WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid response system

  1. Rapid response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrick G; Edelson, Dana P; Churpek, Matthew M

    2018-07-01

    Rapid response systems are commonly employed by hospitals to identify and respond to deteriorating patients outside of the intensive care unit. Controversy exists about the benefits of rapid response systems. We aimed to review the current state of the rapid response literature, including evolving aspects of afferent (risk detection) and efferent (intervention) arms, outcome measurement, process improvement, and implementation. Articles written in English and published in PubMed. Rapid response systems are heterogeneous, with important differences among afferent and efferent arms. Clinically meaningful outcomes may include unexpected mortality, in-hospital cardiac arrest, length of stay, cost, and processes of care at end of life. Both positive and negative interventional studies have been published, although the two largest randomized trials involving rapid response systems - the Medical Early Response and Intervention Trial (MERIT) and the Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients (EPOCH) trial - did not find a mortality benefit with these systems, albeit with important limitations. Advances in monitoring technologies, risk assessment strategies, and behavioral ergonomics may offer opportunities for improvement. Rapid responses may improve some meaningful outcomes, although these findings remain controversial. These systems may also improve care for patients at the end of life. Rapid response systems are expected to continue evolving with novel developments in monitoring technologies, risk prediction informatics, and work in human factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Adsorption of Chloroform by the Rapid Response System Filter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karwacki, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    Adsorption equilibria and dynamic breakthrough data were measured to determine the adsorption capacity and effect of purge air on the desorption of chloroform from activated carbon simulating the Rapid Response System (RRS) filter...

  3. Performance of the efferent limb of a rapid response system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emilie M; Petersen, Asger

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the distribution of outcomes following a medical emergency team (MET) call using a modified version of the multidisciplinary audit and evaluation of outcomes of rapid response (MAELOR) tool, and to evaluate its usefulness in monitoring the performance of the efferent limb...... of the rapid response system (RRS) at our institution. METHOD: An observational study of prospectively collected data including all MET calls at our institution during the 36 weeks study period (23 December 2013 - 31 august 2014). Outcomes of MET calls were registered 24 h after the call occurred...

  4. The limitations in implementing and operating a rapid response system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, A; Botha, J; Tiruvoipati, R

    2016-10-01

    Despite the widespread introduction of rapid response systems (RRS)/medical emergency teams (MET), there is still controversy regarding how effective they are. While there are some observational studies showing improved outcomes with RRS, there are no data from randomised controlled trials to support the effectiveness. Nevertheless, the MET system has become a standard of care in many healthcare organisations. In this review, we present an overview of the limitations in implementing and operating a RRS in modern healthcare. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  5. Effectiveness Analysis of a Part-Time Rapid Response System During Operation Versus Nonoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youlim; Lee, Dong Seon; Min, Hyunju; Choi, Yun Young; Lee, Eun Young; Song, Inae; Park, Jong Sun; Cho, Young-Jae; Jo, You Hwan; Yoon, Ho Il; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Do, Sang Hwan; Lee, Yeon Joo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a part-time rapid response system on the occurrence rate of cardiopulmonary arrest by comparing the times of rapid response system operation versus nonoperation. Retrospective cohort study. A 1,360-bed tertiary care hospital. Adult patients admitted to the general ward were screened. Data were collected over 36 months from rapid response system implementation (October 2012 to September 2015) and more than 45 months before rapid response system implementation (January 2009 to September 2012). None. The rapid response system operates from 7 AM to 10 PM on weekdays and from 7 AM to 12 PM on Saturdays. Primary outcomes were the difference of cardiopulmonary arrest incidence between pre-rapid response system and post-rapid response system periods and whether the rapid response system operating time affects the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence. The overall cardiopulmonary arrest incidence (per 1,000 admissions) was 1.43. Although the number of admissions per month and case-mix index were increased (3,555.18 vs 4,564.72, p times (0.82 vs 0.49/1,000 admissions; p = 0.001) but remained similar during rapid response system nonoperating times (0.77 vs 0.73/1,000 admissions; p = 0.729). The implementation of a part-time rapid response system reduced the cardiopulmonary arrest incidence based on the reduction of cardiopulmonary arrest during rapid response system operating times. Further analysis of the cost effectiveness of part-time rapid response system is needed.

  6. Long-term culture change related to rapid response system implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer; Johansson, Anna; Lennes, Inga; Hsu, Douglas; Tess, Anjala; Howell, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Increasing attention to patient safety in training hospitals may come at the expense of trainee autonomy and professional growth. This study sought to examine changes in medical trainees' self-reported behaviour after the institution-wide implementation of a rapid response system. We conducted a two-point cross-sectional survey of medical trainees in 2006, during the implementation of a rapid response system, and in 2010, in a single academic medical centre. A novel instrument was used to measure trainee likelihood of calling for supervisory assistance, perception of autonomy, and comfort in managing decompensating patients. Non-parametric tests to assess for change were used and year of training was evaluated as an effect modifier. Response rates were 38% in 2006 and 70% in 2010. After 5 years of the full implementation of the rapid response system, residents were significantly more likely to report calling their attending physicians for assistance (rising from 40% to 65% of relevant situations; p autonomy at 5 years after the implementation of the rapid response system. These changes were mirrored in the actual use of the rapid response system, which increased by 41% during the 5-year period after adjustment for patient volume (p < 0.0001). A primary team-focused implementation of a rapid response system was associated with durable changes in resident physicians' reported behaviour, including increased comfort with involving more experienced physicians and managing unstable patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Rapid response of a hydrologic system to volcanic activity: Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, S.C.P.; Connor, C.B.; Sanford, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrologic systems change in response to volcanic activity, and in turn may be sensitive indicators of volcanic activity. Here we investigate the coupled nature of magmatic and hydrologic systems using continuous multichannel time series of soil temperature collected on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, one of the most active volcanoes in Central America. The soil temperatures were measured in a low-temperature fumarole field located 3.5 km down the flanks of the volcano. Analysis of these time series reveals that they respond extremely rapidly, on a time scale of minutes, to changes in volcanic activity also manifested at the summit vent. These rapid temperature changes are caused by increased flow of water vapor through flank fumaroles during volcanism. The soil temperature response, ~5 °C, is repetitive and complex, with as many as 13 pulses during a single volcanic episode. Analysis of the frequency spectrum of these temperature time series shows that these anomalies are characterized by broad frequency content during volcanic activity. They are thus easily distinguished from seasonal trends, diurnal variations, or individual rainfall events, which triggered rapid transient increases in temperature during 5% of events. We suggest that the mechanism responsible for the distinctive temperature signals is rapid change in pore pressure in response to magmatism, a response that can be enhanced by meteoric water infiltration. Monitoring of distal fumaroles can therefore provide insight into coupled volcanic-hydrologic-meteorologic systems, and has potential as an inexpensive monitoring tool.

  8. A nationwide web-based automated system for early outbreak detection and rapid response in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilan Liao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Timely reporting, effective analyses and rapid distribution of surveillance data can assist in detecting the aberration of disease occurrence and further facilitate a timely response. In China, a new nationwide web-based automated system for outbreak detection and rapid response was developed in 2008. The China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System (CIDARS was developed by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention based on the surveillance data from the existing electronic National Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System (NIDRIS started in 2004. NIDRIS greatly improved the timeliness and completeness of data reporting with real time reporting information via the Internet. CIDARS further facilitates the data analysis, aberration detection, signal dissemination, signal response and information communication needed by public health departments across the country. In CIDARS, three aberration detection methods are used to detect the unusual occurrence of 28 notifiable infectious diseases at the county level and to transmit that information either in real-time or on a daily basis. The Internet, computers and mobile phones are used to accomplish rapid signal generation and dissemination, timely reporting and reviewing of the signal response results. CIDARS has been used nationwide since 2008; all Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC in China at the county, prefecture, provincial and national levels are involved in the system. It assists with early outbreak detection at the local level and prompts reporting of unusual disease occurrences or potential outbreaks to CDCs throughout the country.

  9. Early warning systems and rapid response to the deteriorating patient in hospital: A realist evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughey, Jennifer; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam; Trinder, John; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-12-01

    To test the Rapid Response Systems programme theory against actual practice components of the Rapid Response Systems implemented to identify those contexts and mechanisms which have an impact on the successful achievement of desired outcomes in practice. Rapid Response Systems allow deteriorating patients to be recognized using Early Warning Systems, referred early via escalation protocols and managed at the bedside by competent staff. Realist evaluation. The research design was an embedded multiple case study approach of four wards in two hospitals in Northern Ireland which followed the principles of Realist Evaluation. We used various mixed methods including individual and focus group interviews, observation of nursing practice between June-November 2010 and document analysis of Early Warning Systems audit data between May-October 2010 and hospital acute care training records over 4.5 years from 2003-2008. Data were analysed using NiVivo8 and SPPS. A cross-case analysis highlighted similar patterns of factors which enabled or constrained successful recognition, referral and response to deteriorating patients in practice. Key enabling factors were the use of clinical judgement by experienced nurses and the empowerment of nurses as a result of organizational change associated with implementation of Early Warning System protocols. Key constraining factors were low staffing and inappropriate skill mix levels, rigid implementation of protocols and culturally embedded suboptimal communication processes. Successful implementation of Rapid Response Systems was dependent on adopting organizational and cultural changes that facilitated staff empowerment, flexible implementation of protocols and ongoing experiential learning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Rapid response and wide range neutronic power measuring systems for fast pulsed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Kenji; Iida, Toshiyuki; Wakayama, Naoaki.

    1976-01-01

    This paper summarizes our investigation on design principles of the rapid, stable and wide range neutronic power measuring system for fast pulsed reactors. The picoammeter, the logarithmic amplifier, the reactivity meter and the neutron current chamber are the items of investigation. In order to get a rapid response, the method of compensation for the stray capacitance of the feedback circuits and the capacitance of signal cables is applied to the picoammeter, the logarithmic amplifier and the reactivity meter with consideration for the stability margin of a whole detecting system. The response of an ionization current chamber and the method for compensating the ion component of the chamber output to get optimum responses high pass filters are investigated. Statistical fluctuations of the current chamber output are also considered in those works. The optimum thickness of the surrounding moderator of the neutron detector is also discussed from the viewpoint of the pulse shape deformation and the neutron sensitivity increase. The experimental results are reported, which were observed in the pulse operations of the one shot fast pulsed reactor ''YAYOI'' and the one shot TRIGA ''NSRR'' with the measuring systems using those principles. (auth.)

  11. NIR responsive liposomal system for rapid release of drugs in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen MM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ming-Mao Chen,1 Yuan-Yuan Liu,1 Guang-Hao Su,2 Fei-Fei Song,1 Yan Liu,3 Qi-Qing Zhang1,4 1Institute of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, 2Institute of Pediatric Research, Children’s Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 3State Key Lab of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, 4Key Laboratory of Biomedical Material of Tianjin, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Abstract: To design a rapid release liposomal system for cancer therapy, a NIR responsive bubble-generating thermosensitive liposome (BTSL system combined with photothermal agent (Cypate, doxorubicin (DOX, and NH4HCO3 was developed. Cypate/DOX-BTSL exhibited a good aqueous stability, photostability, and photothermal effect. In vitro release suggested that the amounts of DOX released from BTSL were obviously higher than that of (NH42SO4 liposomes at 42°C. After NIR irradiation, the hyperthermic temperature induced by Cypate led to the decomposition of NH4HCO3 and the generation of a large number of CO2 bubbles, triggering a rapid release of drugs. Confocal laser scanning microscope and acridine orange staining indicated that Cypate/DOX-BTSL upon irradiation could facilitate to disrupt the lysosomal membranes and realize endolysosomal escape into cytosol, improving the intracellular uptake of DOX clearly. MTT and trypan blue staining implied that the cell damage of Cypate/DOX-BTSL with NIR irradiation was more severe than that in the groups without irradiation. In vivo results indicated that Cypate/DOX-BTSL with irradiation could dramatically increase the accumulation of DOX in tumor, inhibit tumor growth, and reduce systemic side effects of DOX. These data demonstrated that Cypate/DOX-BTSL has the potential to be used as a NIR responsive liposomal system for a rapid

  12. Condition Help: A Patient- and Family-Initiated Rapid Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Elizabeth L; Rack, Laurie L; Chen, Ling-Wan; Bump, Gregory M

    2017-03-01

    Rapid response teams (RRTs) help in delivering safe, timely care. Typically they are activated by clinicians using specific parameters. Allowing patients and families to activate RRTs is a novel intervention. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center developed and implemented a patient- and family-initiated rapid response system called Condition Help (CH). When the CH system is activated, a patient care liaison or an on-duty administrator meets bedside with the unit charge nurse to address the patient's concerns. In this study, we collected demographic data, call reasons, call designations (safety or nonsafety), and outcome information for all CH calls made during the period January 2012 through June 2015. Two hundred forty patients/family members made 367 CH calls during the study period. Most calls were made by patients (76.8%) rather than family members (21.8%). Of the 240 patients, 43 (18%) made multiple calls; their calls accounted for 46.3% of all calls (170/367). Inadequate pain control was the reason for the call in most cases (48.2%), followed by dissatisfaction with staff (12.5%). The majority of calls involved nonsafety issues (83.4%) rather than safety issues (11.4%). In 41.4% of cases, a change in care was made. Patient- and family-initiated RRTs are designed to engage patients and families in providing safer care. In the CH system, safety issues are identified, but the majority of calls involve nonsafety issues. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2017;12:157-161. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine

  13. "Identifying the hospitalised patient in crisis"--a consensus conference on the afferent limb of rapid response systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeVita, Michael A; Smith, Gary B; Adam, Sheila K

    2010-01-01

    Most reports of Rapid Response Systems (RRS) focus on the efferent, response component of the system, although evidence suggests that improved vital sign monitoring and recognition of a clinical crisis may have outcome benefits. There is no consensus regarding how best to detect patient deteriora...

  14. Consumer participation in early detection of the deteriorating patient and call activation to rapid response systems: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorwerk, Jane; King, Lindy

    2016-01-01

    This review investigated the impact of consumer participation in recognition of patient deterioration and response through call activation in rapid response systems. Nurses and doctors have taken the main role in recognition and response to patient deterioration through hospital rapid response systems. Yet patients and visitors (consumers) have appeared well placed to notice early signs of deterioration. In response, many hospitals have sought to partner health professionals with consumers in detection and response to early deterioration. However, to date, there have been no published research-based reviews to establish the impact of introducing consumer involvement into rapid response systems. A critical research-based review was undertaken. A comprehensive search of databases from 2006-2014 identified 11 studies. Critical appraisal of these studies was undertaken and thematic analysis of the findings revealed four major themes. Following implementation of the consumer activation programmes, the number of calls made by the consumers following detection of deterioration increased. Interestingly, the number of staff calls also increased. Importantly, mortality numbers were found to decrease in one major study following the introduction of consumer call activation. Consumer and staff knowledge and satisfaction with the new programmes indicated mixed results. Initial concerns of the staff over consumer involvement overwhelming the rapid response systems did not eventuate. Evaluation of successful consumer-activated programmes indicated the importance of: effective staff education and training; ongoing consumer education by nurses and clear educational materials. Findings indicated positive patient outcomes following introduction of consumer call activation programmes within rapid response systems. Effective consumer programmes included information that was readily accessible, easy-to-understand and available in a range of multimedia materials accompanied by the

  15. Effect of a Real-Time Electronic Dashboard on a Rapid Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Grant S; Aaronson, Barry A; White, Andrew A; Julka, Reena

    2017-11-20

    A rapid response system (RRS) may have limited effectiveness when inpatient providers fail to recognize signs of early patient decompensation. We evaluated the impact of an electronic medical record (EMR)-based alerting dashboard on outcomes associated with RRS activation. We used a repeated treatment study in which the dashboard display was successively turned on and off each week for ten 2-week cycles over a 20-week period on the inpatient acute care wards of an academic medical center. The Rapid Response Team (RRT) dashboard displayed all hospital patients in a single view ranked by severity score, updated in real time. The dashboard could be seen within the EMR by any provider, including RRT members. The primary outcomes were the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of all RRT activations, unexpected ICU transfers, cardiopulmonary arrests and deaths on general medical-surgical wards (wards). We conducted an exploratory analysis of first RRT activations. There were 6736 eligible admissions during the 20-week study period. There was no change in overall RRT activations (IRR = 1.14, p = 0.07), but a significant increase in first RRT activations (IRR = 1.20, p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in unexpected ICU transfers (IRR = 1.15, p = 0.25), cardiopulmonary arrests on general wards (IRR = 1.46, p = 0.43), or deaths on general wards (IRR = 0.96, p = 0.89). The introduction of the RRT dashboard was associated with increased initial RRT activations but not overall activations, unexpected ICU transfers, cardiopulmonary arrests, or death. The RRT dashboard is a novel tool to help providers recognize patient decompensation and may improve initial RRT notification.

  16. A rapid response air quality analysis system for use in projects having stringent quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to solve air quality problems which frequently occur during iterations of the baseline change process. From a schedule standpoint, it is desirable to perform this evaluation in as short a time as possible while budgetary pressures limit the size of the staff available to do the work. Without a method in place to deal with baseline change proposal requests the environment analysts may not be able to produce the analysis results in the time frame expected. Using a concept called the Rapid Response Air Quality Analysis System (RAAS), the problems of timing and cost become tractable. The system could be adapted to assess other atmospheric pathway impacts, e.g., acoustics or visibility. The air quality analysis system used to perform the EA analysis (EA) for the Salt Repository Project (part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program), and later to evaluate the consequences of proposed baseline changes, consists of three components: Emission source data files; Emission rates contained in spreadsheets; Impact assessment model codes. The spreadsheets contain user-written codes (macros) that calculate emission rates from (1) emission source data (e.g., numbers and locations of sources, detailed operating schedules, and source specifications including horsepower, load factor, and duty cycle); (2) emission factors such as those published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and (3) control efficiencies

  17. Optical satellite data volcano monitoring: a multi-sensor rapid response system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Ramsey, Michael; Wessels, Rick L.; Dehn, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    response program described in this chapter also improves the temporal resolution of the ASTER instrument. ASTER has been acquiring images of volcanic eruptions since soon after its launch in December 1999. An early example included the observations of the large pyroclastic flow deposit emplaced at Bezymianny volcano in Kamchatka, Russia. The first images in March 2000, just weeks after the eruption, revealed the extent, composition, and cooling history of this large deposit and of the active lava dome (Ramsey and Dehn, 2004). The initial results from these early datasets spurred interest in using ASTER data for expanded volcano monitoring in the north Pacific. It also gave rise to the multi-year NASA-funded programs of rapid response scheduling and imaging throughout the Aleutian, Kamchatka and Kurile arcs. Since the formal establishment of the programs, the data have provided detailed descriptions of the eruptions of Augustine, Bezymianny, Kliuchevskoi and Sheveluch volcanoes over the past nine years (Wessels et al., in press; Carter et al., 2007, 2008; Ramsey et al., 2008; Rose and Ramsey, 2009). The initial research focus of this rapid response program was specifically on automating the ASTER sensor’s ability for targeted observational scheduling using the expedited data system. This urgent request protocol is one of the unique characteristics of ASTER. It provides a limited number of emergency observations, typically at a much-improved temporal resolution and quicker turnaround with data processing in the United States rather than in Japan. This can speed the reception of the processed data by several days to a week. The ongoing multi-agency research and operational collaboration has been highly successful. AVO serves as the primary source for status information on volcanic activity, working closely with the National Weather Service (NWS), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), military and other state and federal emergency services. Collaboration with the Russian

  18. Utility and assessment of non-technical skills for rapid response systems and medical emergency teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalwin, R P; Flabouris, A

    2013-09-01

    Efforts are ongoing to improve outcomes from cardiac arrest and medical emergencies. A promising quality improvement modality is use of non-technical skills (NTS) that aim to address human factors through improvements in performance of leadership, communication, situational awareness and decision-making. Originating in the airline industry, NTS training has been successfully introduced into anaesthesia, surgery, emergency medicine and other acute medical specialities. Some aspects of NTS have already achieved acceptance for cardiac arrest teams. Leadership skills are emphasised in advanced life support training and have shown favourable results when employed in simulated and clinical resuscitation scenarios. The application of NTS in medical emergency teams as part of a rapid response system attending medical emergencies is less certain; however, observations of simulations have also shown promise. This review highlights the potential benefits of NTS competency for cardiac arrest teams and, more importantly, medical emergency teams because of the diversity of clinical scenarios encountered. Discussion covers methods to assess and refine NTS and NTS training to optimise performance in the clinical environment. Increasing attention should be applied to yielding meaningful patient and organisational outcomes from use of NTS. Similarly, implementation of any training course should receive appropriate scrutiny to refine team and institutional performance. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. CE: Original research: hospital system barriers to rapid response team activation: a cognitive work analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, Jane Saucedo

    2015-02-01

    The goal of rapid response team (RRT) activation in acute care facilities is to decrease mortality from preventable complications, but such efforts have been only moderately successful. Although recent research has shown decreased mortality when RRTs are activated more often, many hospitals have low activation rates. This has been linked to various hospital, team, and nursing factors. Yet there is a dearth of research examining how hospital systems shape nurses' behavior with regard to RRT activation. Making systemic constraints visible and modifying them may be the key to improving RRT activation rates and saving more lives. The purpose of this study was to use cognitive work analysis to describe factors within the hospital system that shape medical-surgical nurses' RRT activation behavior. Cognitive work analysis offers a framework for the study of complex sociotechnical systems. This framework was used as the organizing element of the study. Qualitative descriptive design was used to obtain data to fill the framework's five domains: resources, tasks, strategies, social systems, and worker competency. Data were obtained from interviews with 12 medical-surgical nurses and document review. Directed content analysis was used to place the obtained data into the framework's predefined domains. Many system factors affected participants' decisions to activate or not activate an RRT. Systemic constraints, especially in cases of subtle or gradual clinical changes, included a lack of adequate information, the availability of multiple strategies, the need to justify RRT activation, a scarcity of human resources, and informal hierarchical norms in the hospital culture. The most profound constraint was the need to justify the call. Justification was based on the objective or subjective nature of clinical changes, whether the nurse expected to be able to "handle" these changes, the presence or absence of a physician, and whether there was an expectation of support from the RRT

  20. Rapid Response Command and Control (R2C2): a systems engineering analysis of scaleable communications for Regional Combatant Commanders

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Lisa; Cannon, Lennard; Reyes, Ronel; Bae, Kitan; Colgary, James; Minerowicz, Nick; Leong, Chris; Lim, Harry; Lim, Hang Sheng; Ng, Chin Chin; Neo, Tiong Tien; Tan, Guan Chye; Ng, Yu Loon; Wong, Eric; Wong, Heng Yue

    2006-01-01

    Includes supplementary material. Disaster relief operations, such as the 2005 Tsunami and Hurricane Katrina, and wartime operations, such as Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, have identified the need for a standardized command and control system interoperable among Joint, Coalition, and Interagency entities. The Systems Engineering Analysis Cohort 9 (SEA-9) Rapid Response Command and Control (R2C2) integrated project team completed a systems engineering (SE) ...

  1. The role of the primary care team in the rapid response system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Horo, John C; Sevilla Berrios, Ronaldo A; Elmer, Jennifer L; Velagapudi, Venu; Caples, Sean M; Kashyap, Rahul; Jensen, Jeffrey B

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the impact of primary service involvement on rapid response team (RRT) evaluations. The study is a combination of retrospective chart review and prospective survey-based evaluation. Data included when and where the activations occurred and the patient's code status, primary service, and ultimate disposition. These data were correlated with survey data from each event. A prospective survey evaluated the primary team's involvement in decision making and the overall subjective quality of the interaction with primary service through a visual analog scale. We analyzed 4408 RRTs retrospectively and an additional 135 prospectively. The primary team's involvement by telephone or in person was associated with significantly more transfers to higher care levels in retrospective (P team involvement, with more frequent changes seen in the retrospective analysis (P = .01). Subjective ratings of communication by the RRT leader were significantly higher when the primary service was involved (P team involvement influences RRT activation processes of care. The RRT role should be an adjunct to, but not a substitute for, an engaged and present primary care team. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diurnal variation in the performance of rapid response systems: the role of critical care services-a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Krishnaswamy; Flabouris, Arthas; Thompson, Campbell

    2016-01-01

    The type of medical review before an adverse event influences patient outcome. Delays in the up-transfer of patients requiring intensive care are associated with higher mortality rates. Timely detection and response to a deteriorating patient constitute an important function of the rapid response system (RRS). The activation of the RRS for at-risk patients constitutes the system's afferent limb. Afferent limb failure (ALF), an important performance measure of rapid response systems, constitutes a failure to activate a rapid response team (RRT) despite criteria for calling an RRT. There are diurnal variations in hospital staffing levels, the performance of rapid response systems and patient outcomes. Fewer ward-based nursing staff at night may contribute to ALF. The diurnal variability in RRS activity is greater in unmonitored units than it is in monitored units for events that should result in a call for an RRT. RRT events include a significant abnormality in either the pulse rate, blood pressure, conscious state or respiratory rate. There is also diurnal variation in RRT summoning rates, with most activations occurring during the day. The reasons for this variation are mostly speculative, but the failure of the afferent limb of RRT activation, particularly at night, may be a factor. The term "circadian variation/rhythm" applies to physiological variations over a 24-h cycle. In contrast, diurnal variation applies more accurately to extrinsic systems. Circadian rhythm has been demonstrated in a multitude of bodily functions and disease states. For example, there is an association between disrupted circadian rhythms and abnormal vital parameters such as anomalous blood pressure, irregular pulse rate, aberrant endothelial function, myocardial infarction, stroke, sleep-disordered breathing and its long-term consequences of hypertension, heart failure and cognitive impairment. Therefore, diurnal variation in patient outcomes may be extrinsic, and more easily modifiable

  3. The Rapid Disaster Evaluation System (RaDES): A Plan to Improve Global Disaster Response by Privatizing the Assessment Component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserson, Kenneth V

    2017-09-01

    Emergency medicine personnel frequently respond to major disasters. They expect to have an effective and efficient management system to elegantly allocate available resources. Despite claims to the contrary, experience demonstrates this rarely occurs. This article describes privatizing disaster assessment using a single-purposed, accountable, and well-trained organization. The goal is to achieve elegant disaster assessment, rather than repeatedly exhorting existing groups to do it. The Rapid Disaster Evaluation System (RaDES) would quickly and efficiently assess a postdisaster population's needs. It would use an accountable nongovernmental agency's teams with maximal training, mobility, and flexibility. Designed to augment the Inter-Agency Standing Committee's 2015 Emergency Response Preparedness Plan, RaDES would provide the initial information needed to avoid haphazard and overlapping disaster responses. Rapidly deployed teams would gather information from multiple sources and continually communicate those findings to their base, which would then disseminate them to disaster coordinators in a concise, coherent, and transparent way. The RaDES concept represents an elegant, minimally bureaucratic, and effective rapid response to major disasters. However, its implementation faces logistical, funding, and political obstacles. Developing and maintaining RaDES would require significant funding and political commitment to coordinate the numerous agencies that claim to be performing the same tasks. Although simulations can demonstrate efficacy and deficiencies, only field tests will demonstrate RaDES' power to improve interagency coordination and decrease the cost of major disaster response. At the least, the RaDES concept should serve as a model for discussing how to practicably improve our current chaotic disaster responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Human adaptation responses to a rapidly changing Arctic: A research context for building system resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, T.; Brinkman, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    Although human behavior accounts for more uncertainty in future trajectories in climate change than do biophysical processes, most climate-change research fails to include human actions in research design and implementation. This is well-illustrated in the Arctic. At the global scale, arctic processes strongly influence the strength of biophysical feedbacks between global human emissions and the rate of climate warming. However, most human actions in the arctic have little effect on these feedbacks, so research can contribute most effectively to reduction in arctic warming through improved understanding of the strength of arctic-global biophysical feedbacks, as in NASA's ABoVE program, and its effective communication to policy makers and the public. In contrast, at the local to regional scale within the arctic, human actions may influence the ecological and societal consequences of arctic warming, so research benefits from active stakeholder engagement in research design and implementation. Human communities and other stakeholders (government and NGOs) respond heterogeneously to socioeconomic and environmental change, so research that documents the range of historical and current adaptive responses to change provides insights on the resilience (flexibility of future options) of social-ecological processes in the arctic. Alaskan communities have attempted a range of adaptive responses to coastal erosion (e.g., seasonal migration, protection in place, relocation), wildfire (fire suppression to use of fire to manage wildlife habitat or landscape heterogeneity), declining sea ice (e.g., new hunting technology, sea ice observations and predictions), and changes in wildlife and fish availability (e.g., switch to harvest of alternative species, harvest times, or harvest locations). Research that draws on both traditional and western knowledge facilitates adaptation and predictions of the likely societal consequences of climate change in the Arctic. Effective inclusion of

  5. Data for Macrophyte Community Response to Nitrogen Loading and Thermal Stressors in Rapidly Flushed Mesocosm Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data represent response variables from a series of mesocosm experiments to assess how estuarine macrophyte communities respond to nitrogen loading under two...

  6. Variable Speed (DFIG) Wind Turbines: Rapid Frequency Response to Power System Disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of integrating large number of wind turbines particularly the double fed induction generator (DFIG) on the virtual inertia of the Danish power system network. The virtual inertia refers to the kinetic energy stored in the rotating masses which can be released...... initially to counter act the frequency change during a power system disturbance. Simulation studies have been carried out on a generic reduced model of a transmission power grid of the Danish TSO Energinet.dk to assess the impact of loss of generation on system frequency. Further, simulation study has been...

  7. Sensibility Study of St Andrew Bay Rapid Response System for Naval Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pauly, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    .... For the physical part, time constraint may limit to using the barotropic mode. But because rain can be significant in St Andrew Bay system, Florida, fresh water, even when rivers lack, is a prevailing salinity regulator through ground seepage...

  8. Macrophyte Community Response to Nitrogen Loading and Thermal Stressors in Rapidly Flushed Mesocosm Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased nitrogen loading has been directly linked to the proliferation of planktonic and macroalgal blooms at a global scale with negative impacts on estuarine ecology and human health. Under excessive anthropogenic nutrient loads, seagrass systems can be replaced by either ma...

  9. Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER): A System for Rapidly Determining the Impact of Earthquakes Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Paul S.; Wald, David J.; Jaiswal, Kishor S.; Allen, Trevor I.; Hearne, Michael G.; Marano, Kristin D.; Hotovec, Alicia J.; Fee, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Within minutes of a significant earthquake anywhere on the globe, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system assesses its potential societal impact. PAGER automatically estimates the number of people exposed to severe ground shaking and the shaking intensity at affected cities. Accompanying maps of the epicentral region show the population distribution and estimated ground-shaking intensity. A regionally specific comment describes the inferred vulnerability of the regional building inventory and, when available, lists recent nearby earthquakes and their effects. PAGER's results are posted on the USGS Earthquake Program Web site (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/), consolidated in a concise one-page report, and sent in near real-time to emergency responders, government agencies, and the media. Both rapid and accurate results are obtained through manual and automatic updates of PAGER's content in the hours following significant earthquakes. These updates incorporate the most recent estimates of earthquake location, magnitude, faulting geometry, and first-hand accounts of shaking. PAGER relies on a rich set of earthquake analysis and assessment tools operated by the USGS and contributing Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks. A focused research effort is underway to extend PAGER's near real-time capabilities beyond population exposure to quantitative estimates of fatalities, injuries, and displaced population.

  10. Market design for rapid demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt; Tamirat, Tseganesh Wubale

    We suggest a market design for rapid demand response in electricity markets. The solution consists of remotely controlled switches, meters, forecasting models as well as a flexible auction market to set prices and select endusers job by job. The auction market motivates truth-telling and makes...... it simple to involve the endusers in advance and to activate demand response immediately. The collective solution is analyzed and economic simulations are conducted for the case of Kenya. Kenya has been su ering from unreliable electricity supply for many years and companies and households have learned...... to adjust by investments in backup generators. We focus on turning the many private backup generators into a demand response system. The economic simulation focuses on possible distortion introduced by various ways of splitting the generated surplus from the demand response system. An auction run instantly...

  11. Interagency partnering for weed prevention--progress on development of a National Early Detection and Rapid Response System for Invasive Plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrooks, R.; Westbrooks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, experience has shown that interagency groups provide an effective forum for addressing various invasive species issues and challenges on multiple land units. However, more importantly, they can also provide a coordinated framework for early detection, reporting, identification and vouchering, rapid assessment, and rapid response to new and emerging invasive plants in the United States. Interagency collaboration maximizes the use of available expertise, resources, and authority for promoting early detection and rapid response (EDRR) as the preferred management option for addressing new and emerging invasive plants. Currently, an interagency effort is underway to develop a National EDRR System for Invasive Plants in the United States. The proposed system will include structural and informational elements. Structural elements of the system include a network of interagency partner groups to facilitate early detection and rapid response to new invasive plants, including the Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW), State Invasive Species Councils, State Early Detection and Rapid Response Coordinating Committees, State Volunteer Detection and Reporting Networks, Invasive Plant Task Forces, and Cooperative Weed Management Areas. Informational elements and products being developed include Regional Invasive Plant Atlases, and EDRR Guidelines for EDRR Volunteer Network Training, Rapid Assessment and Rapid Response, and Criteria for Selection of EDRR Species. System science and technical support elements which are provided by cooperating state and federal scientists, include EDRR guidelines, training curriculum for EDRR volunteers and agency field personnel, plant identification and vouchering, rapid assessments, as well as predictive modeling and ecological range studies for invasive plant species.

  12. Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-08-28

    A major accomplishment of the Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM) project was the development of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined part products. Key components of the framework are a manufacturing model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering working environment, knowledge-based software systems for design, process planning, and manufacturing and new production technologies for making products directly from design application software.

  13. Rapid inventory taking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, P.S.S.F.

    1980-01-01

    A data processing system designed to facilitate inventory taking is described. The process depends upon the earliest possible application of computer techniques and the elimination of manual operations. Data is recorded in optical character recognition (OCR) 'A' form and read by a hand held wand reader. Limited validation checks are applied before recording on mini-tape cassettes. 5 refs

  14. Rapid deployment intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs

  15. Rapidly Degradable Pyrotechnic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    material system (structural polymer and degradation agent ) for producing a high strength, non-corroding, highly inert, environmentally safe, extended...polymer sites in the active enzyme center differs dramatically between alkyl and aromatic polyesters. More specifically, as the degree of backbone...capped and centrifuged at 3,000 g. This procedure was repeated twice. To the remaining biomass pellet 15 mL of 1 mg/mL solution of N-ethyl-N- nitrosourea

  16. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1998-02-10

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies have to be able to respond quickly with improved, high quality, cost efficient products. Because companies and their suppliers are geographically distributed, rapid product realization is dependent on the development of a secure integrated concurrent engineering environment operating across multiple business entities. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies implemented in a secure environment. This documents the work done under this CRADA to develop capabilities, which permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), through a CRADA with the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), worked within a consortium of major industrial firms--Ford, General Motors, Texas Instruments, United Technologies, and Eastman Kodak--and several small suppliers of advanced manufacturing technology--MacNeal-Schwendler Corp., Teknowledge Corp., Cimplex Corp., Concentra, Spatial Technology, and Structural Dynamics Research Corp. (SDRC)--to create infrastructure to support the development and implementation of secure engineering environments for Rapid Response Manufacturing. The major accomplishment achieved under this CRADA was the demonstration of a prototypical implementation of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined parts in a secure NWC compliant environment. Specifically, methods needed to permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process were developed and demonstrated. An important aspect of this demonstration was

  17. A flowing liquid test system for assessing the linearity and time-response of rapid fibre optic oxygen partial pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R; Hahn, C E W; Farmery, A D

    2012-08-15

    The development of a methodology for testing the time response, linearity and performance characteristics of ultra fast fibre optic oxygen sensors in the liquid phase is presented. Two standard medical paediatric oxygenators are arranged to provide two independent extracorporeal circuits. Flow from either circuit can be diverted over the sensor under test by means of a system of rapid cross-over solenoid valves exposing the sensor to an abrupt change in oxygen partial pressure, P O2. The system is also capable of testing the oxygen sensor responses to changes in temperature, carbon dioxide partial pressure P CO2 and pH in situ. Results are presented for a miniature fibre optic oxygen sensor constructed in-house with a response time ≈ 50 ms and a commercial fibre optic sensor (Ocean Optics Foxy), when tested in flowing saline and stored blood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Deployable Operations Group: A Model for a National Unified Interagency Rapid Response Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    .... Since the attacks, nationwide preparedness efforts have established numerous federal rapid response teams, which are coordinated during a federal interagency response under the National Incident Management System...

  19. Early systemic bacterial dissemination and a rapid innate immune response characterize genetic resistance to plague of SEG mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeure, Christian E; Blanchet, Charlène; Fitting, Catherine; Fayolle, Corinne; Khun, Huot; Szatanik, Marek; Milon, Geneviève; Panthier, Jean-Jacques; Jaubert, Jean; Montagutelli, Xavier; Huerre, Michel; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Although laboratory mice are usually highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis, we recently identified a mouse strain (SEG) that exhibited an exceptional capacity to resist bubonic plague and used it to identify immune mechanisms associated with resistance. The kinetics of infection, circulating blood cells, granulopoiesis, lesions, and cellular populations in the spleen, and cytokine production in various tissues were compared in SEG and susceptible C57BL/6J mice after subcutaneous infection with the virulent Y. pestis CO92. Bacterial invasion occurred early (day 2) but was transient in SEG/Pas mice, whereas in C57BL/6J mice it was delayed but continuous until death. The bacterial load in all organs significantly correlated with the production of 5 cytokines (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), macrophage cationic peptide-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 1α, and interleukin 6) involved in monocyte and neutrophil recruitment. Indeed, higher proportions of these 2 cell types in blood and massive recruitment of F4/80(+)CD11b(-) macrophages in the spleen were observed in SEG/Pas mice at an early time point (day 2). Later times after infection (day 4) were characterized in C57BL/6J mice by destructive lesions of the spleen and impaired granulopoiesis. A fast and efficient Y. pestis dissemination in SEG mice may be critical for the triggering of an early and effective innate immune response necessary for surviving plague.

  20. Clinician Perspectives of Barriers to Effective Implementation of a Rapid Response System in an Academic Health Centre: A Focus Group Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rihari-Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Systemic and structural issues of rapid response system (RRS models can hinder implementation. This study sought to understand the ways in which acute care clinicians (physicians and nurses experience and negotiate care for deteriorating patients within the RRS. Methods Physicians and nurses working within an Australian academic health centre within a jurisdictional-based model of clinical governance participated in focus group interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results Thirty-four participants (21 physicians and 13 registered nurses [RNs] participated in six focus groups over five weeks in 2014. Implementing the RRS in daily practice was a process of informal communication and negotiation in spite of standardised protocols. Themes highlighted several systems or organisational-level barriers to an effective RRS, including (1 responsibility is inversely proportional to clinical experience; (2 actions around system flexibility contribute to deviation from protocol; (3 misdistribution of resources leads to perceptions of inadequate staffing levels inhibiting full optimisation of the RRS; and (4 poor communication and documentation of RRS increases clinician workloads. Conclusion Implementing a RRS is complex and multifactorial, influenced by various inter- and intra-professional factors, staffing models and organisational culture. The RRS is not a static model; it is both reflexive and iterative, perpetually transforming to meet healthcare consumer and provider demands and local unit contexts and needs. Requiring more than just a strong initial implementation phase, new models of care such as a RRS demand good governance processes, ongoing support and regular evaluation and refinement. Cultural, organizational and professional factors, as well as systems-based processes, require consideration if RRSs are to achieve their intended outcomes in dynamic healthcare settings.

  1. Wind emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, A.J.; Buckner, M.R.; Mueller, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The WIND system is an automated emergency response system for real-time predictions of the consequences of liquid and airborne releases from SRP. The system consists of a minicomputer and associated peripherals necessary for acquisition and handling of large amounts of meteorological data from a local tower network and the National Weather Service. The minicomputer uses these data and several predictive models to assess the impact of accidental releases. The system is fast and easy to use, and output is displayed both in tabular form and as trajectory map plots for quick interpretation. The rapid response capabilities of the WIND system have been demonstrated in support of SRP operations

  2. Capturing early signs of deterioration: the dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score and its value in the Rapid Response System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douw, G.; Huisman-de Waal, G.J.; Zanten, A.R. van; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Schoonhoven, L.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the predictive value of individual and combined dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators at various Early Warning Score levels, differentiating between Early Warning Scores reaching the trigger threshold to call a rapid response team and Early Warning

  3. Rapid Automated Mission Planning System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing, and...

  4. Rapid Response in Psychological Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W. Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across three different treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥ 70% reduction in binge-eating by week four, was determined for remission from binge-eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and non-rapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge-eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than non-rapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and non-rapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Conclusions Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge-eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based stepped care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and non-rapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of non-rapid response to first-line CBTgsh. PMID:25867446

  5. Rapid response learning of brand logo priming: Evidence that brand priming is not dominated by rapid response learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Stephan G; Smith, Ciaran; Muench, Niklas; Noble, Kirsty; Atherton, Catherine

    2017-08-31

    Repetition priming increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Repetition priming can result from two complementary sources: rapid response learning and facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks. In conceptual classification tasks, rapid response learning dominates priming of object recognition, but it does not dominate priming of person recognition. This suggests that the relative engagement of network facilitation and rapid response learning depends on the stimulus domain. Here, we addressed the importance of the stimulus domain for rapid response learning by investigating priming in another domain, brands. In three experiments, participants performed conceptual decisions for brand logos. Strong priming was present, but it was not dominated by rapid response learning. These findings add further support to the importance of the stimulus domain for the relative importance of network facilitation and rapid response learning, and they indicate that brand priming is more similar to person recognition priming than object recognition priming, perhaps because priming of both brands and persons requires individuation.

  6. A Systems Approach to Rapid School Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Carlas

    2018-01-01

    To support systemic thinking about school improvement, the Center on School Turnaround at WestEd developed a framework to assist states, districts, and schools in leading and managing rapid improvement efforts. The framework, which is presented in this article, has four domains that have proved central to rapid, significant improvement: (1)…

  7. Correlates of rapid neuroleptic response in male patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, E C; Faustman, W O; Moses, J A; Lombrozo, L; Csernansky, J G

    1990-08-01

    Correlates of neuroleptic response latency were assessed in 16 male schizophrenic inpatients during 4 weeks of fixed dose (20 mg/day) haloperidol treatment. Rapid responders showed a mean 40% reduction in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) positive symptom scores by day 10 of treatment. Rapid responders had significantly lower plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations compared to non-rapid responders during week 4 of haloperidol treatment. However, rapid versus non-rapid responders did not differ with respect to demographics, baseline positive or negative BPRS symptom scores, performance on tests of neuropsychological function, or mean plasma haloperidol concentrations.

  8. Classroom Evaluation of a Rapid Prototyping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Stephen A.; Krueger, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces rapid prototyping which creates virtual models through a variety of automated material additive processes. Relates experiences using JP System 5 in freshman and sophomore engineering design graphics courses. Analyzes strengths and limitations of the JP System 5 and discusses how to use it effectively. (Contains 15 references.)…

  9. Rapid response in psychological treatments for binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E; Wilson, G Terence

    2015-06-01

    Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across 3 different treatments for binge eating disorder (BED). In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; APA, 1994) criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥70% reduction in binge eating by Week 4, was determined for remission from binge eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-ups. Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and nonrapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge eating than nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than nonrapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and nonrapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from nonrapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based, stepped-care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and nonrapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of nonrapid response to first-line CBTgsh. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Lessons learned from Rapid Response Research on wildland fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh Lentile; Penny Morgan; Colin Hardy; Andrew Hudak; Robert Means; Roger Ottmar; Peter Robichaud; Elaine Sutherland; Frederick Way; Sarah Lewis

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, more researchers are collecting data either on active wildfires or immediately after wildfire occurrence. Known as Rapid Response Research, this important undertaking provides real-time information, useful data, and improved tools for managers.

  11. Capturing early signs of deterioration: the dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score and its value in the Rapid Response System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douw, Gooske; Huisman-de Waal, Getty; van Zanten, Arthur R H; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2017-09-01

    To determine the predictive value of individual and combined dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators at various Early Warning Score levels, differentiating between Early Warning Scores reaching the trigger threshold to call a rapid response team and Early Warning Score levels not reaching this point. Dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score comprises nine indicators underlying nurses' 'worry' about a patient's condition. All indicators independently show significant association with unplanned intensive care/high dependency unit admission or unexpected mortality. Prediction of this outcome improved by adding the dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators to an Early Warning Score based on vital signs. An observational cohort study was conducted on three surgical wards in a tertiary university-affiliated teaching hospital. Included were surgical, native-speaking, adult patients. Nurses scored presence of 'worry' and/or dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators every shift or when worried. Vital signs were measured according to the prevailing protocol. Unplanned intensive care/high dependency unit admission or unexpected mortality was the composite endpoint. Percentages of 'worry' and dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators were calculated at various Early Warning Score levels in control and event groups. Entering all dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators in a multiple logistic regression analysis, we calculated a weighted score and calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predicted value and negative predicted value for each possible total score. In 3522 patients, 102 (2·9%) had an unplanned intensive care/high dependency unit admissions (n = 97) or unexpected mortality (n = 5). Patients with such events and only slightly changed vital signs had significantly higher percentages of 'worry' and dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score indicators expressed than patients in the control group. Increasing number

  12. Reduction in Mortality Following Pediatric Rapid Response Team Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovos, Nikoleta S; Gill, Jeff; Michelson, Peter H; Doctor, Allan; Hartman, Mary E

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a physician-led rapid response team program on morbidity and mortality following unplanned admission to the PICU. Before-after study. Single-center quaternary-referral PICU. All unplanned PICU admissions from the ward from 2005 to 2011. The dataset was divided into pre- and post-rapid response team groups for comparison. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the patient characteristics associated with mortality following unplanned PICU admission. Following rapid response team implementation, Pediatric Risk of Mortality, version 3, illness severity was reduced (28.7%), PICU length of stay was less (19.0%), and mortality declined (22%). Relative risk of death following unplanned admission to the PICU after rapid response team implementation was 0.685. For children requiring unplanned admission to the PICU, rapid response team implementation is associated with reduced mortality, admission severity of illness, and length of stay. Rapid response team implementation led to more proximal capture and aggressive intervention in the trajectory of a decompensating pediatric ward patient.

  13. Rapid Response Teams: Is it Time to Reframe the Questions of Rapid Response Team Measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatierra, Gail G; Bindler, Ruth C; Daratha, Kenn B

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an overview of rapid response team (RRT) history in the United States, provide a review of prior RRT effectiveness research, and propose the reframing of four new questions of RRT measurement that are designed to better understand RRTs in the context of contemporary nursing practice as well as patient outcomes. RRTs were adopted in the United States because of their intuitive appeal, and despite a lack of evidence for their effectiveness. Subsequent studies used mortality and cardiac arrest rates to measure whether or not RRTs "work." Few studies have thoroughly examined the effect of RRTs on nurses and on nursing practice. An extensive literature review provided the background. Suppositions and four critical, unanswered questions arising from the literature are suggested. The results of RRT effectiveness, which have focused on patient-oriented outcomes, have been ambiguous, contradictory, and difficult to interpret. Additionally, they have not taken into account the multiple ways in which these teams have impacted nurses and nursing practice as well as patient outcomes. What happens in terms of RRT process and utilization is likely to have a major impact on nurses and nursing care on general medical and surgical wards. What that impact will be depends on what we can learn from measuring with an expanded yardstick, in order to answer the question, "Do RRTs work?" Evidence for the benefits of RRTs depends on proper framing of questions relating to their effectiveness, including the multiple ways RRTs contribute to nursing efficacy. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  14. Applying Bayesian belief networks in rapid response situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, William L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Deborah, Leishman, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van Eeckhout, Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The authors have developed an enhanced Bayesian analysis tool called the Integrated Knowledge Engine (IKE) for monitoring and surveillance. The enhancements are suited for Rapid Response Situations where decisions must be made based on uncertain and incomplete evidence from many diverse and heterogeneous sources. The enhancements extend the probabilistic results of the traditional Bayesian analysis by (1) better quantifying uncertainty arising from model parameter uncertainty and uncertain evidence, (2) optimizing the collection of evidence to reach conclusions more quickly, and (3) allowing the analyst to determine the influence of the remaining evidence that cannot be obtained in the time allowed. These extended features give the analyst and decision maker a better comprehension of the adequacy of the acquired evidence and hence the quality of the hurried decisions. They also describe two example systems where the above features are highlighted.

  15. Rapid enzymatic response to compensate UV radiation in copepods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sol Souza

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation (UVR causes physical damage to DNA, carboxylation of proteins and peroxidation of lipids in copepod crustaceans, ubiquitous and abundant secondary producers in most aquatic ecosystems. Copepod adaptations for long duration exposures include changes in behaviour, changes in pigmentation and ultimately changes in morphology. Adaptations to short-term exposures are little studied. Here we show that short-duration exposure to UVR causes the freshwater calanoid copepod, Eudiaptomus gracilis, to rapidly activate production of enzymes that prevent widespread collateral peroxidation (glutathione S-transferase, GST, that regulate apoptosis cell death (Caspase-3, Casp-3, and that facilitate neurotransmissions (cholinesterase-ChE. None of these enzyme systems is alone sufficient, but they act in concert to reduce the stress level of the organism. The interplay among enzymatic responses provides useful information on how organisms respond to environmental stressors acting on short time scales.

  16. Information needs for the rapid response team electronic clinical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwise, Amelia; Caples, Sean; Jensen, Jeffrey; Pickering, Brian; Herasevich, Vitaly

    2017-10-02

    Information overload in healthcare is dangerous. It can lead to critical errors and delays. During Rapid Response Team (RRT) activations providers must make decisions quickly to rescue patients from physiological deterioration. In order to understand the clinical data required and how best to present that information in electronic systems we aimed to better assess the data needs of providers on the RRT when they respond to an event. A web based survey to evaluate clinical data requirements was created and distributed to all RRT providers at our institution. Participants were asked to rate the importance of each data item in guiding clinical decisions during a RRT event response. There were 96 surveys completed (24.5% response rate) with fairly even distribution throughout all clinical roles on the RRT. Physiological data including heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were ranked by more than 80% of responders as being critical information. Resuscitation status was also considered critically useful by more than 85% of providers. There is a limited dataset that is considered important during an RRT. The data is widely available in EMR. The findings from this study could be used to improve user-centered EMR interfaces.

  17. Super-rapid medical film processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, C.; Iwata, M.; Nozaki, H.

    1988-01-01

    A new super-rapid medical film processing system cuts processing time from 90 to 45 seconds, a critical advantage in traumatic injury, surgical operation, and other time-vital applications. The system consists of new films new processing chemicals (developer and fixer), and a new high-speed medical film processor. The system's creation is made possible by three new technologies. In film, multilayered monodispersed grains reduce processing time. In processing chemicals, an innovative design maximizes processing speed. And in the processor itself, a new drying apparatus increases drying efficiency. Together, these technologies achieve 45-second processing without degradation of image quality

  18. MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Laboratory is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified, all without the interference of a container or data-gathering instrument. The ESL main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to 8 quench vessels can be loaded into the quench wheel, which is indexed with LabVIEW control software. This allows up to 8 samples to be rapidly quenched before having to open the chamber. The system has been tested successfully on several zirconium samples. Future work will be done with other materials using different quench mediums. Microstructural analysis will also be done on successfully quench samples.

  19. Virtual rapid response: the next evolution of tele-ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Carrie L

    2012-01-01

    The first of its kind in the Veterans Affairs (VA) system, the Denver VA Medical Center's tele-intensive care unit (ICU) program is unique because it is entirely nurse driven. A nontraditional tele-ICU model, the program was tailored to meet the needs of rural veterans by using critical care nursing expertise in Denver, Colorado. An experienced CCRN-certified nurse manages the system 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, from Eastern Colorado Health Care System. The virtual ICU provides rapid response interventions through virtual technology. This tele-ICU technology allows for a "virtual handshake" by nursing staff at the start of the shift and a report on potential patient issues. Clinical relationships have been strengthened between all 5 VA facilities in the Rocky Mountain Region, increasing the likelihood of early consultation at the onset of clinical decline of a patient. In addition, the tele-ICU nurse is available for immediate nursing consultation and support, coordinates point-to-point virtual consultation between physicians at the rural sites and specialists in Denver, and assists in expediting critical care transfers. The primary objectives for the tele-ICU program include improving quality and access of care to critical care services in rural sites, reducing community fee basis costs and frequency of transfers, and increasing collaboration and collegiality among nursing and medical staff in all Region 19's medical centers.

  20. Rapid response teams: qualitative analysis of their effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Linda Searle; Mayo, Ann M

    2013-05-01

    Multidisciplinary rapid response teams focus on patients' emergent needs and manage critical situations to prevent avoidable deaths. Although research has focused primarily on outcomes, studies of the actual team effectiveness within the teams from multiple perspectives have been limited. To describe effectiveness of rapid response teams in a large teaching hospital in California that had been using such teams for 5 years. The grounded-theory method was used to discover if substantive theory might emerge from interview and/or observational data. Purposeful sampling was used to conduct in-person semistructured interviews with 17 key informants. Convenience sampling was used for the 9 observed events that involved a rapid response team. Analysis involved use of a concept or indicator model to generate empirical results from the data. Data were coded, compared, and contrasted, and, when appropriate, relationships between concepts were formed. Results Dimensions of effective team performance included the concepts of organizational culture, team structure, expertise, communication, and teamwork. Professionals involved reported that rapid response teams functioned well in managing patients at risk or in crisis; however, unique challenges were identified. Teams were loosely coupled because of the inconsistency of team members from day to day. Team members had little opportunity to develop relationships or team skills. The need for team training may be greater than that among teams that work together regularly under less time pressure to perform. Communication between team members and managing a crisis were critical aspects of an effective response team.

  1. Market Design for Rapid Demand Response - The Case of Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt Nielsen; Tseganesh Wubale Tamirat

    2014-01-01

    We suggest a market design for rapid demand response in electricity markets. The solution consists of remotely controlled switches, meters, forecasting models as well as a flexible auction market to set prices and select endusers job by job. The auction market motivates truth-telling and makes it simple to involve the endusers in advance and to activate demand response immediately. The collective solution is analyzed and economic simulations are conducted for the case of Kenya. Kenya has been...

  2. Governance of rapid response teams in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, S S; Chalwin, R

    2018-05-01

    Rapid response systems (RRS) in hospitals in Australia and New Zealand (ANZ) have been present for more than 20 years but governance of the efferent limb-the rapid response team (RRT)-has not been previously reported in detail. The objectives of this study were to describe current governance arrangements for RRTs within ANZ and contrast those against expected implementation, using the Australian Commission for Safety and Quality in Health Care National Standard 9 (S9) as a benchmark. Assessment focused on S9 subclauses 9.1.1 (governance and oversight), 9.1.2 (RRT implementation), 9.2.3 (data collection and dissemination), 9.2.4 (quality improvement), 9.5.2 (call reviews), 9.6.1 and 9.6.2 (basic and advanced life support [ALS] skill set). We identified public and private hospitals across ANZ from government-maintained registers. Those reasonably expected to have an RRT were contacted and invited to participate. Responses were obtained via an online anonymised questionnaire. Three hundred and forty-two hospitals were contacted, of whom 284 (83.0%) responded. Two hundred and thirty-two hospitals submitted data, and the other 52 declined to participate or did not have an RRT. In hospitals with an intensive care unit (ICU), intensivist attendance at RRT calls occurred less often outside office hours (odds ratio, OR, 0.49, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.32 to 0.75]). Where intensivists were not on the RRT, consultation with them about calls also occurred less often outside office hours (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.66). Consultation with patients' admitting specialists occurred more often during office hours versus out of hours RRT calls and in private versus public hospitals. The presence of ICU staff on the RRT decreased the likelihood of admitting specialists being consulted about RRT calls (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.93). Most hospitals maintained databases of RRT calls and regularly audited RRT activity (92% and 90% respectively). However, most (63.7%) did not make that

  3. Rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, Joseph V; Tibrea, Steven L; Shull, Davis J; Coleman, Jerry T; Shuler, James M

    2015-04-28

    A rapid deployable global sensing hazard alert system and associated methods of operation are provided. An exemplary system includes a central command, a wireless backhaul network, and a remote monitoring unit. The remote monitoring unit can include a positioning system configured to determine a position of the remote monitoring unit based on one or more signals received from one or more satellites located in Low Earth Orbit. The wireless backhaul network can provide bidirectional communication capability independent of cellular telecommunication networks and the Internet. An exemplary method includes instructing at least one of a plurality of remote monitoring units to provide an alert based at least in part on a location of a hazard and a plurality of positions respectively associated with the plurality of remote monitoring units.

  4. Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    A recent six month investigation focused on: "Determining the benefits of propelling a scientific spacecraft by an 'Electric Sail' propulsion system to the edge of our solar system (the Heliopause), a distance of 100 to 120 AU, in ten years or less" has recently been completed by the Advance Concepts Office at NASA's MSFC. The concept investigated has been named the Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) by the MSFC team. The HERTS is a revolutionary propellant-less propulsion concept that is ideal for deep space missions to the Outer Planets, Heliopause, and beyond. It is unique in that it uses momentum exchange from naturally occurring solar wind protons to propel a spacecraft within the heliosphere. The propulsion system consists of an array of electrically positively-biased wires that extend outward 20 km from a rotating (one revolution per hour) spacecraft. It was determined that the HERTS system can accelerate a spacecraft to velocities as much as two to three times that possible by any realistic extrapolation of current state-of-the-art propulsion technologies- including solar electric and solar sail propulsion systems. The data produced show that a scientific spacecraft could reach distances of 100AU in less than 10 years. Moreover, it can be reasonably expected that this system could be developed within a decade and provide meaningful Heliophysics Science and Outer Planetary Science returns in the 2025-2035 timeframe.

  5. Organizing company specialists for rapid and effective response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardim, G.M.; McDermott, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The staff needed for the support of cleanup operations can be large even for moderately sized spills. Marshallng sufficient and qualified people to respond on short notice at locations throughout the world can tax even the largest corporations. This paper describes how Chevron has prepared for this important aspect of spill response. Basically, Chevron has formed 13 separate teams covering specially areas such as safety, finance, public relations, and legal. Each team is organized and managed by people who regularly work within that function. Members of each team are regular employees of the various Chevron companies throughout the world. The incident command system and coordinated plans are the common threads which allow these groups to work together effectively. Drills and self-audits are used to keep the plans current and team members prepared. The organization and activities of the Safety, Fire and Health (SF ampersand H) Functional Team is described in detail as an illustrated example of the functional team approach. This team consists of about 50 professionals in related fields. To facilitate rapid mobilization worldwide, each member has been medically qualified and has a current passport and selected evaluations. The team plan outlines the responsibilities of each professional group, the call-out procedure and telephone lists, and information on pre-identified SF ampersand H contractors that can be called upon if additional resources are needed. The plan is flexible so that it can be used by one or two people to handle alI SF ampersand H functions at a small spill or by many persons within each specialty for larger incidents

  6. Rapid Response Fault Drilling Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demian M. Saffer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available New information about large earthquakes can be acquired by drilling into the fault zone quickly following a large seismic event. Specifically, we can learn about the levels of friction and strength of the fault which determine the dynamic rupture, monitor the healing process of the fault, record the stress changes that trigger aftershocks and capture important physical and chemical properties of the fault that control the rupture process. These scientific and associated technical issues were the focus of a three-day workshop on Rapid Response Fault Drilling: Past, Present, and Future, sponsored by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC. The meeting drewtogether forty-four scientists representing ten countries in Tokyo, Japan during November 2008. The group discussed the scientific problems and how they could be addressed through rapid response drilling. Focused talks presented previous work on drilling after large earthquakes and in fault zones in general, as well as the state of the art of experimental techniques and measurement strategies. Detailed discussion weighed the tradeoffs between rapid drilling andthe ability to satisfy a diverse range of scientific objectives. Plausible drilling sites and scenarios were evaluated. This is a shortened summary of the workshop report that discusses key scientific questions, measurement strategies, and recommendations. This report can provide a starting point for quickly mobilizing a drilling program following future large earthquakes. The full report can be seen at http://www.pmc.ucsc.edu/~rapid/.

  7. Micro rapid prototyping system for micro components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaochun; Choi Hongseok; Yang Yong

    2002-01-01

    Similarities between silicon-based micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and Shape Deposition Manufacturing (SDM) processes are obvious: both integrate additive and subtractive processes and use part and sacrificial materials to obtain functional structures. These MEMS techniques are two-dimensional (2-D) processes for a limited number of materials while SDM enables the building of parts that have traditionally been impossible to fabricate because of their complex shapes or of their variety in materials. This work presents initial results on the development of a micro rapid prototyping system that adapts SDM methodology to micro-fabrication. This system is designed to incorporate microdeposition and laser micromachining. In the hope of obtaining a precise microdeposition, an ultrasonic-based micro powder-feeding mechanism was developed in order to form thin patterns of dry powders that can be cladded or sintered onto a substrate by a micro-sized laser beam. Furthermore, experimental results on laser micromachining using a laser beam with a wavelength of 355 nm are also presented. After further improvement, the developed micro manufacturing system could take computer-aided design (CAD) output to reproduce 3-D heterogeneous micro-components from a wide selection of materials

  8. Water System Adaptation To Hydrological Changes: Module 5, Water Quality and Infrastructure Response to Rapid Urbanization: Adaptation Case Study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course will introduce students to the fundamental principles of water system adaptation to hydrological changes, with emphasis on data analysis and interpretation, technical planning, and computational modeling. Starting with real-world scenarios and adaptation needs, the co...

  9. RAPID DYNAMICAL CHAOS IN AN EXOPLANETARY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deck, Katherine M.; Winn, Joshua N. [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Holman, Matthew J.; Carter, Joshua A.; Ragozzine, Darin [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Agol, Eric [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Lissauer, Jack J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    We report on the long-term dynamical evolution of the two-planet Kepler-36 system, which consists of a super-Earth and a sub-Neptune in a tightly packed orbital configuration. The orbits of the planets, which we studied through numerical integrations of initial conditions that are consistent with observations of the system, are chaotic with a Lyapunov time of only {approx}10 years. The chaos is a consequence of a particular set of orbital resonances, with the inner planet orbiting 34 times for every 29 orbits of the outer planet. The rapidity of the chaos is due to the interaction of the 29:34 resonance with the nearby first-order 6:7 resonance, in contrast to the usual case in which secular terms in the Hamiltonian play a dominant role. Only one contiguous region of phase space, accounting for {approx}4.5% of the sample of initial conditions studied, corresponds to planetary orbits that do not show large-scale orbital instabilities on the timescale of our integrations ({approx}200 million years). Restricting the orbits to this long-lived region allows a refinement of estimates of the masses and radii of the planets. We find that the long-lived region consists of the initial conditions that satisfy the Hill stability criterion by the largest margin. Any successful theory for the formation of this system will need to account for why its current state is so close to unstable regions of phase space.

  10. Forecasting wildlife response to rapid warming in the Alaskan Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Flint, Paul L.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Koch, Joshua C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Oakley, Karen L.; Pearce, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Arctic wildlife species face a dynamic and increasingly novel environment because of climate warming and the associated increase in human activity. Both marine and terrestrial environments are undergoing rapid environmental shifts, including loss of sea ice, permafrost degradation, and altered biogeochemical fluxes. Forecasting wildlife responses to climate change can facilitate proactive decisions that balance stewardship with resource development. In this article, we discuss the primary and secondary responses to physical climate-related drivers in the Arctic, associated wildlife responses, and additional sources of complexity in forecasting wildlife population outcomes. Although the effects of warming on wildlife populations are becoming increasingly well documented in the scientific literature, clear mechanistic links are often difficult to establish. An integrated science approach and robust modeling tools are necessary to make predictions and determine resiliency to change. We provide a conceptual framework and introduce examples relevant for developing wildlife forecasts useful to management decisions.

  11. Acute renal response to rapid onset respiratory acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Jayanth; Stewart, Randolph H; Cudd, Timothy A

    2011-03-01

    Renal strong ion compensation to chronic respiratory acidosis has been established, but the nature of the response to acute respiratory acidosis is not well defined. We hypothesized that the response to acute respiratory acidosis in sheep is a rapid increase in the difference in renal fractional excretions of chloride and sodium (Fe(Cl) - Fe(Na)). Inspired CO(2) concentrations were increased for 1 h to significantly alter P(a)CO(2) and pH(a) from 32 ± 1 mm Hg and 7.52 ± 0.02 to 74 ± 2 mm Hg and 7.22 ± 0.02, respectively. Fe(Cl) - Fe(Na) increased significantly from 0.372 ± 0.206 to 1.240 ± 0.217% and returned to baseline at 2 h when P(a)CO(2) and pH(a) were 37 ± 0.6 mm Hg and 7.49 ± 0.01, respectively. Arterial pH and Fe(Cl) - Fe(Na) were significantly correlated. We conclude that the kidney responds rapidly to acute respiratory acidosis, within 30 min of onset, by differential reabsorption of sodium and chloride.

  12. Automated emergency meteorological response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    A sophisticated emergency response system was developed to aid in the evaluation of accidental releases of hazardous materials from the Savannah River Plant to the environment. A minicomputer system collects and archives data from both onsite meteorological towers and the National Weather Service. In the event of an accidental release, the computer rapidly calculates the trajectory and dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. Computer codes have been developed which provide a graphic display of predicted concentration profiles downwind from the source, as functions of time and distance

  13. Rapid screening of radioactivity in food for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, A.; Khan, A.J.; Semkow, T.M.; Syed, U.-F.; Roselan, A.; Haines, D.K.; Roth, G.; West, L.; Arndt, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed for spiking of matrices with 241 Am (alpha radioactivity), 90 Sr/ 90 Y (beta radioactivity), and 60 Co, 137 Cs, and 241 Am (gamma radioactivity). Matrix stability studies were performed for 43 days after spiking. The method for liquid foods is based upon rapid digestion, evaporation, and flaming, followed by gas proportional (GP) counting. For the apple matrix, surface radioactivity was acid-leached, followed by GP counting and/or gamma spectrometry. The average leaching recoveries from four different apple brands were between 63% and 96%, and have been interpreted on the basis of ion transport through the apple cuticle. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) were calculated from either the background or method-blank (MB) measurements. They were found to satisfy the required U.S. FDA's Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) in all but one case. The newly developed methods can perform radioactivity screening in foods within a few hours and have the potential to capacity with further automation. They are especially applicable to emergency response following accidental or intentional contamination of food with radioactivity.

  14. Rapid screening of radioactivity in food for emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, A; Khan, A J; Semkow, T M; Syed, U-F; Roselan, A; Haines, D K; Roth, G; West, L; Arndt, M

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed for spiking of matrices with (241)Am (alpha radioactivity), (90)Sr/(90)Y (beta radioactivity), and (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (241)Am (gamma radioactivity). Matrix stability studies were performed for 43 days after spiking. The method for liquid foods is based upon rapid digestion, evaporation, and flaming, followed by gas proportional (GP) counting. For the apple matrix, surface radioactivity was acid-leached, followed by GP counting and/or gamma spectrometry. The average leaching recoveries from four different apple brands were between 63% and 96%, and have been interpreted on the basis of ion transport through the apple cuticle. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) were calculated from either the background or method-blank (MB) measurements. They were found to satisfy the required U.S. FDA's Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) in all but one case. The newly developed methods can perform radioactivity screening in foods within a few hours and have the potential to capacity with further automation. They are especially applicable to emergency response following accidental or intentional contamination of food with radioactivity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Measurement of amplitude fluctuations in a rapid response photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, P.

    1961-01-01

    In order to measure amplitude fluctuations in a rapid response photomultiplier, two independent random variables are introduced which determine the shape of the anode pulse. The energy of each pulse, which depends directly on the gain and the variance, is the first variable; amplitude fluctuations, functions of the first variable, depend as well on the pulse width which in turn constitutes the second variable. The results obtained on the variations of the maximum impulse, using a steep-edged pulse broadening circuit, and those obtained on the statistical variations of the gain, are compared to show that the variance relative to the maximum amplitude of the signal is greater than that of the gain. Within the limits of these fluctuations are shown the contribution of the secondary emission coefficient of the first dynode, and that of the mean secondary emission coefficient of the multiplier. (author) [fr

  16. Rapid response to syphilis outbreak among female sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaily B Surti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Outbreak of syphilis, i.e., 16 cases of rapid plasma reagin (RPR reactive cases of syphilis was reported in Community Based Organization (CBO Sahyog of Surat, India, from April to August 2014. The aim of the study was to find risk factors and take immediate actions to prevent spread. Materials and Methods: Outbreak investigation of 16 Female Sex Workers of CBO Sahyog in Surat who were found Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR and Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Assay (TPHA positive from April to August 2014; was carried out. Clinico-epidemiological and laboratory-based evidence for different sexually transmitted infections (STIs conducted at Government Medical College, New Civil Hospital, Surat. Root cause analysis (RCA of index case was carried out. Results: Desk review for the past 3 years data of STI revealed total STI cases as 88 (2011, 95 (2012, and 130 (2013, of which 4, 2, and 2 found RPR reactive, respectively. Data from April to August 2014 revealed 16 RPR reactive cases and confirmed by TPHA. On examination, one had ulcerative cervical lesion, rest did not have any symptoms of syphilis. Eleven had vaginal/cervical discharge, 11 had lower abdominal pain. A total of 11 had unprotected sex, 7 encountered condom tear in the past 6 months, and 5 reported sexual violence. Seven had sexual activity under influence of alcohol. Laboratory investigation revealed two as HIV-positive. RPR reactivity reported highest (9 out of 16 from same area of hotspot. RCA of probable index case revealed factors responsible as violence and nonuse of condoms. Conclusions: Outbreak investigation revealed one probable index case. All 16 treated with injection Penidure. Violence or condom tear is responsible for the spread. Crisis management team should be strengthened.

  17. Voice Response Systems Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Jeanette

    1984-01-01

    Examines two methods of generating synthetic speech in voice response systems, which allow computers to communicate in human terms (speech), using human interface devices (ears): phoneme and reconstructed voice systems. Considerations prior to implementation, current and potential applications, glossary, directory, and introduction to Input Output…

  18. Rapid scanning system for fuel drawers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.T.; Fehlau, P.E.; France, S.W.

    1981-01-01

    A nondestructive method for uniqely distinguishing among and quantifying the mass of individual fuel plates in situ in fuel drawers utilized in nuclear reactors is described. The method is both rapid and passive, eliminating the personnel hazard of the commonly used irradiation techniques which require that the analysis be performed in proximity to an intense neutron source such as a reactor. In the present technique, only normally decaying nuclei are observed. This allows the analysis to be performed anywhere. This feature, combined with rapid scanning of a given fuel drawer (in approximately 30 s), and the computer data analysis allows the processing of large numbers of fuel drawers efficiently in the event of a loss alert

  19. Global Rapid Flood Mapping System with Spaceborne SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. H.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Agram, P. S.; Fattahi, H.; Liang, C.; Manipon, G.; Fielding, E. J.; Rosen, P. A.; Webb, F.; Simons, M.

    2017-12-01

    As part of the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) project for Natural Hazards, at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and California Institute of Technology, we have developed an automated system that produces derived products for flood extent map generation using spaceborne SAR data. The system takes user's input of area of interest polygons and time window for SAR data search (pre- and post-event). Then the system automatically searches and downloads SAR data, processes them to produce coregistered SAR image pairs, and generates log amplitude ratio images from each pair. Currently the system is automated to support SAR data from the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1A/B satellites. We have used the system to produce flood extent maps from Sentinel-1 SAR data for the May 2017 Sri Lanka floods, which killed more than 200 people and displaced about 600,000 people. Our flood extent maps were delivered to the Red Cross to support response efforts. Earlier we also responded to the historic August 2016 Louisiana floods in the United States, which claimed 13 people's lives and caused over $10 billion property damage. For this event, we made synchronized observations from space, air, and ground in close collaboration with USGS and NOAA. The USGS field crews acquired ground observation data, and NOAA acquired high-resolution airborne optical imagery within the time window of +/-2 hours of the SAR data acquisition by JAXA's ALOS-2 satellite. The USGS coordinates of flood water boundaries were used to calibrate our flood extent map derived from the ALOS-2 SAR data, and the map was delivered to FEMA for estimating the number of households affected. Based on the lessons learned from this response effort, we customized the ARIA system automation for rapid flood mapping and developed a mobile friendly web app that can easily be used in the field for data collection. Rapid automatic generation of SAR-based global flood maps calibrated with independent observations from

  20. Rapid Time Response: A solution for Manufacturing Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazlin N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Respond time in manufacturing give the major impact that able to contribute too many manufacturing issues. Based on two worst case scenario occurred where Toyota in 2009 made a massive vehicles call due to car complexity of 11 major models and over 9 million vehicles. The recalls cost at least $2 billion in cost of repair, lost deals and result in lost 5% of its market share in United State of America, while A380 was reported on missing target in new production and leads to delayed market entry due to their weak product life cycle management (PLM. These cases give a sign to all industries to possess and optimize the facilities for better traceability in shortest time period. In Industry 4.0, the traceability and time respond become the factors for high performance manufacturing and rapid time respond able to expedite the traceability process and strengthen the communication level between man, machine and management. The round trip time (RTT experiment gives variant time respond between two difference operating system for intra and inter-platform signal. If this rapid time respond is adopted in any manufacturing process, the delay in traceability on every issue that lead to losses can be successfully avoided.

  1. An automatic injection system for rapid radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmia, M.J.; Kreek, S.A.; Kadkhodayan, B.; Gregorich, K.E.; Lee, D.M.; Hoffman, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    A description is given of the Automated Injection System (AIS), a pneumatically actuated device for automated collection of nuclear reaction products from a He/KCl gas jet transport system. The AIS is used with the Automated Chemical Chromatographic Element Separation System; together these two devices facilitate completely automated separation procedures with improved speed and reproducibility

  2. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barren, E.; Penney, C.M.; Sheldon, R.B. [GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    A number of contamination sites exist in this country where the area and volume of material to be remediated is very large, approaching or exceeding 10{sup 6} m{sup 2} and 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}. Typically, only a small fraction of this material is actually contaminated. In such cases there is a strong economic motivation to test the material with a sufficient density of measurements to identify which portions are uncontaminated, so extensively they be left in place or be disposed of as uncontaminated waste. Unfortunately, since contamination often varies rapidly from position to position, this procedure can involve upwards of one million measurements per site. The situation is complicated further in many cases by the difficulties of sampling porous surfaces, such as concrete. This report describes a method for sampling concretes in which an immediate distinction can be made between contaminated and uncontaminated surfaces. Sample acquisition and analysis will be automated.

  3. Rapid hyperspectral image classification to enable autonomous search systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Bridgelal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of lightweight full-frame hyperspectral cameras is destined to enable autonomous search vehicles in the air, on the ground and in water. Self-contained and long-endurance systems will yield important new applications, for example, in emergency response and the timely identification of environmental hazards. One missing capability is rapid classification of hyperspectral scenes so that search vehicles can immediately take actions to verify potential targets. Onsite verifications minimise false positives and preclude the expense of repeat missions. Verifications will require enhanced image quality, which is achievable by either moving closer to the potential target or by adjusting the optical system. Such a solution, however, is currently impractical for small mobile platforms with finite energy sources. Rapid classifications with current methods demand large computing capacity that will quickly deplete the on-board battery or fuel. To develop the missing capability, the authors propose a low-complexity hyperspectral image classifier that approaches the performance of prevalent classifiers. This research determines that the new method will require at least 19-fold less computing capacity than the prevalent classifier. To assess relative performances, the authors developed a benchmark that compares a statistic of library endmember separability in their respective feature spaces.

  4. The Simulation-Based Assessment of Pediatric Rapid Response Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, James J; McBride, Mary E; Boulet, John R; Murray, David J

    2017-09-01

    To create scenarios of simulated decompensating pediatric patients to train pediatric rapid response teams (RRTs) and to determine whether the scenario scores provide a valid assessment of RRT performance with the hypothesis that RRTs led by intensivists-in-training would be better prepared to manage the scenarios than teams led by nurse practitioners. A set of 10 simulated scenarios was designed for the training and assessment of pediatric RRTs. Pediatric RRTs, comprising a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) registered nurse and respiratory therapist, led by a PICU intensivist-in-training or a pediatric nurse practitioner, managed 7 simulated acutely decompensating patients. Two raters evaluated the scenario performances and psychometric analyses of the scenarios were performed. The teams readily managed scenarios such as supraventricular tachycardia and opioid overdose but had difficulty with more complicated scenarios such as aortic coarctation or head injury. The management of any particular scenario was reasonably predictive of overall team performance. The teams led by the PICU intensivists-in-training outperformed the teams led by the pediatric nurse practitioners. Simulation provides a method for RRTs to develop decision-making skills in managing decompensating pediatric patients. The multiple scenario assessment provided a moderately reliable team score. The greater scores achieved by PICU intensivist-in-training-led teams provides some evidence to support the validity of the assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid Prototyping of Formally Modelled Distributed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Buchs, Didier; Buffo, Mathieu; Titsworth, Frances M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents various kinds of prototypes, used in the prototyping of formally modelled distributed systems. It presents the notions of prototyping techniques and prototype evolution, and shows how to relate them to the software life-cycle. It is illustrated through the use of the formal modelling language for distributed systems CO-OPN/2.

  6. Rapid Response Risk Assessment in New Project Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    A capability for rapidly performing quantitative risk assessments has been developed by JSC Safety and Mission Assurance for use on project design trade studies early in the project life cycle, i.e., concept development through preliminary design phases. A risk assessment tool set has been developed consisting of interactive and integrated software modules that allow a user/project designer to assess the impact of alternative design or programmatic options on the probability of mission success or other risk metrics. The risk and design trade space includes interactive options for selecting parameters and/or metrics for numerous design characteristics including component reliability characteristics, functional redundancy levels, item or system technology readiness levels, and mission event characteristics. This capability is intended for use on any project or system development with a defined mission, and an example project will used for demonstration and descriptive purposes, e.g., landing a robot on the moon. The effects of various alternative design considerations and their impact of these decisions on mission success (or failure) can be measured in real time on a personal computer. This capability provides a high degree of efficiency for quickly providing information in NASA s evolving risk-based decision environment

  7. An Introduction to Rapid System Prototyping

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi; Kordon, Fabrice

    2002-01-01

    IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. 28, No. 9, pp. 817–821. The implementation and maintenance of industrial applications have continuously become more and more difficult. In this context, one problem is the evaluation of complex systems. The IEEE defines Prototyping as a development approach promoting the implementation of a pilot version of the intended product. This approach is a potential solution to the early evaluation of a system. It can also be used to avoid th...

  8. Spectrophotometric Rapid-Response Classification of Near-Earth Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Butler, Nat; Axelrod, Tim; Moskovitz, Nick; Jedicke, Robert; Pichardo, Barbara; Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    Small NEOs are, as a whole, poorly characterized, and we know nothing about the physical properties of the majority of all NEOs. The rate of NEO discoveries is increasing each year, and projects to determine the physical properties of NEOs are lagging behind. NEOs are faint, and generally even fainter by the time that follow-up characterizations can be made days or weeks after their discovery. There is a need for a high-throughput, high-efficiency physical characterization strategy in which hundreds of faint NEOs can be characterized each year. Broadband photometry in the near-infrared is sufficiently diagnostic to assign taxonomic types, and hence constrain both the individual and ensemble properties of NEOs.We present results from our rapid response near-infrared spectrophotometric characterization program of NEOs. We are using UKIRT (on Mauna Kea) and the RATIR instrument on the 1.5m telescope at the San Pedro Martir Observatory (Mexico) to allow us to make observations most nights of the year in robotic/queue mode. We derive taxonomic classifications for our targets using machine-learning techniques that are trained on a large sample of measured asteroid spectra. For each target we assign a probability for it to belong to a number of different taxa. Target selection, observation, data reduction, and analysis are highly automated, requiring only a minimum of user interaction, making this technique powerful and fast. Our targets are NEOs that are generally too faint for other characterization techniques, or would require many hours of large telescope time.

  9. Stigma in Canada: Results From a Rapid Response Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Heather; Patten, Scott B; Koller, Michelle; Modgill, Geeta; Liinamaa, Tiina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our paper presents findings from the first population survey of stigma in Canada using a new measure of stigma. Empirical objectives are to provide a descriptive profile of Canadian’s expectations that people will devalue and discriminate against someone with depression, and to explore the relation between experiences of being stigmatized in the year prior to the survey among people having been treated for a mental illness with a selected number of sociodemographic and mental health–related variables. Method: Data were collected by Statistics Canada using a rapid response format on a representative sample of Canadians (n = 10 389) during May and June of 2010. Public expectations of stigma and personal experiences of stigma in the subgroup receiving treatment for a mental illness were measured. Results: Over one-half of the sample endorsed 1 or more of the devaluation discrimination items, indicating that they believed Canadians would stigmatize someone with depression. The item most frequently endorsed concerned employers not considering an application from someone who has had depression. Over one-third of people who had received treatment in the year prior to the survey reported discrimination in 1 or more life domains. Experiences of discrimination were strongly associated with perceptions that Canadians would devalue someone with depression, younger age (12 to 15 years), and self-reported poor general mental health. Conclusions: The Mental Health Experiences Module reflects an important partnership between 2 national organizations that will help Canada fulfill its monitoring obligations under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and provide a legacy to researchers and policy-makers who are interested in monitoring changes in stigma over time. PMID:25565699

  10. A method for the rapid generation of nonsequential light-response curves of chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serôdio, João; Ezequiel, João; Frommlet, Jörg; Laviale, Martin; Lavaud, Johann

    2013-11-01

    Light-response curves (LCs) of chlorophyll fluorescence are widely used in plant physiology. Most commonly, LCs are generated sequentially, exposing the same sample to a sequence of distinct actinic light intensities. These measurements are not independent, as the response to each new light level is affected by the light exposure history experienced during previous steps of the LC, an issue particularly relevant in the case of the popular rapid light curves. In this work, we demonstrate the proof of concept of a new method for the rapid generation of LCs from nonsequential, temporally independent fluorescence measurements. The method is based on the combined use of sample illumination with digitally controlled, spatially separated beams of actinic light and a fluorescence imaging system. It allows the generation of a whole LC, including a large number of actinic light steps and adequate replication, within the time required for a single measurement (and therefore named "single-pulse light curve"). This method is illustrated for the generation of LCs of photosystem II quantum yield, relative electron transport rate, and nonphotochemical quenching on intact plant leaves exhibiting distinct light responses. This approach makes it also possible to easily characterize the integrated dynamic light response of a sample by combining the measurement of LCs (actinic light intensity is varied while measuring time is fixed) with induction/relaxation kinetics (actinic light intensity is fixed and the response is followed over time), describing both how the response to light varies with time and how the response kinetics varies with light intensity.

  11. NASA MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic levitation, a form of containerless processing, is an important tool in materials research. Levitated specimens are free from contact with a container; therefore, heterogeneous nucleation on container walls is not possible. This allows studies of deeply undercooled melts. Furthermore, studies of high-temperature, highly reactive materials are also possible. Studies of the solidification and crystallization of undercooled melts is vital to the understanding of microstructure development, particularly the formation of alloys with unique properties by rapid solidification. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) lab has recently been upgraded to allow for rapid quenching of levitated materials. The ESL Rapid Quench System uses a small crucible-like vessel that can be partially filled with a low melting point material, such as a Gallium alloy, as a quench medium. An undercooled sample can be dropped into the vessel to rapidly quench the sample. A carousel with nine vessels sits below the bottom electrode assembly. This system allows up to nine rapid quenches before having to break vacuum and remove the vessels. This new Rapid Quench System will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. In this presentation, the system is described and initial results are presented.

  12. Research and Development of Rapid Design Systems for Aerospace Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Harry G.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of research activities associated with the development of rapid design systems for aerospace structures in support of the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE). The specific subsystems investigated were the interface between model assembly and analysis; and, the high performance NASA GPS equation solver software system in the Windows NT environment on low cost high-performance PCs.

  13. Hyperspectral Cubesat Constellation for Rapid Natural Hazard Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, D.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Ly, V. T.; Handy, M.; Ong, L.; Crum, G.

    2015-12-01

    With the advent of high performance space networks that provide total coverage for Cubesats, the paradigm for low cost, high temporal coverage with hyperspectral instruments becomes more feasible. The combination of ground cloud computing resources, high performance with low power consumption onboard processing, total coverage for the cubesats and social media provide an opprotunity for an architecture that provides cost-effective hyperspectral data products for natural hazard response and decision support. This paper provides a series of pathfinder efforts to create a scalable Intelligent Payload Module(IPM) that has flown on a variety of airborne vehicles including Cessna airplanes, Citation jets and a helicopter and will fly on an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) hexacopter to monitor natural phenomena. The IPM's developed thus far were developed on platforms that emulate a satellite environment which use real satellite flight software, real ground software. In addition, science processing software has been developed that perform hyperspectral processing onboard using various parallel processing techniques to enable creation of onboard hyperspectral data products while consuming low power. A cubesat design was developed that is low cost and that is scalable to larger consteallations and thus can provide daily hyperspectral observations for any spot on earth. The design was based on the existing IPM prototypes and metrics that were developed over the past few years and a shrunken IPM that can perform up to 800 Mbps throughput. Thus this constellation of hyperspectral cubesats could be constantly monitoring spectra with spectral angle mappers after Level 0, Level 1 Radiometric Correction, Atmospheric Correction processing. This provides the opportunity daily monitoring of any spot on earth on a daily basis at 30 meter resolution which is not available today.

  14. Structure Design and Realization of Rapid Medicine Dispensing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangquan

    In this paper, the main components and function of rapid medicine dispensing system is analyzed, structure design of automatic feeding device, sloping storeroom, automatic dispensing device and automatic sorting device is completed. The system adopts medicine conveyer working in with manipulator to realize automatic batch supply of the boxed medicine, adopts sloping storeroom as warehouse of medicine to realize dense depositing, adopts dispensing mechanism which includes elevator, turning panel and electric magnet to realize rapid medicine dispensing, adopts sorting conveyor belt and sorting device to send medicine to designated outlet.

  15. Logic Foundry: Rapid Prototyping for FPGA-Based DSP Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya Shuvra S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Logic Foundry, a system for the rapid creation and integration of FPGA-based digital signal processing systems. Recognizing that some of the greatest challenges in creating FPGA-based systems occur in the integration of the various components, we have proposed a system that targets the following four areas of integration: design flow integration, component integration, platform integration, and software integration. Using the Logic Foundry, a system can be easily specified, and then automatically constructed and integrated with system level software.

  16. Rapid Conditioning for the Next Generation Melting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, David M. [Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-06-17

    This report describes work on Rapid Conditioning for the Next Generation Melting System under US Department of Energy Contract DE-FC36-06GO16010. The project lead was the Gas Technology Institute (GTI). Partners included Owens Corning and Johns Manville. Cost share for this project was provided by NYSERDA (the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority), Owens Corning, Johns Manville, Owens Illinois, and the US natural gas industry through GTI’s SMP and UTD programs. The overreaching focus of this project was to study and develop rapid refining approaches for segmented glass manufacturing processes using high-intensity melters such as the submerged combustion melter. The objectives of this project were to 1) test and evaluate the most promising approaches to rapidly condition the homogeneous glass produced from the submerged combustion melter, and 2) to design a pilot-scale NGMS system for fiberglass recycle.

  17. Internal validation of the RapidHIT® ID system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Rachel; Sage, Kelly; LaRue, Bobby; Budowle, Bruce

    2017-11-01

    Traditionally, forensic DNA analysis has required highly skilled forensic geneticists in a dedicated laboratory to generate short tandem repeat (STR) profiles. STR profiles are routinely used either to associate or exclude potential donors of forensic biological evidence. The typing of forensic reference samples has become more demanding, especially with the requirement in some jurisdictions to DNA profile arrestees. The Rapid DNA (RDNA) platform, the RapidHIT ® ID (IntegenX ® , Pleasanton, CA), is a fully automated system capable of processing reference samples in approximately 90min with minimal human intervention. Thus, the RapidHIT ID instrument can be deployed to non-laboratory environments (e.g., booking stations) and run by trained atypical personnel such as law enforcement. In order to implement the RapidHIT ID platform, validation studies are needed to define the performance and limitations of the system. Internal validation studies were undertaken with four early-production RapidHIT ID units. Reliable and concordant STR profiles were obtained from reference buccal swabs. Throughout the study, no contamination was observed. The overall first-pass success rate with an "expert-like system" was 72%, which is comparable to another current RDNA platform commercially available. The system's second-pass success rate (involving manual interpretation on first-pass inconclusive results) increased to 90%. Inhibitors (i.e., coffee, smoking tobacco, and chewing tobacco) did not appear to affect typing by the instrument system; however, substrate (i.e., swab type) did impact typing success. Additionally, one desirable feature not available with other Rapid systems is that in the event of a system failed run, a swab can be recovered and subsequently re-analyzed in a new sample cartridge. Therefore, rarely should additional sampling or swab consumption be necessary. The RapidHIT ID system is a robust and reliable tool capable of generating complete STR profiles within

  18. Robust Research and Rapid Response: The Plum Pox Virus Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Theodore R.; Bridger, Jeffrey C.; Travis, James W.

    2004-01-01

    Universities are frequently criticized for being unresponsive to the needs of their stakeholders. In response to this perception, many institutions of higher learning have taken steps to become more productively engaged with the people, organizations, and communities they serve. In this article, we analyze the process of engagement by focusing on…

  19. Efficient 3D frequency response modeling with spectral accuracy by the rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2012-07-01

    Frequency responses of seismic wave propagation can be obtained either by directly solving the frequency domain wave equations or by transforming the time domain wavefields using the Fourier transform. The former approach requires solving systems of linear equations, which becomes progressively difficult to tackle for larger scale models and for higher frequency components. On the contrary, the latter approach can be efficiently implemented using explicit time integration methods in conjunction with running summations as the computation progresses. Commonly used explicit time integration methods correspond to the truncated Taylor series approximations that can cause significant errors for large time steps. The rapid expansion method (REM) uses the Chebyshev expansion and offers an optimal solution to the second-order-in-time wave equations. When applying the Fourier transform to the time domain wavefield solution computed by the REM, we can derive a frequency response modeling formula that has the same form as the original time domain REM equation but with different summation coefficients. In particular, the summation coefficients for the frequency response modeling formula corresponds to the Fourier transform of those for the time domain modeling equation. As a result, we can directly compute frequency responses from the Chebyshev expansion polynomials rather than the time domain wavefield snapshots as do other time domain frequency response modeling methods. When combined with the pseudospectral method in space, this new frequency response modeling method can produce spectrally accurate results with high efficiency. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  20. Rapid Response Team activation for pediatric patients on the acute pain service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Maxwell; Tumin, Dmitry; Walia, Hina; Stevens, Jenna; Wrona, Sharon; Martin, David; Bhalla, Tarun; Tobias, Joseph D

    2017-11-01

    Untreated pain or overly aggressive pain management may lead to adverse physiologic consequences and activation of the hospital's Rapid Response Team. This study is a quality improvement initiative that attempts to identify patient demographics and patterns associated with Rapid Response Team consultations for patients on the acute pain service. A retrospective review of all patients on the acute pain service from February 2011 until June 2015 was cross-referenced with inpatients requiring consultation from the Rapid Response Team. Two independent practitioners reviewed electronic medical records to determine which events were likely associated with pain management interventions. Over a 4-year period, 4872 patients were admitted to the acute pain service of whom 135 unique patients required Rapid Response Team consults. There were 159 unique Rapid Response Team activations among 6538 unique acute pain service consults. A subset of 27 pain management-related Rapid Response Team consultations was identified. The largest percentage of patients on the acute pain service were adolescents aged 12-17 (36%). Compared to this age group, the odds of Rapid Response Team activation were higher among infants Team consultations may help to identify patients at risk for clinical decompensation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Microelectromechanical high-density energy storage/rapid release system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, M. Steven; Allen, James J.; Meeks, Kent D.; Jensen, Brian D.; Miller, Samuel L.

    1999-08-01

    One highly desirable characteristic of electrostatically driven microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is that they consume very little power. The corresponding drawback is that the force they produce may be inadequate for many applications. It has previously been demonstrated that gear reduction units or microtransmissions can substantially increase the torque generated by microengines. Operating speed, however, is also reduced by the transmission gear ratio. Some applications require both high speed and high force. If this output is only required for a limited period of time, then energy could be stored in a mechanical system and rapidly released upon demand. We have designed, fabricated, and demonstrated a high-density energy storage/rapid release system that accomplishes this task. Built using a 5-level surface micromachining technology, the assembly closely resembles a medieval crossbow. Energy releases on the order of tens of nanojoules have already been demonstrated, and significantly higher energy systems are under development.

  2. A Rapid Prototyping Environment for Wireless Communication Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan A. Jones

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a rapid prototyping methodology which overcomes important barriers in the design and implementation of digital signal processing (DSP algorithms and systems on embedded hardware platforms, such as cellular phones. This paper describes rapid prototyping in terms of a simulation/prototype bridge and in terms of appropriate language design. The simulation/prototype bridge combines the strengths of simulation and of prototyping, allowing the designer to develop and evaluate next-generation communications systems, partly in simulation on a host computer and partly as a prototype on embedded hardware. Appropriate language design allows designers to express a communications system as a block diagram, in which each block represents an algorithm specified by a set of equations. Software tools developed for this paper implement both concepts, and have been successfully used in the development of a next-generation code division multiple access (CDMA cellular wireless communications system.

  3. Automating Hyperspectral Data for Rapid Response in Volcanic Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ashley G.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Chien, Steve A.

    2013-01-01

    In a volcanic emergency, time is of the essence. It is vital to quantify eruption parameters (thermal emission, effusion rate, location of activity) and distribute this information as quickly as possible to decision-makers in order to enable effective evaluation of eruption-related risk and hazard. The goal of this work was to automate and streamline processing of spacecraft hyperspectral data, automate product generation, and automate distribution of products. Visible and Short-Wave Infrared Images of volcanic eruption in Iceland in May 2010." class="caption" align="right">The software rapidly processes hyperspectral data, correcting for incident sunlight where necessary, and atmospheric transmission; detects thermally anomalous pixels; fits data with model black-body thermal emission spectra to determine radiant flux; calculates atmospheric convection thermal removal; and then calculates total heat loss. From these results, an estimation of effusion rate is made. Maps are generated of thermal emission and location (see figure). Products are posted online, and relevant parties notified. Effusion rate data are added to historical record and plotted to identify spikes in activity for persistently active eruptions. The entire process from start to end is autonomous. Future spacecraft, especially those in deep space, can react to detection of transient processes without the need to communicate with Earth, thus increasing science return. Terrestrially, this removes the need for human intervention.

  4. Data bases for rapid response to power reactor problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskewitz, B.F.

    1980-01-01

    The urgency of the TMI-2 incident demanded prompt answers to an imperious situation. In responding to these challenging circumstances, both government and industry recognized deficiencies in both availability of essential retrievable data and calculational capabilities designed to respond immediately to actual abnormal events. Each responded by initiating new programs to provide a remedy for the deficiencies and to generally improve all safety measures in the nuclear power industry. Many data bases and information centers offer generic data and other technology resources which are generally useful in support of nuclear safety programs. A few centers can offer rapid access to calculational methods and associated data and more will make an effort to do so. As a beneficial spin-off from the lessons learned from TMI-2, more technical effort and financial resources will be devoted to the prevention of accidents, and to improvement of safety measures in the immediate future and for long term R and D programs by both government and the nuclear power industry

  5. Real-time earthquake monitoring: Early warning and rapid response

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A panel was established to investigate the subject of real-time earthquake monitoring (RTEM) and suggest recommendations on the feasibility of using a real-time earthquake warning system to mitigate earthquake damage in regions of the United States. The findings of the investigation and the related recommendations are described in this report. A brief review of existing real-time seismic systems is presented with particular emphasis given to the current California seismic networks. Specific applications of a real-time monitoring system are discussed along with issues related to system deployment and technical feasibility. In addition, several non-technical considerations are addressed including cost-benefit analysis, public perceptions, safety, and liability.

  6. Rapid post-earthquake modelling of coseismic landslide intensity and distribution for emergency response decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Robinson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Current methods to identify coseismic landslides immediately after an earthquake using optical imagery are too slow to effectively inform emergency response activities. Issues with cloud cover, data collection and processing, and manual landslide identification mean even the most rapid mapping exercises are often incomplete when the emergency response ends. In this study, we demonstrate how traditional empirical methods for modelling the total distribution and relative intensity (in terms of point density of coseismic landsliding can be successfully undertaken in the hours and days immediately after an earthquake, allowing the results to effectively inform stakeholders during the response. The method uses fuzzy logic in a GIS (Geographic Information Systems to quickly assess and identify the location-specific relationships between predisposing factors and landslide occurrence during the earthquake, based on small initial samples of identified landslides. We show that this approach can accurately model both the spatial pattern and the number density of landsliding from the event based on just several hundred mapped landslides, provided they have sufficiently wide spatial coverage, improving upon previous methods. This suggests that systematic high-fidelity mapping of landslides following an earthquake is not necessary for informing rapid modelling attempts. Instead, mapping should focus on rapid sampling from the entire affected area to generate results that can inform the modelling. This method is therefore suited to conditions in which imagery is affected by partial cloud cover or in which the total number of landslides is so large that mapping requires significant time to complete. The method therefore has the potential to provide a quick assessment of landslide hazard after an earthquake and may therefore inform emergency operations more effectively compared to current practice.

  7. Dissociation of rapid response learning and facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks of person recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valt, Christian; Klein, Christoph; Boehm, Stephan G

    2015-08-01

    Repetition priming is a prominent example of non-declarative memory, and it increases the accuracy and speed of responses to repeatedly processed stimuli. Major long-hold memory theories posit that repetition priming results from facilitation within perceptual and conceptual networks for stimulus recognition and categorization. Stimuli can also be bound to particular responses, and it has recently been suggested that this rapid response learning, not network facilitation, provides a sound theory of priming of object recognition. Here, we addressed the relevance of network facilitation and rapid response learning for priming of person recognition with a view to advance general theories of priming. In four experiments, participants performed conceptual decisions like occupation or nationality judgments for famous faces. The magnitude of rapid response learning varied across experiments, and rapid response learning co-occurred and interacted with facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks. These findings indicate that rapid response learning and facilitation in perceptual and conceptual networks are complementary rather than competing theories of priming. Thus, future memory theories need to incorporate both rapid response learning and network facilitation as individual facets of priming. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  8. MedRapid--medical community & business intelligence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkeissen, E; Fuchs, H; Jakob, T; Wetter, T

    2002-01-01

    currently, it takes at least 6 months for researchers to communicate their results. This delay is caused (a) by partial lacks of machine support for both representation as well as communication and (b) by media breaks during the communication process. To make an integrated communication between researchers and practitioners possible, a general structure for medical content representation has been set up. The procedure for data entry and quality management has been generalized and implemented in a web-based authoring system. The MedRapid-system supports the medical experts in entering their knowledge into a database. Here, the level of detail is still below that of current medical guidelines representation. However, the symmetric structure for an area-wide medical knowledge representation is highly retrievable and thus can quickly be communicated into daily routine for the improvement of the treatment quality. In addition, other sources like journal articles and medical guidelines can be references within the MedRapid-system and thus be communicated into daily routine. The fundamental system for the representation of medical reference knowledge (from reference works/books) itself is not sufficient for the friction-less communication amongst medical staff. Rather, the process of (a) representing medical knowledge, (b) refereeing the represented knowledge, (c) communicating the represented knowledge, and (d) retrieving the represented knowledge has to be unified. MedRapid will soon support the whole process on one server system.

  9. Rapid adaptive responses to climate change in corals

    KAUST Repository

    Torda, Gergely; Donelson, Jennifer M.; Aranda, Manuel; Barshis, Daniel J.; Bay, Line; Berumen, Michael L.; Bourne, David G.; Cantin, Neal; Foret, Sylvain; Matz, Mikhail; Miller, David J.; Moya, Aurelie; Putnam, Hollie M.; Ravasi, Timothy; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.; Thurber, Rebecca Vega; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Voolstra, Christian R.; Watson, Sue-Ann; Whitelaw, Emma; Willis, Bette L.; Munday, Philip L.

    2017-01-01

    Pivotal to projecting the fate of coral reefs is the capacity of reef-building corals to acclimatize and adapt to climate change. Transgenerational plasticity may enable some marine organisms to acclimatize over several generations and it has been hypothesized that epigenetic processes and microbial associations might facilitate adaptive responses. However, current evidence is equivocal and understanding of the underlying processes is limited. Here, we discuss prospects for observing transgenerational plasticity in corals and the mechanisms that could enable adaptive plasticity in the coral holobiont, including the potential role of epigenetics and coral-associated microbes. Well-designed and strictly controlled experiments are needed to distinguish transgenerational plasticity from other forms of plasticity, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and their relative importance compared with genetic adaptation.

  10. Rapid adaptive responses to climate change in corals

    KAUST Repository

    Torda, Gergely

    2017-09-01

    Pivotal to projecting the fate of coral reefs is the capacity of reef-building corals to acclimatize and adapt to climate change. Transgenerational plasticity may enable some marine organisms to acclimatize over several generations and it has been hypothesized that epigenetic processes and microbial associations might facilitate adaptive responses. However, current evidence is equivocal and understanding of the underlying processes is limited. Here, we discuss prospects for observing transgenerational plasticity in corals and the mechanisms that could enable adaptive plasticity in the coral holobiont, including the potential role of epigenetics and coral-associated microbes. Well-designed and strictly controlled experiments are needed to distinguish transgenerational plasticity from other forms of plasticity, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and their relative importance compared with genetic adaptation.

  11. Rapid behavioral and genomic responses to social opportunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina S Burmeister

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available From primates to bees, social status regulates reproduction. In the cichlid fish Astatotilapia (Haplochromis burtoni, subordinate males have reduced fertility and must become dominant to reproduce. This increase in sexual capacity is orchestrated by neurons in the preoptic area, which enlarge in response to dominance and increase expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1, a peptide critical for reproduction. Using a novel behavioral paradigm, we show for the first time that subordinate males can become dominant within minutes of an opportunity to do so, displaying dramatic changes in body coloration and behavior. We also found that social opportunity induced expression of the immediate-early gene egr-1 in the anterior preoptic area, peaking in regions with high densities of GnRH1 neurons, and not in brain regions that express the related peptides GnRH2 and GnRH3. This genomic response did not occur in stable subordinate or stable dominant males even though stable dominants, like ascending males, displayed dominance behaviors. Moreover, egr-1 in the optic tectum and the cerebellum was similarly induced in all experimental groups, showing that egr-1 induction in the anterior preoptic area of ascending males was specific to this brain region. Because egr-1 codes for a transcription factor important in neural plasticity, induction of egr-1 in the anterior preoptic area by social opportunity could be an early trigger in the molecular cascade that culminates in enhanced fertility and other long-term physiological changes associated with dominance.

  12. Rapid IV Versus Oral Rehydration: Responses to Subsequent Exercise Heat Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kenefick, Robert W; O'Moore, Kathleen M; Mahood, Nicholas V; Castellani, John W

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effect of rapid intravenous (IV) versus oral (ORAL) rehydration immediately after dehydration, on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and perceptual responses during subsequent exercise in the heat.

  13. Non-Critical-Care Nurses' Perceptions of Facilitators and Barriers to Rapid Response Team Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sheryl Henry; Astroth, Kim Schafer; Woith, Wendy Mann

    2015-01-01

    Rapid response teams can save lives but are only effective when activated. We surveyed 50 nurses for their perceptions of facilitators and barriers to activation. Findings showed that participants need more education on their role and when to activate the rapid response team. Nurses who comprise the team need help building their communication skills. We recommend nursing professional development specialists increase the frequency of offerings and expand the focus on roles, activation criteria, and communication skills.

  14. Early Flood Detection for Rapid Humanitarian Response: Harnessing Near Real-Time Satellite and Twitter Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenden Jongman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian organizations have a crucial role in response and relief efforts after floods. The effectiveness of disaster response is contingent on accurate and timely information regarding the location, timing and impacts of the event. Here we show how two near-real-time data sources, satellite observations of water coverage and flood-related social media activity from Twitter, can be used to support rapid disaster response, using case-studies in the Philippines and Pakistan. For these countries we analyze information from disaster response organizations, the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS satellite flood signal, and flood-related Twitter activity analysis. The results demonstrate that these sources of near-real-time information can be used to gain a quicker understanding of the location, the timing, as well as the causes and impacts of floods. In terms of location, we produce daily impact maps based on both satellite information and social media, which can dynamically and rapidly outline the affected area during a disaster. In terms of timing, the results show that GFDS and/or Twitter signals flagging ongoing or upcoming flooding are regularly available one to several days before the event was reported to humanitarian organizations. In terms of event understanding, we show that both GFDS and social media can be used to detect and understand unexpected or controversial flood events, for example due to the sudden opening of hydropower dams or the breaching of flood protection. The performance of the GFDS and Twitter data for early detection and location mapping is mixed, depending on specific hydrological circumstances (GFDS and social media penetration (Twitter. Further research is needed to improve the interpretation of the GFDS signal in different situations, and to improve the pre-processing of social media data for operational use.

  15. Rapid preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis by microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyeok; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Ko, Ju-Young; Jang, Jun-Ho; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Suck; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-11-20

    This study describes a simple preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis using a microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system (MAREDS) with various carbohydrases, and evaluates their antioxidative effects. Polysaccharide hydrolysates were prepared using MAREDS under different hydrolytic conditions of the carbohydrases and microwave powers. Polysaccharides less than 10kDa (Low molecular weight polysaccharides, LMWP, ≤10kDa) were efficiently obtained using an ultrafiltration (molecular weight cut-off of 10kDa). MAREDS increases AMG activation via an increased degree of hydrolysis; the best AMG hydrolysate was prepared using a 10:1 ratio of substrate to enzyme for 2h in MAREDS with 400W. LMWP consisted of galactose (27.3%), glucose (64.5%), and mannose (8.3%) from the AMG hydrolysate had stronger antioxidant effects than the high molecular weight polysaccharides (>10kDa). We rapidly prepared functional LMWPs by using MAREDS with carbohydrases, and suggest that LMWP might be potentially a valuable algal polysaccharide antioxidant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Charles M; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2006-04-01

    The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is the body's response to an infectious or noninfectious insult. Although the definition of SIRS refers to it as an "inflammatory" response, it actually has pro- and anti-inflammatory components. This review outlines the pathophysiology of SIRS and highlights potential targets for future therapeutic intervention in patients with this complex entity.

  17. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS FOR RAPID NEAR SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Stoll

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at some of the unmanned aircraft systems (UAS options and deals with a magnetometer sensor system which might be of interest in conducting rapid near surface geophysical measurements. Few of the traditional airborne geophysical sensors are now capable of being miniaturized to sizes and payload within mini UAS limits (e.g. airborne magnetics, gamma ray spectrometer. Here the deployment of a fluxgate magnetometer mounted on an UAS is presented demonstrating its capability of detecting metallic materials that are buried in the soil. The effectiveness in finding ferrous objects (e.g. UXO, landslides is demonstrated in two case studies.

  18. The Brazilian emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Raul dos

    1997-01-01

    With the objective of improving the response actions to potential or real emergency situations generated by radiological or nuclear accidents, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) installed an integrated response system on a 24 hours basis. All the natiowide notifications on events that may start an emergency situation are converged to this system. Established since July 1990, this system has received around 300 notifications in which 5% were classified as potential emergency situation. (author)

  19. 77 FR 35962 - Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... deployable aerial communications architecture (DACA) in facilitating emergency response by rapidly restoring... copying during normal business hours in the FCC Reference Information Center, Portals II, 445 12th Street...

  20. Synthetic generation of influenza vaccine viruses for rapid response to pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormitzer, Philip R; Suphaphiphat, Pirada; Gibson, Daniel G; Wentworth, David E; Stockwell, Timothy B; Algire, Mikkel A; Alperovich, Nina; Barro, Mario; Brown, David M; Craig, Stewart; Dattilo, Brian M; Denisova, Evgeniya A; De Souza, Ivna; Eickmann, Markus; Dugan, Vivien G; Ferrari, Annette; Gomila, Raul C; Han, Liqun; Judge, Casey; Mane, Sarthak; Matrosovich, Mikhail; Merryman, Chuck; Palladino, Giuseppe; Palmer, Gene A; Spencer, Terika; Strecker, Thomas; Trusheim, Heidi; Uhlendorff, Jennifer; Wen, Yingxia; Yee, Anthony C; Zaveri, Jayshree; Zhou, Bin; Becker, Stephan; Donabedian, Armen; Mason, Peter W; Glass, John I; Rappuoli, Rino; Venter, J Craig

    2013-05-15

    During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, vaccines for the virus became available in large quantities only after human infections peaked. To accelerate vaccine availability for future pandemics, we developed a synthetic approach that very rapidly generated vaccine viruses from sequence data. Beginning with hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences, we combined an enzymatic, cell-free gene assembly technique with enzymatic error correction to allow rapid, accurate gene synthesis. We then used these synthetic HA and NA genes to transfect Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells that were qualified for vaccine manufacture with viral RNA expression constructs encoding HA and NA and plasmid DNAs encoding viral backbone genes. Viruses for use in vaccines were rescued from these MDCK cells. We performed this rescue with improved vaccine virus backbones, increasing the yield of the essential vaccine antigen, HA. Generation of synthetic vaccine seeds, together with more efficient vaccine release assays, would accelerate responses to influenza pandemics through a system of instantaneous electronic data exchange followed by real-time, geographically dispersed vaccine production.

  1. SICOEM: emergency response data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.; Villota, C.; Francia, L.

    1993-01-01

    The main characteristics of the SICOEM emergency response system are: -direct electronic redundant transmission of certain operational parameters and plant status informations from the plant process computer to a computer at the Regulatory Body site, - the system will be used in emergency situations, -SICOEM is not considered as a safety class system. 1 fig

  2. SICOEM: emergency response data system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Villota, C.; Francia, L. (UNESA, Madrid (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    The main characteristics of the SICOEM emergency response system are: -direct electronic redundant transmission of certain operational parameters and plant status informations from the plant process computer to a computer at the Regulatory Body site, - the system will be used in emergency situations, -SICOEM is not considered as a safety class system. 1 fig.

  3. Innate lymphoid cells: models of plasticity for immune homeostasis and rapid responsiveness in protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F F; Belz, G T

    2016-09-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have stormed onto the immune landscape as "newly discovered" cell types. These tissue-resident sentinels are enriched at mucosal surfaces and engage in complex cross talk with elements of the adaptive immune system and microenvironment to orchestrate immune homeostasis. Many parallels exist between innate cells and T cells leading to the initial partitioning of ILCs into rather rigid subsets that reflect their "adaptive-like" effector cytokines profiles. ILCs themselves, however, have unique attributes that are only just beginning to be elucidated. These features result in complementarity with, rather than complete duplication of, functions of the adaptive immune system. Key transcription factors determine the pathway of differentiation of progenitors towards an ILC1, ILC2, or ILC3 subset. Once formed, flexibility in the responses of these subsets to stimuli unexpectedly allows transdifferentation between the different subsets and the acquisition of altered phenotypes and function. This provides a mechanism for rapid innate immune responsiveness. Here, we discuss the models of differentiation for maintenance and activation of tissue-resident ILCs in maintaining immune homeostasis and protection.

  4. Recent Ground Hold and Rapid Depressurization Testing of Multilayer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wesley L.

    2014-01-01

    In the development of flight insulation systems for large cryogenic orbital storage (spray on foam and multilayer insulation), testing need include all environments that are experienced during flight. While large efforts have been expended on studying, bounding, and modeling the orbital performance of the insulation systems, little effort has been expended on the ground hold and ascent phases of a mission. Historical cryogenic in-space systems that have flown have been able to ignore these phases of flight due to the insulation system being within a vacuum jacket. In the development phase of the Nuclear Mars Vehicle and the Shuttle Nuclear Vehicle, several insulation systems were evaluated for the full mission cycle. Since that time there had been minimal work on these phases of flight until the Constellation program began investigating cryogenic service modules and long duration upper stages. With the inception of the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission, a specific need was seen for the data and as such, several tests were added to the Cryogenic Boil-off Reduction System liquid hydrogen test matrix to provide more data on a insulation system. Testing was attempted with both gaseous nitrogen (GN2) and gaseous helium (GHe) backfills. The initial tests with nitrogen backfill were not successfully completed due to nitrogen liquefaction and solidification preventing the rapid pumpdown of the vacuum chamber. Subsequent helium backfill tests were successful and showed minimal degradation. The results are compared to the historical data.

  5. Monitoring and evaluation of disaster response efforts undertaken by local health departments: a rapid realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossip, Kate; Gouda, Hebe; Lee, Yong Yi; Firth, Sonja; Bermejo, Raoul; Zeck, Willibald; Jimenez Soto, Eliana

    2017-06-29

    Local health departments are often at the forefront of a disaster response, attending to the immediate trauma inflicted by the disaster and also the long term health consequences. As the frequency and severity of disasters are projected to rise, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) efforts are critical to help local health departments consolidate past experiences and improve future response efforts. Local health departments often conduct M&E work post disaster, however, many of these efforts fail to improve response procedures. We undertook a rapid realist review (RRR) to examine why M&E efforts undertaken by local health departments do not always result in improved disaster response efforts. We aimed to complement existing frameworks by focusing on the most basic and pragmatic steps of a M&E cycle targeted towards continuous system improvements. For these purposes, we developed a theoretical framework that draws on the quality improvement literature to 'frame' the steps in the M&E cycle. This framework encompassed a M&E cycle involving three stages (i.e., document and assess, disseminate and implement) that must be sequentially completed to learn from past experiences and improve future disaster response efforts. We used this framework to guide our examination of the literature and to identify any context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configurations which describe how M&E may be constrained or enabled at each stage of the M&E cycle. This RRR found a number of explanatory CMO configurations that provide valuable insights into some of the considerations that should be made when using M&E to improve future disaster response efforts. Firstly, to support the accurate documentation and assessment of a disaster response, local health departments should consider how they can: establish a culture of learning within health departments; use embedded training methods; or facilitate external partnerships. Secondly, to enhance the widespread dissemination of lessons learned and facilitate

  6. A mobile radiological laboratory for rapid response to off-site radiation emergencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoch, D. S.; Sharma, R. C.; Mehta, D. J.; Raj, V. Venkat [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2002-07-01

    A mobile radiological laboratory (MRL) has been designed and developed primarily for providing a rapid response to radiation emergencies arising as a consequence of nuclear and/or radiological accidents. It is equipped specifically to monitor the environment and provide quick assessment of radiological hazards to the population living within a radius of 30 km around a nuclear facility. In this paper, various design features of an Indian MRL together with the details of installed equipment are presented. The MRL has been designed for a continuous outdoor operation of about two weeks. It is built on a 10.70 m long air suspension Bus Chassis and has four sections : Driver's Cabin, Main Counting Laboratory, Whole Body Monitor and Rear section housing general utilities. The electric power is provided by two diesel generators during field operation and by 230 V AC mains supply at headquarters and wherever possible. The equipment installed in the MRL includes : Alpha, beta and gamma counting systems and low and high volume air samplers for the assessment of radioactive contents in the samples of air, water, soil and vegetation; environment dose rate meters and a variety of survey meters for evaluating any potential increase in radiation levels; personal dosimeters to control external radiation exposure; personal protective equipment for avoiding skin and clothing contamination; a chair type of whole body monitor for the assessment of internal radioactive contamination of the human body, in particular, thyroidal uptake of radioiodine; an automatic weather station for recording continuously the meteorological parameters and a satellite based global positioning system to continuously track and display the geographical location of the MRL. The calibrations of the installed equipment are presently in progress. Preliminary results obtained for the methods needed for rapid detection of gamma emitters in the environment and human body, namely, in situ gamma spectrometry and

  7. Speciation in rapidly diverging systems: lessons from Lake Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danley, P D; Kocher, T D

    2001-05-01

    Rapid evolutionary radiations provide insight into the fundamental processes involved in species formation. Here we examine the diversification of one such group, the cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi, which have radiated from a single ancestor into more than 400 species over the past 700 000 years. The phylogenetic history of this group suggests: (i) that their divergence has proceeded in three major bursts of cladogenesis; and (ii) that different selective forces have dominated each cladogenic event. The first episode resulted in the divergence of two major lineages, the sand- and rock-dwellers, each adapted to a major benthic macrohabitat. Among the rock-dwellers, competition for trophic resources then drove a second burst of cladogenesis, which resulted in the differentiation of trophic morphology. The third episode of cladogenesis is associated with differentiation of male nuptial colouration, most likely in response to divergent sexual selection. We discuss models of speciation in relation to this observed pattern. We advocate a model, divergence with gene flow, which reconciles the disparate selective forces responsible for the diversification of this group and suggest that the nonadaptive nature of the tertiary episode has significantly contributed to the extraordinary species richness of this group.

  8. Design review report for the SY-101 RAPID mitigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHLOSSER, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents design reviews conducted of the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Mitigation System. As part of the SY-101 Surface-Level-Rise Remediation Project, the SY-101 WID Mitigation System will reduce the potential unacceptable consequences of crust growth in Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101). Projections of the crust growth rate indicate that the waste level in the tank may reach the juncture of the primary and secondary confinement structures of the tank late in 1999. Because of this time constraint, many design activities are being conducted in parallel and design reviews were conducted for system adequacy as well as design implementation throughout the process. Design implementation, as used in this design review report, is the final component selection (e.g., which circuit breaker, valve, or thermocouple) that meets the approved design requirements, system design, and design and procurement specifications. Design implementation includes the necessary analysis, testing, verification, and qualification to demonstrate compliance with the system design and design requirements. Design implementation is outside the scope of this design review. The design activities performed prior to detailed design implementation (i.e., system mission requirements, functional design requirements, technical criteria, system conceptual design, and where design and build contracts were placed, the procurement specification) have been reviewed and are within the scope of this design review report. Detailed design implementation will be controlled, reviewed, and where appropriate, approved in accordance with Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) engineering procedures. Review of detailed design implementation will continue until all components necessary to perform the transfer function are installed and tested

  9. Design review report for the SY-101 RAPID mitigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHLOSSER, R.L.

    1999-05-24

    This report documents design reviews conducted of the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Mitigation System. As part of the SY-101 Surface-Level-Rise Remediation Project, the SY-101 WID Mitigation System will reduce the potential unacceptable consequences of crust growth in Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101). Projections of the crust growth rate indicate that the waste level in the tank may reach the juncture of the primary and secondary confinement structures of the tank late in 1999. Because of this time constraint, many design activities are being conducted in parallel and design reviews were conducted for system adequacy as well as design implementation throughout the process. Design implementation, as used in this design review report, is the final component selection (e.g., which circuit breaker, valve, or thermocouple) that meets the approved design requirements, system design, and design and procurement specifications. Design implementation includes the necessary analysis, testing, verification, and qualification to demonstrate compliance with the system design and design requirements. Design implementation is outside the scope of this design review. The design activities performed prior to detailed design implementation (i.e., system mission requirements, functional design requirements, technical criteria, system conceptual design, and where design and build contracts were placed, the procurement specification) have been reviewed and are within the scope of this design review report. Detailed design implementation will be controlled, reviewed, and where appropriate, approved in accordance with Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) engineering procedures. Review of detailed design implementation will continue until all components necessary to perform the transfer function are installed and tested.

  10. UMTS rapid response real-time seismic networks: implementation and strategies at INGV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, Aladino; Margheriti, Lucia; Moretti, Milena; Lauciani, Valentino; Sensale, Gianpaolo; Bucci, Augusto; Criscuoli, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    The benefits of portable real-time seismic networks are several and well known. During the management of a temporary experiment from the real-time data it is possible to detect and fix rapidly problems with power supply, time synchronization, disk failures and, most important, seismic signal quality degradation due to unexpected noise sources or sensor alignment/tampering. This usually minimizes field maintenance trips and maximizes both the quantity and the quality of the acquired data. When the area of the temporary experiment is not well monitored by the local permanent network, the real-time data from the temporary experiment can be fed to the permanent network monitoring system improving greatly both the real-time hypocentral locations and the final revised bulletin. All these benefits apply also in case of seismic crises when rapid deployment stations can significantly contribute to the aftershock analysis. Nowadays data transmission using meshed radio networks or satellite systems is not a big technological problem for a permanent seismic network where each site is optimized for the device power consumption and is usually installed by properly specialized technicians that can configure transmission devices and align antennas. This is not usually practical for temporary networks and especially for rapid response networks where the installation time is the main concern. These difficulties are substantially lowered using the now widespread UMTS technology for data transmission. A small (but sometimes power hungry) properly configured device with an omnidirectional antenna must be added to the station assembly. All setups are usually configured before deployment and this allows for an easy installation also by untrained personnel. We describe here the implementation of a UMTS based portable seismic network for both temporary experiments and rapid response applications developed at INGV. The first field experimentation of this approach dates back to the 2009 L

  11. Active Response Gravity Offload System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Paul; Dungan, Larry; Cunningham, Thomas; Lieberman, Asher; Poncia, Dina

    2011-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) provides the ability to simulate with one system the gravity effect of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and microgravity, where the gravity is less than Earth fs gravity. The system works by providing a constant force offload through an overhead hoist system and horizontal motion through a rail and trolley system. The facility covers a 20 by 40-ft (approximately equals 6.1 by 12.2m) horizontal area with 15 ft (approximately equals4.6 m) of lifting vertical range.

  12. Rapid Response of Eastern Mediterranean Deep Sea Microbial Communities to Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiang; Techtmann, Stephen M.; Woo, Hannah L.; Ning, Daliang; Fortney, Julian L.; Hazen, Terry C.

    2017-07-18

    Deep marine oil spills like the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) in the Gulf of Mexico have the potential to drastically impact marine systems. Crude oil contamination in marine systems remains a concern, especially for countries around the Mediterranean Sea with off shore oil production. The goal of this study was to investigate the response of indigenous microbial communities to crude oil in the deep Eastern Mediterranean Sea (E. Med.) water column and to minimize potential bias associated with storage and shifts in microbial community structure from sample storage. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was combined with GeoChip metagenomic analysis to monitor the microbial community changes to the crude oil and dispersant in on-ship microcosms set up immediately after water collection. After 3 days of incubation at 14 °C, the microbial communities from two different water depths: 824 m and 1210 m became dominated by well-known oil degrading bacteria. The archaeal population and the overall microbial community diversity drastically decreased. Similarly, GeoChip metagenomic analysis revealed a tremendous enrichment of genes related to oil biodegradation, which was consistent with the results from the DWH oil spill. These results highlight a rapid microbial adaption to oil contamination in the deep E. Med., and indicate strong oil biodegradation potentia

  13. Irradiation response of rapidly solidified Path A type prime candidate alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imeson, E.; Tong, C.; Lee, M.; Vander Sande, J.B.; Harling, O.K.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present a first assessment of the microstructural response to neutron irradiation shown by Path A alloys prepared by rapid solidification processing. To more fully demonstrate the potential of the method, alloys with increased titanium and carbon content have been used in addition to the Path A prime candidate alloy

  14. Early Detection Rapid Response Program Targets New Noxious Weed Species in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Jennifer E.; Halpern, Alison D.; DesCamp, Wendy C.; Miller, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection, rapid response is a critical component of invasive plant management. It can be challenging, however, to detect new invaders before they become established if landowners cannot identify species of concern. In order to increase awareness, eye-catching postcards were developed in Washington State as part of a noxious weed educational…

  15. Response selection difficulty modulates the behavioral impact of rapidly learnt action effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta eWolfensteller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that we can pick up action effect associations when acting in a free-choice intentional mode. However, it is less clear whether and when action effect associations are learnt and actually affect behavior if we are acting in a forced-choice mode, applying a specific stimulus-response (S-R rule. In the present study, we investigated whether response selection difficulty imposed by S-R rules influences the initial rapid learning and the behavioral expression of previously learnt but weakly practiced action effect associations when those are re-activated by effect exposure. Experiment 1 showed that the rapid acquisition of action effect associations is not directly influenced by response selection difficulty. By contrast, the behavioral expression of re-activated action effect associations is prevented when actions are directly activated by highly over-learnt response cues and thus response selection difficulty is low. However, all three experiments showed that if response selection difficulty is sufficiently high during re-activation, the same action effect associations do influence behavior. Experiment 2 and 3 revealed that the effect of response selection difficulty cannot be fully reduced to giving action effects more time to prime an action, but seems to reflect competition during response selection. Finally, the present data suggest that when multiple novel rules are rapidly learnt in succession, which requires a lot of flexibility, action effect associations continue to influence behavior only if response selection difficulty is sufficiently high. Thus, response selection difficulty might modulate the impact of experiencing multiple learning episodes on action effect expression and learning, possibly via inducing different strategies.

  16. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system (RSSAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barren, E.; Bracco, A.; Dorn, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose is to develop a rapid surface (concrete, steel) contamination measurement system that will provide a ''quick-look'' indication of contamination areas, an archival record, and an automated analysis. A bulk sampling oven is also being developed. The sampling device consists of a sampling head, a quick look detector, and an archiving system (sorbent tube). The head thermally desorbs semi-volatiles, such as PCBs, oils, etc., from concrete and steel surfaces; the volatilized materials are passed through a quick-look detector. Sensitivity of the detector can be attenuated for various contaminant levels. Volatilized materials are trapped in a tube filled with adsorbent. The tubes are housed in a magazine which also archives information about sampling conditions. Analysis of the tubes can be done at a later date. The concrete sampling head is fitted with a tungsten-halogen lamp; in laboratory experiments it has extracted model contaminants by heating the top 4mm of the surface to 250 C within 100-200 s. The steel sampling head has been tested on different types of steels and has extracted model contaminants within 30 s. A mathematical model of heat and mass transport in concrete has been developed. Rate of contaminant removal is at maximum when the moisture content is about 100 kg/m 3 . The system will be useful during decontamination and decommissioning operations

  17. Priors engaged in long-latency responses to mechanical perturbations suggest a rapid update in state estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Crevecoeur

    Full Text Available In every motor task, our brain must handle external forces acting on the body. For example, riding a bike on cobblestones or skating on irregular surface requires us to appropriately respond to external perturbations. In these situations, motor predictions cannot help anticipate the motion of the body induced by external factors, and direct use of delayed sensory feedback will tend to generate instability. Here, we show that to solve this problem the motor system uses a rapid sensory prediction to correct the estimated state of the limb. We used a postural task with mechanical perturbations to address whether sensory predictions were engaged in upper-limb corrective movements. Subjects altered their initial motor response in ∼60 ms, depending on the expected perturbation profile, suggesting the use of an internal model, or prior, in this corrective process. Further, we found trial-to-trial changes in corrective responses indicating a rapid update of these perturbation priors. We used a computational model based on Kalman filtering to show that the response modulation was compatible with a rapid correction of the estimated state engaged in the feedback response. Such a process may allow us to handle external disturbances encountered in virtually every physical activity, which is likely an important feature of skilled motor behaviour.

  18. Rapid Field Response to a Cluster of Illnesses and Deaths - Sinoe County, Liberia, April-May, 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doedeh, John; Frimpong, Joseph Asamoah; Yealue, Kwuakuan D M; Wilson, Himiede W; Konway, Youhn; Wiah, Samson Q; Doedeh, Vivian; Bao, Umaru; Seneh, George; Gorwor, Lawrence; Toe, Sylvester; Ghartey, Emmanuel; Larway, Lawrence; Gweh, Dedesco; Gonotee, Philemon; Paasewe, Thomas; Tamatai, George; Yarkeh, James; Smith, Samuel; Brima-Davis, Annette; Dauda, George; Monger, Thomas; Gornor-Pewu, Leleh W; Lombeh, Siafa; Naiene, Jeremias; Dovillie, Nathaniel; Korvayan, Mark; George, Geraldine; Kerwillain, Garrison; Jetoh, Ralph; Friesen, Suzanne; Kinkade, Carl; Katawera, Victoria; Amo-Addae, Maame; George, Roseline N; Gbanya, Miatta Z; Dokubo, E Kainne

    2017-10-27

    On April 25, 2017, the Sinoe County Health Team (CHT) notified the Liberia Ministry of Health (MoH) and the National Public Health Institute of Liberia of an unknown illness among 14 persons that resulted in eight deaths in Sinoe County. On April 26, the National Rapid Response Team and epidemiologists from CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) in Liberia were deployed to support the county-led response. Measures were immediately implemented to identify all cases, ascertain the cause of illness, and control the outbreak. Illness was associated with attendance at a funeral event, and laboratory testing confirmed Neisseria meningitidis in biologic specimens from cases. The 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in West Africa devastated Liberia's already fragile health system, and it took many months for the country to mount an effective response to control the outbreak. Substantial efforts have been made to strengthen Liberia's health system to prevent, detect, and respond to health threats. The rapid and efficient field response to this outbreak of N. meningitidis resulted in implementation of appropriate steps to prevent a widespread outbreak and reflects improved public health and outbreak response capacity in Liberia.

  19. A rapid method of evaluating fluoroscopic system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprawls, P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a study to develop a method for the rapid evaluation and documentation of fluoroscopic image quality. All objects contained within a conventional contrast-detail test phantom (Leeds TO-10) are displayed in an array format according to their contrast and size. A copy of the display is used as the data collection form and a permanent record of system performance. A fluoroscope is evaluated by viewing the test phantom and marking the visible objects on the display. A line drawn through the objects with minimum visibility in each size group forms a contrast-detail curve for the system. This is compared with a standard or reference line, which is in the display.Deviations in curve position are useful indicators of specific image quality problems, such as excessive noise or blurring. The use of a special object-visibility array format display makes it possible to collect data, analyze the results, and create a record of fluoroscopic performance in less than 2 minutes for each viewing mode

  20. Tracheostomy Complications as a Trigger for an Airway Rapid Response: Analysis and Quality Improvement Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassekh, Christopher H; Zhao, Jing; Martin, Niels D; Chalian, Ara A; Atkins, Joshua H

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the subset of airway rapid response (ARR) calls related to tracheostomy identified over a 46-month period from August 2011 to May 2015 to determine proximate cause, intervention, and outcome and to develop process improvement initiatives. Single-institution multidisciplinary retrospective cohort study. Tertiary care academic medical center in a large urban setting. Hospital inpatients with an in situ tracheostomy or laryngectomy who experienced an ARR. Detailed review of operator, hospital, and patient records related to ARR system activations over a 46-month period. ARR was activated for 28 patients with existing tracheostomy. The cohort included open tracheostomy (n = 14), percutaneous tracheostomy (n = 8), laryngectomy stoma (n = 3), and indeterminate technique (n = 3). The most frequent triggers for emergency airway intervention were decannulation (n = 16), followed by mucus plugging (n = 4). The mean body mass index of ARR patients was higher than that of a comparator tracheostomy cohort (32.9 vs 26.3, P 40 in 9 ARR patients. There was 1 mortality in the series. Tracheostomy is a major trigger for ARR with potential fatal outcome. Factors that may contribute to tracheostomy emergencies include high body mass index, surgical technique for open tracheostomy or percutaneous tracheostomy, tracheostomy tube size, and bedside tracheostomy management. Results have triggered a hospital-wide practice improvement plan focused on tracheostomy awareness and documentation, discrete process changes, and implementation of guidelines for emergency management. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  1. Rapid response sensor to monitor the temperature and flow of liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Two forms of a sensor capable of simultaneously monitoring the temperature and flow of liquid metal coolants within a reactor are described. They operate by measuring the coupling impedances between the sensor and the surrounding electrically conductive coolant. Since the system utilises electrical rather than thermal properties, the response to perturbations is rapid, typically displaying the changed conditions within a few milliseconds. The first form of the sensor was designed to operate whilst protected by a thick walled service tube positioned in the reactor coolant. Providing bends in the tube had a radius greater than 70 cm, the sensor could be removed for inspection and maintenance if necessary. The second sensor was fitted inside a streamlined NaK proof capsule. This was inserted directly into the coolant outlet stream of a fuel pin assembly in the Dounreay Fast Reactor. In this form the sensor successfully monitored flow, entrained gas and temperature excursions during the final operating cycle of D.F.R. (author)

  2. The effect of rapid response teams on end-of-life care: A retrospective chart review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Benjamin; Salib, Mary; Fox-Robichaud, Alison

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A subset of critically ill patients have end-of-life (EOL) goals that are unclear. Rapid response teams (RRTs) may aid in the identification of these patients and the delivery of their EOL care. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the impact of RRT discussion on EOL care, and to examine how a preprinted order (PPO) set for EOL care influenced EOL discussions and outcomes. METHODS: A single-centre retrospective chart review of all RRT calls (January 2009 to December 2010) was performed. The effect of RRT EOL discussions and the effect of a hospital-wide PPO set on EOL care was examined. Charts were from the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care Critical Care Information Systemic database, and were interrogated by two reviewers. RESULTS: In patients whose EOL status changed following RRT EOL discussion, there were fewer intensive care unit (ICU) transfers (8.4% versus 17%; PEOL status following the introduction of an EOL PPO, from 20% (before) to 31% (after) (PEOL status following RRT-led EOL discussion was associated with reduced ICU transfers and enhanced access to palliative care services. Further study is required to identify and deconstruct barriers impairing timely and appropriate EOL discussions. PMID:25299222

  3. Rapid density-measurement system with vibrating-tube densimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayukawa, Yohei; Hasumoto, Masaya; Watanabe, Koichi

    2003-01-01

    Concerning an increasing demand for environmentally friendly refrigerants including hydrocarbons, thermodynamic properties of such new refrigerants, especially densities, are essential information for refrigeration engineering. A rapid density-measurement system with vibrating-tube densimeter was developed in the present study with an aim to supply large numbers of high-quality PVT property data in a short period. The present system needs only a few minutes to obtain a single datum, and requires less than 20 cm 3 sample fluid. PVT properties in the entire fluid-phase, vapor-pressures, saturated-liquid densities for pure fluid are available. Liquid densities, bubble-point pressures and saturated-liquid densities for mixture can be obtained. The measurement range is from 240 to 380 K for temperature and up to 7 MPa for pressure. By employing a new calibration function, density can be precisely obtained even at lower densities. The densimeter is calibrated with pure water and iso-octane which is one of the density-standard fluids, and then measurement uncertainty was evaluated to be 0.1 kg m -3 or 0.024% whichever greater in density, 0.26 kPa or 0.022% whichever greater in pressure and 3 mK for temperature, respectively. The performance of the present measurement system was examined by measuring thermodynamic properties for refrigerant R134a. The experimental results were compared with available equation of state and confirmed to agree with it within ±0.05% for liquid densities while ±0.5% in pressure for the gas phase

  4. Zenith: A Radiosonde Detector for Rapid-Response Ionizing Atmospheric Radiation Measurements During Solar Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, A. C. R.; Ryden, K. A.; Hands, A. D. P.; Dyer, C.; Burnett, C.; Gibbs, M.

    2018-03-01

    Solar energetic particle events create radiation risks for aircraft, notably single-event effects in microelectronics along with increased dose to crew and passengers. In response to this, some airlines modify their flight routes after automatic alerts are issued. At present these alerts are based on proton flux measurements from instruments onboard satellites, so it is important that contemporary atmospheric radiation measurements are made and compared. This paper presents the development of a rapid-response system built around the use of radiosondes equipped with a radiation detector, Zenith, which can be launched from a Met Office weather station after significant solar proton level alerts are issued. Zenith is a compact, battery-powered solid-state radiation monitor designed to be connected to a Vaisala RS-92 radiosonde, which transmits all data to a ground station as it ascends to an altitude of 33 km. Zenith can also be operated as a stand-alone detector when connected to a laptop, providing real-time count rates. It can also be adapted for use on unmanned aerial vehicles. Zenith has been flown on the Met Office Civil Contingency Aircraft, taken to the European Organization for Nuclear Research-EU high energy Reference Field facility for calibration and launched on a meteorological balloon at the Met Office's weather station in Camborne, Cornwall, UK. During this sounding, Zenith measured the Pfotzer-Regener maximum to be at an altitude of 18-20 km where the count rate was measured to be 1.15 c s-1 cm-2 compared to 0.02 c s-1 cm-2 at ground level.

  5. Rapid stress system drives chemical transfer of fear from sender to receiver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper H B de Groot

    Full Text Available Humans can register another person's fear not only with their eyes and ears, but also with their nose. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to body odors from fearful individuals elicited implicit fear in others. The odor of fearful individuals appears to have a distinctive signature that can be produced relatively rapidly, driven by a physiological mechanism that has remained unexplored in earlier research. The apocrine sweat glands in the armpit that are responsible for chemosignal production contain receptors for adrenalin. We therefore expected that the release of adrenalin through activation of the rapid stress response system (i.e., the sympathetic-adrenal medullary system is what drives the release of fear sweat, as opposed to activation of the slower stress response system (i.e., hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. To test this assumption, sweat was sampled while eight participants prepared for a speech. Participants had higher heart rates and produced more armpit sweat in the fast stress condition, compared to baseline and the slow stress condition. Importantly, exposure to sweat from participants in the fast stress condition induced in receivers (N = 31 a simulacrum of the state of the sender, evidenced by the emergence of a fearful facial expression (facial electromyography and vigilant behavior (i.e., faster classification of emotional facial expressions.

  6. Improving Resident Performance Through a Simulated Rapid Response Team: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Peter A; Vest, Michael T; Kher, Hemant; Deutsch, Joseph; Daya, Sneha

    2015-07-01

    The Joint Commission requires hospitals to develop systems in which a team of clinicians can rapidly recognize and respond to changes in a patient's condition. The rapid response team (RRT) concept has been widely adopted as the solution to this mandate. The role of house staff in RRTs and the impact on resident education has been controversial. At Christiana Care Health System, eligible residents in their second through final years lead the RRTs. To evaluate the use of a team-based, interdisciplinary RRT training program for educating and training first-year residents in an effort to improve global RRT performance before residents start their second year. This pilot study was administered in 3 phases. Phase 1 provided residents with classroom-based didactic sessions using case-based RRT scenarios. Multiple choice examinations were administered, as well as a confidence survey based on a Likert scale before and after phase 1 of the program. Phase 2 involved experiential training in which residents engaged as mentored participants in actual RRT calls. A qualitative survey was used to measure perceived program effectiveness after phase 2. In phase 3, led by senior residents, simulated RRTs using medical mannequins were conducted. Participants were divided into 5 teams, in which each resident would rotate in the roles of leader, nurse, and respiratory therapist. This phase measured resident performance with regard to medical decision making, data gathering, and team behaviors during the simulated RRT scenarios. Performance was scored by an attending and a senior resident. A total of 18 residents were eligible (N=18) for participation. The average multiple choice test score improved by 20% after didactic training. The average confidence survey score before training was 3.44 out of 5 (69%) and after training was 4.13 (83%), indicating a 14% improvement. High-quality team behaviors correlated with medical decision making (0.92) more closely than did high-quality data

  7. Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) 3.0 System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Papale, William; Hawes, Kevin; Wichowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) 3.0 system is currently under development by NASA, the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in conjunction with United Technologies Corporation Aerospace Systems (UTAS). The RCA technology is a new carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity removal system that has been baselined for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System. The evolution of the RCA development has progressed through several iterations of technology readiness levels including RCA 1.0, RCA 2.0, and RCA 3.0 test articles. The RCA is an advancement over currently technologies due to its unique regeneration capability. The RCA is capable of simultaneously removing CO2 and humidity from an influent air steam and subsequent regeneration when exposed to a vacuum source. The RCA technology uses two solid amine sorbent beds in an alternating fashion to adsorb CO2 and water (uptake mode) and desorb CO2 and water (regeneration mode) at the same time. The two beds operate in an efficient manner so that while one bed is in the uptake mode, the other is in the regeneration mode, thus continuously providing an on-service sorbent bed by which CO2 and humidity may be removed. The RCA 2.0 and 3.0 test articles were designed with a novel valve assembly which allows for switching between uptake and regeneration modes with only one moving part while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source by means of an internal pressure equalization step during actuation. The RCA technology also is low power, small, and has performed extremely well in all development testing thus far. A final design was selected for the RCA 3.0, fabricated, assembled, and performance tested in 2014 with delivery to NASAJSC in January 2015. This paper will provide an overview on the RCA 3.0 system design and results of pre-delivery testing with references to the development of RCA 1.0 and RCA 2.0.

  8. A Rapid Prototyping Environment for Cooperative Advanced Driver Assistance Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Massow

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS were strong innovation drivers in recent years, towards the enhancement of traffic safety and efficiency. Today’s ADAS adopt an autonomous approach with all instrumentation and intelligence on board of one vehicle. However, to further enhance their benefit, ADAS need to cooperate in the future, using communication technologies. The resulting combination of vehicle automation and cooperation, for instance, enables solving hazardous situations by a coordinated safety intervention on multiple vehicles at the same point in time. Since the complexity of such cooperative ADAS grows with each vehicle involved, very large parameter spaces need to be regarded during their development, which necessitate novel development approaches. In this paper, we present an environment for rapidly prototyping cooperative ADAS based on vehicle simulation. Its underlying approach is either to bring ideas for cooperative ADAS through the prototyping stage towards plausible candidates for further development or to discard them as quickly as possible. This is enabled by an iterative process of refining and assessment. We reconcile the aspects of automation and cooperation in simulation by a tradeoff between precision and scalability. Reducing precise mapping of vehicle dynamics below the limits of driving dynamics enables simulating multiple vehicles at the same time. In order to validate this precision, we also present a method to validate the vehicle dynamics in simulation against real world vehicles.

  9. Modeling system for the rapid construction in Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, Sonia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prefabrication is a manufacturing process conducted at a specialized facility, in which various materials are joined to form a component part of the final installation. Prefabrication techniques have been progressively adopted in the construction industry in various countries. The demand was at its peak in the early 1970s in Eastern and Western Europe for the construction of new towns. Worldwide, the highest precast levels in 1996 were located in Denmark (43%, the Netherlands (40%, Sweden and Germany (31%. In Asia, the precast levels in Japan and Singapore were about 15% and 8%, respectively, recently, the use of prefabrication is further encouraged to increase productivity and build ability. In Syria too, the first residential project in Damascus: the establishment of 2400 housing units in the year (77-80. Except that the rate of construction pre-cast in Syria is still not exceed 2% of Building of reinforced concrete. In order to participate in the reconstruction of Syria, after the destruction and devastation caused by the war over four years, this search evaluates successful international experiences in rapid construction technique, and modeled system that could serve the current Syrian reality. Introduction of this technology as a new method in the world of construction in Syria requires a good base, relying on the availability of the necessary raw materials and nearness of work site, as well as the need to replace old technology into modern technology, and analyzing the economic, social, environmental criteria, to make the decision about the best solution. Cost and time will form the most important indicators that will be analyzed and calculated, before the final model mode, in order to be able to use this system later in Syrian construction companies.

  10. A rapid challenge protocol for determination of non-specific bronchial responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, F; Nielsen, N H; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1986-01-01

    A rapid method for determination of non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity was developed. Resistance to breathing was determined by a modified expiratory airway interrupter technique and combined with a dosimeter-controlled nebulizer which made continuous determination of response possible during...... hyperreactivity since individual dose titration is easily performed, and the method could be valuable in epidemiological and occupational surveys as well.......A rapid method for determination of non-specific bronchial hyperreactivity was developed. Resistance to breathing was determined by a modified expiratory airway interrupter technique and combined with a dosimeter-controlled nebulizer which made continuous determination of response possible during...... challenge. The patients inhaled histamine chloride 8 mg/ml at every eighth breath until resistance to breathing (Rt) was increased by 60%. The number of inhalations (NI) or the provocative concentration (PC60-Rt) of histamine increasing Rt by 60% were determined in 68 patients. The new method correlated...

  11. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  12. Communication and general concern criterion prior to activation of the rapid response team: a grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martland, Jarrad; Chamberlain, Diane; Hutton, Alison; Smigielski, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Objective Patients commonly show signs and symptoms of deterioration for hours or days before cardiorespiratory arrest. Rapid response teams (RRT) were created to improve recognition and response to patient deterioration in these situations. Activation criteria include vital signs or 'general concern' by a clinician or family member. The general concern criterion for RRT activation accounts for nearly one-third of all RRT activity, and although it is well established that communication deficits between staff can contribute to poorer outcomes for patients, there is little evidence pertaining to communication and its effects on the general concern RRT activation. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a substantive grounded theory related to the communication process between clinicians that preceded the activation of an RRT when general concern criterion was used. Methods Qualitative grounded theory involved collection of three types of data details namely personal notes from participants in focus groups with white board notes from discussions and audio recordings of the focus groups sessions. Focus groups were conducted with participants exploring issues associated with clinician communication and how it related to the activation of an RRT using the general concern criterion. Results The three main phases of coding (i.e. open, axial and selective coding) analysis identified 322 separate open codes. The strongest theme contributed to a theory of ineffective communication and decreased psychological safety, namely that 'In the absence of effective communication there is a subsequent increase in anxiety, fear or concern that can be directly attributed to the activation of an RRT using the 'general concern' criterion'. The RRT filled cultural and process deficiencies in the compliance with an escalation protocol. Issues such as 'not for resuscitation documentation' and 'inability to establish communication with and between medical or nursing personnel' rated

  13. Rapid continental-scale vegetation response to the Younger Dryas Cool Episode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peros, M.; Gajewski, K.; Viau, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Younger Dryas Cool Episode had rapid and widespread effects on flora and fauna throughout the Americas. Fossil pollen records document how plant communities responded to this event, although such data are generally only representative of changes at local- to regional-scales. We use a new approach to provide insight into vegetation responses to the Younger Dryas at a continental-scale, by focusing on data extracted for a single taxon (Populus poplar, cottonwood, aspen) from pollen diagrams throughout North America. We show that Populus underwent a rapid and continent-wide decline as the climate rapidly cooled and dried. At the termination of the Younger Dryas, Populus underwent another widespread decline, this time in response to competition from boreal and temperate taxa as the climate abruptly warmed. Late glacial-early Holocene pollen assemblages with high quantities of Populus pollen often lack modern analogues and thus confound quantitative paleoclimatic reconstructions; our results provide a context to interpret these assemblages. Furthermore, while Populus may continue to expand in the future in response to human disturbance and increasing temperatures, its sensitivity to competition may eventually put it at risk as global warming accelerates.

  14. The Namibian Scoring System (NASS) version 2 rapid bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a rapid bio-assessment method for assessing the ... The method uses the composition and abundance of aquatic invertebrates, which are ... Training of Namibian personnel to apply the method, as part of the National ...

  15. Visual processing in rapid-chase systems: Image processing, attention, and awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eSchmidt

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual stimuli can be classified so rapidly that their analysis may be based on a single sweep of feedforward processing through the visuomotor system. Behavioral criteria for feedforward processing can be evaluated in response priming tasks where speeded pointing or keypress responses are performed towards target stimuli which are preceded by prime stimuli. We apply this method to several classes of complex stimuli. 1 When participants classify natural images into animals or non-animals, the time course of their pointing responses indicates that prime and target signals remain strictly sequential throughout all processing stages, meeting stringent behavioral criteria for feedforward processing (rapid-chase criteria. 2 Such priming effects are boosted by selective visual attention for positions, shapes, and colors, in a way consistent with bottom-up enhancement of visuomotor processing, even when primes cannot be consciously identified. 3 Speeded processing of phobic images is observed in participants specifically fearful of spiders or snakes, suggesting enhancement of feedforward processing by long-term perceptual learning. 4 When the perceived brightness of primes in complex displays is altered by means of illumination or transparency illusions, priming effects in speeded keypress responses can systematically contradict subjective brightness judgments, such that one prime appears brighter than the other but activates motor responses as if it was darker. We propose that response priming captures the output of the first feedforward pass of visual signals through the visuomotor system, and that this output lacks some characteristic features of more elaborate, recurrent processing. This way, visuomotor measures may become dissociated from several aspects of conscious vision. We argue that "fast" visuomotor measures predominantly driven by feedforward processing should supplement "slow" psychophysical measures predominantly based on visual

  16. Expanding the Delivery of Rapid Earthquake Information and Warnings for Response and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanpied, M. L.; McBride, S.; Hardebeck, J.; Michael, A. J.; van der Elst, N.

    2017-12-01

    Scientific organizations like the United States Geological Survey (USGS) release information to support effective responses during an earthquake crisis. Information is delivered to the White House, the National Command Center, the Departments of Defense, Homeland Security (including FEMA), Transportation, Energy, and Interior. Other crucial stakeholders include state officials and decision makers, emergency responders, numerous public and private infrastructure management centers (e.g., highways, railroads and pipelines), the media, and the public. To meet the diverse information requirements of these users, rapid earthquake notifications have been developed to be delivered by e-mail and text message, as well as a suite of earthquake information resources such as ShakeMaps, Did You Feel It?, PAGER impact estimates, and data are delivered via the web. The ShakeAlert earthquake early warning system being developed for the U.S. West Coast will identify and characterize an earthquake a few seconds after it begins, estimate the likely intensity of ground shaking, and deliver brief but critically important warnings to people and infrastructure in harm's way. Currently the USGS is also developing a capability to deliver Operational Earthquake Forecasts (OEF). These provide estimates of potential seismic behavior after large earthquakes and during evolving aftershock sequences. Similar work is underway in New Zealand, Japan, and Italy. In the development of OEF forecasts, social science research conducted during these sequences indicates that aftershock forecasts are valued for a variety of reasons, from informing critical response and recovery decisions to psychologically preparing for more earthquakes. New tools will allow users to customize map-based, spatiotemporal forecasts to their specific needs. Hazard curves and other advanced information will also be available. For such authoritative information to be understood and used during the pressures of an earthquake

  17. In vivo relevance for photoprotection by the vitamin D rapid response pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, K M; Deo, S S; Norman, A W; Bishop, J E; Halliday, G M; Reeve, V E; Mason, R S

    2007-03-01

    Vitamin D is produced by exposure of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin to UV irradiation (UVR) and further converted in the skin to the biologically active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) and other compounds. UVR also results in DNA damage producing cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). We previously reported that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) at picomolar concentrations, protects human skin cells from UVR-induced apoptosis, and decreases CPD in surviving cells. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) has been shown to generate biological responses via two pathways-the classical steroid receptor/genomic pathway or a rapid, non-genomic pathway mediated by a putative membrane receptor. Whether the rapid response pathway is physiologically relevant is unclear. A cis-locked, rapid-acting agonist 1,25(OH)(2)lumisterol(3) (JN), entirely mimicked the actions of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) to reduce fibroblast and keratinocyte loss and CPD damage after UVR. The effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) were abolished by a rapid-acting antagonist, but not by a genomic antagonist. Skh:hr1 mice exposed to three times the minimal erythemal dose of solar-simulated UVR and treated topically with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) or JN immediately after UVR showed reduction in UVR-induced UVR-induced sunburn cells (pphotoprotective effects via the rapid pathway and raise the possibility that other D compounds produced in skin may contribute to the photoprotective effects.

  18. Model evaluation of denitrification under rapid infiltration basin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Maryam; Imhoff, Paul T; Andres, A Scott; Finsterle, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) are used for disposing reclaimed wastewater into soil to achieve additional treatment before it recharges groundwater. Effluent from most new sequenced batch reactor wastewater treatment plants is completely nitrified, and denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction for N removal. To characterize effects of complex surface and subsurface flow patterns caused by non-uniform flooding on DNF, a coupled overland flow-vadose zone model is implemented in the multiphase flow and reactive transport simulator TOUGHREACT. DNF is simulated in two representative soils varying the application cycle, hydraulic loading rate, wastewater quality, water table depth, and subsurface heterogeneity. Simulations using the conventional specified flux boundary condition under-predict DNF by as much as 450% in sand and 230% in loamy sand compared to predictions from the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model, indicating that simulating coupled flow is critical for predicting DNF in cases where hydraulic loading rates are not sufficient to spread the wastewater over the whole basin. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time and larger hydraulic loading rates result in greater water saturations, more anoxic conditions, and faster water transport in the vadose zone, leading to greater DNF. These results in combination with those from different water table depths explain why reported DNF varied with soil type and water table depth in previous field investigations. Across all simulations, cumulative percent DNF varies between 2 and 49%, indicating that NO₃ removal in RIBS may vary widely depending on operational procedures and subsurface conditions. These modeling results improve understanding of DNF in RIBS and suggest operational procedures that may improve NO₃ removal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid Active Power Control of Photovoltaic Systems for Grid Frequency Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Anderson; Shirazi, Mariko; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Muljadi, Eduard; Maksimovic, Dragan

    2017-01-01

    As deployment of power electronic coupled generation such as photovoltaic (PV) systems increases, grid operators have shown increasing interest in calling on inverter-coupled generation to help mitigate frequency contingency events by rapidly surging active power into the grid. When responding to contingency events, the faster the active power is provided, the more effective it may be for arresting the frequency event. This paper proposes a predictive PV inverter control method for very fast and accurate control of active power. This rapid active power control method will increase the effectiveness of various higher-level controls designed to mitigate grid frequency contingency events, including fast power-frequency droop, inertia emulation, and fast frequency response, without the need for energy storage. The rapid active power control method, coupled with a maximum power point estimation method, is implemented in a prototype PV inverter connected to a PV array. The prototype inverter's response to various frequency events is experimentally confirmed to be fast (beginning within 2 line cycles and completing within 4.5 line cycles of a severe test event) and accurate (below 2% steady-state error).

  20. E-DECIDER Rapid Response to the M 6.0 South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscoe, M. T.; Parker, J. W.; Pierce, M. E.; Wang, J.; Eguchi, R. T.; Huyck, C. K.; Hu, Z.; Chen, Z.; Yoder, M. R.; Rundle, J. B.; Rosinski, A.

    2014-12-01

    E-DECIDER initiated rapid response mode when the California Earthquake Clearinghouse was activated the morning following the M6 Napa earthquake. Data products, including: 1) rapid damage and loss estimates, 2) deformation magnitude and slope change maps, and 3) aftershock forecasts were provided to the Clearinghouse partners within 24 hours of the event via XchangeCore Web Service Data Orchestration sharing. NASA data products were provided to end-users via XchangeCore, EERI and Clearinghouse websites, and ArcGIS online for Napa response, reaching a wide response audience. The E-DECIDER team helped facilitate rapid delivery of NASA products to stakeholders and participated in Clearinghouse Napa earthquake briefings to update stakeholders on product information. Rapid response products from E-DECIDER can be used to help prioritize response efforts shortly after the event has occurred. InLET (Internet Loss Estimation Tool) post-event damage and casualty estimates were generated quickly after the Napa earthquake. InLET provides immediate post-event estimates of casualties and building damage by performing loss/impact simulations using USGS ground motion data and FEMA HAZUS damage estimation technology. These results were provided to E-DECIDER by their collaborators, ImageCat, Inc. and the Community Stakeholder Network (CSN). Strain magnitude and slope change maps were automatically generated when the Napa earthquake appeared on the USGS feed. These maps provide an early estimate of where the deformation has occurred and where damage may be localized. Using E-DECIDER critical infrastructure overlays with damage estimates, decision makers can direct response effort that can be verified later with field reconnaissance and remote sensing-based observations. Earthquake aftershock forecast maps were produced within hours of the event. These maps highlight areas where aftershocks are likely to occur and can also be coupled with infrastructure overlays to help direct response

  1. Biotic response to late Quaternary rapid climate switches in Santa Barbara Basin: Ecological and evolutionary implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannariato, K.G.; Kennett, J.P.; Behl, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages from Santa Barbara Basin exhibit major faunal and ecological switches associated with late Quaternary millennial- to decadal-scale global climate oscillations. Repeated turnovers of entire faunas occurred rapidly (<40--400 yr) without extinction or speciation in conjunction with Dansgaard-Oeschger shifts in thermohaline circulation, ventilation, and climate, confirming evolutionary model predictions of Roy et al. Consistent faunal successions of dysoxic taxa during successive interstadials reflect the extreme sensitivity and adaptation of the benthic ecosystem to the rapid environmental changes that marked the late Quaternary and possibly other transitional intervals in the history of the Earth's ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere system. These data support the hypothesis that broad segments of the biosphere are well adapted to rapid climate change

  2. Characterization of the rapid transcriptional response to long-term sensitization training in Aplysia californica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdegen, Samantha; Holmes, Geraldine; Cyriac, Ashly; Calin-Jageman, Irina E; Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    We used a custom-designed microarray and quantitative PCR to characterize the rapid transcriptional response to long-term sensitization training in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Aplysia were exposed to repeated noxious shocks to one side of the body, a procedure known to induce a long-lasting, transcription-dependent increase in reflex responsiveness that is restricted to the side of training. One hour after training, pleural ganglia from the trained and untrained sides of the body were harvested; these ganglia contain the sensory nociceptors which help mediate the expression of long-term sensitization memory. Microarray analysis from 8 biological replicates suggests that long-term sensitization training rapidly regulates at least 81 transcripts. We used qPCR to test a subset of these transcripts and found that 83% were confirmed in the same samples, and 86% of these were again confirmed in an independent sample. Thus, our new microarray design shows strong convergent and predictive validity for analyzing the transcriptional correlates of memory in Aplysia. Fully validated transcripts include some previously identified as regulated in this paradigm (ApC/EBP and ApEgr) but also include novel findings. Specifically, we show that long-term sensitization training rapidly up-regulates the expression of transcripts which may encode Aplysia homologs of a C/EBPγ transcription factor, a glycine transporter (GlyT2), and a vacuolar-protein-sorting-associated protein (VPS36). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of employee assistance programs in the era of rapid change in the health care delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumerall, S W; Israel, A R; Brewer, R; Prew, R E

    1999-01-01

    With the rapid changes occurring in the American healthcare system, questions regarding various aspects of care have arisen. These changes have led to the need for individuals working within an Employee Assistance Program (EAP) to respond quickly and effectively to crisis situations. This article summarizes the different roles and responsibilities of EAP workers in the healthcare marketplace.

  4. Rapid earthquake magnitude determination for Vrancea early warning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmureanu, Alexandru

    2009-01-01

    Due to the huge amount of recorded data, an automatic procedure was developed and used to test different methods to rapidly evaluate earthquake magnitude from the first seconds of the P wave. In order to test all the algorithms involved in detection and rapid earthquake magnitude estimation, several tests were performed, in order to avoid false alarms. A special detection algorithm was developed, that is based on the classical STA/LTA algorithm and tuned for early warning purpose. A method to rapidly estimate magnitude in 4 seconds from detection of P wave in the epicenter is proposed. The method was tested on al recorded data, and the magnitude error determination is acceptable taking into account that it is computed from only 3 stations in a very short time interval. (author)

  5. Rapid Damage Assessment. Volume II. Development and Testing of Rapid Damage Assessment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    pixels/s Camera Line Rate 732.4 lines/s Pixels per Line 1728 video 314 blank 4 line number (binary) 2 run number (BCD) 2048 total Pixel Resolution 8 bits...sists of an LSI-ll microprocessor, a VDI -200 video display processor, an FD-2 dual floppy diskette subsystem, an FT-I function key-trackball module...COMPONENT LIST FOR IMAGE PROCESSOR SYSTEM IMAGE PROCESSOR SYSTEM VIEWS I VDI -200 Display Processor Racks, Table FD-2 Dual Floppy Diskette Subsystem FT-l

  6. Development of rapid phenotypic system for the identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is a fundamental goal of clinical microbiology. The diagnosis and surveillance of diseases is dependent, to a great extent, on laboratory services, which cannot function without effective reliable reagents and diagnostics. Despite the advancement in microbiology ...

  7. Rapid response to Ebola outbreaks in remote areas - Liberia, July-November 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateh, Francis; Nagbe, Thomas; Kieta, Abraham; Barskey, Albert; Gasasira, Alex Ntale; Driscoll, Anne; Tucker, Anthony; Christie, Athalia; Karmo, Ben; Scott, Colleen; Bowah, Collin; Barradas, Danielle; Blackley, David; Dweh, Emmanuel; Warren, Felicia; Mahoney, Frank; Kassay, Gabriel; Calvert, Geoffrey M; Castro, Georgina; Logan, Gorbee; Appiah, Grace; Kirking, Hannah; Koon, Hawa; Papowitz, Heather; Walke, Henry; Cole, Isaac B; Montgomery, Joel; Neatherlin, John; Tappero, Jordan W; Hagan, Jose E; Forrester, Joseph; Woodring, Joseph; Mott, Joshua; Attfield, Kathleen; DeCock, Kevin; Lindblade, Kim A; Powell, Krista; Yeoman, Kristin; Adams, Laura; Broyles, Laura N; Slutsker, Laurence; Larway, Lawrence; Belcher, Lisa; Cooper, Lorraine; Santos, Marjorie; Westercamp, Matthew; Weinberg, Meghan Pearce; Massoudi, Mehran; Dea, Monica; Patel, Monita; Hennessey, Morgan; Fomba, Moses; Lubogo, Mutaawe; Maxwell, Nikki; Moonan, Patrick; Arzoaquoi, Sampson; Gee, Samuel; Zayzay, Samuel; Pillai, Satish; Williams, Seymour; Zarecki, Shauna Mettee; Yett, Sheldon; James, Stephen; Grube, Steven; Gupta, Sundeep; Nelson, Thelma; Malibiche, Theophil; Frank, Wilmont; Smith, Wilmot; Nyenswah, Tolbert

    2015-02-27

    West Africa is experiencing its first epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola). As of February 9, Liberia has reported 8,864 Ebola cases, of which 3,147 were laboratory-confirmed. Beginning in August 2014, the Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), supported by CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO), and others, began systematically investigating and responding to Ebola outbreaks in remote areas. Because many of these areas lacked mobile telephone service, easy road access, and basic infrastructure, flexible and targeted interventions often were required. Development of a national strategy for the Rapid Isolation and Treatment of Ebola (RITE) began in early October. The strategy focuses on enhancing capacity of county health teams (CHT) to investigate outbreaks in remote areas and lead tailored responses through effective and efficient coordination of technical and operational assistance from the MOHSW central level and international partners. To measure improvements in response indicators and outcomes over time, data from investigations of 12 of 15 outbreaks in remote areas with illness onset dates of index cases during July 16-November 20, 2014, were analyzed. The times to initial outbreak alerts and durations of the outbreaks declined over that period while the proportions of patients who were isolated and treated increased. At the same time, the case-fatality rate in each outbreak declined. Implementation of strategies, such as RITE, to rapidly respond to rural outbreaks of Ebola through coordinated and tailored responses can successfully reduce transmission and improve outcomes.

  8. Glyphosate resistance in Ambrosia trifida: Part 1. Novel rapid cell death response to glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Christopher R; Moretti, Marcelo L; Robertson, Renae R; Segobye, Kabelo; Weller, Stephen C; Young, Bryan G; Johnson, William G; Schulz, Burkhard; Green, Amanda C; Jeffery, Taylor; Lespérance, Mackenzie A; Tardif, François J; Sikkema, Peter H; Hall, J Christopher; McLean, Michael D; Lawton, Mark B; Sammons, R Douglas; Wang, Dafu; Westra, Philip; Gaines, Todd A

    2018-05-01

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Ambrosia trifida is now present in the midwestern United States and in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Two distinct GR phenotypes are known, including a rapid response (GR RR) phenotype, which exhibits cell death within hours after treatment, and a non-rapid response (GR NRR) phenotype. The mechanisms of resistance in both GR RR and GR NRR remain unknown. Here, we present a description of the RR phenotype and an investigation of target-site mechanisms on multiple A. trifida accessions. Glyphosate resistance was confirmed in several accessions, and whole-plant levels of resistance ranged from 2.3- to 7.5-fold compared with glyphosate-susceptible (GS) accessions. The two GR phenotypes displayed similar levels of resistance, despite having dramatically different phenotypic responses to glyphosate. Glyphosate resistance was not associated with mutations in EPSPS sequence, increased EPSPS copy number, EPSPS quantity, or EPSPS activity. These encompassing results suggest that resistance to glyphosate in these GR RR A. trifida accessions is not conferred by a target-site resistance mechanism. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Avoiding math on a rapid timescale: Emotional responsivity and anxious attention in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzie, Rachel G; Kraemer, David J M

    2017-11-01

    Math anxiety (MA) is characterized by negative feelings towards mathematics, resulting in avoidance of math classes and of careers that rely on mathematical skills. Focused on a long timescale, this research may miss important cognitive and affective processes that operate moment-to-moment, changing rapid reactions even when a student simply sees a math problem. Here, using fMRI with an attentional deployment paradigm, we show that MA influences rapid spontaneous emotional and attentional responses to mathematical stimuli upon brief presentation. Critically, participants viewed but did not attempt to solve the problems. Indicating increased threat reactivity to even brief presentations of math problems, increased MA was associated with increased amygdala response during math viewing trials. Functionally and anatomically defined amygdala ROIs yielded similar results, indicating robustness of the finding. Similar to the pattern of vigilance and avoidance observed in specific phobia, behavioral results of the attentional paradigm demonstrated that MA is associated with attentional disengagement for mathematical symbols. This attentional avoidance is specific to math stimuli; when viewing negatively-valenced images, MA is correlated with attentional engagement, similar to other forms of anxiety. These results indicate that even brief exposure to mathematics triggers a neural response related to threat avoidance in highly MA individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficient 3D frequency response modeling with spectral accuracy by the rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    Frequency responses of seismic wave propagation can be obtained either by directly solving the frequency domain wave equations or by transforming the time domain wavefields using the Fourier transform. The former approach requires solving systems

  11. [Rapid Response obstetrics Team at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social,enabling factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José de Jesús; Ruíz-Rosas, Roberto Aguli; Cruz-Cruz, Polita Del Rocío; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    There are barriers and enablers for the implementation of Rapid Response Teams in obstetric hospitals. The enabling factors were determined at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational, retrospective study was conducted by analysing the emergency obstetric reports sent by mobile technology and e-mail to the Medical Care Unit of the IMSS in 2013. Frequency and mean was obtained using the Excel 2010 program for descriptive statistics. A total of 164,250 emergency obstetric cases were reported, and there was a mean of 425 messages per day, of which 32.2% were true obstetric emergencies and required the Rapid Response team. By e-mail, there were 73,452 life threatening cases (a mean of 6 cases per day). A monthly simulation was performed in hospitals (480 in total). Enabling factors were messagés synchronisation among the participating personnel,the accurate record of the obstetrics, as well as the simulations performed by the operational staff. The most common emergency was pre-eclampsia-eclampsia with 3,351 reports, followed by obstetric haemorrhage with 2,982 cases. The enabling factors for the implementation of a rapid response team at IMSS were properly timed communication between the central delegation teams, as they allowed faster medical and administrative management and participation of hospital medical teams in the process. Mobile technology has increased the speed of medical and administrative management in emergency obstetric care. However, comparative studies are needed to determine the statistical significance. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  12. Rapid response predicts 12-month post-treatment outcomes in binge-eating disorder: theoretical and clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, C. M.; White, M. A.; Wilson, G. T.; Gueorguieva, R.; Masheb, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined rapid response in obese patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) in a clinical trial testing cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and behavioral weight loss (BWL). Method Altogether, 90 participants were randomly assigned to CBT or BWL. Assessments were performed at baseline, throughout and post-treatment and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Rapid response, defined as ≥70% reduction in binge eating by week four, was determined by receiver operating characteristic curves and used to predict outcomes. Results Rapid response characterized 57% of participants (67% of CBT, 47% of BWL) and was unrelated to most baseline variables. Rapid response predicted greater improvements across outcomes but had different prognostic significance and distinct time courses for CBT versus BWL. Patients receiving CBT did comparably well regardless of rapid response in terms of reduced binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology but did not achieve weight loss. Among patients receiving BWL, those without rapid response failed to improve further. However, those with rapid response were significantly more likely to achieve binge-eating remission (62% v. 13%) and greater reductions in binge-eating frequency, eating disorder psychopathology and weight loss. Conclusions Rapid response to treatment in BED has prognostic significance through 12-month follow-up, provides evidence for treatment specificity and has clinical implications for stepped-care treatment models for BED. Rapid responders who receive BWL benefit in terms of both binge eating and short-term weight loss. Collectively, these findings suggest that BWL might be a candidate for initial intervention in stepped-care models with an evaluation of progress after 1 month to identify non-rapid responders who could be advised to consider a switch to a specialized treatment. PMID:21923964

  13. UMTS rapid response real-time seismic networks: implementation and strategies at INGV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govoni, A.; Margheriti, L.; Moretti, M.; Lauciani, V.; Sensale, G.; Bucci, A.; Criscuoli, F.

    2015-12-01

    Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and its evolutions are nowadays the most affordable and widespread data communication infrastructure available almost world wide. Moreover the always growing cellular phone market is pushing the development of new devices with higher performances and lower power consumption. All these characteristics make UMTS really useful for the implementation of an "easy to deploy" temporary real-time seismic station. Despite these remarkable features, there are many drawbacks that must be properly taken in account to effectively transmit the seismic data: Internet security, signal and service availability, power consumption. - Internet security: exposing seismological data services and seismic stations to the Internet is dangerous, attack prone and can lead to downtimes in the services, so we setup a dedicated Virtual Private Network (VPN) service to protect all the connected devices. - Signal and service availability: while for temporary experiment a carefull planning and an accurate site selection can minimize the problem, this is not always the case with rapid response networks. Moreover, as with any other leased line, the availability of the UMTS service during a seismic crisis is basically unpredictable. Nowadays in Italy during a major national emergency a Committee of the Italian Civil Defense ensures unified management and coordination of emergency activities. Inside it the telecom companies are committed to give support to the crisis management improving the standards in their communication networks. - Power consumption: it is at least of the order of that of the seismic station and, being related to data flow and signal quality is largely unpredictable. While the most secure option consists in adding a second independent solar power supply to the seismic station, this is not always a very convenient solution since it doubles the cost and doubles the equipment on site. We found that an acceptable trade-off is to add an

  14. A new role for the ACNP: the rapid response team leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Kate J; Warshawsky, Deborah; Moore, Jacqueline M; Pecora, Denise C

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of a rapid response team or medical emergency team is 1 of the 6 initiatives of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's 100,000 Lives Campaign with the goal to reduce the number of cardiopulmonary arrests outside the intensive care unit and inpatient mortality rates. The concept of RRT was pioneered in Australia and is now being implemented in many hospitals across the United States. This article reviews the current literature and describes the implementation of an RRT in a community hospital. The first-quarter data after implementation are described. The unique role of the acute care nurse practitioner in this hospital's model is described.

  15. Rapid fluvial aggradation in response to climate change in northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickert, Andrew; Schildgen, Taylor; Strecker, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    River channels near the edge of the northwestern Argentine Andes are rapidly aggrading at present, with preliminary estimates suggesting rates of ~20 cm yr-1. This mirrors cycles of extensive aggradation over the past 100,000 years that formed pronounced fill terraces along regional valley networks and record periods in which in which climate-driven sediment supply overcame uplift-driven river incision (Robinson et al, 2005). Here we use the new SedFlow model (Heimann et al., 2014) to help us understand the causes and spread of aggradation across these basins in the modern system, with the additional eventual goal to better interpret the geologic record. We provide field-derived grain-size distributions, field-measured and remotely-sensed channel widths and valley slopes, and a variety of possible sediment source locations and amounts as inputs to SedFlow, which routes sediment through the fluvial channel network to produce time-evolving predictions of aggradation and incision. We compare these predictions against changes in topography measured by IceSAT (Zwally et al., 2014) and field surveys. We initially test the system response to a series of isolated sediment inputs to observe interactions between tributary systems and the mainstem river. Recent observations indicate that debris-flow induced landslides are important contributors to aggradation in these rivers (Cencetti and Rivelli, 2011). These and other sediment production and transport processes are likely driven by variations in the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (Bookhagen and Strecker, 2009). Therefore, we then run SedFlow with sediment inputs distributed across the landscape based on locations where ENSO influences may trigger enhanced landsliding. These model experiments help us towards our end goal of providing a more quantitative basis to interpret field observations of landscape response to changing patterns of precipitation. References: Bookhagen, B. and Strecker, M.: Amazonia: Landscape and

  16. Attenuating the alcohol allure: attentional broadening reduces rapid motivational response to alcohol pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, Nicole C; Neal, Lauren B; Gable, Philip A

    2017-04-01

    Past research has found that exposure to alcohol cues causes a narrowing of attentional scope and enhances the neural responses associated with approach motivation. The current research sought to determine if a manipulated broadened (global) attentional scope would reduce approach-motivated neural reactivity to alcohol pictures. In the current study, participants (n = 82) were exposed to alcohol and neutral pictures following either a global or local attentional scope manipulation. Early motivated attentional processing was assessed using the N1 event-related potential (ERP), a neurophysiological marker of rapid motivated attention. A global attentional scope reduced N1 amplitudes to alcohol pictures as compared to a local attentional scope. Self-reported binge drinking related to larger N1 amplitudes to alcohol pictures, but not to neutral pictures. Individuals with greater binge drinking experience demonstrated increased rapid motivated attentional processing to alcohol pictures. These results suggest that enhancing a global (vs. local) attentional scope attenuates rapid motivated attentional processing of alcohol pictures in comparison to neutral pictures. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  17. Rapid and preferential activation of the c-jun gene during the mammalian UV response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devary, Y.; Gottlieb, R.A.; Lau, L.F.; Karin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Exposure of mammalian cells to DNA-damaging agents leads to activation of a genetic response known as the UV response. Because several previously identified UV-inducible genes contain AP-1 binding sites within their promoters, we investigated the induction of AP-1 activity by DNA-damaging agents. We found that expression of both c-jun and c-fos, which encode proteins that participate in formation of the AP-1 complex, is rapidly induced by two different DNA-damaging agents: UV and H2O2. Interestingly, the c-jun gene is far more responsive to UV than any other immediate-early gene that was examined, including c-fos. Other jun and fos genes were only marginally affected by UV or H2O2. Furthermore, UV is a much more efficient inducer of c-jun than phorbol esters, the standard inducers of c-jun expression. This preferential response of the c-jun gene is mediated by its 5' control region and requires the TPA response element, suggesting that this element also serves as an early target for the signal transduction pathway elicited by DNA damage. Both UV and H2O2 lead to a long-lasting increase in AP-1 binding activity, suggesting that AP-1 may mediate the induction of other damage-inducible genes such as human collagenase

  18. M-dwarf rapid rotators and the detection of relatively young multiple M-star systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, S.; Joss, M.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R.

    2014-01-01

    We have searched the Kepler light curves of ∼3900 M-star targets for evidence of periodicities that indicate, by means of the effects of starspots, rapid stellar rotation. Several analysis techniques, including Fourier transforms, inspection of folded light curves, 'sonograms', and phase tracking of individual modulation cycles, were applied in order to distinguish the periodicities due to rapid rotation from those due to stellar pulsations, eclipsing binaries, or transiting planets. We find 178 Kepler M-star targets with rotation periods, P rot , of <2 days, and 110 with P rot < 1 day. Some 30 of the 178 systems exhibit two or more independent short periods within the same Kepler photometric aperture, while several have 3 or more short periods. Adaptive optics imaging and modeling of the Kepler pixel response function for a subset of our sample support the conclusion that the targets with multiple periods are highly likely to be relatively young physical binary, triple, and even quadruple M star systems. We explore in detail the one object with four incommensurate periods all less than 1.2 days, and show that two of the periods arise from one of a close pair of stars, while the other two arise from the second star, which itself is probably a visual binary. If most of these M-star systems with multiple periods turn out to be bound M stars, this could prove a valuable way discovering young hierarchical M-star systems; the same approach may also be applicable to G and K stars. The ∼5% occurrence rate of rapid rotation among the ∼3900 M star targets is consistent with spin evolution models that include an initial contraction phase followed by magnetic braking, wherein a typical M star can spend several hundred Myr before spinning down to periods longer than 2 days.

  19. Human annoyance, acceptability and concern as responses to vibration from the construction of Light Rapid Transit lines in residential environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong-McSweeney, D., E-mail: D.B.C.WongMcSweeney@salford.ac.uk [Acoustics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4TW (United Kingdom); Woodcock, J.S.; Peris, E.; Waddington, D.C.; Moorhouse, A.T. [Acoustics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4TW (United Kingdom); Redel-Macías, M.D. [Dep. Rural Engineering Campus de Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Córdoba (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of different self-reported measures for assessing the human response to environmental vibration from the construction of an urban LRT (Light Rapid Transit) system. The human response to environmental stressors such as vibration and noise is often expressed in terms of exposure–response relationships that describe annoyance as a function of the magnitude of the vibration. These relationships are often the basis of noise and vibration policy and the setting of limit values. This paper examines measures other than annoyance by expressing exposure–response relationships for vibration in terms of self-reported concern about property damage and acceptability. The exposure–response relationships for concern about property damage and for acceptability are then compared with those for annoyance. It is shown that concern about property damage occurs at vibration levels well below those where there is any risk of damage. Earlier research indicated that concern for damage is an important moderator of the annoyance induced. Acceptability, on the other hand, might be influenced by both annoyance and concern, as well as by other considerations. It is concluded that exposure–response relationships expressing acceptability as a function of vibration exposure could usefully complement existing relationships for annoyance in future policy decisions regarding environmental vibration. The results presented in this paper are derived from data collected through a socio-vibration survey (N = 321) conducted for the construction of an urban LRT in the United Kingdom. - Highlights: • The human response to construction vibration is assessed in residential environments. • Exposure–response relationships are generated based on survey and semi-empirical vibration estimation. • Annoyance, concern and acceptability are compared as response measures. • Concern and acceptability are viable measures complementing annoyance.

  20. Designing Financial Instruments for Rapid Flood Response Using Remote Sensed and Archival Hazard and Exposure Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, U.; Allaire, M.; Ceccato, P.; Haraguchi, M.; Cian, F.; Bavandi, A.

    2017-12-01

    Catastrophic floods can pose a significant challenge for response and recovery. A key bottleneck in the speed of response is the availability of funds to a country or regions finance ministry to mobilize resources. Parametric instruments, where the release of funs is tied to the exceedance of a specified index or threshold, rather than to loss verification are well suited for this purpose. However, designing and appropriate index, that is not subject to manipulation and accurately reflects the need is a challenge, especially in developing countries which have short hydroclimatic and loss records, and where rapid land use change has led to significant changes in exposure and hydrology over time. The use of long records of rainfall from climate re-analyses, flooded area and land use from remote sensing to design and benchmark a parametric index considering the uncertainty and representativeness of potential loss is explored with applications to Bangladesh and Thailand. Prospects for broader applicability and limitations are discussed.

  1. Rapid host immune response and viral dynamics in herpes simplex virus-2 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, Joshua T; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) is episodically shed throughout the human genital tract. While high viral load correlates with development of genital ulcers, shedding also commonly occurs even when ulcers are not present, allowing for silent transmission during coitus and contributing to high seroprevalence of HSV-2 worldwide. Frequent viral reactivation occurs despite diverse and complementary host and viral mechanisms within ganglionic tissue that predispose towards latency, suggesting that viral replication may be constantly occurring in a small minority of neurons within the ganglia. Within genital mucosa, the in vivo expansion and clearance rates of HSV-2 are extremely rapid. Resident dendritic cells and memory HSV-specific T cells persist at prior sites of genital tract reactivation, and in conjunction with prompt innate recognition of infected cells, lead to rapid containment of infected cells. Shedding episodes vary greatly in duration and severity within a single person over time: this heterogeneity appears best explained by variation in the densities of host immunity across the genital tract. The fact that immune responses usually control viral replication in genital skin prior to development of lesions provides optimism that enhancing such responses could lead to effective vaccines and immunotherapies. PMID:23467247

  2. A novel multi-responsive polyampholyte composite hydrogel with excellent mechanical strength and rapid shrinking rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kun; Tan, Ying; Chen, Qiang; An, Huiyong; Li, Wenbo; Dong, Lisong; Wang, Pixin

    2010-05-15

    Series of hydrophilic core-shell microgels with cross-linked poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) as core and poly(vinyl amine) (PVAm) as shell are synthesized via surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. Then, the microgels are treated with a small amount of potassium persulfate (KPS) to generate free radicals on the amine nitrogens of PVAm, which subsequently initiate the graft copolymerization of acrylic acid (AA), acryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DAC), and acrylamide (AAm) onto microgels to prepare multi-responsive composite hydrogels. The composite hydrogels consist of cross-linked ungrafted polyampholyte chains as the first network and microgels with grafted polyampholyte chains as graft point and second network and show surprising mechanical strength and rapid response rate. The investigation shows the compress strength of composite hydrogels is up to 17-30 MPa, which is 60-100 times higher than that of the hydrogel matrix. The composite hydrogel shows reversible switch of transmittance when traveling the lowest critical temperature (LCST) of microgels. When the composite hydrogel swollen in pH 2.86 solution at ambient condition is immersed into the pH 7.00 solution at 45 °C, a rapid dynamic shrinking can be observed. And the character time (τ) of shrinking dynamic of composite hydrogel is 251.9 min, which is less than that of hydrogel matrix (τ=2273.7 min). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Response time distributions in rapid chess: A large-scale decision making experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Sigman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid chess provides an unparalleled laboratory to understand decision making in a natural environment. In a chess game, players choose consecutively around 40 moves in a finite time budget. The goodness of each choice can be determined quantitatively since current chess algorithms estimate precisely the value of a position. Web-based chess produces vast amounts of data, millions of decisions per day, incommensurable with traditional psychological experiments. We generated a database of response times and position value in rapid chess games. We measured robust emergent statistical observables: 1 Response time (RT distributions are long-tailed and show qualitatively distinct forms at different stages of the game, 2 RT of successive moves are highly correlated both for intra- and inter-player moves. These findings have theoretical implications since they deny two basic assumptions of sequential decision making algorithms: RTs are not stationary and can not be generated by a state function. Our results also have practical implications. First, we characterized the capacity of blunders and score fluctuations to predict a player strength, which is yet an open problem in chess softwares. Second, we show that the winning likelihood can be reliably estimated from a weighted combination of remaining times and position evaluation.

  4. A rapid assessment and response approach for socially marketed nutrition commodities in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tahir; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Nga, Tran Thuy; Phuong, Huynh; Tung, Le Van Anh; Trang, Vu Hoang

    2017-01-01

    The leading cause of death in children in developing countries is protein-energy malnutrition. In Viet Nam, 25.9% of children under 5 experience stunted growth and 6.6% are moderately wasted. Iron deficiency anaemia and vitamin A deficiency contribute to these and other malnutrition conditions. Given these factors, more evidence based approaches are required to improve understanding of current attitudes, opinions and behaviours of mothers with young children, in order to operationalise social marketing of nutrition commodities in Viet Nam. A literature review supported a rapid assessment and response method involving semi-structured interviews with 77 stakeholders and focus group discussions with 80 program beneficiaries from four geographic locations in the north and south of Viet Nam. Discussion agendas were developed to address key program issues with grounded theory utilized for data analysis. Data analysis highlighted challenges and opportunities within the six Ps of social marketing: Supply and demand side issues included: cost and the quality of products, the limited scale of interventions and promotional activities. Policy issues identified related to current policies that inhibited the broader promotion and distribution of micronutrient products, and opportunities for improved dialogue with policy partners. Partnerships further emphasized the need for public private partnerships to support the social change process. Implications for theory, policy, and practice indicates that rapid assessment and response is a cost-effective, pragmatic method of public health research, in resource constrained settings, to explore policies and behaviours amenable to change and build stakeholder engagement in the program.

  5. Automated data system for emergency meteorological response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) releases small amounts of radioactive nuclides to the atmosphere as a consequence of the production of radioisotopes. The potential for larger accidental releases to the atmosphere also exists, although the probability for most accidents is low. To provide for emergency meteorological response to accidental releases and to conduct research on the transport and diffusion of radioactive nuclides in the routine releases, a series of high-quality meteorological sensors have been located on towers in and about SRP. These towers are equipped with instrumentation to detect and record temperature and wind turbulence. Signals from the meterological sensors are brought by land-line to the SRL Weather Center-Analysis Laboratory (WC-AL). At the WC-AL, a Weather Information and Display (WIND) system has been installed. The WIND system consists of a minicomputer with graphical displays in the WC-AL and also in the emergency operating center (EOC) of SRP. In addition, data are available to the system from standard weat []er teletype services, which provide both routine surface weather observations and routine upper air wind and temperature observations for the southeastern United States. Should there be an accidental release to the atmosphere, available recorded data and computer codes would allow the calculation and display of the location, time, and downwind concentration of the atmospheric release. These data are made available to decision makers in near real-time to permit rapid decisive action to limit the consequences of such accidental releases. (auth)

  6. Rapid wave and storm surge warning system for tropical cyclones in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appendini, C. M.; Rosengaus, M.; Meza, R.; Camacho, V.

    2015-12-01

    The National Hurricane Center (NHC) in Miami, is responsible for the forecast of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific basins. As such, Mexico, Central America and Caribbean countries depend on the information issued by the NHC related to the characteristics of a particular tropical cyclone and associated watch and warning areas. Despite waves and storm surge are important hazards for marine operations and coastal dwellings, their forecast is not part of the NHC responsibilities. This work presents a rapid wave and storm surge warning system based on 3100 synthetic tropical cyclones doing landfall in Mexico. Hydrodynamic and wave models were driven by the synthetic events to create a robust database composed of maximum envelops of wind speed, significant wave height and storm surge for each event. The results were incorporated into a forecast system that uses the NHC advisory to locate the synthetic events passing inside specified radiuses for the present and forecast position of the real event. Using limited computer resources, the system displays the information meeting the search criteria, and the forecaster can select specific events to generate the desired hazard map (i.e. wind, waves, and storm surge) based on the maximum envelop maps. This system was developed in a limited time frame to be operational in 2015 by the National Hurricane and Severe Storms Unit of the Mexican National Weather Service, and represents a pilot project for other countries in the region not covered by detailed storm surge and waves forecasts.

  7. Murine Neonates Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica Develop Rapid and Robust Proinflammatory Responses in Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefker, David T.; Echeverry, Andrea; Brambilla, Roberta; Fukata, Masayuki; Schesser, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal animals are generally very susceptible to infection with bacterial pathogens. However, we recently reported that neonatal mice are highly resistant to orogastric infection with Yersinia enterocolitica. Here, we show that proinflammatory responses greatly exceeding those in adults arise very rapidly in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of neonates. High-level induction of proinflammatory gene expression occurred in the neonatal MLN as early as 18 h postinfection. Marked innate phagocyte recruitment was subsequently detected at 24 h postinfection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) analyses indicated that enhanced inflammation in neonatal MLN is contributed to, in part, by an increased frequency of proinflammatory cytokine-secreting cells. Moreover, both CD11b+ and CD11b− cell populations appeared to play a role in proinflammatory gene expression. The level of inflammation in neonatal MLN was also dependent on key bacterial components. Y. enterocolitica lacking the virulence plasmid failed to induce innate phagocyte recruitment. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) protein expression and neutrophil recruitment were strikingly higher in neonatal MLN after infection with a yopP-deficient strain than with wild-type Y. enterocolitica, whereas only modest increases occurred in adults. This hyperinflammatory response was associated with greater colonization of the spleen and higher mortality in neonates, while there was no difference in mortality among adults. This model highlights the dynamic levels of inflammation in the intestinal lymphoid tissues and reveals the protective (wild-type strain) versus harmful (yopP-deficient strain) consequences of inflammation in neonates. Moreover, these results reveal that the neonatal intestinal lymphoid tissues have great potential to rapidly mobilize innate components in response to infection with bacterial enteropathogens. PMID:24478090

  8. Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft, (LCRRS): A Research Project in Low Cost Spacecraft Design and Fabrication in a Rapid Prototyping Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spremo, Stevan; Bregman, Jesse; Dallara, Christopher D.; Ghassemieh, Shakib M.; Hanratty, James; Jackson, Evan; Kitts, Christopher; Klupar, Pete; Lindsay, Michael; Ignacio, Mas; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Low Cost Rapid Response Spacecraft (LCRRS) is an ongoing research development project at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, California. The prototype spacecraft, called Cost Optimized Test for Spacecraft Avionics and Technologies (COTSAT) is the first of what could potentially be a series of rapidly produced low-cost satellites. COTSAT has a target launch date of March 2009 on a SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle. The LCRRS research system design incorporates use of COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf), MOTS (Modified Off The Shelf), and GOTS (Government Off The Shelf) hardware for a remote sensing satellite. The design concept was baselined to support a 0.5 meter Ritchey-Chretien telescope payload. This telescope and camera system is expected to achieve 1.5 meter/pixel resolution. The COTSAT team is investigating the possibility of building a fully functional spacecraft for $500,000 parts and $2,000,000 labor. Cost is dramatically reduced by using a sealed container, housing the bus and payload subsystems. Some electrical and RF designs were improved/upgraded from GeneSat-1 heritage systems. The project began in January 2007 and has yielded two functional test platforms. It is expected that a flight-qualified unit will be finished in December 2008. Flight quality controls are in place on the parts and materials used in this development with the aim of using them to finish a proto-flight satellite. For LEO missions the team is targeting a mission class requiring a minimum of six months lifetime or more. The system architecture incorporates several design features required by high reliability missions. This allows for a true skunk works environment to rapidly progress toward a flight design. Engineering and fabrication is primarily done in-house at NASA Ames with flight certifications on materials. The team currently employs seven Full Time Equivalent employees. The success of COTSATs small team in this effort can be attributed to highly cross trained

  9. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Rapid Clock Product Summary from NASA CDDIS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This derived product set consists of Global Navigation Satellite System Rapid Clock Product Summary from the NASA Crustal Dynamics Data Information System (CDDIS)....

  10. Rapid shelf-wide cooling response of a stratified coastal ocean to hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroka, Greg; Miles, Travis; Xu, Yi; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2017-06-01

    Large uncertainty in the predicted intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) persists compared to the steadily improving skill in the predicted TC tracks. This intensity uncertainty has its most significant implications in the coastal zone, where TC impacts to populated shorelines are greatest. Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid ahead-of-eye-center cooling of a stratified coastal ocean can have a significant impact on hurricane intensity forecasts. Using observation-validated, high-resolution ocean modeling, the stratified coastal ocean cooling processes observed in two U.S. Mid-Atlantic hurricanes were investigated: Hurricane Irene (2011)-with an inshore Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) track during the late summer stratified coastal ocean season-and Tropical Storm Barry (2007)-with an offshore track during early summer. For both storms, the critical ahead-of-eye-center depth-averaged force balance across the entire MAB shelf included an onshore wind stress balanced by an offshore pressure gradient. This resulted in onshore surface currents opposing offshore bottom currents that enhanced surface to bottom current shear and turbulent mixing across the thermocline, resulting in the rapid cooling of the surface layer ahead-of-eye-center. Because the same baroclinic and mixing processes occurred for two storms on opposite ends of the track and seasonal stratification envelope, the response appears robust. It will be critical to forecast these processes and their implications for a wide range of future storms using realistic 3-D coupled atmosphere-ocean models to lower the uncertainty in predictions of TC intensities and impacts and enable coastal populations to better respond to increasing rapid intensification threats in an era of rising sea levels.

  11. Rapid shelf‐wide cooling response of a stratified coastal ocean to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Travis; Xu, Yi; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Large uncertainty in the predicted intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) persists compared to the steadily improving skill in the predicted TC tracks. This intensity uncertainty has its most significant implications in the coastal zone, where TC impacts to populated shorelines are greatest. Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid ahead‐of‐eye‐center cooling of a stratified coastal ocean can have a significant impact on hurricane intensity forecasts. Using observation‐validated, high‐resolution ocean modeling, the stratified coastal ocean cooling processes observed in two U.S. Mid‐Atlantic hurricanes were investigated: Hurricane Irene (2011)—with an inshore Mid‐Atlantic Bight (MAB) track during the late summer stratified coastal ocean season—and Tropical Storm Barry (2007)—with an offshore track during early summer. For both storms, the critical ahead‐of‐eye‐center depth‐averaged force balance across the entire MAB shelf included an onshore wind stress balanced by an offshore pressure gradient. This resulted in onshore surface currents opposing offshore bottom currents that enhanced surface to bottom current shear and turbulent mixing across the thermocline, resulting in the rapid cooling of the surface layer ahead‐of‐eye‐center. Because the same baroclinic and mixing processes occurred for two storms on opposite ends of the track and seasonal stratification envelope, the response appears robust. It will be critical to forecast these processes and their implications for a wide range of future storms using realistic 3‐D coupled atmosphere‐ocean models to lower the uncertainty in predictions of TC intensities and impacts and enable coastal populations to better respond to increasing rapid intensification threats in an era of rising sea levels. PMID:28944132

  12. Rapid Induction of Multiple Terpenoid Groups by Ponderosa Pine in Response to Bark Beetle-Associated Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefover-Ring, Ken; Trowbridge, Amy; Mason, Charles J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is a major and widely distributed component of conifer biomes in western North America and provides substantial ecological and economic benefits. This tree is exposed to several tree-killing bark beetle-microbial complexes, including the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and the phytopathogenic fungus Grosmannia clavigera that it vectors, which are among the most important. Induced responses play a crucial role in conifer defenses, yet these have not been reported in ponderosa pine. We compared concentrations of terpenes and a phenylpropanoid, two phytochemical classes with strong effects against bark beetles and their symbionts, in constitutive phloem tissue and in tissue following mechanical wounding or simulated D. ponderosae attack (mechanical wounding plus inoculation with G. clavigera). We also tested whether potential induced responses were localized or systemic. Ponderosa pines showed pronounced induced defenses to inoculation, increasing their total phloem concentrations of monoterpenes 22.3-fold, sesquiterpenes 56.7-fold, and diterpenes 34.8-fold within 17 days. In contrast, responses to mechanical wounding alone were only 5.2, 11.3, and 7.7-fold, respectively. Likewise, the phenylpropanoid estragole (4-allyanisole) rose to 19.1-fold constitutive levels after simulated attack but only 4.4-fold after mechanical wounding. Overall, we found no evidence of systemic induction after 17 days, which spans most of this herbivore's narrow peak attack period, as significant quantitative and compositional changes within and between terpenoid groups were localized to the wound site. Implications to the less frequent exploitation of ponderosa than lodgepole pine by D. ponderosae, and potential advantages of rapid localized over long-term systemic responses in this system, are discussed.

  13. Multiple Rapid Swallow Responses During Esophageal High-Resolution Manometry Reflect Esophageal Body Peristaltic Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Anisa; Stoikes, Nathaniel; Drapekin, Jesse; Kushnir, Vladimir; Brunt, L. Michael; Gyawali, C. Prakash

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Dysphagia may develop following antireflux surgery as a consequence of poor esophageal peristaltic reserve. We hypothesized that suboptimal contraction response following multiple rapid swallows (MRS) could be associated with chronic transit symptoms following antireflux surgery. METHODS Wet swallow and MRS responses on esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) were characterized collectively in the esophageal body (distal contractile integral (DCI)), and individually in each smooth muscle contraction segment (S2 and S3 amplitudes) in 63 patients undergoing antireflux surgery and in 18 healthy controls. Dysphagia was assessed using symptom questionnaires. The MRS/wet swallow ratios were calculated for S2 and S3 peak amplitudes and DCI. MRS responses were compared in patients with and without late postoperative dysphagia following antireflux surgery. RESULTS Augmentation of smooth muscle contraction (MRS/wet swallow ratios > 1.0) as measured collectively by DCI was seen in only 11.1% with late postoperative dysphagia, compared with 63.6% in those with no dysphagia and 78.1% in controls (P≤0.02 for each comparison). Similar results were seen with S3 but not S2 peak amplitude ratios. Receiver operating characteristics identified a DCI MRS/wet swallow ratio threshold of 0.85 in segregating patients with late postoperative dysphagia from those with no postoperative dysphagia with a sensitivity of 0.67 and specificity of 0.64. CONCLUSIONS Lack of augmentation of smooth muscle contraction following MRS is associated with late postoperative dysphagia following antireflux surgery, suggesting that MRS responses could assess esophageal smooth muscle peristaltic reserve. Further research is warranted to determine if antireflux surgery needs to be tailored to the MRS response. PMID:24019081

  14. Spectroscopic sensitivity of real-time, rapidly induced phytochemical change in response to damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, John J; Serbin, Shawn P; Townsend, Philip A

    2013-04-01

    An ecological consequence of plant-herbivore interactions is the phytochemical induction of defenses in response to insect damage. Here, we used reflectance spectroscopy to characterize the foliar induction profile of cardenolides in Asclepias syriaca in response to damage, tracked in vivo changes and examined the influence of multiple plant traits on cardenolide concentrations. Foliar cardenolide concentrations were measured at specific time points following damage to capture their induction profile. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) modeling was employed to calibrate cardenolide concentrations to reflectance spectroscopy. In addition, subsets of plants were either repeatedly sampled to track in vivo changes or modified to reduce latex flow to damaged areas. Cardenolide concentrations and the induction profile of A. syriaca were well predicted using models derived from reflectance spectroscopy, and this held true for repeatedly sampled plants. Correlations between cardenolides and other foliar-related variables were weak or not significant. Plant modification for latex reduction inhibited an induced cardenolide response. Our findings show that reflectance spectroscopy can characterize rapid phytochemical changes in vivo. We used reflectance spectroscopy to identify the mechanisms behind the production of plant secondary metabolites, simultaneously characterizing multiple foliar constituents. In this case, cardenolide induction appears to be largely driven by enhanced latex delivery to leaves following damage. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Intact Rapid Facial Mimicry as well as Generally Reduced Mimic Responses in Stable Schizophrenia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechko, Natalya; Pagel, Alena; Otte, Ellen; Koch, Iring; Habel, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous emotional expressions (rapid facial mimicry) perform both emotional and social functions. In the current study, we sought to test whether there were deficits in automatic mimic responses to emotional facial expressions in patients (15 of them) with stable schizophrenia compared to 15 controls. In a perception-action interference paradigm (the Simon task; first experiment), and in the context of a dual-task paradigm (second experiment), the task-relevant stimulus feature was the gender of a face, which, however, displayed a smiling or frowning expression (task-irrelevant stimulus feature). We measured the electromyographical activity in the corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major muscle regions in response to either compatible or incompatible stimuli (i.e., when the required response did or did not correspond to the depicted facial expression). The compatibility effect based on interactions between the implicit processing of a task-irrelevant emotional facial expression and the conscious production of an emotional facial expression did not differ between the groups. In stable patients (in spite of a reduced mimic reaction), we observed an intact capacity to respond spontaneously to facial emotional stimuli. PMID:27303335

  16. Enabling rapid behavioral ecotoxicity studies using an integrated lab-on-a-chip systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yushi; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2015-12-01

    Behavioral ecotoxicity tests are gaining an increasing recognition in environmental toxicology. Behavior of sensitive bioindicator species can change rapidly in response to an acute exposure to contaminants and thus has a much higher sensitivity as compared to conventional LC50 mortality tests. Furthermore, behavioral endpoints seems to be very good candidates to develop early-warning biomonitoring systems needed for rapid chemical risk assessment. Behavioral tests are non-invasive, fast, do not harm indicator organisms (behavioural changes are very rapid) and are thus fully compatible with 3R (Replacement - Reduction - Refinement) principle encouraging alternatives to conventional animal testing. These characteristics are essential when designing improved ecotoxicity tests for chemical risk assessment. In this work, we present a pilot development of miniaturized Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) devices for studying toxin avoidance behaviors of small aquatic crustaceans. As an investigative tool, LOCs represent a new direction that may miniaturize and revolutionize behavioral ecotoxicology. Specifically our innovative microfluidic prototype: (i) enables convening "caging" of specimens for real-time videomicroscopy; (ii) eliminates the evaporative water loss thus providing an opportunity for long-term behavioral studies; (iii) exploits laminar fluid flow under low Reynolds numbers to generate discrete domains and gradients enabling for the first time toxin avoidance studies on small aquatic crustaceans; (iv) integrates off-the-chip mechatronic interfaces and video analysis algorithms for single animal movement analysis. We provide evidence that by merging innovative bioelectronic and biomicrofluidic technologies we can deploy inexpensive and reliable systems for culture, electronic tracking and complex computational analysis of behavior of bioindicator organisms.

  17. Response time distributions in rapid chess: a large-scale decision making experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Mariano; Etchemendy, Pablo; Slezak, Diego Fernández; Cecchi, Guillermo A

    2010-01-01

    Rapid chess provides an unparalleled laboratory to understand decision making in a natural environment. In a chess game, players choose consecutively around 40 moves in a finite time budget. The goodness of each choice can be determined quantitatively since current chess algorithms estimate precisely the value of a position. Web-based chess produces vast amounts of data, millions of decisions per day, incommensurable with traditional psychological experiments. We generated a database of response times (RTs) and position value in rapid chess games. We measured robust emergent statistical observables: (1) RT distributions are long-tailed and show qualitatively distinct forms at different stages of the game, (2) RT of successive moves are highly correlated both for intra- and inter-player moves. These findings have theoretical implications since they deny two basic assumptions of sequential decision making algorithms: RTs are not stationary and can not be generated by a state-function. Our results also have practical implications. First, we characterized the capacity of blunders and score fluctuations to predict a player strength, which is yet an open problem in chess softwares. Second, we show that the winning likelihood can be reliably estimated from a weighted combination of remaining times and position evaluation.

  18. Using Modified Fagan Inspections to Control Rapid System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesel, M. A.; Welz, L. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been developing new approaches to software and system development to shorten life cycle time and reduce total life-cycle cost, while maintaining product quality. One such approach has been taken by the Just-In-Time (JIT) Materiel Acquisition System Development Project.

  19. Rapid Transient Fault Insertion in Large Digital Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohani, A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    This paper presents a technique for rapidtransientfault injection, regarding the CPU time, to perform simulation-based fault-injection in complex System-on-Chip Systems (SoCs). The proposed approach can be applied to complex circuits, as it is not required to modify the top-level modules of a

  20. The improvement of movement and speech during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Valérie Cochen; Debs, Rachel; Oudiette, Delphine; Leu, Smaranda; Radji, Fatai; Tiberge, Michel; Yu, Huan; Bayard, Sophie; Roze, Emmanuel; Vidailhet, Marie; Dauvilliers, Yves; Rascol, Olivier; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2011-03-01

    Multiple system atrophy is an atypical parkinsonism characterized by severe motor disabilities that are poorly levodopa responsive. Most patients develop rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Because parkinsonism is absent during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease, we studied the movements of patients with multiple system atrophy during rapid eye movement sleep. Forty-nine non-demented patients with multiple system atrophy and 49 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were interviewed along with their 98 bed partners using a structured questionnaire. They rated the quality of movements, vocal and facial expressions during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder as better than, equal to or worse than the same activities in an awake state. Sleep and movements were monitored using video-polysomnography in 22/49 patients with multiple system atrophy and in 19/49 patients with Parkinson's disease. These recordings were analysed for the presence of parkinsonism and cerebellar syndrome during rapid eye movement sleep movements. Clinical rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder was observed in 43/49 (88%) patients with multiple system atrophy. Reports from the 31/43 bed partners who were able to evaluate movements during sleep indicate that 81% of the patients showed some form of improvement during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. These included improved movement (73% of patients: faster, 67%; stronger, 52%; and smoother, 26%), improved speech (59% of patients: louder, 55%; more intelligible, 17%; and better articulated, 36%) and normalized facial expression (50% of patients). The rate of improvement was higher in Parkinson's disease than in multiple system atrophy, but no further difference was observed between the two forms of multiple system atrophy (predominant parkinsonism versus cerebellar syndrome). Video-monitored movements during rapid eye movement sleep in patients with multiple system

  1. Automated Detection of Buildings from Heterogeneous VHR Satellite Images for Rapid Response to Natural Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaodan Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel approach for automatically detecting buildings from multiple heterogeneous and uncalibrated very high-resolution (VHR satellite images for a rapid response to natural disasters. In the proposed method, a simple and efficient visual attention method is first used to extract built-up area candidates (BACs from each multispectral (MS satellite image. After this, morphological building indices (MBIs are extracted from all the masked panchromatic (PAN and MS images with BACs to characterize the structural features of buildings. Finally, buildings are automatically detected in a hierarchical probabilistic model by fusing the MBI and masked PAN images. The experimental results show that the proposed method is comparable to supervised classification methods in terms of recall, precision and F-value.

  2. Rapid Quantification of Abscisic Acid by GC-MS/MS for Studies of Abiotic Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verslues, Paul E

    2017-01-01

    Drought and low water potential induce large increases in Abscisic Acid (ABA ) content of plant tissue. This increased ABA content is essential to regulate downstream stress resistance responses; however, the mechanisms regulating ABA accumulation are incompletely known. Thus, the ability to accurately quantify ABA at high throughput and low cost is important for plant stress research. We have combined and modified several previously published protocols to establish a rapid ABA analysis protocol using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Derivatization of ABA is performed with (trimethylsilyl)-diazomethane rather than the harder to prepare diazomethane. Sensitivity of the analysis is sufficient that small samples of low water potential treated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings can be routinely analyzed in reverse genetic studies of putative stress regulators as well as studies of natural variation in ABA accumulation.

  3. ER Stress Causes Rapid Loss of Intestinal Epithelial Stemness through Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarom Heijmans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells generate rapidly dividing transit-amplifying cells that have lost the capacity for self-renewal but cycle for a number of times until they exit the cell cycle and undergo terminal differentiation. We know very little of the type of signals that trigger the earliest steps of stem cell differentiation and mediate a stem cell to transit-amplifying cell transition. We show that in normal intestinal epithelium, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and activity of the unfolded protein response (UPR are induced at the transition from stem cell to transit-amplifying cell. Induction of ER stress causes loss of stemness in a Perk-eIF2α-dependent manner. Inhibition of Perk-eIF2α signaling results in stem cell accumulation in organoid culture of primary intestinal epithelium. Our findings show that the UPR plays an important role in the regulation of intestinal epithelial stem cell differentiation.

  4. Plaque-Like Sclerodermiform Localized Mucinosis Rapidly Responsive to Topical Tacrolimus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schmaltz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the successful treatment of plaque-like sclerodermiform mucinosis using tacrolimus ointment topically. We present a 70-year-old male with a large chronic erythema and hardening of the nuchal skin and shoulder area. Subjective symptoms were a moderate pruritus and a rather disabling stiffness. A biopsy specimen revealed typical features of lichen myxedematosus. In a subsequent clinical examination, no associated illnesses such as hypothyroidism or gammopathy were found. Since no established therapy exists for this condition, and as there was a lack of response to potent topical glucocorticosteroids, tacrolimus 0.03% ointment was used off-label twice daily. Surprisingly, this resulted in a rapid, almost complete clearance of the skin within three weeks of treatment.

  5. Rapid bedrock uplift in the Antarctic Peninsula explained by viscoelastic response to recent ice unloading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nield, Grace A.; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Bordoni, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Since 1995 several ice shelves in the Northern Antarctic Peninsula have collapsed and triggered ice-mass unloading, invoking a solid Earth response that has been recorded at continuous GPS (cGPS) stations. A previous attempt to model the observation of rapid uplift following the 2002 breakup...... of the Palmer cGPS station since 2002 cannot be explained by elastic deformation alone. We apply a viscoelastic model with linear Maxwell rheology to predict uplift since 1995 and test the fit to the Palmer cGPS time series, finding a well constrained upper mantle viscosity but less sensitivity to lithospheric...... thickness. We further constrain the best fitting Earth model by including six cGPS stations deployed after 2009 (the LARISSA network), with vertical velocities in the range 1.7 to 14.9 mm/yr. This results in a best fitting Earth model with lithospheric thickness of 100–140 km and upper mantle viscosity of 6...

  6. A set of rapid-response models for pollutant dispersion assessments in southern Spain coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perianez, R.; Caravaca, F.

    2010-01-01

    Three rapid-response Lagrangian particle-tracking dispersion models have been developed for southern Spain coastal waters. The three domains cover the Gulf of Cadiz (Atlantic Ocean), the Alboran Sea (Mediterranean), and the Strait of Gibraltar with higher spatial resolution. The models are based on different hydrodynamic submodels, which are run in advance. Tides are calculated using a 2D barotropic model in the three cases. Models used to obtain the residual circulation depend on the physical oceanography of each region. Thus, two-layer models are applied to Gibraltar Strait and Alboran Sea and a 3D baroclinic model is used in the Gulf of Cadiz. Results from these models have been compared with observations to validate them and are then used by the particle-tracking models to calculate dispersion. Chemical, radioactive and oil spills may be simulated, incorporating specific processes for each kind of pollutant. Several application examples are provided.

  7. RAPID FREEFORM SHEET METAL FORMING: TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND SYSTEM VERIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiridena, Vijitha [Ford Scientific Research Lab., Dearborn, MI (United States); Verma, Ravi [Boeing Research and Technology (BR& T), Seattle, WA (United States); Gutowski, Timothy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Roth, John [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2018-03-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a transformational RApid Freeform sheet metal Forming Technology (RAFFT) in an industrial environment, which has the potential to increase manufacturing energy efficiency up to ten times, at a fraction of the cost of conventional technologies. The RAFFT technology is a flexible and energy-efficient process that eliminates the need for having geometry-specific forming dies. The innovation lies in the idea of using the energy resource at the local deformation area which provides greater formability, process control, and process flexibility relative to traditional methods. Double-Sided Incremental Forming (DSIF), the core technology in RAFFT, is a new concept for sheet metal forming. A blank sheet is clamped around its periphery and gradually deformed into a complex 3D freeform part by two strategically aligned stylus-type tools that follow a pre-described toolpath. The two tools, one on each side of the blank, can form a part with sharp features for both concave and convex shapes. Since deformation happens locally, the forming force at any instant is significantly decreased when compared to traditional methods. The key advantages of DSIF are its high process flexibility, high energy-efficiency, low capital investment, and the elimination of the need for massive amounts of die casting and machining. Additionally, the enhanced formability and process flexibility of DSIF can open up design spaces and result in greater weight savings.

  8. Computational System For Rapid CFD Analysis In Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barson, Steven L.; Ascoli, Edward P.; Decroix, Michelle E.; Sindir, Munir M.

    1995-01-01

    Computational system comprising modular hardware and software sub-systems developed to accelerate and facilitate use of techniques of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in engineering environment. Addresses integration of all aspects of CFD analysis process, including definition of hardware surfaces, generation of computational grids, CFD flow solution, and postprocessing. Incorporates interfaces for integration of all hardware and software tools needed to perform complete CFD analysis. Includes tools for efficient definition of flow geometry, generation of computational grids, computation of flows on grids, and postprocessing of flow data. System accepts geometric input from any of three basic sources: computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided engineering (CAE), or definition by user.

  9. Motion Planning for a Direct Metal Deposition Rapid Prototyping System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AMES,ARLO L.; HENSINGER,DAVID M.; KUHLMANN,JOEL L.

    1999-10-18

    A motion planning strategy was developed and implemented to generate motion control instructions from solid model data for controlling a robotically driven solid free-form fabrication process. The planning strategy was tested using a PUMA type robot arm integrated into a LENS{trademark} (Laser Engineered Net Shape) system. Previous systems relied on a series of x, y, and z stages, to provide a minimal coordinated motion control capability. This limited the complexity of geometries that could be constructed. With the coordinated motion provided by a robotic arm, the system can produce three dimensional parts by ''writing'' material onto any face of existing material. The motion planning strategy relied on solid model geometry evaluation and exploited robotic positioning flexibility to allow the construction of geometrically complex parts. The integration of the robotic manipulator into the LENS{trademark} system was tested by producing metal parts directly from CAD models.

  10. Modeling and evaluation of characteristics for on-street Rapid Transit systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    to obtain the main objective of introducing a Rapid Transit System. to increase the number of passengers. Variations in the system characteristics have a direct impact on ridership. However, it is difficult to predict the impact of implementing or altering the characteristics. A Rapid Transit system should...... display sufficient service already in the planning phase. That is why pre-acquired knowledge of the impact of the characteristics on the system performance is valuable. Such knowledge could provide a firm basis for planning the service and operation of a Rapid Transit system. This article focuses....... It focuses on the following characteristics for Rapid Transit systems: rail factor, travel time, headway and capacity. It evaluates how the implementation and variation of these characteristics affected the ridership of a case project. It evaluates the magnitude of the impacts for the various characteristics...

  11. The emergence of pan-resistant Gram-negative pathogens merits a rapid global political response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Timothy R; Toleman, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Recent media coverage of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) put antibiotic resistance back on the political map if only for the wrong reasons, mainly the reaction to the naming of NDM-1 and the incorrect assumption that medical tourism was being deliberately targeted. However, work on NDM-1 has most certainly highlighted the rapid dissemination of new antibiotic resistance mechanisms via economic globalization. The example of NDM-1 has also magnified the desperate need for a publicly funded global antibiotic surveillance system rather than just national or regional systems. Furthermore, there is a pressing need to establish a global task force to enforce international transparency and accountability on antibiotic stewardship and the implementation of measures to curb antibiotic resistance. An international antibiotic stewardship index should be established that is related to each country's gross domestic product (GDP) and assesses how much of their GDP is committed to publically funded health initiatives aimed at controlling antibiotic resistance.

  12. Automated Loading and Unloading of the Stratasys FDM 1600 Rapid Prototyping System

    OpenAIRE

    Brockmeier, Oivind

    2000-01-01

    Rapid prototyping systems have advanced significantly with respect to material capabilities, fabrication speed, and surface quality. However, build jobs are still manually activated one at a time. The result is non-productive machine time whenever an operator is not at hand to make a job changeover. A low-cost auxiliary system, named Continuous Layered Manufacturing (CLM), has been developed to automatically load and unload the FDM 1600 rapid prototyping system (Stratasys, Inc.). The modifica...

  13. Rapid mental computation system as a tool for algorithmic thinking of elementary school students development

    OpenAIRE

    Ziatdinov, Rushan; Musa, Sajid

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the possibilities of using a rapid mental computation system in elementary education. The system consists of a number of readily memorized operations that allow one to perform arithmetic computations very quickly. These operations are actually simple algorithms which can develop or improve the algorithmic thinking of pupils. Using a rapid mental computation system allows forming the basis for the study of computer science in secondary school.

  14. Rapid Prototyping with Fourth Generation Systems - an Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    Discusses experiences on the development and use of horizontal and vertical prototypes. Explains the difference. Resolves that horizontal prototypes can be developed with 'little effort', but end users are reluctant to become involved in the development process. Contrastingly resolves that vertical...... prototypes appear to stimulate constructive response. Reasons that developers should be aware of the tacit knowledge which plays an important part in users' work practices and should be involved early in the development process. Proposes three techniques to meet the requirements – participation, simulation...

  15. Advantages of utilizing DMD based rapid manufacturing systems in mass customization applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Siblani, A.

    2010-02-01

    The Use of DMD based Rapid Manufacturing Systems has proven to be very advantageous in the production of highly accurate plastic based components for use in mass customization market such as hearing aids, and dental markets. The voxelization process currently afforded with the DLP technology eliminates any layering effect associated with all existing additive Rapid Manufacturing technologies. The smooth accurate surfaces produced in an additive process utilizing DLP technology, through the voxelization approach, allow for the production of custom finished products. The implementation of DLP technology in rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing systems allow for the usage of highly viscous photopolymer based liquid and paste composites for rapid manufacturing that could not be used in any other additive process prior to implementation of DLP technology in RP and RM systems. It also allowed for the greater throughput in production without sacrificing quality and accuracy.

  16. Mobile Complex For Rapid Diagnosis of the Technological System Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilin Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the up-to-dateness of the new informing and measuring tools and technologies development. It is reviewed the mobile complex for runtime diagnostics of technological system “machine-toolinstrument- detail”. It was found that the use of the complex allows to identify the frequency area in which the appearance of resonance of the technological system elements is possible, and thus to draw a conclusion on the technical state of the diagnosed object. It is concluded that there is the prospects for the use of the above mentioned mobile complex for vibration diagnostics.

  17. The rapid atmospheric monitoring system of the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 9 (2012), s. 1-40 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010517; GA MŠk(CZ) MEB111003; GA AV ČR KJB100100904; GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk(CZ) LA08016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : large detector systems for particle and astroparticle physics * real-time monitoring * control and monitor systems online Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.869, year: 2011

  18. A Tactical Emergency Response Management System (Terms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... information is a result of collaboration between accident response personnel. ... Tactical Emergency Response Management System (TERMS) which unifies all these different ... purpose of handling crisis and emergency.

  19. On complex adaptive systems and terrorism [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, E.; Elgazzar, A. S.; Hegazi, A. S.

    2005-03-01

    Complex adaptive systems (CAS) are ubiquitous in nature. They are basic in social sciences. An overview of CAS is given with emphasize on the occurrence of bad side effects to seemingly “wise” decisions. Hence application to terrorism is given. Some conclusions on how to deal with this phenomena are proposed.

  20. Rapid Prototyping of Social Group Dynamics in Multiagent Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Endrass, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    In this article we present an engineering approach for the integration of social group dynamics in the behavior modeling of multiagent systems. To this end, a toolbox was created that brings together several theories from the social sciences, each focusing on different aspects of group dynamics. ...

  1. Rapid response for invasive waterweeds at the arctic invasion front: Assessment of collateral impacts from herbicide treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Suresh; Carey, Michael P.; Morton, John M.; Guerron-Orejuela, Edgar; Decino, Robert; Willette, Mark; Boersma, James; Jablonski, Jillian; Anderson, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    The remoteness of subarctic and arctic ecosystems no longer protects against invasive species introductions. Rather, the mix of urban hubs surrounded by undeveloped expanses creates a ratchet process whereby anthropogenic activity is sufficient to introduce and spread invaders, but for which the costs of monitoring and managing remote ecosystems is prohibitive. Elodea spp. is the first aquatic invasive plant to become established in Alaska and has potential for widespread deleterious ecological and economic impacts. A rapid eradication response with herbicides has been identified as a priority invasion control strategy. We conducted a multi-lake monitoring effort to assess collateral impacts from herbicide treatment for Elodea in high latitude systems. Variability in data was driven by seasonal dynamics and natural lake-to-lake differences typical of high latitude waterbodies, indicating lack of evidence for systematic impacts to water quality or plankton communities associated with herbicide treatment of Elodea. Impacts on native macrophytes were benign with the exception of some evidence for earlier onset of leaf senescence for lily pads(Nuphar spp.) in treated lakes. We observed a substantial increase in detected native flora richness after Elodea was eradicated from the most heavily infested lake, indicating potential for retention of native macrophyte communities if infestations are addressed quickly. While avoiding introductions through prevention may be the most desirable outcome, these applications indicated low risks of non-target impacts associated with herbicide treatment as a rapid response option for Elodea in high latitude systems.

  2. 46. Nurses perception of rapid response team in a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Mraweh Mustafa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For the last 30 years, the goal of improving the survival rate for patients post cardiopulmonary arrest has remained unattainable. This apparent failure to rescue opened the door to devise new strategies to improve patient outcomes at the onset of subtle deterioration, rather than at the point of cardiac arrest. Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI introduced the Rapid Response Team (RRT as one of the six preventative steps to save lives. Nurses’ perceptions of the RRT influenced by the content and process support provided. Nurses are responsible to detect the early signs of deterioration, and activate the RRT service. The aim of this cross sectional descriptive study was to examine nurses’ perceptions about the effect of the RRT and perceived content and process support in managing patient deterioration by using mental model maintenance and building at individual, group and hospital levels in a tertiary hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. 300 nurses were recruited using a convenience sampling method. The study findings showed that the overall perceptions about the RRT were high. There was a significant positive correlation between the frequent utilization of the RRT and the perceived content support. The analysis of the open ended questions indicated that there were more advantages to have the RRT service than disadvantages. This study suggested that RRT service is influential in improving nurses’ perceptions about managing Patients’ deterioration. Training program about RRT utilization should include both content and process support, which may enhance building and maintaining mental model.

  3. Communication and relationship skills for rapid response teams at hamilton health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cziraki, Karen; Lucas, Janie; Rogers, Toni; Page, Laura; Zimmerman, Rosanne; Hauer, Lois Ann; Daniels, Charlotte; Gregoroff, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Rapid response teams (RRT) are an important safety strategy in the prevention of deaths in patients who are progressively failing outside of the intensive care unit. The goal is to intervene before a critical event occurs. Effective teamwork and communication skills are frequently cited as critical success factors in the implementation of these teams. However, there is very little literature that clearly provides an education strategy for the development of these skills. Training in simulation labs offers an opportunity to assess and build on current team skills; however, this approach does not address how to meet the gaps in team communication and relationship skill management. At Hamilton Health Sciences (HHS) a two-day program was developed in collaboration with the RRT Team Leads, Organizational Effectiveness and Patient Safety Leaders. Participants reflected on their conflict management styles and considered how their personality traits may contribute to team function. Communication and relationship theories were reviewed and applied in simulated sessions in the relative safety of off-site team sessions. The overwhelming positive response to this training has been demonstrated in the incredible success of these teams from the perspective of the satisfaction surveys of the care units that call the team, and in the multi-phased team evaluation of their application to practice. These sessions offer a useful approach to the development of the soft skills required for successful RRT implementation.

  4. Automatic performance estimation of conceptual temperature control system design for rapid development of real system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Yu Jin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic performance estimation scheme of conceptual temperature control system with multi-heater configuration prior to constructing the physical system for achieving rapid validation of the conceptual design. An appropriate low-order discrete-time model, which will be used in the controller design, is constructed after determining several basic factors including the geometric shape of controlled object and heaters, material properties, heater arrangement, etc. The proposed temperature controller, which adopts the multivariable GPC (generalized predictive control) scheme with scale factors, is then constructed automatically based on the above model. The performance of the conceptual temperature control system is evaluated by using a FEM (finite element method) simulation combined with the controller.

  5. Automatic performance estimation of conceptual temperature control system design for rapid development of real system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yu Jin [Dongguk University, GyeongJu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    This paper presents an automatic performance estimation scheme of conceptual temperature control system with multi-heater configuration prior to constructing the physical system for achieving rapid validation of the conceptual design. An appropriate low-order discrete-time model, which will be used in the controller design, is constructed after determining several basic factors including the geometric shape of controlled object and heaters, material properties, heater arrangement, etc. The proposed temperature controller, which adopts the multivariable GPC (generalized predictive control) scheme with scale factors, is then constructed automatically based on the above model. The performance of the conceptual temperature control system is evaluated by using a FEM (finite element method) simulation combined with the controller.

  6. Rapid-response Sensor Networks Leveraging Open Standards and the Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, L. E.; Lieberman, J. E.; Lewis, L.; Botts, M.; Liang, S.

    2016-12-01

    New sensor technologies provide an unparalleled capability to collect large numbers of diverse observations about the world around us. Networks of such sensors are especially effective for capturing and analyzing unexpected, fast moving events if they can be deployed with a minimum of time, effort, and cost. A rapid-response sensing and processing capability is extremely important in quickly unfolding events not only to collect data for future research.but also to support response efforts that may be needed by providing up-to-date knowledge of the situation. A recent pilot activity coordinated by the Open Geospatial Consortium combined Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) standards with Internet of Things (IoT) practices to understand better how to set up rapid-response sensor networks in comparable event situations involving accidents or disasters. The networks included weather and environmental sensors, georeferenced UAV and PTZ imagery collectors, and observations from "citizen sensors", as well as virtual observations generated by predictive models. A key feature of each "SWE-IoT" network was one or more Sensor Hubs that connected local, often proprietary sensor device protocols to a common set of standard SWE data types and standard Web interfaces on an IP-based internetwork. This IoT approach provided direct, common, interoperable access to all sensor readings from anywhere on the internetwork of sensors, Hubs, and applications. Sensor Hubs also supported an automated discovery protocol in which activated Hubs registered themselves with a canonical catalog service. As each sensor (wireless or wired) was activated within range of an authorized Hub, it registered itself with that Hub, which in turn registered the sensor and its capabilities with the catalog. Sensor Hub functions were implemented in a range of component types, from personal devices such as smartphones and Raspberry Pi's to full cloud-based sensor services platforms. Connected into a network

  7. Lighting Systems Control for Demand Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husen, S.A.; Pandharipande, A.; Tolhuizen, L.M.G.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lighting is a major part of energy consumption in buildings. Lighting systems will thus be one of the important component systems of a smart grid for dynamic load management services like demand response.In the scenario considered in this paper, under a demand response request, lighting systems in a

  8. Rapid Prototyping of Standard Compliant Visible Light Communications System

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrincea, Ciprian; Baranda, Jorge; Henarejos, Pol

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the implementation of a prototype visible light communications system based on the IEEE 802.15.7 standard using low-cost commercial off-the-shelf analog devices. The aim of this article is to show that this standard provides a framework that could promote the introduction of applications into the market. Thus, these specifications could be further developed, reducing the gap between the industry and research communities. The implemented prototype makes use of software d...

  9. Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation, and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD): Response to ventilatory challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Michael S; Patwari, Pallavi P; Kenny, Anna S; Brogadir, Cindy D; Stewart, Tracey M; Weese-Mayer, Debra E

    2015-12-01

    Hypoventilation is a defining feature of Rapid-onset Obesity with Hypothalamic dysfunction, Hypoventilation and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD), a rare respiratory and autonomic disorder. This chronic hypoventilation has been explained as the result of dysfunctional chemosensory control circuits, possibly affecting peripheral afferent input, central integration, or efferent motor control. However, chemosensory function has never been quantified in a cohort of ROHHAD patients. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the response to awake ventilatory challenge testing in children and adolescents with ROHHAD. The ventilatory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses in 25 distinct comprehensive physiological recordings from seven unique ROHHAD patients to three different gas mixtures were analyzed at breath-to-breath and beat-to-beat resolution as absolute measures, as change from baseline, or with derived metrics. Physiologic measures were recorded during a 3-min baseline period of room air, a 3-min gas exposure (of 100% O2; 95% O2, 5% CO2; or 14% O2, 7% CO2 balanced with N2), and a 3-min recovery period. An additional hypoxic challenge was conducted which consisted of either five or seven tidal breaths of 100% N2. While ROHHAD cases showed a diminished VT and inspiratory drive response to hypoxic hypercapnia and absent behavioral awareness of the physiologic compromise, most ventilatory, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular measures were similar to those of previously published controls using an identical protocol, suggesting a mild chemosensory deficit. Nonetheless, the high mortality rate, comorbidity and physiological fragility of patients with ROHHAD demand continued clinical vigilance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Rapid assessment response (RAR study: drug use and health risk - Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trautmann Franz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within a ten year period South Africa has developed a substantial illicit drug market. Data on HIV risk among drug using populations clearly indicate high levels of HIV risk behaviour due to the sharing of injecting equipment and/or drug-related unprotected sex. While there is international evidence on and experience with adequate responses, limited responses addressing drug use and drug-use-related HIV and other health risks are witnessed in South Africa. This study aimed to explore the emerging problem of drug-related HIV transmission and to stimulate the development of adequate health services for the drug users, by linking international expertise and local research. Methods A Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR methodology was adopted for the study. For individual and focus group interviews a semi-structured questionnaire was utilised that addressed key issues. Interviews were conducted with a total of 84 key informant (KI participants, 63 drug user KI participants (49 males, 14 females and 21 KI service providers (8 male, 13 female. Results and Discussion Adverse living conditions and poor education levels were cited as making access to treatment harder, especially for those living in disadvantaged areas. Heroin was found to be the substance most available and used in a problematic way within the Pretoria area. Participants were not fully aware of the concrete health risks involved in drug use, and the vague ideas held appear not to allow for concrete measures to protect themselves. Knowledge with regards to substance related HIV/AIDS transmission is not yet widespread, with some information sources disseminating incorrect or unspecific information. Conclusions The implementation of pragmatic harm-reduction and other evidence-based public health care policies that are designed to reduce the harmful consequences associated with substance use and HIV/AIDS should be considered. HIV testing and treatment services also need to

  11. Using rapid assessment and response to operationalise physical activity strategic health communication campaigns in Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tahir; Latu, Netina; Cocker-Palu, Elizabeth; Liavaa, Villiami; Vivili, Paul; Gloede, Sara; Simons, Allison

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify stakeholder and program beneficiary needs and wants in relation to a netball communication strategy in Tonga. In addition, the study aimed to more clearly identify audience segments for targeting of communication campaigns and to identify any barriers or benefits to engaging in the physical activity program. A rapid assessment and response (RAR) methodology was used. The elicitation research encompassed qualitative fieldwork approaches, including semistructured interviews with key informants and focus group discussions with program beneficiaries. Desk research of secondary data sources supported in-field findings. A number of potential barriers to behavioural compliance existed, including cultural factors, gender discrimination, socioeconomic factors, stigmatising attitudes, the threat of domestic violence, infrastructure and training issues. Factors contributing to participation in physical activity included the fun and social aspects of the sport, incentives (including career opportunities, highlighting the health benefits of the activity and the provision of religious and cultural sanctions by local leaders towards the increased physical activity of women. The consultative approach of RAR provided a more in-depth understanding of the need for greater levels of physical activity and opportunities for engagement by all stakeholders. The approach facilitated opportunities for the proposed health behaviours to be realised through the communication strategy. Essential insights for the strategy design were identified from key informants, as well as ensuring future engagement of these stakeholders into the strategy. So what? The expanded use of RAR to inform the design of social marketing interventions is a practical approach to data collection for non-communicable diseases and other health issues in developing countries. The approach allows for the rapid mobilisation of scarce resources for the implementation of more

  12. Dryland responses to global change suggest the potential for rapid non-linear responses to some changes but resilience to others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S.; Ferrenberg, S.; Tucker, C.; Rutherford, W. A.; Wertin, T. M.; McHugh, T. A.; Morrissey, E.; Kuske, C.; Belnap, J.

    2017-12-01

    Drylands represent our planet's largest terrestrial biome, making up over 35% of Earth's land surface. In the context of this vast areal extent, it is no surprise that recent research suggests dryland inter-annual variability and responses to change have the potential to drive biogeochemical cycles and climate at the global-scale. Further, the data we do have suggest drylands can respond rapidly and non-linearly to change. Nevertheless, our understanding of the cross-system consistency of and mechanisms behind dryland responses to a changed environment remains relatively poor. This poor understanding hinders not only our larger understanding of terrestrial ecosystem function, but also our capacity to forecast future global biogeochemical cycles and climate. Here we present data from a series of Colorado Plateau manipulation experiments - including climate, land use, and nitrogen deposition manipulations - to explore how vascular plants, microbial communities, and biological soil crusts (a community of mosses, lichens, and/or cyanobacteria living in the interspace among vascular plants in arid and semiarid ecosystems worldwide) respond to a host of environmental changes. These responses include not only assessments of community composition, but of their function as well. We will explore photosynthesis, net soil CO2 exchange, soil carbon stocks and chemistry, albedo, and nutrient cycling. The experiments were begun with independent questions and cover a range of environmental change drivers and scientific approaches, but together offer a relatively holistic picture of how some drylands can change their structure and function in response to change. In particular, the data show very high ecosystem vulnerability to particular drivers, but surprising resilience to others, suggesting a multi-faceted response of these diverse systems.

  13. HB&L System: rapid determination of antibiotic sensitivity of bacteria isolated from blood cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Barocci

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Blood culture is an important method to detect microbial pathogens on blood, very useful for diagnosing bacterial infections. Unfortunately, classical diagnostic protocols cannot directly identify bacteria responsible for sepsis and accordingly their antimicrobial profiles. This problem causes a delay of almost two days in the availability of a specific antimicrobial profile. Objective. Among the main causes of death, sepsis have a relevant importance. For this reason it is important both to identify pathogens and to perform an antimicrobial susceptibility test in the shortest time as possible. For this purpose, the main aim of this study is the evaluation of the performances of an antimicrobial susceptibility determination directly performed on positive blood cultures. Materials and methods. This study has been performed on 70 positive blood cultures, during the period from January to July 2009. A number of 35 blood cultures were positive for Gram negative bacteria, and 35 were positive for Gram positive bacteria. From these positive blood cultures, after a short sample preparation, it has been possible to directly determine antimicrobial susceptibility profiles by using the HB&L (formerly URO-QUICK instrument. Results. The HB&L system results showed a very good correlation with both the classical disk diffusion method and VITEK 2 automatic system.The performances between the methods carried out in this study were equivalent. Conclusions. From data reported, thanks to the rapidity and simplicity of the method used, we can assert that the direct susceptibility test available with the HB&L system, is useful for a rapid and early choice of the antibiotic treatment.

  14. Rapid Response Tools and Datasets for Post-fire Hydrological Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mary Ellen; MacDonald, Lee H.; Billmire, Michael; Elliot, William J.; Robichaud, Pete R.

    2016-04-01

    Rapid response is critical following natural disasters. Flooding, erosion, and debris flows are a major threat to life, property and municipal water supplies after moderate and high severity wildfires. The problem is that mitigation measures must be rapidly implemented if they are to be effective, but they are expensive and cannot be applied everywhere. Fires, runoff, and erosion risks also are highly heterogeneous in space, so there is an urgent need for a rapid, spatially-explicit assessment. Past post-fire modeling efforts have usually relied on lumped, conceptual models because of the lack of readily available, spatially-explicit data layers on the key controls of topography, vegetation type, climate, and soil characteristics. The purpose of this project is to develop a set of spatially-explicit data layers for use in process-based models such as WEPP, and to make these data layers freely available. The resulting interactive online modeling database (http://geodjango.mtri.org/geowepp/) is now operational and publically available for 17 western states in the USA. After a fire, users only need to upload a soil burn severity map, and this is combined with the pre-existing data layers to generate the model inputs needed for spatially explicit models such as GeoWEPP (Renschler, 2003). The development of this online database has allowed us to predict post-fire erosion and various remediation scenarios in just 1-7 days for six fires ranging in size from 4-540 km2. These initial successes have stimulated efforts to further improve the spatial extent and amount of data, and add functionality to support the USGS debris flow model, batch processing for Disturbed WEPP (Elliot et al., 2004) and ERMiT (Robichaud et al., 2007), and to support erosion modeling for other land uses, such as agriculture or mining. The design and techniques used to create the database and the modeling interface are readily repeatable for any area or country that has the necessary topography

  15. Rapid Weight Loss Elicits Harmful Biochemical and Hormonal Responses in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coswig, Victor Silveira; Fukuda, David Hideyoshi; Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare biochemical and hormonal responses between mixed martial arts (MMA) competitors with minimal prefight weight loss and those undergoing rapid weight loss (RWL). Blood samples were taken from 17 MMA athletes (Mean± SD; age: 27.4 ±5.3yr; body mass: 76.2 ± 12.4kg; height: 1.71 ± 0.05m and training experience: 39.4 ± 25 months) before and after each match, according to the official events rules. The no rapid weight loss (NWL, n = 12) group weighed in on the day of the event (~30 min prior fight) and athletes declared not having used RWL strategies, while the RWL group (n = 5) weighed in 24 hr before the event and the athletes claimed to have lost 7.4 ± 1.1kg, approximately 10% of their body mass in the week preceding the event. Results showed significant (p < .05) increases following fights, regardless of group, in lactate, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, and cortisol for all athletes. With regard to group differences, NWL had significantly (p < .05) greater creatinine levels (Mean± SD; pre to post) (NWL= 101.6 ± 15-142.3 ± 22.9μmol/L and RWL= 68.9 ± 10.6-79.5 ± 15.9μmol/L), while RWL had higher LDH (median [interquartile range]; pre to post) (NWL= 211.5[183-236] to 231[203-258]U/L and RWL= 390[370.5-443.5] to 488[463.5-540.5]U/L) and AST (NWL= 30[22-37] to 32[22-41]U/L and 39[32.5-76.5] to 72[38.5-112.5] U/L) values (NWL versus RWL, p < .05). Post hoc analysis showed that AST significantly increased in only the RWL group, while creatinine increased in only the NWL group. The practice of rapid weight loss showed a negative impact on energy availability and increased both muscle damage markers and catabolic expression in MMA fighters.

  16. Adenovirus-Vectored Vaccine as a Rapid-Response Tool Against Avian Influenza Pandemic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kampen, K. R.; Tang, D. C.

    2007-01-01

    Influenza viruses in nature undergo genetic mutation and reassortment. Three pandemics of avian influenza in man were recorded in the twentieth century. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses currently in circulation pose a threat for another world-wide pandemic, if they become transmissible from man to man. Manufacturing protective vaccines using current egg-based technology is often difficult due to the virulence of the virus and its adverse effects on the embryonating egg substrate. New technologies allow the creation of safe and protective pandemic influenza vaccines without the need for egg based substrates. These technologies allow new vaccines to be created in less than one month. Manufacturing is in tissue culture, not eggs. Vaccine can be administered to man non-invasively, without adjuvants, eliciting a rapid and protective immune response. Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-derived vector encoding an H5N9 avian influenza virus hemagglutinin. Vaccinated chickens were protected against both H5N1 and H5N2 HPAI virus challenges. Mass-administration of this bird flu vaccine can be streamlined with available robotic in ovo injectors. Vaccination using this vaccine could protect the the largest host reservoir (chickens) and greatly reduce the exposure of man to avian influenza. In addition, Ad5-vectored vaccines can be produced rapidly and the safety margin of a non-replicating vector is superior to that of a replicating counterpart. Furthermore, this mode of vaccination is compatible with epidemiological surveys of natural AI virus infections. In addition to mass immunization of poultry, both animals and humans have been effectively immunized by intranasal administration of Ad5-vectored influenza vaccines without any appreciable side effects, even in mice and human volunteers with

  17. Rapid Auditory System Adaptation Using a Virtual Auditory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëtan Parseihian

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have highlighted plasticity of the auditory system from visual stimuli, limiting the trained field of perception. The aim of the present study is to investigate auditory system adaptation using an audio-kinesthetic platform. Participants were placed in a Virtual Auditory Environment allowing the association of the physical position of a virtual sound source with an alternate set of acoustic spectral cues or Head-Related Transfer Function (HRTF through the use of a tracked ball manipulated by the subject. This set-up has the advantage to be not being limited to the visual field while also offering a natural perception-action coupling through the constant awareness of one's hand position. Adaptation process to non-individualized HRTF was realized through a spatial search game application. A total of 25 subjects participated, consisting of subjects presented with modified cues using non-individualized HRTF and a control group using individual measured HRTFs to account for any learning effect due to the game itself. The training game lasted 12 minutes and was repeated over 3 consecutive days. Adaptation effects were measured with repeated localization tests. Results showed a significant performance improvement for vertical localization and a significant reduction in the front/back confusion rate after 3 sessions.

  18. Frequency response functions for nonlinear convergent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, A.V.; Wouw, van de N.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2007-01-01

    Convergent systems constitute a practically important class of nonlinear systems that extends the class of asymptotically stable linear time-invariant systems. In this note, we extend frequency response functions defined for linear systems to nonlinear convergent systems. Such nonlinear frequency

  19. Rapid Onboard Trajectory Design for Autonomous Spacecraft in Multibody Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbauer, Eric Michael

    This research develops automated, on-board trajectory planning algorithms in order to support current and new mission concepts. These include orbiter missions to Phobos or Deimos, Outer Planet Moon orbiters, and robotic and crewed missions to small bodies. The challenges stem from the limited on-board computing resources which restrict full trajectory optimization with guaranteed convergence in complex dynamical environments. The approach taken consists of leveraging pre-mission computations to create a large database of pre-computed orbits and arcs. Such a database is used to generate a discrete representation of the dynamics in the form of a directed graph, which acts to index these arcs. This allows the use of graph search algorithms on-board in order to provide good approximate solutions to the path planning problem. Coupled with robust differential correction and optimization techniques, this enables the determination of an efficient path between any boundary conditions with very little time and computing effort. Furthermore, the optimization methods developed here based on sequential convex programming are shown to have provable convergence properties, as well as generating feasible major iterates in case of a system interrupt -- a key requirement for on-board application. The outcome of this project is thus the development of an algorithmic framework which allows the deployment of this approach in a variety of specific mission contexts. Test cases related to missions of interest to NASA and JPL such as a Phobos orbiter and a Near Earth Asteroid interceptor are demonstrated, including the results of an implementation on the RAD750 flight processor. This method fills a gap in the toolbox being developed to create fully autonomous space exploration systems.

  20. Integration of palliative care in the context of rapid response: a report from the Improving Palliative Care in the ICU advisory board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Judith E; Mathews, Kusum S; Weissman, David E; Brasel, Karen J; Campbell, Margaret; Curtis, J Randall; Frontera, Jennifer A; Gabriel, Michelle; Hays, Ross M; Mosenthal, Anne C; Mulkerin, Colleen; Puntillo, Kathleen A; Ray, Daniel E; Weiss, Stefanie P; Bassett, Rick; Boss, Renee D; Lustbader, Dana R

    2015-02-01

    Rapid response teams (RRTs) can effectively foster discussions about appropriate goals of care and address other emergent palliative care needs of patients and families facing life-threatening illness on hospital wards. In this article, The Improving Palliative Care in the ICU (IPAL-ICU) Project brings together interdisciplinary expertise and existing data to address the following: special challenges for providing palliative care in the rapid response setting, knowledge and skills needed by RRTs for delivery of high-quality palliative care, and strategies for improving the integration of palliative care with rapid response critical care. We discuss key components of communication with patients, families, and primary clinicians to develop a goal-directed treatment approach during a rapid response event. We also highlight the need for RRT expertise to initiate symptom relief. Strategies including specific clinician training and system initiatives are then recommended for RRT care improvement. We conclude by suggesting that as evaluation of their impact on other outcomes continues, performance by RRTs in meeting palliative care needs of patients and families should also be measured and improved.

  1. Design Review Closure Report for the SY-101 Rapid Transfer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    POWELL, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this report, is to document closure of design review open items, resulting from design reviews conducted for the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Transfer System. Results of the various design reviews were documented in the Design Review Report for The SY-101 Rapid Mitigation System, HNF-4519. In that report, twenty-three open items were identified. In this report the 23 items are reviewed and statused

  2. Design Review Closure Report for the SY-101 Rapid Transfer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    POWELL, W.J.

    1999-11-29

    The purpose of this report, is to document closure of design review open items, resulting from design reviews conducted for the SY-101 Respond And Pump In Days (RAPID) Transfer System. Results of the various design reviews were documented in the Design Review Report for The SY-101 Rapid Mitigation System, HNF-4519. In that report, twenty-three open items were identified. In this report the 23 items are reviewed and statused.

  3. Irradiation response in titanium modified austenitic stainless steels prepared by rapid solidification processing. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imeson, D.; Tong, C.H.; Parker, C.A.; Vander Sande, J.B.; Grant, N.J.; Harling, O.K.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1984-01-01

    Titanium carbide precipitation on dislocations during irradiation and recoil-induced particle dissolution are considered. The outline analysis given indicates that complete swelling suppression may occur in favorable conditions due to a counterbalancing of the effective dislocation interstitial bias. The behavior is, however, not stable against a return to normal swelling levels for type 316 steels. A model is presented which may serve as a basis for the interpretation of some aspects of the irradiation response in this system. (orig.)

  4. Prerouted FPGA Cores for Rapid System Construction in a Dynamic Reconfigurable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver TimothyF

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of constructing prerouted FPGA cores, which lays the foundations for a rapid system construction framework for dynamically reconfigurable computing systems, is presented. Two major challenges are considered: how to manage the wires crossing a core's borders; and how to maintain an acceptable level of flexibility for system construction with only a minimum of overhead. In order to maintain FPGA computing performance, it is crucial to thoroughly analyze the issues at the lowest level of device detail in order to ensure that computing circuit encapsulation is as efficient as possible. We present the first methodology that allows a core to scale its interface bandwidth to the maximum available in a routing channel. Cores can be constructed independently from the rest of the system using a framework that is independent of the method used to place and route primitive components within the core. We use an abstract FPGA model and CAD tools that mirror those used in industry. An academic design flow has been modified to include a wire policy and an interface constraints framework that tightly constrains the use of the wires that cross a core's boundaries. Using this tool set we investigate the effect of prerouting on overall system optimality. Abutting cores are instantly connected by colocation of interface wires. Eliminating run-time routing drastically reduces the time taken to construct a system using a set of cores.

  5. Rapid-Response Characterization of Near-Earth Asteroids Using KMTNet-SAAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Nicolas; Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David E.; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; van Gend, Carel; Hora, Joseph L.; Worters, Hannah L.

    2017-10-01

    We present here VRI spectrophotometry of 39 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) observed with the Sutherland, South Africa, node of the Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet). Of the 39 NEAs, 19 were targeted, but because of KMTNet’s large 2 deg × 2 deg field of view, 20 serendipitous NEAs were also captured in the observing fields. Our rapid-response approach meant targeted observations were performed within 44 days (median: 16 days, min: 4 days) of each NEA’s discovery date. Our broadband spectrophotometry is reliable enough to distinguish among four asteroid taxonomies and we were able to confidently categorize 31 of the 39 observed targets as either a S-, C-, X- or D-type asteroid. Our data suggest that the ratio between “stony” S-type NEAs and “not- stony” (C+X+D)-type NEAs, with H magnitudes between 15 and 25, is roughly 1:1. Additionally, we report ~1-hour light curve data for each NEA. Of the 39 targets, we were able to resolve the complete rotation period and amplitude for six and place lower limits for the remaining targets.Based on the success of this pilot study we plan to continue KMTNet observations but also make use of Lesedi, a new 1-meter remotely-operable telescope also situated in Sutherland, to perform similar spectrophotometric observations in the future. As before, we plan to target newly discovered NEAs in order to continue the rapid-response approach. With Lesedi, observations will take place throughout the year and we plan to include smaller NEAs (larger H magnitudes) in our sample. We will also increase the observed duration of each NEA to 2-3 hours so we are more likely to observe a complete rotation period for our observed NEAs.This study was facilitated by observations made at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and this work is partially supported by the South African National Research Foundation (NRF). This work is supported in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under grant

  6. Logarithmic superposition of force response with rapid length changes in relaxed porcine airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijpma, G; Al-Jumaily, A M; Cairns, S P; Sieck, G C

    2010-12-01

    We present a systematic quantitative analysis of power-law force relaxation and investigate logarithmic superposition of force response in relaxed porcine airway smooth muscle (ASM) strips in vitro. The term logarithmic superposition describes linear superposition on a logarithmic scale, which is equivalent to multiplication on a linear scale. Additionally, we examine whether the dynamic response of contracted and relaxed muscles is dominated by cross-bridge cycling or passive dynamics. The study shows the following main findings. For relaxed ASM, the force response to length steps of varying amplitude (0.25-4% of reference length, both lengthening and shortening) are well-fitted with power-law functions over several decades of time (10⁻² to 10³ s), and the force response after consecutive length changes is more accurately fitted assuming logarithmic superposition rather than linear superposition. Furthermore, for sinusoidal length oscillations in contracted and relaxed muscles, increasing the oscillation amplitude induces greater hysteresivity and asymmetry of force-length relationships, whereas increasing the frequency dampens hysteresivity but increases asymmetry. We conclude that logarithmic superposition is an important feature of relaxed ASM, which may facilitate a more accurate prediction of force responses in the continuous dynamic environment of the respiratory system. In addition, the single power-function response to length changes shows that the dynamics of cross-bridge cycling can be ignored in relaxed muscle. The similarity in response between relaxed and contracted states implies that the investigated passive dynamics play an important role in both states and should be taken into account.

  7. System for rapid detection of antibiotic resistance of airborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, M.; Noiseux, I.; Mouslinkina, L.; Vernon, M. L.; Laflamme, C.; Filion, G.; Duchaine, C.; Ho, J.

    2009-05-01

    This project uses function-based detection via a fundamental understanding of the genetic markers of AR to distinguish harmful organisms from innocuous ones. This approach circumvents complex analyses to unravel the taxonomic details of 1399 pathogen species, enormously simplifying detection requirements. Laval Hospital's fast permeabilization strategy enables AR revelation in <1hr. Packaging the AR protocols in liquid-processing cartridges and coupling these to our in-house miniature fiber optic flow cell (FOFC) provides first responders with timely information on-site. INO's FOFC platform consists of a specialty optical fiber through which a hole is transversally bored by laser micromachining. The analyte solution is injected into the hole of the fiber and the particles are detected and counted. The advantage with respect to classic free space FC is that alignment occurs in the fabrication process only and complex excitation and collection optics are replaced by optical fibers. Moreover, we use a sheathless configuration which has the advantage of increase the portability of the system, to reduce excess biohazard material and the need for weekly maintenance. In this paper we present the principle of our FOFC along with a, demonstration of the basic capability of the platform for detection of bacillus cereus spores using permeabilized staining.

  8. Rapid Discrimination Among Putative Mechanistic Models of Biochemical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2016-08-31

    An overarching goal in molecular biology is to gain an understanding of the mechanistic basis underlying biochemical systems. Success is critical if we are to predict effectively the outcome of drug treatments and the development of abnormal phenotypes. However, data from most experimental studies is typically noisy and sparse. This allows multiple potential mechanisms to account for experimental observations, and often devising experiments to test each is not feasible. Here, we introduce a novel strategy that discriminates among putative models based on their repertoire of qualitatively distinct phenotypes, without relying on knowledge of specific values for rate constants and binding constants. As an illustration, we apply this strategy to two synthetic gene circuits exhibiting anomalous behaviors. Our results show that the conventional models, based on their well-characterized components, cannot account for the experimental observations. We examine a total of 40 alternative hypotheses and show that only 5 have the potential to reproduce the experimental data, and one can do so with biologically relevant parameter values.

  9. Step response and frequency response of an air conditioning system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crommelin, R.D.; Jackman, P.J.

    1978-01-01

    A system of induction units of an existing air conditioning system has been analyzed with respect to its dynamic properties. Time constants were calculated and measured by analogue models. Comparison with measurements at the installation itself showed a reasonable agreement. Frequency responses were

  10. Rapid-Response or Repeat-Mode Topography from Aerial Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, E.; Johnson, K. L.; Fitzgerald, F. S.; Morgan, M.; White, J.

    2014-12-01

    This decade has seen a surge of interest in Structure-from-Motion (SfM) as a means of generating high-resolution topography and coregistered texture maps from stereo digital photographs. Using an unstructured set of overlapping photographs captured from multiple viewpoints and minimal GPS ground control, SfM solves simultaneously for scene topography and camera positions, orientations and lens parameters. The use of cheap unmanned aerial vehicles or tethered helium balloons as camera platforms expedites data collection and overcomes many of the cost, time and logistical limitations of LiDAR surveying, making it a potentially valuable tool for rapid response mapping and repeat monitoring applications. We begin this presentation by assessing what data resolutions and precisions are achievable using a simple aerial camera platform and commercial SfM software (we use the popular Agisoft Photoscan package). SfM point clouds generated at two small (~0.1 km2), sparsely-vegetated field sites in California compare favorably with overlapping airborne and terrestrial LiDAR surveys, with closest point distances of a few centimeters between the independent datasets. Next, we go on to explore the method in more challenging conditions, in response to a major landslide in Mesa County, Colorado, on 25th May 2014. Photographs collected from a small UAV were used to generate a high-resolution model of the 4.5 x 1 km landslide several days before an airborne LiDAR survey could be organized and flown. An initial estimate of the mass balance of the landslide could quickly be made by differencing this model against pre-event topography generated using stereo photographs collected in 2009 as part of the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). This case study therefore demonstrates the rich potential offered by this technique, as well as some of the challenges, particularly with respect to the treatment of vegetation.

  11. Organizational Perspectives on Rapid Response Team Structure, Function, and Cost: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patricia L; McSweeney, Jean

    Understanding how an organization determines structure and function of a rapid response team (RRT), as well as cost evaluation and implications, can provide foundational knowledge to guide decisions about RRTs. The objectives were to (1) identify influencing factors in organizational development of RRT structure and function and (2) describe evaluation of RRT costs. Using a qualitative, ethnographic design, nurse executives and experts in 15 moderate-size hospitals were interviewed to explore their decision-making processes in determining RRT structure and function. Face-to-face interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and verified for accurateness. Using content analysis and constant comparison, interview data were analyzed. Demographic data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The sample included 27 participants from 15 hospitals in 5 south-central states. They described a variety of RRT responders and functions, with the majority of hospitals having a critical care charge nurse attending all RRT calls for assistance. Others described a designated RRT nurse with primary RRT duties as responder to all RRT calls. Themes of RRT development from the data included influencers, decision processes, and thoughts about cost. It is important to understand how hospitals determine optimal structure and function to enhance support of quality nursing care. Determining the impact of an RRT on costs and benefits is vital in balancing patient safety and limited resources. Future research should focus on clarifying differences between team structure and function in outcomes as well as the most effective means to estimate costs and benefits.

  12. FIRST RESULTS FROM THE RAPID-RESPONSE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS USING UKIRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mommert, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Petersen, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Borth, D. [Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz (DFKI), D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Jedicke, R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Butler, N. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Reyes-Ruiz, M. [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Astronomía, Ensenada, B.C. 22860, México (Mexico); Pichardo, B. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F. 04510, México (Mexico); Axelrod, T. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Moskovitz, N., E-mail: michael.mommert@nau.edu [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Using the Wide Field Camera for the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT), we measure the near-infrared colors of near-Earth objects (NEOs) in order to put constraints on their taxonomic classifications. The rapid-response character of our observations allows us to observe NEOs when they are close to the Earth and bright. Here we present near-infrared color measurements of 86 NEOs, most of which were observed within a few days of their discovery, allowing us to characterize NEOs with diameters of only a few meters. Using machine-learning methods, we compare our measurements to existing asteroid spectral data and provide probabilistic taxonomic classifications for our targets. Our observations allow us to distinguish between S-complex, C/X-complex, D-type, and V-type asteroids. Our results suggest that the fraction of S-complex asteroids in the whole NEO population is lower than the fraction of ordinary chondrites in the meteorite fall statistics. Future data obtained with UKIRT will be used to investigate the significance of this discrepancy.

  13. Wing Leading Edge RCC Rapid Response Damage Prediction Tool (IMPACT2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robert; Cottter, Paul; Michalopoulos, Constantine

    2013-01-01

    This rapid response computer program predicts Orbiter Wing Leading Edge (WLE) damage caused by ice or foam impact during a Space Shuttle launch (Program "IMPACT2"). The program was developed after the Columbia accident in order to assess quickly WLE damage due to ice, foam, or metal impact (if any) during a Shuttle launch. IMPACT2 simulates an impact event in a few minutes for foam impactors, and in seconds for ice and metal impactors. The damage criterion is derived from results obtained from one sophisticated commercial program, which requires hours to carry out simulations of the same impact events. The program was designed to run much faster than the commercial program with prediction of projectile threshold velocities within 10 to 15% of commercial-program values. The mathematical model involves coupling of Orbiter wing normal modes of vibration to nonlinear or linear springmass models. IMPACT2 solves nonlinear or linear impact problems using classical normal modes of vibration of a target, and nonlinear/ linear time-domain equations for the projectile. Impact loads and stresses developed in the target are computed as functions of time. This model is novel because of its speed of execution. A typical model of foam, or other projectile characterized by material nonlinearities, impacting an RCC panel is executed in minutes instead of hours needed by the commercial programs. Target damage due to impact can be assessed quickly, provided that target vibration modes and allowable stress are known.

  14. Rapid and Quantitative Assessment of Cancer Treatment Response Using In Vivo Bioluminescence Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alnawaz Rehemtulla

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Current assessment of orthotopic tumor models in animals utilizes survival as the primary therapeutic end point. In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI is a sensitive imaging modality that is rapid and accessible, and may comprise an ideal tool for evaluating antineoplastic therapies [1 ]. Using human tumor cell lines constitutively expressing luciferase, the kinetics of tumor growth and response to therapy have been assessed in intraperitoneal [2], subcutaneous, and intravascular [3] cancer models. However, use of this approach for evaluating orthotopic tumor models has not been demonstrated. In this report, the ability of BLI to noninvasively quantitate the growth and therapeuticinduced cell kill of orthotopic rat brain tumors derived from 9L gliosarcoma cells genetically engineered to stably express firefly luciferase (9LLuc was investigated. Intracerebral tumor burden was monitored over time by quantitation of photon emission and tumor volume using a cryogenically cooled CCD camera and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, respectively. There was excellent correlation (r=0.91 between detected photons and tumor volume. A quantitative comparison of tumor cell kill determined from serial MRI volume measurements and BLI photon counts following 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU treatment revealed that both imaging modalities yielded statistically similar cell kill values (P=.951. These results provide direct validation of BLI imaging as a powerful and quantitative tool for the assessment of antineoplastic therapies in living animals.

  15. Genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent thermometer with wide range and rapid response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Nakano

    Full Text Available Temperature is a fundamental physical parameter that plays an important role in biological reactions and events. Although thermometers developed previously have been used to investigate several important phenomena, such as heterogeneous temperature distribution in a single living cell and heat generation in mitochondria, the development of a thermometer with a sensitivity over a wide temperature range and rapid response is still desired to quantify temperature change in not only homeotherms but also poikilotherms from the cellular level to in vivo. To overcome the weaknesses of the conventional thermometers, such as a limitation of applicable species and a low temporal resolution, owing to the narrow temperature range of sensitivity and the thermometry method, respectively, we developed a genetically encoded ratiometric fluorescent temperature indicator, gTEMP, by using two fluorescent proteins with different temperature sensitivities. Our thermometric method enabled a fast tracking of the temperature change with a time resolution of 50 ms. We used this method to observe the spatiotemporal temperature change between the cytoplasm and nucleus in cells, and quantified thermogenesis from the mitochondria matrix in a single living cell after stimulation with carbonyl cyanide 4-(trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, which was an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, exploiting the wide temperature range of sensitivity from 5°C to 50°C of gTEMP, we monitored the temperature in a living medaka embryo for 15 hours and showed the feasibility of in vivo thermometry in various living species.

  16. Short-term thermal response of rapidly solidified Type 304 stainless steel containing helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.

    1988-06-01

    Type 304 stainless steel was heat treated for short times near its melting point in order to determine its microstructural response to thermal cycles typical of the near heat-affected zones of welding processes. The material was rapidly solidified as a powder by centrifugal atomization in a helium environment and consolidated by hot extrusion. Along with the ingot metallurgy material used for canning the powder prior to hot extrusion, it was heat treated using a Gleeble at temperatures of 1200 and 1300 degree C for times ranging from <1 to 1000 s, and the samples were examined for microstructure and the existence of porosity due to entrapped helium. At higher test temperatures and longer treatment times, the material developed extensive porosity, which was stabilized by the presence of helium and which may also have a role in anchoring grain boundaries and inhibiting grain growth. The powder material. At lower test temperatures and shorter treatment times, grain growth in the γ phase appeared to be restricted in the powder material, possible by the presence of helium. An intermediate temperatures and times, a γ-δ duplex microstructure also restricted grain growth again occurred in the δ microstructure. 9 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Rapid maize leaf and immature ear responses to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casati, P.; Morrow, D.; Fernandes, J.; Walbot, V.

    2011-01-01

    Plants have evolved adaptations to environmental factors, including solar radiation. In addition to acting as a developmental and physiological signal, UV-B photons also cause cellular damage. Elevated UV-B radiation has pleiotropic effects on plant development, morphology, and physiology, but the regulation of systemic responses is not well-understood. To gain a better understanding of the initial events in UV-B acclimation, we have analyzed a 10min to 1h time course of transcriptome responses in irradiated and shielded leaves, and immature maize ears to unravel the systemic physiological and developmental responses in exposed and shielded organs. To identify metabolites as possible signaling molecules, we looked for compounds that increased within 5-90 min in both irradiated and shielded leaves, to explain the kinetics of profound transcript changes within 1h. We found that myoinositol is one such candidate metabolite, and it also has support from RNA profiling: after 1h UV-B, transcripts for myoinositol-1-phosphate synthase, are decreased in both irradiated and shielded leaves suggesting down-regulation of biogenesis. We also demonstrate that if 0.1mM myoinositol is applied to leaves of greenhouse maize, some metabolites that are changed by UV-B are also changed similarly by the chemical treatment. (author)

  18. Rapid response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant intramammary testosterone-anastrozole therapy: neoadjuvant hormone therapy in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Rebecca L; Dimitrakakis, Constantine

    2014-06-01

    Experimental and clinical data support the inhibitory effect of testosterone on breast tissue and breast cancer. However, testosterone is aromatized to estradiol, which exerts the opposite effect. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of testosterone, combined with the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole, on a hormone receptor positive, infiltrating ductal carcinoma in the neoadjuvant setting. To determine clinical response, we obtained serial ultrasonic measurements and mammograms before and after therapy. Three combination implants-each containing 60 mg of testosterone and 4 mg of anastrozole-were placed anterior, superior, and inferior to a 2.4-cm tumor in the left breast. Three additional testosterone-anastrozole implants were again placed peritumorally 48 days later. By day 46, there was a sevenfold reduction in tumor volume, as measured on ultrasound. By week 13, we documented a 12-fold reduction in tumor volume, demonstrating a rapid logarithmic response to intramammary testosterone-anastrozole implant therapy, equating to a daily response rate of 2.78% and a tumor half-life of 23 days. Therapeutic systemic levels of testosterone were achieved without elevation of estradiol, further demonstrating the efficacy of anastrozole combined with testosterone. This novel therapy, delivered in the neoadjuvant setting, has the potential to identify early responders and to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy in vivo. This may prove to be a new approach to both local and systemic therapies for breast cancer in subgroups of patients. In addition, it can be used to reduce tumor volume, allowing for less surgical intervention and better cosmetic oncoplastic results.

  19. Rapid evolution of a marsh tidal creek network in response to sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Z. J.; Fitzgerald, D. M.; Mahadevan, A.; Wilson, C. A.; Pennings, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    In the Santee River Delta (SRD), South Carolina, tidal creeks are extending rapidly onto the marsh platform. A time-series of aerial photographs establishes that these channels were initiated in the 1950's and are headward eroding at a rate of 1.9 m /yr. Short-term trends in sea level show an average relative sea level rise (RSLR) of 4.6 mm/yr over a 20-year tide gauge record from nearby Winyah Bay and Charleston Harbor (1975-1995). Longer-term (85-year) records in Charleston suggest a rate of 3.2 mm/yr. RSLR in the SRD is likely even higher as sediment cores reveal that the marsh is predominantly composed of fine-grained sediment, making it highly susceptible to compaction and subsidence. Furthermore, loss in elevation will have been exacerbated by the decrease in sediment supply due to the damming of the Santee River in 1939. The rapid rate of headward erosion indicates that the marsh platform is in disequilibrium; unable to keep pace with RSLR through accretionary processes and responding to an increased volume and frequency of inundation through the extension of the drainage network. The observed tidal creeks show no sinuosity and a distinctive morphology associated with their young age and biological mediation during their evolution. Feedbacks between tidal flow, vegetation and infauna play a strong role in the morphological development of the creeks. The creek heads are characterized by a region denuded of vegetation, the edges of which are densely populated and burrowed by Uca Pugnax (fiddler crab). Crab burrowing destabilizes sediment, destroys rooting and impacts drainage. Measured infiltration rates are three orders of magnitude higher in the burrowed regions than in a control area (1000 ml/min and 0.6 ml/min respectively). Infiltration of oxygenated water enhances decomposition of organic matter and root biomass is reduced within the creek head (marsh=4.3 kg/m3, head=0.6 kg/m3). These processes lead to the removal and collapse of the soils, producing

  20. Luciferase-Zinc-Finger System for the Rapid Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chu; Xu, Qing; Ge, Yue; Jiang, Ling; Huang, He

    2017-08-09

    Rapid and reliable detection of pathogenic bacteria is crucial for food safety control. Here, we present a novel luciferase-zinc finger system for the detection of pathogens that offers rapid and specific profiling. The system, which uses a zinc-finger protein domain to probe zinc finger recognition sites, was designed to bind the amplified conserved regions of 16S rDNA, and the obtained products were detected using a modified luciferase. The luciferase-zinc finger system not only maintained luciferase activity but also allowed the specific detection of different bacterial species, with a sensitivity as low as 10 copies and a linear range from 10 to 10 4 copies per microliter of the specific PCR product. Moreover, the system is robust and rapid, enabling the simultaneous detection of 6 species of bacteria in artificially contaminated samples with excellent accuracy. Thus, we envision that our luciferase-zinc finger system will have far-reaching applications.

  1. Real-time risk assessment in seismic early warning and rapid response: a feasibility study in Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picozzi, M.; Bindi, D.; Pittore, M.; Kieling, K.; Parolai, S.

    2013-04-01

    Earthquake early warning systems (EEWS) are considered to be an effective, pragmatic, and viable tool for seismic risk reduction in cities. While standard EEWS approaches focus on the real-time estimation of an earthquake's location and magnitude, innovative developments in EEWS include the capacity for the rapid assessment of damage. Clearly, for all public authorities that are engaged in coordinating emergency activities during and soon after earthquakes, real-time information about the potential damage distribution within a city is invaluable. In this work, we present a first attempt to design an early warning and rapid response procedure for real-time risk assessment. In particular, the procedure uses typical real-time information (i.e., P-wave arrival times and early waveforms) derived from a regional seismic network for locating and evaluating the size of an earthquake, information which in turn is exploited for extracting a risk map representing the potential distribution of damage from a dataset of predicted scenarios compiled for the target city. A feasibility study of the procedure is presented for the city of Bishkek, the capital of Kyrgyzstan, which is surrounded by the Kyrgyz seismic network by mimicking the ground motion associated with two historical events that occurred close to Bishkek, namely the 1911 Kemin ( M = 8.2; ±0.2) and the 1885 Belovodsk ( M = 6.9; ±0.5) earthquakes. Various methodologies from previous studies were considered when planning the implementation of the early warning and rapid response procedure for real-time risk assessment: the Satriano et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am 98(3):1482-1494, 2008) approach to real-time earthquake location; the Caprio et al. (Geophys Res Lett 38:L02301, 2011) approach for estimating moment magnitude in real time; the EXSIM method for ground motion simulation (Motazedian and Atkinson, Bull Seismol Soc Am 95:995-1010, 2005); the Sokolov (Earthquake Spectra 161: 679-694, 2002) approach for estimating

  2. Criteria for demand response systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, I.; Kling, W.L.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Berg, van den J.

    2013-01-01

    The topic of demand side management is currently becoming more important than ever, in parallel with the further deregulation of the electricity sector, and the increasing integration of renewable energy sources. A historical review of automation integration in power system control assists in

  3. Subscriber Response System. Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callais, Richard T.

    Results of preliminary tests made prior and subsequent to the installation of a two-way interactive communication system which involves a computer complex termed the Local Processing Center and subscriber terminals located in the home or business location are reported. This first phase of the overall test plan includes tests made at Theta-Com…

  4. FIRESTORM: a collaborative network suite application for rapid sensor data processing and precise decisive responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniyantethu, Shaji

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses the many features and composed technologies in Firestorm™ - a Distributed Collaborative Fires and Effects software. Modern response management systems capitalize on the capabilities of a plethora of sensors and its output for situational awareness. Firestorm utilizes a unique networked lethality approach by integrating unmanned air and ground vehicles to provide target handoff and sharing of data between humans and sensors. The system employs Bayesian networks for track management of sensor data, and distributed auction algorithms for allocating targets and delivering the right effect without information overload to the Warfighter. Firestorm Networked Effects Component provides joint weapon-target pairing, attack guidance, target selection standards, and other fires and effects components. Moreover, the open and modular architecture allows for easy integration with new data sources. Versatility and adaptability of the application enable it to devise and dispense a suitable response to a wide variety of scenarios. Recently, this application was used for detecting and countering a vehicle intruder with the help of radio frequency spotter sensor, command driven cameras, remote weapon system, portable vehicle arresting barrier, and an unmanned aerial vehicle - which confirmed the presence of the intruder, as well as provided lethal/non-lethal response and battle damage assessment. The completed demonstrations have proved Firestorm's™ validity and feasibility to predict, detect, neutralize, and protect key assets and/or area against a variety of possible threats. The sensors and responding assets can be deployed with numerous configurations to cover the various terrain and environmental conditions, and can be integrated to a number of platforms.

  5. The influence of wavelength-dependent radiation in simulation of lamp-heated rapid thermal processing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, A. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Computational Mechanics Dept.

    1994-08-01

    Understanding the thermal response of lamp-heated rapid thermal processing (RTP) systems requires understanding relatively complex radiation exchange among opaque and partially transmitting surfaces and materials. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of wavelength-dependent radiative properties. The examples used for the analysis consider axisymmetric systems of the kind that were developed by Texas Instruments (TI) for the Microelectronics Manufacturing Science and Technology (MMST) Program and illustrate a number of wavelength-dependent (spectral) effects. The models execute quickly on workstation class computing flatforms, and thus permit rapid comparison of alternative reactor designs and physical models. The fast execution may also permit the incorporation of these models into real-time model-based process control algorithms.

  6. Benefits of Demand Side Response in Providing Frequency Response Service in the Future GB Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei eTeng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The demand for ancillary service is expected to increase significantly in the future GB electricity system due to high penetration of wind. In particular, the need for frequency response, required to deal with sudden frequency drops following a loss of generator, will increase because of the limited inertia capability of wind plants. This paper quantifies the requirements for primary frequency response and analyses the benefits of frequency response provision from DSR. The results show dramatic changes in frequency response requirements driven by high penetration of wind. Case studies carried out by using an advanced stochastic generation scheduling model suggest that the provision of frequency response from DSR could greatly reduce the system operation cost, wind curtailment and carbon emissions in the future GB system characterised by high penetration of wind. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the benefit of DSR shows significant diurnal and seasonal variation, whereas an even more rapid (instant delivery of frequency response from DSR could provide significant additional value. Our studies also indicate that the competing technologies to DSR, namely battery storage and more flexible generation could potentially reduce its value by up to 35%, still leaving significant room to deploy DSR as frequency response provider.

  7. Fast-responsive hydrogel as an injectable pump for rapid on-demand fluidic flow control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rongcong; Dinh, Ngoc-Duy; Chen, Chia-Hung

    2017-05-01

    Chemically synthesized functional hydrogels have been recognized as optimized soft pumps for on-demand fluidic regulation in micro-systems. However, the challenges regarding the slow responses of hydrogels have very much limited their application in effective fluidic flow control. In this study, a heterobifunctional crosslinker (4-hydroxybutyl acrylate)-enabled two-step hydrothermal phase separation process for preparing a highly porous hydrogel with fast response dynamics was investigated for the fabrication of novel microfluidic functional units, such as injectable valves and pumps. The cylinder-shaped hydrogel, with a diameter of 9 cm and a height of 2.5 cm at 25 °C, achieved a size reduction of approximately 70% in less than 30 s after the hydrogels were heated at 40 °C. By incorporating polypyrrole nanoparticles as photothermal transducers, a photo-responsive composite hydrogel was approached and exhibited a remotely triggerable fluidic regulation and pumping ability to generate significant flows, showing on-demand water-in-oil droplet generation by laser switching, whereby the droplet size could be tuned by adjusting the laser intensity and irradiation period with programmable manipulation.

  8. Transmitted/Founder Viruses Rapidly Escape from CD8+ T Cell Responses in Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Rowena A; Leung, Preston; Gaudieri, Silvana; Deshpande, Pooja; Cameron, Barbara; Walker, Melanie; Chopra, Abha; Lloyd, Andrew R; Luciani, Fabio

    2015-05-01

    The interaction between hepatitis C virus (HCV) and cellular immune responses during very early infection is critical for disease outcome. To date, the impact of antigen-specific cellular immune responses on the evolution of the viral population establishing infection and on potential escape has not been studied. Understanding these early host-virus dynamics is important for the development of a preventative vaccine. Three subjects who were followed longitudinally from the detection of viremia preseroconversion until disease outcome were analyzed. The evolution of transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses was undertaken using deep sequencing. CD8(+) T cell responses were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assay using HLA class I-restricted T/F epitopes. T/F viruses were rapidly extinguished in all subjects associated with either viral clearance (n = 1) or replacement with viral variants leading to establishment of chronic infection (n = 2). CD8(+) T cell responses against 11 T/F epitopes were detectable by 33 to 44 days postinfection, and 5 of these epitopes had not previously been reported. These responses declined rapidly in those who became chronically infected and were maintained in the subject who cleared infection. Higher-magnitude CD8(+) T cell responses were associated with rapid development of immune escape variants at a rate of up to 0.1 per day. Rapid escape from CD8(+) T cell responses has been quantified for the first time in the early phase of primary HCV infection. These rapid escape dynamics were associated with higher-magnitude CD8(+) T cell responses. These findings raise questions regarding optimal selection of immunogens for HCV vaccine development and suggest that detailed analysis of individual epitopes may be required. A major limitation in our detailed understanding of the role of immune response in HCV clearance has been the lack of data on very early primary infection when the transmitted viral variants successfully establish

  9. Successfulness of bus rapid transit systems in Asia. Ex-post evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogdenko, Nadja

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) can be defined as “a bus-based mass transit system that delivers fast, comfortable, and cost-effective urban mobility”. It offers the opportunity to create a high-quality mass transit system at affordable costs, which is p

  10. Area law for fixed points of rapidly mixing dissipative quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L. [Quantum Architectures and Computation Group, Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington 98052 (United States); Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Cubitt, Toby S. [Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Lucia, Angelo, E-mail: anlucia@ucm.es [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Michalakis, Spyridon [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, Caltech, California 91125 (United States); Perez-Garcia, David [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); IMI, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); ICMAT, C/Nicolás Cabrera, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    We prove an area law with a logarithmic correction for the mutual information for fixed points of local dissipative quantum system satisfying a rapid mixing condition, under either of the following assumptions: the fixed point is pure or the system is frustration free.

  11. Information Systems Security: Whose Responsibility? | Senzige ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... compounded by the increasingly international nature of information systems, this responsibility still rests with managers only. This paper looks at security concerns related to information systems, identifies the threats and suggests how the security of information systems should be handled. African Journal of Finance and ...

  12. Assessment of Flood Disaster Impacts in Cambodia: Implications for Rapid Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamed, Aakash; Bolten, John; Doyle, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Disaster monitoring systems can provide near real time estimates of population and infrastructure affected by sudden onset natural hazards. This information is useful to decision makers allocating lifesaving resources following disaster events. Floods are the world's most common and devastating disasters (UN, 2004; Doocy et al., 2013), and are particularly frequent and severe in the developing countries of Southeast Asia (Long and Trong, 2001; Jonkman, 2005; Kahn, 2005; Stromberg, 2007; Kirsch et al., 2012). Climate change, a strong regional monsoon, and widespread hydropower construction contribute to a complex and unpredictable regional hydrodynamic regime. As such, there is a critical need for novel techniques to assess flood impacts to population and infrastructure with haste during and following flood events in order to enable governments and agencies to optimize response efforts following disasters. Here, we build on methods to determine regional flood extent in near real time and develop systems that automatically quantify the socioeconomic impacts of flooding in Cambodia. Software developed on cloud based, distributed processing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is used to demonstrate spatial and numerical estimates of population, households, roadways, schools, hospitals, airports, agriculture and fish catch affected by severe monsoon flooding occurring in the Cambodian portion of Lower Mekong River Basin in 2011. Results show modest agreement with government and agency estimates. Maps and statistics generated from the system are intended to complement on the ground efforts and bridge information gaps to decision makers. The system is open source, flexible, and can be applied to other disasters (e.g. earthquakes, droughts, landslides) in various geographic regions.

  13. Vital Signs Predict Rapid-Response Team Activation within Twelve Hours of Emergency Department Admission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Walston

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rapid-response teams (RRTs are interdisciplinary groups created to rapidly assess and treat patients with unexpected clinical deterioration marked by decline in vital signs. Traditionally emergency department (ED disposition is partially based on the patients’ vital signs (VS at the time of hospital admission. We aimed to identify which patients will have RRT activation within 12 hours of admission based on their ED VS, and if their outcomes differed. Methods: We conducted a case-control study of patients presenting from January 2009 to December 2012 to a tertiary ED who subsequently had RRT activations within 12 hours of admission (early RRT activations. The medical records of patients 18 years and older admitted to a non-intensive care unit (ICU setting were reviewed to obtain VS at the time of ED arrival and departure, age, gender and diagnoses. Controls were matched 1:1 on age, gender, and diagnosis. We evaluated VS using cut points (lowest 10%, middle 80% and highest 10% based on the distribution of VS for all patients. Our study adheres to the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines for reporting observational studies. Results: A total of 948 patients were included (474 cases and 474 controls. Patients who had RRT activations were more likely to be tachycardic (odds ratio [OR] 2.02, 95% CI [1.25-3.27], tachypneic (OR 2.92, 95% CI [1.73-4.92], and had lower oxygen saturations (OR 2.25, 95% CI [1.42-3.56] upon arrival to the ED. Patients who had RRT activations were more likely to be tachycardic at the time of disposition from the ED (OR 2.76, 95% CI [1.65-4.60], more likely to have extremes of systolic blood pressure (BP (OR 1.72, 95% CI [1.08-2.72] for low BP and OR 1.82, 95% CI [1.19-2.80] for high BP, higher respiratory rate (OR 4.15, 95% CI [2.44-7.07] and lower oxygen saturation (OR 2.29, 95% CI [1.43-3.67]. Early RRT activation was associated with increased healthcare

  14. Vital Signs Predict Rapid-Response Team Activation Within Twelve Hours of Emergency Department Admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, James M; Cabrera, Daniel; Bellew, Shawna D; Olive, Marc N; Lohse, Christine M; Bellolio, M Fernanda

    2016-05-01

    Rapid-response teams (RRTs) are interdisciplinary groups created to rapidly assess and treat patients with unexpected clinical deterioration marked by decline in vital signs. Traditionally emergency department (ED) disposition is partially based on the patients' vital signs (VS) at the time of hospital admission. We aimed to identify which patients will have RRT activation within 12 hours of admission based on their ED VS, and if their outcomes differed. We conducted a case-control study of patients presenting from January 2009 to December 2012 to a tertiary ED who subsequently had RRT activations within 12 hours of admission (early RRT activations). The medical records of patients 18 years and older admitted to a non-intensive care unit (ICU) setting were reviewed to obtain VS at the time of ED arrival and departure, age, gender and diagnoses. Controls were matched 1:1 on age, gender, and diagnosis. We evaluated VS using cut points (lowest 10%, middle 80% and highest 10%) based on the distribution of VS for all patients. Our study adheres to the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) guidelines for reporting observational studies. A total of 948 patients were included (474 cases and 474 controls). Patients who had RRT activations were more likely to be tachycardic (odds ratio [OR] 2.02, 95% CI [1.25-3.27]), tachypneic (OR 2.92, 95% CI [1.73-4.92]), and had lower oxygen saturations (OR 2.25, 95% CI [1.42-3.56]) upon arrival to the ED. Patients who had RRT activations were more likely to be tachycardic at the time of disposition from the ED (OR 2.76, 95% CI [1.65-4.60]), more likely to have extremes of systolic blood pressure (BP) (OR 1.72, 95% CI [1.08-2.72] for low BP and OR 1.82, 95% CI [1.19-2.80] for high BP), higher respiratory rate (OR 4.15, 95% CI [2.44-7.07]) and lower oxygen saturation (OR 2.29, 95% CI [1.43-3.67]). Early RRT activation was associated with increased healthcare utilization and worse outcomes including

  15. Social Responsibility as a Management Control System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barger, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    In this report, the authors examine how businesses with social responsibility as part of their core strategy use related management control systems within the business strategy control model set forth...

  16. Social Responsibility as a Management Control System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barger, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    ...) to balance business strategy. The authors examine how management control systems for social responsibility apply to each control lever both in theory and through the application of case examples...

  17. Low-Cost, Rapidly Responsive, Controllable, and Reversible Photochromic Hydrogel for Display and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongqi; Guan, Lin; Gao, Guanghui

    2018-04-25

    Traditional optoelectronic devices without stretchable performance could be limited for substrates with irregular shape. Therefore, it is urgent to explore a new generation of flexible, stretchable, and low-cost intelligent vehicles as visual display and storage devices, such as hydrogels. In the investigation, a novel photochromic hydrogel was developed by introducing the negatively charged ammonium molybdate as a photochromic unit into polyacrylamide via ionic and covalent cross-linking. The hydrogel exhibited excellent properties of low cost, easy preparation, stretchable deformation, fatigue resistance, high transparency, and second-order response to external signals. Moreover, the photochromic and fading process of hydrogels could be precisely controlled and repeated under the irradiation of UV light and exposure of oxygen at different time and temperature. The photochromic hydrogel could be considered applied for artificial intelligence system, wearable healthcare device, and flexible memory device. Therefore, the strategy for designing a soft photochromic material would open a new direction to manufacture flexible and stretchable devices.

  18. Perspectives of Patients With Cancer on the Ethics of Rapid-Learning Health Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagsi, Reshma; Griffith, Kent A; Sabolch, Aaron; Jones, Rochelle; Spence, Rebecca; De Vries, Raymond; Grande, David; Bradbury, Angela R

    2017-07-10

    Purpose To inform the evolving implementation of CancerLinQ and other rapid-learning systems for oncology care, we sought to evaluate perspectives of patients with cancer regarding ethical issues. Methods Using the GfK Group online research panel, representative of the US population, we surveyed 875 patients with cancer; 621 (71%) responded. We evaluated perceptions of appropriateness (scored from 1 to 10; 10, very appropriate) using scenarios and compared responses by age, race, and education. We constructed a scaled measure of comfort with secondary use of deidentified medical information and evaluated its correlates in a multivariable model. Results Of the sample, 9% were black and 9% Hispanic; 38% had completed high school or less, and 59% were age ≥ 65 years. Perceptions of appropriateness were highest when consent was obtained and university researchers used data to publish a research study (weighted mean appropriateness, 8.47) and lowest when consent was not obtained and a pharmaceutical company used data for marketing (weighted mean appropriateness, 2.7). Most respondents (72%) thought secondary use of data for research was very important, although those with lower education were less likely to endorse this (62% v 78%; P < .001). Overall, 35% believed it was necessary to obtain consent each time such research was to be performed; this proportion was higher among blacks/Hispanics than others (48% v 33%; P = .02). Comfort with the use of deidentified information from medical records varied by scenario and overall was associated with distrust in the health care system. Conclusion Perceptions of patients with cancer regarding secondary data use depend on the user and the specific use of the data, while also frequently differing by patient sociodemographic factors. Such information is critical to inform ongoing efforts to implement oncology learning systems.

  19. Rapid Object Detection Systems, Utilising Deep Learning and Unmanned Aerial Systems (uas) for Civil Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, D.; Boehm, J.

    2018-05-01

    With deep learning approaches now out-performing traditional image processing techniques for image understanding, this paper accesses the potential of rapid generation of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for applied engineering purposes. Three CNNs are trained on 275 UAS-derived and freely available online images for object detection of 3m2 segments of railway track. These includes two models based on the Faster RCNN object detection algorithm (Resnet and Incpetion-Resnet) as well as the novel onestage Focal Loss network architecture (Retinanet). Model performance was assessed with respect to three accuracy metrics. The first two consisted of Intersection over Union (IoU) with thresholds 0.5 and 0.1. The last assesses accuracy based on the proportion of track covered by object detection proposals against total track length. In under six hours of training (and two hours of manual labelling) the models detected 91.3 %, 83.1 % and 75.6 % of track in the 500 test images acquired from the UAS survey Retinanet, Resnet and Inception-Resnet respectively. We then discuss the potential for such applications of such systems within the engineering field for a range of scenarios.

  20. Applications and control of air conditioning systems using rapid cycling to modulate capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poort, M.J.; Bullard, C.W. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center, University of Illinois, 1206 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Rapid cycling the compressor of an air conditioning or refrigeration system can be used to modulate capacity, thus offering an alternative to a variable speed compressor. This paper explores design tradeoffs to optimize rapid cycling performance based on experimental results using two different evaporators and changing other components of an air conditioning system. Rapid cycling has inherent compressor lift penalties associated with larger mass flow rates, which need to be minimized. Preventing dryout (superheating) in the evaporator during the off cycle, a major penalty as cycles are lengthened, is also important. Evaporator dryout is minimized by increasing the refrigerant side area and reducing off cycle drainage. Combining a flash gas bypass with a suction line heat exchanger was found to maximize performance during the off cycle while allowing increased cycle lengths without incurring major penalties. (author)

  1. Design of rapid prototype of UAV line-of-sight stabilized control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gang; Zhao, Liting; Li, Yinlong; Yu, Fei; Lin, Zhe

    2018-01-01

    The line-of-sight (LOS) stable platform is the most important technology of UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle), which can reduce the effect to imaging quality from vibration and maneuvering of the aircraft. According to the requirement of LOS stability system (inertial and optical-mechanical combined method) and UAV's structure, a rapid prototype is designed using based on industrial computer using Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) and Windows RTX to exchange information. The paper shows the control structure, and circuit system including the inertial stability control circuit with gyro and voice coil motor driven circuit, the optical-mechanical stability control circuit with fast-steering-mirror (FSM) driven circuit and image-deviation-obtained system, outer frame rotary follower, and information-exchange system on PC. Test results show the stability accuracy reaches 5μrad, and prove the effectiveness of the combined line-of-sight stabilization control system, and the real-time rapid prototype runs stable.

  2. Linear response theory for quantum open systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, J. H.; Yan, YiJing

    2011-01-01

    Basing on the theory of Feynman's influence functional and its hierarchical equations of motion, we develop a linear response theory for quantum open systems. Our theory provides an effective way to calculate dynamical observables of a quantum open system at its steady-state, which can be applied to various fields of non-equilibrium condensed matter physics.

  3. Social responsibility as a management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Arimany-Serrat

    2018-02-01

    Originality/value: The study identifies a business management system that continuously organises and improves the performances of a company in the area of Corporate Social Responsibility, through audited certification that enhances the competitivity of companies that hold the international standard. The study also demonstrates the need for a management system to integrate into business models.

  4. Using Rapid Improvement Events for Disaster After-Action Reviews: Experience in a Hospital Information Technology Outage and Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Charles M; McStay, Christopher; Oeth, Justin; Koehler, April; Bookman, Kelly

    2018-02-01

    The use of after-action reviews (AARs) following major emergency events, such as a disaster, is common and mandated for hospitals and similar organizations. There is a recurrent challenge of identified problems not being resolved and repeated in subsequent events. A process improvement technique called a rapid improvement event (RIE) was used to conduct an AAR following a complete information technology (IT) outage at a large urban hospital. Using RIE methodology to conduct the AAR allowed for the rapid development and implementation of major process improvements to prepare for future IT downtime events. Thus, process improvement methodology, particularly the RIE, is suited for conducting AARs following disasters and holds promise for improving outcomes in emergency management. Little CM , McStay C , Oeth J , Koehler A , Bookman K . Using rapid improvement events for disaster after-action reviews: experience in a hospital information technology outage and response. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):98-100.

  5. [Introduction and some problems of the rapid time series laboratory reporting system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanao, M; Yamashita, K; Kuwajima, M

    1999-09-01

    We introduced an on-line system of biochemical, hematological, serological, urinary, bacteriological, and emergency examinations and associated office work using a client server system NEC PC-LACS based on a system consisting of concentration of outpatient blood collection, concentration of outpatient reception, and outpatient examination by reservation. Using this on-line system, results of 71 items in chemical serological, hematological, and urinary examinations are rapidly reported within 1 hour. Since the ordering system at our hospital has not been completed yet, we constructed a rapid time series reporting system in which time series data obtained on 5 serial occasions are printed on 2 sheets of A4 paper at the time of the final report. In each consultation room of the medical outpatient clinic, at the neuromedical outpatient clinic, and at the kidney center where examinations are frequently performed, terminal equipment and a printer for inquiry were established for real-time output of time series reports. Results are reported by FAX to the other outpatient clinics and wards, and subsequently, time series reports are output at the clinical laboratory department. This system allowed rapid examination, especially preconsultation examination. This system was also useful for reducing office work and effectively utilize examination data.

  6. Refinement for Transition Systems with Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Carbone

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the response pattern for property specifications and applications within flexible workflow management systems, we report upon an initial study of modal and mixed transition systems in which the must transitions are interpreted as must eventually, and in which implementations can contain may behaviors that are resolved at run-time. We propose Transition Systems with Responses (TSRs as a suitable model for this study. We prove that TSRs correspond to a restricted class of mixed transition systems, which we refer to as the action-deterministic mixed transition systems. We show that TSRs allow for a natural definition of deadlocked and accepting states. We then transfer the standard definition of refinement for mixed transition systems to TSRs and prove that refinement does not preserve deadlock freedom. This leads to the proposal of safe refinements, which are those that preserve deadlock freedom. We exemplify the use of TSRs and (safe refinements on a small medication workflow.

  7. Modelling structural systems for transient response analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melosh, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    This paper introduces and reports success of a direct means of determining the time periods in which a structural system behaves as a linear system. Numerical results are based on post fracture transient analyses of simplified nuclear piping systems. Knowledge of the linear response ranges will lead to improved analysis-test correlation and more efficient analyses. It permits direct use of data from physical tests in analysis and simplication of the analytical model and interpretation of its behavior. The paper presents a procedure for deducing linearity based on transient responses. Given the forcing functions and responses of discrete points of the system at various times, the process produces evidence of linearity and quantifies an adequate set of equations of motion. Results of use of the process with linear and nonlinear analyses of piping systems with damping illustrate its success. Results cover the application to data from mathematical system responses. The process is successfull with mathematical models. In loading ranges in which all modes are excited, eight digit accuracy of predictions are obtained from the equations of motion deduced. Small changes (less than 0.01%) in the norm of the transfer matrices are produced by manipulation errors for linear systems yielding evidence that nonlinearity is easily distinguished. Significant changes (greater than five %) are coincident with relatively large norms of the equilibrium correction vector in nonlinear analyses. The paper shows that deducing linearity and, when admissible, quantifying linear equations of motion from transient response data for piping systems can be achieved with accuracy comparable to that of response data

  8. A predator-2 prey fast-slow dynamical system for rapid predator evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltz, Sofia Helena; Veerman, Frits; Maini, Philip K.

    2017-01-01

    We consider adaptive change of diet of a predator population that switches its feeding between two prey populations. We develop a novel 1 fast-3 slow dynamical system to describe the dynamics of the three populations amidst continuous but rapid evolution of the predator's diet choice. The two ext...

  9. A parylene-based dual channel microelectrophoresis system for rapid mutation detection via heteroduplex analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukas, S.; Erson, Ayse Elif; Sert, Cuneyt; Kulah, Haluk

    2008-01-01

    A new dual channel micro-electrophoresis system for rapid mutation detection based on heteroduplex analysis was designed and implemented. Mutation detection was successfully achieved in a total separation length of 250 μm in less than 3 min for a 590 bp DNA sample harboring a 3 bp mutation causing

  10. LOFT system structural response during subcooled blowdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinell, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility is a highly instrumented, pressurized water reactor test system designed to be representative of large pressurized water reactors (LPWRs) for the simulation of loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Detailed structural analysis and appropriate instrumentation (accelerometers and strain gages) on the LOFT system provided information for evaluation of the structural response of the LOFT facility for loss-of-coolant experiment (LOCE) induced loads. In general, the response of the system during subcooled blowdown was small with typical structural accelerations below 2.0 G's and dynamic strains less than 150 x 10 - 6 m/m. The accelerations measured at the steam generator and simulated steam generator flange exceeded LOCE design values; however, integration of the accelerometer data at these locations yielded displacements which were less than one half of the design values associated with a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE), which assures structural integrity for LOCE loads. The existing measurement system was adequate for evaluation of the LOFT system response during the LOCEs. The conditions affecting blowdown loads during nuclear LOCEs will be nearly the same as those experienced during the nonnuclear LOCEs, and the characteristics of the structural response data in both types of experiments are expected to be the same. The LOFT system is concluded to be adequately designed and further analysis of the LOFT system with structural codes is not required for future LOCE experiments

  11. SCHISTOSOMIASIS: GEOSPATIAL SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE SYSTEMS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Geographic information system (GIS and remote sensing (RS from Earth-observing satellites offer opportunities for rapid assessment of areas endemic for vector-borne diseases including estimates of populations at risk and guidance to intervention strategies. This presentation deals with GIS and RS applications for the control of schistosomiasis in China and the Philippines. It includes large-scale risk mapping including identification of suitable habitats for Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Predictions of infection risk are discussed with reference to ecological transformations and the potential impact of climate change and the potential for long-term temperature increases in the North as well as the impact on rivers, lakes and water resource developments. Potential integration of geospatial mapping and modeling in schistosomiasis surveillance and response systems in Asia within Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS guidelines in the health societal benefit area is discussed.

  12. Regulation of extracellular matrix vesicles via rapid responses to steroid hormones during endochondral bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmussen, Niels; Lin, Zhao; McClure, Michael J; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

    2017-12-09

    Endochondral bone formation is a precise and highly ordered process whose exact regulatory framework is still being elucidated. Multiple regulatory pathways are known to be involved. In some cases, regulation impacts gene expression, resulting in changes in chondrocyte phenotypic expression and extracellular matrix synthesis. Rapid regulatory mechanisms are also involved, resulting in release of enzymes, factors and micro RNAs stored in extracellular matrisomes called matrix vesicles. Vitamin D metabolites modulate endochondral development via both genomic and rapid membrane-associated signaling pathways. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 ] acts through the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and a membrane associated receptor, protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3). 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH) 2 D 3 ] affects primarily chondrocytes in the resting zone (RC) of the growth plate, whereas 1α,25(OH) 2 D 3 affects cells in the prehypertrophic and upper hypertrophic cell zones (GC). This includes genomically directing the cells to produce matrix vesicles with zone specific characteristics. In addition, vitamin D metabolites produced by the cells interact directly with the matrix vesicle membrane via rapid signal transduction pathways, modulating their activity in the matrix. The matrix vesicle payload is able to rapidly impact the extracellular matrix via matrix processing enzymes as well as providing a feedback mechanism to the cells themselves via the contained micro RNAs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Measurement of amplitude fluctuations in a rapid response photomultiplier; Mesure des fluctuations d'amplitude d'un photo multiplicateur a reponse rapide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimbault, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    In order to measure amplitude fluctuations in a rapid response photomultiplier, two independent random variables are introduced which determine the shape of the anode pulse. The energy of each pulse, which depends directly on the gain and the variance, is the first variable; amplitude fluctuations, functions of the first variable, depend as well on the pulse width which in turn constitutes the second variable. The results obtained on the variations of the maximum impulse, using a steep-edged pulse broadening circuit, and those obtained on the statistical variations of the gain, are compared to show that the variance relative to the maximum amplitude of the signal is greater than that of the gain. Within the limits of these fluctuations are shown the contribution of the secondary emission coefficient of the first dynode, and that of the mean secondary emission coefficient of the multiplier. (author) [French] Pour etudier les fluctuations d'amplitude d'un photomultiplicateur a reponse rapide, on introduit deux variables aleatoires independantes qui determinent la forme de l'impulsion anodique. L'energie de chaque impulsion, directement fonction du gain et de sa variance, est la premiere variable; les fluctuations d'amplitude, fonctions de la premiere variable, dependent egalement de la largeur de l'impulsion qui, elle, constitue la deuxieme variable. Les resultats obtenus sur les variations de l'amplitude maximale, a l'aide d'un circuit elargisseur d'impulsions a front raide, et les resultats des variations statistiques du gain sont compares pour mettre en evidence le fait que la variance relative a l'amplitude maximale du signal est plus grande que celle du gain. Dans la mesure de ces fluctuations, sont mises en evidence la contribution du coefficient d'emission secondaire de la premiere dynode et celle du coefficient d'emission secondaire moyen du multiplicateur. (auteur)

  14. 20 CFR 665.300 - What are rapid response activities and who is responsible for providing them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... responsible for providing them? 665.300 Section 665.300 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING... natural or other disaster resulting in a mass job dislocation. (b) The State is responsible for providing.... The State must establish methods by which to provide additional assistance to local areas that...

  15. Modular telerobot control system for accident response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Richard J. M.; Shirey, David L.

    1999-08-01

    The Accident Response Mobile Manipulator System (ARMMS) is a teleoperated emergency response vehicle that deploys two hydraulic manipulators, five cameras, and an array of sensors to the scene of an incident. It is operated from a remote base station that can be situated up to four kilometers away from the site. Recently, a modular telerobot control architecture called SMART was applied to ARMMS to improve the precision, safety, and operability of the manipulators on board. Using SMART, a prototype manipulator control system was developed in a couple of days, and an integrated working system was demonstrated within a couple of months. New capabilities such as camera-frame teleoperation, autonomous tool changeout and dual manipulator control have been incorporated. The final system incorporates twenty-two separate modules and implements seven different behavior modes. This paper describes the integration of SMART into the ARMMS system.

  16. Advances in developing rapid, reliable and portable detection systems for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thungon, Phurpa Dema; Kakoti, Ankana; Ngashangva, Lightson; Goswami, Pranab

    2017-11-15

    Development of portable, reliable, sensitive, simple, and inexpensive detection system for alcohol has been an instinctive demand not only in traditional brewing, pharmaceutical, food and clinical industries but also in rapidly growing alcohol based fuel industries. Highly sensitive, selective, and reliable alcohol detections are currently amenable typically through the sophisticated instrument based analyses confined mostly to the state-of-art analytical laboratory facilities. With the growing demand of rapid and reliable alcohol detection systems, an all-round attempt has been made over the past decade encompassing various disciplines from basic and engineering sciences. Of late, the research for developing small-scale portable alcohol detection system has been accelerated with the advent of emerging miniaturization techniques, advanced materials and sensing platforms such as lab-on-chip, lab-on-CD, lab-on-paper etc. With these new inter-disciplinary approaches along with the support from the parallel knowledge growth on rapid detection systems being pursued for various targets, the progress on translating the proof-of-concepts to commercially viable and environment friendly portable alcohol detection systems is gaining pace. Here, we summarize the progress made over the years on the alcohol detection systems, with a focus on recent advancement towards developing portable, simple and efficient alcohol sensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor,Bryant D.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement acquisition method that alleviates many shortcomings of traditional measurement systems. The shortcomings are a finite number of measurement channels, weight penalty associated with measurements, electrical arcing, wire degradations due to wear or chemical decay and the logistics needed to add new sensors. Wire degradation has resulted in aircraft fatalities and critical space launches being delayed. The key to this method is the use of sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses. The response attributes correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power is wirelessly provided to the sensing element by using Faraday induction. A radio frequency antenna produces a time-varying magnetic field used to power the sensor and receive the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation system for discerning changes in the sensor response frequency, resistance and amplitude has been developed and is presented herein. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The method eliminates the need for a data acquisition channel dedicated to each sensor. The method does not require the sensors to be near the acquisition hardware. Methods of developing magnetic field response sensors and the influence of key parameters on measurement acquisition are discussed. Examples of magnetic field response sensors and the respective measurement characterizations are presented. Implementation of this method on an aerospace system is discussed.

  18. Validation of a Rapid Bacteria Endospore Enumeration System for Planetary Protection Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Kern, Roger; Kazarians, Gayane; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    NASA monitors spacecraft surfaces to assure that the presence of bacterial endospores meets strict criteria at launch, to minimize the risk of inadvertent contamination of the surface of Mars. Currently, the only approved method for enumerating the spores is a culture based assay that requires three days to produce results. In order to meet the demanding schedules of spacecraft assembly, a more rapid spore detection assay is being considered as an alternate method to the NASA standard culture-based assay. The Millipore Rapid Microbiology Detection System (RMDS) has been used successfully for rapid bioburden enumeration in the pharmaceutical and food industries. The RMDS is rapid and simple, shows high sensitivity (to 1 colony forming unit [CFU]/sample), and correlates well with traditional culture-based methods. It combines membrane filtration, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence chemistry, and image analysis based on photon detection with a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera. In this study, we have optimized the assay conditions and evaluated the use of the RMDS as a rapid spore detection tool for NASA applications. In order to select for spores, the samples were subjected to a heat shock step before proceeding with the RMDS incubation protocol. Seven species of Bacillus (nine strains) that have been repeatedly isolated from clean room environments were assayed. All strains were detected by the RMDS in 5 hours and these assay times were repeatedly demonstrated along with low image background noise. Validation experiments to compare the Rapid Sore Assay (RSA) and NASA standard assay (NSA) were also performed. The evaluation criteria were modeled after the FDA Guideline of Process Validation, and Analytical Test Methods. This body of research demonstrates that the Rapid Spore Assay (RSA) is quick, and of equivalent sensitivity to the NASA standard assay, potentially reducing the assay time for bacterial endospores from over 72 hours to less than 8 hours

  19. Repetitive hypoxia rapidly depresses cardio-respiratory responses during active sleep but not quiet sleep in the newborn lamb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Renea V; Grant, Daniel A; Wilkinson, Malcolm H; Walker, Adrian M

    1999-01-01

    Arousal from sleep is an important protective response to hypoxia that becomes rapidly depressed in active sleep (AS) when hypoxia is repeated. This study questioned whether there might also be selective depression of cardio-respiratory responses to hypoxia during AS. Nine newborn lambs (7-22 days of age) were studied over three successive nights. The first and third nights were baseline studies (inspired oxygen fraction, Fi,O2= 0.21). During the second night, during every epoch of sleep, lambs were exposed to 60 s episodes of isocapnic hypoxia (Fi,O2= 0.10). During quiet sleep (QS), the probability of arousal in hypoxia exceeded the probability of spontaneous arousal (P ventilatory and blood pressure responses in AS, but not in QS. Selective depression of responses during AS may render the newborn particularly vulnerable to hypoxia in this state. PMID:10457072

  20. Bell palsy in a neonate with rapid response to oral corticosteroids: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Arushi; Singhi, Pratibha; Sodhi, K S; Gupta, Ajit

    2013-04-01

    Idiopathic facial nerve palsy, also known as Bell palsy is rare in the neonatal age group. Other more common causes such as birth trauma; infections, especially otitis media; and congenital malformations need to be excluded. We present here a 4-week-old neonate with Bell palsy who responded rapidly to oral corticosteroids. Such an early presentation of idiopathic facial nerve palsy and use of corticosteroids in neonates is scarcely reported in the literature.

  1. Inelastic response spectra of simple degrading systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreaus, U.; Ceradini, G.; D'Asdia, P.; Gaudenzi, P.

    1985-01-01

    Ductility was first stated, for single-degree-of-freedom elastic-perfectly plastic systems as the ratio of maximum to yield displacements. An alternative approach, aimed to reduce design forces for ductile structures and based on the energy dissipated during earthquake allows to obtain more reliable ductility factors even when system restoring characteristics are affected by deterioration during loading history. Inelastic response of SDOF systems has been investigated under seimic excitation, assuming stable and degrading constitutive laws to model their structural behaviour. Energy spectra and ductility requirent diagrams are generated and compared with those of the corresponding elastic-perfectly plastic systems. (orig.)

  2. Computer-controlled system for rapid soil analysis of 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doane, R.W.; Berven, B.A.; Blair, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    A computer-controlled multichannel analysis system has been developed by the Radiological Survey Activities Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) in support of the DOE's remedial action programs. The purpose of this system is to provide a rapid estimate of the 226 Ra concentration in soil samples using a 6 x 9-in. NaI(Tl) crystal containing a 3.25-in. deep by 3.5-in. diameter well. This gamma detection system is controlled by a mini-computer with a dual floppy disk storage medium. A two-chip interface was also designed at ORNL which handles all control signals generated from the computer keyboard. These computer-generated control signals are processed in machine language for rapid data transfer and BASIC language is used for data processing

  3. Rapid antibiotic efficacy screening with aluminum oxide nanoporous membrane filter-chip and optical detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Pei-Hsiang; Sreenivasappa, Harini; Hong, Sungmin; Yasuike, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Nakano, Keiyo; Misawa, Takeyuki; Kameoka, Jun

    2010-09-15

    We have developed a filter-chip and optical detection system for rapid antibiotic efficacy screening. The filter-chip consisted of a 1-mL reservoir and an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous membrane. Sample solution with liquid growth media, bacteria, and antibiotics was incubated in the reservoir for a specific period of time. The number of live bacteria on the surface of membrane was counted after the incubation with antibiotics and filtration. Using this biosensing system, we have demonstrated a 1-h antibiotic screening for patients' clinical samples, significantly faster than the conventional antibiotic susceptibility tests that typically take more than 24h. This rapid screening nature makes the filter-chip and detection system ideal for tailoring antibiotic treatment to individual patients by reducing the microbial antibiotic resistance, and improving the survival rate for patients suffering from postoperative infections. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Knowledge acquisition and rapid protyping of an expert system: Dealing with real world problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Patrick A.; Doehr, Brett B.

    1988-01-01

    The knowledge engineering and rapid prototyping phases of an expert system that does fault handling for a Solid Amine, Water Desorbed CO2 removal assembly for the Environmental Control and Life Support System for space based platforms are addressed. The knowledge acquisition phase for this project was interesting because it could not follow the textbook examples. As a result of this, a variety of methods were used during the knowledge acquisition task. The use of rapid prototyping and the need for a flexible prototype suggested certain types of knowledge representation. By combining various techniques, a representative subset of faults and a method for handling those faults was achieved. The experiences should prove useful for developing future fault handling expert systems under similar constraints.

  5. Optimizing the Attitude Control of Small Satellite Constellations for Rapid Response Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S.; Li, A.

    2016-12-01

    Distributed Space Missions (DSMs) such as formation flight and constellations, are being recognized as important solutions to increase measurement samples over space and time. Given the increasingly accurate attitude control systems emerging in the commercial market, small spacecraft now have the ability to slew and point within few minutes of notice. In spite of hardware development in CubeSats at the payload (e.g. NASA InVEST) and subsystems (e.g. Blue Canyon Technologies), software development for tradespace analysis in constellation design (e.g. Goddard's TAT-C), planning and scheduling development in single spacecraft (e.g. GEO-CAPE) and aerial flight path optimizations for UAVs (e.g. NASA Sensor Web), there is a gap in open-source, open-access software tools for planning and scheduling distributed satellite operations in terms of pointing and observing targets. This paper will demonstrate results from a tool being developed for scheduling pointing operations of narrow field-of-view (FOV) sensors over mission lifetime to maximize metrics such as global coverage and revisit statistics. Past research has shown the need for at least fourteen satellites to cover the Earth globally everyday using a LandSat-like sensor. Increasing the FOV three times reduces the need to four satellites, however adds image distortion and BRDF complexities to the observed reflectance. If narrow FOV sensors on a small satellite constellation were commanded using robust algorithms to slew their sensor dynamically, they would be able to coordinately cover the global landmass much faster without compensating for spatial resolution or BRDF effects. Our algorithm to optimize constellation satellite pointing is based on a dynamic programming approach under the constraints of orbital mechanics and existing attitude control systems for small satellites. As a case study for our algorithm, we minimize the time required to cover the 17000 Landsat images with maximum signal to noise ratio fall

  6. Integrating unmanned aerial systems and LSPIV for rapid, cost-effective stream gauging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Quinn W.; Lindroth, Evan M.; Rhoads, Bruce L.

    2018-05-01

    Quantifying flow in rivers is fundamental to assessments of water supply, water quality, ecological conditions, hydrological responses to storm events, and geomorphological processes. Image-based surface velocity measurements have shown promise in extending the range of discharge conditions that can be measured in the field. The use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in image-based measurements of surface velocities has the potential to expand applications of this method. Thus far, few investigations have assessed this potential by evaluating the accuracy and repeatability of discharge measurements using surface velocities obtained from UAS. This study uses large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) derived from videos captured by cameras on a UAS and a fixed tripod to obtain discharge measurements at ten different stream locations in Illinois, USA. Discharge values are compared to reference values measured by an acoustic Doppler current profiler, a propeller meter, and established stream gauges. The results demonstrate the effects of UAS flight height, camera steadiness and leveling accuracy, video sampling frequency, and LSPIV interrogation area size on surface velocities, and show that the mean difference between fixed and UAS cameras is less than 10%. Differences between LSPIV-derived and reference discharge values are generally less than 20%, not systematically low or high, and not related to site parameters like channel width or depth, indicating that results are relatively insensitive to camera setup and image processing parameters typically required of LSPIV. The results also show that standard velocity indices (between 0.85 and 0.9) recommended for converting surface velocities to depth-averaged velocities yield reasonable discharge estimates, but are best calibrated at specific sites. The study recommends a basic methodology for LSPIV discharge measurements using UAS that is rapid, cost-efficient, and does not require major preparatory work at a

  7. Development of a Rapidly Deployed Department of Energy Emergency Response Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riland, C.A.; Hopkins, R.C.; Tighe, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) directs the Department of Energy (DOE) to maintain a viable, timely, and fully documented response option capable of supporting the responsible Lead Federal Agency in the event of a radiological emergency impacting any state or US territory (e.g., CONUS). In addition, the DOE maintains a response option to support radiological emergencies outside the continental US (OCONUS). While the OCUNUS mission is not governed by the FREP, this response is operationally similar to that assigned to the DOE by the FREP. The DOE is prepared to alert, activate, and deploy radiological response teams to augment the Radiological Assistance Program and/or local responders. The Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (RMAC) is a phased response that integrates with the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC) in CONUS environments and represents a stand-alone DOE response for OCONUS environments. The FRMAC/RMAC Phase I was formally ''stood up'' as an operational element in April 1999. The FRMAC/RMAC Phase II proposed ''stand-up'' date is midyear 2000

  8. Rapid genetic restoration of a keystone species exhibiting delayed demographic response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic founder effects are often expected when animals colonize restored habitat in fragmented landscapes, but empirical data on genetic responses to restoration are limited. We examined the genetic response of banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) to landscape-scale grassland restor...

  9. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR EMERGENCY RESPONSE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeigler, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) emergency response system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P7 ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998)

  10. Snake venoms are integrated systems, but abundant venom proteins evolve more rapidly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, Steven D; Aggarwal, Shikha; Villar-Briones, Alejandro; Tin, Mandy Man-Ying; Terada, Kouki; Mikheyev, Alexander S

    2015-08-28

    While many studies have shown that extracellular proteins evolve rapidly, how selection acts on them remains poorly understood. We used snake venoms to understand the interaction between ecology, expression level, and evolutionary rate in secreted protein systems. Venomous snakes employ well-integrated systems of proteins and organic constituents to immobilize prey. Venoms are generally optimized to subdue preferred prey more effectively than non-prey, and many venom protein families manifest positive selection and rapid gene family diversification. Although previous studies have illuminated how individual venom protein families evolve, how selection acts on venoms as integrated systems, is unknown. Using next-generation transcriptome sequencing and mass spectrometry, we examined microevolution in two pitvipers, allopatrically separated for at least 1.6 million years, and their hybrids. Transcriptomes of parental species had generally similar compositions in regard to protein families, but for a given protein family, the homologs present and concentrations thereof sometimes differed dramatically. For instance, a phospholipase A2 transcript comprising 73.4 % of the Protobothrops elegans transcriptome, was barely present in the P. flavoviridis transcriptome (king cobra genome, suggesting that rapid evolution of abundant proteins may be generally true for snake venoms. Looking more broadly at Protobothrops, we show that rapid evolution of the most abundant components is due to positive selection, suggesting an interplay between abundance and adaptation. Given log-scale differences in toxin abundance, which are likely correlated with biosynthetic costs, we hypothesize that as a result of natural selection, snakes optimize return on energetic investment by producing more of venom proteins that increase their fitness. Natural selection then acts on the additive genetic variance of these components, in proportion to their contributions to overall fitness. Adaptive

  11. Systemic Inflammatory Response and Adhesion Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Molchanova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The lecture presents the materials of foreign studies on the mechanisms responsible for the formation of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. The hypotheses accounting for the occurrence of SIRS in emergencies are described. Adhesion molecules (AM and endothelial dysfunction are apparent to be involved in the inflammatory process, no matter what the causes of SIRS are. The current classification of AM and adhesion cascades with altered blood flow is presented. There are two lines in the studies of AM. One line is to measure the concentration of AM in the plasma of patients with emergencies of various etiology. The other is to study the impact of antiadhesion therapy on the alleviation of the severity of terminal state and its outcome. The studies provide evidence for that an adhesive process is a peculiar prelude to a systemic inflammatory response.

  12. From Management Systems to Corporate Social Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    At the start of the 21st century, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) seems to have great potential for innovating business practices with a positive impact on People, Planet and Profit. In this article the differences between the management systems approach of the nineties, and Corporate Social

  13. Rapid feedback responses correlate with reach adaptation and properties of novel upper limb loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluff, Tyler; Scott, Stephen H

    2013-10-02

    A hallmark of voluntary motor control is the ability to adjust motor patterns for novel mechanical or visuomotor contexts. Recent work has also highlighted the importance of feedback for voluntary control, leading to the hypothesis that feedback responses should adapt when we learn new motor skills. We tested this prediction with a novel paradigm requiring that human subjects adapt to a viscous elbow load while reaching to three targets. Target 1 required combined shoulder and elbow motion, target 2 required only elbow motion, and target 3 (probe target) required shoulder but no elbow motion. This simple approach controlled muscle activity at the probe target before, during, and after the application of novel elbow loads. Our paradigm allowed us to perturb the elbow during reaching movements to the probe target and identify several key properties of adapted stretch responses. Adapted long-latency responses expressed (de-) adaptation similar to reaching errors observed when we introduced (removed) the elbow load. Moreover, reaching errors during learning correlated with changes in the long-latency response, showing subjects who adapted more to the elbow load displayed greater modulation of their stretch responses. These adapted responses were sensitive to the size and direction of the viscous training load. Our results highlight an important link between the adaptation of feedforward and feedback control and suggest a key part of motor adaptation is to adjust feedback responses to the requirements of novel motor skills.

  14. Rapid transfer of short-lived radioisotopes via a 2. 4 km rabbit system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgerjon, J J; Gelbart, Z; Lau, V; Lehnart, D; Lenz, J; Pate, B D; Ruth, T J; Sprenger, H P; van Oers, N S.C.

    1984-09-01

    A 2.4 km long pipeline between a cyclotron and a hospital is used for the rapid transfer of short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. The vials containing the pharmaceuticals are placed inside capsules (rabbits) that are blown through a tube by means of compressed air. Travel times as short as 2 min are achieved, which makes the system suitable for the transfer of /sup 15/O, which has a 2 min half-life. The construction and test results of the system are described along with a computer model, developed to explain some properties of the system. 7 references, 15 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other...... parts of innate host defence reactions remain somewhat elusive. In order to gain new insight into this early host defence response in the context of bacterial infection we studied gene expression changes in peripheral lymphoid tissues as compared to hepatic expression changes, 14-18 h after lung...... with measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14-18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase...

  16. The Deployable Operations Group: A Model for a National Unified Interagency Rapid Response Command

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was created after the attacks on September 11, 2001 to consolidate all the domestic agencies responsible for protecting America's borders and national infrastructure under a single department...

  17. Development of a System for Rapid Detection of Contaminants in Water Supplies Using Magnetic Resonance and Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowery, Thomas J; Neely, Lori; Chepin, James; Wellman, Parris; Toso, Ken; Murray, Paul; Audeh, Mark; Demas, Vasiliki; Palazzolo, Robert; Min, Michael; Phung, Nu; Blanco, Matt; Raphel, Jordan; O' Neil, Troy

    2010-09-14

    To keep the water supply safe and to ensure a swift and accurate response to a water supply contamination event, rapid and robust methods for microbial testing are necessary. Current technologies are complex, lengthy and costly and there is a need for rapid, reliable, and precise approaches that can readily address this fundamental security and safety issue. T2 Biosystems is focused on providing solutions to this problem by making breakthroughs in nanotechnology and biosensor techniques that address the current technical restrictions facing rapid, molecular analysis in complex samples. In order to apply the T2 Biosystems nucleic acid detection procedure to the analysis of nucleic acid targets in unprocessed water samples, Bacillus thuringeinsis was selected as a model organism and local river water was selected as the sample matrix. The initial assay reagent formulation was conceived with a manual magnetic resonance reader, was optimized using a high throughput system, and transferred back to the MR reader for potential field use. The final assay employing the designed and manufactured instruments was capable of detecting 10 CFU/mL of B. thuringiensis directly within the environmental water sample within 90 minutes. Further, discrimination of two closely related species of Bacilli was accomplished using the methods of this project; greater than 3-fold discrimination between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis at a concentrations spanning 10 CFU/mL to 10{sup 5} CFU/mL was observed.

  18. Knowledge bases, clinical decision support systems, and rapid learning in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peter Paul

    2015-03-01

    One of the most important benefits of health information technology is to assist the cognitive process of the human mind in the face of vast amounts of health data, limited time for decision making, and the complexity of the patient with cancer. Clinical decision support tools are frequently cited as a technologic solution to this problem, but to date useful clinical decision support systems (CDSS) have been limited in utility and implementation. This article describes three unique sources of health data that underlie fundamentally different types of knowledge bases which feed into CDSS. CDSS themselves comprise a variety of models which are discussed. The relationship of knowledge bases and CDSS to rapid learning health systems design is critical as CDSS are essential drivers of rapid learning in clinical care. Copyright © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  19. A study of response time of pitot pressure probes designed for rapid response and protection of transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    An eight orifice probe, designed to protect the transducer without the use of a baffle, was compared to a standard orifice-baffle probe in the small shock tube and in the expansion tube under normal run conditions. In both facilities, the response time of eight orifice probe was considerable better than the standard probe design.

  20. A method of rapidly evaluating image quality of NED optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Qiu, Chuankai; Yang, Huan

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, with the development of technology of micro-display, advanced optics and the software and hardware, near-to-eye display ( NED) optical system will have a wide range of potential applications in the fields of amusement and virtual reality. However, research on the evaluating image quality of this kind optical system is comparatively lagging behind. Although now there are some methods and equipment for evaluation, they can't be applied in commercial production because of their complex operation and inaccuracy. In this paper, an academic method is proposed and a Rapid Evaluation System (RES) is designed to evaluate the image of optical system rapidly and exactly. Firstly, a set of parameters that eyes are sensitive to and also express the quality of system should be extracted and quantized to be criterion, so the evaluation standards can be established. Then, some parameters can be detected by RES consisted of micro-display, CCD camera and computer and so on. By process of scaling, the measuring results of the RES are exact and creditable, relationship between object measurement, subjective evaluation and the RES will be established. After that, image quality of optical system can be evaluated just by detecting parameters of that. The RES is simple and the results of evaluation are exact and keeping with human vision. So the method can be used not only for optimizing design of optical system, but also for evaluation in commercial production.

  1. Cardiac and respiratory responses of rainbow trout, bluegills and brown bullhead catfish during rapid hypoxia and recovery under normoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marvin, Jr, D E; Burton, D T

    1973-01-01

    Heart rate, ventilation rate and routine oxygen consumption were measured in Salmo gairdneri, Lepomis macrochirus and Ictalurus nebulosus during rapid hypoxic stress and recovery under normoxic conditions. Cardiac and respiratory responses during hypoxia were similar to those reported in the literature for teleost fish. Immediate increases in heart rate and ventilation rate occurred in all three species after stress. When the mean heart rate for each species at 1 hr post-stress was compared with its pre-stress rate, differences in recovery patterns were found in all species. During recovery from hypoxia, rapid increases in oxygen consumption, above pre-stress levels, occurred in S. gairdneri and L. macrochirus. No significant differences between pre-stress and post-stress values were found in I. nebulosus.

  2. Numerical and experimental flow analysis in centifluidic systems for rapid allergy screening tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dethloff Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the development of the automated processing of a membrane-based rapid allergy test, the flow characteristics in one part of the test, the reagents module, are analysed. This module consists of a multichannel system with several inputs and one output. A return flow from one input channel into another should be avoided. A valveless module with pointed channels at an angle of 12° is analysed with numerical and experimental methods with regard to the flow characteristics.

  3. Present status and future development of the European Community rapid information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, G.

    1990-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl reactor accident it was rapidly appreciated that, in addition to upgrading national radiological monitoring systems, action was required to facilitate international communication of the results obtained. The first such system was established by the Vienna Convention, drawn up under the auspices of the IAEA, which came into force in September, 1986. Subsequently the EC Council of Ministers decided in December, 1987, to set up a Community system which in many ways parallels that established by the Convention but differs significantly in certain aspects concerning its legal basis, initiation criteria, data provisions and communications requirements. The present paper describes the present status of the Community system and foreseeable future developments. It is a matter of policy that, to avoid unnecessary complications, this system should be, to the maximum extent practicable, fully compatible with that established by the Convention. Where appropriate, therefore, reference is also made to the latter system

  4. Immunological dynamics associated with rapid virological response during the early phase of type I interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Won; Kwon, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Yuri; Shin, Hyun Mu; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Min, Chan-Ki; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Lee, Won-Woo; Choi, Myung-Sik; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Cho, Nam-Hyuk

    2017-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) play an important role in antiviral immunity as well as immunopathogenesis of diverse chronic viral infections. However, the precise mechanisms regulating the multifaceted effects of type I IFNs on the immune system and pathological inflammation still remain unclear. In order to assess the immunological dynamics associated with rapid viral clearance in chronic hepatitis C patients during the acute phase of type I IFN therapy, we analyzed multiple parameters of virological and immunological responses in a cohort of 59 Korean hepatitis C patients who received pegylated IFN-α and ribavirin (IFN/RBV). Most of the Korean patients had favorable alleles in the IFN-λ loci for responsiveness to IFN/RBV (i.e., C/C in rs12979860, T/T in rs8099917, and TT/TT in rs368234815). Rapid virological response (RVR) was determined mainly by the hepatitis C virus genotype. Among the cytokines analyzed, higher plasma levels of IL-17A and FGF were observed in non-RVR patients infected with viral genotype 1 and IP-10 was consistently elevated in RVR group infected with genotype 2 during the early phase of antiviral therapy. In addition, these three cytokines were correlated each other, suggesting a functional linkage of the cytokines in antiviral responses during IFN/RBV therapy. A low baseline frequencies of regulatory T cells and γδ T cells, but high level of group 2 innate lymphoid cells, in peripheral bloods were also significantly associated with the RVR group, implicating a potential role of the cellular immunity during the early phase of IFN/RBV therapy. Therefore, the immunological programs established by chronic hepatitis C and rapid disruption of the delicate balance by exogenous type I IFN might be associated with the subsequent virological outcomes in chronic hepatitis C patients.

  5. The TransPetro emergency response system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, A.T.F.; Cardoso, V.F.; Carbone, R.; Berardinelli, R.P. [Petrobras-TransPetro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Carvalho, M.T.M.; Casanova, M.A. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica, TeCGraf

    2004-07-01

    Petrobras-TransPetro developed the TransPetro Emergency Response System in response to emergency situations at large oil pipelines or at terminal facilities located in sea or river harbour areas. The standard of excellence includes full compliance with environmental regulations set by the federal government. A distributed workflow management software called InfoPAE forms the basis of the system in which actions are defined, along with geographic and conventional data. The first prototype of InfoPAE was installed in 1999. Currently it is operational in nearly 80 installations. The basic concepts and functionality of the TransPetro Emergency Response System were outlined in this paper with reference to the mitigative actions that are based on an evaluation of the organization of the emergency teams; the communication procedures; characterization of the installations; definition of accidental scenarios; environmental sensitivity maps; simulation of oil spill trajectories and dispersion behaviour; geographical data of the area surrounding the installations; and, other conventional data related to the installations, including available equipment. The emergency response team can take action as soon as an accident is detected. The action plan involves characterizing several scenarios and delegating mitigative actions to specific sub-teams, each with access to geographic data on the region where the emergency occurred. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Single-Trial Event-Related Potential Based Rapid Image Triage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Yu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Searching for points of interest (POI in large-volume imagery is a challenging problem with few good solutions. In this work, a neural engineering approach called rapid image triage (RIT which could offer about a ten-fold speed up in POI searching is developed. It is essentially a cortically-coupled computer vision technique, whereby the user is presented bursts of images at a speed of 6–15 images per second and then neural signals called event-related potential (ERP is used as the ‘cue’ for user seeing images of high relevance likelihood. Compared to past efforts, the implemented system has several unique features: (1 it applies overlapping frames in image chip preparation, to ensure rapid image triage performance; (2 a novel common spatial-temporal pattern (CSTP algorithm that makes use of both spatial and temporal patterns of ERP topography is proposed for high-accuracy single-trial ERP detection; (3 a weighted version of probabilistic support-vector-machine (SVM is used to address the inherent unbalanced nature of single-trial ERP detection for RIT. High accuracy, fast learning, and real-time capability of the developed system shown on 20 subjects demonstrate the feasibility of a brainmachine integrated rapid image triage system for fast detection of POI from large-volume imagery.

  7. Evolution and behavioural responses to human-induced rapid environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Ferrari, Maud C O; Harris, David J

    2011-03-01

    Almost all organisms live in environments that have been altered, to some degree, by human activities. Because behaviour mediates interactions between an individual and its environment, the ability of organisms to behave appropriately under these new conditions is crucial for determining their immediate success or failure in these modified environments. While hundreds of species are suffering dramatically from these environmental changes, others, such as urbanized and pest species, are doing better than ever. Our goal is to provide insights into explaining such variation. We first summarize the responses of some species to novel situations, including novel risks and resources, habitat loss/fragmentation, pollutants and climate change. Using a sensory ecology approach, we present a mechanistic framework for predicting variation in behavioural responses to environmental change, drawing from models of decision-making processes and an understanding of the selective background against which they evolved. Where immediate behavioural responses are inadequate, learning or evolutionary adaptation may prove useful, although these mechanisms are also constrained by evolutionary history. Although predicting the responses of species to environmental change is difficult, we highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of evolutionary history in shaping individuals' responses to their environment and provide suggestion for future work.

  8. 'Rapid Learning health care in oncology' - an approach towards decision support systems enabling customised radiotherapy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambin, Philippe; Roelofs, Erik; Reymen, Bart; Velazquez, Emmanuel Rios; Buijsen, Jeroen; Zegers, Catharina M L; Carvalho, Sara; Leijenaar, Ralph T H; Nalbantov, Georgi; Oberije, Cary; Scott Marshall, M; Hoebers, Frank; Troost, Esther G C; van Stiphout, Ruud G P M; van Elmpt, Wouter; van der Weijden, Trudy; Boersma, Liesbeth; Valentini, Vincenzo; Dekker, Andre

    2013-10-01

    An overview of the Rapid Learning methodology, its results, and the potential impact on radiotherapy. Rapid Learning methodology is divided into four phases. In the data phase, diverse data are collected about past patients, treatments used, and outcomes. Innovative information technologies that support semantic interoperability enable distributed learning and data sharing without additional burden on health care professionals and without the need for data to leave the hospital. In the knowledge phase, prediction models are developed for new data and treatment outcomes by applying machine learning methods to data. In the application phase, this knowledge is applied in clinical practice via novel decision support systems or via extensions of existing models such as Tumour Control Probability models. In the evaluation phase, the predictability of treatment outcomes allows the new knowledge to be evaluated by comparing predicted and actual outcomes. Personalised or tailored cancer therapy ensures not only that patients receive an optimal treatment, but also that the right resources are being used for the right patients. Rapid Learning approaches combined with evidence based medicine are expected to improve the predictability of outcome and radiotherapy is the ideal field to study the value of Rapid Learning. The next step will be to include patient preferences in the decision making. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. [Evaluation of a new blood gas analysis system: RapidPoint 500(®)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Thierry; Cabrolier, Nadège; Bardonnet, Karine; Davani, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    We present here evaluation of a new blood gas analysis system, RapidPoint 500(®) (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics). The aim of this research was to compare the ergonomics and analytical performances of this analyser with those of the RapidLab 1265 for the following parameters: pH, partial oxygen pressure, partial carbon dioxide pressure, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, lactate and the CO-oximetry parameters: hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, reduced hemoglobin, neonatal bilirubin; as well as with the Dimension Vista 500 results for chloride and glucose. The Valtec protocol, recommended by the French Society of Clinical Biology (SFBC), was used to analyze the study results. The experiment was carried out over a period of one month in the Department of medical biochemistry. One hundred sixty five samples from adult patients admitted to the ER or hospitalized in intensive care were tested. The RapidPoint 500(®) was highly satisfactory from an ergonomic point of view. Intra-and inter- assay coefficients of variation (CV) with the three control levels were below those recommended by the SFBC for all parameters, and the comparative study gave coefficients of determination higher than 0.91. Taken together, the RapidPoint 500(®) appears fully satisfactory in terms of ergonomics and analytical performance.

  10. A lab-on-a-chip system with integrated sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yi; Than Linh, Quyen; Hung, Tran Quang

    2015-01-01

    was capable to detect Salmonella at concentration of 50 cells per test within 40 min. The simple design, together with high level of integration, isothermal amplification, and quantitative analysis of multiple samples in short time will greatly enhance the practical applicability of the LOC system for rapid...... amplification (LAMP) for rapid and quantitative detection of Salmonella spp. in food samples. The whole diagnostic procedures including DNA isolation, isothermal amplification, and real-time detection were accomplished in a single chamber. Up to eight samples could be handled simultaneously and the system...... and usually take a few hours to days to complete. In response to the demand for rapid on line or at site detection of pathogens, in this study, we describe for the first time an eight-chamber lab-on-a-chip (LOC) system with integrated magnetic beads-based sample preparation and loop-mediated isothermal...

  11. Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Lewis, Nancy Jo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Watson, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Auslander, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Paprotny, Igor [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Makarov, Yuri [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-31

    The Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource project consists of six technical tasks: • Task 2.1. Test Plan and Conduct Tests: Contingency Reserves Demand Response (DR) Demonstration—a pioneering demonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can provide an important electricity system reliability resource known as contingency reserve. • Task 2.2. Participation in Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) IntelliGrid—technical assistance to the EPRI IntelliGrid team in developing use cases and other high-level requirements for the architecture. • Task 2.3. Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) Planning for Demand Response Technology Development—technical support to the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program on five topics: Sub-task 1. PIER Smart Grid RD&D Planning Document; Sub-task 2. System Dynamics of Programmable Controllable Thermostats; Sub-task 3. California Independent System Operator (California ISO) DR Use Cases; Sub-task 4. California ISO Telemetry Requirements; and Sub-task 5. Design of a Building Load Data Storage Platform. • Task 2.4. Time Value of Demand Response—research that will enable California ISO to take better account of the speed of the resources that it deploys to ensure compliance with reliability rules for frequency control. • Task 2.5. System Integration and Market Research: Southern California Edison (SCE)—research and technical support for efforts led by SCE to conduct demand response pilot demonstrations to provide a contingency reserve service (known as non-spinning reserve) through a targeted sub-population of aggregated residential and small commercial customers enrolled in SCE’s traditional air conditioning (AC) load cycling program, the Summer Discount Plan. • Task 2.6. Demonstrate Demand Response Technologies: Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E)—research and technical support for efforts led by PG&E to conduct a demand response pilot demonstration to provide non

  12. Polar bear and walrus response to the rapid decline in Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, K.; Whalen, M.; Douglas, David C.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Atwood, Todd C.; Jay, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic is warming faster than other regions of the world due to positive climate feedbacks associated with loss of snow and ice. One highly visible consequence has been a rapid decline in Arctic sea ice over the past 3 decades - a decline projected to continue and result in ice-free summers likely as soon as 2030. The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) are dependent on sea ice over the continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean's marginal seas. The continental shelves are shallow regions with high biological productivity, supporting abundant marine life within the water column and on the sea floor. Polar bears use sea ice as a platform for hunting ice seals; walruses use sea ice as a resting platform between dives to forage for clams and other bottom-dwelling invertebrates. How have sea ice changes affected polar bears and walruses? How will anticipated changes affect them in the future?

  13. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    to climate change in a common annelid worm using a controlled replicated experiment where climatic conditions were manipulated in a natural setting. Analyzing the transcribed genome of 15 local populations, we found that about 12% of the genetic polymorphisms exhibit differences in allele frequencies......Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out innatural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response...... associated to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture. This shows an evolutionaryresponse to realistic climate change happening over short-time scale, and calls for incorporating evolution into modelspredicting future response of species to climate change. It also shows that designed climate change...

  14. The dynamic pressure response to rapid dilatation of the resting urethra in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Thind, P; Colstrup, H

    1993-01-01

    beta e-t/tau beta, where Pequ, P alpha and P beta are constants, and tau alpha and tau beta are time constants; this equation has previously been demonstrated to describe the pressure decay following dilatation. On the basis of a theoretical model the elastic and viscous constants for the urethral......The urethral pressure response to a sudden forced dilatation was studied at the bladder neck, in the high-pressure zone and in the distal urethra in ten healthy female volunteers. The pressure response was fitted with a double exponential function of the form Pt = Pequ + P alpha e-t/tau alpha + P...... a detailed assessment of static and dynamic urethral responses to dilatation which can be applied as an experimental simulation of urine ingression, and is therefore presumed to be of value in the evaluation of normal and pathological urethral sphincter function....

  15. Rapidly Responsive and Flexible Chiral Nematic Cellulose Nanocrystal Composites as Multifunctional Rewritable Photonic Papers with Eco-Friendly Inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hao; Li, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Liang; Li, Xiaopeng; Liu, Pengfei; Jiang, Zhiguo; Yu, Zhong-Zhen

    2018-02-14

    Rapidly responsive and flexible photonic papers are manufactured by coassembly of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and waterborne polyurethane (WPU) latex for fully taking advantage of the chiral nematic structure of CNCs and the flexibility of WPU elastomer. The resulting CNC/WPU composite papers exhibit not only tunable iridescent colors by adjusting the helical pitch size, but also instant optical responses to water and wet gas, ascribed to the easy chain movement of the elastomeric WPU that does not restrict the fast water absorption-induced swelling of CNCs. By choosing water or NaCl aqueous solutions as inks, the colorful patterns on the CNC/WPU photonic paper can be made temporary, durable, or even disguisable. In addition, the photonic paper is simultaneously rewritable for all these three types of patterns, and the disguisable patterns, which are invisible at normal times and show up under stimuli, exhibit a quick reveal conversion just by exhaling on the paper. The rewritability, rapid responsibility, easy fabrication, and the eco-friendly nature of the inks make the flexible photonic paper/ink combination highly promising in sensors, displays, and photonic circuits.

  16. Lumped Parameter Modeling for Rapid Vibration Response Prototyping and Test Correlation for Electronic Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Present preliminary work using lumped parameter models to approximate dynamic response of electronic units to random vibration; Derive a general N-DOF model for application to electronic units; Illustrate parametric influence of model parameters; Implication of coupled dynamics for unit/board design; Demonstrate use of model to infer printed wiring board (PWB) dynamics from external chassis test measurement.

  17. Similar rapid response to phytodetritus deposition in shallow and deep-sea sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moodley, L.; Middelburg, J.J.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Herman, P.M.J.; Heip, C.H.R.

    2005-01-01

    The short-term benthic response to an input of fresh organic matter was examined in vastly contrasting benthic environments (estuarine intertidal to deep-sea) using 13C-labeled diatoms as a tracer of labile carbon. Benthic processing was assessed in major compartments through 13C-enrichment in CO2,

  18. The Rapid Transit System That Achieves Higher Performance with Lower Life-Cycle Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Satoru; Takagi, Ryo

    In the age of traction system made of inverter and ac traction motors, distributed traction system with pure electric brake of regenerative mode has been recognised very advantageous. This paper proposes a new system as the lowest life-cycle cost system for high performance rapid transit, a new architecture and optimum parameters of power feeding system, and a new running method of trains. In Japan, these components of this proposal, i.e. pure electric brake and various countermeasures of reducing loss of regeneration have been already popular but not as yet the new running method for better utilisation of the equipment and for lower life-cycle cost. One example of what are proposed in this paper will be made as Tsukuba Express, which is under construction as the most modern commuter railway in Greater Tokyo area.

  19. Advanced diffusion system for low contamination in-line rapid thermal processing of silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, D.; Preu, R.; Schultz, O.; Peters, S.; Huljic, D.M.; Zickermann, D.; Schindler, R.; Luedemann, R.; Willeke, G. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2002-10-01

    A novel diffusion system for in-line rapid thermal diffusion is presented. The lamp-heated furnace has a low thermal mass and a metal free transport system based on the walking beam principle. The furnace has been used to process first solar cells with lightly and highly doped emitters respectively. Solar cells with shallow lightly doped emitters show that the emitters processed in the new device can be well passivated. Shallow emitters with sheet resistances of up to 40/sq. have been contacted successfully by means of screen printing and firing through a SiN{sub x} antireflection coating. (author)

  20. Development of rapid detection system on BEPC Ⅱ magnet power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Suying; Zhan Mingchuan; Long Fengli; Ye Weidong

    2014-01-01

    To quickly find the causes of the accelerator unstable or lost beam caused by magnet power supply in Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC Ⅱ) running, the rapid detection system for magnet power supply was developed. The stability of the system in 8 h is about 0.005%, and it can acquire over nearly 500 sets of magnet power supply current values most quickly in 0.33 ms. All data were written to the MySQL database in real time, so as to be able to quickly troubleshoot magnet power supply problem through historical data analysis and comparison. (authors)

  1. Rapid species responses to changes in climate require stringent climate protection targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van A.J.H.; Leemans, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change book consolidates the scientific findings of the Exeter conference and gives an account of the most recent developments on critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, emission pathways and

  2. Rapid identification of herbal compounds derived metabolites using zebrafish larvae as the biotransformation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Yin, Ying-Hao; Wei, Ying-Jie; Shi, Zi-Qi; Liu, Jian-Qun; Liu, Li-Fang; Xin, Gui-Zhong

    2017-09-15

    Metabolites derived from herbal compounds are becoming promising sources for discovering new drugs. However, the rapid identification of metabolites from biological matrixes is limited by massive endogenous interference and low abundance of metabolites. Thus, by using zebrafish larvae as the biotransformation system, we herein proposed and validated an integrated strategy for rapid identification of metabolites derived from herbal compounds. Two pivotal steps involved in this strategy are to differentiate metabolites from herbal compounds and match metabolites with their parent compounds. The differentiation step was achieved by cross orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Automatic matching analysis was performed on R Project based on a self-developed program, of which the number of matched ionic clusters and its corresponding percentage between metabolite and parent compound were taken into account to assess their similarity. Using this strategy, 46 metabolites screened from incubation water samples of zebrafish treated with total Epimedium flavonoids (EFs) could be matched with their corresponding parent compounds, 37 of them were identified and validated by the known metabolic pathways and fragmentation patterns. Finally, 75% of the identified EFs metabolites were successfully detected in urine samples of rats treated with EFs. These experimental results indicate that the proposed strategy using zebrafish larvae as the biotransformation system will facilitate the rapid identification of metabolites derived from herbal compounds, which shows promising perspectives in providing additional resources for pharmaceutical developments from natural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Three dimensional evaluation of alveolar bone changes in response to different rapid palatal expansion activation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian LaBlonde

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this multi-center retrospective study was to quantify the changes in alveolar bone height and thickness after using two different rapid palatal expansion (RPE activation protocols, and to determine whether a more rapid rate of expansion is likely to cause more adverse effects, such as alveolar tipping, dental tipping, fenestration and dehiscence of anchorage teeth. Methods: The sample consisted of pre- and post-expansion records from 40 subjects (age 8-15 years who underwent RPE using a 4-banded Hyrax appliance as part of their orthodontic treatment to correct posterior buccal crossbites. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their RPE activation rates (0.5 mm/day and 0.8 mm/day; n = 20 each group. Three-dimensional images for all included subjects were evaluated using Dolphin Imaging Software 11.7 Premium. Maxillary base width, buccal and palatal cortical bone thickness, alveolar bone height, and root angulation and length were measured. Significance of the changes in the measurements was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and comparisons between groups were done using ANOVA. Significance was defined at p ≤ 0.05. Results: RPE activation rates of 0.5 mm per day (Group 1 and 0.8 mm per day (Group 2 caused significant increase in arch width following treatment; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Buccal alveolar height and width decreased significantly in both groups. Both treatment protocols resulted in significant increases in buccal-lingual angulation of teeth; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Both activation rates are associated with significant increase in intra-arch widths. However, 0.8 mm/day resulted in greater increases. The 0.8 mm/day activation rate also resulted in more increased dental tipping and decreased buccal alveolar bone thickness over 0.5 mm/day.

  4. Response of Kondo lattice systems to pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.D.; Borges, H.A.; Fisk, Z.; Horn, S.; Parks, R.D.; Wells, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    Yb-based Kondo lattice systems (YbAgCu 4 , YbCu 2 Si 2 , YbRh 2 Si 2 ) represent an interesting class of materials in which it is possible to study systematically the development of heavy electron behavior through the application of pressure. Certainly, additional experiments are required to determine to what extent Yb compounds are mirror images of their Ce counterparts. Finally, pressure reveals the presence of competing interactions for which a simple model exists that qualitatively accounts for the pressure response observed in a large number of Ce, U and Yb-based Kondo lattice systems

  5. Ion-Responsive Drug Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takayuki; Shakushiro, Kohsuke; Sako, Kazuhiro

    2018-02-08

    Some kinds of cations and anions are contained in body fluids such as blood, interstitial fluid, gastrointestinal juice, and tears at relatively high concentration. Ionresponsive drug delivery is available to design the unique dosage formulations which provide optimized drug therapy with effective, safe and convenient dosing of drugs. The objective of the present review was to collect, summarize, and categorize recent research findings on ion-responsive drug delivery systems. Ions in body fluid/formulations caused structural changes of polymers/molecules contained in the formulations, allow formulations exhibit functions. The polymers/molecules responding to ions were ion-exchange resins/fibers, anionic or cationic polymers, polymers exhibiting transition at lower critical solution temperature, self-assemble supramolecular systems, peptides, and metalorganic frameworks. The functions of ion-responsive drug delivery systems were categorized to controlled drug release, site-specific drug release, in situ gelation, prolonged retention at the target sites, and enhancement of drug permeation. Administration of the formulations via oral, ophthalmic, transdermal, and nasal routes has showed significant advantages in the recent literatures. Many kinds of drug delivery systems responding to ions have been reported recently for several administration routes. Improvement and advancement of these systems can maximize drugs potential and contribute to patients in the world. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Peptide fragments induce a more rapid immune response than intact proteins in earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanusová, R; Tucková, L; Halada, P; Bezouska, K; Bilej, M

    1999-01-01

    The effect of in vivo proteolytic processing of protein antigen was studied in Eisenia foetida earthworms. Parenteral administration of the protein antigen induces elevated levels of an antigen-binding protein (ABP) which recognizes the protein used for stimulation. When the protein antigen is administered simultaneously with nontoxic serine proteinase inhibitor, ABP levels remain close to background. On the other hand, the in vivo adaptive response of earthworms to peptide fragments obtained by coelomic fluid digestion of the foreign antigen occurs even in the presence of proteinase inhibitor and, moreover, is significantly faster as compared to the response to intact antigen. These findings confirm the role of proteolytic processing in earthworms. MALDI mass spectrometric analysis of the fragments after coelomic fluid digestion has revealed the presence of the peptide fragments with molecular weights in the mass range 700-1100 Da.

  7. RAPID RESCUE: BREAKING THE MOLD OF ROUTINE CONTINGENCY RESPONSE FOR PERSONNEL RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-23

    ultimately lead to timelier response and greater economy of force for an already critically strained Air Force core function. 1 INTRODUCTION...demographics, with a focus on the emerging near-peer powers such as Russia and Iran .9 Additionally, an important observation is made in that the DOD has...achieve economy of force. When an OPLAN calls for PR, a capability is requested rather than individual unit. The existing UTCs are too rigid and

  8. Rapid hydrogen charging on metal hydride negative electrode of Fuel Cell/Battery (FCB) systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bokkyu; Lee, Sunmook; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Fushimi, Chihiro; Tsutsumi, Atsushi [Collaborative Research Center for Energy Engineering, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    The characteristics of rapid gaseous H{sub 2} charging/electrochemical discharging of the metal hydride negative electrode were investigated for the application in Fuel Cell/Battery (FCB) systems. They were evaluated with the H{sub 2} gas absorption, followed by the subsequent electrochemical discharging in the electrolyte solution (6M KOH). Then, the cyclability of charge-discharge was also examined. It was observed that more than 70% of the theoretical capacity was charged within 10 min with 0.3 MPa and 0.5 MPa of the initial H{sub 2} pressures. The electrochemical discharge curve showed that more than 86% of the absorbed H{sub 2} was discharged. Furthermore, the cycled charge-discharge process indicated that the H{sub 2} gas charge and electrochemical discharge process is an effective way to rapidly charge and activate the metal hydride without degeneration. (author)

  9. Portable microfluidic raman system for rapid, label-free early disease signature detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meiye [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hatch, Anson [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In the early stages of infection, patients develop non-specific or no symptoms at all. While waiting for identification of the infectious agent, precious window of opportunity for early intervention is lost. The standard diagnostics require affinity reagents and sufficient pathogen titers to reach the limit of detection. In the event of a disease outbreak, triaging the at-risk population rapidly and reliably for quarantine and countermeasure is more important than the identification of the pathogen by name. To expand Sandia's portfolio of Biological threat management capabilities, we will utilize Raman spectrometry to analyze immune subsets in whole blood to rapidly distinguish infected from non-infected, and bacterial from viral infection, for the purpose of triage during an emergency outbreak. The goal of this one year LDRD is to determine whether Raman spectroscopy can provide label-free detection of early disease signatures, and define a miniaturized Raman detection system meeting requirements for low- resource settings.

  10. The neural response properties and cortical organization of a rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response that overlaps with the frequencies that elicit the kinesthetic illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Paul D; Bourbeau, Dennis J; Shell, Courtney E; Granja-Vazquez, Rafael; Ina, Jason G

    2017-01-01

    Kinesthesia is the sense of limb movement. It is fundamental to efficient motor control, yet its neurophysiological components remain poorly understood. The contributions of primary muscle spindles and cutaneous afferents to the kinesthetic sense have been well studied; however, potential contributions from muscle sensory group responses that are different than the muscle spindles have not been ruled out. Electrophysiological recordings in peripheral nerves and brains of male Sprague Dawley rats with a degloved forelimb preparation provide evidence of a rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response that overlaps with vibratory inputs known to generate illusionary perceptions of limb movement in humans (kinesthetic illusion). This group was characteristically distinct from type Ia muscle spindle fibers, the receptor historically attributed to limb movement sensation, suggesting that type Ia muscle spindle fibers may not be the sole carrier of kinesthetic information. The sensory-neural structure of muscles is complex and there are a number of possible sources for this response group; with Golgi tendon organs being the most likely candidate. The rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response projected to proprioceptive brain regions, the rodent homolog of cortical area 3a and the second somatosensory area (S2), with similar adaption and frequency response profiles between the brain and peripheral nerves. Their representational organization was muscle-specific (myocentric) and magnified for proximal and multi-articulate limb joints. Projection to proprioceptive brain areas, myocentric representational magnification of muscles prone to movement error, overlap with illusionary vibrational input, and resonant frequencies of volitional motor unit contraction suggest that this group response may be involved with limb movement processing.

  11. The neural response properties and cortical organization of a rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response that overlaps with the frequencies that elicit the kinesthetic illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Marasco

    Full Text Available Kinesthesia is the sense of limb movement. It is fundamental to efficient motor control, yet its neurophysiological components remain poorly understood. The contributions of primary muscle spindles and cutaneous afferents to the kinesthetic sense have been well studied; however, potential contributions from muscle sensory group responses that are different than the muscle spindles have not been ruled out. Electrophysiological recordings in peripheral nerves and brains of male Sprague Dawley rats with a degloved forelimb preparation provide evidence of a rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response that overlaps with vibratory inputs known to generate illusionary perceptions of limb movement in humans (kinesthetic illusion. This group was characteristically distinct from type Ia muscle spindle fibers, the receptor historically attributed to limb movement sensation, suggesting that type Ia muscle spindle fibers may not be the sole carrier of kinesthetic information. The sensory-neural structure of muscles is complex and there are a number of possible sources for this response group; with Golgi tendon organs being the most likely candidate. The rapidly adapting muscle sensory group response projected to proprioceptive brain regions, the rodent homolog of cortical area 3a and the second somatosensory area (S2, with similar adaption and frequency response profiles between the brain and peripheral nerves. Their representational organization was muscle-specific (myocentric and magnified for proximal and multi-articulate limb joints. Projection to proprioceptive brain areas, myocentric representational magnification of muscles prone to movement error, overlap with illusionary vibrational input, and resonant frequencies of volitional motor unit contraction suggest that this group response may be involved with limb movement processing.

  12. The Infrared Camera for RATIR, a Rapid Response GRB Followup Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapchun, David A.; Alardin, W.; Bigelow, B. C.; Bloom, J.; Butler, N.; Farah, A.; Fox, O. D.; Gehrels, N.; Gonzalez, J.; Klein, C.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Lotkin, G.; Morisset, C.; Moseley, S. H.; Richer, M.; Robinson, F. D.; Samuel, M. V.; Sparr, L. M.; Tucker, C.; Watson, A.

    2011-01-01

    RATIR (Reionization and Transients Infrared instrument) will be a hybrid optical/near IR imager that will utilize the "J-band dropout" to rapidly identify very high redshift (VHR) gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from a sample of all observable Swift bursts. Our group at GSFC is developing the instrument in collaboration with UC Berkeley (UCB) and University of Mexico (UNAM). RATIR has both a visible and IR camera, which give it access to 8 bands spanning visible and IR wavelengths. The instrument implements a combination of filters and dichroics to provide the capability of performing photometry in 4 bands simultaneously. The GSFC group leads the design and construction of the instrument's IR camera, equipped with two HgCdTe 2k x 2k Teledyne detectors. The cryostat housing these detectors is cooled by a mechanical cryo-compressor, which allows uninterrupted operation on the telescope. The host 1.5-m telescope, located at the UNAM San Pedro Martir Observatory, Mexico, has recently undergone robotization, allowing for fully automated, continuous operation. After commissioning in the spring of 2011, RATIR will dedicate its time to obtaining prompt follow-up observations of GRBs and identifying VHR GRBs, thereby providing a valuable tool for studying the epoch of reionization.

  13. Evidence of Rapid Modulation by Social Information of Subjective, Physiological, and Neural Responses to Emotional Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermillod, Martial; Grynberg, Delphine; Pio-Lopez, Léo; Rychlowska, Magdalena; Beffara, Brice; Harquel, Sylvain; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Niedenthal, Paula M; Dutheil, Frédéric; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Recent research suggests that conceptual or emotional factors could influence the perceptual processing of stimuli. In this article, we aimed to evaluate the effect of social information (positive, negative, or no information related to the character of the target) on subjective (perceived and felt valence and arousal), physiological (facial mimicry) as well as on neural (P100 and N170) responses to dynamic emotional facial expressions (EFE) that varied from neutral to one of the six basic emotions. Across three studies, the results showed reduced ratings of valence and arousal of EFE associated with incongruent social information (Study 1), increased electromyographical responses (Study 2), and significant modulation of P100 and N170 components (Study 3) when EFE were associated with social (positive and negative) information (vs. no information). These studies revealed that positive or negative social information reduces subjective responses to incongruent EFE and produces a similar neural and physiological boost of the early perceptual processing of EFE irrespective of their congruency. In conclusion, the article suggests that the presence of positive or negative social context modulates early physiological and neural activity preceding subsequent behavior.

  14. Evidence of Rapid Modulation by Social Information of Subjective, Physiological, and Neural Responses to Emotional Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martial Mermillod

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that conceptual or emotional factors could influence the perceptual processing of stimuli. In this article, we aimed to evaluate the effect of social information (positive, negative, or no information related to the character of the target on subjective (perceived and felt valence and arousal, physiological (facial mimicry as well as on neural (P100 and N170 responses to dynamic emotional facial expressions (EFE that varied from neutral to one of the six basic emotions. Across three studies, the results showed reduced ratings of valence and arousal of EFE associated with incongruent social information (Study 1, increased electromyographical responses (Study 2, and significant modulation of P100 and N170 components (Study 3 when EFE were associated with social (positive and negative information (vs. no information. These studies revealed that positive or negative social information reduces subjective responses to incongruent EFE and produces a similar neural and physiological boost of the early perceptual processing of EFE irrespective of their congruency. In conclusion, the article suggests that the presence of positive or negative social context modulates early physiological and neural activity preceding subsequent behavior.

  15. Use of SMS-Based Surveys in the Rapid Response to the Ebola Outbreak in Liberia: Opening Community Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Amanda; Figueroa, Maria Elena; Storey, J Douglas

    2017-01-01

    During an emerging health crisis like the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, communicating with communities to learn from them and to provide timely information can be a challenge. Insight into community thinking, however, is crucial for developing appropriate communication content and strategies and for monitoring the progress of the emergency response. In November 2014, the Health Communication Capacity Collaborative partnered with GeoPoll to implement a Short Message Service (SMS)-based survey that could create a link with affected communities and help guide the communication response to Ebola. The ideation metatheory of communication and behavior change guided the design of the survey questionnaire, which produced critical insights into trusted sources of information, knowledge of transmission modes, and perceived risks-all factors relevant to the design of an effective communication response that further catalyzed ongoing community actions. The use of GeoPoll's infrastructure for data collection proved a crucial source of almost-real-time data. It allowed for rapid data collection and processing under chaotic field conditions. Though not a replacement for standard survey methodologies, SMS surveys can provide quick answers within a larger research process to decide on immediate steps for communication strategies when the demand for speedy emergency response is high. They can also help frame additional research as the response evolves and overall monitor the pulse of the situation at any point in time.

  16. Rapid analysis of hay attributes using NIRS. Final report, Task II alfalfa supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-24

    This final report provides technical information on the development of a near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) system for the analysis of alfalfa hay. The purpose of the system is to provide consistent quality for processing alfalfa stems for fuel and alfalfa leaf meal products for livestock feed. Project tasks were to: (1) develop an NIRS driven analytical system for analysis of alfalfa hay and processed alfalfa products; (2) assist in hiring a qualified NIRS technician and recommend changes in testing equipment necessary to provide accurate analysis; (3) calibrate the NIRS instrument for accurate analyses; and (4) develop prototype equipment and sampling procedures as a first step towards development of a totally automated sampling system that would rapidly sample and record incoming feedstock and outbound product. An accurate hay testing program was developed, along with calibration equations for analyzing alfalfa hay and sun-cured alfalfa pellets. A preliminary leaf steam calibration protocol was also developed. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Pandemic influenza preparedness and health systems challenges in Asia: results from rapid analyses in 6 Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putthasri Weerasak

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003, Asia-Pacific, particularly Southeast Asia, has received substantial attention because of the anticipation that it could be the epicentre of the next pandemic. There has been active investment but earlier review of pandemic preparedness plans in the region reveals that the translation of these strategic plans into operational plans is still lacking in some countries particularly those with low resources. The objective of this study is to understand the pandemic preparedness programmes, the health systems context, and challenges and constraints specific to the six Asian countries namely Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Taiwan, Thailand, and Viet Nam in the prepandemic phase before the start of H1N1/2009. Methods The study relied on the Systemic Rapid Assessment (SYSRA toolkit, which evaluates priority disease programmes by taking into account the programmes, the general health system, and the wider socio-cultural and political context. The components under review were: external context; stewardship and organisational arrangements; financing, resource generation and allocation; healthcare provision; and information systems. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected in the second half of 2008 based on a review of published data and interviews with key informants, exploring past and current patterns of health programme and pandemic response. Results The study shows that health systems in the six countries varied in regard to the epidemiological context, health care financing, and health service provision patterns. For pandemic preparation, all six countries have developed national governance on pandemic preparedness as well as national pandemic influenza preparedness plans and Avian and Human Influenza (AHI response plans. However, the governance arrangements and the nature of the plans differed. In the five developing countries, the focus was on surveillance and rapid containment of poultry related transmission

  18. Noninvasive optoacoustic system for rapid diagnostics and management of circulatory shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Kinsky, Michael; Prough, Donald S.

    2012-02-01

    Circulatory shock is lethal, if not promptly diagnosed and effectively treated. Typically, circulatory shock resuscitation is guided by blood pressure, heart rate, and mental status, which have poor predictive value. In patients, in whom early goaldirected therapy was applied using central venous oxygenation measurement, a substantial reduction of mortality was reported (from 46.5% to 30%). However, central venous catheterization is invasive, time-consuming and often results in complications. We proposed to use the optoacoustic technique for noninvasive, rapid assessment of central venous oxygenation. In our previous works we demonstrated that the optoacoustic technique can provide measurement of blood oxygenation in veins and arteries due to high contrast and high resolution. In this work we developed a novel optoacoustic system for noninvasive, automatic, real-time, and continuous measurement of central venous oxygenation. We performed pilot clinical tests of the system in human subjects with different oxygenation in the internal jugular vein and subclavian vein. A novel optoacoustic interface incorporating highly-sensitive optoacoustic probes and standard ultrasound imaging probes were developed and built for the study. Ultrasound imaging systems Vivid i and hand-held Vscan (GE Healthcare) as well as Site-Rite 5 (C.R. Bard) were used in the study. We developed a special algorithm for oxygenation monitoring with minimal influence of overlying tissue. The data demonstrate that the system provides precise measurement of venous oxygenation continuously and in real time. Both current value of the venous oxygenation and trend (in absolute values and for specified time intervals) are displayed in the system. The data indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic system developed by our group is capable of noninvasive measurement of blood oxygenation in specific veins; 2) clinical ultrasound imaging systems can facilitate optoacoustic probing of specific blood vessels; 3) the

  19. Rapid Modeling of and Response to Large Earthquakes Using Real-Time GPS Networks (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, B. W.; Bock, Y.; Squibb, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    Real-time GPS networks have the advantage of capturing motions throughout the entire earthquake cycle (interseismic, seismic, coseismic, postseismic), and because of this, are ideal for real-time monitoring of fault slip in the region. Real-time GPS networks provide the perfect supplement to seismic networks, which operate with lower noise and higher sampling rates than GPS networks, but only measure accelerations or velocities, putting them at a supreme disadvantage for ascertaining the full extent of slip during a large earthquake in real-time. Here we report on two examples of rapid modeling of recent large earthquakes near large regional real-time GPS networks. The first utilizes Japan’s GEONET consisting of about 1200 stations during the 2003 Mw 8.3 Tokachi-Oki earthquake about 100 km offshore Hokkaido Island and the second investigates the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake recorded by more than 100 stations in the California Real Time Network. The principal components of strain were computed throughout the networks and utilized as a trigger to initiate earthquake modeling. Total displacement waveforms were then computed in a simulated real-time fashion using a real-time network adjustment algorithm that fixes a station far away from the rupture to obtain a stable reference frame. Initial peak ground displacement measurements can then be used to obtain an initial size through scaling relationships. Finally, a full coseismic model of the event can be run minutes after the event, given predefined fault geometries, allowing emergency first responders and researchers to pinpoint the regions of highest damage. Furthermore, we are also investigating using total displacement waveforms for real-time moment tensor inversions to look at spatiotemporal variations in slip.

  20. Invasive species information networks: Collaboration at multiple scales for prevention, early detection, and rapid response to invasive alien species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annie; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Madsen, John; Westbrooks, Randy G.; Fournier, Christine; Mehrhoff, Les; Browne, Michael; Graham, Jim; Sellers, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate analysis of present distributions and effective modeling of future distributions of invasive alien species (IAS) are both highly dependent on the availability and accessibility of occurrence data and natural history information about the species. Invasive alien species monitoring and detection networks (such as the Invasive Plant Atlas of New England and the Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth) generate occurrence data at local and regional levels within the United States, which are shared through the US National Institute of Invasive Species Science. The Inter-American Biodiversity Information Network's Invasives Information Network (I3N), facilitates cooperation on sharing invasive species occurrence data throughout the Western Hemisphere. The I3N and other national and regional networks expose their data globally via the Global Invasive Species Information Network (GISIN). International and interdisciplinary cooperation on data sharing strengthens cooperation on strategies and responses to invasions. However, limitations to effective collaboration among invasive species networks leading to successful early detection and rapid response to invasive species include: lack of interoperability; data accessibility; funding; and technical expertise. This paper proposes various solutions to these obstacles at different geographic levels and briefly describes success stories from the invasive species information networks mentioned above. Using biological informatics to facilitate global information sharing is especially critical in invasive species science, as research has shown that one of the best indicators of the invasiveness of a species is whether it has been invasive elsewhere. Data must also be shared across disciplines because natural history information (e.g. diet, predators, habitat requirements, etc.) about a species in its native range is vital for effective prevention, detection, and rapid response to an invasion. Finally, it has been our

  1. An improved ternary vector system for Agrobacterium-mediated rapid maize transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ajith; Bass, Steven H; Wu, Emily; Wang, Ning; McBride, Kevin E; Annaluru, Narayana; Miller, Michael; Hua, Mo; Jones, Todd J

    2018-05-01

    A simple and versatile ternary vector system that utilizes improved accessory plasmids for rapid maize transformation is described. This system facilitates high-throughput vector construction and plant transformation. The super binary plasmid pSB1 is a mainstay of maize transformation. However, the large size of the base vector makes it challenging to clone, the process of co-integration is cumbersome and inefficient, and some Agrobacterium strains are known to give rise to spontaneous mutants resistant to tetracycline. These limitations present substantial barriers to high throughput vector construction. Here we describe a smaller, simpler and versatile ternary vector system for maize transformation that utilizes improved accessory plasmids requiring no co-integration step. In addition, the newly described accessory plasmids have restored virulence genes found to be defective in pSB1, as well as added virulence genes. Testing of different configurations of the accessory plasmids in combination with T-DNA binary vector as ternary vectors nearly doubles both the raw transformation frequency and the number of transformation events of usable quality in difficult-to-transform maize inbreds. The newly described ternary vectors enabled the development of a rapid maize transformation method for elite inbreds. This vector system facilitated screening different origins of replication on the accessory plasmid and T-DNA vector, and four combinations were identified that have high (86-103%) raw transformation frequency in an elite maize inbred.

  2. Highly selective and rapidly responsive fluorescent probe for hydrogen sulfide detection in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Jialin; Yang, Shaoxiang; Tian, Hongyu; Liu, Yongguo; Sun, Baoguo

    2018-08-15

    A new fluorescent probe 6-(2, 4-dinitrophenoxy)-2-naphthonitrile (probe 1) was designed and synthesized for the selective detection of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). The addition of H 2 S to a solution of probe 1 resulted in a marked fluorescence turn-on alongside a visual color change from colorless to light yellow. Importantly, this distinct color response indicated that probe 1 could be used as a visual sensor for H 2 S. Moreover, probe 1 was successfully used as a signal tool to determine the H 2 S levels in beer and red wine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sedimentary evidence for enhanced hydrological cycling in response to rapid carbon release during the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kentaro; Kemp, David B.; Itamiya, Shoma; Inui, Mutsuko

    2018-01-01

    A pronounced excursion in the carbon-isotope composition of biospheric carbon and coeval seawater warming during the early Toarcian (∼183 Ma) has been linked to the large-scale transfer of 12C-enriched carbon to the oceans and atmosphere. A European bias in the distribution of available data means that the precise pattern, tempo and global expression of this carbon cycle perturbation, and the associated environmental responses, remain uncertain. Here, we present a new cm-scale terrestrial-dominated carbon-isotope record through an expanded lower Toarcian section from Japan that displays a negative excursion pattern similar to marine and terrestrial carbon-isotope records documented from Europe. These new data suggest that 12C-enriched carbon was added to the biosphere in at least one rapid, millennial-scale pulse. Sedimentological analysis indicates a close association between the carbon-isotope excursion and high-energy sediment transport and enhanced fluvial discharge. Together, these data support the hypothesis that a sudden strengthening of the global hydrological cycle occurred in direct and immediate response to rapid carbon release and atmospheric warming.

  4. Rapid selection of escape mutants by the first CD8 T cell responses in acute HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The recent failure of a vaccine that primes T cell responses to control primary HIV-1 infection has raised doubts about the role of CD8+ T cells in early HIV-1 infection. We studied four patients who were identified shortly after HIV-1 infection and before seroconversion. In each patient there was very rapid selection of multiple HIV-1 escape mutants in the transmitted virus by CD8 T cells, including examples of complete fixation of non-synonymous substitutions within 2 weeks. Sequencing by single genome amplification suggested that the high rate of virus replication in acute infection gave a selective advantage to virus molecules that contained simultaneous and gained sequential T cell escape mutations. These observations show that whilst early HIV-1 specific CD8 T cells can act against virus, rapid escape means that these T cell responses are unlikely to benefit the patient and may in part explain why current HIV-1 T cell vaccines may not be protective.

  5. The application of the rapid assessment and response methodology for cannabis prevention research among youth in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Hans B; Kaplan, Charles D; Braam, Richard V; Verbraeck, Hans T; de Vries, Nanne K

    2015-08-01

    Drug prevention methods tailored to specific target groups have become increasingly important. There is a growing need to find ways to rapidly assess and situate target groups in their particular contexts. This need is associated with the implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for these specific target groups. This article describes the application of Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR) as a necessary first step in designing and implementing a prevention intervention plan for problematic cannabis use among "loitering" youth in the South of the Netherlands. Seven RAR studies were conducted using an innovative stepwise model in which the prevention field worker is central. The normative structure for the use of cannabis was found to vary across the neighborhoods of the RAR studies and emerged as the focal point in designing a suitable response. The RAR studies also identified the need in the prevention toolbox for a tailored, low-threshold, effective, individual brief intervention for youth problematic cannabis use. The RAR was found to provide a powerful methodology for detecting target groups and generating contextual and normative data that enable the prevention field worker to select and adapt from the spectrum of existing Evidence based Interventions (EBIs) or develop the most promising model for implementation with the specific target group. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid evolution of coral proteins responsible for interaction with the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voolstra, Christian R; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Matz, Mikhail V; Bayer, Till; Aranda, Manuel; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Desalvo, Michael K; Lindquist, Erika; Szmant, Alina M; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Medina, Mónica

    2011-01-01

    Corals worldwide are in decline due to climate change effects (e.g., rising seawater temperatures), pollution, and exploitation. The ability of corals to cope with these stressors in the long run depends on the evolvability of the underlying genetic networks and proteins, which remain largely unknown. A genome-wide scan for positively selected genes between related coral species can help to narrow down the search space considerably. We screened a set of 2,604 putative orthologs from EST-based sequence datasets of the coral species Acropora millepora and Acropora palmata to determine the fraction and identity of proteins that may experience adaptive evolution. 7% of the orthologs show elevated rates of evolution. Taxonomically-restricted (i.e. lineage-specific) genes show a positive selection signature more frequently than genes that are found across many animal phyla. The class of proteins that displayed elevated evolutionary rates was significantly enriched for proteins involved in immunity and defense, reproduction, and sensory perception. We also found elevated rates of evolution in several other functional groups such as management of membrane vesicles, transmembrane transport of ions and organic molecules, cell adhesion, and oxidative stress response. Proteins in these processes might be related to the endosymbiotic relationship corals maintain with dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. This study provides a birds-eye view of the processes potentially underlying coral adaptation, which will serve as a foundation for future work to elucidate the rates, patterns, and mechanisms of corals' evolutionary response to global climate change.

  7. The safeguards active response inventory system (SARIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.L.; Hairston, L.A.; O'Callaghan, P.B.; Grambihler, A.J.; Ruemmler, W.P.

    1987-01-01

    The Safeguards Active Response Inventory System (SARIS) is a computerized accountability system developed for nuclear materials control that incorporates elements of process monitoring, criticality safety, physical inventory and safeguards. It takes data from the process operations, stores it in an on-line database and translates the information into the formats needed by the various users. It traces the material through the process from feed to product; including recycle, waste and scraps streams. It models the process as the material changes form to ensure that artificial losses are not created. It automatically generates input to Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS), performs checks to prevent the possibility of a criticality accident, prepares an audit trail for Safeguards, prints labels for nuclear material containers, and produces DOE/NRC 741 forms. SARIS has been installed at three laboratories across the country

  8. 49 CFR 37.81 - Purchase or lease of used rail vehicles by public entities operating rapid or light rail systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entities operating rapid or light rail systems. 37.81 Section 37.81 Transportation Office of the Secretary... operating rapid or light rail systems. (a) Except as provided elsewhere in this section, each public entity operating a rapid or light rail system which, after August 25, 1990, purchases or leases a used rapid or...

  9. Behavioral responses of deafened guinea pigs to intracochlear electrical stimulation: a new rapid psychophysical procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterberg, M.J.H.; Versnel, H.

    2014-01-01

    In auditory research the guinea pig is often preferred above rats and mice because of the easily accessible cochlea and because the frequency range of its hearing is more comparable to that of humans. Studies of the guinea-pig auditory system primarily apply histological and electrophysiological

  10. Rapid Analyses of Polyetheretherketone Wear Characteristics by Accelerated Wear Testing with Microfabricated Surfaces for Artificial Joint Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chen-Ying; Kuo, Chien-Wei; Fang, Hsu-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Wear particle-induced biological responses are the major factors resulting in the loosening and then failure of total joint arthroplasties. It is feasible to improve the lubrication and reduce the wear of artificial joint system. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is considered as a potential bearing material due to its mechanical characteristics of resistance to fatigue strain. The PEEK wear particles have been indicated to be involved in biological responses in vitro, and further studies regarding the wear phenomena and wear particle generation are needed. In this study, we have established an accelerated wear testing system with microfabricated surfaces. Various contact pressures and lubricants have been utilized in the accelerated wear tests. Our results showed that increasing contact pressure resulted in an increase of wear particle sizes and wear rate, and the size of PEEK wear particles can be controlled by the feature size of microfabricated surfaces. These results provided the information rapidly about factors that affect the morphology and amount of PEEK wear particles and can be applied in the future for application of PEEK on the biological articulation system.

  11. Maize Cropping Systems Mapping Using RapidEye Observations in Agro-Ecological Landscapes in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Kyalo; Abdel-Rahman, Elfatih M; Subramanian, Sevgan; Nyasani, Johnson O; Thiel, Michael; Jozani, Hosein; Borgemeister, Christian; Landmann, Tobias

    2017-11-03

    Cropping systems information on explicit scales is an important but rarely available variable in many crops modeling routines and of utmost importance for understanding pests and disease propagation mechanisms in agro-ecological landscapes. In this study, high spatial and temporal resolution RapidEye bio-temporal data were utilized within a novel 2-step hierarchical random forest (RF) classification approach to map areas of mono- and mixed maize cropping systems. A small-scale maize farming site in Machakos County, Kenya was used as a study site. Within the study site, field data was collected during the satellite acquisition period on general land use/land cover (LULC) and the two cropping systems. Firstly, non-cropland areas were masked out from other land use/land cover using the LULC mapping result. Subsequently an optimized RF model was applied to the cropland layer to map the two cropping systems (2nd classification step). An overall accuracy of 93% was attained for the LULC classification, while the class accuracies (PA: producer's accuracy and UA: user's accuracy) for the two cropping systems were consistently above 85%. We concluded that explicit mapping of different cropping systems is feasible in complex and highly fragmented agro-ecological landscapes if high resolution and multi-temporal satellite data such as 5 m RapidEye data is employed. Further research is needed on the feasibility of using freely available 10-20 m Sentinel-2 data for wide-area assessment of cropping systems as an important variable in numerous crop productivity models.

  12. Maize Cropping Systems Mapping Using RapidEye Observations in Agro-Ecological Landscapes in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyalo Richard

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cropping systems information on explicit scales is an important but rarely available variable in many crops modeling routines and of utmost importance for understanding pests and disease propagation mechanisms in agro-ecological landscapes. In this study, high spatial and temporal resolution RapidEye bio-temporal data were utilized within a novel 2-step hierarchical random forest (RF classification approach to map areas of mono- and mixed maize cropping systems. A small-scale maize farming site in Machakos County, Kenya was used as a study site. Within the study site, field data was collected during the satellite acquisition period on general land use/land cover (LULC and the two cropping systems. Firstly, non-cropland areas were masked out from other land use/land cover using the LULC mapping result. Subsequently an optimized RF model was applied to the cropland layer to map the two cropping systems (2nd classification step. An overall accuracy of 93% was attained for the LULC classification, while the class accuracies (PA: producer’s accuracy and UA: user’s accuracy for the two cropping systems were consistently above 85%. We concluded that explicit mapping of different cropping systems is feasible in complex and highly fragmented agro-ecological landscapes if high resolution and multi-temporal satellite data such as 5 m RapidEye data is employed. Further research is needed on the feasibility of using freely available 10–20 m Sentinel-2 data for wide-area assessment of cropping systems as an important variable in numerous crop productivity models.

  13. Lake ecosystem response to rapid lateglacial climate changes in lake sediments from northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowiński, Michał; Zawiska, Izabela; Ott, Florian; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Apolinarska, Karina; Lutyńska, Monika; Michczyńska, Danuta J.; Brauer, Achim; Wulf, Sabine; Skubała, Piotr; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław

    2013-04-01

    During the Late Glacial Period environment changes were triggered by climatic oscillations which in turn controlled processes like, for example, permafrost thawing, vegetation development and ground water circulation. These environmental changes are ideally recorded in lake sediments and thus can be reconstructed applying a multi-poxy approach. Here, we present the results from the Trzechowskie paleolake, located in the northern Polish lowlands (eastern part of the Pomeranian Lakeland). The site is situated on the outwash plain of the Wda River, which was formed during the Pomeranian phase of the Vistulian glaciation ca 16,000 14C yrs BP. The depression of the Trzechowskie lake basin formed after melting of a buried ice block during the Allerød (13903±170 cal yrs BP). We reconstructed environmental changes in the Trzechowskie paleolake and its catchment using biotic proxies (macrofossils, pollen, cladocera, diatoms, oribatidae mite) and geochemical proxies (δ18O, δ13C, loss-on-ignition (LOI), CaCO3 content). In addition, we carried out µ-XRF element core scanning. The chronology has been established by means of biostratigraphyAMS14C dating on plant macro remains, varve counting in laminated intervals and the late Allerød Laacher See Tephra isochrone. Our results showed that biogenic accumulation in the lake started during the Bølling. Development of coniferous forest during the Allerød with dominance of Pinus sylvestris lead to leaching of carbonates in the catchment due to low pH increasing the flux of Ca ions into the lake. In consequence calcite precipitating in the lake increased as evidences by increasing CaCO3 contents. Both biotic and physical proxies clearly reflect the rapid decrease in productivity at the onset of the Younger Dryas. We compare the data from the Trzechowskie paleolake with the Meerfelder Maar and Rehwiese lake records based on tephrochronological synchronization using the Laacher See Tephra. This study is a contribution to the

  14. A rapid and continuous system for immobilization of nuclear material waste by vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shareef, M.U.; Hussain, S.H.; Tufail, M.; Rashid, F.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear technology has prime importance and backbone for rapid development of medical sciences, industries and in power generation as an alternate source of energy. Despite all these facts there is a major problem which is always associated with nuclear technology, that is, the generation of undesirable radioactive wastes. The radioactive wastes are quite problematic and need major attention for its treatment, conditioning and properly disposal to keep the environmental activities and human ecosystem healthy and safe. There are different large scale methods and processes to treat and dispose off the radioactive wastes. These processes are evaluated and designed by the various world competent and pronounced scientists in the light of rules and safety limits set by IAEA and other regulatory authorities to protect the environment and eventually protect our ecosystem. The research and development work on radioactive waste has been proceeding for the last fifty years but still it is a core issue and a big challenge for the nuclear scientists and radiation workers. In this study a rapid and continuous system for immobilization of nuclear waste into glass matrix by vitrification has been designed. In general treatment methods, Borosilicate glass is preferred because it is efficient, cost effective and rapid to that of other radioactive waste form. In this process the simulated waste is mixed with glass forming material and process for melting to form a glassy substrate in continuous manner. The waste is being converted into vitreous form and encapsulate into a glass matrix. (author)

  15. a Method for Preview Vibration Control of Systems Having Forcing Inputs and Rapidly-Switched Dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBeheiry, E. M.

    1998-07-01

    In a variety of applications, especially in large scale dynamic systems, the mechanization of different vibration control elements in different locations would be decided by limitations placed on the modal vibration of the system and the inherent dynamic coupling between its modes. Also, the quality of vibration control to the economy of producing the whole system would be another trade-off leading to a mix of passive, active and semi-active vibration control elements in one system. This termactiveis limited to externally powered vibration control inputs and the termsemi-activeis limited to rapidly switched dampers. In this article, an optimal preview control method is developed for application to dynamic systems having active and semi-active vibration control elements mechanized at different locations in one system. The system is then a piecewise (bilinear) controller in which two independent sets of control inputs appear additively and multiplicatively. Calculus of variations along with the Hamiltonian approach are employed for the derivation of this method. In essence, it requires the active elements to be ideal force generators and the switched dampers to have the property of on-line variation of the damping characteristics to pre-determined limits. As the dampers switch during operation the whole system's structure differs, and then values of the active forcing inputs are adapted to match these rapid changes. Strictly speaking, each rapidly switched damper has pre-known upper and lower damping levels and it can take on any in-between value. This in-between value is to be determined by the method as long as the damper tracks a pre-known fully active control demand. In every damping state of each semi-active damper the method provides the optimal matching values of the active forcing inputs. The method is shown to have the feature of solving simple standard matrix equations to obtain closed form solutions. A comprehensive 9-DOF tractor semi-trailer model is used

  16. Rapid evolution of coral proteins responsible for interaction with the environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian R Voolstra

    Full Text Available Corals worldwide are in decline due to climate change effects (e.g., rising seawater temperatures, pollution, and exploitation. The ability of corals to cope with these stressors in the long run depends on the evolvability of the underlying genetic networks and proteins, which remain largely unknown. A genome-wide scan for positively selected genes between related coral species can help to narrow down the search space considerably.We screened a set of 2,604 putative orthologs from EST-based sequence datasets of the coral species Acropora millepora and Acropora palmata to determine the fraction and identity of proteins that may experience adaptive evolution. 7% of the orthologs show elevated rates of evolution. Taxonomically-restricted (i.e. lineage-specific genes show a positive selection signature more frequently than genes that are found across many animal phyla. The class of proteins that displayed elevated evolutionary rates was significantly enriched for proteins involved in immunity and defense, reproduction, and sensory perception. We also found elevated rates of evolution in several other functional groups such as management of membrane vesicles, transmembrane transport of ions and organic molecules, cell adhesion, and oxidative stress response. Proteins in these processes might be related to the endosymbiotic relationship corals maintain with dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium.This study provides a birds-eye view of the processes potentially underlying coral adaptation, which will serve as a foundation for future work to elucidate the rates, patterns, and mechanisms of corals' evolutionary response to global climate change.

  17. Rapid Evolution of Coral Proteins Responsible for Interaction with the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voolstra, Christian R.; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Matz, Mikhail V.; Bayer, Till; Aranda, Manuel; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; DeSalvo, Michael K.; Lindquist, Erika; Szmant, Alina M.; Coffroth, Mary Alice; Medina, Monica

    2011-01-31

    Background: Corals worldwide are in decline due to climate change effects (e.g., rising seawater temperatures), pollution, and exploitation. The ability of corals to cope with these stressors in the long run depends on the evolvability of the underlying genetic networks and proteins, which remain largely unknown. A genome-wide scan for positively selected genes between related coral species can help to narrow down the search space considerably. Methodology/Principal Findings: We screened a set of 2,604 putative orthologs from EST-based sequence datasets of the coral species Acropora millepora and Acropora palmata to determine the fraction and identity of proteins that may experience adaptive evolution. 7percent of the orthologs show elevated rates of evolution. Taxonomically-restricted (i.e. lineagespecific) genes show a positive selection signature more frequently than genes that are found across many animal phyla. The class of proteins that displayed elevated evolutionary rates was significantly enriched for proteins involved in immunity and defense, reproduction, and sensory perception. We also found elevated rates of evolution in several other functional groups such as management of membrane vesicles, transmembrane transport of ions and organic molecules, cell adhesion, and oxidative stress response. Proteins in these processes might be related to the endosymbiotic relationship corals maintain with dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Conclusion/Relevance: This study provides a birds-eye view of the processes potentially underlying coral adaptation, which will serve as a foundation for future work to elucidate the rates, patterns, and mechanisms of corals? evolutionary response to global climate change.

  18. Incorporating rapid neocortical learning of new schema-consistent information into complementary learning systems theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, James L

    2013-11-01

    The complementary learning systems theory of the roles of hippocampus and neocortex (McClelland, McNaughton, & O'Reilly, 1995) holds that the rapid integration of arbitrary new information into neocortical structures is avoided to prevent catastrophic interference with structured knowledge representations stored in synaptic connections among neocortical neurons. Recent studies (Tse et al., 2007, 2011) showed that neocortical circuits can rapidly acquire new associations that are consistent with prior knowledge. The findings challenge the complementary learning systems theory as previously presented. However, new simulations extending those reported in McClelland et al. (1995) show that new information that is consistent with knowledge previously acquired by a putatively cortexlike artificial neural network can be learned rapidly and without interfering with existing knowledge; it is when inconsistent new knowledge is acquired quickly that catastrophic interference ensues. Several important features of the findings of Tse et al. (2007, 2011) are captured in these simulations, indicating that the neural network model used in McClelland et al. has characteristics in common with neocortical learning mechanisms. An additional simulation generalizes beyond the network model previously used, showing how the rate of change of cortical connections can depend on prior knowledge in an arguably more biologically plausible network architecture. In sum, the findings of Tse et al. are fully consistent with the idea that hippocampus and neocortex are complementary learning systems. Taken together, these findings and the simulations reported here advance our knowledge by bringing out the role of consistency of new experience with existing knowledge and demonstrating that the rate of change of connections in real and artificial neural networks can be strongly prior-knowledge dependent. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Rapid prototyping of soil moisture estimates using the NASA Land Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaj, V.; Mostovoy, G.; Li, B.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Houser, P.; Moorhead, R.; Kumar, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Land Information System (LIS), developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, is a functional Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) that incorporates a suite of land models in an interoperable computational framework. LIS has been integrated into a computational Rapid Prototyping Capabilities (RPC) infrastructure. LIS consists of a core, a number of community land models, data servers, and visualization systems - integrated in a high-performance computing environment. The land surface models (LSM) in LIS incorporate surface and atmospheric parameters of temperature, snow/water, vegetation, albedo, soil conditions, topography, and radiation. Many of these parameters are available from in-situ observations, numerical model analysis, and from NASA, NOAA, and other remote sensing satellite platforms at various spatial and temporal resolutions. The computational resources, available to LIS via the RPC infrastructure, support e- Science experiments involving the global modeling of land-atmosphere studies at 1km spatial resolutions as well as regional studies at finer resolutions. The Noah Land Surface Model, available with-in the LIS is being used to rapidly prototype soil moisture estimates in order to evaluate the viability of other science applications for decision making purposes. For example, LIS has been used to further extend the utility of the USDA Soil Climate Analysis Network of in-situ soil moisture observations. In addition, LIS also supports data assimilation capabilities that are used to assimilate remotely sensed soil moisture retrievals from the AMSR-E instrument onboard the Aqua satellite. The rapid prototyping of soil moisture estimates using LIS and their applications will be illustrated during the presentation.

  20. Charge Energy Transport in Hopping Systems with Rapidly Decreasing Density of States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendels, Dan; Organic Electronics Group Technion Team

    2014-03-01

    An accurate description of the carrier hopping topology in the energy domain of hopping systems incorporating a rapidly decreasing density of states and the subsequent energetic position of these systems' so called effective conduction band is crucial for rationalizing and quantifying these systems' thermo-electric properties, doping related phenomena and carrier gradient effects such as the emergence of the General Einstein Relation under degenerate conditions. Additionally, as will be shown, the 'mobile' carriers propagating through the system can have excess energies reaching 0.3eV above the system quasi-Fermi energy. Hence, since these mobile carriers are most prone to reach systems interfaces and interact with oppositely charged carriers, their excess energy should be considered in determining the efficiencies of energy dependent processes such as carrier recombination and exciton dissociation. In light of the stated motivations, a comprehensive numerical and analytical study of the topology of hopping in the energetic density of such systems (i.e. the statistics regarding which energy values carriers visit most and in what manner) was implemented and the main statistical features of the hopping process that determine the position in energy of the system's effective conduction band were distilled. The obtained results also help shed light on yet to be elucidated discrepancies between predictions given by the widely employed transport energy concept and Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. Virtual Simulator for Autonomous Mobile Robots Navigation System Using Concepts of Control Rapid Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonimer Flavio de Melo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the proposal of virtual environment implementation for project simulation and conception of supervision and control systems for mobile robots, that are capable to operate and adapting in different environments and conditions. This virtual system has as purpose to facilitate the development of embedded architecture systems, emphasizing the implementation of tools that allow the simulation of the kinematic conditions, dynamic and control, with real time monitoring of all important system points. For this, open control architecture is proposal, integrating the two main techniques of robotic control implementation in the hardware level: systems microprocessors and reconfigurable hardware devices. The implemented simulator system is composed of a trajectory generating module, a kinematic and dynamic simulator module and of a analysis module of results and errors. The kinematic and dynamic simulator module makes all simulation of the mobile robot following the pre-determined trajectory of the trajectory generator. All the kinematic and dynamic results shown during the simulation can be evaluated and visualized in graphs and tables formats, in the results analysis module, allowing an improvement in the system, minimizing the errors with the necessary adjustments optimization. For controller implementation in the embedded system, it uses the rapid prototyping, which is the technology that allows, in set with the virtual simulation environment, the development of a controller project for mobile robots. The validation and tests had been accomplishing with nonholonomics mobile robots models with differential transmission.

  2. Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems using a PDMS/polymer tape composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkyu; Surapaneni, Rajesh; Gale, Bruce K

    2009-05-07

    Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems using a combination of double-sided tape and PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) is introduced. PDMS is typically difficult to bond using adhesive tapes due to its hydrophobic nature and low surface energy. For this reason, PDMS is not compatible with the xurography method, which uses a knife plotter and various adhesive coated polymer tapes. To solve these problems, a PDMS/tape composite was developed and demonstrated in microfluidic applications. The PDMS/tape composite was created by spinning it to make a thin layer of PDMS over double-sided tape. Then the PDMS/tape composite was patterned to create channels using xurography, and bonded to a PDMS slab. After removing the backing paper from the tape, a complete microfluidic system could be created by placing the construct onto nearly any substrate; including glass, plastic or metal-coated glass/silicon substrates. The bond strength was shown to be sufficient for the pressures that occur in typical microfluidic channels used for chemical or biological analysis. This method was demonstrated in three applications: standard microfluidic channels and reactors, a microfluidic system with an integrated membrane, and an electrochemical biosensor. The PDMS/tape composite rapid prototyping technique provides a fast and cost effective fabrication method and can provide easy integration of microfluidic channels with sensors and other components without the need for a cleanroom facility.

  3. Research on rapid agile metrology for manufacturing based on real-time multitask operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jihong; Song, Zhen; Yang, Daoshan; Zhou, Ji; Buckley, Shawn

    1996-10-01

    Rapid agile metrology for manufacturing (RAMM) using multiple non-contact sensors is likely to remain a growing trend in manufacturing. High speed inspecting systems for manufacturing is characterized by multitasks implemented in parallel and real-time events which occur simultaneously. In this paper, we introduce a real-time operating system into RAMM research. A general task model of a class-based object- oriented technology is proposed. A general multitask frame of a typical RAMM system using OPNet is discussed. Finally, an application example of a machine which inspects parts held on a carrier strip is described. With RTOS and OPNet, this machine can measure two dimensions of the contacts at 300 parts/second.

  4. Rapid Inventory Collection System (RICS) and the 2009 Victorian Bushfires impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habili, N; Corby, N; Cechet, R P, E-mail: nariman.habili@ga.gov.a [Risk and Impact Analysis Group, Geoscience Australia G.PO Box 378, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    The Rapid Inventory Collection System (RICS) is a vehicular data collection system (image and GPS) used for building/infrastructure damage and inventory assessment. The system consists of Ethernet cameras attached to a tripod mounted on a motor vehicle, a GPS receiver and software written in C++. RICS was deployed following the 2009 Victorian Bushfires and the collected data was used by the Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission for the impact assessment (field survey) which quantified the extent and severity of the damage caused to residential buildings by the fire-storm. The regions of Kilmore East, Murrindindi, Churchill, Maiden Gully - Bendigo and Bunyip had nearly 5400 residential structures within the fire perimeter. Analysis utilising both aerial and vehicular (RICS) imagery indicates that just over 2100 homes were destroyed and an additional 800 received minor damage.

  5. Optical code division multiple access secure communications systems with rapid reconfigurable polarization shift key user code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kaiqiang; Wu, Chongqing; Sheng, Xinzhi; Shang, Chao; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    An optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) secure communications system scheme with rapid reconfigurable polarization shift key (Pol-SK) bipolar user code is proposed and demonstrated. Compared to fix code OCDMA, by constantly changing the user code, the performance of anti-eavesdropping is greatly improved. The Pol-SK OCDMA experiment with a 10 Gchip/s user code and a 1.25 Gb/s user data of payload has been realized, which means this scheme has better tolerance and could be easily realized.

  6. 10 kW Contactless Power Transfer System for Rapid Charger of Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanaka, Tomohiro; Kaneko, Yasuyoshi; Abe, Shigeru; Yasuda, Tomio

    2012-01-01

    A contactless power transfer system for charging electric vehicles requires a high efficiency, a large air gap, and a good tolerance to lateral misalignment and needs to be compact and lightweight. A double-sided winding 10 kW transformer based on a 1.5 kW H-shaped core transformer was developed for a rapid charger. Even though the transformer capacity was increased, the dimensions of the 10 kW transformer were almost the same as those of the 1.5 kW transformer. In this paper, the design conc...

  7. Book Review: System Forensics, Investigation, and Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nate Keith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Vacca, J. R. and Rudolph, K. (2011. System Forensics, Investigation, and Response. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning. 339 + xv pages, ISBN: 978-0-7637-9134-6, US$89.95.Reviewed by Nate Keith, MBA, (natejkeith@gmail.comI recently expressed an interest to a respected colleague in finding a way to “give back” to the forensic community. He suggested writing a review for a text he recently received and provide feedback to the community. It is my intent to present an objective analysis of System Forensics, Investigation, and Response.Written by John R. Vacca and K Rudolph, this book is part of the Jones and Bartlett Learning Information Systems Security & Assurance Series.  Both Vacca and Rudolph have considerable experience in the information technology field as is demonstrated by the back cover notes: “John R. Vacca is an information technology consultant and internationally known best-selling author based in Pomeroy, Ohio.  Since 1982, he has written 62 books and more than 600 articles in the areas of advanced storage, computer security, and aerospace technology.(see PDF for full review

  8. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoguang [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Department of Medical Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Qian, Hua [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Miyamoto, Fusako [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Naito, Takeshi [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kawaji, Kumi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kajiwara, Kazumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); JST Innovation Plaza Kyoto, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Nishigyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8245 (Japan); Hattori, Toshio [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Matsuoka, Masao [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); and others

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1{sub IIIB} and HIV-1{sub BaL} as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} and anti-HIV-1{sub BaL} activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, 'phenotypic drug evaluation', may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

  9. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoguang; Qian, Hua; Miyamoto, Fusako; Naito, Takeshi; Kawaji, Kumi; Kajiwara, Kazumi; Hattori, Toshio; Matsuoka, Masao; Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. ► The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. ► In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1 IIIB and HIV-1 BaL as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1 IIIB activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1 IIIB and anti-HIV-1 BaL activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, “phenotypic drug evaluation”, may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

  10. A detection method in living plant cells for rapidly monitoring the response of plants to exogenous lanthanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mengzhu; Wang, Lihong; Yang, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2018-08-30

    The pollution of rare earth elements (REEs) in ecosystem is becoming more and more serious, so it is urgent to establish methods for monitoring the pollution of REEs. Monitoring environmental pollution via the response of plants to pollutants has become the most stable and accurate method compared with traditional methods, but scientists still need to find the primary response of plants to pollutants to improve the sensitivity and speed of this method. Based on the facts that the initiation of endocytosis is the primary cellular response of the plant leaf cells to REEs and the detection of endocytosis is complex and expensive, we constructed a detection method in living plant cells for rapidly monitoring the response of plants to exogenous lanthanum [La(III), a representative of REEs] by designing a new immuno-electrochemical method for detecting the content change in extracellular vitronectin-like protein (VN) that are closely related to endocytosis. Results showed that when 30 μM La(III) initiated a small amount of endocytosis, the content of extracellular VN increased by 5.46 times, but the structure and function of plasma membrane were not interfered by La(III); when 80 μM La(III) strongly initiated a large amount of endocytosis, the content of extracellular VN increased by 119 times, meanwhile, the structure and function of plasma membrane were damaged. In summary, the detection method can reflect the response of plants to La(III) via detecting the content change in extracellular VN, which provides an effective and convenient way to monitor the response of plants to exogenous REEs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Dissociation and Re-Aggregation of Multicell-Ensheathed Fragments Responsible for Rapid Production of Massive Clumps of Leptothrix Sheaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunoh, Tatsuki; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; McFarlane, Ian R.; Tamura, Katsunori; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Takada, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Species of the Fe/Mn-oxidizing bacteria Leptothrix produce tremendous amounts of microtubular, Fe/Mn-encrusted sheaths within a few days in outwells of groundwater that can rapidly clog water systems. To understand this mode of rapid sheath production and define the timescales involved, behaviors of sheath-forming Leptothrix sp. strain OUMS1 were examined using time-lapse video at the initial stage of sheath formation. OUMS1 formed clumps of tangled sheaths. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of a thin layer of bacterial exopolymer fibrils around catenulate cells (corresponding to the immature sheath). In time-lapse videos, numerous sheath filaments that extended from the periphery of sheath clumps repeatedly fragmented at the apex of the same fragment, the fragments then aggregated and again elongated, eventually forming a large sheath clump comprising tangled sheaths within two days. In this study, we found that fast microscopic fragmentation, dissociation, re-aggregation and re-elongation events are the basis of the rapid, massive production of Leptothrix sheaths typically observed at macroscopic scales. PMID:27490579

  12. Rapid Mental Сomputation System as a Tool for Algorithmic Thinking of Elementary School Students Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushan Ziatdinov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the possibilities of using a rapid mental computation system in elementary education. The system consists of a number of readily memorized operations that allow one to perform arithmetic computations very quickly. These operations are actually simple algorithms which can develop or improve the algorithmic thinking of pupils. Using a rapid mental computation system allows forming the basis for the study of computer science in secondary school.

  13. Rapid measurement of auditory filter shape in mice using the auditory brainstem response and notched noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina, Ioan A; Lauer, Amanda M

    2013-04-01

    The notched noise method is an effective procedure for measuring frequency resolution and auditory filter shapes in both human and animal models of hearing. Briefly, auditory filter shape and bandwidth estimates are derived from masked thresholds for tones presented in noise containing widening spectral notches. As the spectral notch widens, increasingly less of the noise falls within the auditory filter and the tone becomes more detectible until the notch width exceeds the filter bandwidth. Behavioral procedures have been used for the derivation of notched noise auditory filter shapes in mice; however, the time and effort needed to train and test animals on these tasks renders a constraint on the widespread application of this testing method. As an alternative procedure, we combined relatively non-invasive auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements and the notched noise method to estimate auditory filters in normal-hearing mice at center frequencies of 8, 11.2, and 16 kHz. A complete set of simultaneous masked thresholds for a particular tone frequency were obtained in about an hour. ABR-derived filter bandwidths broadened with increasing frequency, consistent with previous studies. The ABR notched noise procedure provides a fast alternative to estimating frequency selectivity in mice that is well-suited to high through-put or time-sensitive screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid assay for cell age response to radiation by electronic volume flow cell sorting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyer, J.P.; Wilder, M.E.; Raju, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    A new technique is described for measuring cell survival as a function of cell cycle position using flow cytometric cell sorting on the basis of electronic volume signals. Sorting of cells into different cell age compartments is demonstrated for three different cell lines commonly used in radiobiological research. Using flow cytometric DNA content analysis and [ 3 H]thymidine autoradiography of the sorted cell populations, it is demonstrated that resolution of the age compartment separation is as good as or better than that reported for other cell synchronizing techniques. Variation in cell survival as a function of position in the cell cycle after a single dose of radiation as measured by volume cell sorting is similar to that determined by other cell synchrony techniques. Advantages of this method include: (1) no treatment of the cells is required, thus, this method is noncytotoxic; (2) no cell cycle progression is needed to obtain different cell age compartments; (3) the cell population can be held in complete growth medium at any desired temperature during sorting; (4) a complete radiation age - response assay can be plated in 2 h. Applications of this method are discussed, along with some technical limitations. (author)

  15. Incident Command System - Environmental Unit responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillman, S. O.

    1997-01-01

    The Incident Command System (ICS) for crisis management, used for response to oil spills by the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company throughout its facilities, including the Trans Alaska Pipeline and the Valdez Marine Terminal, was described. Special attention was given to the Environmental Unit within the ICS which functions as a primary support unit for the Incident Operations Section. Details of the Unit's function were provided. These include the collection, evaluation and dissemination of information on all environmental issues concerning the crisis, provision of advice and direction on environmental aspects, and up-front agency interaction. A checklist of tasks is included. 7 refs

  16. Rapid onset pressor response to exercise in young women with a family history of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Evan L; Greaney, Jody L; Wenner, Megan M

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? Alterations in blood pressure control at exercise onset are apparent in older adults with established cardiovascular disease. It is currently not known whether these alterations are evident in young adults with a family history of hypertension. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate that young women with a family history of hypertension display a larger change in blood pressure within the first 10 s of isometric exercise. These data suggest altered blood pressure control in young women with a family history of hypertension. Hypertensive adults demonstrate atypical increases in blood pressure (BP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at the immediate onset of static muscle contraction. However, it is unknown whether these abnormal responses occur in young, otherwise healthy adults at risk for developing future disease, such as those with a family history of hypertension (+FH). We tested the hypothesis that +FH young women have exaggerated increases in BP and MSNA at the onset of static muscle contraction compared with those without a family history of hypertension (-FH). We retrospectively examined beat-by-beat BP and MSNA during the initial 30 s of isometric handgrip exercise (30% of maximal voluntary contraction) in 16 +FH (22 ± 2 years old, 22 ± 3 kg m -2 ) and 16 -FH (22 ± 3 years old, 22 ± 3 kg m -2 ) women. Resting mean arterial pressure (+FH 80 ± 11 mmHg versus -FH 84 ± 13 mmHg), MSNA burst frequency (+FH 7 ± 3 bursts min -1 versus -FH 9 ± 5 bursts min -1 ) and burst incidence [+FH 12 ± 4 bursts (100 heart beats) -1 versus -FH 12 ± 8 bursts (100 heart beats) -1 ] were similar between groups (all P > 0.05). Within the first 10 s of exercise, changes in mean arterial pressure (+FH Δ8 ± 6 mmHg versus -FH Δ3 ± 2 mmHg, P exercise was not different between groups (-FH 7 ± 5 bursts min -1 versus +FH 9 ± 3 bursts min -1

  17. Rapid response of a marine mammal species to holocene climate and habitat change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark de Bruyn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental change drives demographic and evolutionary processes that determine diversity within and among species. Tracking these processes during periods of change reveals mechanisms for the establishment of populations and provides predictive data on response to potential future impacts, including those caused by anthropogenic climate change. Here we show how a highly mobile marine species responded to the gain and loss of new breeding habitat. Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, remains were found along the Victoria Land Coast (VLC in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, 2,500 km from the nearest extant breeding site on Macquarie Island (MQ. This habitat was released after retreat of the grounded ice sheet in the Ross Sea Embayment 7,500-8,000 cal YBP, and is within the range of modern foraging excursions from the MQ colony. Using ancient mtDNA and coalescent models, we tracked the population dynamics of the now extinct VLC colony and the connectivity between this and extant breeding sites. We found a clear expansion signal in the VLC population approximately 8,000 YBP, followed by directional migration away from VLC and the loss of diversity at approximately 1,000 YBP, when sea ice is thought to have expanded. Our data suggest that VLC seals came initially from MQ and that some returned there once the VLC habitat was lost, approximately 7,000 years later. We track the founder-extinction dynamics of a population from inception to extinction in the context of Holocene climate change and present evidence that an unexpectedly diverse, differentiated breeding population was founded from a distant source population soon after habitat became available.

  18. Fluvial response to the last Holocene rapid climate change in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Devillers, Benoît; Blanchemanche, Philippe; Dezileau, Laurent; Oueslati, Hamza; Tillier, Margaux; Bohbot, Hervé

    2017-05-01

    The variability of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastal lowlands and its relationship with modes of climate change were analysed from the late 9th to the 18th centuries CE. Geochemical analyses were undertaken from a lagoonal sequence and surrounding sediments in order to track the fluvial inputs into the lagoon. An index based on the K/S and Rb/S ratios was used to evidence the main periods of fluvial activity. This index reveals that the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) was a drier period characterized by a lower fluvial activity, while the Little Ice Age (LIA) was a wetter period with an increase of the river dynamics. Three periods of higher than average fluvial activity were evidenced at the end of the first millennium CE (ca. 900-950 cal yr CE), in the first half of the second millennium CE (ca. 1150-1550 cal yr CE), and during the 1600s-1700s CE (ca. 1650-1800 cal yr CE). The comparison of these fluvial periods with other records of riverine or lacustrine floods in Spain, Italy, and South of France seems to indicate a general increase in fluvial and flood patterns in the Northwestern Mediterranean in response to the climate change from the MCA to the LIA, although some episodes of flooding are not found in all records. Besides, the phases of higher than average fluvial dynamics are in good agreement with the North Atlantic cold events evidenced from records of ice-rafted debris. The evolution of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands during the last millennium could have been driven by atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns.

  19. Rapid response of a marine mammal species to holocene climate and habitat change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Mark; Hall, Brenda L; Chauke, Lucas F; Baroni, Carlo; Koch, Paul L; Hoelzel, A Rus

    2009-07-01

    Environmental change drives demographic and evolutionary processes that determine diversity within and among species. Tracking these processes during periods of change reveals mechanisms for the establishment of populations and provides predictive data on response to potential future impacts, including those caused by anthropogenic climate change. Here we show how a highly mobile marine species responded to the gain and loss of new breeding habitat. Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, remains were found along the Victoria Land Coast (VLC) in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, 2,500 km from the nearest extant breeding site on Macquarie Island (MQ). This habitat was released after retreat of the grounded ice sheet in the Ross Sea Embayment 7,500-8,000 cal YBP, and is within the range of modern foraging excursions from the MQ colony. Using ancient mtDNA and coalescent models, we tracked the population dynamics of the now extinct VLC colony and the connectivity between this and extant breeding sites. We found a clear expansion signal in the VLC population approximately 8,000 YBP, followed by directional migration away from VLC and the loss of diversity at approximately 1,000 YBP, when sea ice is thought to have expanded. Our data suggest that VLC seals came initially from MQ and that some returned there once the VLC habitat was lost, approximately 7,000 years later. We track the founder-extinction dynamics of a population from inception to extinction in the context of Holocene climate change and present evidence that an unexpectedly diverse, differentiated breeding population was founded from a distant source population soon after habitat became available.

  20. Tsunami response system for ports in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H.-R.; Cho, J.-S.; Cho, Y.-S.

    2015-09-01

    The tsunamis that have occurred in many places around the world over the past decade have taken a heavy toll on human lives and property. The eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is not safe from tsunamis, particularly the eastern coastal areas, which have long sustained tsunami damage. The eastern coast had been attacked by 1983 and 1993 tsunami events. The aim of this study was to mitigate the casualties and property damage against unexpected tsunami attacks along the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula by developing a proper tsunami response system for important ports and harbors with high population densities and high concentrations of key national industries. The system is made based on numerical and physical modelings of 3 historical and 11 virtual tsunamis events, field surveys, and extensive interviews with related people.

  1. The Safeguards Active Response Inventory System (SARIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.L.

    1985-04-01

    The Safeguards Active Response Inventory System (SARIS) was developed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to perform material control and accountability on all the nuclear material under WHC's jurisdiction. SARIS has been in operation for four and one-half years. It has reduced physical inventory plant shutdown time from several days to a few hours. The user-friendly interface has proven successful, as the training time for a new operator is only two to three hours; also errors have been dramatically reduced. The modeling features of SARIS have reduced the reported inventory difference and provide better information for measurement of scrap and waste. The audit files have been usefull in resolving data entry errors and the backup features have averted several potential problems. SARIS as a computerized accountability system has replaced manual record keeping with a consequent increase in productivity. 4 refs

  2. A computer-controlled system for rapid soil analysis of 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doane, R.W.; Berven, B.A.; Blair, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    A computer-controlled multichannel analysis system has been developed by the Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) in support of the DOE's remedial action programs. The purpose of this system is to provide a rapid estimate of the 226 Ra concentration in soil samples using a 6 x 9 inch NaI(T1) crystal containing a 3.25 inch deep by 3.5 inch diameter well. This gamma detection system is controlled by a minicomputer with a dual floppy disk storage medium, line printer, and optional X-Y plotter. A two-chip interface was also designed at ORNL which handles all control signals generated from the computer keyboard. These computer-generated control signals are processed in machine language for rapid data transfer and BASIC language is used for data processing. The computer system is a Commodore Business Machines (CBM) Model 8032 personal computer with CBM peripherals. Control and data signals are utilized via the parallel user's port to the interface unit. The analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is controlled in machine language, bootstrapped to high memory, and is addressed through the BASIC program. The BASIC program is designed to be ''user friendly'' and provides the operator with several modes of operation such as background and analysis acquisition. Any number of energy regions-of-interest (ROI) may be analyzed with automatic background substraction. Also employed in the BASIC program are the 226 Ra algorithms which utilize linear and polynomial regression equations for data conversion and look-up tables for radon equilibrating coefficients. The optional X-Y plotter may be used with two- or three-dimensional curve programs to enhance data analysis and presentation. A description of the system is presented and typical applications are discussed

  3. Rapid Prototyping of the Central Safety System for Nuclear Risk in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scibile, L. [ITER Organization, 13 - St. Paul lez Durance (France); Ambrosino, G.; De Tommasi, G.; Pironti, A. [Euratom-ENEA-CREATE, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: In the current ITER Baseline design, the Central Safety System for Nuclear Risk (CSS-N) is the safety control system in charge to assure nuclear safety for the plant, personnel and environment. In particular it is envisaged that the CSS shall interface to the plant safety systems for nuclear risk and shall coordinate the individual protection provided by the intervention of these systems by the activation, where required, of additional protections. The design of such a system, together with its implementation, strongly depends on the requirements, particularly in terms of reliability. The CSS-N is a safety critical system, thus its validation and commissioning play a very important role, since the required level of reliability must be demonstrated. In such a scenario, where a new and non-conventional system has to be deployed, it is strongly recommended to use modeling and simulation tools since the early design phase. Indeed, the modeling tools will help in the definition of the system requirements, and they will be used to test and validate the control logic. Furthermore these tools can be used to rapid design the safety system and to carry out hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulations, which permit to assess the performance of the control hardware against a plant simulator. Both a control system prototype and a safety system oriented plant simulator have been developed to assess first the requirements and then the performance of the CSS-N. In particular the presented SW/HW framework permits to design and verify the CSS protection logics and to test and validate these logics by means of HIL simulations. This work introduces both the prototype and plant simulator architectures, together with the methodology adopted to design and implement these validation tools. (authors)

  4. Rapid Response Products of The ARIA Project for the M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. H.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Milillo, P.; Fielding, E. J.; Hudnut, K. W.; Dawson, T. E.; Mccrink, T. P.; Jo, M. J.; Barnhart, W. D.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Agram, P. S.; Moore, A. W.; Jung, H. S.; Webb, F.; Milillo, G.; Rosinski, A.

    2014-12-01

    A magnitude 6.0 earthquake struck southern Napa county northeast of San Francisco, California, on Aug. 24, 2014, causing significant damage in the city of Napa and nearby areas. One day after the earthquake, the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) team produced and released observations of coseismic ground displacement measured with continuous GPS stations of the Plate Boundary Observatory (operated by UNAVCO for the National Science Foundation) and the Bay Area Rapid Deformation network (operated by Berkeley Seismological Laboratory). Three days after the earthquake (Aug. 27), the Italian Space Agency's (ASI) COSMO-SkyMed (CSK) satellite acquired their first post-event data. On the same day, the ARIA team, in collaboration with ASI and University of Basilicata, produced and released a coseismic interferogram that revealed ground deformation and surface rupture. The depiction of the surface rupture - discontinuities of color fringes in the CSK interferogram - helped guide field geologists from the US Geological Survey and the California Geological Survey (CGS) to features that may have otherwise gone undetected. Small-scale cracks were found on a runway of the Napa County Airport, as well as bridge damage and damaged roads. ARIA's response to this event highlighted the importance of timeliness for mapping surface deformation features. ARIA's rapid response products were shared through Southern California Earthquake Center's response website and the California Earthquake Clearinghouse. A damage proxy map derived from InSAR coherence of CSK data was produced and distributed on Aug. 27. Field crews from the CGS identified true and false positives, including mobile home damage, newly planted grape vines, and a cripple wall failure of a house. Finite fault slip models constrained from CSK interferograms and continuous GPS observations reveal a north-propagating rupture with well-resolved slip from 0-10.5 km depth. We also measured along-track coseismic

  5. Rapid GNSS and Data Communication System Deployments In Chile and Argentina Following the M8.8 Maule Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, F.; Meertens, C. M.; Brooks, B. A.; Bevis, M. G.; Smalley, R.; Parra, H.; Baez, J.

    2010-12-01

    Because the signal is so big, great earthquakes allow us to make quantum leaps in our understanding of Earth deformation process and material properties. The Maule earthquake, with its occurrence near a large subaerial landmass and the large numbers of instruments available to study it, will surely become one of the most important geophysical events in modern memory. Much of the important signal, however, decays and changes rapidly in the short-term following the event and so a rapid response is necessary. Actually delivering the data from the CGPS response stations, however, represents an intellectual challenge in terms of properly matching the engineering realities with the scientific desiderata. We expect multiple major science advances to come from these data: (1) Understanding earthquake and tsunami-genesis via use of the coseismic displacement field to create the most well-constrained fault slip and tsunami-genesis models. (2) The role of stress loading on both the principal thrust plane and subsidiary planes. (3) The relationship between fault afterslip to the main event as well as to the distribution of aftershocks (4) Study of large aftershocks jointly using conventional seismology and high-rate GPS coseismic displacement seismogram. (5) Rheological behavior of the fault interface. (6) The mechanical response of the bulk earth to large stress perturbations. Within 10 days of the earthquake 20 complete GPS systems were delivered by UNAVCO personnel to IGM and OSU staff in Santiago, and 5 were shipped via diplomatic pouch to Argentina. Consisting of of 10 Trimble NetRS and 15 Topcon GB-1000 receivers, the units were deployed througout the affected area during the following three weeks, using welded-in-place steel tripod monuments driven into soil or drilled into bedrock, or steel masts. Additional GPS hardware was procured from cooperating institutions and donated by GPS manufacturers, and a total of 43 post-earthquake GPS stations are continuously operating

  6. Liver Stiffness Decreases Rapidly in Response to Successful Hepatitis C Treatment and Then Plateaus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Chekuri

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of a sustained virological response (SVR to hepatitis C virus (HCV treatment on liver stiffness (LS.LS, measured by transient elastography (FibroScan, demographic and laboratory data of patients treated with interferon (IFN-containing or IFN-free regimens who had an SVR24 (undetectable HCV viral load 24 weeks after the end of treatment were analyzed using two-tailed paired t-tests, Mann-Whitney Wilcoxon Signed-rank tests and linear regression. Two time intervals were investigated: pre-treatment to SVR24 and SVR24 to the end of follow-up. LS scores ≥ 12.5 kPa indicated LS-defined cirrhosis. A p-value below 0.05 was considered statistically significant.The median age of the patients (n = 100 was 60 years [IQR (interquartile range 54-64; 72% were male; 60% were Caucasian; and 42% had cirrhosis pre-treatment according to the FibroScan measurement. The median LS score dropped from 10.40 kPa (IQR: 7.25-18.60 pre-treatment to 7.60 kPa (IQR: 5.60-12.38 at SVR24, p <0.01. Among the 42 patients with LS-defined cirrhosis pre-treatment, 25 (60% of patients still had LS scores ≥ 12.5 kPa at SVR24, indicating the persistence of cirrhosis. The median change in LS was similar in patients receiving IFN-containing and IFN-free regimens: -1.95 kPa (IQR: -5.75 --0.38 versus -2.40 kPa (IQR: -7.70 --0.23, p = 0.74. Among 56 patients with a post-SVR24 LS measurement, the LS score changed by an additional -0.90 kPa (IQR: -2.98-0.5 during a median follow-up time of 1.17 (IQR: 0.88-1.63 years, which was not a statistically significant decrease (p = 0.99.LS decreased from pre-treatment to SVR24, but did not decrease significantly during additional follow-up. Earlier treatment may be needed to reduce the burden of liver disease.

  7. Rapid islanding detection using multi-level inverter for grid-interactive PV system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, K.M.; Chan, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel reference signal is used to form an islanding detection scheme for PV system. • Supply fixed magnitude sinusoidal signal even if utility grid is disconnected. • Seamless transfer between grid-connected and stand-alone modes is possible. - Abstract: A novel reference signal generator is combined with a multi-level inverter to form a rapid islanding detection scheme for grid-interactive PV system. The reference signal generator can easily be synchronized with the utility grid signal and produced a fixed magnitude and very low total harmonic distortion (THD) sinusoidal signal which is in phase with the utility grid signal. Unlike conventional phase-locked loop (PLL) circuitry, the reference signal generator can also provide a fixed magnitude sinusoidal signal even if the utility grid is disconnected and automatically re-synchronous with the grid rapidly. Consequently, seamless transfer between grid-connected and stand-alone modes could easily be achieved if anti-islanding protection is not required. If a saturation element is applied to the raw reference signal followed by the synthesis of the truncated signal using a multi-level inverter, the distinct flat-top feature of the synthesized signal can quickly and easily be identified if the network is in islanding mode at the point of common coupling. Experimental results are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed detection scheme

  8. Rapid Genome-wide Recruitment of RNA Polymerase II Drives Transcription, Splicing, and Translation Events during T Cell Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Davari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Activation of immune cells results in rapid functional changes, but how such fast changes are accomplished remains enigmatic. By combining time courses of 4sU-seq, RNA-seq, ribosome profiling (RP, and RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II ChIP-seq during T cell activation, we illustrate genome-wide temporal dynamics for ∼10,000 genes. This approach reveals not only immediate-early and posttranscriptionally regulated genes but also coupled changes in transcription and translation for >90% of genes. Recruitment, rather than release of paused RNA Pol II, primarily mediates transcriptional changes. This coincides with a genome-wide temporary slowdown in cotranscriptional splicing, even for polyadenylated mRNAs that are localized at the chromatin. Subsequent splicing optimization correlates with increasing Ser-2 phosphorylation of the RNA Pol II carboxy-terminal domain (CTD and activation of the positive transcription elongation factor (pTEFb. Thus, rapid de novo recruitment of RNA Pol II dictates the course of events during T cell activation, particularly transcription, splicing, and consequently translation. : Davari et al. visualize global changes in RNA Pol II binding, transcription, splicing, and translation. T cells change their functional program by rapid de novo recruitment of RNA Pol II and coupled changes in transcription and translation. This coincides with fluctuations in RNA Pol II phosphorylation and a temporary reduction in cotranscriptional splicing. Keywords: RNA Pol II, cotranscriptional splicing, T cell activation, ribosome profiling, 4sU, H3K36, Ser-5 RNA Pol II, Ser-2 RNA Pol II, immune response, immediate-early genes

  9. Rapid prototyping of the Central Safety System for Nuclear Risk in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scibile, L. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, St. Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Ambrosino, G. [Consorzio CREATE, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, via Claudio 21, 80125, Napoli (Italy); De Tommasi, G., E-mail: detommas@unina.i [Consorzio CREATE, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, via Claudio 21, 80125, Napoli (Italy); Pironti, A. [Consorzio CREATE, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, via Claudio 21, 80125, Napoli (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    The Central Safety System for Nuclear Risk (CSS-N) coordinates the safety control systems to ensure nuclear safety for the ITER complex. Since the CSS-N is a safety critical system, its validation and commissioning play a very important role; in particular the required level of reliability must be demonstrated. In such a scenario, it is strongly recommended to use modeling and simulation tools since the early design phase. Indeed, the modeling tools will help in the definition of the control system requirements. Furthermore the models can than be used for the rapid prototyping of the safety system. Hardware-in-the-loop simulations can also be performed in order to assess the performance of the control hardware against a plant simulator. The proposed approach relies on the availability of a plant simulator to develop the prototype of the control system. This paper introduces the methodology used to design and develop both the CSS-N Oriented Plant Simulator and the CSS-N Prototype.

  10. A rapid-exchange monorail stent system for salvage of failing femoropopliteal bypass grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Thomas; Brossmann, Joachim; Walluscheck, Knut; Heller, Martin; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan

    2003-08-01

    To analyze the safety and effectiveness of a new monorail stent system for the treatment of failing femoropopliteal bypass grafts. Acute distal occlusions or stenoses of femoropopliteal bypass grafts were treated with balloon-expandable stents (13 or 18-mm diameter) pre-mounted on a monorail balloon catheter system. The delivery system was assessed subjectively for (1). compatibility with the sheath, (2). lesion crossing potential, (3). radiopacity, (4). flexibility of the catheter, (5). adequacy of stent expansion, and (5). balloon refolding. In 8 failing bypass grafts with distal lesions, the delivery system successfully deployed the stent at the desired location. Sheath compatibility, catheter flexibility, lesion crossing, and stent expansion were rated "excellent" by all examiners for the 18-mm device. Radiopacity of the mounted stent was graded "good" before and during positioning, but only "sufficient" following expansion. For this type of lesion, the investigators rated the overall performance of the device superior to conventional "over-the-wire" systems. The monorail balloon-expandable stent delivery system provides rapid introduction of the device over the guidewire, and its low profile facilitates the use of small sheaths to minimize access-site complications.

  11. Rapid prototyping of the Central Safety System for Nuclear Risk in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scibile, L.; Ambrosino, G.; De Tommasi, G.; Pironti, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Central Safety System for Nuclear Risk (CSS-N) coordinates the safety control systems to ensure nuclear safety for the ITER complex. Since the CSS-N is a safety critical system, its validation and commissioning play a very important role; in particular the required level of reliability must be demonstrated. In such a scenario, it is strongly recommended to use modeling and simulation tools since the early design phase. Indeed, the modeling tools will help in the definition of the control system requirements. Furthermore the models can than be used for the rapid prototyping of the safety system. Hardware-in-the-loop simulations can also be performed in order to assess the performance of the control hardware against a plant simulator. The proposed approach relies on the availability of a plant simulator to develop the prototype of the control system. This paper introduces the methodology used to design and develop both the CSS-N Oriented Plant Simulator and the CSS-N Prototype.

  12. Rapid storage and retrieval of genomic intervals from a relational database system using nested containment lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Laura K; Sivley, R Michael; Bush, William S

    2013-01-01

    Efficient storage and retrieval of genomic annotations based on range intervals is necessary, given the amount of data produced by next-generation sequencing studies. The indexing strategies of relational database systems (such as MySQL) greatly inhibit their use in genomic annotation tasks. This has led to the development of stand-alone applications that are dependent on flat-file libraries. In this work, we introduce MyNCList, an implementation of the NCList data structure within a MySQL database. MyNCList enables the storage, update and rapid retrieval of genomic annotations from the convenience of a relational database system. Range-based annotations of 1 million variants are retrieved in under a minute, making this approach feasible for whole-genome annotation tasks. Database URL: https://github.com/bushlab/mynclist.

  13. Driving a Bus in India: A Study of Indore Bus Rapid Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha K. RASTOGI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indore is a typical tier-2 town in the central province of India, fast becoming a regional commercial hub in an economically booming state. The city has a population of over 2 million with no significant public transport. Among the multiple options available, the city started implementing a dedicated corridor based Bus Rapid Transport System (BRTS. The project was jointly mooted by the central, state, and city authorities. However, the system encountered a range of problems, including conflicts and pulls between multiple implementing agencies, delays in delivery of hardware and constructions, land acquisition and compensation, vested interests, public interest litigations, and court orders. The paper analyses the BRTS, introduced in Indore in the midst of 2013, from multiple party perspectives with an underlying search for public policy and public management insights. The broad results indicate feasibility and desirability of the project; however, real problems emerge in public and public perception management.

  14. Mechanism-based model of a mass rapid transit system: A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Khoon, Lee Kee; Guang, Hung Gih; Monterola, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss our findings on the spatiotemporal dynamics within the mass rapid transit (MRT) system of Singapore. We show that the trip distribution of Origin-Destination (OD) station pairs follows a power-law, implying the existence of critical OD pairs. We then present and discuss the empirically validated agent-based model (ABM) we have developed. The model allows recreation of the observed statistics and the setting up of various scenarios and their effects on the system, such as increasing the commuter population and the propagation of travel delays within the transportation network. The proposed model further enables identification of bottlenecks that can cause the MRT to break down, and consequently provide foresight on how such disruptions can possibly be managed. This can potentially provide a versatile approach for transport planners and government regulators to make quantifiable policies that optimally balance cost and convenience as a function of the number of the commuting public.

  15. The Impacts of the Mass Rapid Transit System on Household Car Ownership in Taipei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiu Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of Taipei Mass Rapid Transit (MRT system on household car ownership and analyses how socioeconomic characteristics affect household car ownership. We employ a difference-in-difference (DID strategy integrated with generalized Poisson regression models to examine the effects of MRT. The results are as follows: first, the establishment of Taipei MRT significantly reduced the level of household car ownership. Expanding the network of MRT system can be a feasible policy to control car ownership. Second, the levels of household car ownership are related to household’s socioeconomic characteristics. Third, households with high dependence on public transport own fewer cars after Taipei MRT began operation. Hence, the traffic authority should adopt more effective methods to encourage public transit use in order to decrease household car ownership.

  16. Flow-Based Systems for Rapid and High-Precision Enzyme Kinetics Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Kradtap Hartwell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme kinetics studies normally focus on the initial rate of enzymatic reaction. However, the manual operation of steps of the conventional enzyme kinetics method has some drawbacks. Errors can result from the imprecise time control and time necessary for manual changing the reaction cuvettes into and out of the detector. By using the automatic flow-based analytical systems, enzyme kinetics studies can be carried out at real-time initial rate avoiding the potential errors inherent in manual operation. Flow-based systems have been developed to provide rapid, low-volume, and high-precision analyses that effectively replace the many tedious and high volume requirements of conventional wet chemistry analyses. This article presents various arrangements of flow-based techniques and their potential use in future enzyme kinetics applications.

  17. Empirically defining rapid response to intensive treatment to maximize prognostic utility for bulimia nervosa and purging disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Danielle E; Trottier, Kathryn; McFarlane, Traci; Olmsted, Marion P

    2015-05-01

    Rapid response (RR) to eating disorder treatment has been reliably identified as a predictor of post-treatment and sustained remission, but its definition has varied widely. Although signal detection methods have been used to empirically define RR thresholds in outpatient settings, RR to intensive treatment has not been investigated. This study investigated the optimal definition of RR to day hospital treatment for bulimia nervosa and purging disorder. Participants were 158 patients who completed ≥6 weeks of day hospital treatment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to create four definitions of RR that could differentiate between remission and nonremission at the end of treatment. Definitions were based on binge/vomit episode frequency or percent reduction from pre-treatment, during either the first four or first two weeks of treatment. All definitions were associated with higher remission rates in rapid compared to nonrapid responders. Only one definition (i.e., ≤3 episodes in the first four weeks of treatment) predicted sustained remission (versus relapse) at 6- and 12-month follow-up. These findings provide an empirically derived definition of RR to intensive eating disorder treatment, and provide further evidence that early change is an important prognostic indicator. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Technical Efficiency of Earthquake Medical Rapid Response Teams Following Disasters: The Case of the 2010 Yushu Earthquake in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Tang, Bihan; Yang, Hongyang; Liu, Yuan; Xue, Chen; Zhang, Lulu

    2015-12-04

    Performance assessments of earthquake medical rapid response teams (EMRRTs), particularly the first responders deployed to the hardest hit areas following major earthquakes, should consider efficient and effective use of resources. This study assesses the daily technical efficiency of EMRRTs in the emergency period immediately following the 2010 Yushu earthquake in China. Data on EMRRTs were obtained from official daily reports of the general headquarters for Yushu earthquake relief, the emergency office of the National Ministry of Health, and the Health Department of Qinghai Province, for a sample of data on 15 EMRRTs over 62 days. Data envelopment analysis was used to examine the technical efficiency in a constant returns to scale model, a variable returns to scale model, and the scale efficiency of EMRRTs. Tobit regression was applied to analyze the effects of corresponding influencing factors. The average technical efficiency scores under constant returns to scale, variable returns to scale, and the scale efficiency scores of the 62 units of analysis were 77.95%, 89.00%, and 87.47%, respectively. The staff-to-bed ratio was significantly related to global technical efficiency. The date of rescue was significantly related to pure technical efficiency. The type of institution to which an EMRRT belonged and the staff-to-bed ratio were significantly related to scale efficiency. This study provides evidence that supports improvements to EMRRT efficiency and serves as a reference for earthquake emergency medical rapid assistance leaders and teams.

  19. The Technical Efficiency of Earthquake Medical Rapid Response Teams Following Disasters: The Case of the 2010 Yushu Earthquake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Performance assessments of earthquake medical rapid response teams (EMRRTs, particularly the first responders deployed to the hardest hit areas following major earthquakes, should consider efficient and effective use of resources. This study assesses the daily technical efficiency of EMRRTs in the emergency period immediately following the 2010 Yushu earthquake in China. Methods: Data on EMRRTs were obtained from official daily reports of the general headquarters for Yushu earthquake relief, the emergency office of the National Ministry of Health, and the Health Department of Qinghai Province, for a sample of data on 15 EMRRTs over 62 days. Data envelopment analysis was used to examine the technical efficiency in a constant returns to scale model, a variable returns to scale model, and the scale efficiency of EMRRTs. Tobit regression was applied to analyze the effects of corresponding influencing factors. Results: The average technical efficiency scores under constant returns to scale, variable returns to scale, and the scale efficiency scores of the 62 units of analysis were 77.95%, 89.00%, and 87.47%, respectively. The staff-to-bed ratio was significantly related to global technical efficiency. The date of rescue was significantly related to pure technical efficiency. The type of institution to which an EMRRT belonged and the staff-to-bed ratio were significantly related to scale efficiency. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that supports improvements to EMRRT efficiency and serves as a reference for earthquake emergency medical rapid assistance leaders and teams.

  20. Assessment of a potential rapid condensation induced water hammer in a passive auxiliary feedwater system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Shin, Byung Soo; Do, Kyu Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moody, Frederick J. [General Electric (Retired), CA (United States)

    2012-10-15

    A passive auxiliary feedwater system (PAFS) which is incorporated in the APR+ system is a kind of closed natural circulation loop. The PAFS has no operating functions during normal plant operation, but it has a dedicated safety function of the residual heat removal following initiating events, including the unlikely event of the most limiting single failure occurring coincident with a loss of offsite power, when the feedwater system becomes inoperable or unavailable. Even in the unlikely event of a station blackout, the isolation valves can be opened either by DC power or manual operation and then the PAFS can also provide adequate condensate to the steam generator (SG). The PAFS piping in the vicinity of each of the two SGs is designed to minimize the potential for destructive water hammer during start up operation by setting the stroke time for full close or full open of the condensate isolation valves upon receipt of a passive auxiliary feedwater actuation signal. The temperature of the stagnant condensate water and its surrounding tubes and piping during the reactor normal operation modes may fall to the ambient temperature. A possible concern is the introduction of saturated steam into the PAFS recirculation pipe downstream of the PCHX in the beginning of the PAFS operation. Although the steam introduction rate is expected to be slow, a rapid condensation rate is expected due to the initial cold surrounding temperature in the pipe, which could result in a localized pressure reduction and the propagation of decompression and velocity disturbances into the condensate water leg, which might cause the sudden closure of check valves and associated water hammer. Thus, it is requisite for the licensing review of the PAFS design to confirm if destructive water hammers will not be produced due to such rapid condensation induced decompressions in the system. This paper addresses an assessment of the potential local decompressions which could result from the steam

  1. Benefits of Demand-Side Response in Providing Frequency Response Service in the Future GB Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Fei, E-mail: fei.teng09@imperial.ac.uk; Aunedi, Marko; Pudjianto, Danny; Strbac, Goran [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-18

    The demand for ancillary service is expected to increase significantly in the future Great Britain (GB) electricity system due to high penetration of wind. In particular, the need for frequency response, required to deal with sudden frequency drops following a loss of generator, will increase because of the limited inertia capability of wind plants. This paper quantifies the requirements for primary frequency response and analyses the benefits of frequency response provision from demand-side response (DSR). The results show dramatic changes in frequency response requirements driven by high penetration of wind. Case studies carried out by using an advanced stochastic generation scheduling model suggest that the provision of frequency response from DSR could greatly reduce the system operation cost, wind curtailment, and carbon emissions in the future GB system characterized by high penetration of wind. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the benefit of DSR shows significant diurnal and seasonal variation, whereas an even more rapid (instant) delivery of frequency response from DSR could provide significant additional value. Our studies also indicate that the competing technologies to DSR, namely battery storage, and more flexible generation could potentially reduce its value by up to 35%, still leaving significant room to deploy DSR as frequency response provider.

  2. Benefits of Demand-Side Response in Providing Frequency Response Service in the Future GB Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Fei; Aunedi, Marko; Pudjianto, Danny; Strbac, Goran

    2015-01-01

    The demand for ancillary service is expected to increase significantly in the future Great Britain (GB) electricity system due to high penetration of wind. In particular, the need for frequency response, required to deal with sudden frequency drops following a loss of generator, will increase because of the limited inertia capability of wind plants. This paper quantifies the requirements for primary frequency response and analyses the benefits of frequency response provision from demand-side response (DSR). The results show dramatic changes in frequency response requirements driven by high penetration of wind. Case studies carried out by using an advanced stochastic generation scheduling model suggest that the provision of frequency response from DSR could greatly reduce the system operation cost, wind curtailment, and carbon emissions in the future GB system characterized by high penetration of wind. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the benefit of DSR shows significant diurnal and seasonal variation, whereas an even more rapid (instant) delivery of frequency response from DSR could provide significant additional value. Our studies also indicate that the competing technologies to DSR, namely battery storage, and more flexible generation could potentially reduce its value by up to 35%, still leaving significant room to deploy DSR as frequency response provider.

  3. A Comprehensive Systems Testing Plan for the Smart Phone Assisted Rapid Communication and Control System (SPARCCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    process. Interface faults can disrupt the functionality of a system ( Pressman , 2010). Interface faults can include: 1. Incorrect interrupt...and software instrumentation for full effectiveness ( Pressman , 2010). In SPARCCS testing, performance testing will be at the forefront of all test...which it is designed to operate. Deployment testing tests the following ( Pressman , 2010): 1. Installation procedures 2. Installation

  4. A rapid in vitro screening system for the identification and evaluation of anticancer drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, J.W.; Collins, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    We report the development of an in vitro screening system that can be used to identify new anticancer drugs that are specifically cytotoxic for dividing cells. The screening system takes advantage of the potential of many cell lines, including tumor cells, to stop dividing when they are plated at high cell density. The cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs on dividing (i.e., cells plated at low cell density) and nondividing cells (i.e., cells plated at high cell density) is measured by the incorporation of 51Cr. This in vitro system was evaluated by measuring the cytotoxic effects of the anticancer drugs cisplatin, thiotepa, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and vinblastine on the cell lines B/C-N, ME-180, and MCF-7. In this in vitro system the concentrations of the anticancer drugs that produced significant cytotoxicity on only dividing cells are similar to the concentrations that are used clinically. The fact that this in vitro system is rapid, simple, applicable to many cell types, and able to predict effective concentrations of anticancer drugs should make it useful for the screening of new anticancer drugs and for the design of preclinical studies

  5. Respiratory Effects and Systemic Stress Response Following ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to the pulmonary irritant ozone causes myriad systemic metabolic and pulmonary effects attributed to sympathetic and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, which are exacerbated in metabolically impaired models. We examined respiratory and systemic effects following exposure to a sensory irritant acrolein to elucidate the systemic and pulmonary consequences in healthy and diabetic rat models. Male Wistar and Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, a nonobese type II diabetic Wistar-derived model, were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, or 4 ppm acrolein, 4 h/d for 1 or 2 days. Exposure at 4 ppm significantly increased pulmonary and nasal inflammation in both strains with vascular protein leakage occurring only in the nose. Acrolein exposure (4 ppm) also caused metabolic impairment by inducing hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance (GK > Wistar). Serum total cholesterol (GKs only), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (both strains), and free fatty acids (GK > Wistar) levels increased; however, no acrolein-induced changes were noted in branched-chain amino acid or insulin levels. These responses corresponded with a significant increase in corticosterone and modest but insignificant increases in adrenaline in both strains, suggesting activation of the HPA axis. Collectively, these data demonstrate that acrolein exposure has a profound effect on nasal and pulmonary inflammation, as well as glucose and lipid metabolis

  6. Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolicoeur, J.

    1990-04-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun implementation of the Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) to upgrade its ability to acquire data from nuclear power plants in the event of an emergency at the plant. ERDS provides a direct real-time transfer of data from licensee plant computers to the NRC Operations Center. The system has been designed to be activated by the licensee during an emergency which has been classified at an ALERT or higher level. The NRC portion of ERDS will receive the data stream, sort and file the data. The users will include the NRC Operations Center, the NRC Regional Office of the affected plant, and if requested the States which are within the ten mile EPZ of the site. The currently installed Emergency Notification System will be used to supplement ERDS data. This report provides the minimum guidance for implementation of ERDS at licensee sites. It is intended to be used for planning implementation under the current voluntary program as well as for providing the minimum standards for implementing the proposed ERDS rule

  7. Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolicoeur, J.

    1991-06-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun implementation of the Emergency Response Data System (ERDS) to upgrade its ability to acquire data from nuclear power plants in the event of an emergency at the plant. ERDS provides a direct real-time transfer of data from licensee plant computers to the NRC Operations Center. The system has been designed to be activated by the licensee during an emergency which has been classified at an ALERT or higher level. The NRC portion of ERDS will receive the data stream, sort and file the data. The users will include the NRC Operations Center, the NRC Regional Office of the affected plant, and if requested the States which are within the ten mile EPZ of the site. The currently installed Emergency Notification System will be used to supplement ERDS data. This report provides the minimum guidance for implementation of ERDS at licensee sites. It is intended to be used for planning implementation under the current voluntary program as well as for providing the minimum standards for implementing the proposed ERDS rule. 4 refs., 3 figs

  8. Rapid determination of nanowires electrical properties using a dielectrophoresis-well based system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Marios; Hoettges, Kai F.; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Katz, Michael B.; Davydov, Albert; Rigas, Grigorios-Panagiotis; Stolojan, Vlad; Hughes, Michael P.; Shkunov, Maxim

    2017-03-01

    The use of high quality semiconducting nanomaterials for advanced device applications has been hampered by the unavoidable growth variability of electrical properties of one-dimensional nanomaterials, such as nanowires and nanotubes, thus highlighting the need for the characterization of efficient semiconducting nanomaterials. In this study, we demonstrate a low-cost, industrially scalable dielectrophoretic (DEP) nanowire assembly method for the rapid analysis of the electrical properties of inorganic single crystalline nanowires, by identifying key features in the DEP frequency response spectrum from 1 kHz to 20 MHz in just 60 s. Nanowires dispersed in anisole were characterized using a three-dimensional DEP chip (3DEP), and the resultant spectrum demonstrated a sharp change in nanowire response to DEP signal in 1-20 MHz frequency range. The 3DEP analysis, directly confirmed by field-effect transistor data, indicates that nanowires of higher quality are collected at high DEP signal frequency range above 10 MHz, whereas lower quality nanowires, with two orders of magnitude lower current per nanowire, are collected at lower DEP signal frequencies. These results show that the 3DEP platform can be used as a very efficient characterization tool of the electrical properties of rod-shaped nanoparticles to enable dielectrophoretic selective deposition of nanomaterials with superior conductivity properties.

  9. Rapid Application of Space Effects for the Small Satellites Systems and Services Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsairides, Demosthenes; Finley, Charles; Moretti, George

    2016-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) has engaged Military Branches, the Department of Defense, and other Government Agencies in successful partnerships to design, develop, deliver and support various space effects capabilities and space vehicles on timeline of need. Contracts with Industry are in place to execute operational and enabler missions using physical and informational infrastructures including Responsive Manufacturing capabilities and Digital Assurance. The intent is to establish a secure, web-enabled "store front" for ordering and delivering any capabilities required as defined by the users and directed by NASA ARC and Partner Organizations. The capabilities are envisioned to cover a broad range and include 6U CubeSats, 50-100 kg Space Vehicles, Modular Space Vehicle architecture variations, as well as rapid payload integration on various Bus options. The paper will discuss the efforts underway to demonstrate autonomous manufacturing of low-volume, high-value assets, to validate the ability of autonomous digital techniques to provide Mission Assurance, and to demonstrate cost savings through the identification, characterization, and utilization of Responsive Space components. The culmination of this effort will be the integration of several 6U satellites and their launch in 2016.

  10. Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System. Topical report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the results of Phase 1 efforts to develop a Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System for the detection of semivolatile organic contaminants on concrete, transite, and metal surfaces. The characterization of equipment and building surfaces for the presence of contaminants as part of building decontamination and decommissioning activities is an immensely large tacks of concern to both government and industry. Contaminated and clean materials must be clearly identified and segregated so that the clean materials can be recycled or reused, if possible, or disposed of more cheaply as nonhazardous waste. Characterization of building and equipment surfaces will be needed during initial investigations, during cleanup operations, and during the final confirmatory process, increasing the total number of samples well beyond that needed for initial characterization. This multiplicity of information places a premium on the ability to handle and track data as efficiently as possible. Aware of the shortcomings of traditional surface characterization technology, GE, with DOE support has undertaken a 12-month effort to complete Phase 1 of a proposed four-phase program to develop the RSSAR system. The objectives of this work are to provide instrumentation to cost-effectively sample concrete and steel surfaces, provide a quick-look indication for the presence or absence of contaminants, and collect samples for later, more detailed analysis in a readily accessible and addressable form. The Rapid Surface Sampling and Archival Record (RSSAR) System will be a modular instrument made up of several components: (1) sampling heads for concrete surfaces, steel surfaces, and bulk samples; (2) quick-look detectors for photoionization and ultraviolet; (3) multisample trapping module to trap and store vaporized contaminants in a manner suitable for subsequent detailed lab-based analyses

  11. GeoNet's `Felt Rapid': Collecting What Is Needed, When You Need It, No More, No Less. Rapid, Volumous Data For Response Versus Detailed, Precise Data For Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C. L.; McBride, S.; Balfour, N.

    2016-12-01

    New Zealand's geohazard monitoring agency, GeoNet, recently implemented `Felt Rapid': earthquake felt reporting that is quick and simple. GeoNet locates 20,000 earthquakes each year with hundreds of those reported as being felt. Starting in the late 1800s, the New Zealand public has become adept at completing felt reports but feedback since the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence suggested that traditional felt reporting was not meeting researchers' or the public's needs. GeoNet required something rapid, adaptable and robust. The solution was Felt Rapid, a mobile app and website where respondents simply pick from 6 cartoon images - representing Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) 3-8 - that best aligned to what they felt. For the last decade, felt reporting has been conducted via the GeoNet website, with additional targeted surveys after damaging earthquakes. The vast majority of the submitted felt reports were for earthquakes too small to cause damage, as these are by far the most frequent. Reports from small events are of little interest to researchers who are only concerned with damaging, MMI6 and above. However, we found that when damaging earthquakes did occur, such as Christchurch's M6.3, they were only sparsely reported (3,776 reports). Understandably, sitting at a computer and completing a lengthy online form wasn't a priority for people after a devastating earthquake. With Felt Rapid, reporting has to be completed within an hour of an earthquake, the use of GeoNet's automatically compiled felt reporting maps had evolved; their main purpose is immediate assessment of an earthquake's impact on populations, and is used by Civil Defence agencies. Reports are immediately displayed on an interactive map via the website and mobile app. With over 250,000 users this provides rapid and robust information regarding the experienced shaking. When a damaging earthquake occurs and researchers want to collect important and rare damaging felt reports, a separate in-depth survey

  12. Optimization of an on-board imaging system for extremely rapid radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherry Kemmerling, Erica M.; Wu, Meng, E-mail: mengwu@stanford.edu; Yang, He; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Next-generation extremely rapid radiation therapy systems could mitigate the need for motion management, improve patient comfort during the treatment, and increase patient throughput for cost effectiveness. Such systems require an on-board imaging system that is competitively priced, fast, and of sufficiently high quality to allow good registration between the image taken on the day of treatment and the image taken the day of treatment planning. In this study, three different detectors for a custom on-board CT system were investigated to select the best design for integration with an extremely rapid radiation therapy system. Methods: Three different CT detectors are proposed: low-resolution (all 4 × 4 mm pixels), medium-resolution (a combination of 4 × 4 mm pixels and 2 × 2 mm pixels), and high-resolution (all 1 × 1 mm pixels). An in-house program was used to generate projection images of a numerical anthropomorphic phantom and to reconstruct the projections into CT datasets, henceforth called “realistic” images. Scatter was calculated using a separate Monte Carlo simulation, and the model included an antiscatter grid and bowtie filter. Diagnostic-quality images of the phantom were generated to represent the patient scan at the time of treatment planning. Commercial deformable registration software was used to register the diagnostic-quality scan to images produced by the various on-board detector configurations. The deformation fields were compared against a “gold standard” deformation field generated by registering initial and deformed images of the numerical phantoms that were used to make the diagnostic and treatment-day images. Registrations of on-board imaging system data were judged by the amount their deformation fields differed from the corresponding gold standard deformation fields—the smaller the difference, the better the system. To evaluate the registrations, the pointwise distance between gold standard and realistic registration

  13. Optimization of an on-board imaging system for extremely rapid radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry Kemmerling, Erica M.; Wu, Meng; Yang, He; Fahrig, Rebecca; Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Next-generation extremely rapid radiation therapy systems could mitigate the need for motion management, improve patient comfort during the treatment, and increase patient throughput for cost effectiveness. Such systems require an on-board imaging system that is competitively priced, fast, and of sufficiently high quality to allow good registration between the image taken on the day of treatment and the image taken the day of treatment planning. In this study, three different detectors for a custom on-board CT system were investigated to select the best design for integration with an extremely rapid radiation therapy system. Methods: Three different CT detectors are proposed: low-resolution (all 4 × 4 mm pixels), medium-resolution (a combination of 4 × 4 mm pixels and 2 × 2 mm pixels), and high-resolution (all 1 × 1 mm pixels). An in-house program was used to generate projection images of a numerical anthropomorphic phantom and to reconstruct the projections into CT datasets, henceforth called “realistic” images. Scatter was calculated using a separate Monte Carlo simulation, and the model included an antiscatter grid and bowtie filter. Diagnostic-quality images of the phantom were generated to represent the patient scan at the time of treatment planning. Commercial deformable registration software was used to register the diagnostic-quality scan to images produced by the various on-board detector configurations. The deformation fields were compared against a “gold standard” deformation field generated by registering initial and deformed images of the numerical phantoms that were used to make the diagnostic and treatment-day images. Registrations of on-board imaging system data were judged by the amount their deformation fields differed from the corresponding gold standard deformation fields—the smaller the difference, the better the system. To evaluate the registrations, the pointwise distance between gold standard and realistic registration

  14. 49 CFR 37.79 - Purchase or lease of new rail vehicles by public entities operating rapid or light rail systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entities operating rapid or light rail systems. 37.79 Section 37.79 Transportation Office of the Secretary... operating rapid or light rail systems. Each public entity operating a rapid or light rail system making a... system shall ensure that the vehicle is readily accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities...

  15. Impact of rapid condensations of large vapor spaces on natural circulation in integral systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.; Almenas, K.; DiMarzo, M.; Hsu, Y.Y.; Unal, C.

    1992-01-01

    In this study we demonstrated that the Interruption-Resumption flow mode (IRM) observed in the University of Maryland 2x4 loop is a unique and effective natural circulation cooling mode. The IRM flow mode consists of a series of large flow cycles which are initiated from a quiescent steady-state flow condition by periodic rapid condensation of large vapor spaces. The significance of this mass/energy transport mechanism is that it cannot be evaluated using the techniques developed for the commonly known density-driven natural circulation cooling mode. We also demonstrated that the rapid condensation mechanism essentially acts as a strong amplifier which will augment small perturbations and will activate several flow phenomena. The interplay of the phenomena involves a degree of randomness. This poses two important implications. First, the study of an isolated flow phenomenon is not sufficient for the understanding of the system-wide IRM fluid movement. Second, the duplication of reactor transients which involves randomness can be achieved only within certain bounds. The modeling of such transients by deterministic computer codes requires recognition of this physical reality. (orig.)

  16. Groundwater flow system under a rapidly urbanizing coastal city as determined by hydrogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagabu, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Delinom, Robert; Tsujimura, Maki; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    In the Jakarta area (Indonesia), excessive groundwater pumping due to the rapidly increasing population has caused groundwater-related problems such as brackish water contamination in coastal areas and land subsidence. In this study, we adopted multiple hydrogeochemical techniques to demonstrate the groundwater flow system in the Jakarta area. Although almost all groundwater existing in the Jakarta basin is recharged at similar elevations, the water quality and residence time demonstrates a clear difference between the shallow and deep aquifers. Due to the rapid decrease in the groundwater potential in urban areas, we found that the seawater intrusion and the shallow and deep groundwaters are mixing, a conclusion confirmed by major ions, Br -:Cl - ratios, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-12 analysis. Spring water and groundwater samples collected from the southern mountainside area show younger age characteristics with high concentrations of 14C and Ca-HCO 3 type water chemistry. We estimated the residence times of these groundwaters within 45 years under piston flow conditions by tritium analysis. Also, these groundwater ages can be limited to 20-30 years with piston flow evaluated by CFCs. Moreover, due to the magnitude of the CFC-12 concentration, we can use a pseudo age indicator in this field study, because we found a positive correlation between the major type of water chemistry and the CFC-12 concentration.

  17. Development of a rapid "fingerprinting" system for wine authenticity by mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevin, Christopher J; Fergusson, Allison J; Perry, Wade B; Janik, Leslie J; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2006-12-27

    This paper reports on the development of a rapid and simple method for red wine authenticity confirmation during transport and processing; namely, a wine "fingerprinting" system. When wine is transported between two sites, a sample is taken and a mid-infrared (MIR) spectrum is obtained. One hundred sixty-one (n = 161) samples of three main red wine varieties grown in Australia, Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot, were collected from six commercial wineries across Australia and scanned in transmission on two MIR spectrophotometers located at The Hardy Wine Company's main site at Reynella, South Australia (Foss WineScan FT 120) (926-5012 cm-1). A similarity index (SI) method was used as a tool to classify wine samples on the basis of their spectral data. The results showed that high rates of classification were obtained when wine samples scanned in different instruments were analyzed. The SI has been proven to provide an acceptable measurement for authentication of red wine integrity during transportation. In five of the six winery data sets, the SI correctly classified 98% of the wines. It was also observed that less than 1% of wines were misclassified between the different wineries investigated. Further studies are needed in order to test the applicability of the SI in a commercial situation and to evaluate its potential as a rapid quality control tool for routine use to authenticate wine samples during transport.

  18. Formation of a national network for rapid response to device and lead advisories: The Canadian Heart Rhythm Society Device Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Andrew D; Simpson, Christopher S; Parkash, Ratika; Yee, Raymond; Champagne, Jean; Healey, Jeffrey S; Cameron, Doug; Thibault, Bernard; Mangat, Iqwal; Tung, Stanley; Sterns, Laurence; Birnie, David H; Exner, Derek V; Sivakumaran, Soori; Davies, Ted; Coutu, Benoit; Crystal, Eugene; Wolfe, Kevin; Verma, Atul; Stephenson, Elizabeth A; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Gow, Robert; Connors, Sean; Paredes, Felix Ayala; Turabian, Mike; Kus, Teresa; Essebag, Vidal; Gardner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Heart Rhythm Society (CHRS) Device Advisory Committee was commissioned to respond to advisories regarding cardiac rhythm device and lead performance on behalf of the CHRS. In the event of an advisory, the Chair uses an e-mail network to disseminate advisory information to Committee members broadly representative of the Canadian device community. A consensus recommendation is prepared by the Committee and made available to all Canadian centres on the CHRS Web site after approval by the CHRS executive. This collaborative approach using an e-mail network has proven very efficient in providing a rapid national response to device advisories. The network is an ideal tool to collect specific data on implanted device system performance and allows for prompt reporting of clinically relevant data to front-line clinicians and patients. PMID:19584969

  19. Predicting meaningful outcomes to medication and self-help treatments for binge-eating disorder in primary care: The significance of early rapid response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M; White, Marney A; Masheb, Robin M; Gueorguieva, Ralitza

    2015-04-01

    We examined rapid response among obese patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) in a randomized clinical trial testing antiobesity medication and self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy (shCBT), alone and in combination, in primary-care settings. One hundred four obese patients with BED were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: sibutramine, placebo, shCBT + sibutramine, or shCBT + placebo. Treatments were delivered by generalist primary-care physicians and the medications were given double-blind. Independent assessments were performed by trained and monitored doctoral research clinicians monthly throughout treatment, posttreatment (4 months), and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups (i.e., 16 months after randomization). Rapid response, defined as ≥65% reduction in binge eating by the fourth treatment week, was used to predict outcomes. Rapid response characterized 47% of patients, was unrelated to demographic and baseline clinical characteristics, and was significantly associated, prospectively, with remission from binge eating at posttreatment (51% vs. 9% for nonrapid responders), 6-month (53% vs. 23.6%), and 12-month (46.9% vs. 23.6%) follow-ups. Mixed-effects model analyses revealed that rapid response was significantly associated with greater decreases in binge-eating or eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and percent weight loss. Our findings, based on a diverse obese patient group receiving medication and shCBT for BED in primary-care settings, indicate that patients who have a rapid response achieve good clinical outcomes through 12-month follow-ups after ending treatment. Rapid response represents a strong prognostic indicator of clinically meaningful outcomes, even in low-intensity medication and self-help interventions. Rapid response has important clinical implications for stepped-care treatment models for BED. clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00537810 (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. A miniaturized optoelectronic system for rapid quantitative label-free detection of harmful species in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Ioannis; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Makarona, Eleni; Salapatas, Alexandros; Petrou, Panagiota; Kakabakos, Sotirios; Botsialas, Athanasios; Jobst, Gerhard; Haasnoot, Willem; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo; Lees, Michelle; Valamontes, Evangelos

    2016-03-01

    Optical biosensors have emerged in the past decade as the most promising candidates for portable, highly-sensitive bioanalytical systems that can be employed for in-situ measurements. In this work, a miniaturized optoelectronic system for rapid, quantitative, label-free detection of harmful species in food is presented. The proposed system has four distinctive features that can render to a powerful tool for the next generation of Point-of-Need applications, namely it accommodates the light sources and ten interferometric biosensors on a single silicon chip of a less-than-40mm2 footprint, each sensor can be individually functionalized for a specific target analyte, the encapsulation can be performed at the wafer-scale, and finally it exploits a new operation principle, Broad-band Mach-Zehnder Interferometry to ameliorate its analytical capabilities. Multi-analyte evaluation schemes for the simultaneous detection of harmful contaminants, such as mycotoxins, allergens and pesticides, proved that the proposed system is capable of detecting within short time these substances at concentrations below the limits imposed by regulatory authorities, rendering it to a novel tool for the near-future food safety applications.

  1. A STUDY ON THE INTRODUCTION OF BUS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM IN ASIAN DEVELOPING CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaned SATIENNAM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has increasingly become an attractive urban transit alternative in many Asian developing cities due to its cost-effective and flexible implementation. However, it still seems to be difficult to introduce BRT to these cities because almost all of their city structures have been developed under solely a road transport development city plan and weakness of land use control gives rise to many problems, such as urban sprawl, traffic congestion, and air pollution. The purpose of this study was to introduce several strategies to support BRT implementation in Asian developing cities, such as a strategy to appropriately integrate the paratransit system into BRT system as being a feeder along a BRT corridor to supply demand. These proposed strategies were evaluated by applying demand forecasting and emission models to the BRT project plan of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA in Thailand. It was demonstrated that the proposed strategies could effectively improve the BRT ridership, traffic conditions, and air pollution emission of the entire system in Bangkok. This study could be further extended to include strategy recommendation if a BRT system were to be introduced to other Asian developing cities.

  2. Pegylated interferon alfa and ribavirin for 14 versus 24 weeks in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 2 or 3 and rapid virological response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgard, Olav; Bjøro, Kristian; Larsen, Helmer Ring

    2008-01-01

    A recent nonrandomized pilot trial showed that hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients with genotype 2/3 and rapid virological response (RVR) had a 90% sustained virological response (SVR) rate after 14 weeks of treatment. We aimed to assess this concept in a randomized controlled trial. In the trial, 428...

  3. A Methodology for Rapid Prototyping Peak-Constrained Least-Squares Bit-Serial Finite Impulse Response Filters in FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Carreira

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Area-efficient peak-constrained least-squares (PCLS bit-serial finite impulse response (FIR filter implementations can be rapidly prototyped in field programmable gate arrays (FPGA with the methodology presented in this paper. Faster generation of the FPGA configuration bitstream is possible with a new application-specific mapping and placement method that uses JBits to avoid conventional general-purpose mapping and placement tools. JBits is a set of Java classes that provide an interface into the Xilinx Virtex FPGA configuration bitstream, allowing the user to generate new configuration bitstreams. PCLS coefficient generation allows passband-to-stopband energy ratio (PSR performance to be traded for a reduction in the filter's hardware cost without altering the minimum stopband attenuation. Fixed-point coefficients that meet the frequency response and hardware cost specifications can be generated with the PCLS method. It is not possible to meet these specifications solely by the quantization of floating-point coefficients generated in other methods.

  4. Rapid response of alpine timberline vegetation to the Younger Dryas climate oscillation in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reasoner, M.A.; Jodry, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Paleobotanical records from two high-altitude (>3,300 m) sites in Colorado show a clear and immediate response to the Younger Dryas climate oscillation. The Black Mountain Lake and Sky Pond records indicate that alpine timberline migrated upslope to near-modern elevations during the late Bolling-Allerod (13.6--12.9 ka). Subsequent declines in arboreal pollen percentages and accumulation rates during the Younger Dryas interval (12.9--11.7 ka) reflect a downslope displacement of the alpine timberline ecotone of 60--120 m in elevation. This change translates to a cooling of summer temperature by ∼0.4--0.9 C and is consistent with proposed Younger Dryas advances of alpine glaciers in the Rocky Mountains to positions close to Little Ice Age maxima. Alpine timberline readvanced upslope to elevations above both sites between 11.7 and 11.4 ka. The concomitant response of temperature-sensitive alpine timberline vegetation in Colorado and late-glacial changes in North Atlantic thermohaline circulating implicates a rapid, widespread atmospheric transmission of the Younger Dryas climate oscillation

  5. Rapid response of alpine timberline vegetation to the Younger Dryas climate oscillation in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reasoner, M.A.; Jodry, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Paleobotanical records from two high-altitude (>3,300 m) sites in Colorado show a clear and immediate response to the Younger Dryas climate oscillation. The Black Mountain Lake and Sky Pond records indicate that alpine timberline migrated upslope to near-modern elevations during the late Bolling-Allerod (13.6--12.9 ka). Subsequent declines in arboreal pollen percentages and accumulation rates during the Younger Dryas interval (12.9--11.7 ka) reflect a downslope displacement of the alpine timberline ecotone of 60--120 m in elevation. This change translates to a cooling of summer temperature by {approximately}0.4--0.9 C and is consistent with proposed Younger Dryas advances of alpine glaciers in the Rocky Mountains to positions close to Little Ice Age maxima. Alpine timberline readvanced upslope to elevations above both sites between 11.7 and 11.4 ka. The concomitant response of temperature-sensitive alpine timberline vegetation in Colorado and late-glacial changes in North Atlantic thermohaline circulating implicates a rapid, widespread atmospheric transmission of the Younger Dryas climate oscillation.

  6. A small graphene oxide sheet/polyvinylidene fluoride bilayer actuator with large and rapid responses to multiple stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochuang; Zhang, Miao; Zhou, Qinqin; Chen, Hongwu; Gao, Tiantian; Li, Chun; Shi, Gaoquan

    2017-11-16

    A high-performance actuator should be able to deliver large-shape deformations, fast actuations and sensitive responses to multiple stimuli. Here, we report such an actuator constructed from one layer of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) with a high coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and another layer of small sheets of graphene oxide (SGO) with a negative CTE. The opposite deformations of both actuation layers make the SGO/PVDF bilayer actuator highly sensitive to the temperature stimulus with a large bending sensitivity of 1.5 cm -1 °C -1 . Upon irradiation with 60 mW cm -2 infrared light, this SGO/PVDF bilayer actuator displayed an extremely rapid tip displacement rate of 140 mm s -1 . Furthermore, this actuator can also sensitively respond to moisture because of its SGO layer, showing a curvature change from -22 to 13 cm -1 upon changing the relative humidity (RH) from 11% to 86%. This actuator can generate a contractile or relaxed stress 18 times that of mammalian skeletal muscle, under light irradiation or moisture with a response time as short as 1 s, being capable of lifting an object with a weight 80 times that of itself. Furthermore, it also showed excellent stability and repeatability.

  7. Rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip joint in a young adult with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongseung; Motomura, Goro; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Ohishi, Masanobu; Hamai, Satoshi; Iura, Kunio; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-10-01

    A 37-year-old female had been treated with corticosteroids for systemic lupus erythematosus clinically diagnosed at age 10. She suddenly had right hip pain without any antecedent trauma. Four months after the onset of pain, she visited her primary care physician. On magnetic resonance imaging, joint space narrowing at the weight-bearing area was already seen with bone marrow edematous lesions in both the femoral head and acetabulum. She was treated non-operatively; however, her pain continued to worsen in severity. Thirteen months after the onset of pain, she was referred to our hospital. A plain radiograph showed subluxation of the collapsed femoral head accompanied by destruction of the acetabular rim. Because of her severe intractable pain, she underwent total hip arthroplasty 1 month after her first visit. Histological examination of the resected femoral head revealed pseudogranulomatous lesions along with prominent callus formation, suggesting rapid destruction of the femoral head.

  8. Rapid and Sensitive Determination of Lipid Oxidation Using the Reagent Kit Based on Spectrophotometry (FOODLABfat System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Woo Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability and availability of FOODLABfat system for determining acid value (AV and peroxide value (POV were assessed during the hydrolytic rancidification and lipid oxidation of edible oils. This reagent kit based on spectrophotometry was compared to the official methods (ISO 660 and 3960 protocols based on manual titration employing the standard mixture for the simulated oxidation models and edible oils during the thermally induced oxidation at 180°C. The linear regression line of standard mixture and the significant difference of thermally oxidized time course study determined between them showed high correlations (R2=0.998 and p<0.05 in both AVs and POVs. Considering ISO protocols with a probability of human error in manual titration, the rapidness and simplicity of the reagent kit based on spectrophotometry make it a promising alternative to monitor the lipid oxidation of edible oils and lipid-containing foods.

  9. Rapid enumeration of low numbers of moulds in tea based drinks using an automated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kouichi; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Baba, Takashi; Amano, Norihide; Nasu, Masao

    2011-01-31

    Aseptically prepared cold drinks based on tea have become popular worldwide. Contamination of these drinks with harmful microbes is a potential health problem because such drinks are kept free from preservatives to maximize aroma and flavour. Heat-tolerant conidia and ascospores of fungi can survive pasteurization, and need to be detected as quickly as possible. We were able to rapidly and accurately detect low numbers of conidia and ascospores in tea-based drinks using fluorescent staining followed by an automated counting system. Conidia or ascospores were inoculated into green tea and oolong tea, and samples were immediately filtered through nitrocellulose membranes (pore size: 0.8 μm) to concentrate fungal propagules. These were transferred onto potato dextrose agar and incubated for 23 h at 28 °C. Fungi germinating on the membranes were fluorescently stained for 30 min. The stained mycelia were counted selectively within 90s using an automated counting system (MGS-10LD; Chuo Electric Works, Osaka, Japan). Very low numbers (1 CFU/100ml) of conidia or ascospores could be rapidly counted, in contrast to traditional labour intensive techniques. All tested mould strains were detected within 24h while conventional plate counting required 72 h for colony enumeration. Counts of slow-growing fungi (Cladosporium cladosporioides) obtained by automated counting and by conventional plate counting were close (r(2) = 0.986). Our combination of methods enables counting of both fast- and slow-growing fungi, and should be useful for microbiological quality control of tea-based and also other drinks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Portable Impedance Immunosensing System for Rapid Detection of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tao; Wang, Ronghui; Sotero, America; Li, Yanbin

    2017-08-28

    Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the most dangerous foodborne pathogens and poses a significant threat to human health. The objective of this study was to develop a portable impedance immunosensing system for rapid and sensitive detection of S . Typhimurium in poultry. The developed portable impedance immunosensing system consisted of a gold interdigitated array microelectrode (IDAM), a signal acquisitive interface and a laptop computer with LabVIEW software. The IDAM was first functionalized with 16-Mercaptohexadecanoic acid, and streptavidin was immobilized onto the electrode surface through covalent bonding. Then, biotin-labelled S . Typhimurium -antibody was immobilized onto the IDAM surface. Samples were dropped on the surface of the IDAM and the S . Typhimurium cells in the samples were captured by the antibody on the IDAM. This resulted in impedance changes that were measured and displayed with the LabVIEW software. An equivalent circuit of the immunosensor demonstrated that the largest change in impedance was due to the electron-transfer resistance. The equivalent circuit showed an increase of 35% for the electron-transfer resistance value compared to the negative control. The calibration result indicated that the portable impedance immunosensing system could be used to measure the standard impedance elements, and it had a maximum error of measurement of approximately 13%. For pure culture detection, the system had a linear relationship between the impedance change and the logarithmic value of S . Typhimurium cells ranging from 76 to 7.6 × 10⁶ CFU (colony-forming unit) (50 μL) -1 . The immunosensor also had a correlation coefficient of 0.98, and a high specificity for detection of S . Typhimurium cells with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10² CFU (50 μL) -1 . The detection time from the moment a sample was introduced to the display of the results was 1 h. To conclude, the portable impedance immunosensing system for detection of S . Typhimurium achieved

  11. A Portable Impedance Immunosensing System for Rapid Detection of Salmonella Typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the most dangerous foodborne pathogens and poses a significant threat to human health. The objective of this study was to develop a portable impedance immunosensing system for rapid and sensitive detection of S. Typhimurium in poultry. The developed portable impedance immunosensing system consisted of a gold interdigitated array microelectrode (IDAM, a signal acquisitive interface and a laptop computer with LabVIEW software. The IDAM was first functionalized with 16-Mercaptohexadecanoic acid, and streptavidin was immobilized onto the electrode surface through covalent bonding. Then, biotin-labelled S. Typhimurium-antibody was immobilized onto the IDAM surface. Samples were dropped on the surface of the IDAM and the S. Typhimurium cells in the samples were captured by the antibody on the IDAM. This resulted in impedance changes that were measured and displayed with the LabVIEW software. An equivalent circuit of the immunosensor demonstrated that the largest change in impedance was due to the electron-transfer resistance. The equivalent circuit showed an increase of 35% for the electron-transfer resistance value compared to the negative control. The calibration result indicated that the portable impedance immunosensing system could be used to measure the standard impedance elements, and it had a maximum error of measurement of approximately 13%. For pure culture detection, the system had a linear relationship between the impedance change and the logarithmic value of S. Typhimurium cells ranging from 76 to 7.6 × 106 CFU (colony-forming unit (50 μL−1. The immunosensor also had a correlation coefficient of 0.98, and a high specificity for detection of S. Typhimurium cells with a limit of detection (LOD of 102 CFU (50 μL−1. The detection time from the moment a sample was introduced to the display of the results was 1 h. To conclude, the portable impedance immunosensing system for detection of S. Typhimurium

  12. Genetic Predictors of Response to Systemic Therapy in Esophagogastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjigian, Yelena Y; Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Jonsson, Philip; Chatila, Walid K; Hechtman, Jaclyn F; Ku, Geoffrey Y; Riches, Jamie C; Tuvy, Yaelle; Kundra, Ritika; Bouvier, Nancy; Vakiani, Efsevia; Gao, Jianjiong; Heins, Zachary J; Gross, Benjamin E; Kelsen, David P; Zhang, Liying; Strong, Vivian E; Schattner, Mark; Gerdes, Hans; Coit, Daniel G; Bains, Manjit; Stadler, Zsofia K; Rusch, Valerie W; Jones, David R; Molena, Daniela; Shia, Jinru; Robson, Mark E; Capanu, Marinela; Middha, Sumit; Zehir, Ahmet; Hyman, David M; Scaltriti, Maurizio; Ladanyi, Marc; Rosen, Neal; Ilson, David H; Berger, Michael F; Tang, Laura; Taylor, Barry S; Solit, David B; Schultz, Nikolaus

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of esophagogastric cancer is rapidly rising, but only a minority of patients derive durable benefit from current therapies. Chemotherapy as well as anti-HER2 and PD-1 antibodies are standard treatments. To identify predictive biomarkers of drug sensitivity and mechanisms of resistance, we implemented prospective tumor sequencing of patients with metastatic esophagogastric cancer. There was no association between homologous recombination deficiency defects and response to platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients with microsatellite instability-high tumors were intrinsically resistant to chemotherapy but more likely to achieve durable responses to immunotherapy. The single Epstein-Barr virus-positive patient achieved a durable, complete response to immunotherapy. The level of ERBB2 amplification as determined by sequencing was predictive of trastuzumab benefit. Selection for a tumor subclone lacking ERBB2 amplification, deletion of ERBB2 exon 16, and comutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase, RAS, and PI3K pathways were associated with intrinsic and/or acquired trastuzumab resistance. Prospective genomic profiling can identify patients most likely to derive durable benefit to immunotherapy and trastuzumab and guide strategies to overcome drug resistance. Significance: Clinical application of multiplex sequencing can identify biomarkers of treatment response to contemporary systemic therapies in metastatic esophagogastric cancer. This large prospective analysis sheds light on the biological complexity and the dynamic nature of therapeutic resistance in metastatic esophagogastric cancers. Cancer Discov; 8(1); 49-58. ©2017 AACR. See related commentary by Sundar and Tan, p. 14 See related article by Pectasides et al., p. 37 This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. A hybrid thermal video and FTIR spectrometer system for rapidly locating and characterizing gas leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David J.; Wadsworth, Winthrop; Salvaggio, Carl; Messinger, David W.

    2006-08-01

    Undiscovered gas leaks, known as fugitive emissions, in chemical plants and refinery operations can impact regional air quality and present a loss of product for industry. Surveying a facility for potential gas leaks can be a daunting task. Industrial leak detection and repair programs can be expensive to administer. An efficient, accurate and cost effective method for detecting and quantifying gas leaks would both save industries money by identifying production losses and improve regional air quality. Specialized thermal video systems have proven effective in rapidly locating gas leaks. These systems, however, do not have the spectral resolution for compound identification. Passive FTIR spectrometers can be used for gas compound identification, but using these systems for facility surveys is problematic due to their small field of view. A hybrid approach has been developed that utilizes the thermal video system to locate gas plumes using real time visualization of the leaks, coupled with the high spectral resolution FTIR spectrometer for compound identification and quantification. The prototype hybrid video/spectrometer system uses a sterling cooled thermal camera, operating in the MWIR (3-5 μm) with an additional notch filter set at around 3.4 μm, which allows for the visualization of gas compounds that absorb in this narrow spectral range, such as alkane hydrocarbons. This camera is positioned alongside of a portable, high speed passive FTIR spectrometer, which has a spectral range of 2 - 25 μm and operates at 4 cm -1 resolution. This system uses a 10 cm telescope foreoptic with an onboard blackbody for calibration. The two units are optically aligned using a turning mirror on the spectrometer's telescope with the video camera's output.

  14. Genome-wide DNA methylation alterations of Alternanthera philoxeroides in natural and manipulated habitats: implications for epigenetic regulation of rapid responses to environmental fluctuation and phenotypic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lexuan; Geng, Yupeng; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiakuan; Yang, Ji

    2010-11-01

    Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) is an invasive weed that can colonize both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Individuals growing in different habitats exhibit extensive phenotypic variation but little genetic differentiation in its introduced range. The mechanisms underpinning the wide range of phenotypic variation and rapid adaptation to novel and changing environments remain uncharacterized. In this study, we examined the epigenetic variation and its correlation with phenotypic variation in plants exposed to natural and manipulated environmental variability. Genome-wide methylation profiling using methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) revealed considerable DNA methylation polymorphisms within and between natural populations. Plants of different source populations not only underwent significant morphological changes in common garden environments, but also underwent a genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming in response to different treatments. Methylation alterations associated with response to different water availability were detected in 78.2% (169/216) of common garden induced polymorphic sites, demonstrating the environmental sensitivity and flexibility of the epigenetic regulatory system. These data provide evidence of the correlation between epigenetic reprogramming and the reversible phenotypic response of alligator weed to particular environmental factors. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Development and validation of a rapid test system for detection of pork meat and collagen residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiri, J; Benoit, L; Barrios-Lopez, B; Thienes, C; Meshgi, M; Agapov, A; Dobritsa, A; Nadala, C; Samadpour, M

    2016-11-01

    Mislabeling, contamination, and economic adulteration of meat products with undeclared pork tissues are illegal under regulations promulgated by numerous regulatory agencies. Nonetheless, analysis of the European meat industry has revealed pervasive meat adulteration, necessitating more extensive application of meat authentication testing. As existing methods for meat speciation require specialized equipment and/or training, we developed a detection system based on a lateral flow device (LFD) assay format capable of rapidly (~35min) identifying porcine residues derived from raw meat, cooked meat, and gelatin down to 0.01%, 1.0%, and 2.5% contamination, respectively. Specificity analysis revealed no cross-reactivity with meat derived from chicken, turkey, horse, beef, lamb, or goat. Comparison with a commercial ELISA kit and PCR method revealed similar if not improved sensitivity, with the added feature that the LFD-based system required considerably less time to perform. Accordingly, this test system should aid the food industry and food control authorities in monitoring for adulteration with pork. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The design of rapid turbidity measurement system based on single photon detection techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yixin; Wang, Huanqin; Cao, Yangyang; Gui, Huaqiao; Liu, Jianguo; Lu, Liang; Cao, Huibin; Yu, Tongzhu; You, Hui

    2015-10-01

    A new rapid turbidity measurement system has been developed to measure the turbidity of drinking water. To determinate the turbidity quantitatively, the total intensity of scattering light has been measured and quantified as number of photons by adopting the single photon detection techniques (SPDT) which has the advantage of high sensitivity. On the basis of SPDT, the measurement system has been built and series of experiments have been carried out. Combining then the 90° Mie scattering theory with the principle of SPDT, a turbidity measurement model has been proposed to explain the experimental results. The experimental results show that a turbidity, which is as low as 0.1 NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Units), can be measured steadily within 100 ms. It also shows a good linearity and stability over the range of 0.1-400 NTU and the precision can be controlled within 5% full scale. In order to improve its precision and stability, some key parameters, including the sampling time and incident light intensity, have been discussed. It has been proved that, to guarantee an excellent system performance, a good compromise between the measurement speed and the low power consumption should be considered adequately depending on the practical applications.

  17. Feasibility of rapid ethical assessment for the Ethiopian health research ethics review system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addissie, Adamu; Davey, Gail; Newport, Melanie; Farsides, Bobbie; Feleke, Yeweyenhareg

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges in the process of ethical medical research in developing countries, including Ethiopia, is translating universal principles of medical ethics into appropriate informed consent documents and their implementation. Rapid Ethical Assessment (REA) has been suggested as a feasible approach to meet this application gap. In the past few years REA has been employed in few research project in Ethiopia and have been found to be a useful and practical approach. Feasibility assessment of REA for the Ethiopian research setting was conducted between 2012-2013 in order to inform the subsequent introduction of REA into research ethics review and governance system in the country. REA was found to be an appropriate, relevant and feasible venture. We argue that REA can be integrated as part of the ethics review and governance system in Ethiopia. REA tools and techniques are considered relevant and acceptable to the Ethiopian research community, with few practical challenges anticipated in their implementation. REA are considered feasible for integration in the Ethiopian ethics review system.

  18. Design and performance of a 50mK rapid turnaround detector characterization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Dipirro, Michael J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Jackson, Michael L.; Harvey Moseley, S.; Panek, John; Shirron, Peter J.; Staguhn, Johannes G.

    2006-01-01

    Upcoming major NASA missions such as the Einstein Inflation Probe and the Single Aperture Far-Infrared Observatory will require arrays of detectors with thousands of background-limited elements sensitive to wavelengths from ∼50μm to ∼3mm. Because of the low power levels present in space with cryogenic telescopes, these detectors will likely operate at temperatures below 100mK. In order to make rapid progress on detector development, the cryogenic testing cycle must be made convenient and quick. We have developed a cryogenic detector characterization system capable of testing superconducting detector arrays in formats up to 8x32, read out by SQUID multiplexers. The system relies on the cooling of a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator immersed in a liquid helium bath. This approach permits a detector to be cooled from 300K to 50mK in under 6h, so that a test cycle begun in the morning will be over by the end of the day. The system is modular, with two identical immersible units, so that while one unit is cooling, the second can be reconfigured for the next battery of tests

  19. Rapid and Parallel Adaptive Evolution of the Visual System of Neotropical Midas Cichlid Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Pierotti, Michele E R; Härer, Andreas; Karagic, Nidal; Woltering, Joost M; Henning, Frederico; Elmer, Kathryn R; Meyer, Axel

    2017-10-01

    Midas cichlid fish are a Central American species flock containing 13 described species that has been dated to only a few thousand years old, a historical timescale infrequently associated with speciation. Their radiation involved the colonization of several clear water crater lakes from two turbid great lakes. Therefore, Midas cichlids have been subjected to widely varying photic conditions during their radiation. Being a primary signal relay for information from the environment to the organism, the visual system is under continuing selective pressure and a prime organ system for accumulating adaptive changes during speciation, particularly in the case of dramatic shifts in photic conditions. Here, we characterize the full visual system of Midas cichlids at organismal and genetic levels, to determine what types of adaptive changes evolved within the short time span of their radiation. We show that Midas cichlids have a diverse visual system with unexpectedly high intra- and interspecific variation in color vision sensitivity and lens transmittance. Midas cichlid populations in the clear crater lakes have convergently evolved visual sensitivities shifted toward shorter wavelengths compared with the ancestral populations from the turbid great lakes. This divergence in sensitivity is driven by changes in chromophore usage, differential opsin expression, opsin coexpression, and to a lesser degree by opsin coding sequence variation. The visual system of Midas cichlids has the evolutionary capacity to rapidly integrate multiple adaptations to changing light environments. Our data may indicate that, in early stages of divergence, changes in opsin regulation could precede changes in opsin coding sequence evolution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Dealing with the Empty Vehicle Movements in Personal Rapid Transit System with Batteries Constraints in a Dynamic Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzeddine Fatnassi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Personal Rapid Transit is a new emergent transportation tool. It relies on using a set of small driverless electric vehicles to transport people on demand. Because of the specific on-demand characteristic of the Personal Rapid Transit system, many Personal Rapid Transit vehicles would move empty which results in a high level of wasted transportation capacity. This is enhanced while using Personal Rapid Transit vehicles with limited electric battery capacity. This paper deals with this problem in a real time context while minimizing the set of empty vehicle movements. First, a mathematical formulation to benchmark waiting time of passengers in Personal Rapid Transit systems is proposed. Then, a simulation model that captures the main features of the Personal Rapid Transit system is developed. A decision support system which integrates several real time solution strategies as well as a simulation module is proposed. Our dispatching strategies are evaluated and compared based on our simulation model. The efficiency of our method is tested through extensive test studies.

  1. Neurotrophin responsiveness of sympathetic neurons is regulated by rapid mobilization of the p75 receptor to the cell surface through TrkA activation of Arf6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward Hickman, F; Stanley, Emily M; Carter, Bruce D

    2018-05-22

    The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) plays an integral role in patterning the sympathetic nervous system during development. Initially, p75NTR is expressed at low levels as sympathetic axons project toward their targets, which enables neurotrophin-3 (NT3) to activate TrkA receptors and promote growth. Upon reaching nerve growth factor (NGF) producing tissues, p75NTR is up regulated resulting in formation of TrkA-p75 complexes, which are high affinity binding sites selective for NGF, thereby blunting NT3 signaling. The level of p75NTR expressed on the neuron surface is instrumental in regulating trophic factor response; however, the mechanisms by which p75NTR expression is regulated are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate a rapid, translation independent increase in surface expression of p75NTR in response to NGF in rat sympathetic neurons. p75NTR was mobilized to the neuron surface from GGA3-postitive vesicles through activation of the GTPase Arf6, which was stimulated by NGF, but not NT3 binding to TrkA. Arf6 activation required PI3 kinase activity and was prevented by an inhibitor of the cytohesin family of Arf6 GEFs. Overexpression of a constitutively active Arf6 mutant (Q67L) was sufficient to significantly increase surface expression of p75NTR even in the absence of NGF. Functionally, expression of active Arf6 markedly attenuated the ability of NT3 to promote neuronal survival and neurite outgrowth while the NGF response was unaltered. These data suggest that NGF activation of Arf6 through TrkA is critical for the increase in p75NTR surface expression that enables the switch in neurotrophin responsiveness during development in the sympathetic nervous system. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT p75NTR is instrumental in the regulation of neuronal survival and apoptosis during development and is also implicated as a contributor to aberrant neurodegeneration in numerous conditions. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms that mediate p75NTR surface

  2. TOWARD INDONESIAN TSUNAMI EARLY WARNING SYSTEM BY USING RAPID RUPTURE DURATIONS CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adlazim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has an Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purpose of this study is to estimate earthquake rupture duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor Sea, Banda Sea, Arafura Sea and Pacific Ocean using a direct procedure and software developed Lomax and Michelini for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential by deriving two simple measures from vertical component broadband P-wave velocity record. The first is the high-frequency apparent rupture duration, Tdur which may be related to can be related to the critical parameters rupture length (L, depth (z, and shear modulus (μ. The second is a confirmation of the earlier finding by Lomax and Michelini, namely that the rupture duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and Depth. We analyzed at least 510 vertical seismogram recorded by GEOFON-IA and IRIS-DMC networks. Our analysis shows that the seismic potency, LWD, which is more obviously related to capability to generate a tsunami than former. The larger Tdur the larger is the seismic potency LWD because Tdur is proportional to L/vr (with vr – rupture velocity. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have rupture duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, rupture duration discriminant can be completed within 3 to 8 min after the P-onset.

  3. Rapid learning in practice: A lung cancer survival decision support system in routine patient care data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekker, Andre; Vinod, Shalini; Holloway, Lois; Oberije, Cary; George, Armia; Goozee, Gary; Delaney, Geoff P.; Lambin, Philippe; Thwaites, David

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: A rapid learning approach has been proposed to extract and apply knowledge from routine care data rather than solely relying on clinical trial evidence. To validate this in practice we deployed a previously developed decision support system (DSS) in a typical, busy clinic for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Material and methods: Gender, age, performance status, lung function, lymph node status, tumor volume and survival were extracted without review from clinical data sources for lung cancer patients. With these data the DSS was tested to predict overall survival. Results: 3919 lung cancer patients were identified with 159 eligible for inclusion, due to ineligible histology or stage, non-radical dose, missing tumor volume or survival. The DSS successfully identified a good prognosis group and a medium/poor prognosis group (2 year OS 69% vs. 27/30%, p < 0.001). Stage was less discriminatory (2 year OS 47% for stage I–II vs. 36% for stage IIIA–IIIB, p = 0.12) with most good prognosis patients having higher stage disease. The DSS predicted a large absolute overall survival benefit (∼40%) for a radical dose compared to a non-radical dose in patients with a good prognosis, while no survival benefit of radical radiotherapy was predicted for patients with a poor prognosis. Conclusions: A rapid learning environment is possible with the quality of clinical data sufficient to validate a DSS. It uses patient and tumor features to identify prognostic groups in whom therapy can be individualized based on predicted outcomes. Especially the survival benefit of a radical versus non-radical dose predicted by the DSS for various prognostic groups has clinical relevance, but needs to be prospectively validated

  4. The WMO/IAEA rapid data exchange system in support of the early notification convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asculai, E.; Mildner, S.

    1990-01-01

    Following the adoption, in September 1986, of the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident, the IAEA and the WMO began work on the development of a methodology for the rapid dissemination of information and data following a nuclear accident. Expert Group meetings defined the data and information which needs to be disseminated, under the requirements of the Conventions. The Global Telecommunication System (GTS) of the WMO was identified as the suitable technical means of transmission since it combines immediate availability during times of emergency, rapidity of transmission and permanent connections to all Member States through their National Meteorological Centres. In order to utilize the GTS, special procedures and transmission formats have to be observed ad a specific code was jointly developed by WMO and IAEA to make the message Language-independent. Relevant instructions were issued in the WMO/IAEA Manual on the use of the WMO-GTS for the Early Notification Conventions. National arrangements for access by competent authorities to the information provided under the Early Notification Convention and for the provision of basic radiological data are of critical importance. Preparations are being made to provide specialized analyses and predictions on the atmospheric transport of radionuclides using the GTS and other means. The format and number of special output products is being specified in accordance with the requirements of the Member States. Requirements for meteorological and radiological data need to be kept under review in the light of model developments. The IAEA is presently engaged in the production of a software package for the coding/decoding of the data transmission

  5. Noninvasive optoacoustic system for rapid diagnosis and management of circulatory shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Kinsky, Michael; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Andrey; Henkel, S. N.; Seeton, Roger; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Prough, Donald S.

    2013-03-01

    Circulatory shock can lead to death or severe complications, if not promptly diagnosed and effectively treated. Typically, diagnosis and management of circulatory shock are guided by blood pressure and heart rate. However, these variables have poor specificity, sensitivity, and predictive value. Early goal-directed therapy in septic shock patients, using central venous catheterization (CVC), reduced mortality from 46.5% to 30%. However, CVC is invasive and complication-prone. We proposed to use an optoacoustic technique for noninvasive, rapid assessment of peripheral and central venous oxygenation. In this work we used a medical grade optoacoustic system for noninvasive, ultrasound image-guided measurement of central and peripheral venous oxygenation. Venous oxygenation during shock declines more rapidly in the periphery than centrally. Ultrasound imaging of the axillary [peripheral] and internal jugular vein [central] was performed using the Vivid e (GE Healthcare). We built an optoacoustic interface incorporating an optoacoustic transducer and a standard ultrasound imaging probe. Central and peripheral venous oxygenations were measured continuously in healthy volunteers. To simulate shock-induced changes in central and peripheral oxygenation, we induced peripheral vasoconstriction in the upper extremity by using a cooling blanket. Central and peripheral venous oxygenations were measured before (baseline) and after cooling and after rewarming. During the entire experiment, central venous oxygenation was relatively stable, while peripheral venous oxygenation decreased by 5-10% due to cooling and recovered after rewarming. The obtained data indicate that noninvasive, optoacoustic measurements of central and peripheral venous oxygenation may be used for diagnosis and management of circulatory shock with high sensitivity and specificity.

  6. Health Systems Research in a Complex and Rapidly Changing Context: Ethical Implications of Major Health Systems Change at Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Hayley; Bloom, Gerald

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses health policy and systems research in complex and rapidly changing contexts. It focuses on ethical issues at stake for researchers working with government policy makers to provide evidence to inform major health systems change at scale, particularly when the dynamic nature of the context and ongoing challenges to the health system can result in unpredictable outcomes. We focus on situations where 'country ownership' of HSR is relatively well established and where there is significant involvement of local researchers and close ties and relationships with policy makers are often present. We frame our discussion around two country case studies with which we are familiar, namely China and South Africa and discuss the implications for conducting 'embedded' research. We suggest that reflexivity is an important concept for health system researchers who need to think carefully about positionality and their normative stance and to use such reflection to ensure that they can negotiate to retain autonomy, whilst also contributing evidence for health system change. A research process informed by the notion of reflexive practice and iterative learning will require a longitudinal review at key points in the research timeline. Such review should include the convening of a deliberative process and should involve a range of stakeholders, including those most likely to be affected by the intended and unintended consequences of change. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Application of a geographic information system for radiologic emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, R.G.; Doyle, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) is a multifunctional analytical tool that can be used to compile available data and derive information. A GIS is a computerized database management system for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data. Maps are the most common type of spatial data, but any type of data that can be referenced by an x-y location or geographic coordinate can be used in a GIS. In a radiological emergency, it is critical that data of all types be rapidly compiled into a common format in order to make accurate observations and informed decisions. Developing a baseline GIS for nuclear facilities would offer a significant incentive for all organizations to contribute to and utilize this powerful data management tool. The system being developed could integrate all elements of emergency planning, from the initial protective actions based on models through the emergency monitoring phase, and finally ending with the complex reentry and recovery phase. Within the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), there is a continuing effort to improve the data management and communication process. To demonstrate the potential of GIS for emergency response, the system has been utilized in interagency FRMAC exercises. An interactive GIS system has been deployed and used to analyze the available spatial data to help determine the impact of a hypothetical radiological release and to develop mitigation plans. For this application, both hardcopy and real-time spatial displays were generated with the GIS. Composite maps with different sizes, scales, and themes were produced to support the exercises

  8. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Coleman

    Full Text Available Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement and chill coma (final appendage twitch temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C. We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with

  9. Rapid kinetics of iron responsive element (IRE) RNA/iron regulatory protein 1 and IRE-RNA/eIF4F complexes respond differently to metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mateen A; Ma, Jia; Walden, William E; Merrick, William C; Theil, Elizabeth C; Goss, Dixie J

    2014-06-01

    Metal ion binding was previously shown to destabilize IRE-RNA/IRP1 equilibria and enhanced IRE-RNA/eIF4F equilibria. In order to understand the relative importance of kinetics and stability, we now report rapid rates of protein/RNA complex assembly and dissociation for two IRE-RNAs with IRP1, and quantitatively different metal ion response kinetics that coincide with the different iron responses in vivo. kon, for FRT IRE-RNA binding to IRP1 was eight times faster than ACO2 IRE-RNA. Mn(2+) decreased kon and increased koff for IRP1 binding to both FRT and ACO2 IRE-RNA, with a larger effect for FRT IRE-RNA. In order to further understand IRE-mRNA regulation in terms of kinetics and stability, eIF4F kinetics with FRT IRE-RNA were determined. kon for eIF4F binding to FRT IRE-RNA in the absence of metal ions was 5-times slower than the IRP1 binding to FRT IRE-RNA. Mn(2+) increased the association rate for eIF4F binding to FRT IRE-RNA, so that at 50 µM Mn(2+) eIF4F bound more than 3-times faster than IRP1. IRP1/IRE-RNA complex has a much shorter life-time than the eIF4F/IRE-RNA complex, which suggests that both rate of assembly and stability of the complexes are important, and that allows this regulatory system to respond rapidly to change in cellular iron. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Bridging the gap: axonal fusion drives rapid functional recovery of the nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Teoh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to the central or peripheral nervous system frequently cause long-term disabilities because damaged neurons are unable to efficiently self-repair. This inherent deficiency necessitates the need for new treatment options aimed at restoring lost function to patients. Compared to humans, a number of species possess far greater regenerative capabilities, and can therefore provide important insights into how our own nervous systems can be repaired. In particular, several invertebrate species have been shown to rapidly initiate regeneration post-injury, allowing separated axon segments to re-join. This process, known as axonal fusion, represents a highly efficient repair mechanism as a regrowing axon needs to only bridge the site of damage and fuse with its separated counterpart in order to re-establish its original structure. Our recent findings in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have expanded the promise of axonal fusion by demonstrating that it can restore complete function to damaged neurons. Moreover, we revealed the importance of injury-induced changes in the composition of the axonal membrane for mediating axonal fusion, and discovered that the level of axonal fusion can be enhanced by promoting a neuron's intrinsic growth potential. A complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling axonal fusion may permit similar approaches to be applied in a clinical setting.

  11. Critical capacity, travel time delays and travel time distribution of rapid mass transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Kee Khoon; Hung, Gih Guang

    2014-07-01

    We set up a mechanistic agent-based model of a rapid mass transit system. Using empirical data from Singapore's unidentifiable smart fare card, we validate our model by reconstructing actual travel demand and duration of travel statistics. We subsequently use this model to investigate two phenomena that are known to significantly affect the dynamics within the RTS: (1) overloading in trains and (2) overcrowding in the RTS platform. We demonstrate that by varying the loading capacity of trains, a tipping point emerges at which an exponential increase in the duration of travel time delays is observed. We also probe the impact on the rail system dynamics of three types of passenger growth distribution across stations: (i) Dirac delta, (ii) uniform and (iii) geometric, which is reminiscent of the effect of land use on transport. Under the assumption of a fixed loading capacity, we demonstrate the dependence of a given origin-destination (OD) pair on the flow volume of commuters in station platforms.

  12. Environmental science applications with Rapid Integrated Mapping and analysis System (RIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, A.; Prusevich, A.; Gordov, E.; Okladnikov, I.; Titov, A.

    2016-11-01

    The Rapid Integrated Mapping and analysis System (RIMS) has been developed at the University of New Hampshire as an online instrument for multidisciplinary data visualization, analysis and manipulation with a focus on hydrological applications. Recently it was enriched with data and tools to allow more sophisticated analysis of interdisciplinary data. Three different examples of specific scientific applications with RIMS are demonstrated and discussed. Analysis of historical changes in major components of the Eurasian pan-Arctic water budget is based on historical discharge data, gridded observational meteorological fields, and remote sensing data for sea ice area. Express analysis of the extremely hot and dry summer of 2010 across European Russia is performed using a combination of near-real time and historical data to evaluate the intensity and spatial distribution of this event and its socioeconomic impacts. Integrative analysis of hydrological, water management, and population data for Central Asia over the last 30 years provides an assessment of regional water security due to changes in climate, water use and demography. The presented case studies demonstrate the capabilities of RIMS as a powerful instrument for hydrological and coupled human-natural systems research.

  13. Rapid, computer vision-enabled murine screening system identifies neuropharmacological potential of two new mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L Roberds

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The lack of predictive in vitro models for behavioral phenotypes impedes rapid advancement in neuropharmacology and psychopharmacology. In vivo behavioral assays are more predictive of activity in human disorders, but such assays are often highly resource-intensive. Here we describe the successful application of a computer vision-enabled system to identify potential neuropharmacological activity of two new mechanisms. The analytical system was trained using multiple drugs that are used clinically to treat depression, schizophrenia, anxiety, and other psychiatric or behavioral disorders. During blinded testing the PDE10 inhibitor TP-10 produced a signature of activity suggesting potential antipsychotic activity. This finding is consistent with TP-10’s activity in multiple rodent models that is similar to that of clinically used antipsychotic drugs. The CK1ε inhibitor PF-670462 produced a signature consistent with anxiolytic activity and, at the highest dose tested, behavioral effects similar to that of opiate analgesics. Neither TP-10 nor PF-670462 was included in the training set. Thus, computer vision-based behavioral analysis can facilitate drug discovery by identifying neuropharmacological effects of compounds acting through new mechanisms.

  14. Coastal Response, a system of detached breakwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ortiz, Isabelo; Negro Valdecantos, Vicente; Santos López, Jose; Esteban, María Dolores

    2017-04-01

    The coastline's sedimentary response in the form of a tombolo or semi-tombolo (salient) as a result of the construction of detached breakwaters is an aspect that should be known in the design phase so that these marine structures may be properly designed. In achieving an ecological, social and economic value, such areas must also be properly managed. All design methods in existence since Dean (1978) are mainly based on hypotheses formulated from geometric studies on existing formations. No relationship at all is established with climate and littoral dynamics typical of the location (only Suh and Darlymple (1987) and the Japanese Ministry of Construction (1986) present relationships depending on wave variables). Neither has the influence on systems with more than two breakwaters been studied. These methods are not fully adapted to the cases existing on the Spanish Mediterranean littoral. The lines of investigation as proposed by L. Bricio and V. Negro (2010) were continued with for this study. These researchers developed a method for dimensioning isolated, detached breakwaters and their semi-tombolo or tombolo associated formations using all the characteristics of the site (energy, geometric and structural), specific climate and geomorphology and littoral dynamics' characteristics. This methodology is currently acknowledged and accepted in works undertaken on the Spanish Mediterranean littoral. A linear regression was obtained in the investigation undertaken on the 18 detached breakwater systems along the whole of the 1670 km of the Spanish Mediterranean littoral using the proposals made by L. Bricio and V. Negro. The adjustment of R2 ≥ 0.90 was used for the sandy, tombolo formations behind all the detached breakwater systems between several non-dimensional monomials displaying the most representative characteristics of the site. L/H12 + (2ṡB)/G =12,15ṡ(X/Xc)+7,3231 X: Distance of breakwaters from coastline Xc: Distance from coastline where the closure depth

  15. Two genes with similarity to bacterial response regulators are rapidly and specifically induced by cytokinin in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstatter, I.; Kieber, J. J.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Cytokinins are central regulators of plant growth and development, but little is known about their mode of action. By using differential display, we identified a gene, IBC6 (for induced by cytokinin), from etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings, that is induced rapidly by cytokinin. The steady state level of IBC6 mRNA was elevated within 10 min by the exogenous application of cytokinin, and this induction did not require de novo protein synthesis. IBC6 was not induced by other plant hormones or by light. A second Arabidopsis gene with a sequence highly similar to IBC6 was identified. This IBC7 gene also was induced by cytokinin, although with somewhat slower kinetics and to a lesser extent. The pattern of expression of the two genes was similar, with higher expression in leaves, rachises, and flowers and lower transcript levels in roots and siliques. Sequence analysis revealed that IBC6 and IBC7 are similar to the receiver domain of bacterial two-component response regulators. This homology, coupled with previously published work on the CKI1 histidine kinase homolog, suggests that these proteins may play a role in early cytokinin signaling.

  16. Rapid Flow Cytometry-Based Test for the Diagnosis of Lipopolysaccharide Responsive Beige-Like Anchor (LRBA Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gámez-Díaz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of lipopolysaccharid