real, vector-valued signals. PMID:27340397

  4. Double Separation Method for Translation of the Infrared Information into a Visible Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Žiljak

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Information visualization refers to the wavelength area ranging from 400 to 700 nm. Areas in lower wavelengths ranging from 100 to 400 nm are translated into the visual area with the goal to protect information visible only by applying instruments adapted for the ultraviolet area. Our recent research work refers to the infrared wavelength areas above the visible specter up to 1000 nm. The scientific contribution of this paper is in setting the double separation method for printing with CMYK printing inks with the goal to detect graphic information in the infrared area only. An algorithm has been created for making visual basics in the overall visible specter containing material that responds in the infrared section. This allows planning of areas in all coloring types for one and the same document that contains a secure piece of information. The system is based on double transition transformation of the visible RGB1 information recognition into CMYK2 in the same document. Secure information is recognized with the help of instruments in the set wavelength range. Most of the experiments have been carried out by analyzing the same set of RGB records. Each sample in the set was a test unit coming from another source containing different IR3 components. Thus an innovative method of color mixing has been set where colors appear respectively in daylight and separately according to IR light programming. New IR cryptography is proposed as shown in the experimental work.

  5. Deconvolution of overlapping spectral polymer signals in size exclusion separation-diode array detection separations by implementing a multivariate curve resolution method optimized by alternating least square.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeylandt, Tim; Chen, Kai; Du Prez, Filip; Lynen, Frédéric

    2014-05-16

    Peaks eluting from a size exclusion separation (SEC) are often not completely baseline-separated due to the inherent dispersity of the polymer. Lowering the flow rate is sometimes a solution to obtain a better physical separation, but results in a longer retention time, which is often not desirable. The chemometrical deconvolution method discussed in this work provides the possibility of calculating the contribution of each peak separately in the total chromatogram of overlapping peaks. An in-house-developed MATLAB script differentiates between compounds based on their difference in UV-spectrum and retention time, using the entire 3D retention time UV-spectrum. Consequently, the output of the script offers the calculated chromatograms of the separate compounds as well as their respective UV-spectrum, of which the latter can be used for peak identification. This approach is of interest to quantitate contributions of different polymer types with overlapping UV-spectra and retention times, as is often the case in, for example, copolymer or polymer blend analysis. The applicability has been proven on mixtures of different polymer types: polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(ethoxyethyl acrylate). This paper demonstrates that both qualitative and quantitative analyses are possible after deconvolution and that alternating concentrations of adjacent peaks do not significantly influence the obtained accuracy.

  6. A rapid cyclic voltammetric method for studying cement factors affecting the corrosion of reinforced concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foulkes, F.R.; McGrath, P. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1999-06-01

    A rapid cyclic voltammetric method for studying the influence of cement factors on the corrosion of embedded iron and steel in hardened cement paste is described. The technique employs a cement electrode'' consisting of an iron or steel wire embedded in a miniature cylinder of hardened cement paste. The rapid cyclic voltammetric method is fast, reproducible, and provides information on the corrosiveness of the pore solution environment surrounding the embedded metal. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated by showing how it can be used to evaluate the threshold chloride content of hardened ordinary portland cement paste at which corrosion begins and by using it to evaluate the relative efficacy of several admixed corrosion inhibitors.

  7. A Rapid Method for Viral Particle Detection in Viral-Induced Gastroenteritis: A TEM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, M. John; Barrish, James P.; Hayes, Elizabeth S.; Leer, Laurie C.; Estes, Mary K.; Cubitt, W. D.

    1995-10-01

    Infectious gastroenteritis is a common cause of hospitalization in the pediatric population. The most frequent cause of gastroenteritis is viral in origin. The purpose of this study was to compare a rapid modified negative-staining TEM method with the conventional pseudoreplica technique in detection of viral particles in fecal samples from children with viral gastroenteritis. The modified negative-staining method resulted in a significantly higher (2.5 ± 0.5, p = 0.02) viral rating score than that for the conventional pseudoreplica technique (1.7 ± 0.4). In addition, the preparation time for the negative-staining method was approximately one fifth that for the conventional pseudoreplica technique. Rapid diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis may be made by ultrastructural detection of viral particles in fecal samples using the negative staining technique.

  8. Studies on the Rapid Methods for Evaluating Seed Vigor of Sweet Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangwu; Yang, Linlin; Wang, Jianhua; Zhu, Zhujun

    Since the germination test is still the main method for evaluating seed vigor of sweet corn, it is necessary to study the rapid methods for evaluating their vigor. First, two vigor levels of 9 super sweet corn and 9 sugar enhanced corn hybrids were distinguished by accelerated ageing treatment. Next, their vigor statuses were tested by rapid methods such as electrical conductivity (EC), soluble sugar (SS), volatile aldehyde (VA), dehydrogenase activity (DA) and Q2 oxygen sensing technology. Correlation relationship was analyzed between the above tested values and vigor performances. The results showed that EC, SS, VA, DA, oxygen metabolism rate (OMR), critical oxygen pressure (COP) were all suitable to evaluate seed vigor of sweet corn. Furthermore, VA was optimal for evaluating seed vigor of super sweet corn. DA was optimal for evaluating sugar enhanced corn.

  9. Standard test method for rapid indentation hardness testing of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1984-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the procedure for rapid indentation hardness testing of metallic materials as an alternative to Test Method E 10 on standard Brinell hardness. It includes methods for the verification of rapid indentation hardness testing machines, Part B, and the calibration of reference hardness test blocks, Part C. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. Testing Result Statistics-Based Rapid Testing Method for Safety-Critical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yao Deng; Nan Sang

    2008-01-01

    Safety-critical system (SCS) has highly demand for dependability, which requires plenty of resource to ensure that the system under test (SUT) satisfies the dependability requirement. In this paper, a new SCS rapid testing method is proposed to improve SCS adaptive dependability testing. The result of each test execution is saved in calculation memory unit and evaluated as an algorithm model. Then the least quantity of scenario test case for next test execution will be calculated according to the promised SUT's confidence level. The feedback data are generated to weight controller as the guideline for the further testing. Finally, a compre- hensive experiment study demonstrates that this adaptive testing method can really work in practice. This rapid testing method, testing result statistics-based adaptive control, makes the SCS dependability testing much more effective.

  11. Testing Result Statistics-Based Rapid Testing Method for Safety-Critical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yao Deng; Nan Sang

    2008-01-01

    Safety-critical system (SCS) has highlydemand for dependability, which requires plenty ofresource to ensure that the system under test (SUT)satisfies the dependability requirement. In this paper, anew SCS rapid testing method is proposed to improveSCS adaptive dependability testing. The result of each testexecution is saved in calculation memory unit andevaluated as an algorithm model. Then the least quantityof scenario test case for next test execution will becalculated according to the promised SUT's confidencelevel. The feedback data are generated to weightcontroller as the guideline for the further testing. Finally,a compre- hensive experiment study demonstrates thatthis adaptive testing method can really work in practice.This rapid testing method, testing result statistics-basedadaptive control, makes the SCS dependability testingmuch more effective.

  12. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Amy; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J

    2013-09-03

    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  13. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Amy E; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J

    2015-02-24

    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  14. Effects of sensor calibration, balancing and parametrization on the signal space separation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurminen, J [BioMag laboratory, Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa HUSLAB, Helsinki University Central Hospital, PL 340, FI-00029 HUS (Finland); Taulu, S [Elekta Neuromag Oy, Helsinki, FI-00510 (Finland); Okada, Y [Biomedical Research and Integrative NeuroImaging (BRaIN Imaging) Center, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)], E-mail: jussi@biomag.hus.fi

    2008-04-07

    Signal space separation (SSS) is a novel method for processing multichannel biomagnetic data. It is useful for a variety of applications including interference suppression, movement compensation and conversion of measurements between sensor arrays. The performance of SSS has been examined mainly on a 306-channel whole-head magnetoencephalography system. To facilitate the adaptation of the method to other biomagnetometer systems, the effect of various properties of the sensor array on its performance needs to be studied. To this end, we examined the effects of gradiometer imbalance, sensor calibration errors and erroneous sensor geometry information on SSS using simulations. The results indicate that depending on the application, gradiometer balance on the level of 0.1% to 0.5% may be needed for satisfactory SSS performance. For wire-wound gradiometers, this requires very careful attention in manufacturing. Errors in calibration coefficients and geometry information were found to have less significance.

  15. Microchannel gel electrophoretic separation systems and methods for preparing and using

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herr, Amy; Singh, Anup K; Throckmorton, Daniel J

    2013-09-03

    A micro-analytical platform for performing electrophoresis-based immunoassays was developed by integrating photopolymerized cross-linked polyacrylamide gels within a microfluidic device. The microfluidic immunoassays are performed by gel electrophoretic separation and quantifying analyte concentration based upon conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). To retain biological activity of proteins and maintain intact immune complexes, native PAGE conditions were employed. Both direct (non-competitive) and competitive immunoassay formats are demonstrated in microchips for detecting toxins and biomarkers (cytokines, c-reactive protein) in bodily fluids (serum, saliva, oral fluids). Further, a description of gradient gels fabrication is included, in an effort to describe methods we have developed for further optimization of on-chip PAGE immunoassays. The described chip-based PAGE immunoassay method enables immunoassays that are fast (minutes) and require very small amounts of sample (less than a few microliters). Use of microfabricated chips as a platform enables integration, parallel assays, automation and development of portable devices.

  16. The Cryo-Thermochromatographic Separator (CTS) A new rapid separation and alpha-detection system for on-line chemical studies of highly volatile osmium and hassium (Z=108) tetroxides

    CERN Document Server

    Kirbach, U W; Gregorich, K E; Lee, D M; Ninov, V; Omtvedt, J P; Patin, J B; Seward, N K; Strellis, D A; Sudowe, R; Türler, A; Wilk, P A; Zielinski, P M; Hoffman, D C; Nitsche, H

    2002-01-01

    The Cryo-Thermochromatographic Separator (CTS) was designed and constructed for rapid, continuous on-line separation and simultaneous detection of highly volatile compounds of short-lived alpha-decaying isotopes of osmium and hassium (Hs, Z=108). A flowing carrier gas containing the volatile species is passed through a channel formed by two facing rows of 32 alpha-particle detectors, cooled to form a temperature gradient extending from 247 K at the channel entrance down to 176 K at the exit. The volatile species adsorb onto the SiO sub 2 -coated detector surfaces at a characteristic deposition temperature and are identified by their observed alpha-decay energies. The CTS was tested on-line with OsO sub 4 prepared from sup 1 sup 6 sup 9 sup - sup 1 sup 7 sup 3 Os isotopes produced in sup 1 sup 1 sup 8 sup , sup 1 sup 2 sup 0 Sn( sup 5 sup 6 Fe, 3,4,5n) reactions. An adsorption enthalpy for OsO sub 4 of -40.2+-1.5 kJ/mol on SiO sub 2 was deduced by comparing the measured deposition distribution with Monte Carlo...

  17. Determination of rapid chlorination rate constants by a stopped-flow spectrophotometric competition kinetics method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dean; Liu, Huijuan; Qiang, Zhimin; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-05-15

    Free chlorine is extensively used for water and wastewater disinfection nowadays. However, it still remains a big challenge to determine the rate constants of rapid chlorination reactions although competition kinetics and stopped-flow spectrophotometric (SFS) methods have been employed individually to investigate fast reaction kinetics. In this work, we proposed an SFS competition kinetics method to determine the rapid chlorination rate constants by using a common colorimetric reagent, N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD), as a reference probe. A kinetic equation was first derived to estimate the reaction rate constant of DPD towards chlorine under a given pH and temperature condition. Then, on that basis, an SFS competition kinetics method was proposed to determine directly the chlorination rate constants of several representative compounds including tetracycline, ammonia, and four α-amino acids. Although Cl2O is more reactive than HOCl, its contribution to the overall chlorination kinetics of the test compounds could be neglected in this study. Finally, the developed method was validated through comparing the experimentally measured chlorination rate constants of the selected compounds with those obtained or calculated from literature and analyzing with Taft's correlation as well. This study demonstrates that the SFS competition kinetics method can measure the chlorination rate constants of a test compound rapidly and accurately.

  18. Improved detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection in bovine lymph node tissue using immunomagnetic separation (IMS-based methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda D Stewart

    Full Text Available Immunomagnetic separation (IMS can selectively isolate and concentrate Mycobacterium bovis cells from lymph node tissue to facilitate subsequent detection by PCR (IMS-PCR or culture (IMS-MGIT. This study describes application of these novel IMS-based methods to test for M. bovis in a survey of 280 bovine lymph nodes (206 visibly lesioned (VL, 74 non-visibly lesioned (NVL collected at slaughter as part of the Northern Ireland bovine TB eradication programme. Their performance was evaluated relative to culture. Overall, 174 (62.1% lymph node samples tested positive by culture, 162 (57.8% by IMS-PCR (targeting IS6110, and 191 (68.2% by IMS-MGIT culture. Twelve (6.9% of the 174 culture positive lymph node samples were not detected by either of the IMS-based methods. However, an additional 79 M. bovis positive lymph node samples (27 (13.1% VL and 52 (70.3% NVL were detected by the IMS-based methods and not by culture. When low numbers of viable M. bovis are present in lymph nodes (e.g. in NVLs of skin test reactor cattle decontamination prior to culture may adversely affect viability, leading to false negative culture results. In contrast, IMS specifically captures whole M. bovis cells (live, dead or potentially dormant which are not subject to any deleterious treatment before detection by PCR or MGIT culture. During this study only 2.7% of NVL lymph nodes tested culture positive, whereas 70.3% of the same samples tested M. bovis positive by the IMS-based tests. Results clearly demonstrate that not only are the IMS-based methods more rapid but they have greater detection sensitivity than the culture approach currently used for the detection of M. bovis infection in cattle. Adoption of the IMS-based methods for lymph node testing would have the potential to improve M. bovis detection in clinical samples.

  19. Mycobacteria mobility shift assay: a method for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Muraro Wildner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of mycobacteria is essential because tuberculosis (TB and mycobacteriosis are clinically indistinguishable and require different therapeutic regimens. The traditional phenotypic method is time consuming and may last up to 60 days. Indeed, rapid, affordable, specific and easy-to-perform identification methods are needed. We have previously described a polymerase chain reaction-based method called a mycobacteria mobility shift assay (MMSA that was designed for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM species identification. The aim of this study was to assess the MMSA for the identification of MTC and NTM clinical isolates and to compare its performance with that of the PRA-hsp65 method. A total of 204 clinical isolates (102 NTM and 102 MTC were identified by the MMSA and PRA-hsp65. For isolates for which these methods gave discordant results, definitive species identification was obtained by sequencing fragments of the 16S rRNA and hsp65 genes. Both methods correctly identified all MTC isolates. Among the NTM isolates, the MMSA alone assigned 94 (92.2% to a complex or species, whereas the PRA-hsp65 method assigned 100% to a species. A 91.5% agreement was observed for the 94 NTM isolates identified by both methods. The MMSA provided correct identification for 96.8% of the NTM isolates compared with 94.7% for PRA-hsp65. The MMSA is a suitable auxiliary method for routine use for the rapid identification of mycobacteria.

  20. Adapting and Evaluating a Rapid, Low-Cost Method to Enumerate Flies in the Household Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Marlene K.; Dentz, Holly N.; Achando, Beryl; Mureithi, MaryAnne; Wolfe, Tim; Null, Clair; Pickering, Amy J.

    2017-01-01

    Diarrhea is a leading cause of death among children under 5 years of age worldwide. Flies are important vectors of diarrheal pathogens in settings lacking networked sanitation services. There is no standardized method for measuring fly density in households; many methods are cumbersome and unvalidated. We adapted a rapid, low-cost fly enumeration technique previously developed for industrial settings, the Scudder fly grill, for field use in household settings. We evaluated its performance in comparison to a sticky tape fly trapping method at latrine and food preparation areas among households in rural Kenya. The grill method was more sensitive; it detected the presence of any flies at 80% (433/543) of sampling locations versus 64% (348/543) of locations by the sticky tape. We found poor concordance between the two methods, suggesting that standardizing protocols is important for comparison of fly densities between studies. Fly species identification was feasible with both methods; however, the sticky tape trap allowed for more nuanced identification. Both methods detected a greater presence of bottle flies near latrines compared with food preparation areas (P < 0.01). The grill method detected more flies at the food preparation area compared with near the latrine (P = 0.014) while the sticky tape method detected no difference. We recommend the Scudder grill as a sensitive fly enumeration tool that is rapid and low cost to implement. PMID:27956654

  1. Visual and colorimetric methods for rapid determination of total tannins in vegetable raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kalinkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the development of rapid colorimetric method for determining the amount of tannins in aqueous extracts of vegetable raw materials. The sorption-based colorimetric test is determining sorption tannins polyurethane foam, impregnated of FeCl3, receiving on its surface painted in black and green color of the reaction products and the determination of their in sorbent matrix. Selectivity is achieved by determining the tannins specific interaction of polyphenols with iron ions (III. The conditions of sorption-colorimetric method: the concentration of ferric chloride (III, impregnated in the polyurethane foam; sorbent mass in the analytical cartridge; degree of loading his agent; the contact time of the phases. color scales have been developed for the visual determination of the amount of tannins in terms of gallic acid. Spend a digitized image obtained scales using computer program “Sorbfil TLC”, excluding a subjective assessment of the intensity of the color scale of the test. The results obtained determine the amount of tannins in aqueous extracts of vegetable raw rapid method using tablets and analytical cartridges. The results of the test determination of tannins with visual and densitometric analytical signal registration are compared to known methods. Spend a metrological evaluation of the results of determining the amount of tannins sorption rapid colorimetric methods. Time visual and densitometric rapid determination of tannins, taking into account the sample preparation is 25–30 minutes, the relative error does not exceed 28 %. The developed test methods for quantifying the content of tannins allow to exclude the use of sophisticated analytical equipment, carry out the analysis in non-laboratory conditions do not require highly skilled personnel.

  2. 3D virtual human rapid modeling method based on top-down modeling mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Taotao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to satisfy the vast custom-made character demand of 3D virtual human and the rapid modeling in the field of 3D virtual reality, a new virtual human top-down rapid modeling method is put for-ward in this paper based on the systematic analysis of the current situation and shortage of the virtual hu-man modeling technology. After the top-level realization of virtual human hierarchical structure frame de-sign, modular expression of the virtual human and parameter design for each module is achieved gradu-al-level downwards. While the relationship of connectors and mapping restraints among different modules is established, the definition of the size and texture parameter is also completed. Standardized process is meanwhile produced to support and adapt the virtual human top-down rapid modeling practice operation. Finally, the modeling application, which takes a Chinese captain character as an example, is carried out to validate the virtual human rapid modeling method based on top-down modeling mechanism. The result demonstrates high modelling efficiency and provides one new concept for 3D virtual human geometric mod-eling and texture modeling.

  3. Comparison between in vitro fertilization outcome of two motile sperm separation methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuanMZ; ZhuWJ

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficiency of Percoll density gradient and swim-up methods for motile sperm isolation for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program.Methods:The fertilization rate,cleavage rate,embryo developing status and pregnancy outcome of 362 IVF cycles using sperm obtained by the two methods were studied.Results:There was no significant difference in fertilization rate and cleavage rate between the Percoll and swim-up groups.Although the two groups showed no significant difference in the embryo cell number,the percentage of embryos with <20% debris was significantly higher in the Percoll group (77.6%) than in swim-up group (65.9%).The pregnancy rate and the life birth rate were also significantly higher (P<0.01) in the Percoll group (43.7% and 70.3%,respectively) than in the swim-up group(36.6% and 60.7%),respectively).Conclusion:The efficiency of the Percoll density gradient method is superior to the swim-up method in motile sperm separation for the IVF-ET program.

  4. High resolution LC-ESI-TOF-mass spectrometry method for fast separation, identification, and quantification of 12 isoflavones in soybeans and soybean products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi Jin; Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Hunjung; Jung, Mun Yhung

    2015-06-01

    A high resolution LC-ESI-TOF-MS analytical method was established for the rapid isolation, identification, and quantification of 12 isoflavones in soybean and soybean products. Individual isoflavones were identified on the basis of the accurate mass data of their respective protonated mass ions, Na or K adduct ions, fragment ions, and isotope ion patterns. The protonated mass ions of isoflavones were extracted for their quantification in soybean products. Twelve different isoflavones in the soybean products were fully separated, identified and quantified within 12min separation time. The established LC-TOF/MS was an effective analytical method for the simultaneous characterization and quantification of isoflavones with exceptionally short analytical time, high selectivity, a high linearity (r(2)>0.992) in a wide range, low LOD and LOQ, high precision, inter-and intra-day repeatability, and no significant matrix effect. Furthermore, it requires simple sample preparation procedure (solvent extraction, dilution, and syringe filtration).

  5. Analytical Performance of an HPLC and CZE Methods for the Analysis and Separation of Perindopril Erbumine and Indapamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Ion

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Perindopril, as an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and indapamide, as a thiazide like diuretic, can be administrated together for the treatment of high blood preasure and other cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to develop two simple and reliable separation methods for perindopril and indapamide by high performance liquid chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis in order to evaluate their behaviour under separation conditions, for simultaneous separation.

  6. Concentration of bone marrow mononuclear cells for in vitro treatment and AB0-incompatible transplantation: a rapid and reproducible procedure using the haemonetics V50 cell separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesneth, M; Hertenstein, B; Koerner, K; Heimpel, H; Heit, W

    1988-01-01

    Forty-nine allogeneic and 14 autologous bone marrow grafts were processed with the Haemonetics V50 cell separator (Haemonetics Corp., Braintree, USA) for in vitro treatment with antibodies and cryopreservation respectively. The concentration of hemopoietic progenitor cells was performed without any sedimentation or density gradient agents. The recovery is given in percent (mean +/- sd) of the original marrow values: mononuclear cells (MNC) 74 +/- 10%, polymorphonuclear cells (PMC) 48 +/- 17%, red blood cells (RBC) 12 +/- 5%, granulocyte/monocyte progenitors (CFU-GM) 83 +/- 36%, and erythroid progenitors (BFU-E) 78 +/- 38%. The recovery of nucleated cells (NC) was 90 +/- 13% and the viability 82 +/- 11% after cryopreservation. The technique described provides a simple, rapid and efficient preparation of large bone marrow volumes for in vitro treatment and AB0-incompatible transplantation.

  7. Evaluation of a 2-step thermal method for separating organic and elemental carbon for radiocarbon analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Dusek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We thoroughly characterized a system for thermal separation of organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC for subsequent radiocarbon analysis. Different organic compounds as well as ambient aerosol filter samples were introduced into an oven system and combusted to CO2 in pure O2. The main objective was to test which combustion times and temperatures are best suited to separate OC and EC. The final separation step for OC was combustion at 360 °C for 15 min. Combustion at this temperature proved enough to remove several organic test substances from the filter (including high molecular weight humic acid but did not remove substantial amounts of EC. For isolation of EC, OC first needs to be completely removed from the filter. This was achieved by water extraction of the filter, followed by combustion of the water insoluble OC at 360 °C and combustion at an intermediate temperature step of 2 min at 450 °C. This last step removed the most refractory OC together with some EC. Finally, the remaining EC was combusted to CO2 at 650 °C. The recovery of black carbon after the intermediate 450 °C step was approximately 80%. Several tests provided strong evidence that OC was removed efficiently during the intermediate temperature step: (i brown carbon, indicative of refractory OC, was removed; (ii the fraction modern of EC did not decrease significantly if the temperature of the intermediate step was further increased. Based on tests with various organic compounds, we estimated that charred organic carbon could contribute 4–8% to an elemental carbon sample that was isolated according to our method.

  8. A new rapid method in LSC measuring technique; Neue Schnellmethode in der LSC-Messtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, Eberhard [FCI - Frenzel Consulting and Instruments, Straubenhardt (Germany); Kossert, Karsten [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Oikari, Timo [Hidex Oy, Turku (Finland); Otto, Roland [LUFA-ITL GmbH, Kiel (Germany); Wisser, Sascha [FCI - Frenzel Consulting and Instruments, Mainz (Germany)

    2013-04-01

    A new rapid analysis of {sup 89}Sr/{sup 90}Sr is introduced in this paper. Samples that have been radiochemically prepared can be directly analyzed by using the TDCR technique. With the new method, {sup 89}Sr can be determined by means of TCDR-Cerenkov counting and {sup 90}Sr using TDCR-LSC. The obtained results indicate the reliability of the method even with respect to relatively short measuring times yielding deviations of less than 10 % to the reference value. The new method is able to reliably determine the ratios of {sup 89}Sr/{sup 90}Sr, which occur after a nuclear incident. (orig.)

  9. Rapid simulation of electromagnetic telemetry using an axisymmetric semianalytical finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiefu; Zeng, Shubin; Dong, Qiuzhao; Huang, Yueqin

    2017-02-01

    An axisymmetric semianalytical finite element method is proposed and employed for rapid simulations of electromagnetic telemetry in layered underground formation. In this method, the layered media is decomposed into several subdomains and the interfaces between subdomains are discretized by conventional finite elements. Then a Riccati equation based high precision integration scheme is applied to exploit the homogeneity along the vertical direction in each layer. This semianalytical finite element scheme is very efficient in modeling electromagnetic telemetry in layered formation. Numerical examples as well as a field case with water based mud as drilling fluid are given to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of this method.

  10. Application of Rapid Prototyping Methods to High-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken in MSFC's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel to determine if rapid prototyping methods could be used in the design and manufacturing of high speed wind tunnel models in direct testing applications, and if these methods would reduce model design/fabrication time and cost while providing models of high enough fidelity to provide adequate aerodynamic data, and of sufficient strength to survive the test environment. Rapid prototyping methods utilized to construct wind tunnel models in a wing-body-tail configuration were: fused deposition method using both ABS plastic and PEEK as building materials, stereolithography using the photopolymer SL-5170, selective laser sintering using glass reinforced nylon, and laminated object manufacturing using plastic reinforced with glass and 'paper'. This study revealed good agreement between the SLA model, the metal model with an FDM-ABS nose, an SLA nose, and the metal model for most operating conditions, while the FDM-ABS data diverged at higher loading conditions. Data from the initial SLS model showed poor agreement due to problems in post-processing, resulting in a different configuration. A second SLS model was tested and showed relatively good agreement. It can be concluded that rapid prototyping models show promise in preliminary aerodynamic development studies at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds.

  11. Geometrical and Friction Properties of Perennial Grasses and Their Weeds in View of an Electro-Separation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyshyn, Stepan J.; Dadak, Viktor O.; Sokolyk, Vitalij V.; Grundas, Stanisław; Stasiak, Mateusz; Tys, Jerzy

    2015-04-01

    Many seed mixtures of herbs are difficult to separate. This is confirmed by studies determining the basic geometrical and friction properties of the seeds of perennial grasses and seeds of their weeds. The results show that in most cases the value of their geometrical parameters (length, thickness, and width) and friction properties (friction coefficients for different external surfaces of internal friction coefficients) are substantially similar and differ slightly among each other. This is the evidence that these properties are impractical to use in the process of separation as signs of divisibility. In the paper, a method for electro-separation of seed mixtures of herbs based on the use of complex physical, mechanical properties and electrical components in the separation are presented. The electric field that acts as an additional working body allows considering the surface conditions and biological status of seed mixtures of particles and significantly expands the functionality of the separators. Confirmation of the effectiveness of the proposed method for separation can be seen in the example of purification of red clover and sorrel seeds. By imposition of an electric field on an inclined moving separating plane, we can completely separate weed seeds from the main crop. The results confirm the effectiveness of the electro-separating method.

  12. Development of practical HPLC methods for the separation and determination of eggplant steroidal glycoalkaloids and their aglycones

    OpenAIRE

    Eanes, Ritchie C.; Tek, Neslihan; Kırsoy, Öyküm; FRARY, Anne; Doğanlar, Sami; Almeida, Adelia E.

    2008-01-01

    A practical set of HPLC methods was developed for the separation and determination of the eggplant steroidal glycoalkaloids, solanine, chaconine, solasonine, solamargine, and their aglycones, solasodine and solanidine. A gradient method was initially developed, but proved to be neither robust nor practical. Three separate isocratic methods using acetonitrile and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate were developed and shown to be more repeatable, less subject to fluctuations in mobile phase compositi...

  13. A rapid, partial leach and organic separation for the sensitive determination of Ag, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, and Zn in surface geologic materials by flame atomic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viets, J.G.; Clark, J.R.; Campbell, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    A solution of dilute hydrochloric acid, ascorbic acid, and potassium iodide has been found to dissolve weakly bound metals in soils, stream sediments, and oxidized rocks. Silver, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, and Zn are selectively extracted from this solution by a mixture of Aliquat 336 (tricaprylyl methyl ammonium chloride) and MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone). Because potentially interfering major and minor elements do not extract, the organic separation allows interference-free determinations of Ag and Cd to the 0.05 ppm level, Mo, Cu, and Zn to 0.5 ppm, and Bi, Pb, and Sb to 1 ppm in the sample using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The analytical absorbance values of the organic solution used in the proposed method are generally enhanced more than threefold as compared to aqueous solutions, due to more efficient atomization and burning characteristics. The leaching and extraction procedures are extremely rapid; as many as 100 samples may be analyzed per day, yielding 800 determinations, and the technique is adaptable to field use. The proposed method was compared to total digestion methods for geochemical reference samples as well as soils and stream sediments from mineralized and unmineralized areas. The partial leach showed better anomaly contrasts than did total digestions. Because the proposed method is very rapid and is sensitive to pathfinder elements for several types of ore deposits, it should be useful for reconnaissance surveys for concealed deposits. ?? 1984.

  14. Combining linear interpolation with extrapolation methods in range-separated ensemble density-functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Senjean, Bruno; Alam, Md Mehboob; Knecht, Stefan; Fromager, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a recently proposed linear interpolation method (LIM) [Senjean et al., Phys. Rev. A 92, 012518 (2015)], which enables the calculation of weight-independent excitation energies in range-separated ensemble density-functional approximations, with the extrapolation scheme of Savin [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 18A509 (2014)] is presented in this work. It is shown that LIM excitation energies vary quadratically with the inverse of the range-separation parameter mu when the latter is large. As a result, the extrapolation scheme, which is usually applied to long-range interacting energies, can be adapted straightforwardly to LIM. This extrapolated LIM (ELIM) has been tested on a small test set consisting of He, Be, H2 and HeH+. Relatively accurate results have been obtained for the first singlet excitation energies with the typical mu=0.4 value. The improvement of LIM after extrapolation is remarkable, in particular for the doubly-excited 2^1Sigma+g state in the stretched H2 molecule. Three-state ensemble ...

  15. Electrophoretic separation of purified myelin: a method to improve the protein pattern resolving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Silvia; Bartolucci, Martina; Barbarito, Giulia; Calzia, Daniela; Panfoli, Isabella

    2013-01-01

    Myelin sheath is a lipid-rich membrane, consisting of 70% lipid and 30% proteins, that is involved in physiological and pathological processes. For this reason its protein composition has been often investigated, principally by two-dimensional electrophoresis; however, the consistent lipid content makes it difficult to obtain good proteins separation. To improve the resolution of myelin proteins in a denaturing monodimensional gel electrophoresis, we examined several mixtures for the denaturation of the sample, utilizing different detergents and reducing agents. The definition of the protein pattern was analyzed by both "Blue Silver" Coomassie staining and Western Blot analysis against myelin basic protein, one of the most represented myelin proteins. The best resolution is observed when the sample was incubated with a mixture containing 1.25% dithiothreitol, 4 M urea, and 1% dodecyl maltoside or 1 % 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate, prior to addition of denaturing agents. In conclusion, this work describes a novel method to improve the separation of myelin proteins in a monodimensional gel electrophoresis. It may be also useful for investigating other lipid-rich samples.

  16. Rapid and easy multiresidue method for the analysis of antibiotics in meats by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Okihashi, Masahiro; Harada, Kazuo; Uchida, Kotaro; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Hirata, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2015-06-03

    This study involved the development of a multiresidue method for the rapid analysis of 43 antibiotics in meats using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This method was performed using dispersive-solid phase extraction, which is able to analyze 20 samples within 2 h. All compounds were determined simultaneously on a C18 separation column with gradient elution. Validation of the analytical method was performed by carrying out linearity, limit of quantification (LOQ), accuracy, precision, and recovery tests in different meat products. The validation criteria were set according to AOAC International and Japanese validation guidelines. The linearity of each compound was almost the coefficient of determination (r(2)) > 0.98. The LOQs of all tested antibiotics were chicken, respectively. This method can be used for rapid and easy multiresidue screening of antibiotics for three meats (pork, beef, and chicken).

  17. Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using Vis/NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuqi; Tang, Xuxiang

    2015-01-01

    Fuji apple storage time rapid determination method using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was studied in this paper. Vis/NIR diffuse reflection spectroscopy responses to samples were measured for 6 days. Spectroscopy data were processed by stochastic resonance (SR). Principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to analyze original spectroscopy data and SNR eigen value. Results demonstrated that PCA could not totally discriminate Fuji apples using original spectroscopy data. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) spectrum clearly classified all apple samples. PCA using SNR spectrum successfully discriminated apple samples. Therefore, Vis/NIR spectroscopy was effective for Fuji apple storage time rapid discrimination. The proposed method is also promising in condition safety control and management for food and environmental laboratories.

  18. Evaluation of methods for rapid determination of freezing point of aviation fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiprakasam, B.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for identification of the more promising concepts for the development of a portable instrument to rapidly determine the freezing point of aviation fuels are described. The evaluation process consisted of: (1) collection of information on techniques previously used for the determination of the freezing point, (2) screening and selection of these techniques for further evaluation of their suitability in a portable unit for rapid measurement, and (3) an extensive experimental evaluation of the selected techniques and a final selection of the most promising technique. Test apparatuses employing differential thermal analysis and the change in optical transparency during phase change were evaluated and tested. A technique similar to differential thermal analysis using no reference fuel was investigated. In this method, the freezing point was obtained by digitizing the data and locating the point of inflection. Results obtained using this technique compare well with those obtained elsewhere using different techniques. A conceptual design of a portable instrument incorporating this technique is presented.

  19. Simple and rapid method for the isolation of forskolin from Coleus forskohlii by charcoal column chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, A M; Dhasan, P B; Rafiullah, M R M

    2006-01-06

    A simple, safe, rapid and economical method was developed for the isolation of high-purity forskolin from Coleus forskohlii roots using activated charcoal as an adsorbent in a column. The elution was carried out under reduced pressure to make the process rapid. Activated charcoal acted as a reversed phase adsorbent and allowed elution of forskolin without much impurities. The residue, obtained from the eluate was purified and crystallized using different solvent mixtures to obtain pure forskolin. The forskolin isolated was analyzed and characterized by UV, IR, RP-HPLC, electrospray ionization MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The yield was 0.097% w/w (RSD 5.6%). The purity was 96.9% w/w (RSD 0.3%) as determined by RP-HPLC. The present method enables researchers to produce high-purity forskolin in their labs by using common chemicals.

  20. [A rapid prototype fabrication method of dental splint based on 3D simulation and technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanping; Chen, Xiaojun; Zhang, Shilei; Wang, Chengtao

    2006-04-01

    The conventional design and fabrication of the dental splint (in orthognathic surgery) is based on the preoperative planning and model surgery so this process is of low precision and efficiency. In order to solve the problems and be up to the trend of computer-assisted surgery, we have developed a novel method to design and fabricate the dental splint--computer-generated dental splint, which is based on three-dimensional model simulation and rapid prototype technology. After the surgical planning and simulation of 3D model, we can modify the model to be superior in chewing action (functional) and overall facial appearance (aesthetic). Then, through the Boolean operation of the dental splint blank and the maxillofacial bone model the model of dental splint is formed. At last, the dental splint model is fabricated through rapid prototype machine and applied in clinic. The result indicates that, with the use of this method, the surgical precision and efficiency are improved.