WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid quality evaluation

  1. A method of rapidly evaluating image quality of NED optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Qiu, Chuankai; Yang, Huan

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, with the development of technology of micro-display, advanced optics and the software and hardware, near-to-eye display ( NED) optical system will have a wide range of potential applications in the fields of amusement and virtual reality. However, research on the evaluating image quality of this kind optical system is comparatively lagging behind. Although now there are some methods and equipment for evaluation, they can't be applied in commercial production because of their complex operation and inaccuracy. In this paper, an academic method is proposed and a Rapid Evaluation System (RES) is designed to evaluate the image of optical system rapidly and exactly. Firstly, a set of parameters that eyes are sensitive to and also express the quality of system should be extracted and quantized to be criterion, so the evaluation standards can be established. Then, some parameters can be detected by RES consisted of micro-display, CCD camera and computer and so on. By process of scaling, the measuring results of the RES are exact and creditable, relationship between object measurement, subjective evaluation and the RES will be established. After that, image quality of optical system can be evaluated just by detecting parameters of that. The RES is simple and the results of evaluation are exact and keeping with human vision. So the method can be used not only for optimizing design of optical system, but also for evaluation in commercial production.

  2. Rapid and accurate evaluation of the quality of commercial organic fertilizers using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang; Huang, Chichao; Qian, Jian; Xiao, Jian; Li, Huan; Wen, Yongli; He, Xinhua; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Yu, Guanghui

    2014-01-01

    The composting industry has been growing rapidly in China because of a boom in the animal industry. Therefore, a rapid and accurate assessment of the quality of commercial organic fertilizers is of the utmost importance. In this study, a novel technique that combines near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with partial least squares (PLS) analysis is developed for rapidly and accurately assessing commercial organic fertilizers quality. A total of 104 commercial organic fertilizers were collected from full-scale compost factories in Jiangsu Province, east China. In general, the NIR-PLS technique showed accurate predictions of the total organic matter, water soluble organic nitrogen, pH, and germination index; less accurate results of the moisture, total nitrogen, and electrical conductivity; and the least accurate results for water soluble organic carbon. Our results suggested the combined NIR-PLS technique could be applied as a valuable tool to rapidly and accurately assess the quality of commercial organic fertilizers.

  3. Rapid and accurate evaluation of the quality of commercial organic fertilizers using near infrared spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Wang

    Full Text Available The composting industry has been growing rapidly in China because of a boom in the animal industry. Therefore, a rapid and accurate assessment of the quality of commercial organic fertilizers is of the utmost importance. In this study, a novel technique that combines near infrared (NIR spectroscopy with partial least squares (PLS analysis is developed for rapidly and accurately assessing commercial organic fertilizers quality. A total of 104 commercial organic fertilizers were collected from full-scale compost factories in Jiangsu Province, east China. In general, the NIR-PLS technique showed accurate predictions of the total organic matter, water soluble organic nitrogen, pH, and germination index; less accurate results of the moisture, total nitrogen, and electrical conductivity; and the least accurate results for water soluble organic carbon. Our results suggested the combined NIR-PLS technique could be applied as a valuable tool to rapidly and accurately assess the quality of commercial organic fertilizers.

  4. Rapid evaluation and quality control of next generation sequencing data with FaQCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chien-Chi; Chain, Patrick S G

    2014-11-19

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies that parallelize the sequencing process and produce thousands to millions, or even hundreds of millions of sequences in a single sequencing run, have revolutionized genomic and genetic research. Because of the vagaries of any platform's sequencing chemistry, the experimental processing, machine failure, and so on, the quality of sequencing reads is never perfect, and often declines as the read is extended. These errors invariably affect downstream analysis/application and should therefore be identified early on to mitigate any unforeseen effects. Here we present a novel FastQ Quality Control Software (FaQCs) that can rapidly process large volumes of data, and which improves upon previous solutions to monitor the quality and remove poor quality data from sequencing runs. Both the speed of processing and the memory footprint of storing all required information have been optimized via algorithmic and parallel processing solutions. The trimmed output compared side-by-side with the original data is part of the automated PDF output. We show how this tool can help data analysis by providing a few examples, including an increased percentage of reads recruited to references, improved single nucleotide polymorphism identification as well as de novo sequence assembly metrics. FaQCs combines several features of currently available applications into a single, user-friendly process, and includes additional unique capabilities such as filtering the PhiX control sequences, conversion of FASTQ formats, and multi-threading. The original data and trimmed summaries are reported within a variety of graphics and reports, providing a simple way to do data quality control and assurance.

  5. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy for rapid identification and quality evaluation of cell culture media components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boyan; Ryan, Paul W; Shanahan, Michael; Leister, Kirk J; Ryder, Alan G

    2011-11-01

    The application of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy to the quantitative analysis of complex, aqueous solutions of cell culture media components was investigated. These components, yeastolate, phytone, recombinant human insulin, eRDF basal medium, and four different chemically defined (CD) media, are used for the formulation of basal and feed media employed in the production of recombinant proteins using a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell based process. The comprehensive analysis (either identification or quality assessment) of these materials using chromatographic methods is time consuming and expensive and is not suitable for high-throughput quality control. The use of EEM in conjunction with multiway chemometric methods provided a rapid, nondestructive analytical method suitable for the screening of large numbers of samples. Here we used multiway robust principal component analysis (MROBPCA) in conjunction with n-way partial least squares discriminant analysis (NPLS-DA) to develop a robust routine for both the identification and quality evaluation of these important cell culture materials. These methods are applicable to a wide range of complex mixtures because they do not rely on any predetermined compositional or property information, thus making them potentially very useful for sample handling, tracking, and quality assessment in biopharmaceutical industries.

  6. Evaluating quality management systems for HIV rapid testing services in primary healthcare clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jaya, Ziningi; Drain, Paul K.; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani P.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Rapid HIV tests have improved access to HIV diagnosis and treatment by providing quick and convenient testing in rural clinics and resource-limited settings. In this study, we evaluated the quality management system for voluntary and provider-initiated point-of-care HIV testing in primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa. Material and methods We conducted a quality assessment audit in eleven PHC clinics that offer voluntary HIV testing and couns...

  7. Rapid quality assurance with requirements smells

    OpenAIRE

    Femmer, Henning; Méndez Fernández, Daniel; Wagner, Stefan; Eder, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Context: Bad requirements quality can cause expensive consequences during the software development lifecycle, especially if iterations are long and feedback comes late. Objectives: We aim at a light-weight static requirements analysis approach that allows for rapid checks immediately when requirements are written down. Method: We transfer the concept of code smells to Requirements Engineering as Requirements Smells. To evaluate the benefits and limitations, we define Requirements Smells, real...

  8. Rapid Evaluation Capability (REC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The REC, located at Camp Grayling, MI, uses the only high-explosive impact area in the state to conduct year-round experiments and evaluations. In coordination with...

  9. Evaluating quality management systems for HIV rapid testing services in primary healthcare clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziningi Jaya

    Full Text Available Rapid HIV tests have improved access to HIV diagnosis and treatment by providing quick and convenient testing in rural clinics and resource-limited settings. In this study, we evaluated the quality management system for voluntary and provider-initiated point-of-care HIV testing in primary healthcare (PHC clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, South Africa.We conducted a quality assessment audit in eleven PHC clinics that offer voluntary HIV testing and counselling in rural KZN, South Africa from August 2015 to October 2016. All the participating clinics were purposively selected from the province-wide survey of diagnostic services. We completed an on-site monitoring checklist, adopted from the WHO guidelines for assuring accuracy and reliability of HIV rapid tests, to assess the quality management system for HIV rapid testing at each clinic. To determine clinic's compliance to WHO quality standards for HIV rapid testing the following quality measure was used, a 3-point scale (high, moderate and poor. A high score was defined as a percentage rating of 90 to 100%, moderate was defined as a percentage rating of 70 to 90%, and poor was defined as a percentage rating of less than 70%. Clinic audit scores were summarized and compared. We employed Pearson pair wise correlation coefficient to determine correlations between clinics audit scores and clinic and clinics characteristics. Linear regression model was computed to estimate statistical significance of the correlates. Correlations were reported as significant at p ≤0.05.Nine out of 11 audited rural PHC clinics are located outside 20Km of the nearest town and hospital. Majority (18.2% of the audited rural PHC clinics reported that HIV rapid test was performed by HIV lay counsellors. Overall, ten clinics were rated moderate, in terms of their compliance to the stipulated WHO guidelines. Audit results showed that rural PHC clinics' average rating score for compliance to the WHO guidelines ranged

  10. Evaluating quality management systems for HIV rapid testing services in primary healthcare clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, Ziningi; Drain, Paul K; Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani P

    2017-01-01

    Rapid HIV tests have improved access to HIV diagnosis and treatment by providing quick and convenient testing in rural clinics and resource-limited settings. In this study, we evaluated the quality management system for voluntary and provider-initiated point-of-care HIV testing in primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa. We conducted a quality assessment audit in eleven PHC clinics that offer voluntary HIV testing and counselling in rural KZN, South Africa from August 2015 to October 2016. All the participating clinics were purposively selected from the province-wide survey of diagnostic services. We completed an on-site monitoring checklist, adopted from the WHO guidelines for assuring accuracy and reliability of HIV rapid tests, to assess the quality management system for HIV rapid testing at each clinic. To determine clinic's compliance to WHO quality standards for HIV rapid testing the following quality measure was used, a 3-point scale (high, moderate and poor). A high score was defined as a percentage rating of 90 to 100%, moderate was defined as a percentage rating of 70 to 90%, and poor was defined as a percentage rating of less than 70%. Clinic audit scores were summarized and compared. We employed Pearson pair wise correlation coefficient to determine correlations between clinics audit scores and clinic and clinics characteristics. Linear regression model was computed to estimate statistical significance of the correlates. Correlations were reported as significant at p ≤0.05. Nine out of 11 audited rural PHC clinics are located outside 20Km of the nearest town and hospital. Majority (18.2%) of the audited rural PHC clinics reported that HIV rapid test was performed by HIV lay counsellors. Overall, ten clinics were rated moderate, in terms of their compliance to the stipulated WHO guidelines. Audit results showed that rural PHC clinics' average rating score for compliance to the WHO guidelines ranged between 64.4% (CI

  11. Rapid quality assurance with Requirements Smells

    OpenAIRE

    Femmer, H.; Fernández, D. Méndez; Wagner, S.; Eder, S.

    2016-01-01

    Bad requirements quality can cause expensive consequences during the software development lifecycle, especially if iterations are long and feedback comes late. %-- the faster a problem is found, the cheaper it is to fix. This makes explicit the need of a lightweight detection mechanism of requirements quality violations. We aim at a light-weight static requirements analysis approach that allows for rapid checks immediately when requirements are written down. We transfer the concept of code sm...

  12. Surface quality in rapid prototype MMD process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Vargas Henríquez

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article summarises a Manufacturing Materials and Processes MSc thesis written for the Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Department. The paper shows the interaction of process, gap (deposition distance and extursion terminal velocity modelled process parameters for CEIF's (Centro de Equipos Interfacultades rapid prototype molten material deposit (MMD Titan SH-1 machine by analysing prototupes improved surface quality and resistence to tension and characterising material. The project applies experimental design criteria for orientating the selection of experimental process parameters. Acrylonitrile-buttadin-styrene (ABS had alredy been mechanically and physicochemically characterised (i.e the material used in the MMD process.

  13. Software component quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  14. [Rapid screening and quality evaluation for the harmful substance 5-hydroxymethyl furfural in commercially available traditional Chinese medicine injection using LC-MS/MS method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Qing-ce; He, Jing-jing; Bai, Jin-fa; Zheng, Ya-jie; Zhang, Rui-ping; Li, Tie-gang; Wang, Zhong-hua; He, Jiu-ming; Abliz, Zeper

    2013-11-01

    To screen the harmful substance 5-hydroxymethyl furfural content in commercially available traditional Chinese medicine injection which are commonly used, and to preliminarily evaluate the quality of these injections, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural was taken as an index. The contents of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural in 56 samples which consist of 23 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine injections and glucose injection were determined using LC-MS/MS, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural was detected in 52 of these samples. The minimal content was 0.0038 microg x L(-1) and the maximum content was 1420 microg x mL(-1). The contents of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural were significantly different in traditional Chinese medicine injection which came from different kinds, manufacturers or batches. The results showed the quality difference of commercially available traditional Chinese medicine injection is significant taking 5-hydroxymethyl furfural content as assessment index. More attention should be paid to the safety of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural in traditional Chinese medicine injection, and unified limitation standard should be set to improve medication safety of traditional Chinese medicine injection.

  15. Large Country-Lot Quality Assurance Sampling : A New Method for Rapid Monitoring and Evaluation of Health, Nutrition and Population Programs at Sub-National Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Hedt, Bethany L.; Olives, Casey; Pagano, Marcello; Valadez, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    Sampling theory facilitates development of economical, effective and rapid measurement of a population. While national policy maker value survey results measuring indicators representative of a large area (a country, state or province), measurement in smaller areas produces information useful for managers at the local level. It is often not possible to disaggregate a national survey to obt...

  16. Multicriteria Evaluation of Product Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Pabedinskaitė, Arnoldina; Vitkauskas, Romualdas

    2009-01-01

    Product quality assessment is a complex task. The aim of this paper is to analyse the concepts of quality, different quality management models and their interaction with knowledge management models and the presented criteria system for assessing product quality. Moreover, multicriteria methods and their applicability to assessment of the product quality are analysed. On the basis of group of the product quality criteria and using the multicriteria evaluation methods, the quality of the produc...

  17. Selected Water-Quality Data from the Cedar River and Cedar Rapids Well Fields, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1999-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, Gregory R.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    The Cedar River alluvial aquifer is the primary source of municipal water in the Cedar Rapids, Iowa area. Municipal wells are completed in the alluvial aquifer at approximately 40 to 80 feet deep. The City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have been conducting a cooperative study of the groundwater-flow system and water quality near the well fields since 1992. Previous cooperative studies between the City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have documented hydrologic and water-quality data, geochemistry, and groundwater models. Water-quality samples were collected for studies involving well field monitoring, trends, source-water protection, groundwater geochemistry, evaluation of surface and ground-water interaction, assessment of pesticides in groundwater and surface water, and to evaluate water quality near a wetland area in the Seminole well field. Typical water-quality analyses included major ions (boron, bromide, calcium, chloride, fluoride, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, silica, sodium, and sulfate), nutrients (ammonia as nitrogen, nitrite as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus), dissolved organic carbon, and selected pesticides including two degradates of the herbicide atrazine. In addition, two synoptic samplings included analyses of additional pesticide degradates in water samples. Physical field parameters (alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance and water temperature) were recorded with each water sample collected. This report presents the results of water quality data-collection activities from January 1999 through December 2005. Methods of data collection, quality-assurance samples, water-quality analyses, and statistical summaries are presented. Data include the results of water-quality analyses from quarterly and synoptic sampling from monitoring wells, municipal wells, and the Cedar River.

  18. Evaluating the use of dedicated swab for rapid antigen detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the use of dedicated swab for rapid antigen detection testing in group a ... African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ... Several generations of rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) have been developed to facilitate ...

  19. A rapid response air quality analysis system for use in projects having stringent quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to solve air quality problems which frequently occur during iterations of the baseline change process. From a schedule standpoint, it is desirable to perform this evaluation in as short a time as possible while budgetary pressures limit the size of the staff available to do the work. Without a method in place to deal with baseline change proposal requests the environment analysts may not be able to produce the analysis results in the time frame expected. Using a concept called the Rapid Response Air Quality Analysis System (RAAS), the problems of timing and cost become tractable. The system could be adapted to assess other atmospheric pathway impacts, e.g., acoustics or visibility. The air quality analysis system used to perform the EA analysis (EA) for the Salt Repository Project (part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program), and later to evaluate the consequences of proposed baseline changes, consists of three components: Emission source data files; Emission rates contained in spreadsheets; Impact assessment model codes. The spreadsheets contain user-written codes (macros) that calculate emission rates from (1) emission source data (e.g., numbers and locations of sources, detailed operating schedules, and source specifications including horsepower, load factor, and duty cycle); (2) emission factors such as those published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and (3) control efficiencies

  20. Classroom Evaluation of a Rapid Prototyping System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Stephen A.; Krueger, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces rapid prototyping which creates virtual models through a variety of automated material additive processes. Relates experiences using JP System 5 in freshman and sophomore engineering design graphics courses. Analyzes strengths and limitations of the JP System 5 and discusses how to use it effectively. (Contains 15 references.)…

  1. Rapid assessment as an evaluation tool for polio national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid assessment as an evaluation tool for polio national immunisation days in Brong Ahafo region, Ghana. ... TM Akande, M Eshetu, G Bonsu ... Conclusion: Rapid assessment is a valuable tool for evaluation of NIDs; it enables timely intervention in covering missed children and helps in careful interpretation of the usual ...

  2. Monitoring and evaluating soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Schouten, A.J.; Sørensen, S.J.; Rutgers, M.; Werf, van der A.K.; Breure, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a selection of microbiological methods that are already applied in regional or national soil quality monitoring programs. It is split into two parts: part one gives an overview of approaches to monitoring, evaluating and managing soil quality. Part two provides a selection of

  3. A rapid method of evaluating fluoroscopic system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprawls, P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a study to develop a method for the rapid evaluation and documentation of fluoroscopic image quality. All objects contained within a conventional contrast-detail test phantom (Leeds TO-10) are displayed in an array format according to their contrast and size. A copy of the display is used as the data collection form and a permanent record of system performance. A fluoroscope is evaluated by viewing the test phantom and marking the visible objects on the display. A line drawn through the objects with minimum visibility in each size group forms a contrast-detail curve for the system. This is compared with a standard or reference line, which is in the display.Deviations in curve position are useful indicators of specific image quality problems, such as excessive noise or blurring. The use of a special object-visibility array format display makes it possible to collect data, analyze the results, and create a record of fluoroscopic performance in less than 2 minutes for each viewing mode

  4. Uranium resource evaluation project quality assurance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    This evaluation was conducted over an eight-month period from February 4 through October 1, 1980. During this time, field sampling was suspended for an indefinite time period while the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program underwent restructuring. In addition, the Uranium Resource Evaluation (URE) Project archives are being restructured. Since it is difficult to evaluate quality assurance needs of a program that is undergoing drastic change and because sections of the evaluation were well along before these changes were announced, this evaluation reflects the situation as it was during February 1980. The following quality assurance related programs are continuing to date: (1) periodic checks of field sampling procedures by the Supervising Field Geologist and the Director of Field Operations; (2) verification of field form information and laboratory analytical data verification for all geochemical surveys; (3) URE Project laboratory quality control program (all elements routinely analyzed); and (4) Ames interlaboratory quality control program (uranium only). UCC-ND was given the responsibility of conducting a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) survey in the Central United States (Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Texas, South Dakota, and Wisconsin). During 1979 and 1980, 13 detailed surveys were conducted by the URE Project in the Central and Western United States to characterize the hydrogeochemistry, stream sediment geochemistry, and/or radiometric patterns of known or potential uranium occurrences. Beginning in 1980, the HSSR surveys were modified to the Regional Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment (RHSS) surveys

  5. Nondestructive quality evaluation technology of agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Sang Ha

    1997-01-01

    Quality evaluation of agricultural products has been interested to many researchers for many years and as the result, several nondestructive techniques and so many papers have been reported for quality evaluation of agricultural products. These nondestructive techniques are based on the detection of mechanical, optical, electrical, electro-magnetical, dielectric and vibrational properties of agricultural products that are well correlated with certain quality factors of the products such as color, shape, firmness, sugar content, external or internal defects, moisture content, etc. The sophistication of nondestructive methods has evolved rapidly with modem technologies. In this paper an emphasis was put on reviewing some of those papers and techniques which could be led to on-line measurement for practical use.

  6. Rapid in situ assessment for predicting soil quality using an algae-soaked disc seeding assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Hwa; Moon, Jongmin; Kim, Shin Woong; Kim, Hakyeong; Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo

    2017-11-16

    The soil quality of remediated land is altered and this land consequently exerts unexpected biological effects on terrestrial organisms. Therefore, field evaluation of such land should be conducted using biological indicators. Algae are a promising new biological indicator since they are a food source for organisms in higher soil trophic levels and easily sampled from the soil. Field evaluation of soil characteristics is preferred to be testing in laboratory conditions because many biological effects cannot be duplicated during laboratory evaluations. Herein, we describe a convenient and rapid algae-soaked disc seeding assay for assessing soil quality in the field based on soil algae. The collection of algae is easy and rapid and the method predicts the short-term quality of contaminated, remediated, and amended farm and paddy soils. The algae-soaked disc seeding assay is yet to be extensively evaluated, and the method cannot be applied to loamy sand soil in in situ evaluations. The algae-soaked disc seeding assay is recommended for prediction of soil quality in in situ evaluations because it reflects all variations in the environment. The algae-soaked disc seeding assay will help to develop management strategies for in situ evaluation.

  7. Implementation of a rapid chest pain protocol in the emergency department: A quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Azalea Marie; Leasure, A Renee; Carithers, Cathrin; Burnette, Robert E; Berryman, Michael Scott

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this quality improvement (QI) project is to compare the effectiveness of a rapid 90-min chest pain screening and evaluation protocol to a 120-min screening and evaluation protocol in determining patient readiness for hospital admission or discharge home. The existing chest pain protocol utilized in the emergency department (ED) was revised based on a review of current research changing initial screening and reevaluation times from 120 to 90 min. A prospective comparative study of patients presenting to the ED with chest pain was performed comparing the existing chest pain protocol of 120 min (standard care) with a rapid screening evaluation protocol of 90 min. A total of 128 patients presenting to an ED in Texas with chest pain comprised the sample for this study. There was a significant difference in the number of minutes between the groups for readiness for disposition. The average time from chest pain evaluation to readiness for disposition home, observation, or admission decreased from an average of 191 min in the standard care group to an average of 118 min in the rapid screening group. Use of the rapid screening and evaluation protocol decreased the time to disposition by an average of 73 min, which enhanced ED flow without influencing disposition and patient safety. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  8. Development of a stable positive control to be used for quality assurance of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, Inge; Mens, Petra F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a simple, cheap, and stable positive control for the quality control and quality assurance (QA) of rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for the diagnosis of malaria. Plasmodium falciparum in vitro culture of known parasite concentrations was dried on a

  9. EVALUATION OF HEALTH CARE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Fras

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is possible to evaluate quality characteristics of different aspects of health care by many different measures. For these purposes, in various countries all over the world authorised institutions and/or agencies developed number of methodological accessories, criteria and tools for selection of more or less appropriately and optimally defined criteria and indicators of quality clinical performance.Conclusions. Recently we have started with activities for gradual introduction of systematic monitoring, assessment and improvement of quality of health care in Slovenia as well. One of the key prerequisites for selection of valid, practicable, efficient and reliable quality indicators is the establishment of continuous and methodologically appropriate system of development and implementation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. We started this process within the framework of national Health Sector Management Project, where all potential key stakeholders from health care sector participated. Also the project on Quality in Health Care in Slovenia, started, leaded and performed by the Medical Chamber of Slovenia, represents one of the important parallel starting steps towards assurance of reliable data on development/establishment of appropriate set of quality indicators and standards of health care in our country.

  10. Managing air quality in a rapidly developing nation: China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ming; Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

    As the world gets ready to begin the second decade of the twenty-first century, global climate change has been recognized as a real threat to civilization as we know it. The rapid and successful economic growth of developing nations, particularly China and India, is contributing to climate change. The route to initial economic success in China followed that of the developed nations through the development of industries. Unfortunately, China's environmental protection efforts have not been the same as in developed countries because China is vastly different culturally, socially, economically and, especially, politically from developed nations. When China started to deal with environmental concerns in the late 1970s, it took advantage of the experiences of other countries in establishing environmental standards and regulations, but it did not have a model to follow when it came to implementing these standards and regulations because of the abovementioned differences. Economically, China is transitioning from an agricultural base into an industrial base; however, even now, 60% of the population remains farmers. China has been and still is heavily dependent upon coal for energy, resulting in serious atmospheric particulate pollution. While growing efforts have been expended on the environment, at this juncture of its economic development, China would be well served to revisit the traditional "develop first and clean up later" approach and to find a balance between development and protecting the environment. Against this backdrop, a reflective look of the effort to manage air quality from 1949-2008 (with an emphasis on the past 30 years) in China is presented in this paper. The environmental component of the 2008 Olympic Games is examined as a special example to illustrate the current measures being used to improve air quality in China.

  11. Haemolysis following rapid experimental red blood cell transfusion--an evaluation of two infusion pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Sprogøe-Jakobsen, U; Pedersen, C M

    1998-01-01

    The vast majority of infusion pumps used for rapid transfusion of large amounts of blood have never been properly examined regarding their influence on the quality of the red blood cells (RBCs) infused. In this study, we evaluated the effect of two different infusion pumps on the degree of RBC...

  12. Use of refractometry and colorimetry as field methods to rapidly assess antimalarial drug quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael D; Nettey, Henry; Villalva Rojas, Ofelia; Pamanivong, Chansapha; Khounsaknalath, Lamphet; Grande Ortiz, Miguel; Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Vongsack, Latsamy; Manolin, Ot

    2007-01-04

    The proliferation of counterfeit and poor-quality drugs is a major public health problem; especially in developing countries lacking adequate resources to effectively monitor their prevalence. Simple and affordable field methods provide a practical means of rapidly monitoring drug quality in circumstances where more advanced techniques are not available. Therefore, we have evaluated refractometry, colorimetry and a technique combining both processes as simple and accurate field assays to rapidly test the quality of the commonly available antimalarial drugs; artesunate, chloroquine, quinine, and sulfadoxine. Method bias, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy relative to high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of drugs collected in the Lao PDR were assessed for each technique. The HPLC method for each drug was evaluated in terms of assay variability and accuracy. The accuracy of the combined method ranged from 0.96 to 1.00 for artesunate tablets, chloroquine injectables, quinine capsules, and sulfadoxine tablets while the accuracy was 0.78 for enterically coated chloroquine tablets. These techniques provide a generally accurate, yet simple and affordable means to assess drug quality in resource-poor settings.

  13. Evaluation of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests in screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by the protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Infection of individual is through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. This study evaluated the performance of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in diagnosing malaria. A total of 400 clinically suspected malaria ...

  14. Selected water-quality data from the Cedar River and Cedar Rapids well fields, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 2006-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    The Cedar River alluvial aquifer is the primary source of municipal water in the Cedar Rapids, Iowa area. Municipal wells are completed in the alluvial aquifer approximately 40 to 80 feet below land surface. The City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have been conducting a cooperative study of the groundwater-flow system and water quality of the aquifer since 1992. Cooperative reports between the City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have documented hydrologic and water-quality data, geochemistry, and groundwater models. Water-quality samples were collected for studies involving well field monitoring, trends, source-water protection, groundwater geochemistry, surface-water-groundwater interaction, and pesticides in groundwater and surface water. Water-quality analyses were conducted for major ions (boron, bromide, calcium, chloride, fluoride, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, silica, sodium, and sulfate), nutrients (ammonia as nitrogen, nitrite as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus), dissolved organic carbon, and selected pesticides including two degradates of the herbicide atrazine. Physical characteristics (alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance and water temperature) were measured in the field and recorded for each water sample collected. This report presents the results of routine water-quality data-collection activities from January 2006 through December 2010. Methods of data collection, quality-assurance, and water-quality analyses are presented. Data include the results of water-quality analyses from quarterly sampling from monitoring wells, municipal wells, and the Cedar River.

  15. 1994 Ergonomics Program Quality Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longbotham, L.; Miller, D.P.

    1995-06-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to evaluate the quality of service provided to the primary customers of the Corporate Ergonomics Group (CEG). One hundred clients who received services between October 1993 and June 1994 were asked questions on their expectations, implementation of ergonomic recommendations, follow-ups, time required, productivity improvements, symptom alleviation, and satisfaction. Suggestions on how processes could be improved were also solicited. In general, recommendations are being implemented, worksite evaluations are going smoothly, and customers are satisfied with the process. The CEG was pleased to learn that half of the people who implemented recommendations experienced improvements in productivity, and four out of five symptomatic customers experienced partial or complete relief. Through analysis of the data and by studying clients` suggestions for process improvement, the CEG has developed a strategy for changing and improving current procedures and practices. These plans can be found in the last section of this report.

  16. Factor Analysis and Modelling for Rapid Quality Assessment of Croatian Wheat Cultivars with Different Gluten Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Želimir Kurtanjek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Factor analysis and multivariate chemometric modelling for rapid assessment of baking quality of wheat cultivars from Slavonia region, Croatia, have been applied. The cultivars Žitarka, Kata, Monika, Ana, Demetra, Divana and Sana were grown under controlled conditions at the experimental field of Agricultural Institute Osijek during three years (2000–2002. Their quality properties were evaluated by 45 different chemical, physical and biochemical variables. The measured variables were grouped as: indirect quality parameters (6, farinographic parameters (7, extensographic parameters (5, baking test parameters (2 and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC of gluten proteins (25. The aim of this study is to establish minimal number (three, i.e. principal factors, among the 45 variables and to derive multivariate linear regression models for their use in simple and fast prediction of wheat properties. Selection of the principal factors based on the principal component analysis (PCA has been applied. The first three main factors of the analysis include: total glutenins (TGT, total ω-gliadins (Tω- and the ratio of dough resistance/extensibility (R/Ext. These factors account for 76.45 % of the total variance. Linear regression models gave average regression coefficients (R evaluated for the parameter groups: indirect quality R=0.91, baking test R=0.63, farinographic R=0.78, extensographic R=0.95 and RP-HPLC of gluten data R=0.90. Errors in the model predictions were evaluated by the 95 % significance intervals of the calibration lines. Practical applications of the models for rapid quality assessment and laboratory experiment planning were emphasized.

  17. ERP evidence for rapid hedonic evaluation of logos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Todd C; Smilek, Daniel; Geiger, Lena; Liu, Cindy; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2010-01-01

    We know that human neurocognitive systems rapidly and implicitly evaluate emotionally charged stimuli. But what about more everyday, frequently encountered kinds of objects, such as computer desktop icons and business logos? Do we rapidly and implicitly evaluate these more prosaic visual images, attitude objects that might only engender a mild sense of liking or disliking, if at all? To address this question, we asked participants to view a set of unfamiliar commercial logos in the context of a target identification task as brain electrical responses to these objects were recorded via event-related potentials (ERPs). Following this task, participants individually identified those logos that were most liked or disliked, allowing us to then compare how ERP responses to logos varied as a function of hedonic evaluation-a procedure decoupling evaluative responses from any normative classification of the logos themselves. In Experiment 1, we found that visuocortical processing manifest a specific bias for disliked logos that emerged within the first 200 msec of stimulus onset. In Experiment 2, we replicated this effect while dissociating normative- and novelty-related influences. Taken together, our results provide direct electrophysiological evidence suggesting that we rapidly and implicitly evaluate commercial branding images at a hedonic level.

  18. Radionuclide Data Quality Evaluation Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, B.J.; Winters, M.S.; Evans, D.

    2009-01-01

    A considerable amount of radioanalytical data is generated during various phases of the characterization and remediation of radiologically-contaminated sites and properties. It is critical that data generated from the analysis of collected samples be to a level of quality usable by the project and acceptable to stakeholders. In July 2004, the final version of a multi-agency guidance manual entitled Multi-Agency Radiological Analytical Protocols Manual (MARLAP) was issued by the Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Energy, Department of Homeland Security, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Department of Defense, National Institute of Standards and Technology, U. S. Geological Survey, Food and Drug Administration, and the States of Kentucky and California. The authors' purpose is to introduce readers to some key elements of MARLAP as it relates to radioanalytical lab quality control, and to demonstrate how these guidance elements can be effectively incorporated into mature radioanalytical lab operations and data validation regimes. Based upon the logic and statistical methodologies presented in MARLAP, the authors have revised existing project-specific Radioanalytical Data Evaluation Guidance (RadDEG) used at the FUSRAP Maywood Site in Maywood, NJ. The RadDEG allows users to qualify data in a meaningful way by tying the usability of the data to its activity and uncertainty relative to project action levels and QC results. This exercise may be useful to other projects looking to implement a MARLAP-based approach into their project/site-specific data evaluation methodologies. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of a Rapid Point of Care Test for Detecting Acute and Established HIV Infection, and Examining the Role of Study Quality on Diagnostic Accuracy: A Bayesian Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan Smallwood

    Full Text Available Fourth generation (Ag/Ab combination point of care HIV tests like the FDA-approved Determine HIV1/2 Ag/Ab Combo test offer the promise of timely detection of acute HIV infection, relevant in the context of HIV control. However, a synthesis of their performance has not yet been done. In this meta-analysis we not only assessed device performance but also evaluated the role of study quality on diagnostic accuracy.Two independent reviewers searched seven databases, including conferences and bibliographies, and independently extracted data from 17 studies. Study quality was assessed with QUADAS-2. Data on sensitivity and specificity (overall, antigen, and antibody were pooled using a Bayesian hierarchical random effects meta-analysis model. Subgroups were analyzed by blood samples (serum/plasma vs. whole blood and study designs (case-control vs. cross-sectional.The overall specificity of the Determine Combo test was 99.1%, 95% credible interval (CrI [97.3-99.8]. The overall pooled sensitivity for the device was at 88.5%, 95% [80.1-93.4]. When the components of the test were analyzed separately, the pooled specificities were 99.7%, 95% CrI [96.8-100] and 99.6%, 95% CrI [99.0-99.8], for the antigen and antibody components, respectively. Pooled sensitivity of the antibody component was 97.3%, 95% CrI [60.7-99.9], and pooled sensitivity for the antigen component was found to be 12.3%, 95% (CrI [1.1-44.2]. No significant differences were found between subgroups by blood sample or study design. However, it was noted that many studies restricted their study sample to p24 antigen or RNA positive specimens, which may have led to underestimation of overall test performance. Detection bias, selection (spectrum bias, incorporation bias, and verification bias impaired study quality.Although the specificity of all test components was high, antigenic sensitivity will merit from an improvement. Besides the accuracy of the device itself, study quality, also impacts

  20. Rethinking Educational Evaluation for Quality Educational Outcomes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rethinking Educational Evaluation for Quality Educational Outcomes. ... Educational Evaluation (EE) provides information for action by offering invaluable knowledge in terms of theoretical and practical ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. Comparing different methods for fast screening of microbiological quality of beach sand aimed at rapid-response remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testolin, Renan C; Almeida, Tito C M; Polette, Marcus; Branco, Joaquim O; Fischer, Larissa L; Niero, Guilherme; Poyer-Radetski, Gabriel; Silva, Valéria C; Somensi, Cleder A; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Corrêa, Rogério; Rörig, Leonardo R; Itokazu, Ana Gabriela; Férard, Jean-François; Cotelle, Sylvie; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-05-15

    There is scientific evidence that beach sands are a significant contributor to the pathogen load to which visitors are exposed. To develop beach quality guidelines all beach zones must be included in microbiological evaluations, but monitoring methods for beach sand quality are relatively longstanding, expensive, laborious and require moderate laboratory infrastructure. This paper aimed to evaluate the microorganism activity in different beach zones applying and comparing a classical method of membrane filtration (MF) with two colorimetric screening methods based on fluorescein (FDA) and tetrazolium (TTC) salt biotransformation to evaluate a new rapid and low-cost method for beach sand microbiological contamination assessments. The colorimetric results can help beach managers to evaluate rapidly and at low cost the microbiological quality of different beach zones in order to decide whether remedial actions need to be adopted to prevent exposure of the public to microbes due to beach sand and/or water contamination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Development and Evaluation of a Rapid and Sensitive EBOV-RPA Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingjuan; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Xuesong; Ren, Hang; Liu, Wei; Lu, Huijun; Zhang, Wenyi; Liu, Shiwei; Chang, Guohui; Tian, Shuguang; Wang, Lihua; Huang, Liuyu; Liu, Chao; Yang, Ruifu; Chen, Zeliang

    2016-06-01

    Confirming Ebola virus disease (EVD), a deadly infectious disease, requires real-time RT-PCR, which takes up to a few hours to yield results. Therefore, a rapid diagnostic assay is imperative for EVD diagnosis. A rapid nucleic acid test based on recombinase polymerase amplification (EBOV-RPA) was developed to specifically detect the 2014 outbreak strains. The EBOV-RPA assay was evaluated by testing samples from suspected EVD patients in parallel with RT-PCR. An EBOV-RPA, which could be completed in 20 min, was successfully developed. Of 271 patients who tested positive for Ebola virus by RT-PCR, 264 (sensitivity: 97%, 95% CI: 95.5-99.3%) were positive by EBOV-RPA; 101 of 104 patients (specificity: 97%, 95% CI: 93.9-100%) who tested negative by RT-PCR were also negative by EBOV-RPA. The sensitivity values for samples with a Ct value of RPA had significantly high Ct values. Results of external quality assessment samples with EBOV-RPA were 100%, consistent with those of RT-PCR. The EBOV-RPA assay showed 97% sensitivity and 97% specificity for all EVD samples tested, making it a rapid and sensitive test for EVD diagnosis.

  3. Urban Quality vs single travel: the Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with the con­sequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, together with short-sighted policies of transport and urban development spread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion and unlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel to people living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to those living in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonable urban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic, conside­red, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of the deterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italian cities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities, although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovative solutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by public administrations. One of the main environmental detractors is car traffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike the previous period. Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reaching the modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managing the demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation., such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developing and increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport, car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollution reduction and vehicular traffic reduction. For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal Rapid Transit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to join two apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuring individual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acoustic and air pol­lution as well as the congestion caused by private vehicular traffic. In Italy this system is still not well known

  4. Urban Quality vs Single Travel: the Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with theconsequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, togetherwith short-sighted policies of transport and urban developmentspread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion andunlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel topeople living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to thoseliving in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonableurban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic,considered, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of thedeterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italiancities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities,although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovativesolutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by publicadministrations. One of the main environmental detractors is cartraffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike theprevious period.Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reachingthe modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managingthe demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation.,such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developingand increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport,car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollutionreduction and vehicular traffic reduction.For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal RapidTransit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to jointwo apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuringindividual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acousticand air pollution as well as the congestion caused by privatevehicular traffic.In Italy this system is still not well known despite the versatility ofits fields

  5. Characterizing Air Quality in a Rapidly Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this paper is to 1) highlight projects collecting large volumes of unique air quality data; 2) explore how the collection of big data fits into the overall picture of air quality management and characterization; 3) provide an update on the E-Enterprise advanced mon...

  6. Evaluation of a rapid immunodiagnostic test kit for rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, BoKyu; Oh, JinSik; Lee, ChulSeung; Park, Bong-Kyun; Park, YoungNam; Hong, KyungSoo; Lee, KyungGi; Cho, ByungKi; Song, DaeSub

    2007-10-01

    A rapid immunodiagnostic test kit for rabies virus detection was evaluated using 51 clinical samples and 4 isolates of rabies virus. The quick detection of rabies virus under field conditions may be helpful in determining if post-exposure prophylaxis is needed, thereby avoiding unnecessary treatments, as well as undue economic burden. There are several widely used diagnostic methods for rabies, including fluorescent antibody tests, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and electron microscopy; however, these methods include time-consuming, intricate, and costly procedures. The rapid immunodiagnostic test was able to detect rabies virus in clinical samples, including brain tissue and saliva, in addition to 10(3.2) 50% lethal dose (LD(50))/mL cell-adapted rabies virus. The assay was not cross-reactive with non-rabies virus microbes. When the performance of the rapid immunodiagnostic test was compared to a fluorescent antibody test, the rapid immunodiagnostic test had a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 100% (95.8% CI).

  7. Water Quality and Environmental Flow Management in Rapidly Urbanizing Shenzhen Estuary Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H.; Su, Q.

    2011-12-01

    Shenzhen estuary is located in a rapidly urbanizing coastal region of Southeast China, and forms the administrative border between mainland China and Hong Kong. It receives the waters of the Shenzhen River, where it enters the Deep Bay. The estuary has great ecological importance with the internationally recognized mangrove wetlands, which provides a habitat for some rare and endangered waterfowl and migratory birds.Water quality in the esturay has deteriorated not only due to increasing wastewater discharges from domestic and industrial sources, but also as a consequence of decreasing base environmental flow during rapid urbanization in the Shenzhen River catchment since 1980s. Measures to improve water quality of the estuary include not only reducing pollutant inputs by intercepting wastewater, but also increasing environmental flow by reusing reclaimed wastewater or withdrawing nearshore seawater into the river. However, salinity alternation due to flow increase is deemed to have impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. In this paper, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) is used to simulate hydrodynamics, salinity, and water quality condition in the Shenzhen estuary. After calibration and validation, the model is used to evaluate effects of various control measures on water quality improvement and salinity alteration in the estuary. The results indicate that implementing different measures independently does not reach the goals of water quality improvement; furthermore, increasing environmental flow by importing nearshore seawater may greatly increase the salinity in the Shenzhen River, destroy the fresh ecosystem of the river and have non-negligible impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. Based on the effectiveness and impacts of the measures, an integrated measure, which combine pollutant loads reduction and environmental flow increase by reusing reclaimed wastewater, is proposed to achieve water environmental sustainability in the study area.

  8. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Hongbin; Wang Chunyan; Qi Yao [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Song Fengrui, E-mail: songfr@ciac.jl.cn [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Liu Zhiqiang; Liu Shuying [Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry and Chemical Biology Laboratory, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2012-11-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS combined with PCA and HCA was used to rapidly identify markers of Radix Aconiti. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DART MS behavior of six aconitine-type alkaloids was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical markers were recognized between the qualified and unqualified samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DART MS was shown to be an effective tool for quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata. - Abstract: This study presents a novel and rapid method to identify chemical markers for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata, a world widely used traditional herbal medicine. In the method, the samples with a fast extraction procedure were analyzed using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. At present, the quality assessment approach of Radix Aconiti Preparata was based on the two processing methods recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of reducing the toxicity of Radix Aconiti and ensuring its clinical therapeutic efficacy. In order to ensure the safety and effectivity in clinical use, the processing degree of Radix Aconiti should be well controlled and assessed. In the paper, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the DART MS data of Radix Aconiti Preparata samples in different processing times. The results showed that the well processed Radix Aconiti Preparata, unqualified processed and the raw Radix Aconiti could be clustered reasonably corresponding to their constituents. The loading plot shows that the main chemical markers having the most influence on the discrimination amongst the qualified and unqualified samples were mainly some monoester diterpenoid aconitines and diester diterpenoid aconitines, i.e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine. The established DART MS approach in

  9. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hongbin; Wang Chunyan; Qi Yao; Song Fengrui; Liu Zhiqiang; Liu Shuying

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► DART MS combined with PCA and HCA was used to rapidly identify markers of Radix Aconiti. ► The DART MS behavior of six aconitine-type alkaloids was investigated. ► Chemical markers were recognized between the qualified and unqualified samples. ► DART MS was shown to be an effective tool for quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata. - Abstract: This study presents a novel and rapid method to identify chemical markers for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata, a world widely used traditional herbal medicine. In the method, the samples with a fast extraction procedure were analyzed using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. At present, the quality assessment approach of Radix Aconiti Preparata was based on the two processing methods recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of reducing the toxicity of Radix Aconiti and ensuring its clinical therapeutic efficacy. In order to ensure the safety and effectivity in clinical use, the processing degree of Radix Aconiti should be well controlled and assessed. In the paper, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the DART MS data of Radix Aconiti Preparata samples in different processing times. The results showed that the well processed Radix Aconiti Preparata, unqualified processed and the raw Radix Aconiti could be clustered reasonably corresponding to their constituents. The loading plot shows that the main chemical markers having the most influence on the discrimination amongst the qualified and unqualified samples were mainly some monoester diterpenoid aconitines and diester diterpenoid aconitines, i.e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine. The established DART MS approach in combination with multivariate data analysis provides a very flexible and reliable method for quality

  10. National uranium resource evaluation, Rapid City Quadrangle, South Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanna, R.F.; Milton, E.J.

    1982-04-01

    The Rapid City (1 0 x 2 0 ) Quadrangle, South Dakota, was evaluated for environments favorble for uranium deposits to a depth of 1500 m. Criteria used were those of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Field reconnaissance involved the use of hand-held scintillometers to investigate uranium occurrences reported in the literature and anomalies in aerial radiometric surveys, and geochemical samples of stream sediments and well waters. Gamma-ray logs were used to define the favorable environments in the subsurface. Environments favorable for sandstone-type uranium deposits occur in the Inyan Kara Group, the Fox Hills Sandstone, and the Hell Creek Formation. Environments considered unfavorable for uranium deposits include all Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary rocks other than those identified as favorable

  11. Rapid Structural Design Change Evaluation with AN Experiment Based FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C.-H.; Trethewey, M. W.

    1998-04-01

    The work in this paper proposes a dynamic structural design model that can be developed in a rapid fashion. The approach endeavours to produce a simplified FEM developed in conjunction with an experimental modal database. The FEM is formulated directly from the geometry and connectivity used in an experimental modal test using beam/frame elements. The model sacrifices fine detail for a rapid development time. The FEM is updated at the element level so the dynamic response replicates the experimental results closely. The physical attributes of the model are retained, making it well suited to evaluate the effect of potential design changes. The capabilities are evaluated in a series of computational and laboratory tests. First, a study is performed with a simulated cantilever beam with a variable mass and stiffness distribution. The modal characteristics serve as the updating target with random noise added to simulate experimental uncertainty. A uniformly distributed FEM is developed and updated. The results show excellent results, all natural frequencies are within 0·001% with MAC values above 0·99. Next, the method is applied to predict the dynamic changes of a hardware portal frame structure for a radical design change. Natural frequency predictions from the original FEM differ by as much as almost 18% with reasonable MAC values. The results predicted from the updated model produce excellent results when compared to the actual hardware changes, the first five modal natural frequency difference is around 5% and the corresponding mode shapes producing MAC values above 0·98.

  12. Clustered lot quality assurance sampling to assess immunisation coverage: increasing rapidity and maintaining precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Andrews, Nick; Ronveaux, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    Vaccination programmes targeting disease elimination aim to achieve very high coverage levels (e.g. 95%). We calculated the precision of different clustered lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) designs in computer-simulated surveys to provide local health officers in the field with preset LQAS plans to simply and rapidly assess programmes with high coverage targets. We calculated sample size (N), decision value (d) and misclassification errors (alpha and beta) of several LQAS plans by running 10 000 simulations. We kept the upper coverage threshold (UT) at 90% or 95% and decreased the lower threshold (LT) progressively by 5%. We measured the proportion of simulations with d unvaccinated individuals if the coverage was LT% (pLT) to calculate alpha (1-pLT). We divided N in clusters (between 5 and 10) and recalculated the errors hypothesising that the coverage would vary in the clusters according to a binomial distribution with preset standard deviations of 0.05 and 0.1 from the mean lot coverage. We selected the plans fulfilling these criteria: alpha LQAS plans dividing the lot in five clusters with N = 50 (5 x 10) and d = 4 to evaluate programmes with 95% coverage target and d = 7 to evaluate programmes with 90% target. These plans will considerably increase the feasibility and the rapidity of conducting the LQAS in the field.

  13. Algal and water-quality data for Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Putnam, Larry D.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of algae and water-quality sampling on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007. The overall purpose of the study was to determine the algal community composition of Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake in relation to organisms that are known producers of unwanted tastes and odors in drinking-water supplies. Algal assemblage structure (phytoplankton and periphyton) was examined at 16 sites on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007, and actinomycetes bacteria were sampled at the Rapid City water treatment plant intake in May 2007, to determine if taste-and-odor producing organisms were present. During the May 2007 sampling, 3 Rapid Creek sites and 4 Canyon Lake sites were quantitatively sampled for phytoplankton in the water column, 7 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 4 lake and retention pond sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Five Rapid Creek sites were sampled for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, two common taste-and-odor causing compounds known to affect water supplies. During the September 2007 sampling, 4 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 3 Canyon Lake sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were measured during each sampling event. Methods of collection and sample analysis are presented for the various types of biological and chemical constituent samples. Diatoms comprised 91-100 percent of the total algal biovolume in periphyton samples collected during May and September. Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) were detected in 7 of the 11 quantitative periphyton samples and ranged from 0.01 to 2.0 percent of the total biovolume. Cyanobacteria were present in 3 of the 7 phytoplankton samples collected in May, but the relative biovolumes were small (0.01-0.2 percent). Six of seven qualitative samples collected from Canyon Lake

  14. Quality dimensions in health evaluation: manager's conceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães; Pontes, Ricardo José Soares; Vasconcelos, Suziana Martins de

    2010-04-01

    To understand manager's perceptions and experiences in regards to qualitative evaluations in basic health care. A qualitative study, based on the critical interpretive approach, was performed in 2006, in the city of Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil. The sample consisted of the group responsible for planning basic health care at the state level. In order to obtain the empirical data, the focus group technique was utilized. Two central themes emerged concerning the perceptions about quality and the dimensions of quality employed in health evaluations, which were revealed in distinct ways. The concepts of quality evaluation and qualitative evaluation did not appear clearly understood, confusing qualitative evaluation with formal quality evaluations. Likewise, the inherent multidimensionality of quality was not recognized. Despite the criticism expressed by the participants regarding the improper quantification of certain dimensions, the necessary technical skills and understanding were not observed for the approach to include the distinct dimensions of quality in the evaluation process. The conceptions of managers responsible for the planning of basic health care at the state level revealed an important disassociation from the premises of qualitative evaluation, especially those evaluations oriented by the fourth generation approach. Therefore, the model adopted by these actors for the evaluation of program and service quality did not consider their multidimensionality.

  15. Quality Evaluation of Mobile Game: Miftah Alfasaha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Alhuhud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to evolution of digital games towards mobile platforms, a large exposure to mobile games is nowadays recorded. This is because of the availability of the cell phone with individuals anytime anywhere. Hence, a vital role of game quality assessment is raised. This is for the purpose of serving as a guide for developing healthy games. Accordingly, the mobile games would help in boosting the educational entertainment, healthy diets control, and behavioral sciences studies and research. This paper presents quality assurance and quality models for ISO based educational game. In this paper, an ISO quality model is presented and quality application behavioral impact measures are justified to evaluate the development quality of Miftah Alfasaha game. The quality model and proposed quality assessment plan are tested through a CodePro Analytix tool and six sigma evaluations.

  16. Rapid assessment of antimicrobial resistance prevalence using a Lot Quality Assurance sampling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leth, Frank; den Heijer, Casper; Beerepoot, Mariëlle; Stobberingh, Ellen; Geerlings, Suzanne; Schultsz, Constance

    2017-04-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires rapid surveillance tools, such as Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS). LQAS classifies AMR as high or low based on set parameters. We compared classifications with the underlying true AMR prevalence using data on 1335 Escherichia coli isolates from surveys of community-acquired urinary tract infection in women, by assessing operating curves, sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity and specificity of any set of LQAS parameters was above 99% and between 79 and 90%, respectively. Operating curves showed high concordance of the LQAS classification with true AMR prevalence estimates. LQAS-based AMR surveillance is a feasible approach that provides timely and locally relevant estimates, and the necessary information to formulate and evaluate guidelines for empirical treatment.

  17. Rapid quality assessment of Radix Aconiti Preparata using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongbin; Wang, Chunyan; Qi, Yao; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shuying

    2012-11-08

    This study presents a novel and rapid method to identify chemical markers for the quality control of Radix Aconiti Preparata, a world widely used traditional herbal medicine. In the method, the samples with a fast extraction procedure were analyzed using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) combined with multivariate data analysis. At present, the quality assessment approach of Radix Aconiti Preparata was based on the two processing methods recorded in Chinese Pharmacopoeia for the purpose of reducing the toxicity of Radix Aconiti and ensuring its clinical therapeutic efficacy. In order to ensure the safety and effectivity in clinical use, the processing degree of Radix Aconiti should be well controlled and assessed. In the paper, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the DART MS data of Radix Aconiti Preparata samples in different processing times. The results showed that the well processed Radix Aconiti Preparata, unqualified processed and the raw Radix Aconiti could be clustered reasonably corresponding to their constituents. The loading plot shows that the main chemical markers having the most influence on the discrimination amongst the qualified and unqualified samples were mainly some monoester diterpenoid aconitines and diester diterpenoid aconitines, i.e. benzoylmesaconine, hypaconitine, mesaconitine, neoline, benzoylhypaconine, benzoylaconine, fuziline, aconitine and 10-OH-mesaconitine. The established DART MS approach in combination with multivariate data analysis provides a very flexible and reliable method for quality assessment of toxic herbal medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Study on tube rupture strength evaluation method for rapid overheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komine, Ryuji; Wada, Yusaku

    1998-08-01

    A sodium-water reaction derived from the single tube break in steam generator might overheat neighbor tubes rapidly under internal pressure loadings. If the temperature of tube wall becomes too high, it has to be evaluated that the stress of tube does not exceed the material strength limit to prevent the propagation of tube rupture. In the present study this phenomenon was recognized as the fracture of cylindrical tube with the large deformation due to overheating, and the evaluation method was investigated based on both of experimental and analytical approaches. The results obtained are as follows. (1) As for the nominal stress estimation, it was clarified through the experimental data and the detailed FEM elasto-plastic large deformation analysis that the formula used in conventional designs can be applied. (2) Within the overheating temperature limits of tubes, the creep effect is dominant, even if the loading time is too short. So the strain rate on the basis of JIS elevated temperature tensile test method for steels and heat-resisting alloys is too late and almost of total strain is composed by creep one. As a result the time dependent effect cannot be evaluated under JIS strain rate condition. (3) Creep tests in shorter time condition than a few minutes and tensile tests in higher strain rate condition than 10%/min of JIS are carried out for 2 1/4Cr-1Mo(NT) steel, and the standard values for tube rupture strength evaluation are formulated. (4) The above evaluation method based on both of the stress estimation and the strength standard values application is justified by using the tube burst test data under internal pressure. (5) The strength standard values on Type 321 ss is formulated in accordance with the procedure applied for 2 1/4Cr-1Mo(NT) steel. (author)

  19. Textiles Objective and Sensory Evaluation in Rapid Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenija STRAZDIENE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Most consumer purchases nowadays are driven by sensory attraction and good feeling. From this standpoint textile and fashion industries need new methods to evaluate fabric quality and to respond to consumer expectations. Recently the implementation of sensory analysis in the process of material characterization has drawn much international attention. So, the aim of the research was to find dependencies between the results of sensory analysis and objective fabric behaviour evaluation performed using KES-F and Griff-Tester devices. The later method was developed at Kaunas University of Technology and is based on fabric extraction through a rounded hole, thus describing the behaviour of textile materials and their tactile properties by one complex criterion.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.4.778

  20. Evaluate of head loss, sediment value and copper removal in sand media (rapid sand filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daneshi Navab

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with the technology development and increasing consumption of water resources, we are experiencing low qualities in the mentioned resources. Copper brings about serious environment al pollution, threatening human health and ecosystem. This metal found variously in water resources and industrial activities. Therefore, it needs to treat the water resources from these excessive amounts. Different methods have used for this reason but the most used method during recent years has been the absorption by economic absorbers such as sand. Rapid sand filters usually used in water and wastewater treatment plants for water clarification. In this research, a single layer gravity rapid sand filter has used to reduce different concentrations of copper. sediment value and head loss arising in filter media is simulated by using combination of Carman-Kozeny, Rose and Gregory models in different discharges of rapid sand filter. Results have shown that with increasing in discharge and decreasing in input copper concentration, arriving time to given head loss, is increasing. In addition, results demonstrated that with increasing in copper concentration in influent, removal efficiency is decreasing somewhat. Results of this research can applied in an appropriate design of rapid sand filter to copper removal, a prediction of rapid sand filter ability to copper removal and an estimation of arising head loss during filter work thus evaluating of time interval backwash. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10641 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 276-286

  1. Implications of Continuous Quality Improvement for Program Evaluation and Evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Melvin M.; Pines, Edward

    1995-01-01

    Explores the implications that continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs are likely to have for evaluation. CQI, often known as total quality management, offers a structured approach to the analysis of an organization's processes and improvement that should provide advantages to evaluators once they have gained experience with the approach.…

  2. Rapid Evaluation of Radioactive Contamination in Rare Earth Mine Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.

    2017-12-01

    In order to estimate the current levels of environmental radioactivity in Bayan Obo rare earth mine and to study the rapid evaluation methods of radioactivity contamination in the rare earth mine, the surveys of the in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry and gamma dose rate measurement were carried out around the mining area and living area. The in-situ gamma-ray spectrometer was composed of a scintillation detector of NaI(Tl) (Φ75mm×75mm) and a multichannel analyzer. Our survey results in Bayan Obo Mine display: (1) Thorium-232 is the radioactive contamination source of this region, and uranium-238 and potassium - 40 is at the background level. (2) The average content of thorium-232 in the slag of the tailings dam in Bayan Obo is as high as 276 mg/kg, which is 37 times as the global average value of thorium content. (3) We found that the thorium-232 content in the soil in the living area near the mining is higher than that in the local soil in Guyang County. The average thorium-232 concentrations in the mining areas of the Bayan Obo Mine and the living areas of the Bayan Obo Town were 18.7±7.5 and 26.2±9.1 mg/kg, respectively. (4) It was observed that thorium-232 was abnormal distributed in the contaminated area near the tailings dam. Our preliminary research results show that the in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry is an effective approach of fast evaluating rare earths radioactive pollution, not only can the scene to determine the types of radioactive contamination source, but also to measure the radioactivity concentration of thorium and uranium in soil. The environmental radioactive evaluation of rare earth ore and tailings dam in open-pit mining is also needed. The research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41674111).

  3. Quality and Research Evaluation in Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Finn

    A central issue in science policy today is the changing role and function ofresearch evaluation. How is quality selected, has local organizational traditionsand managerial practices influence on the research evaluation? Who isperceived as peers or evaluators by the researchers and by managers...

  4. Model evaluation of denitrification under rapid infiltration basin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Maryam; Imhoff, Paul T; Andres, A Scott; Finsterle, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) are used for disposing reclaimed wastewater into soil to achieve additional treatment before it recharges groundwater. Effluent from most new sequenced batch reactor wastewater treatment plants is completely nitrified, and denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction for N removal. To characterize effects of complex surface and subsurface flow patterns caused by non-uniform flooding on DNF, a coupled overland flow-vadose zone model is implemented in the multiphase flow and reactive transport simulator TOUGHREACT. DNF is simulated in two representative soils varying the application cycle, hydraulic loading rate, wastewater quality, water table depth, and subsurface heterogeneity. Simulations using the conventional specified flux boundary condition under-predict DNF by as much as 450% in sand and 230% in loamy sand compared to predictions from the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model, indicating that simulating coupled flow is critical for predicting DNF in cases where hydraulic loading rates are not sufficient to spread the wastewater over the whole basin. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time and larger hydraulic loading rates result in greater water saturations, more anoxic conditions, and faster water transport in the vadose zone, leading to greater DNF. These results in combination with those from different water table depths explain why reported DNF varied with soil type and water table depth in previous field investigations. Across all simulations, cumulative percent DNF varies between 2 and 49%, indicating that NO₃ removal in RIBS may vary widely depending on operational procedures and subsurface conditions. These modeling results improve understanding of DNF in RIBS and suggest operational procedures that may improve NO₃ removal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Process perspective on image quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisti, Tuomas; Halonen, Raisa; Kokkonen, Anna; Weckman, Hanna; Mettänen, Marja; Lensu, Lasse; Ritala, Risto; Oittinen, Pirkko; Nyman, Göte

    2008-01-01

    The psychological complexity of multivariate image quality evaluation makes it difficult to develop general image quality metrics. Quality evaluation includes several mental processes and ignoring these processes and the use of a few test images can lead to biased results. By using a qualitative/quantitative (Interpretation Based Quality, IBQ) methodology, we examined the process of pair-wise comparison in a setting, where the quality of the images printed by laser printer on different paper grades was evaluated. Test image consisted of a picture of a table covered with several objects. Three other images were also used, photographs of a woman, cityscape and countryside. In addition to the pair-wise comparisons, observers (N=10) were interviewed about the subjective quality attributes they used in making their quality decisions. An examination of the individual pair-wise comparisons revealed serious inconsistencies in observers' evaluations on the test image content, but not on other contexts. The qualitative analysis showed that this inconsistency was due to the observers' focus of attention. The lack of easily recognizable context in the test image may have contributed to this inconsistency. To obtain reliable knowledge of the effect of image context or attention on subjective image quality, a qualitative methodology is needed.

  6. Quality measures for nurse practitioner practice evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpell, Ruth; Kapu, April N

    2017-08-01

    Evaluating the impact of nurse practitioner (NP) practice has become a priority area of focus for demonstrating outcomes. A number of quality measures are available to enable practice-specific evaluation of NP roles and initiatives. This article reviews sources of quality measures that can be used to facilitate quantifying the outcomes of NP practice as part of an overall evaluation agenda. National resources and published literature on NP quality measures were reviewed. Various resources and toolkits exist to assist NPs in identifying outcomes of practice using quality measures. The need to demonstrate outcomes of NP practice remains an ongoing priority area regardless of the clinical practice setting. A variety of sources of quality measures exist that can be used to showcase the effect of NP care. The use of quality measures can be effectively integrated into evaluation of NP role and NP-directed initiatives to demonstrate impact, and enhance the conduct of an NP outcomes assessment. The use of organizational, NP-specific, and national-related quality measures can help to showcase how NP care improves the quality, safety, and costs of health care. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  7. Rapid Evaluation of Platelet Function With T2 Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuker, Adam; Husseinzadeh, Holleh; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Marturano, Joseph E.; Massefski, Walter; Lowery, Thomas J.; Lambert, Michele P.; Abrams, Charles S.; Weisel, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The clinical diagnosis of qualitative platelet disorders (QPDs) based on light transmission aggregometry (LTA) requires significant blood volume, time, and expertise, all of which can be barriers to utilization in some populations and settings. Our objective was to develop a more rapid assay of platelet function by measuring platelet-mediated clot contraction in small volumes (35 µL) of whole blood using T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR). Methods: We established normal ranges for platelet-mediated clot contraction using T2MR, used these ranges to study patients with known platelet dysfunction, and then evaluated agreement between T2MR and LTA with arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, epinephrine, and thrombin receptor activator peptide. Results: Blood from 21 healthy donors was studied. T2MR showed 100% agreement with LTA with each of the four agonists and their cognate inhibitors tested. T2MR successfully detected abnormalities in each of seven patients with known QPDs, with the exception of one patient with a novel mutation leading to Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. T2MR appeared to detect platelet function at similar or lower platelet counts than LTA. Conclusions: T2MR may provide a clinically useful approach to diagnose QPDs using small volumes of whole blood, while also providing new insight into platelet biology not evident using plasma-based platelet aggregation tests. PMID:28028118

  8. Quality of life in patients with an idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keun Tae; Motamedi, Gholam K; Cho, Yong Won

    2017-08-01

    There have been few quality of life studies in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compared the quality of life in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder patients to healthy controls, patients with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus without complication and idiopathic restless legs syndrome. Sixty patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (24 female; mean age: 61.43 ± 8.99) were enrolled retrospectively. The diagnosis was established based on sleep history, overnight polysomnography, neurological examination and Mini-Mental State Examination to exclude secondary rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. All subjects completed questionnaires, including the Short Form 36-item Health Survey for quality of life. The total quality of life score in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (70.63 ± 20.83) was lower than in the healthy control group (83.38 ± 7.96) but higher than in the hypertension (60.55 ± 24.82), diabetes mellitus (62.42 ± 19.37) and restless legs syndrome (61.77 ± 19.25) groups. The total score of idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder patients had a negative correlation with the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (r = -0.498, P sleep behaviour disorder had a significant negative impact on quality of life, although this effect was less than that of other chronic disorders. This negative effect might be related to a depressive mood associated with the disease. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Image quality evaluation of full reference algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nannan; Xie, Kai; Li, Tong; Ye, Yushan

    2018-03-01

    Image quality evaluation is a classic research topic, the goal is to design the algorithm, given the subjective feelings consistent with the evaluation value. This paper mainly introduces several typical reference methods of Mean Squared Error(MSE), Peak Signal to Noise Rate(PSNR), Structural Similarity Image Metric(SSIM) and feature similarity(FSIM) of objective evaluation methods. The different evaluation methods are tested by Matlab, and the advantages and disadvantages of these methods are obtained by analyzing and comparing them.MSE and PSNR are simple, but they are not considered to introduce HVS characteristics into image quality evaluation. The evaluation result is not ideal. SSIM has a good correlation and simple calculation ,because it is considered to the human visual effect into image quality evaluation,However the SSIM method is based on a hypothesis,The evaluation result is limited. The FSIM method can be used for test of gray image and color image test, and the result is better. Experimental results show that the new image quality evaluation algorithm based on FSIM is more accurate.

  10. Nondestructive methods for quality evaluation of livestock products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsaiah, K; Jha, Shyam N

    2012-06-01

    The muscles derived from livestock are highly perishable. Rapid and nondestructive methods are essential for quality assurance of such products. Potential nondestructive methods, which can supplement or replace many of traditional time consuming destructive methods, include colour and computer image analysis, NIR spectroscopy, NMRI, electronic nose, ultrasound, X-ray imaging and biosensors. These methods are briefly described and the research work involving them for products derived from livestock is reviewed. These methods will be helpful in rapid screening of large number of samples, monitoring distribution networks, quick product recall and enhance traceability in the value chain of livestock products. With new developments in the areas of basic science related to these methods, colour, image processing, NIR spectroscopy, biosensors and ultrasonic analysis are expected to be widespread and cost effective for large scale meat quality evaluation in near future.

  11. Evaluation of the stiffness characteristics of rapid palatal expander screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lombardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the mechanical properties of the screws used for rapid expansion of the upper jaw. Methods Ten types of expansion screw were assessed, seven with four arms: Lancer Philosophy 1, Dentaurum Hyrax Click Medium, Forestadent Anatomic Expander type “S”, Forestadent Anatomic Expander type “S” for narrow palates, Forestadent Memory, Leone A 2620-10 with telescopic guide, and Leone A 0630-10 with orthogonal arms; and three with two arms: Dentaurum Variety S.P., Target Baby REP Veltri, and Leone A 362113. A test expander with the mean dimensions taken from measurements on a sample of 100 expanders was constructed for each screw. The test expanders were connected to the supports of an Instron 4467 (Instron Corp., USA mechanical testing machine equipped with a 500 N load cell, and the compression force exerted after each activation was measured. The mean forces expressed by the two- and four-arm expanders were then compared. Results After five activations, the forces expressed by the two-arm devices were double than those expressed by the four-arm devices on average (224 ± 59.9 N vs. 103 ± 32.9 N, and such values remained high after subsequent activations. Conclusions The expanders tested demonstrated stiffness characteristics compatible with opening of the palatine sutures in pre-adolescent patients. The stiffness of such devices can be further increased during the construction phase.

  12. Programme evaluation: Maintaining quality in higher education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evaluation of educational or social programmes is paramount for establishing success or impact in higher education. Evaluation questions about programme goals (e.g. better performance of first-year students) or about the quality of programme strategies (design and implementation) and effectiveness of delivery ...

  13. Programme Evaluation: Maintaining Quality in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, A.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of educational or social programmes is paramount for establishing success or impact in higher education. Evaluation questions about programme goals (e.g. better performance of first-year students) or about the quality of programme strategies (design and implementation) and effectiveness of delivery (coordinator inputs and…

  14. Evaluation of rapid HIV test kits on whole blood and development of rapid testing algorithm for voluntary testing and counseling centers in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegbaru, Belete; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Wolday, Dawit; Meles, PhD Hailu; Tesema, Desalegn; Birhanu, Hiwot; Tesfaye, Girma; Bond, Kyle B; Martin, Robert; Rayfield, Mark A; Wuhib, Tadesse; Fekadu, Makonnen

    2004-10-01

    Five simple and rapid HIV antibody detection assays viz. Determine, Capillus, Oraquick, Unigold and Hemastrip were evaluated to examine their performance and to develop an alternative rapid test based testing algorithm for voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) in Ethiopia. All the kits were tested on whole blood, plasma and serum. The evaluation had three phases: Primary lab review, piloting at point of service and implementation. This report includes the results of the first two phases. A total of 2,693 specimens (both whole blood and plasma) were included in the evaluation. Results were compared to double Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) system. Discordant EIA results were resolved using Western Blot. The assays had very good sensitivities and specificities, 99-100%, at the two different phases of the evaluation. A 98-100% result agreement was obtained from those tested at VCT centers and National Referral Laboratory for AIDS (NRLA), in the quality control phase of the evaluation. A testing strategy yielding 100% [95% CI; 98.9-100.0] sensitivity was achieved by the sequential use of the three rapid test kits. Direct cost comparison showed serial testing algorithm reduces the cost of testing by over 30% compared to parallel testing in the current situation. Determine, Capillus/Oraquick (presence/absence of frefrigeration) and Unigold were recommended as screening, confirmation and tiebreaker tests, respectively.

  15. The Monotonic Lagrangian Grid for Rapid Air-Traffic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Carolyn; Dahm, Johann; Oran, Elaine; Alexandrov, Natalia; Boris, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The Air Traffic Monotonic Lagrangian Grid (ATMLG) is presented as a tool to evaluate new air traffic system concepts. The model, based on an algorithm called the Monotonic Lagrangian Grid (MLG), can quickly sort, track, and update positions of many aircraft, both on the ground (at airports) and in the air. The underlying data structure is based on the MLG, which is used for sorting and ordering positions and other data needed to describe N moving bodies and their interactions. Aircraft that are close to each other in physical space are always near neighbors in the MLG data arrays, resulting in a fast nearest-neighbor interaction algorithm that scales as N. Recent upgrades to ATMLG include adding blank place-holders within the MLG data structure, which makes it possible to dynamically change the MLG size and also improves the quality of the MLG grid. Additional upgrades include adding FAA flight plan data, such as way-points and arrival and departure times from the Enhanced Traffic Management System (ETMS), and combining the MLG with the state-of-the-art strategic and tactical conflict detection and resolution algorithms from the NASA-developed Stratway software. In this paper, we present results from our early efforts to couple ATMLG with the Stratway software, and we demonstrate that it can be used to quickly simulate air traffic flow for a very large ETMS dataset.

  16. Ontology Based Quality Evaluation for Spatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, C.; Cömert, Ç.

    2015-08-01

    Many institutions will be providing data to the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI). Current technical background of the NSDI is based on syntactic web services. It is expected that this will be replaced by semantic web services. The quality of the data provided is important in terms of the decision-making process and the accuracy of transactions. Therefore, the data quality needs to be tested. This topic has been neglected in Turkey. Data quality control for NSDI may be done by private or public "data accreditation" institutions. A methodology is required for data quality evaluation. There are studies for data quality including ISO standards, academic studies and software to evaluate spatial data quality. ISO 19157 standard defines the data quality elements. Proprietary software such as, 1Spatial's 1Validate and ESRI's Data Reviewer offers quality evaluation based on their own classification of rules. Commonly, rule based approaches are used for geospatial data quality check. In this study, we look for the technical components to devise and implement a rule based approach with ontologies using free and open source software in semantic web context. Semantic web uses ontologies to deliver well-defined web resources and make them accessible to end-users and processes. We have created an ontology conforming to the geospatial data and defined some sample rules to show how to test data with respect to data quality elements including; attribute, topo-semantic and geometrical consistency using free and open source software. To test data against rules, sample GeoSPARQL queries are created, associated with specifications.

  17. Rapid assessment of antimicrobial resistance prevalence using a Lot Quality Assurance sampling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leth, Frank; den Heijer, Casper; Beerepoot, Marielle; Stobberingh, Ellen; Geerlings, Suzanne; Schultsz, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires rapid surveillance tools, such as Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS). LQAS classifies AMR as high or low based on set parameters. We compared classifications with the underlying true AMR prevalence using data on 1335 Escherichia coli isolates

  18. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy for the rapid quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Hao; Fang, Jing; Tang, Liying; Yang, Hongjun; Li, Hua; Wang, Zhuju; Yang, Bin; Wu, Hongwei; Fu, Meihong

    2017-08-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with multivariate analysis was used to quantify gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra, and the feasibility to classify the samples originating from different areas was investigated. A new high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to analyze gallic acid, catechin, albiflorin, and paeoniflorin in Radix Paeoniae Rubra as the reference. Partial least squares (PLS), principal component regression (PCR), and stepwise multivariate linear regression (SMLR) were performed to calibrate the regression model. Different data pretreatments such as derivatives (1st and 2nd), multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate, Savitzky-Golay filter, and Norris derivative filter were applied to remove the systematic errors. The performance of the model was evaluated according to the root mean square of calibration (RMSEC), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV), and correlation coefficient (r). The results show that compared to PCR and SMLR, PLS had a lower RMSEC, RMSECV, and RMSEP and higher r for all the four analytes. PLS coupled with proper pretreatments showed good performance in both the fitting and predicting results. Furthermore, the original areas of Radix Paeoniae Rubra samples were partly distinguished by principal component analysis. This study shows that NIR with PLS is a reliable, inexpensive, and rapid tool for the quality assessment of Radix Paeoniae Rubra.

  19. Evaluation of headache service quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katsarava, Zaza; Gouveia, Raquel Gil; Jensen, Rigmor

    2015-01-01

    that deficiencies in headache care worldwide might be recognized and rectified. These indicators themselves require evaluation and proof of fitness for purpose. This pilot study begins this process. METHODS: We tested the quality indicators in the tertiary headache centres of the University of Duisburg...... of ensuring equal access to the services); and over protocols for reporting serious adverse events. CONCLUSION: This pilot study to assess feasibility of the methods and acceptability of the instruments of headache service quality evaluation was successful. The project is ready to be taken into its next...

  20. Real-time patient survey data during routine clinical activities for rapid-cycle quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, James Lucius; Campos, Claudia L; Jones, Robert E; Stevens, Sheila F

    2015-03-12

    Surveying patients is increasingly important for evaluating and improving health care delivery, but practical survey strategies during routine care activities have not been available. We examined the feasibility of conducting routine patient surveys in a primary care clinic using commercially available technology (Web-based survey creation, deployment on tablet computers, cloud-based management of survey data) to expedite and enhance several steps in data collection and management for rapid quality improvement cycles. We used a Web-based data management tool (survey creation, deployment on tablet computers, real-time data accumulation and display of survey results) to conduct four patient surveys during routine clinic sessions over a one-month period. Each survey consisted of three questions and focused on a specific patient care domain (dental care, waiting room experience, care access/continuity, Internet connectivity). Of the 727 available patients during clinic survey days, 316 patients (43.4%) attempted the survey, and 293 (40.3%) completed the survey. For the four 3-question surveys, the average time per survey was overall 40.4 seconds, with a range of 5.4 to 20.3 seconds for individual questions. Yes/No questions took less time than multiple choice questions (average 9.6 seconds versus 14.0). Average response time showed no clear pattern by order of questions or by proctor strategy, but monotonically increased with number of words in the question (30 words)-8.0, 11.8, 16.8, seconds, respectively. This technology-enabled data management system helped capture patient opinions, accelerate turnaround of survey data, with minimal impact on a busy primary care clinic. This new model of patient survey data management is feasible and sustainable in a busy office setting, supports and engages clinicians in the quality improvement process, and harmonizes with the vision of a learning health care system.

  1. A retrospective evaluation of proficiency testing, and rapid HIV test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Proficiency testing (PT) has been implemented as a form of External Quality Assurance (EQA) by the National HIV Reference Laboratory in Kenya since 2007 in order to monitor and improve on the quality of HIV testing and counselling HTC services. Objective: To compare concordance between National HIV ...

  2. Evaluation of RAPID for a UNF cask benchmark problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolino, Valerio; Haghighat, Alireza; Roskoff, Nathan J.

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines the accuracy and performance of the RAPID (Real-time Analysis for Particle transport and In-situ Detection) code system for the simulation of a used nuclear fuel (UNF) cask. RAPID is capable of determining eigenvalue, subcritical multiplication, and pin-wise, axially-dependent fission density throughout a UNF cask. We study the source convergence based on the analysis of the different parameters used in an eigenvalue calculation in the MCNP Monte Carlo code. For this study, we consider a single assembly surrounded by absorbing plates with reflective boundary conditions. Based on the best combination of eigenvalue parameters, a reference MCNP solution for the single assembly is obtained. RAPID results are in excellent agreement with the reference MCNP solutions, while requiring significantly less computation time (i.e., minutes vs. days). A similar set of eigenvalue parameters is used to obtain a reference MCNP solution for the whole UNF cask. Because of time limitation, the MCNP results near the cask boundaries have significant uncertainties. Except for these, the RAPID results are in excellent agreement with the MCNP predictions, and its computation time is significantly lower, 35 second on 1 core versus 9.5 days on 16 cores.

  3. Evaluation of RAPID for a UNF cask benchmark problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascolino Valerio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the accuracy and performance of the RAPID (Real-time Analysis for Particle transport and In-situ Detection code system for the simulation of a used nuclear fuel (UNF cask. RAPID is capable of determining eigenvalue, subcritical multiplication, and pin-wise, axially-dependent fission density throughout a UNF cask. We study the source convergence based on the analysis of the different parameters used in an eigenvalue calculation in the MCNP Monte Carlo code. For this study, we consider a single assembly surrounded by absorbing plates with reflective boundary conditions. Based on the best combination of eigenvalue parameters, a reference MCNP solution for the single assembly is obtained. RAPID results are in excellent agreement with the reference MCNP solutions, while requiring significantly less computation time (i.e., minutes vs. days. A similar set of eigenvalue parameters is used to obtain a reference MCNP solution for the whole UNF cask. Because of time limitation, the MCNP results near the cask boundaries have significant uncertainties. Except for these, the RAPID results are in excellent agreement with the MCNP predictions, and its computation time is significantly lower, 35 second on 1 core versus 9.5 days on 16 cores.

  4. The Center For Medicare And Medicaid Innovation's blueprint for rapid-cycle evaluation of new care and payment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrank, William

    2013-04-01

    The Affordable Care Act established the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation to test innovative payment and service delivery models. The goal is to reduce program expenditures while preserving or improving the quality of care provided to beneficiaries of Medicare, Medicaid, and the Children's Health Insurance Program. Central to the success of the Innovation Center is a new, rapid-cycle approach to evaluation. This article describes that approach--setting forth how the Rapid Cycle Evaluation Group aims to deliver frequent feedback to providers in support of continuous quality improvement, while rigorously evaluating the outcomes of each model tested. This article also describes the relationship between the group's work and that of the Office of the Actuary at the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, which plays a central role in the assessment of new models.

  5. Operational evaluation of rapid diagnostic testing for Ebola Virus Disease in Guinean laboratories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda VanSteelandt

    Full Text Available Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs for Ebola Virus Disease (EVD at the point of care have the potential to increase access and acceptability of EVD testing and the speed of patient isolation and secure burials for suspect cases. A pilot program for EVD RDTs in high risk areas of Guinea was introduced in October 2015. This paper presents concordance data between EVD RDTs and PCR testing in the field as well as an assessment of the acceptability, feasibility, and quality assurance of the RDT program.Concordance data were compiled from laboratory surveillance databases. The operational measures of the laboratory-based EVD RDT program were evaluated at all 34 sentinel sites in Guinea through: (1 a technical questionnaire filled by the lab technicians who performed the RDTs, (2 a checklist filled by the evaluator during the site visits, and (3 direct observation of the lab technicians performing the quality control test. Acceptability of the EVD RDT was good for technicians, patients, and families although many technicians (69.8% expressed concern for their safety while performing the test. The feasibility of the program was good based on average technician knowledge scores (6.6 out of 8 but basic infrastructure, equipment, and supplies were lacking. There was much room for improvement in quality assurance of the program.The implementation of new diagnostics in weak laboratory systems requires general training in quality assurance, biosafety and communication with patients in addition to specific training for the new test. Corresponding capacity building in terms of basic equipment and a long-term commitment to transfer supervision and quality improvement to national public health staff are necessary for successful implementation.

  6. Rapid Airfield Damage Recovery: Deployable Saw Technology Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-29

    portland cement concrete for Rapid Airfield Damage Recovery (RADR). However, the next generation of RADR is focusing on lighter and leaner efforts...best tools for cutting portland cement concrete (PCC) in ADR scenarios (Bell et al. 2015 and Edwards et al. 2015). The saws are easily attached to...Various teeth are available for varying needs and jobs. Most teeth are made of steel with carbide tips. The carbide may be produced as a seat tip or

  7. Evaluation of model quality predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Kryshtafovych, Andriy

    2011-01-01

    CASP has been assessing the state of the art in the a priori estimation of accuracy of protein structure prediction since 2006. The inclusion of model quality assessment category in CASP contributed to a rapid development of methods in this area. In the last experiment, 46 quality assessment groups tested their approaches to estimate the accuracy of protein models as a whole and/or on a per-residue basis. We assessed the performance of these methods predominantly on the basis of the correlation between the predicted and observed quality of the models on both global and local scales. The ability of the methods to identify the models closest to the best one, to differentiate between good and bad models, and to identify well modeled regions was also analyzed. Our evaluations demonstrate that even though global quality assessment methods seem to approach perfection point (weighted average per-target Pearson\\'s correlation coefficients are as high as 0.97 for the best groups), there is still room for improvement. First, all top-performing methods use consensus approaches to generate quality estimates, and this strategy has its own limitations. Second, the methods that are based on the analysis of individual models lag far behind clustering techniques and need a boost in performance. The methods for estimating per-residue accuracy of models are less accurate than global quality assessment methods, with an average weighted per-model correlation coefficient in the range of 0.63-0.72 for the best 10 groups.

  8. Technical note: Rapid calculation of genomic evaluations for new animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggans, G R; VanRaden, P M; Cooper, T A

    2015-03-01

    A method was developed to calculate preliminary genomic evaluations daily or weekly before the release of official monthly evaluations by processing only newly genotyped animals using estimates of single nucleotide polymorphism effects from the previous official evaluation. To minimize computing time, reliabilities and genomic inbreeding are not calculated, and fixed weights are used to combine genomic and traditional information. Correlations of preliminary and September official monthly evaluations for animals with genotypes that became usable after the extraction of genotypes for August 2014 evaluations were >0.99 for most Holstein traits. Correlations were lower for breeds with smaller population size. Earlier access to genomic evaluations benefits producers by enabling earlier culling decisions and genotyping laboratories by making workloads more uniform across the month. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exploratory Shaft Facility quality assurance impact evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This report addresses the impact of the quality assurance practices used for the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) design, and construction in licensing as part of the repository. Acceptance criteria used for evaluating the suitability of ESF QA practices are based on documents that had not been invoked for repository design or construction activities at the time of this evaluation. This report identifies the QA practices necessary for ESF design and construction licensability. A review and evaluation of QA practices for ESF design and construction resulted in the following conclusions. QA practices were found to be acceptable with a few exceptions. QA practices for construction activities were found to be insufficiently documented in implementing procedures to allow a full and effective evaluation for licensing purposes. Recommendations are provided for mitigating impacts to ensure compatibility of the QA practices with those considered necessary for repository licensing. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  10. Subjective evaluation of compressed image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heesub; Rowberg, Alan H.; Frank, Mark S.; Choi, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Yongmin

    1992-05-01

    Lossy data compression generates distortion or error on the reconstructed image and the distortion becomes visible as the compression ratio increases. Even at the same compression ratio, the distortion appears differently depending on the compression method used. Because of the nonlinearity of the human visual system and lossy data compression methods, we have evaluated subjectively the quality of medical images compressed with two different methods, an intraframe and interframe coding algorithms. The evaluated raw data were analyzed statistically to measure interrater reliability and reliability of an individual reader. Also, the analysis of variance was used to identify which compression method is better statistically, and from what compression ratio the quality of a compressed image is evaluated as poorer than that of the original. Nine x-ray CT head images from three patients were used as test cases. Six radiologists participated in reading the 99 images (some were duplicates) compressed at four different compression ratios, original, 5:1, 10:1, and 15:1. The six readers agree more than by chance alone and their agreement was statistically significant, but there were large variations among readers as well as within a reader. The displacement estimated interframe coding algorithm is significantly better in quality than that of the 2-D block DCT at significance level 0.05. Also, 10:1 compressed images with the interframe coding algorithm do not show any significant differences from the original at level 0.05.

  11. [Development and evaluation of a rapid PCR detection kit for Ophiocordyceps sinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Fei-Xia; Cao, Jing; Wang, Sha-Sha; Wang, Xi; Yuan, Yuan; Peng, Cheng; Wan, De-Guang; Guo, Jin-Lin

    2017-03-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis is a valuable traditional Chinese medicine. Due to resource shortage, expensive price and huge market demand, there are many adulterants of O. sinensis in markets. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a rapid and effective method for distinguishing O. sinensis. Based on the species-specific PCR of O. sinensis, this study developed a detection kit by optimizing the components and evaluated the specificity, detection limit, repeatability and shelf life of the kit. The results showed that when the quality of O. sinensis accounted for more than 1/200 of that mixture, it could be detected successfully. Moreover, only O. sinensis could be amplified and glowed bright green fluorescence under ultraviolet light. The kit was still in effect when it was placed at 37 ℃ for three days, which indicated that it was stable and effective for one year stored in 4 ℃. The kit in the same batch under different operation conditions, and in different batch under the same operation conditions gave the same result and accuracy, which showed good repeatability of the kit. It is simple, rapid and accurate to distinguish O. sinensis from its adulterants using the kit, and lays the foundation for commercialization of traditional Chinese medicine fast detection kit. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Effect of sweet yeast bread formula on evaluating rapid mix test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Dvořáková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to detect how different sweet yeast bread formulas influence results of rapid mix test and by the help of sensory analysis to discover consumer preferences and possible benefit and use in bakery industry. Applied raw materials (ground wheat flour T 530, yeast, sugar, salt, oil, egg, improver Hit along with basic formula were taken from the Varmužova bakery in Boršice by Buchlovice. The basic formula served as a standard (I, other six formulas were then determined (II–VII. In each formula, the rate of yeast, sugar or oil was altered in the range of ± 10% compared with the standard. Flour bread-making quality – Hagberg Falling number [s], Sedimentation index [ml], wet gluten [%], ash [%], moisture [%], binding capacity [%], granulation [%], alveographic energy [10−4J] and alveographic rate P/L – was measured. Rapid mix test and parameters like pastry weight, volume, shape, dough yield, pastry yield, baking loss, penetration and sensory analysis were determined. To establish yeast fermentation activity, Engelke fermentation test was applied. The most evident differences among the samples appeared in the volume and shape. The results of sensory analysis showed that the samples with higher rate of altered raw materials were evaluated as the best.

  13. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.; Vayatis, N.

    2015-01-01

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the 85 Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations

  14. SU-G-TeP1-07: Investigation of RapidPlan Based Plan Quality for Breast IMRTSimultaneously Integrated Boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J; Hu, W; Chen, X; Wu, Z

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using RapidPlan for breast cancer radiotherapy and to evaluate its performance for planners with different planning experiences. Methods: A training database was collected with 80 expert plan datasets from patients previously received left breast conserving surgery and IMRT-simultaneously integrated boost radiotherapy. The models were created on the RapidPlan. Five patients from the training database and 5 external patients were used for internal and external validation, respectively. Three planners with different planning experiences (beginner, junior, senior) designed manual and RapidPlan based plans for additional ten patients. The plan qualities were compared with manual and RapidPlan based ones. Results: For the internal and external validations, there were no significant dose differences on target coverage for plans from RapidPlan and manual. Also, no difference was found in the mean doses to contralateral breast and lung. The RapidPlan improved the heart (V5, V10, V20, V30, and mead dose) and ipsilateral lung (V5, V10, V20, V30, and mean dose) sparing for the beginner and junior planners. Compare to the plans from senior planner, 6 out of 16 clinically checked parameters were improved in RapidPlan, and the left parameters were similar. Conclusion: It is feasible to generate clinical acceptable plans using RapidPlan for breast cancer radiotherapy. The RapidPlan helps to systematically improve the quality of IMRT plans against the benchmark of clinically accepted plans. The RapidPlan shows promise for homogenizing plan quality by transferring planning expertise from more experienced to less experienced planners.

  15. SU-G-TeP1-07: Investigation of RapidPlan Based Plan Quality for Breast IMRTSimultaneously Integrated Boost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J; Hu, W; Chen, X; Wu, Z [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, Shanghai (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using RapidPlan for breast cancer radiotherapy and to evaluate its performance for planners with different planning experiences. Methods: A training database was collected with 80 expert plan datasets from patients previously received left breast conserving surgery and IMRT-simultaneously integrated boost radiotherapy. The models were created on the RapidPlan. Five patients from the training database and 5 external patients were used for internal and external validation, respectively. Three planners with different planning experiences (beginner, junior, senior) designed manual and RapidPlan based plans for additional ten patients. The plan qualities were compared with manual and RapidPlan based ones. Results: For the internal and external validations, there were no significant dose differences on target coverage for plans from RapidPlan and manual. Also, no difference was found in the mean doses to contralateral breast and lung. The RapidPlan improved the heart (V5, V10, V20, V30, and mead dose) and ipsilateral lung (V5, V10, V20, V30, and mean dose) sparing for the beginner and junior planners. Compare to the plans from senior planner, 6 out of 16 clinically checked parameters were improved in RapidPlan, and the left parameters were similar. Conclusion: It is feasible to generate clinical acceptable plans using RapidPlan for breast cancer radiotherapy. The RapidPlan helps to systematically improve the quality of IMRT plans against the benchmark of clinically accepted plans. The RapidPlan shows promise for homogenizing plan quality by transferring planning expertise from more experienced to less experienced planners.

  16. Evaluating Predictive Models of Software Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaschini, V.; Canaparo, M.; Ronchieri, E.; Salomoni, D.

    2014-06-01

    Applications from High Energy Physics scientific community are constantly growing and implemented by a large number of developers. This implies a strong churn on the code and an associated risk of faults, which is unavoidable as long as the software undergoes active evolution. However, the necessities of production systems run counter to this. Stability and predictability are of paramount importance; in addition, a short turn-around time for the defect discovery-correction-deployment cycle is required. A way to reconcile these opposite foci is to use a software quality model to obtain an approximation of the risk before releasing a program to only deliver software with a risk lower than an agreed threshold. In this article we evaluated two quality predictive models to identify the operational risk and the quality of some software products. We applied these models to the development history of several EMI packages with intent to discover the risk factor of each product and compare it with its real history. We attempted to determine if the models reasonably maps reality for the applications under evaluation, and finally we concluded suggesting directions for further studies.

  17. Evaluating predictive models of software quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaschini, V; Canaparo, M; Ronchieri, E; Salomoni, D

    2014-01-01

    Applications from High Energy Physics scientific community are constantly growing and implemented by a large number of developers. This implies a strong churn on the code and an associated risk of faults, which is unavoidable as long as the software undergoes active evolution. However, the necessities of production systems run counter to this. Stability and predictability are of paramount importance; in addition, a short turn-around time for the defect discovery-correction-deployment cycle is required. A way to reconcile these opposite foci is to use a software quality model to obtain an approximation of the risk before releasing a program to only deliver software with a risk lower than an agreed threshold. In this article we evaluated two quality predictive models to identify the operational risk and the quality of some software products. We applied these models to the development history of several EMI packages with intent to discover the risk factor of each product and compare it with its real history. We attempted to determine if the models reasonably maps reality for the applications under evaluation, and finally we concluded suggesting directions for further studies.

  18. Evaluating Water Quality in a Suburban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S. M.; Garza, N.

    2008-12-01

    A water quality analysis and modeling study is currently being conducted on the Martinez Creek, a small catchment within Cibolo watershed, a sub-basin of the San Antonio River, Texas. Several other major creeks, such as Salatrillo, Escondido, and Woman Hollering merge with Martinez Creek. Land use and land cover analysis shows that the major portion of the watershed is dominated by residential development with average impervious cover percentage of approximately 40% along with a some of agricultural areas and brushlands. This catchment is characterized by the presence of three small wastewater treatment plants. Previous site visits and sampling of water quality indicate the presence of algae and fecal coliform bacteria at levels well above state standards at several locations in the catchment throughout the year. Due to the presence of livestock, residential development and wastewater treatment plants, a comprehensive understanding of water quality is important to evaluate the sources and find means to control pollution. As part of the study, a spatial and temporal water quality analyses of conventional parameters as well as emerging contaminants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals and microbial pathogens is being conducted to identify critical locations and sources. Additionally, the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) will be used to identify best management practices that can be incorporated given the projected growth and development and feasibility.

  19. Quality evaluation of the sourdough rye breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIANA BANU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sourdough fermentation is a biotechnological process that has been reported to improve dough properties, to increase bread flavor and taste, to enhance nutritional value and to extend shelf life of sourdough bread. The quality of rye breads prepared with 20 and 40% sourdough, fermented with different mixed starter cultures was investigated in this study. The bread quality was evaluated in terms of specific volume, humidity, total titratable acidity, crumb characteristics and sensory profiles. Digital image analysis revealed that rye bread with 40% sourdough had a considerably denser crumb structure. Rye bread with 20% sourdough maintained superior texture characteristics over the storage period, while increasing the sourdough content to 40% had a negative effect on the texture. The sensory profiles of the bread highly depended on the type of starter cultures used for fermentation.

  20. Signal Quality Evaluation of Emerging EEG Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Radüntz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG registration as a direct measure of brain activity has unique potentials. It is one of the most reliable and predicative indicators when studying human cognition, evaluating a subject's health condition, or monitoring their mental state. Unfortunately, standard signal acquisition procedures limit the usability of EEG devices and narrow their application outside the lab. Emerging sensor technology allows gel-free EEG registration and wireless signal transmission. Thus, it enables quick and easy application of EEG devices by users themselves. Although a main requirement for the interpretation of an EEG is good signal quality, there is a lack of research on this topic in relation to new devices. In our work, we compared the signal quality of six very different EEG devices. On six consecutive days, 24 subjects wore each device for 60 min and completed tasks and games on the computer. The registered signals were evaluated in the time and frequency domains. In the time domain, we examined the percentage of artifact-contaminated EEG segments and the signal-to-noise ratios. In the frequency domain, we focused on the band power variation in relation to task demands. The results indicated that the signal quality of a mobile, gel-based EEG system could not be surpassed by that of a gel-free system. However, some of the mobile dry-electrode devices offered signals that were almost comparable and were very promising. This study provided a differentiated view of the signal quality of emerging mobile and gel-free EEG recording technology and allowed an assessment of the functionality of the new devices. Hence, it provided a crucial prerequisite for their general application, while simultaneously supporting their further development.

  1. Evaluation of simple rapid HIV assays and development of national rapid HIV test algorithms in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyamuya, Eligius F; Aboud, Said; Urassa, Willy K; Sufi, Jaffer; Mbwana, Judica; Ndugulile, Faustin; Massambu, Charles

    2009-02-18

    Suitable algorithms based on a combination of two or more simple rapid HIV assays have been shown to have a diagnostic accuracy comparable to double enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or double ELISA with Western Blot strategies. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of five simple rapid HIV assays using whole blood samples from HIV-infected patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors, and to formulate an alternative confirmatory strategy based on rapid HIV testing algorithms suitable for use in Tanzania. Five rapid HIV assays: Determine HIV-1/2 (Inverness Medical), SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc.), First Response HIV Card 1-2.0 (PMC Medical India Pvt Ltd), HIV1/2 Stat-Pak Dipstick (Chembio Diagnostic System, Inc) and Uni-Gold HIV-1/2 (Trinity Biotech) were evaluated between June and September 2006 using 1433 whole blood samples from hospital patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors. All samples that were reactive on all or any of the five rapid assays and 10% of non-reactive samples were tested on a confirmatory Inno-Lia HIV I/II immunoblot assay (Immunogenetics). Three hundred and ninety samples were confirmed HIV-1 antibody positive, while 1043 were HIV negative. The sensitivity at initial testing of Determine, SD Bioline and Uni-Gold was 100% (95% CI; 99.1-100) while First Response and Stat-Pak had sensitivity of 99.5% (95% CI; 98.2-99.9) and 97.7% (95% CI; 95.7-98.9), respectively, which increased to 100% (95% CI; 99.1-100) on repeat testing. The initial specificity of the Uni-Gold assay was 100% (95% CI; 99.6-100) while specificities were 99.6% (95% CI; 99-99.9), 99.4% (95% CI; 98.8-99.7), 99.6% (95% CI; 99-99.9) and 99.8% (95% CI; 99.3-99.9) for Determine, SD Bioline, First Response and Stat-Pak assays, respectively. There was no any sample which was concordantly false positive in Uni-Gold, Determine and SD Bioline assays. An

  2. Effect of the Cedar River on the quality of the ground-water supply for Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmeyer, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Surface Water Treatment Rule under the 1986 Amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act requires that public-water supplies be evaluated for susceptibility to surface-water effects. The alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Cedar River is evaluated for biogenic material and monitored for selected water-quality properties and constituents to determine the effect of surface water on the water supply for the City of Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Results from monitoring of selected water-quality properties and constituents showed an inverse relation to river stage or discharge. Water-quality properties and constituents of the alluvial aquifer changed as water flowed from the river to the municipal well as a result of drawdown. The values of specific conductance, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen at observation well CRM-4 and municipal well Seminole 10 generally follow the trends of values for the Cedar River. Values at observation well CRM-3 and the municipal water-treatment plant showed very little correlation with values from the river. The traveltime of water through the aquifer could be an indication of the susceptibility of the alluvial aquifer to surface-water effects. Estimated traveltimes from the Cedar River to municipal well Seminole 10 ranged from 7 to 17 days.

  3. Inkjet printable nanosilver suspensions for enhanced sintering quality in rapid manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, John G; Creehan, Kevin D; Kuhn, Howard A

    2007-01-01

    Inkjet printable nanosilver suspensions were prepared by dispersing 30 nm silver particles into a water-based binder system to enhance the sintering quality in rapid manufacturing. During three-dimensional printing (3DP), the nanosilver suspensions were inkjet printed onto repetitively spread microsilver powder for selective joining. Since the nanosilver particles in the suspensions can be sintered at relatively low temperatures to bond the neighbouring microsilver powder, they were used to provide the continuous bonding strength of the manufacturing parts during the heat-up procedure of the sintering operation. Comparative study shows that the silver parts printed using the nanosilver suspension were significantly enhanced in sintering quality than those printed using the binder system, especially when the silver parts had thin or small features with high aspect ratios

  4. Rapid quantitative evaluation of vascular damage in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, M.L.; Kramp, D.; Hedge, K.; Dimitrievich, G.

    1987-01-01

    Using the rabbit ear chamber technique (Rad Res 99:511-535) mature vessels are imaged with a photo microscope and video images are digitized by a Quantex image processor. Each digitized image frame continuously updates a background image via exponential averaging. Simultaneously this background image is subtracted from each input frame to form the difference image. The absolute value of this image, in which significant motion artifacts remain, is summed by a second memory until the intensity of the vessel regions has saturated. High pass spacial filter, followed by a band pass look-up table defines vessels as white and non- vessel regions as black except for ''salt and pepper noises.'' Next, the image is read into computer memory which searches for segments of white pixels of satisfactory length. Then either a) the entire segment or b) the mid-point of the segment is ''color-set'' and displayed with the image after final correction a count of the number of set pixels is made. This count is proportional to either a) total vessel area viewed or b) total vessel length. This technique is then used to create histograms of vessel lengths. Intercomparison with the photographic technique is presented for graded doses of radiation, evaluating vascular damage

  5. A portable device for rapid nondestructive detection of fresh meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wan; Peng, Yankun

    2014-05-01

    Quality attributes of fresh meat influence nutritional value and consumers' purchasing power. In order to meet the demand of inspection department for portable device, a rapid and nondestructive detection device for fresh meat quality based on ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) processor and VIS/NIR technology was designed. Working principal, hardware composition, software system and functional test were introduced. Hardware system consisted of ARM processing unit, light source unit, detection probe unit, spectral data acquisition unit, LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) touch screen display unit, power unit and the cooling unit. Linux operating system and quality parameters acquisition processing application were designed. This system has realized collecting spectral signal, storing, displaying and processing as integration with the weight of 3.5 kg. 40 pieces of beef were used in experiment to validate the stability and reliability. The results indicated that prediction model developed using PLSR method using SNV as pre-processing method had good performance, with the correlation coefficient of 0.90 and root mean square error of 1.56 for validation set for L*, 0.95 and 1.74 for a*,0.94 and 0.59 for b*, 0.88 and 0.13 for pH, 0.79 and 12.46 for tenderness, 0.89 and 0.91 for water content, respectively. The experimental result shows that this device can be a useful tool for detecting quality of meat.

  6. HIV rapid testing in a Veterans Affairs hospital ED setting: a 5-year sustainability evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Herschel; Hagedorn, Hildi; Anaya, Henry D

    2014-08-01

    Routine HIV testing in primary care settings is now recommended in the United States. The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has increased the number of patients tested for HIV, but overall HIV testing rates in VA remain low. A proven strategy for increasing such testing involves nurse-initiated HIV rapid testing (HIV RT). The purpose of this work was to use a mixed methodology approach to evaluate the 5-year sustainability of an intervention that implemented HIV RT in a VA emergency department setting in a large, urban VA medical center to reduce missed diagnostic and treatment opportunities in this vulnerable patient population. In-person semistructured interviews were conducted with providers and stakeholders. Interview notes were qualitatively coded for emerging themes. Quarterly testing rates were evaluated for a 5-year time span starting from the launch in July 2008. Findings indicate that HIV RT was sustained by the enthusiasm of 2 clinical champions who oversaw the registered nurses responsible for conducting the testing. The departure of the clinical champions was correlated with a substantial drop-off in testing. Findings also indicate potential strategies for improving sustainability including engaging senior leadership in the project, engaging line staff in the implementation planning from the start to increase ownership over the innovation, incorporating information into initial training explaining the importance of the innovation to quality patient care, providing ongoing training to maintain skills, and providing routine progress reports to staff to demonstrate the ongoing impact of their efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Evaluation of Environmental Quality Productive Ecosystem Guayas (Ecuador).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Wilson; Pardo, Francisco; Sanfeliu, Teófilo; Carrera, Gloria; Jordan, Manuel; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2015-04-01

    Natural resources are deteriorating very rapidly in the Gulf of Guayaquil and the area of influence in the Guayas Basin due to human activity. Specific problems are generated by the mismanagement of the aquaculture industry affecting the traditional agricultural sectors: rice, banana, sugarcane, cocoa, coffee, and soya also studied, and by human and industrial settlements. The development of industrial activities such as aquaculture (shrimp building for shrimp farming in ponds) and agriculture, have increasingly contributed to the generation of waste, degrading and potentially toxic elements in high concentrations, which can have adverse effects on organisms in the ecosystems, in the health of the population and damage the ecological and environmental balance. The productive Guayas ecosystem, consists of three interrelated ecosystems, the Gulf of Guayaquil, the Guayas River estuary and the Guayas Basin buffer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the environmental quality of the productive Guayas ecosystem (Ecuador), through operational and specific objectives: 1) Draw up the transition coastal zone in the Gulf of Guayaquil, 2) Set temporal spatial variability of soil salinity in wetlands rice, Lower Guayas Basin, 3) evaluate the heavy metals in wetland rice in the Lower Basin of Guayas. The physical and chemical parameters of the soils have been studied. These are indicators of environmental quality. The multivariate statistical method showed the relations of similarities and dissimilarities between variables and parameter studies as stable. Moreover, the boundaries of coastal transition areas, temporal spatial variability of soil salinity and heavy metals in rice cultivation in the Lower Basin of Guayas were researched. The sequential studies included and discussed represent a broad framework of fundamental issues that has been valued as a basic component of the productive Guayas ecosystem. They are determinants of the environmental quality of the Guayas

  8. Comparative evaluation of two rapid field tests for malaria diagnosis: Partec Rapid Malaria Test® and Binax Now® Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Acquah, Samuel Ek; Ibrahim, Lukeman; May, Juergen; Brattig, Norbert; Tannich, Egbert; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Huenger, Frank

    2011-05-23

    About 90% of all malaria deaths in sub-Saharan Africa occur in children under five years. Fast and reliable diagnosis of malaria requires confirmation of the presence of malaria parasites in the blood of patients with fever or history suggestive of malaria; hence a prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to effective disease management. Confirmation of malaria infection requires the availability of a rapid, sensitive, and specific testing at an affordable cost. We compared two recent methods (the novel Partec Rapid Malaria Test® (PT) and the Binax Now® Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (BN RDT) with the conventional Giemsa stain microscopy (GM) for the diagnosis of malaria among children in a clinical laboratory of a hospital in a rural endemic area of Ghana. Blood samples were collected from 263 children admitted with fever or a history of fever to the pediatric clinic of the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital. The three different test methods PT, BN RDT and GM were performed independently by well trained and competent laboratory staff to assess the presence of malaria parasites. Results were analyzed and compared using GM as the reference standard. In 107 (40.7%) of 263 study participants, Plasmodium sp. was detected by GM. PT and BN RDT showed positive results in 111 (42.2%) and 114 (43.4%), respectively. Compared to GM reference standard, the sensitivities of the PT and BN RDT were 100% (95% CI: 96.6-100) and 97.2% (95% CI: 92.0-99.4), respectively, specificities were 97.4% (95% CI: 93.6-99.3) and 93.6% (95% CI: 88.5-96.9), respectively. There was a strong agreement (kappa) between the applied test methods (GM vs PT: 0.97; p < 0.001 and GM vs BN RDT: 0.90; p < 0.001). The average turnaround time per tests was 17 minutes. In this study two rapid malaria tests, PT and BN RDT, demonstrated a good quality of their performance compared to conventional GM. Both methods require little training, have short turnaround times, are applicable as well as affordable and

  9. Quality of protection evaluation of security mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiezopolski, Bogdan; Zurek, Tomasz; Mokkas, Michail

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that during the design of teleinformatic system the tradeoff between the systems performance and the system protection should be made. The traditional approach assumes that the best way is to apply the strongest possible security measures. Unfortunately, the overestimation of security measures can lead to the unreasonable increase of system load. This is especially important in multimedia systems where the performance has critical character. In many cases determination of the required level of protection and adjustment of some security measures to these requirements increase system efficiency. Such an approach is achieved by means of the quality of protection models where the security measures are evaluated according to their influence on the system security. In the paper, we propose a model for QoP evaluation of security mechanisms. Owing to this model, one can quantify the influence of particular security mechanisms on ensuring security attributes. The methodology of our model preparation is described and based on it the case study analysis is presented. We support our method by the tool where the models can be defined and QoP evaluation can be performed. Finally, we have modelled TLS cryptographic protocol and presented the QoP security mechanisms evaluation for the selected versions of this protocol.

  10. Quality of Protection Evaluation of Security Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiezopolski, Bogdan; Zurek, Tomasz; Mokkas, Michail

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that during the design of teleinformatic system the tradeoff between the systems performance and the system protection should be made. The traditional approach assumes that the best way is to apply the strongest possible security measures. Unfortunately, the overestimation of security measures can lead to the unreasonable increase of system load. This is especially important in multimedia systems where the performance has critical character. In many cases determination of the required level of protection and adjustment of some security measures to these requirements increase system efficiency. Such an approach is achieved by means of the quality of protection models where the security measures are evaluated according to their influence on the system security. In the paper, we propose a model for QoP evaluation of security mechanisms. Owing to this model, one can quantify the influence of particular security mechanisms on ensuring security attributes. The methodology of our model preparation is described and based on it the case study analysis is presented. We support our method by the tool where the models can be defined and QoP evaluation can be performed. Finally, we have modelled TLS cryptographic protocol and presented the QoP security mechanisms evaluation for the selected versions of this protocol. PMID:25136683

  11. [Real-time detection of quality of Chinese materia medica: strategy of NIR model evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-sheng; Shi, Xin-yuan; Xu, Bing; Dai, Xing-xing; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2015-07-01

    The definition of critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica ( CMM) was put forward based on the top-level design concept. Nowadays, coupled with the development of rapid analytical science, rapid assessment of critical quality attributes of CMM was firstly carried out, which was the secondary discipline branch of CMM. Taking near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as an example, which is a rapid analytical technology in pharmaceutical process over the past decade, systematic review is the chemometric parameters in NIR model evaluation. According to the characteristics of complexity of CMM and trace components analysis, a multi-source information fusion strategy of NIR model was developed for assessment of critical quality attributes of CMM. The strategy has provided guideline for NIR reliable analysis in critical quality attributes of CMM.

  12. Evaluating the Quality of the Child Care in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hujala, Eeva; Fonsen, Elina; Elo, Janniina

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine parents' and teachers' perceptions of the early childhood education and care (ECEC) quality in Finland. The study is based on the paradigm of inclusionary quality and the assessment is based on the quality evaluation model. The parents and teachers assess the quality to be good. The strength of the quality was the effect…

  13. Measuring quality of care: considering conceptual approaches to quality indicator development and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelfox, Henry T; Straus, Sharon E

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we describe one approach for developing and evaluating quality indicators. We focus on describing different conceptual approaches to quality indicator development, review one approach for developing quality indicators, outline how to evaluate quality indicators once developed, and discuss quality indicator maintenance. The key steps for developing quality indicators include specifying a clear goal for the indicators; using methodologies to incorporate evidence, expertise, and patient perspectives; and considering contextual factors and logistics of implementation. The Strategic Framework Board and the National Quality Measure Clearinghouse have developed criteria for evaluating quality indicators that complement traditional psychometric evaluations. Optimal strategies for quality indicator maintenance and dissemination have not been determined, but experiences with clinical guideline maintenance may be informative. For quality indicators to effectively guide quality improvement efforts, they must be developed, evaluated, maintained, and implemented using rigorous evidence-informed practices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Successfulness of bus rapid transit systems in Asia. Ex-post evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogdenko, Nadja

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) can be defined as “a bus-based mass transit system that delivers fast, comfortable, and cost-effective urban mobility”. It offers the opportunity to create a high-quality mass transit system at affordable costs, which is p

  15. Adaptive capacity based water quality resilience transformation and policy implications in rapidly urbanizing landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Degener, Jan; Gaudreau, Matthew; Li, Yangfan; Kappas, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Resilience-based management focuses on specific attributes or drivers of complex social-ecological systems, in order to operationalize and promote guiding principles for water quality management in urban systems. We therefore propose a resilience lens drawing on the theory of adaptive capacity and adaptive cycle to evaluate the urban resilience between water quality and land use type. Our findings show that the resilience of water quality variables, which were calculated based on their adaptive capacities, showed adaptive and sustainable trends with dramatic fluctuation. NH_3-N, Cadmium and Total Phosphorus experienced the most vulnerable shifts in the built-up area, agricultural areas, and on bare land. Our framework provided a consistent and repeatable approach to address uncertainty inherent in the resilience of water quality in different landscapes, as well as an approach to monitor variables over time with respect to national water quality standards. Ultimately, we pointed to the political underpinnings for risk mitigation and managing resilient urban system in a particular coastal urban setting. - Highlights: • Integrated framework to analyze the resilience of urban land-water systems • Addressed the changes of adaptive capacity based resilience and transitions • Applied four transition phases of adaptive cycle to water quality management

  16. Adaptive capacity based water quality resilience transformation and policy implications in rapidly urbanizing landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi, E-mail: ly463526@gmail.com [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Ministry of Education), College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Degener, Jan [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Gaudreau, Matthew [Balsillie School of International Affairs, Faculty of Environment, University of Waterloo, 67 Erb Street West, Waterloo, ON N2L 6C2 (Canada); Li, Yangfan, E-mail: yangf@xmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Ministry of Education), College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Kappas, Martin [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Resilience-based management focuses on specific attributes or drivers of complex social-ecological systems, in order to operationalize and promote guiding principles for water quality management in urban systems. We therefore propose a resilience lens drawing on the theory of adaptive capacity and adaptive cycle to evaluate the urban resilience between water quality and land use type. Our findings show that the resilience of water quality variables, which were calculated based on their adaptive capacities, showed adaptive and sustainable trends with dramatic fluctuation. NH{sub 3}-N, Cadmium and Total Phosphorus experienced the most vulnerable shifts in the built-up area, agricultural areas, and on bare land. Our framework provided a consistent and repeatable approach to address uncertainty inherent in the resilience of water quality in different landscapes, as well as an approach to monitor variables over time with respect to national water quality standards. Ultimately, we pointed to the political underpinnings for risk mitigation and managing resilient urban system in a particular coastal urban setting. - Highlights: • Integrated framework to analyze the resilience of urban land-water systems • Addressed the changes of adaptive capacity based resilience and transitions • Applied four transition phases of adaptive cycle to water quality management.

  17. Minimally processed vegetable salads: microbial quality evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröder, Hans; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; De Souza, Katia Leani Oliveira; Landgraf, Mariza; Franco, Bernadette D G M; Destro, Maria Teresa

    2007-05-01

    The increasing demand for fresh fruits and vegetables and for convenience foods is causing an expansion of the market share for minimally processed vegetables. Among the more common pathogenic microorganisms that can be transmitted to humans by these products are Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of a selection of minimally processed vegetables. A total of 181 samples of minimally processed leafy salads were collected from retailers in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Counts of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, psychrotrophic microorganisms, and Salmonella were conducted for 133 samples. L. monocytogenes was assessed in 181 samples using the BAX System and by plating the enrichment broth onto Palcam and Oxford agars. Suspected Listeria colonies were submitted to classical biochemical tests. Populations of psychrotrophic microorganisms >10(6) CFU/g were found in 51% of the 133 samples, and Enterobacteriaceae populations between 10(5) and 106 CFU/g were found in 42% of the samples. Fecal coliform concentrations higher than 10(2) CFU/g (Brazilian standard) were found in 97 (73%) of the samples, and Salmonella was detected in 4 (3%) of the samples. Two of the Salmonella-positive samples had minimally processed vegetables had poor microbiological quality, and these products could be a vehicle for pathogens such as Salmonella and L. monocytogenes.

  18. Evaluation of simple rapid HIV assays and development of national rapid HIV test algorithms in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbwana Judica

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suitable algorithms based on a combination of two or more simple rapid HIV assays have been shown to have a diagnostic accuracy comparable to double enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or double ELISA with Western Blot strategies. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of five simple rapid HIV assays using whole blood samples from HIV-infected patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors, and to formulate an alternative confirmatory strategy based on rapid HIV testing algorithms suitable for use in Tanzania. Methods Five rapid HIV assays: Determine™ HIV-1/2 (Inverness Medical, SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc., First Response HIV Card 1–2.0 (PMC Medical India Pvt Ltd, HIV1/2 Stat-Pak Dipstick (Chembio Diagnostic System, Inc and Uni-Gold™ HIV-1/2 (Trinity Biotech were evaluated between June and September 2006 using 1433 whole blood samples from hospital patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors. All samples that were reactive on all or any of the five rapid assays and 10% of non-reactive samples were tested on a confirmatory Inno-Lia HIV I/II immunoblot assay (Immunogenetics. Results Three hundred and ninety samples were confirmed HIV-1 antibody positive, while 1043 were HIV negative. The sensitivity at initial testing of Determine, SD Bioline and Uni-Gold™ was 100% (95% CI; 99.1–100 while First Response and Stat-Pak had sensitivity of 99.5% (95% CI; 98.2–99.9 and 97.7% (95% CI; 95.7–98.9, respectively, which increased to 100% (95% CI; 99.1–100 on repeat testing. The initial specificity of the Uni-Gold™ assay was 100% (95% CI; 99.6–100 while specificities were 99.6% (95% CI; 99–99.9, 99.4% (95% CI; 98.8–99.7, 99.6% (95% CI; 99–99.9 and 99.8% (95% CI; 99.3–99.9 for Determine, SD Bioline, First Response and Stat-Pak assays, respectively. There was no any sample which was

  19. Evaluation of diet quality indicators in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Fatrcová-Šramková

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 96 800x600 Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE Several indices evaluate the quality of diet. The indices are based on nutrient requirements and dietary guidelines for the prevention of chronic diseases (to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. The Healthy Eating Index, Healthy Diet Indicator, and Diet Quality Index consist of components, which represent different aspects of a healthy diet. The indicators of diet quality are based on dietary intake data from 24-hour dietary recalls.  The aim of the research was to evaluate the nutrition of adults according to the selected criteria of three diet quality indicators: Healthy Eating Index, Healthy Diet Indicator, Diet Quality Index. 234 nutrition daily records were evaluated (from 78 probands per 3 days. Nutritional intake and blood biochemical parameters were defined in 56 females and 22 men (72% and 28% respectively aged from 24 to 62 years. The nutritional software Alimenta 4.3e (Food Research Institute, Bratislava, Slovakia, 2004 was used to calculate the nutrient intake. The evaluation of nutrition intake was focused on four parameters/recommendations of the Healthy Eating Index (to reduce total fat intake to 30% or less of energy, to reduce saturated fatty acid intake to less than 10% of energy, to reduce cholesterol intake to less than 300 mg daily, to limit total daily intake of sodium to 2400 mg or less, on five parameters/recommendations of the Healthy Diet Indicator (saturated fatty acids 0-10% of energy intake, polyunsaturated fatty acids 3-7% of energy intake, protein 10-15% of energy intake, dietary fiber 27-40 g, cholesterol 0-300 mg, on five parameters/recommendations of the Diet Quality Index (to reduce total fat intake to 30% or less of energy, to reduce saturated fatty acid intake to less than 10% of energy, to reduce cholesterol intake to less than 300 mg daily, to limit total daily intake of sodium to 2400 mg or less, to maintain adequate calcium intake – approximately

  20. Modeling and evaluation of characteristics for on-street Rapid Transit systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    to obtain the main objective of introducing a Rapid Transit System. to increase the number of passengers. Variations in the system characteristics have a direct impact on ridership. However, it is difficult to predict the impact of implementing or altering the characteristics. A Rapid Transit system should...... display sufficient service already in the planning phase. That is why pre-acquired knowledge of the impact of the characteristics on the system performance is valuable. Such knowledge could provide a firm basis for planning the service and operation of a Rapid Transit system. This article focuses....... It focuses on the following characteristics for Rapid Transit systems: rail factor, travel time, headway and capacity. It evaluates how the implementation and variation of these characteristics affected the ridership of a case project. It evaluates the magnitude of the impacts for the various characteristics...

  1. Evaluation of PDA Technical Report No 33. Statistical Testing Recommendations for a Rapid Microbiological Method Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas; Schwedock, Julie; Nguyen, Kham; Mills, Anna; Jones, David

    2015-01-01

    New recommendations for the validation of rapid microbiological methods have been included in the revised Technical Report 33 release from the PDA. The changes include a more comprehensive review of the statistical methods to be used to analyze data obtained during validation. This case study applies those statistical methods to accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and equivalence data obtained using a rapid microbiological methods system being evaluated for water bioburden testing. Results presented demonstrate that the statistical methods described in the PDA Technical Report 33 chapter can all be successfully applied to the rapid microbiological method data sets and gave the same interpretation for equivalence to the standard method. The rapid microbiological method was in general able to pass the requirements of PDA Technical Report 33, though the study shows that there can be occasional outlying results and that caution should be used when applying statistical methods to low average colony-forming unit values. Prior to use in a quality-controlled environment, any new method or technology has to be shown to work as designed by the manufacturer for the purpose required. For new rapid microbiological methods that detect and enumerate contaminating microorganisms, additional recommendations have been provided in the revised PDA Technical Report No. 33. The changes include a more comprehensive review of the statistical methods to be used to analyze data obtained during validation. This paper applies those statistical methods to analyze accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and equivalence data obtained using a rapid microbiological method system being validated for water bioburden testing. The case study demonstrates that the statistical methods described in the PDA Technical Report No. 33 chapter can be successfully applied to rapid microbiological method data sets and give the same comparability results for similarity or difference as the standard method. © PDA, Inc

  2. Water quality relationships and evaluation using a new water quality index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, A.; Stevens, D.; Sehlke, G.

    2002-01-01

    Water quality is dependent on a variety of measures, including dissolved oxygen, microbial contamination, turbidity, nutrients, temperature, pH, and other constituents. Determining relationships between water quality parameters can improve water quality assessment, and watershed management. In addition, these relationships can be very valuable in case of evaluating water quality in watersheds that have few water quality data. (author)

  3. Motives, barriers and quality evaluation in fish consumption situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Verbeke, Wim; Olsen, Svein Ottar

    2009-01-01

    and user groups with respect to preparation skills and the use of quality cues. Heavy users are very skilled in evaluating fish quality, especially those in Spain, while light users, especially those in Belgium, make seemingly irrational assumptions when evaluating the quality of fish. Research limitations...... research into explaining variations in fish consumption, as well as for fish quality evaluation and fish market segmentation studies....

  4. Technical Note: Rapid prototyping of 3D grid arrays for image guided therapy quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittle, David; Holshouser, Barbara; Slater, James M.; Guenther, Bob D.; Pitsianis, Nikos P.; Pearlstein, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Three dimensional grid phantoms offer a number of advantages for measuring imaging related spatial inaccuracies for image guided surgery and radiotherapy. The authors examined the use of rapid prototyping technology for directly fabricating 3D grid phantoms from CAD drawings. We tested three different fabrication process materials, photopolymer jet with acrylic resin (PJ/AR), selective laser sintering with polyamide (SLS/P), and fused deposition modeling with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (FDM/ABS). The test objects consisted of rectangular arrays of control points formed by the intersections of posts and struts (2 mm rectangular cross section) and spaced 8 mm apart in the x, y, and z directions. The PJ/AR phantom expanded after immersion in water which resulted in permanent warping of the structure. The surface of the FDM/ABS grid exhibited a regular pattern of depressions and ridges from the extrusion process. SLS/P showed the best combination of build accuracy, surface finish, and stability. Based on these findings, a grid phantom for assessing machine-dependent and frame-induced MR spatial distortions was fabricated to be used for quality assurance in stereotactic neurosurgical and radiotherapy procedures. The spatial uniformity of the SLS/P grid control point array was determined by CT imaging (0.6x0.6x0.625 mm 3 resolution) and found suitable for the application, with over 97.5% of the control points located within 0.3 mm of the position specified in CAD drawing and none of the points off by more than 0.4 mm. Rapid prototyping is a flexible and cost effective alternative for development of customized grid phantoms for medical physics quality assurance.

  5. Recent advances in rapid and non-destructive assessment of meat quality using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feifei; Ngadi, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Meat is an important food item in human diet. Its production and consumption has greatly increased in the last decades with the development of economies and improvement of peoples' living standards. However, most of the traditional methods for evaluation of meat quality are time-consuming, laborious, inconsistent and destructive to samples, which make them not appropriate for a fast-paced production and processing environment. Development of innovative and non-destructive optical sensing techniques to facilitate simple, fast, and accurate evaluation of quality are attracting increasing attention in the food industry. Hyperspectral imaging is one of the promising techniques. It integrates the combined merits of imaging and spectroscopic techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review on recent advances in evaluation of the important quality attributes of meat including color, marbling, tenderness, pH, water holding capacity, and also chemical composition attributes such as moisture content, protein content and fat content in pork, beef and lamb. In addition, the future potential applications and trends of hyperspectral imaging are also discussed in this paper.

  6. The potential of rapid visco-analysis starch pasting profiles to gauge the quality of sorghum as a feed grain for chicken-meat production

    OpenAIRE

    Ha H. Truong; Ali Khoddami; Amy F. Moss; Sonia Y. Liu; Peter H. Selle

    2017-01-01

    Thirteen extensively characterised grain sorghum varieties were evaluated in a series of 7 broiler bioassays. The efficiency of energy utilisation of broiler chickens offered sorghum-based diets is problematic and the bulk of dietary energy is derived from sorghum starch. For this reason, rapid visco-analysis (RVA) starch pasting profiles were determined as they may have the potential to assess the quality of sorghum as a feed grain for chicken-meat production. In review, it was found that co...

  7. Rapid MRI evaluation of acute intracranial hemorrhage in pediatric head trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, Maura E.; Jaju, Alok [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Ciolino, Jody D. [Northwestern University, Biostatistics Collaboration Center, Department of Preventive Medicine Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Alden, Tord [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Neurological Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Neurosurgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Rapid MRI with ultrafast T2 sequences can be performed without sedation and is often used in place of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate pediatric patients for indications such as hydrocephalus. This study investigated the sensitivity of rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection and follow-up of acute intracranial hemorrhage in comparison to CT, which is commonly the first-line imaging. Patients presenting to a pediatric hospital with acute intracranial hemorrhage on CT and follow-up rapid MRI within 48 h were included. Rapid MRI studies consisted of three plane ultrafast T2 sequences either with or without axial gradient echo (GRE) sequences. Identification of hemorrhage on rapid MRI was assessed by readers both blinded and unblinded to prior CT results. One hundred two acute hemorrhages in 61 patients were identified by CT. Rapid MRI detection of subdural and epidural hemorrhages was modest in the absence of prior CT for comparison (sensitivity 61-74 %), but increased with review of the prior CT (sensitivity 80-86 %). Hemorrhage size was a significant predictor of detection (p < 0.0001). Three plane fast T2 images alone without GRE sequences were poor at detecting subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 10-25 %); rapid MRI with GRE sequences identified the majority of subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 71-93 %). GRE modestly increased detection of other extra-axial hemorrhages. Rapid MRI with GRE sequences is sensitive for most acute intracranial hemorrhages only when a prior CT is available for review. Rapid MRI is not adequate to replace CT in initial evaluation of intracranial hemorrhages but may be helpful in follow-up of known hemorrhages. (orig.)

  8. Rapid MRI evaluation of acute intracranial hemorrhage in pediatric head trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Maura E.; Jaju, Alok; Ciolino, Jody D.; Alden, Tord

    2016-01-01

    Rapid MRI with ultrafast T2 sequences can be performed without sedation and is often used in place of computed tomography (CT) to evaluate pediatric patients for indications such as hydrocephalus. This study investigated the sensitivity of rapid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detection and follow-up of acute intracranial hemorrhage in comparison to CT, which is commonly the first-line imaging. Patients presenting to a pediatric hospital with acute intracranial hemorrhage on CT and follow-up rapid MRI within 48 h were included. Rapid MRI studies consisted of three plane ultrafast T2 sequences either with or without axial gradient echo (GRE) sequences. Identification of hemorrhage on rapid MRI was assessed by readers both blinded and unblinded to prior CT results. One hundred two acute hemorrhages in 61 patients were identified by CT. Rapid MRI detection of subdural and epidural hemorrhages was modest in the absence of prior CT for comparison (sensitivity 61-74 %), but increased with review of the prior CT (sensitivity 80-86 %). Hemorrhage size was a significant predictor of detection (p < 0.0001). Three plane fast T2 images alone without GRE sequences were poor at detecting subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 10-25 %); rapid MRI with GRE sequences identified the majority of subarachnoid hemorrhage (sensitivity 71-93 %). GRE modestly increased detection of other extra-axial hemorrhages. Rapid MRI with GRE sequences is sensitive for most acute intracranial hemorrhages only when a prior CT is available for review. Rapid MRI is not adequate to replace CT in initial evaluation of intracranial hemorrhages but may be helpful in follow-up of known hemorrhages. (orig.)

  9. Rapid improvement of respiratory quality in asthmatic children after "assisted drainage" therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Whilst current asthma management is well-developed, there are still 5-10% uncontrolled asthma patients with unknown etiologies. However, its connection with oral focal infection is still uncertain. Therefore, a collaborated research for asthma management was conducted by pediatricians and dental practitioners. Within minutes after the "assisted drainage" therapy, a modification of healing root planning procedure, there is rapid improvement of respiratory function, ie., forced expiratory-volume one second (FEV1 in asthmatic children. This quick response usually achieved by oral inhalation. Objective To investigate the effectiveness of the assisted drainage therapy in the improvement of respiratory quality. Methods Fifteen asthmatic children were subjected to a longitudinal study for two weeks. In tbe first week they were instructed for al lergen avoidance only and the fOllowing one week was combined with tbe assisted drainage therapy, followed by  mental health education and dental plaque control therapy. Each s'ubject was af'sef'sed for respiratory quality with a computerized spirometer and blood sampling test. Paired t-test analysis was used for statistical analysis. Results Assisted drainage therapy was performed, within minutes FEV1 increased significantly (P= 0.001. Additionally, there were significant differences serum histamine (P= 0,001 pre and post treatment. Conclusions The assisted drainage therapy is effective as an adjuvant therapy for mild persistent asthma in children.

  10. Rapid evaluation of seed vigor by the absolute content of protein in seed within the same crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Daxing; Hou, Hongcun; Meng, Aiju; Meng, Jie; Xie, Liuyong; Zhang, Chunqing

    2018-04-03

    Seed vigor, an important index of seed quality, determines the potential for rapid and uniform emergence of plants. The objective of this study was to explore a rapid method for evaluating seed vigor. To analyze the correlation of seed traits and seedling traits related to seed vigor, we designed five experiments including nitrogen fertilizer, irrigation and seed sorting treatments in wheat. The results showed that only the absolute content of protein (ACP) in wheat seed was significantly correlated with plant dry weight in five experiments. Subsequently, another experiment including 30 wheat seed lots was used to validate the above results. Although 100-grain weight was also correlated with plant dry weight (R = 0.799, p vigor and could potentially be used for processing and screening high vigor seeds.

  11. Improvements to Rapfish: a rapid evaluation technique for fisheries integrating ecological and human dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, T J; Lam, M E; Ainsworth, C; Martindale, A; Nakamura, K; Perry, R I; Ward, T

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports recent developments in Rapfish, a normative, scalable and flexible rapid appraisal technique that integrates both ecological and human dimensions to evaluate the status of fisheries in reference to a norm or goal. Appraisal status targets may be sustainability, compliance with a standard (such as the UN code of conduct for responsible fisheries) or the degree of progress in meeting some other goal or target. The method combines semi-quantitative (e.g. ecological) and qualitative (e.g. social) data via multiple evaluation fields, each of which is assessed through scores assigned to six to 12 attributes or indicators: the scoring method allows user flexibility to adopt a wide range of utility relationships. For assessing sustainability, six evaluation fields have been developed: ecological, technological, economic, social, ethical and institutional. Each field can be assessed directly with a set of scored attributes, or several of the fields can be dealt with in greater detail using nested subfields that themselves comprise multidimensional Rapfish assessments (e.g. the hierarchical institutional field encompasses both governance and management, including a detailed analysis of legality). The user has the choice of including all or only some of the available sustainability fields. For the attributes themselves, there will rarely be quantitative data, but scoring allows these items to be estimated. Indeed, within a normative framework, one important advantage with Rapfish is transparency of the rigour, quality and replicability of the scores. The Rapfish technique employs a constrained multidimensional ordination that is scaled to situate data points within evaluation space. Within each evaluation field, results may be presented as a two-dimensional plot or in a one-dimensional rank order. Uncertainty is expressed through the probability distribution of Monte-Carlo simulations that use the C.L. on each original observation. Overall results of the

  12. The method of quality marker research and quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine based on drug properties and effect characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiejun; Bai, Gang; Han, Yanqi; Xu, Jun; Gong, Suxiao; Li, Yazhuo; Zhang, Hongbing; Liu, Changxiao

    2018-05-15

    Quality of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays a critical role in industry of TCM. Rapid development of TCM pharmaceutical areas is, however, greatly limited, since there are many issues not been resolved, concerning the quality study of TCM. Core concept of TCM quality as well as the characteristics of TCM was discussed, in order to guide the quality research and evaluation of TCM, further improve the level of TCM quality control. In this review, on the basis of systematic analysis of fundamental property and features of TCM in clinical application, the approaches and methods of quality marker (Q-marker) study were proposed through combination of transitivity and traceability of essentials of quality, correlation between chemical ingredients and drug property/efficacy, as well as analysis of endemicity of ingredients sharing similar pharmacophylogenetic and biosynthetic approaches. The approaches and methods of Q-marker study were proposed and the novel integrated pattern for quality assessment and control of TCM was established. The core concept of Q-marker has helped to break through the bottleneck of the current fragmented quality research of TCM and improved the scientificity, integrity and systematicness of quality control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality evaluation of processed clay soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Harrison, Obed Akwaa; Vuvor, Frederick; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the microbial quality of clay samples sold on two of the major Ghanaian markets. The study was a cross-sectional assessing the evaluation of processed clay and effects it has on the nutrition of the consumers in the political capital town of Ghana. The items for the examination was processed clay soil samples. Staphylococcus spp and fecal coliforms including Klebsiella, Escherichia, and Shigella and Enterobacterspp were isolated from the clay samples. Samples from the Kaneshie market in Accra recorded the highest total viable counts 6.5 Log cfu/g and Staphylococcal count 5.8 Log cfu/g. For fecal coliforms, Madina market samples had the highest count 6.5 Log cfu/g and also recorded the highest levels of yeast and mould. For Koforidua, total viable count was highest in the samples from the Zongo market 6.3 Log cfu/g. Central market samples had the highest count of fecal coliforms 4.6 Log cfu/g and yeasts and moulds 6.5 Log cfu/g. "Small" market recorded the highest staphylococcal count 6.2 Log cfu/g. The water activity of the clay samples were low, and ranged between 0.65±0.01 and 0.66±0.00 for samples collected from Koforidua and Accra respectively. The clay samples were found to contain Klebsiella spp. Escherichia, Enterobacter, Shigella spp. staphylococcus spp., yeast and mould. These have health implications when consumed.

  14. Evaluation of CASP8 model quality predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Cozzetto, Domenico

    2009-01-01

    The model quality assessment problem consists in the a priori estimation of the overall and per-residue accuracy of protein structure predictions. Over the past years, a number of methods have been developed to address this issue and CASP established a prediction category to evaluate their performance in 2006. In 2008 the experiment was repeated and its results are reported here. Participants were invited to infer the correctness of the protein models submitted by the registered automatic servers. Estimates could apply to both whole models and individual amino acids. Groups involved in the tertiary structure prediction categories were also asked to assign local error estimates to each predicted residue in their own models and their results are also discussed here. The correlation between the predicted and observed correctness measures was the basis of the assessment of the results. We observe that consensus-based methods still perform significantly better than those accepting single models, similarly to what was concluded in the previous edition of the experiment. © 2009 WILEY-LISS, INC.

  15. Professional women's evaluation of the quality of career wear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Firstly, quality is evaluated during the decision-making stage, and secondly during ... Both intrinsic and extrinsic product features play a role in the consumer's ... of the garment, directly influence the non-tangible quality indicators (emotional, ...

  16. Evaluation of groundwater and stream quality characteristics in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... Key words: Evaluation, vicinity, stream quality, nitrate, Nigeria. ..... An assessment of the health and social economic implications of sachet water in Ibadan: A ... wastwater using the QUAL2E water quality model. Chemospere ...

  17. Quality and safety of integrated community case management of malaria using rapid diagnostic tests and pneumonia by community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Davidson H; Brooks, Erin Twohig; Semrau, Katherine; Pilingana, Portipher; MacLeod, William B; Siazeele, Kazungu; Sabin, Lora L; Thea, Donald M; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo

    2012-03-01

    To assess the quality and safety of having community health workers (CHWs) in rural Zambia use rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and provide integrated management of malaria and pneumonia. In the context of a cluster-randomized controlled trial of two models for community-based management of malaria and/or non-severe pneumonia in children under 5 years old, CHWs in the intervention arm were trained to use RDTs, follow a simple algorithm for classification and treat malaria with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and pneumonia with amoxicillin. CHW records were reviewed to assess the ability of the CHWs to appropriately classify and treat malaria and pneumonia, and account for supplies. Patients were also followed up to assess treatment safety. During the 12-month study, the CHWs evaluated 1017 children with fever and/or fast/difficult breathing and performed 975 RDTs. Malaria and/or pneumonia were appropriately classified 94-100% of the time. Treatment based on disease classification was correct in 94-100% of episodes. Supply management was excellent with over 98% of RDTs, amoxicillin, and AL properly accounted for. The use of RDTs, amoxicillin, and AL was associated with few minor adverse events. Most febrile children (90%) with negative RDT results recovered after being treated with an antipyretic alone. Volunteer CHWs in rural Zambia are capable of providing integrated management of malaria and pneumonia to children safely and at high quality.

  18. Research on Air Quality Evaluation based on Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Wang, Zilin; Guo, Min; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Huan

    2018-01-01

    Economic growth has led to environmental capacity decline and the deterioration of air quality. Air quality evaluation as a fundamental of environmental monitoring and air pollution control has become increasingly important. Based on the principal component analysis (PCA), this paper evaluates the air quality of a large city in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area in recent 10 years and identifies influencing factors, in order to provide reference to air quality management and air pollution control.

  19. Airline service quality evaluation: A review on concepts and models

    OpenAIRE

    Navid Haghighat

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews different major service quality concept and models which led to great developments in evaluating service quality with focusing on improvement process of the models through discussing criticisms of each model. Criticisms against these models are discussed to clarify development steps of newer models which led to the improvement of airline service quality models. The precise and accurate evaluation of service quality needs utilizing a reliable concept with comprehensive crite...

  20. Evaluation of resistivity meters for concrete quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This research evaluated a series of MoDOT concrete mixtures to verify existing relationships between surface resistivity (SR), rapid : chloride permeability (RCP), chloride ion diffusion, and the AASHTO penetrability classes. The research also perfor...

  1. Evaluation Model of Tea Industry Information Service Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Shi , Xiaohui; Chen , Tian’en

    2015-01-01

    International audience; According to characteristics of tea industry information service, this paper have built service quality evaluation index system for tea industry information service quality, R-cluster analysis and multiple regression have been comprehensively used to contribute evaluation model with a high practice and credibility. Proved by the experiment, the evaluation model of information service quality has a good precision, which has guidance significance to a certain extent to e...

  2. Evaluation of a simple and rapid dipstick assay for the diagnosis of typhoid fever in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasem, M. Hussein; Smits, Henk L.; Goris, Marga G. A.; Dolmans, Wil M. V.

    2002-01-01

    To support the clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever in Indonesia, where most hospitals and health centres have no facilities for culture, a rapid dipstick assay for the detection of Salmonella typhi-specific IgM antibodies was evaluated on serum samples from 127 patients clinically suspected of

  3. Laboratory evaluation of a simple and rapid latex agglutination assay for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoel, Theresia H.; Pastoor, Rob; Smits, Henk L.; Hatta, Mochammad

    2007-01-01

    A latex agglutination assay for the serodiagnosis of typhoid fever was evaluated on samples collected from patients with clinical suspicion of typhoid fever in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, where the disease is endemic. The latex assay is very easy to use, gives a rapid result and may be used as a

  4. Rapid on-site evaluation of axillary fine-needle aspiration cytology in breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2012-06-01

    Axillary ultrasonography (AUS) and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) can establish axillary lymph node status before surgery, although this technique is hampered by poor adequacy rates. To achieve consistently high rates of FNAC adequacy, rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of FNAC samples was introduced.

  5. Rapid in vivo screening method for the evaluation of new anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid in vivo screening method for the evaluation of new anti helicobacter ... Six to eight week-old mice pre-treated (7 days) with Amoxicillin/Metronidazole (25 ... These findings were used as a mouse model of Helicobacter pylori infection to ...

  6. DECISION-MAKING ALIGNED WITH RAPID-CYCLE EVALUATION IN HEALTH CARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Shrank, William H; Ruhl, Michael; Maclure, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Availability of real-time electronic healthcare data provides new opportunities for rapid-cycle evaluation (RCE) of health technologies, including healthcare delivery and payment programs. We aim to align decision-making processes with stages of RCE to optimize the usefulness and impact of rapid results. Rational decisions about program adoption depend on program effect size in relation to externalities, including implementation cost, sustainability, and likelihood of broad adoption. Drawing on case studies and experience from drug safety monitoring, we examine how decision makers have used scientific evidence on complex interventions in the past. We clarify how RCE alters the nature of policy decisions; develop the RAPID framework for synchronizing decision-maker activities with stages of RCE; and provide guidelines on evidence thresholds for incremental decision-making. In contrast to traditional evaluations, RCE provides early evidence on effectiveness and facilitates a stepped approach to decision making in expectation of future regularly updated evidence. RCE allows for identification of trends in adjusted effect size. It supports adapting a program in midstream in response to interim findings, or adapting the evaluation strategy to identify true improvements earlier. The 5-step RAPID approach that utilizes the cumulating evidence of program effectiveness over time could increase policy-makers' confidence in expediting decisions. RCE enables a step-wise approach to HTA decision-making, based on gradually emerging evidence, reducing delays in decision-making processes after traditional one-time evaluations.

  7. Academic research groups: evaluation of their quality and quality of their evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berche, Bertrand; Holovatch, Yuri; Kenna, Ralph; Mryglod, Olesya

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, evaluation of the quality of academic research has become an increasingly important and influential business. It determines, often to a large extent, the amount of research funding flowing into universities and similar institutes from governmental agencies and it impacts upon academic careers. Policy makers are becoming increasingly reliant upon, and influenced by, the outcomes of such evaluations. In response, university managers are increasingly attracted to simple metrics as guides to the dynamics of the positions of their various institutions in league tables. However, these league tables are invariably drawn up by inexpert bodies such as newspapers and magazines, using arbitrary measures and criteria. Terms such as “critical mass” and “h-index” are bandied about without understanding of what they actually mean. Rather than accepting the rise and fall of universities, departments and individuals on a turbulent sea of arbitrary measures, we suggest it is incumbent upon the scientific community itself to clarify their nature. Here we report on recent attempts to do that by properly defining critical mass and showing how group size influences research quality. We also examine currently predominant metrics and show that these fail as reliable indicators of group research quality.

  8. Convergent Polishing: A Simple, Rapid, Full Aperture Polishing Process of High Quality Optical Flats & Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratwala, Tayyab; Steele, Rusty; Feit, Michael; Dylla-Spears, Rebecca; Desjardin, Richard; Mason, Dan; Wong, Lana; Geraghty, Paul; Miller, Phil; Shen, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Convergent Polishing is a novel polishing system and method for finishing flat and spherical glass optics in which a workpiece, independent of its initial shape (i.e., surface figure), will converge to final surface figure with excellent surface quality under a fixed, unchanging set of polishing parameters in a single polishing iteration. In contrast, conventional full aperture polishing methods require multiple, often long, iterative cycles involving polishing, metrology and process changes to achieve the desired surface figure. The Convergent Polishing process is based on the concept of workpiece-lap height mismatch resulting in pressure differential that decreases with removal and results in the workpiece converging to the shape of the lap. The successful implementation of the Convergent Polishing process is a result of the combination of a number of technologies to remove all sources of non-uniform spatial material removal (except for workpiece-lap mismatch) for surface figure convergence and to reduce the number of rogue particles in the system for low scratch densities and low roughness. The Convergent Polishing process has been demonstrated for the fabrication of both flats and spheres of various shapes, sizes, and aspect ratios on various glass materials. The practical impact is that high quality optical components can be fabricated more rapidly, more repeatedly, with less metrology, and with less labor, resulting in lower unit costs. In this study, the Convergent Polishing protocol is specifically described for fabricating 26.5 cm square fused silica flats from a fine ground surface to a polished ~λ/2 surface figure after polishing 4 hr per surface on a 81 cm diameter polisher. PMID:25489745

  9. Origin discrimination and quality evaluation of Gastrodiae rhizoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality control and origin discrimination of Gastrodiae rhizoma. Methods: Twelve .... Similarity. Evaluation. System for. Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional. Chinese Medicine ..... chromatography with tandem quadrupole time-of-flight.

  10. Development and clinical evaluation of a rapid diagnostic kit for feline leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Shik; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Kim, Hak-Yong; Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Jeong, Wooseog; An, Dong-Jun; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Lee, Jae-In; Lee, Young-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) causes a range of neoplastic and degenerative diseases in cats. To obtain a more sensitive and convenient diagnosis of the disease, we prepared monoclonal antibodies specific for the FeLV p27 to develop a rapid diagnostic test with enhanced sensitivity and specificity. Among these antibodies, we identified two clones (hybridomas 8F8B5 and 8G7D1) that specifically bound to FeLV and were very suitable for a diagnostic kit. The affinity constants for 8F8B5 and 8G7D1 were 0.35 × 10⁸ and 0.86 × 10⁸, respectively. To investigate the diagnostic abilities of the rapid kit using these antibodies, we performed several clinical studies. Assessment of analytical sensitivity revealed that the detection threshold of the rapid diagnostic test was 2 ng/mL for recombinant p27 and 12.5 × 10⁴ IU/mL for FeLV. When evaluating 252 cat sera samples, the kit was found to have a kappa value of 0.88 compared to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), indicating a significant correlation between data from the rapid diagnostic test and PCR. Sensitivity and specificity of the kit were 95.2% (20/21) and 98.5% (257/261), respectively. Our results demonstrated that the rapid diagnostic test would be a suitable diagnostic tool for the rapid detection of FeLV infection in cats.

  11. Rapid and Simultaneous Prediction of Eight Diesel Quality Parameters through ATR-FTIR Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Rafael Rodrigues; Flumignan, Danilo Luiz; de Oliveira, José Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Quality assessment of diesel fuel is highly necessary for society, but the costs and time spent are very high while using standard methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an analytical method capable of simultaneously determining eight diesel quality parameters (density; flash point; total sulfur content; distillation temperatures at 10% (T10), 50% (T50), and 85% (T85) recovery; cetane index; and biodiesel content) through attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and the multivariate regression method, partial least square (PLS). For this purpose, the quality parameters of 409 samples were determined using standard methods, and their spectra were acquired in ranges of 4000–650 cm−1. The use of the multivariate filters, generalized least squares weighting (GLSW) and orthogonal signal correction (OSC), was evaluated to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the models. Likewise, four variable selection approaches were tested: manual exclusion, forward interval PLS (FiPLS), backward interval PLS (BiPLS), and genetic algorithm (GA). The multivariate filters and variables selection algorithms generated more fitted and accurate PLS models. According to the validation, the FTIR/PLS models presented accuracy comparable to the reference methods and, therefore, the proposed method can be applied in the diesel routine monitoring to significantly reduce costs and analysis time. PMID:29629209

  12. Rapid and Simultaneous Prediction of Eight Diesel Quality Parameters through ATR-FTIR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurilio Gustavo Nespeca

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality assessment of diesel fuel is highly necessary for society, but the costs and time spent are very high while using standard methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an analytical method capable of simultaneously determining eight diesel quality parameters (density; flash point; total sulfur content; distillation temperatures at 10% (T10, 50% (T50, and 85% (T85 recovery; cetane index; and biodiesel content through attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and the multivariate regression method, partial least square (PLS. For this purpose, the quality parameters of 409 samples were determined using standard methods, and their spectra were acquired in ranges of 4000–650 cm−1. The use of the multivariate filters, generalized least squares weighting (GLSW and orthogonal signal correction (OSC, was evaluated to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the models. Likewise, four variable selection approaches were tested: manual exclusion, forward interval PLS (FiPLS, backward interval PLS (BiPLS, and genetic algorithm (GA. The multivariate filters and variables selection algorithms generated more fitted and accurate PLS models. According to the validation, the FTIR/PLS models presented accuracy comparable to the reference methods and, therefore, the proposed method can be applied in the diesel routine monitoring to significantly reduce costs and analysis time.

  13. Rapid and Simultaneous Prediction of Eight Diesel Quality Parameters through ATR-FTIR Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespeca, Maurilio Gustavo; Hatanaka, Rafael Rodrigues; Flumignan, Danilo Luiz; de Oliveira, José Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Quality assessment of diesel fuel is highly necessary for society, but the costs and time spent are very high while using standard methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop an analytical method capable of simultaneously determining eight diesel quality parameters (density; flash point; total sulfur content; distillation temperatures at 10% (T10), 50% (T50), and 85% (T85) recovery; cetane index; and biodiesel content) through attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and the multivariate regression method, partial least square (PLS). For this purpose, the quality parameters of 409 samples were determined using standard methods, and their spectra were acquired in ranges of 4000-650 cm -1 . The use of the multivariate filters, generalized least squares weighting (GLSW) and orthogonal signal correction (OSC), was evaluated to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the models. Likewise, four variable selection approaches were tested: manual exclusion, forward interval PLS (FiPLS), backward interval PLS (BiPLS), and genetic algorithm (GA). The multivariate filters and variables selection algorithms generated more fitted and accurate PLS models. According to the validation, the FTIR/PLS models presented accuracy comparable to the reference methods and, therefore, the proposed method can be applied in the diesel routine monitoring to significantly reduce costs and analysis time.

  14. Research on Holographic Evaluation of Service Quality in Power Data Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chen; Jing, Tao; Ji, Yutong

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of power data network, the continuous development of the Power data application service system, more and more service systems are being put into operation. Following this, the higher requirements for network quality and service quality are raised, in the actual process for the network operation and maintenance. This paper describes the electricity network and data network services status. A holographic assessment model was presented to achieve a comprehensive intelligence assessment on the power data network and quality of service in the operation and maintenance on the power data network. This evaluation method avoids the problems caused by traditional means which performs a single assessment of network performance quality. This intelligent Evaluation method can improve the efficiency of network operation and maintenance guarantee the quality of real-time service in the power data network..

  15. Evaluation of HIV-1 rapid tests and identification of alternative testing algorithms for use in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kitandwe, Paul Kato; Lutalo, Tom; Kigozi, Aminah; Watera, Christine; Nanteza, Mary Bridget; Hughes, Peter; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex; Downing, Robert; Mbidde, Edward Katongole

    2018-02-27

    The World Health Organization recommends that countries conduct two phase evaluations of HIV rapid tests (RTs) in order to come up with the best algorithms. In this report, we present the first ever such evaluation in Uganda, involving both blood and oral based RTs. The role of weak positive (WP) bands on the accuracy of the individual RT and on the algorithms was also investigated. In total 11 blood based and 3 oral transudate kits were evaluated. All together 2746 participants from seven sites, covering the four different regions of Uganda participated. Two enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) run in parallel were used as the gold standard. The performance and cost of the different algorithms was calculated, with a pre-determined price cut-off of either cheaper or within 20% price of the current algorithm of Determine + Statpak + Unigold. In the second phase, the three best algorithms selected in phase I were used at the point of care for purposes of quality control using finger stick whole blood. We identified three algorithms; Determine + SD Bioline + Statpak; Determine + Statpak + SD Bioline, both with the same sensitivity and specificity of 99.2% and 99.1% respectively and Determine + Statpak + Insti, with sensitivity and specificity of 99.1% and 99% respectively as having performed better and met the cost requirements. There were 15 other algorithms that performed better than the current one but rated more than the 20% price. None of the 3 oral mucosal transudate kits were suitable for inclusion in an algorithm because of their low sensitivities. Band intensity affected the performance of individual RTs but not the final algorithms. We have come up with three algorithms we recommend for public or Government procurement based on accuracy and cost. In case one algorithm is preferred, we recommend to replace Unigold, the current tie breaker with SD Bioline. We further recommend that all the 18 algorithms that have shown better performance than the current one are made

  16. SIMULATING PROTEIN DIGESTION ON TROUT A RAPID AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DOCUMENTING FISH MEAL QUALITY AND SCREENING NOVEL PROTEIN SOURCES FOR USE IN AQUAFEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bassompierre

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel in vitro digestion system, which simulated rainbow trout gastric and intestinal digestion was developed. The method was employed to evaluate the impact of the gastric phase of digestion upon degradation of three fish meals od differing quality. Results illustrated that two-phase gastric-intestinal digestion increased the discriminatory powers of the system when compared to one-step intestinal digestion. A comparison of the system with pH-STAT methods demonstrated that the in vitro technique was superior. The presented method provides an ethical and cost effective means for rapid evaluation of fish meals and potentially, alternative protein sources for aquafeeds.

  17. Evaluation of a rapid immunodiagnostic test kit for detection of African lyssaviruses from brain material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Markotter

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid immunodiagnostic test kit was evaluated against a selection of isolates of lyssavirus genotypes occurring in Africa. The test was carried out in parallel comparison with the fluorescent antibody test (FAT and isolates representing previously established phylogenetic groups from each genotype were included. The specificity of the rapid immunodiagnostic test compared favourably with the FAT and was found to detect all representatives of genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 in brain samples of either field cases or suckling mouse brain inoculates.

  18. Development and Quality Evaluation of a Non-Alcoholic Beverage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development and Quality Evaluation of a Non-Alcoholic Beverage from Cocoyam ( Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta ) ... Nigerian Food Journal ... evaluation were conducted on the products to assess the highest preference.

  19. QUALITY OF AN ACADEMIC STUDY PROGRAMME - EVALUATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Macur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of an academic study programme is evaluated by many: employees (internal evaluation and by external evaluators: experts, agencies and organisations. Internal and external evaluation of an academic programme follow written structure that resembles on one of the quality models. We believe the quality models (mostly derived from EFQM excellence model don’t fit very well into non-profit activities, policies and programmes, because they are much more complex than environment, from which quality models derive from (for example assembly line. Quality of an academic study programme is very complex and understood differently by various stakeholders, so we present dimensional evaluation in the article. Dimensional evaluation, as opposed to component and holistic evaluation, is a form of analytical evaluation in which the quality of value of the evaluand is determined by looking at its performance on multiple dimensions of merit or evaluation criteria. First stakeholders of a study programme and their views, expectations and interests are presented, followed by evaluation criteria. They are both joined into the evaluation model revealing which evaluation criteria can and should be evaluated by which stakeholder. Main research questions are posed and research method for each dimension listed.

  20. Quantitative analysis of topoisomerase IIα to rapidly evaluate cell proliferation in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masashi; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Kano, Hideyuki; Kawabata, Yasuhiro; Katsuki, Takahisa; Shirahata, Mitsuaki; Ono, Makoto; Yamana, Norikazu; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Takahashi, Jun A.

    2005-01-01

    Immunohistochemical cell proliferation analyses have come into wide use for evaluation of tumor malignancy. Topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα), an essential nuclear enzyme, has been known to have cell cycle coupled expression. We here show the usefulness of quantitative analysis of topo IIα mRNA to rapidly evaluate cell proliferation in brain tumors. A protocol to quantify topo IIα mRNA was developed with a real-time RT-PCR. It took only 3 h to quantify from a specimen. A total of 28 brain tumors were analyzed, and the level of topo IIα mRNA was significantly correlated with its immuno-staining index (p < 0.0001, r = 0.9077). Furthermore, it sharply detected that topo IIα mRNA decreased in growth-inhibited glioma cell. These results support that topo IIα mRNA may be a good and rapid indicator to evaluate cell proliferate potential in brain tumors

  1. Image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E. K.; Hammill, H. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A new technique for image processing system performance prediction and product quality evaluation was developed. It was entirely objective, quantitative, and general, and should prove useful in system design and quality control. The technique and its application to determination of quality control procedures for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite NASA Data Processing Facility are described.

  2. Internal education quality evaluation as a factor of development of engineering education quality in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Shvindt Antoniy; Nikanorov Ivan

    2017-01-01

    In the paper, general approaches to evaluation of quality of engineering education in Russia, stated by expert community, are considered. The authors arrived at the conclusion that attention to internal evaluation mechanism of the education quality in Russian normative framework of higher education system is insufficient, as compared to European higher education practices. A pattern of involving the students in the internal evaluation of higher education quality is submitted to be a tool to d...

  3. Individualized choice in prenatal diagnosis : the impact of karyotyping and standalone rapid aneuploidy detection on quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boormans, E. M. A.; Birnie, E.; Oepkes, D.; Boekkooi, P. F.; Bonsel, G. J.; van Lith, J. M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the reasons and perceptions of women who are offered a choice between karyotyping and standalone rapid aneuploidy detection (RAD) and to compare the impact of both tests on anxiety and health-related quality of life Methods In this prospective comparative study, women undergoing

  4. Immediate impact of rapid maxillary expansion on upper airway dimensions and on the quality of life of mouth breathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Namiko Izuka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess short-term tomographic changes in the upper airway dimensions and quality of life of mouth breathers after rapid maxillary expansion (RME. METHODS: A total of 25 mouth breathers with maxillary atresia and a mean age of 10.5 years old were assessed by means of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT and a standardized quality of life questionnaire answered by patients' parents/legal guardians before and immediately after rapid maxillary expansion. RESULTS: Rapid maxillary expansion resulted in similar and significant expansion in the width of anterior (2.8 mm, p < 0.001 and posterior nasal floor (2.8 mm, p < 0.001. Although nasopharynx and nasal cavities airway volumes significantly increased (+1646.1 mm3, p < 0.001, oropharynx volume increase was not statistically significant (+1450.6 mm3, p = 0.066. The results of the quality of life questionnaire indicated that soon after rapid maxillary expansion, patients' respiratory symptoms significantly decreased in relation to their initial respiratory conditions. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that RME produces significant dimensional increase in the nasal cavity and nasopharynx. Additionally, it also positively impacts the quality of life of mouth-breathing patients with maxillary atresia.

  5. Evaluation of quality of life in oncology clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarema, A.; Marzecki, Z.

    1994-01-01

    In 18 patients with various malignancies the quality of life was evaluated with the use of the SF-36 questionnaire before and after radiotherapy. The quality of life was better among patients whose physical condition was better both before and after radiotherapy. The quality of life deteriorated after radiotherapy in patients whose physical status before treatment was evaluated as more serious. After the treatment the correlation was found between the global evaluation of quality of life and the intensity of pain and physical disability. However, both before and after radiotherapy the correlation was found between global quality of life and the severity of depression. The subjective estimation of quality of life by cancer patients did not correlate with the clinical evaluation of the severity of their state in doctor's opinion. (author)

  6. Monitoring and evaluation of disaster response efforts undertaken by local health departments: a rapid realist review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossip, Kate; Gouda, Hebe; Lee, Yong Yi; Firth, Sonja; Bermejo, Raoul; Zeck, Willibald; Jimenez Soto, Eliana

    2017-06-29

    Local health departments are often at the forefront of a disaster response, attending to the immediate trauma inflicted by the disaster and also the long term health consequences. As the frequency and severity of disasters are projected to rise, monitoring and evaluation (M&E) efforts are critical to help local health departments consolidate past experiences and improve future response efforts. Local health departments often conduct M&E work post disaster, however, many of these efforts fail to improve response procedures. We undertook a rapid realist review (RRR) to examine why M&E efforts undertaken by local health departments do not always result in improved disaster response efforts. We aimed to complement existing frameworks by focusing on the most basic and pragmatic steps of a M&E cycle targeted towards continuous system improvements. For these purposes, we developed a theoretical framework that draws on the quality improvement literature to 'frame' the steps in the M&E cycle. This framework encompassed a M&E cycle involving three stages (i.e., document and assess, disseminate and implement) that must be sequentially completed to learn from past experiences and improve future disaster response efforts. We used this framework to guide our examination of the literature and to identify any context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configurations which describe how M&E may be constrained or enabled at each stage of the M&E cycle. This RRR found a number of explanatory CMO configurations that provide valuable insights into some of the considerations that should be made when using M&E to improve future disaster response efforts. Firstly, to support the accurate documentation and assessment of a disaster response, local health departments should consider how they can: establish a culture of learning within health departments; use embedded training methods; or facilitate external partnerships. Secondly, to enhance the widespread dissemination of lessons learned and facilitate

  7. Changing water quality in the Middle Mahakam Lakes: Water quality trends in a context of rapid deforestation, mining and palm oil plantation development in Indonesia's Middle Mahakam Wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E.B.P. de; Ragas, A.M.J.; Nooteboom, G.; Mursidi, M.

    2015-01-01

    The degradation of Indonesia's wetlands is continuing at a rapid pace. People living in the Middle Mahakam Lakes (MML) region, part of a major wetland area in Indonesia, have observed various negative changes in their local environment, especially with regard to water quality. We verify these local

  8. Evaluation of the radiographic process using a experimental monobath solution compared with normal (Kodak) and rapid (RAY) developer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratieri, N.M.M.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the radiographic image quality of two dental X-ray films (Kodak's EP-21 and Agfa-Gevaert DOS-1) when processed in a normal (Kodak) a rapid (Ray) and a experimental monobath solutions, is presented. These films, processed in those solutions had their time of development, temperature and agitation performances checked by sensitometry; pH and color by routine methods and hipo rests by spectrophotometry. The radiographies were also analysed by able professionals regarding the best development time. The data so obtained allowed the conclusions that the best development time for the monobath was 3 minutes at 20 0 C but 25 or 30 0 C give also acceptable results at shorter times. The agitation of 10 seconds every minute is an important factor concerning image quality. pH and color do alter rapidally but with little influence in the final result. We found a certain amount of residual chemical compounds which were not identified but that are not hipo components, and being important to note that they seem not act upon the emulsion at least during one year after processing. (author) [pt

  9. Seasonal evaluation of groundwater quality around Igando ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation and Multiple linear regression analysis was used to establish the degree of relationship and variability of groundwater quality parameters around Solous 1 and 2 Dumpsites, in Igando, Lagos, for the wet and the dry seasons. The correlation between TDS and other hydrochemical parameters which constituted ...

  10. Information criterion for the categorization quality evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail V. Svirkin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the possibility of using the variation of information function as a quality criterion for categorizing a collection of documents. The performance of the variation of information function is being examined subject to the number of categories and the sample volume of the test document collection.

  11. Modeling and Evaluation of Multimodal Perceptual Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kim T; Hansen, Steffen Duus; Sørensen, John Aasted

    1997-01-01

    The increasing performance requirements of multimedia modalities, carrying speech, audio, video, image, and graphics emphasize the need for assessment methods of the total quality of a multimedia system and methods for simultaneous analysis of the system components. It is important to take...

  12. Evaluation of quality in social-work practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Blom

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical article describes and discusses the concept of quality in relation to the evaluation of social-work practice. Of particular interest are the difference between quality of services and quality of life and the importance of balancing the stakeholders’ different interests in order to make a sound judgement of quality in social work possible. This article begins with presenting some basic perspectives on quality as well as the transference of the concept of quality from manufacturing industry to social-work practice. Thereafter the two main issues are discussed: the concepts of quality of service and of quality of life and the importance of balancing different stakeholders’ perspectives in the evaluation of quality in social-work practice. This article concludes that: 1 it is crucial to be aware of and to consider the distinction between quality of service and quality of life; 2 clients’ perspective on quality of life is an aspect of outcome that currently receives insufficient attention; 3 clients’ subjective experiences of welfare of well-being deserve greater attention for ethical as well as methodological reasons; and 4 judgement of quality in social work are inevitably dependent on different stakeholders’ perspectives.

  13. THE QUALITY OF MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS - EVALUATION AND SELF-EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patáková, Eva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in the article consists of two parts. Firstly, opinions on mathematical problem quality are explored within four groups of participants (novices, specialists and experts in problem posing; high school students who never posed their own problems. Secondly, self-reflections written by the participants who have some experience in problem posing (novices, specialists and experts are explored and compared with the general view of problem quality received in the first part of the research. The more experienced problem posers have more requirements on problem quality (both as general requirements and within their own work on posing problems. There is a slight decrease in ability to notice important features of mathematical problem quality after the first experience in problem posing. Experts lay stress on mathematical features of the problem whilst novices and specialists more on problem – student interaction.

  14. Rapid Evaluation of Power Degradation in Series Connection of Single Feeding Microsized Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Alqarni, Wejdan Mohammed Mofleh; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a sustainable, single feeding, microsized, air-cathode and membrane-free microbial fuel cells with a volume of 40 mu L each, which we have used for rapid evaluation of power generation and viability of a series array of three cells seeking higher voltage levels. Contrary to expectations, the achieved power density was modest (45 mWm(-3)), limited due to non-uniformities in assembly and the single-channel feeding system.

  15. Rapid Evaluation of Power Degradation in Series Connection of Single Feeding Microsized Microbial Fuel Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-07-08

    We have developed a sustainable, single feeding, microsized, air-cathode and membrane-free microbial fuel cells with a volume of 40 mu L each, which we have used for rapid evaluation of power generation and viability of a series array of three cells seeking higher voltage levels. Contrary to expectations, the achieved power density was modest (45 mWm(-3)), limited due to non-uniformities in assembly and the single-channel feeding system.

  16. Rapid Development of Specialty Population Registries and Quality Measures from Electronic Health Record Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Vaishnavi; Fish, Jason S; Mutz, Jacqueline M; Carrington, Angela R; Lai, Ki; Davis, Lisa S; Youngblood, Josh E; Rauschuber, Mark R; Flores, Kathryn A; Sara, Evan J; Bhat, Deepa G; Willett, DuWayne L

    2017-01-01

    (a) real-time patient lists of registry patients and (b) EDW-gener-ated CQM data. Agile project management methods were employed, including co-development, lightweight requirements documentation with User Stories and acceptance criteria, and time-boxed iterative development of EHR features in 2-week "sprints" for rapid-cycle feedback and refinement. Using this approach, in calendar year 2015 we developed a total of 43 specialty chronic disease registries, with 111 new EHR data collection and clinical decision support tools, 163 new clinical quality measures, and 30 clinic-specific dashboards reporting on both real-time patient care gaps and summarized and vetted CQM measure performance trends. This study suggests concurrent design of EHR data collection tools and reporting can quickly yield useful EHR structured data for chronic disease registries, and bodes well for efforts to migrate away from manual abstraction. This work also supports the view that in new EHR-based registry development, as in new product development, adopting agile principles and practices can help deliver valued, high-quality features early and often. Schattauer GmbH.

  17. Evaluation tools of quality control for patients submitted to IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavor, Milton

    2011-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is currently been implemented in a rapidly growing number of centers in Brazil. As consequence many institutions are now facing the problem of performing a comprehensive quality control program before and during the implementation of IMRT in the clinical routine practice. The aim of this work is to evaluate and propose a methodology for quality assurance in IMRT treatments. An ionization chamber and a two-dimensional array detector were performed to assess the absolute value of the total dose of all fields in one specific point. The relative total dose distribution of all fields was measured with a radiochromic film and a two-dimensional array at one depth in a phantom. A comparison between measured and calculated dose distributions was performed using the gamma-index method, assessing the percentage of points that meet the criteria of +-3% dose difference and +-3 mm distance to agreement. As a result of 113 tested IMRT beams using ionization chamber and 81 using two-dimensional array, the proposal was to take an action level of about +- 5% compared to the treatment planning systems and measurements, for the verification of the dose in a single point at the low gradient dose region. Analysis of the two-dimensional array measurements showed that the gamma value was <1 for 97.7% of the data and for the film the gamma value was <1 for 96.6% of the data. This can be concluded that for an accurate delivery of dose in 'sliding-window' IMRT with micro multileaf collimator, the absolute value of the total dose and the relative total dose distribution should be checked by absolute and relative dosimetry respectively. (author)

  18. Influence of visual appearance on loudspeaker sound quality evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karandreas, Theodoros-Alexandros; Christensen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    Product sound quality evaluation aims to identify relevant attributes and assess their influence on the overall auditory impression. Extending this sound specific rationale, the present study evaluates overall impression in relation to audition and vision, specifically for loudspeakers. In order...... to quantify the bias that the loudspeaker appearance has on the sound quality evaluation of a naive listening panel, audio stimuli of varied degradation are coupled with actual loudspeakers of different visual appearance....

  19. Dosimetric evaluation of the interplay effect in respiratory-gated RapidArc radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Craig; Yang, Yong; Li, Tianfang; Zhang, Yongqian; Heron, Dwight E.; Huq, M. Saiful

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with gating capability has had increasing adoption in many clinics in the United States. In this new technique, dose rate, gantry rotation speed, and the leaf motion speed of multileaf collimators (MLCs) are modulated dynamically during gated beam delivery to achieve highly conformal dose coverage of the target and normal tissue sparing. Compared with the traditional gated intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique, this complicated beam delivery technique may result in larger dose errors due to the intrafraction tumor motion. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the dosimetric influence of the interplay effect for the respiration-gated VMAT technique (RapidArc, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Our work consisted of two parts: (1) Investigate the interplay effect for different target residual errors during gated RapidArc delivery using a one-dimensional moving phantom capable of producing stable sinusoidal movement; (2) Evaluate the dosimetric influence in ten clinical patients’ treatment plans using a moving phantom driven with a patient-specific respiratory curve. Methods: For the first part of this study, four plans were created with a spherical target for varying residual motion of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 cm. Appropriate gating windows were applied for each. The dosimetric effect was evaluated using EDR2 film by comparing the gated delivery with static delivery. For the second part of the project, ten gated lung stereotactic body radiotherapy cases were selected and reoptimized to be delivered by the gated RapidArc technique. These plans were delivered to a phantom, and again the gated treatments were compared to static deliveries by the same methods. Results: For regular sinusoidal motion, the dose delivered to the target was not substantially affected by the gating windows when evaluated with the gamma statistics, suggesting the interplay effect has a small role in respiratory-gated Rapid

  20. Dosimetric evaluation of the interplay effect in respiratory-gated RapidArc radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Craig; Yang, Yong; Li, Tianfang; Zhang, Yongqian; Heron, Dwight E; Huq, M Saiful

    2014-01-01

    Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with gating capability has had increasing adoption in many clinics in the United States. In this new technique, dose rate, gantry rotation speed, and the leaf motion speed of multileaf collimators (MLCs) are modulated dynamically during gated beam delivery to achieve highly conformal dose coverage of the target and normal tissue sparing. Compared with the traditional gated intensity-modulated radiation therapy technique, this complicated beam delivery technique may result in larger dose errors due to the intrafraction tumor motion. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the dosimetric influence of the interplay effect for the respiration-gated VMAT technique (RapidArc, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Our work consisted of two parts: (1) Investigate the interplay effect for different target residual errors during gated RapidArc delivery using a one-dimensional moving phantom capable of producing stable sinusoidal movement; (2) Evaluate the dosimetric influence in ten clinical patients' treatment plans using a moving phantom driven with a patient-specific respiratory curve. For the first part of this study, four plans were created with a spherical target for varying residual motion of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 cm. Appropriate gating windows were applied for each. The dosimetric effect was evaluated using EDR2 film by comparing the gated delivery with static delivery. For the second part of the project, ten gated lung stereotactic body radiotherapy cases were selected and reoptimized to be delivered by the gated RapidArc technique. These plans were delivered to a phantom, and again the gated treatments were compared to static deliveries by the same methods. For regular sinusoidal motion, the dose delivered to the target was not substantially affected by the gating windows when evaluated with the gamma statistics, suggesting the interplay effect has a small role in respiratory-gated RapidArc therapy. Varied results were

  1. Course Evaluation Systems for Open-ended Quality Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piihl, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jens Smed

    2013-01-01

    Quality in higher education is widely controlled through surveys asking students to evaluate teaching. However, control of quality does not necessarily lead to enhancement of quality. Drawing on accounting research and a case study, a measurement-based and open-ended quality control system...... emphasising quality enhancement is suggested. The case shows how interactive use of performance measurement can lead to more engaged and enabling dialogue amongst involved actors concerning quality enhancement, however institutionalised beliefs regarding course evaluation systems makes a change challenging....... The chapter suggests that open-ended measurement systems enabling stakeholders to take responsibility for quality enhancement is not so much a matter of technical design as a matter of an enabling style of use....

  2. Evaluation of CASP8 model quality predictions

    KAUST Repository

    Cozzetto, Domenico; Kryshtafovych, Andriy; Tramontano, Anna

    2009-01-01

    established a prediction category to evaluate their performance in 2006. In 2008 the experiment was repeated and its results are reported here. Participants were invited to infer the correctness of the protein models submitted by the registered automatic

  3. Develop Quality Characteristics Based Quality Evaluation Process for Ready to Use Software Products

    OpenAIRE

    Daiju Kato; Hiroshi Ishikawa

    2016-01-01

    The users who use ready to use software product had better get the products’ quality information with classified by some kind of global standard metrics or technique for their evaluation. But many of those software products’ co mpanies don’t provide the quality information because of the products are developed b y their own development and evaluation process. But those users want to get quality i...

  4. [Evaluation of the quality control system in blood transfusion service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, R

    2000-01-01

    Implementation of quality system improvement at the Blood Transfusion Institute Novi Sad, included adjustments in practice to the request of ISO 9001 standard. Quality improvement must be a permanent activity of the Institute. The audit is a management tool for monitoring the quality assurance system and is either a quality audit or a medical audit. A well planned, comprehensive quality audit covers each activity of the Blood Transfusion Institute. The procedures may be internal or external. Quality manager is responsible for annual internal quality audits. The purpose of internal audits is to check the efficiency of the quality system in terms of realization of quality policy, fulfullment of designed targets and implementation of quality system documents. An internal quality audit is performed in accordance with the procedure and audit findings are reported to the management in a form of internal quality report as a part of quality system review. The findings must be communicated to all persons responsible for the controlled area. Quality manager can initiate an internal quality audit whenever it is realized that problems about the quality system have occurred. Audits are conducted by the quality manager or an audit team. The accurate list of internal auditors is kept in the Institute archive. Medical audit carried out by a transfusion committee, evaluates the quality of blood transfusion for determining the degree of compliance with established local or national guidelines, in order to promote optimal transfusion practice. Audits are not only used for determining further quality management activities, but also make basis for creating and maintenance of excellent relations with product and service users. Considering all this, Blood Transfusion Institute exceeds the requirements of ISO 9000 standards series.

  5. Evaluation of dengue NS1 antigen rapid tests and ELISA kits using clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhamoy Pal

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV infection can improve clinical outcomes by ensuring close follow-up, initiating appropriate supportive therapies and raising awareness to the potential of hemorrhage or shock. Non-structural glycoprotein-1 (NS1 has proven to be a useful biomarker for early diagnosis of dengue. A number of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs targeting NS1 antigen (Ag are now commercially available. Here we evaluated these tests using a well-characterized panel of clinical samples to determine their effectiveness for early diagnosis.Retrospective samples from South America were used to evaluate the following tests: (i "Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP" and (ii "Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag ELISA" (Bio-Rad, France, (iii "Dengue NS1 Detect Rapid Test (1st Generation" and (iv "DENV Detect NS1 ELISA" (InBios International, United States, (v "Panbio Dengue Early Rapid (1st generation" (vi "Panbio Dengue Early ELISA (2nd generation" and (vii "SD Bioline Dengue NS1 Ag Rapid Test" (Alere, United States. Overall, the sensitivity of the RDTs ranged from 71.9%-79.1% while the sensitivity of the ELISAs varied between 85.6-95.9%, using virus isolation as the reference method. Most tests had lower sensitivity for DENV-4 relative to the other three serotypes, were less sensitive in detecting secondary infections, and appeared to be most sensitive on Day 3-4 post symptom onset. The specificity of all evaluated tests ranged from 95%-100%.ELISAs had greater overall sensitivity than RDTs. In conjunction with other parameters, the performance data can help determine which dengue diagnostics should be used during the first few days of illness, when the patients are most likely to present to a clinic seeking care.

  6. Diagnostic evaluation of rapid tests for scrub typhus in the Indian population is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivalli, Siddharudha

    2016-05-12

    Owing to frequent outbreaks witnessed in different parts of the country in the recent past, scrub typhus is being described as a re-emerging infectious disease in India. Differentiating scrub typhus from other endemic diseases like malaria, leptospirosis, dengue fever, typhoid, etc. is difficult due to overlapping clinical features and a lower positivity for eschars in Asian populations. Hence, the diagnosis heavily relies on laboratory tests. Costs and the need of technical expertise limit the wide use of indirect immunoperoxidase or immunofluorescence assays, ELISA and PCR. The Weil-Felix test is the most commonly used and least expensive serological test, but lacks both sensitivity and specificity. Hence, the diagnosis of scrub typhus is often delayed or overlooked. With due consideration of the cost, rapidity, single test result and simplicity of interpretation, rapid diagnostic tests have come into vogue. However, evaluation of rapid diagnostic tests for scrub typhus in the Indian population is needed to justify or discourage their use. Research studies are needed to find the most suitable test in terms of the rapidity of the result, simplicity of the procedure, ease of interpretation and cost to be used in the Indian populace.

  7. [Evaluation of a new blood gas analysis system: RapidPoint 500(®)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Thierry; Cabrolier, Nadège; Bardonnet, Karine; Davani, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    We present here evaluation of a new blood gas analysis system, RapidPoint 500(®) (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics). The aim of this research was to compare the ergonomics and analytical performances of this analyser with those of the RapidLab 1265 for the following parameters: pH, partial oxygen pressure, partial carbon dioxide pressure, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, lactate and the CO-oximetry parameters: hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, methemoglobin, reduced hemoglobin, neonatal bilirubin; as well as with the Dimension Vista 500 results for chloride and glucose. The Valtec protocol, recommended by the French Society of Clinical Biology (SFBC), was used to analyze the study results. The experiment was carried out over a period of one month in the Department of medical biochemistry. One hundred sixty five samples from adult patients admitted to the ER or hospitalized in intensive care were tested. The RapidPoint 500(®) was highly satisfactory from an ergonomic point of view. Intra-and inter- assay coefficients of variation (CV) with the three control levels were below those recommended by the SFBC for all parameters, and the comparative study gave coefficients of determination higher than 0.91. Taken together, the RapidPoint 500(®) appears fully satisfactory in terms of ergonomics and analytical performance.

  8. Evaluating service quality in the Durban freight transportation industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevarathnam P. Govender

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates service quality in the Durban freight transportation industry, in which a high degree of competition exists. Previous measurements of service quality in the industry have been casual gauges, rather than a formalised process. This paper makes a contribution by examining the level of service quality, specifically from a tangibles, reliability and responsiveness perspective, thereby identifying service quality gaps which need to be closed, with a view to raising service quality levels in the industry. The SERVQUAL instrument has been used to measure service quality levels administered to 500 of the industry’s active customers, i.e. organisations utilising the services of the freight transportation industry. The targeted respondents were managers responsible for logistics in their organisations. It was found that gaps existed between expectations and perceptions of service quality on 14 of the 15 measured items. Recommendations are made as to how the industry can improve its service quality levels.

  9. Evaluation of the OnSite malaria rapid test performance in Miandrivazo, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaoarisoa, E; Andriamiandranoro, T; Raherinjafy, R; Jahevitra, M; Razanatsiorimalala, S; Andrianaranjaka, V; Randrianarivelojosia, M

    2017-10-01

    The performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic test OnSite-for detecting pan specific pLDH and Plasmodium falciparum specific HRP2 - was assessed during the malaria transmission peak period in Miandrivazo, in the southwestern part of Madagascar from April 20 to May 6, 2010. At the laboratory, the quality control OnSite Malaria Rapid Test according to the WHO/TDR/FIND method demonstrated that the test had good sensitivity. Of the 218 OnSite tests performed at the Miandrivazo Primary Health Center on patients with fever or a recent history of fever, four (1.8%, 95% CI: 0.6-4.9%) were invalid. Ninety four (43,1%) cases of malaria were confirmed by microscopy, of which 90 were P. falciparum malaria and 4 Plasmodium vivax malaria. With a Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.94, the agreement between microscopy and OnSite is excellent. Compared with the rapid test CareStart™ commonly used within the public health structures in Madagascar, the sensitivity and specificity of the OnSite test were 97.9% and 96.8%.

  10. Evaluation of Ravi river water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Ali, W.

    2000-01-01

    Investigation from 1989 to 1998 on river Ravi pollution was carried out to study the effects of wastewater discharges on its water quality in relation to its various water use. The sources of pollution entering the river between Syphon (20 Km upstream) and Balloki Head works (75 Km downstream) includes Upper Chenab Canal (U.C.) which bring industrial effluents through Deg municipal swage from the city of Lahore. Investigation revealed that the flow in the river are highly variable with time during the year U.C. canal with a capacity of 220 m/sup 3//S at the tail and Qadiarabad (Q.B.) Link canal with a capacity of 410 m3/S are mainly responsible for higher flows during dry season. A desecrating trend has been observed in the D.O. Levels indicating increasing pollution. Over times D.O values are above 4 mg/l indicating recovery due to dilution biodegradation and aeration. An increasing trend has been observed in Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), suspended solids, total dissolved solids and indicator organisms. Even with the discharges of pollutions from U.C. canal, Hudiara Nullah and city sewage, BOD at Balloki was unexpectedly low. It was investigated that because of pollution free Q.B. link canal which joins the river just before Balloki Head works makes the water diluted, which accounted for low BOD. Water of river Ravi meet the chemical water quality requirement for irrigation. However the water quality does not meet the coliform and faecal coliform criteria for most water use. (orig../A.B.)

  11. Daily Encounter Cards—Evaluating the Quality of Documented Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Warren J.; Dudek, Nancy; Wood, Timothy J.; Frank, Jason R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background  Concerns over the quality of work-based assessment (WBA) completion has resulted in faculty development and rater training initiatives. Daily encounter cards (DECs) are a common form of WBA used in ambulatory care and shift work settings. A tool is needed to evaluate initiatives aimed at improving the quality of completion of this widely used form of WBA. Objective  The completed clinical evaluation report rating (CCERR) was designed to provide a measure of the quality of documented assessments on in-training evaluation reports. The purpose of this study was to provide validity evidence to support using the CCERR to assess the quality of DEC completion. Methods  Six experts in resident assessment grouped 60 DECs into 3 quality categories (high, average, and poor) based on how informative each DEC was for reporting judgments of the resident's performance. Eight supervisors (blinded to the expert groupings) scored the 10 most representative DECs in each group using the CCERR. Mean scores were compared to determine if the CCERR could discriminate based on DEC quality. Results  Statistically significant differences in CCERR scores were observed between all quality groups (P < .001). A generalizability analysis demonstrated the majority of score variation was due to differences in DECs. The reliability with a single rater was 0.95. Conclusions  The CCERR is a reliable and valid tool to evaluate DEC quality. It can serve as an outcome measure for studying interventions targeted at improving the quality of assessments documented on DECs. PMID:27777675

  12. Daily Encounter Cards-Evaluating the Quality of Documented Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Warren J; Dudek, Nancy; Wood, Timothy J; Frank, Jason R

    2016-10-01

    Concerns over the quality of work-based assessment (WBA) completion has resulted in faculty development and rater training initiatives. Daily encounter cards (DECs) are a common form of WBA used in ambulatory care and shift work settings. A tool is needed to evaluate initiatives aimed at improving the quality of completion of this widely used form of WBA. The completed clinical evaluation report rating (CCERR) was designed to provide a measure of the quality of documented assessments on in-training evaluation reports. The purpose of this study was to provide validity evidence to support using the CCERR to assess the quality of DEC completion. Six experts in resident assessment grouped 60 DECs into 3 quality categories (high, average, and poor) based on how informative each DEC was for reporting judgments of the resident's performance. Eight supervisors (blinded to the expert groupings) scored the 10 most representative DECs in each group using the CCERR. Mean scores were compared to determine if the CCERR could discriminate based on DEC quality. Statistically significant differences in CCERR scores were observed between all quality groups ( P  evaluate DEC quality. It can serve as an outcome measure for studying interventions targeted at improving the quality of assessments documented on DECs.

  13. Modification of the Rappaport rapid test in large-scale testing for syphilis. Evaluation of the rapid plate and rapid card tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghinsberg, R; Meir, E; Blumstein, G; Kafeman, R

    1975-11-01

    The Rappaport rapid (RR) plate and card tests were developed as modifications of the RR tube test to permit rapid and inexpensive screening of large numbers of subjects for the diagnosis of syphilis. More than 2,000 sera were examined in parallel by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) slide test, the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) card test and the RR plate and card tests. There was complete agreement between the RR plate and card tests and the VDRL slide and RPR card tests in 96.6% of sera. In a selected group of 1,530 sera examined, in addition, by the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test, there was agreement between the RR plate and card tests and the FTA-ABS test in 74.3% of sera and between the VDRL and RPR tests and the FTA-ABS test in 73.7% of sera. The RR plate test was found to be sufficiently sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of syphilis, although the VDRL slide test is perhaps more sensitive in primary and late latent syphilis. Since the antigen used in the RR tests is colored and stable and the sera do not require inactivation before the test, the tests are easier to perform than the VDRL slide test: the RR plate and card tests could therefore replace the VDRL test as a screening test, with hardly any loss of accuracy.

  14. Quantitative evaluation of the disintegration of orally rapid disintegrating tablets by X-ray computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Yamanaka, Azusa; Uchino, Tomohiro; Otsuka, Kuniko; Sadamoto, Kiyomi; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    To measure the rapid disintegration of Oral Disintegrating Tablets (ODT), a new test (XCT) was developed using X-ray computing tomography (X-ray CT). Placebo ODT, rapid disintegration candy (RDC) and Gaster®-D-Tablets (GAS) were used as model samples. All these ODTs were used to measure oral disintegration time (DT) in distilled water at 37±2°C by XCT. DTs were affected by the width of mesh screens, and degree to which the tablet holder vibrated from air bubbles. An in-vivo tablet disintegration test was performed for RDC using 11 volunteers. DT by the in-vivo method was significantly longer than that using the conventional tester. The experimental conditions for XCT such as the width of the mesh screen and degree of vibration were adjusted to be consistent with human DT values. Since DTs by the XCT method were almost the same as the human data, this method was able to quantitatively evaluate the rapid disintegration of ODT under the same conditions as inside the oral cavity. The DTs of four commercially available ODTs were comparatively evaluated by the XCT method, conventional tablet disintegration test and in-vivo method.

  15. Older drivers and rapid deceleration events: Salisbury Eye Evaluation Driving Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keay, Lisa; Munoz, Beatriz; Duncan, Donald D; Hahn, Daniel; Baldwin, Kevin; Turano, Kathleen A; Munro, Cynthia A; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; West, Sheila K

    2013-09-01

    Drivers who rapidly change speed while driving may be more at risk for a crash. We sought to determine the relationship of demographic, vision, and cognitive variables with episodes of rapid decelerations during five days of normal driving in a cohort of older drivers. In the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Driving Study, 1425 older drivers aged 67-87 were recruited from the Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration's rolls for licensees in Salisbury, Maryland. Participants had several measures of vision tested: visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual fields, and the attentional visual field. Participants were also tested for various domains of cognitive function including executive function, attention, psychomotor speed, and visual search. A custom created driving monitoring system (DMS) was used to capture rapid deceleration events (RDEs), defined as at least 350 milli-g deceleration, during a five day period of monitoring. The rate of RDE per mile driven was modeled using a negative binomial regression model with an offset of the logarithm of the number of miles driven. We found that 30% of older drivers had one or more RDE during a five day period, and of those, about 1/3 had four or more. The rate of RDE per mile driven was highest for those drivers drivingRDE's were more likely to have better scores in cognitive tests of psychomotor speed and visual search, and have faster brake reaction time. Further, greater average speed and maximum speed per driving segment was protective against RDE events. In conclusion, contrary to our hypothesis, older drivers who perform rapid decelerations tend to be more "fit", with better measures of vision and cognition compared to those who do not have events of rapid deceleration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts by rapid XTT colorimetry and bacterial enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bakri, Amal G; Afifi, Fatma U

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of indigenous Jordanian plant extracts, dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide, using the rapid XTT assay and viable count methods. XTT rapid assay was used for the initial screening of antimicrobial activity for the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity of potentially active plant extracts was further assessed using the "viable plate count" method. Four degrees of antimicrobial activity (high, moderate, weak and inactive) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, were recorded. The plant extracts of Hypericum triquetrifolium, Ballota undulata, Ruta chalepensis, Ononis natrix, Paronychia argentea and Marrubium vulgare had shown promising antimicrobial activity. This study showed that while both XTT and viable count methods are comparable when estimating the overall antimicrobial activity of experimental substances, there is no strong linear correlation between the two methods.

  17. Ultrasound Image Quality Assessment: A framework for evaluation of clinical image quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov

    2010-01-01

    Improvement of ultrasound images should be guided by their diagnostic value. Evaluation of clinical image quality is generally performed subjectively, because objective criteria have not yet been fully developed and accepted for the evaluation of clinical image quality. Based on recommendation 50...... information, which is fast enough to get sufficient number of scans under realistic operating conditions, so that statistical evaluation is valid and reliable....

  18. Automated speech quality monitoring tool based on perceptual evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Vozňák, Miroslav; Rozhon, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with a speech quality monitoring tool which we have developed in accordance with PESQ (Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality) and is automatically running and calculating the MOS (Mean Opinion Score). Results are stored into database and used in a research project investigating how meteorological conditions influence the speech quality in a GSM network. The meteorological station, which is located in our university campus provides information about a temperature,...

  19. Hybrid Model for e-Learning Quality Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana M. Savic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available E-learning is becoming increasingly important for the competitive advantage of economic organizations and higher education institutions. Therefore, it is becoming a significant aspect of quality which has to be integrated into the management system of every organization or institution. The paper examines e-learning quality characteristics, standards, criteria and indicators and presents a multi-criteria hybrid model for e-learning quality evaluation based on the method of Analytic Hierarchy Process, trend analysis, and data comparison.

  20. Early warning systems and rapid response to the deteriorating patient in hospital: A realist evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughey, Jennifer; O'Halloran, Peter; Porter, Sam; Trinder, John; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2017-12-01

    To test the Rapid Response Systems programme theory against actual practice components of the Rapid Response Systems implemented to identify those contexts and mechanisms which have an impact on the successful achievement of desired outcomes in practice. Rapid Response Systems allow deteriorating patients to be recognized using Early Warning Systems, referred early via escalation protocols and managed at the bedside by competent staff. Realist evaluation. The research design was an embedded multiple case study approach of four wards in two hospitals in Northern Ireland which followed the principles of Realist Evaluation. We used various mixed methods including individual and focus group interviews, observation of nursing practice between June-November 2010 and document analysis of Early Warning Systems audit data between May-October 2010 and hospital acute care training records over 4.5 years from 2003-2008. Data were analysed using NiVivo8 and SPPS. A cross-case analysis highlighted similar patterns of factors which enabled or constrained successful recognition, referral and response to deteriorating patients in practice. Key enabling factors were the use of clinical judgement by experienced nurses and the empowerment of nurses as a result of organizational change associated with implementation of Early Warning System protocols. Key constraining factors were low staffing and inappropriate skill mix levels, rigid implementation of protocols and culturally embedded suboptimal communication processes. Successful implementation of Rapid Response Systems was dependent on adopting organizational and cultural changes that facilitated staff empowerment, flexible implementation of protocols and ongoing experiential learning. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. 122 evaluation of the quality of locally manufactured antimicrobial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are not available. In order to provide some data, we evaluated the quality of three brands of locally manufactured ... careful control and standardization of the various ... Systems, in Enugu, Optudisc from MEDLABCOP, ... Briefly, a sterilized wire.

  2. An evaluation of professional quality measurement systems for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... An evaluation of professional quality measurement systems for the automotive industry ... The ultimate goal of this study is to get comparable quantitative information about ...

  3. Evaluation of model quality predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Kryshtafovych, Andriy; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Tramontano, Anna

    2011-01-01

    evaluations demonstrate that even though global quality assessment methods seem to approach perfection point (weighted average per-target Pearson's correlation coefficients are as high as 0.97 for the best groups), there is still room for improvement. First

  4. Multivariate Methods Based Soft Measurement for Wine Quality Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Yin

    2014-01-01

    a decision. However, since the physicochemical indexes of wine can to some extent reflect the quality of wine, the multivariate statistical methods based soft measure can help the oenologist in wine evaluation.

  5. Fish product quality evaluation based on temperature monitoring in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As one kind of perishable food, fish product is at risk of suffering various damages during cold chain and temperature is the most important factor to affect the product quality. This research work on frozen tilapia fillet was aimed at evaluating the fish product quality and predict shelf-life through monitoring temperature change ...

  6. Methodology for Evaluating Quality and Reusability of Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Bireniene, Virginija; Serikoviene, Silvija

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the scientific model and several methods for the expert evaluation of quality of learning objects (LOs) paying especial attention to LOs reusability level. The activities of eQNet Quality Network for a European Learning Resource Exchange (LRE) aimed to improve reusability of LOs of European Schoolnet's LRE…

  7. Does the EUA Institutional Evaluation Programme Contribute to Quality Improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Diana Amado; Rosa, Maria Joao; Amaral, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to reflect on the relevance of the Institutional Evaluation Programme (IEP) of the European University Association (EUA) to universities' quality improvement. It aims to analyse IEP follow-up reports to determine whether the programme contributes to the development of a quality improvement culture.…

  8. Evaluation of patients ' satisfaction with quality of care provided at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The umpteenth threats to change of healthcare provider by dissatisfied patients on formal sector health insurance are well known and can be a proxy indicator for the need for quality improvement in service delivery. Objective: This study was aimed at evaluating patientsf satisfaction with quality of care provided ...

  9. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoguang [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Department of Medical Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086 (China); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Qian, Hua [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Miyamoto, Fusako [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Naito, Takeshi [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kawaji, Kumi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Kajiwara, Kazumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); JST Innovation Plaza Kyoto, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Nishigyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8245 (Japan); Hattori, Toshio [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine/Division of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Matsuoka, Masao [Laboratory of Virus Control, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaramachi, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); and others

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1{sub IIIB} and HIV-1{sub BaL} as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} and anti-HIV-1{sub BaL} activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, 'phenotypic drug evaluation', may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

  10. Evaluation of Human Prehension Using Grasp Quality Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz León

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main features of the human hand is its grasping ability. Robot grasping has been studied for years and different quality measures have been proposed to evaluate the stability and manipulability of grasps. Although the human hand is obviously more complex than robot hands, the methods used in robotics might be adopted to study the human grasp. The purpose of this work is to propose a set of measures that allow the evaluation of different aspects of the human grasp. The most common robotic grasp quality measures have been adapted to the evaluation of the human hand and a new quality measure – the fatigue index – is proposed in order to incorporate the biomechanical aspect into the evaluation. The minimum set of indices that allows the evaluation of the different aspects of the grasp is obtained from the analysis of a human prehension experiment.

  11. New approach to equipment quality evaluation method with distinct functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new approach for improving method for quality evaluation and selection of equipment (devices and machinery by applying distinct functions. Quality evaluation and selection of devices and machinery is a multi-criteria problem which involves the consideration of numerous parameters of various origins. Original selection method with distinct functions is based on technical parameters with arbitrary evaluation of each parameter importance (weighting. Improvement of this method, presented in this paper, addresses the issue of weighting of parameters by using Delphi Method. Finally, two case studies are provided, which included quality evaluation of standard boilers for heating and evaluation of load-haul-dump (LHD machines, to demonstrate applicability of this approach. Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP is used as a control method.

  12. CARES (Computer Analysis for Rapid Evaluation of Structures) Version 1.0, seismic module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Philippacopoulas, A.J.; Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.

    1990-07-01

    During FY's 1988 and 1989, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) developed the CARES system (Computer Analysis for Rapid Evaluation of Structures) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). CARES is a PC software system which has been designed to perform structural response computations similar to those encountered in licensing reviews of nuclear power plant structures. The documentation of the Seismic Module of CARES consists of three volumes. This report is Volume 2 of the three volume documentation of the Seismic Module of CARES and represents the User's Manual. 14 refs

  13. CARES (Computer Analysis for Rapid Evaluation of Structures) Version 1.0, seismic module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Philippacopoulas, A.J.; Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.

    1990-07-01

    During FY's 1988 and 1989, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) developed the CARES system (Computer Analysis for Rapid Evaluation of Structures) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). CARES is a PC software system which has been designed to perform structural response computations similar to those encountered in licensing reviews of nuclear power plant structures. The documentation of the Seismic Module of CARES consists of three volumes. This report represents Volume 3 of the volume documentation of the Seismic Module of CARES. It presents three sample problems typically encountered in the Soil-Structure Interaction analyses. 14 refs., 36 figs., 2 tabs

  14. CARES (Computer Analysis for Rapid Evaluation of Structures) Version 1.0, seismic module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Philippacopoulas, A.J.; Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.

    1990-07-01

    During FY's 1988 and 1989, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) developed the CARES system (Computer Analysis for Rapid Evaluation of Structures) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). CARES is a PC software system which has been designed to perform structural response computations similar to those encountered in licencing reviews of nuclear power plant structures. The docomentation of the Seismic Module of CARES consists of three volumes. This report represents Volume 1 of the three volume documentation of the Seismic Module of CARES. It concentrates on the theoretical basis of the system and presents modeling assumptions and limitations as well as solution schemes and algorithms of CARES. 31 refs., 6 figs

  15. Concept Evaluation Using the PDSA Cycle for Continuous Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverentz, Delois Meyer; Kumm, Sharon

    As concept-based nursing education gains popularity, there is little literature on how to sustain quality after initiation of the curriculum. Critical appraisal of concepts in a university program revealed varying definitions, attributes, and exemplars resulting in student confusion. The Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) cycle for continuous quality improvement was used for concept evaluation. The goals of the evaluation project were: 1) to develop common definition and attributes for concepts and 2) to develop horizontal and vertical leveling of exemplars to build on prior student learning. The continuous quality improvement process can be used to prevent "concept creep" and ensure internal consistency of concept definitions, attributes, and exemplars.

  16. Quality evaluation of tandem mass spectral libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberacher, Herbert; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Dresen, Sebastian

    2011-06-01

    Tandem mass spectral libraries are gaining more and more importance for the identification of unknowns in different fields of research, including metabolomics, forensics, toxicology, and environmental analysis. Particularly, the recent invention of reliable, robust, and transferable libraries has increased the general acceptance of these tools. Herein, we report on results obtained from thorough evaluation of the match reliabilities of two tandem mass spectral libraries: the MSforID library established by the Oberacher group in Innsbruck and the Weinmann library established by the Weinmann group in Freiburg. Three different experiments were performed: (1) Spectra of the libraries were searched against their corresponding library after excluding either this single compound-specific spectrum or all compound-specific spectra prior to searching; (2) the libraries were searched against each other using either library as reference set or sample set; (3) spectra acquired on different mass spectrometric instruments were matched to both libraries. Almost 13,000 tandem mass spectra were included in this study. The MSforID search algorithm was used for spectral matching. Statistical evaluation of the library search results revealed that principally both libraries enable the sensitive and specific identification of compounds. Due to higher mass accuracy of the QqTOF compared with the QTrap instrument, matches to the MSforID library were more reliable when comparing spectra with both libraries. Furthermore, only the MSforID library was shown to be efficiently transferable to different kinds of tandem mass spectrometers, including "tandem-in-time" instruments; this is due to the coverage of a large range of different collision energy settings-including the very low range-which is an outstanding characteristics of the MSforID library.

  17. Home Health Aides' Perceptions of Quality Care: Goals, Challenges, and Implications for a Rapidly Changing Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzosa, Emily; Tsui, Emma K; Baron, Sherry

    2018-02-01

    Home care payment models, quality measures, and care plans are based on physical tasks workers perform, ignoring relational care that supports clients' cognitive, emotional, and social well-being. As states seek to rein in costs and improve the efficiency and quality of care, they will need to consider how to measure and support relational care. In four focus groups ( n = 27) of unionized, agency-based New York City home health aides, workers reported aide-client relationships were a cornerstone of high-quality care, and building them required communication, respect, and going the extra mile. Since much of this care was invisible outside the worker-client relationship, aides received little supervisory support and felt excluded from the formal care team. Aligning payment models with quality requires understanding the full scope of services aides provide and a quality work environment that offers support and supervision, engages aides in patient care, and gives them a voice in policy decisions.

  18. Data envelopment analysis in service quality evaluation: an empirical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Seyedvahid; Saati, Saber; Tavana, Madjid

    2015-09-01

    Service quality is often conceptualized as the comparison between service expectations and the actual performance perceptions. It enhances customer satisfaction, decreases customer defection, and promotes customer loyalty. Substantial literature has examined the concept of service quality, its dimensions, and measurement methods. We introduce the perceived service quality index (PSQI) as a single measure for evaluating the multiple-item service quality construct based on the SERVQUAL model. A slack-based measure (SBM) of efficiency with constant inputs is used to calculate the PSQI. In addition, a non-linear programming model based on the SBM is proposed to delineate an improvement guideline and improve service quality. An empirical study is conducted to assess the applicability of the method proposed in this study. A large number of studies have used DEA as a benchmarking tool to measure service quality. These models do not propose a coherent performance evaluation construct and consequently fail to deliver improvement guidelines for improving service quality. The DEA models proposed in this study are designed to evaluate and improve service quality within a comprehensive framework and without any dependency on external data.

  19. Factor selection for service quality evaluation: a hospital case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameryoun, Ahmad; Najafi, Seyedvahid; Nejati-Zarnaqi, Bayram; Khalilifar, Seyed Omid; Ajam, Mahdi; Ansarimoghadam, Ahmad

    2017-02-13

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a systematic approach to predict service quality dimension's influence on service quality using a novel analysis based on data envelopment and SERVQUAL. Design/methodology/approach To assess hospital service quality in Tehran, expectation and perception of those who received the services were evaluated using SERVQUAL. The hospital service quality dimensions were found by exploratory factor analysis (EFA). To compare customer expectation and perception, perceived service quality index (PSQI) was measured using a new method based on common weights. A novel sensitivity approach was used to test the service quality factor's impact on the PSQI. Findings A new service quality dimension named "trust in services" was found using EFA, which is not an original SERVQUAL factor. The approach was applied to assess the hospital's service quality. Since the PSQI value was 0.76 it showed that improvements are needed to meet customer expectations. The results showed the factor order that affect PSQI. "Trust in services" has the strongest influence on PSQI followed by "tangibles," "assurance," "empathy," and "responsiveness," respectively. Practical implications This work gives managers insight into service quality by following a systematic method; i.e., measuring perceived service quality from the customer viewpoint and service factors' impact on customer perception. Originality/value The procedure helps managers to select the required service quality dimensions which need improvement and predict their effects on customer perception.

  20. Airline service quality evaluation: A review on concepts and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Haghighat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews different major service quality concept and models which led to great developments in evaluating service quality with focusing on improvement process of the models through discussing criticisms of each model. Criticisms against these models are discussed to clarify development steps of newer models which led to the improvement of airline service quality models. The precise and accurate evaluation of service quality needs utilizing a reliable concept with comprehensive criteria and effective measurement techniques as the fundamentals of a valuable framework. In this paper, service quality models improvement is described based on three major service quality concepts, the disconfirmation, performance and hierarchical concepts which are developed subsequently. Reviewing various criteria and different measurement techniques such a statistical analysis and multi-criteria decision making assist researchers to have a clear understanding of the development of the evaluation framework in the airline industry. This study aims at promoting reliable frameworks for evaluating airline service quality in different countries and societies due to economic, cultural and social aspects of each society.

  1. An effective quality model for evaluating mobile websites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, W.U.; Nawaz, M.T.; Syed, T.H.; Naseem, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Evolution in Web development in recent years has caused emergence of new area of mobile computing, Mobile phone has been transformed into high speed processing device capable of doing the processes which were suppose to be run only on computer previously, Modem mobile phones now have capability to process data with greater speed then desktop systems and with the inclusion of 3G and 4G networks, mobile became the prime choice for users to send and receive data from any device. As a result, there is a major increase in mobile website need and development but due to uniqueness of mobile website usage as compared to desktop website, there is a need to focus on quality aspect of mobile website, So, to increase and preserve quality of mobile website, a quality model is required which has to be designed specifically to evaluate mobile website quality, To design a mobile website quality model, a survey based methodology is used to gather the information regarding website unique usage in mobile from different users. On the basis of this information, a mobile website quality model is presented which aims to evaluate the quality of mobile websites. In proposed model, some sub characteristics are designed to evaluate mobile websites in particular. The result is a proposed model aims to evaluate features of website which are important in context of its deployment and its usability in mobile platform. (author)

  2. Implementation of 350-2500 nm diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography to rapidly assess manufacturing consistency and quality of cotrimoxazole tablets in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaale, Eliangiringa; Hope, Samuel M; Jenkins, David; Layloff, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To assess the quality of cotrimoxazole tablets produced by a Tanzanian manufacturer by a newly instituted quality assurance programme. Tablets underwent a diffuse reflectance spectroscopy procedure with periodic quality assessment confirmation by assay and dissolution testing using validated HPTLC techniques (including weight variation and disintegration evaluations). Based on results from the primary test methods, the first group of product was 99% compliance. This approach provides a model for rapidly assuring product quality of future procurements of other products that is more cost-effective than traditional pharmaceutical testing techniques. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evaluation of nine HIV rapid test kits to develop a national HIV testing algorithm in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orji Bassey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-cold chain-dependent HIV rapid testing has been adopted in many resource-constrained nations as a strategy for reaching out to populations. HIV rapid test kits (RTKs have the advantage of ease of use, low operational cost and short turnaround times. Before 2005, different RTKs had been used in Nigeria without formal evaluation. Between 2005 and 2007, a study was conducted to formally evaluate a number of RTKs and construct HIV testing algorithms. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess and select HIV RTKs and develop national testing algorithms. Method: Nine RTKs were evaluated using 528 well-characterised plasma samples. These comprised 198 HIV-positive specimens (37.5% and 330 HIV-negative specimens (62.5%, collected nationally. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with 95% confidence intervals for all nine RTKs singly and for serial and parallel combinations of six RTKs; and relative costs were estimated. Results: Six of the nine RTKs met the selection criteria, including minimum sensitivity and specificity (both ≥ 99.0% requirements. There were no significant differences in sensitivities or specificities of RTKs in the serial and parallel algorithms, but the cost of RTKs in parallel algorithms was twice that in serial algorithms. Consequently, three serial algorithms, comprising four test kits (BundiTM, DetermineTM, Stat-Pak® and Uni-GoldTM with 100.0% sensitivity and 99.1% – 100.0% specificity, were recommended and adopted as national interim testing algorithms in 2007. Conclusion: This evaluation provides the first evidence for reliable combinations of RTKs for HIV testing in Nigeria. However, these RTKs need further evaluation in the field (Phase II to re-validate their performance.

  4. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoguang; Qian, Hua; Miyamoto, Fusako; Naito, Takeshi; Kawaji, Kumi; Kajiwara, Kazumi; Hattori, Toshio; Matsuoka, Masao; Watanabe, Kentaro; Oishi, Shinya; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. ► The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. ► In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviral activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1 IIIB and HIV-1 BaL as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1 IIIB activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1 IIIB and anti-HIV-1 BaL activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, “phenotypic drug evaluation”, may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.

  5. [Evaluation of a rapid trehalase test for the identification of Candida glabrata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirdar, Sevin; Gültekin, Berna; Evcil, Gonca; Ozkütük, Aydan; Sener, Asli Gamze; Aydin, Neriman

    2009-04-01

    Candida species which cause local infections, may also lead to fatal systemic infections. The increasing incidence of non-albicans Candida, especially fluconazole susceptible or resistant dose-dependent C. glabrata, increased the importance of rapid and accurate species level identification for Candida. Rapid and correct identification of C. glabrata is essential for the initiation of the appropriate antifungal therapy. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the rapid trehalase test in the diagnosis of C. glabrata isolates. A total of 173 Candida strains isolated from various clinical specimens and identified according to germ tube test, growth on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and the colony morphologies on Mast-CHROMagar Candida medium (Mast Diagnostics, UK), were included to the study. The identification of non-albicans Candida species were also confirmed by API 20CAUX (BioMerieux, France) system. Accordingly 86 (50%) of the isolates were identified as C. glabrata, 48 (28%) C. albicans, 17 (10%) C. krusei, 13 (8%) C. tropicalis, 5 (3%) C. parapsilosis, 3 (2%) C. kefyr and 1 (1%) Cutilis. In order to detect the presence of trehalase enzyme in Condida strains, all isolates were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar containing 4% glucose and then one yeast colony was emulsified in 50 microl of citrate buffer containing 4% (wt/vol) trehalose for 3 h at 37 degrees C. Presence of glucose which emerged after the action of trehalase on trehalose, was detected by a commercial "urinary glucose detection dipstick" (Spinreacta, Spain). All C. glabrata strains yielded positive result by trehalase test. None C. glabrata isolates were found negative by trehalase test except for one strain of C. tropicalis. In this study, the trehalase test allowed identification of C. globrata with 100% sensitivity and 98.9% specificity. It was concluded that trehalase test is a rapid, cost-effective and simple test that can be used for the accurate identification of C. glabrata.

  6. The study of surgical image quality evaluation system by subjective quality factor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian J.; Xuan, Jason R.; Yang, Xirong; Yu, Honggang; Koullick, Edouard

    2016-03-01

    GreenLightTM procedure is an effective and economical way of treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH); there are almost a million of patients treated with GreenLightTM worldwide. During the surgical procedure, the surgeon or physician will rely on the monitoring video system to survey and confirm the surgical progress. There are a few obstructions that could greatly affect the image quality of the monitoring video, like laser glare by the tissue and body fluid, air bubbles and debris generated by tissue evaporation, and bleeding, just to name a few. In order to improve the physician's visual experience of a laser surgical procedure, the system performance parameter related to image quality needs to be well defined. However, since image quality is the integrated set of perceptions of the overall degree of excellence of an image, or in other words, image quality is the perceptually weighted combination of significant attributes (contrast, graininess …) of an image when considered in its marketplace or application, there is no standard definition on overall image or video quality especially for the no-reference case (without a standard chart as reference). In this study, Subjective Quality Factor (SQF) and acutance are used for no-reference image quality evaluation. Basic image quality parameters, like sharpness, color accuracy, size of obstruction and transmission of obstruction, are used as subparameter to define the rating scale for image quality evaluation or comparison. Sample image groups were evaluated by human observers according to the rating scale. Surveys of physician groups were also conducted with lab generated sample videos. The study shows that human subjective perception is a trustworthy way of image quality evaluation. More systematic investigation on the relationship between video quality and image quality of each frame will be conducted as a future study.

  7. A Rapid and Efficient Method for Purifying High Quality Total RNA from Peaches (Prunus persica for Functional Genomics Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE MEISEL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus persica has been proposed as a genomic model for deciduous trees and the Rosaceae family. Optimized protocols for RNA isolation are necessary to further advance studies in this model species such that functional genomics analyses may be performed. Here we present an optimized protocol to rapidly and efficiently purify high quality total RNA from peach fruits (Prunus persica. Isolating high-quality RNA from fruit tissue is often difficult due to large quantities of polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds that accumulate in this tissue and co-purify with the RNA. Here we demonstrate that a modified version of the method used to isolate RNA from pine trees and the woody plant Cinnamomun tenuipilum is ideal for isolating high quality RNA from the fruits of Prunus persica. This RNA may be used for many functional genomic based experiments such as RT-PCR and the construction of large-insert cDNA libraries.

  8. Consumer Evaluations of Food Risk Management Quality in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Houghton, J.R.; Krystallis, A.; Pfenning, U.; Rowe, G.; Dijk, van H.; Lans, van der I.A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2007-01-01

    In developing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to understand how consumers evaluate the quality of food risk management practices. The aim of this study is to model the underlying psychological factors influencing consumer evaluations of food risk

  9. Ship-borne measurements of microbial enzymatic activity: A rapid biochemical indicator for microbial water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Loken, Luke; Crawford, John; Schramm, Paul; Sorsa, Kirsti; Kuhn, Catherine; Savio, Domenico; Striegl, Rob; Butman, David; Stanley, Emily; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Zessner, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Contamination of aquatic ecosystems by human and animal wastes is a global concern for water quality. Disclosing fate and transport processes of fecal indicator organism (FIO) in large water bodies is a big challenge due to material intensive and time consuming methods used in microbiological water quality monitoring. In respect of utilization of large surface water resources there is a dearth of rapid microbiological methods that allow a near-real time health related water quality monitoring to be implemented into early warning systems. The detection of enzymatic activities has been proposed as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water and water resources (Cabral, 2010; Farnleitner et al., 2001, 2002). Methods such as the beta-D-Glucuronidase assay (GLUC), targeting FIO such as E. coli, were established. New automated enzymatic assays have been implemented during the last years into on-site monitoring stations, ranging from ground- to surface waters (Ryzinska-Paier et al., 2014; Stadler et al., 2017, 2016). While these automated enzymatic methods cannot completely replace assays for culture-based FIO enumeration, they yielded significant information on pollution events and temporal dynamics on a catchment specific basis, but were restricted to stationary measurements. For the first time we conducted ship-borne and automated measurements of enzymatic GLUC activity on large fresh water bodies, including the Columbia River, the Mississippi River and Lake Mendota. Not only are automated enzymatic assays technically feasible from a mobile vessel, but also can be used to localize point sources of potential microbial fecal contamination, such as tributaries or storm drainages. Spatial and temporal patterns of enzymatic activity were disclosed and the habitat specific correlation with microbiological standard assays for FIO determined due to reference samples. The integration of rapid and automated enzymatic assays into well-established systems

  10. Evaluation of work posture and quantification of fatigue by Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizkya, I.; Syahputri, K.; Sari, R. M.; Anizar; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), poor body postures, and low back injuries are the most common problems occurring in many industries including small-medium industries. This study presents assessment and evaluation of ergonomic postures of material handling worker. That evaluation was carried out using REBA (Rapid Entire Body Assessment). REBA is a technique to quantize the fatigue experienced by the worker while manually lifting loads. Fatigue due to abnormal work posture leads to complaints of labor-perceived pain. REBA methods were used to an assessment of working postures for the existing process by a procedural analysis of body postures involved. This study shows that parts of the body have a high risk of work are the back, neck, and upper arms with REBA score 9, so action should be taken as soon as possible. Controlling actions were implemented to those process with high risk then substantial risk reduction was achieved.

  11. An evaluation of rapid methods for monitoring vegetation characteristics of wetland bird habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernia, Brian G.; Lyons, James E.; Loges, Brian W.; Wilson, Andrew; Collazo, Jaime A.; Runge, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Wetland managers benefit from monitoring data of sufficient precision and accuracy to assess wildlife habitat conditions and to evaluate and learn from past management decisions. For large-scale monitoring programs focused on waterbirds (waterfowl, wading birds, secretive marsh birds, and shorebirds), precision and accuracy of habitat measurements must be balanced with fiscal and logistic constraints. We evaluated a set of protocols for rapid, visual estimates of key waterbird habitat characteristics made from the wetland perimeter against estimates from (1) plots sampled within wetlands, and (2) cover maps made from aerial photographs. Estimated percent cover of annuals and perennials using a perimeter-based protocol fell within 10 percent of plot-based estimates, and percent cover estimates for seven vegetation height classes were within 20 % of plot-based estimates. Perimeter-based estimates of total emergent vegetation cover did not differ significantly from cover map estimates. Post-hoc analyses revealed evidence for observer effects in estimates of annual and perennial covers and vegetation height. Median time required to complete perimeter-based methods was less than 7 percent of the time needed for intensive plot-based methods. Our results show that rapid, perimeter-based assessments, which increase sample size and efficiency, provide vegetation estimates comparable to more intensive methods.

  12. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of dentoskeletal changes after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baka, Zeliha Muge; Akin, Mehmet; Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Ileri, Zehra

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to quantitatively evaluate the changes in arch widths and buccolingual inclinations of the posterior teeth after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion (ARME) and to compare the measurements between the crossbite and the noncrossbite sides with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). From our clinic archives, we selected the CBCT records of 30 patients with unilateral skeletal crossbite (13 boys, 14.2 ± 1.3 years old; 17 girls, 13.8 ± 1.3 years old) who underwent ARME treatment. A modified acrylic bonded rapid maxillary expansion appliance including an occlusal locking mechanism was used in all patients. CBCT records had been taken before ARME treatment and after a 3-month retention period. Fourteen angular and 80 linear measurements were taken for the maxilla and the mandible. Frontally clipped CBCT images were used for the evaluation. Paired sample and independent sample t tests were used for statistical comparisons. Comparisons of the before-treatment and after-retention measurements showed that the arch widths and buccolingual inclinations of the posterior teeth increased significantly on the crossbite side of the maxilla and on the noncrossbite side of the mandible (P ARME treatment, the crossbite side of the maxilla and the noncrossbite side of the mandible were more affected than were the opposite sides. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Evaluation of four colourimetric susceptibility tests for the rapid detection of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosisisolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Yilmaz Coban

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate four rapid colourimetric methods, including the resazurin microtitre assay (REMA, malachite green decolourisation assay (MGDA, microplate nitrate reductase assay (MNRA and crystal violet decolourisation assay (CVDA, for the rapid detection of multidrug-resistant (MDR tuberculosis. Fifty Mycobacterium tuberculosisisolates were used in this study. Eighteen isolates were MDR, two isolates were only resistant to isoniazid (INH and the remaining isolates were susceptible to both INH and rifampicin (RIF. INH and RIF were tested in 0.25 µg/mL and 0.5 µg/mL, respectively. The agar proportion method was used as a reference method. MNRA and REMA were performed with some modifications. MGDA and CVDA were performed as defined in the literature. The agreements of the MNRA for INH and RIF were 96% and 94%, respectively, while the agreement of the other assays for INH and RIF were 98%. In this study, while the specificities of the REMA, MGDA and CVDA were 100%, the specificity of the MNRA was lower than the others (93.3% for INH and 90.9% for RIF. In addition, while the sensitivity of the MNRA was 100%, the sensitivities of the others were lower than that of the MNRA (from 94.1-95%. The results were reported on the seventh-10th day of the incubation. All methods are reliable, easy to perform, inexpensive and easy to evaluate and do not require special equipment.

  14. Evaluation of seven rapid tests for syphilis available in Brazil using defibrinated plasma panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzo, Maria Luiza; da Motta, Leonardo Rapone; Rudolf-Oliveira, Renata Cristina Messores; Bigolin, Alisson; Golfetto, Lisléia; Mesquita, Fábio; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz; Gaspar, Pamela Cristina; Pires, Ana Flavia Nacif P Coelho; Ferreira Júnior, Orlando da Costa; Franchini, Miriam

    2017-12-01

    In 2012, the WHO estimated that 6 million new cases of syphilis per year would occur worldwide, including 937 000 in Brazil. Early diagnosis and treatment of syphilis are essential to reduce morbidity and prevent transmission. The availability of rapid tests (RTs) for this diagnosis means that testing can be performed more quickly, as a point-of-care test, even in non-laboratory environments and requires only simple technical training to antibodies detection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and operational aspects of seven commercially available RTs for syphilis in Brazil. Seven rapid treponemal tests were evaluated for sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and Kappa value, according to a panel composed of 493 members. The operational performance of the assay was also determined for these tests. The seven RTs showed sensitivity ranging from 94.5% to 100% when compared with the reference tests and specificity of between 91.5% and 100%. All the RTs evaluated presented good operational performance, and only one failed to present the minimum specificity as defined by Brazil's Ministry of Health. All the tests presented good operational performance, and the professionals who performed them considered them to be easy to use and interpret. This evaluation is important for making informed choices of tests to be used in the Brazilian Unified Health System. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Evaluation of diet quality of the elderly and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto de Souza Fernandes, Dalila; Duarte, Maria Sônia Lopes; Pessoa, Milene Cristine; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz

    2017-09-01

    Observational studies suggest healthy dietary patterns are associated with risk reduction and better control of various chronic diseases. However, few Brazilian studies have focused on evaluating the quality of the elderly diet and its relationship with diseases. This study aimed to estimate the association between diet quality and socioeconomic factors, health and nutrition of the elderly. This is a cross-sectional population-based study whose target population were non-institutionalized elderly residents in the city of Viçosa, Brazil. Anthropometric, socioeconomic, health conditions, lifestyle and food consumption variables were obtained from a semi-structured questionnaire. The quality of the diet was assessed by the revised Healthy Eating Index classified into tertiles, considering the first tertile as "Poor diet quality," the second as 'Intermediate diet quality' and the third as "Better diet quality." To identify factors independently associated with diet quality model, the works used multinomial logistic regression. In the results of the multivariate analysis, the factors independently associated with "better diet quality" included female gender, higher education, history of one to five medical visits in the past year, history of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and the use of polypharmacy. Our results show that most seniors need to improve the quality of their diet and those of male gender with no or little education, and those who do not seek medical services constitute the group that needs attention concerning the measures to improve the quality of their diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Current status of quality evaluation of nursing care through director review and reflection from the Nursing Quality Control Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Xia; Shi, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The quality evaluation of nursing care is a key link in medical quality management. It is important and worth studying for the nursing supervisors to know the disadvantages during the process of quality evaluation of nursing care and then to improve the whole nursing quality. This study was to provide director insight on the current status of quality evaluation of nursing care from Nursing Quality Control Centers (NQCCs). Material and Methods: This qualitative study used a sample ...

  17. Universal and rapid salt-extraction of high quality genomic DNA for PCR-based techniques.

    OpenAIRE

    Aljanabi, S M; Martinez, I

    1997-01-01

    A very simple, fast, universally applicable and reproducible method to extract high quality megabase genomic DNA from different organisms is described. We applied the same method to extract high quality complex genomic DNA from different tissues (wheat, barley, potato, beans, pear and almond leaves as well as fungi, insects and shrimps' fresh tissue) without any modification. The method does not require expensive and environmentally hazardous reagents and equipment. It can be performed even i...

  18. Microbiological evaluation of a new growth-based approach for rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Eiff, Christof; Maas, Dominik; Sander, Gunnar; Friedrich, Alexander W; Peters, Georg; Becker, Karsten

    OBJECTIVES: Recently, a rapid screening tool for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been introduced that applies a novel detection technology allowing the rapid presence or absence of MRSA to be determined from an enrichment broth after only a few hours of incubation. To evaluate

  19. Evaluating supplier quality performance using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nazihah; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Rajoo, Shanmugam Sundram Kalimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Evaluating supplier quality performance is vital in ensuring continuous supply chain improvement, reducing the operational costs and risks towards meeting customer's expectation. This paper aims to illustrate an application of Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process to prioritize the evaluation criteria in a context of automotive manufacturing in Malaysia. Five main criteria were identified which were quality, cost, delivery, customer serviceand technology support. These criteria had been arranged into hierarchical structure and evaluated by an expert. The relative importance of each criteria was determined by using linguistic variables which were represented as triangular fuzzy numbers. The Center of Gravity defuzzification method was used to convert the fuzzy evaluations into their corresponding crisps values. Such fuzzy evaluation can be used as a systematic tool to overcome the uncertainty evaluation of suppliers' performance which usually associated with human being subjective judgments.

  20. Evaluating the quality of perinatal anxiety information available online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Paige L; Reynolds, Kristin A; Walker, John R; Furer, Patricia; Pryor, Teaghan A M

    2018-06-22

    The Internet is an easily accessible source of information for women experiencing anxiety in pregnancy and/or postpartum to use when seeking health information. However, the Internet has several drawbacks, including inaccurate content that may be perceived as being accurate, non-biased, and evidence-based. Prior research indicates that anxiety and postpartum mental health websites have poor quality in terms of describing treatment options. There is a lack of research and knowledge in the area of perinatal anxiety, and an absence of research evaluating perinatal anxiety websites. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of information regarding perinatal anxiety available on the Internet. Websites concerning perinatal anxiety were selected using the Google search engine. Each website was evaluated based on quality of health information, website usability, and readability. The 20 websites included in this study had low to moderate quality scores based on the DISCERN tool. There were no associations found between website order and website quality, or between website readability and website quality. Many websites had high PEMAT scores for the understandability section, which included content, style, and layout of information; however, most did not use visual aids to enhance comprehension. Most websites had low actionability scores, suggesting that information may not be useful in describing what actions may be taken to manage perinatal anxiety. This study highlights the need for high-quality websites concerning perinatal anxiety that are easy to navigate and provide the public with evidence-based information.

  1. Evaluating supplier quality performance using analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimuthu Rajoo, Shanmugam Sundram; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ahmad, Nazihah

    2013-09-01

    This paper elaborates the importance of evaluating supplier quality performance to an organization. Supplier quality performance evaluation reflects the actual performance of the supplier exhibited at customer's end. It is critical in enabling the organization to determine the area of improvement and thereafter works with supplier to close the gaps. Success of the customer partly depends on supplier's quality performance. Key criteria as quality, cost, delivery, technology support and customer service are categorized as main factors in contributing to supplier's quality performance. 18 suppliers' who were manufacturing automotive application parts evaluated in year 2010 using weight point system. There were few suppliers with common rating which led to common ranking observed by few suppliers'. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), a user friendly decision making tool for complex and multi criteria problems was used to evaluate the supplier's quality performance challenging the weight point system that was used for 18 suppliers'. The consistency ratio was checked for criteria and sub-criteria. Final results of AHP obtained with no overlap ratings, therefore yielded a better decision making methodology as compared to weight point rating system.

  2. Treating Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with a Rapid-Acting Analog Insulin Regimen vs. Regular Human Insulin in Germany: A Long-Term Cost-Effectiveness Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, William J; Van Brunt, Kate; Boye, Kristina S; Pollock, Richard F

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of rapid-acting analog insulin relative to regular human insulin in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Germany. The PRIME Diabetes Model, a patient-level, discrete event simulation model, was used to project long-term clinical and cost outcomes for patients with type 1 diabetes from the perspective of a German healthcare payer. Simulated patients had a mean age of 21.5 years, duration of diabetes of 8.6 years, and baseline glycosylated hemoglobin of 7.39%. Regular human insulin and rapid-acting analog insulin regimens reduced glycosylated hemoglobin by 0.312 and 0.402%, respectively. Compared with human insulin, hypoglycemia rate ratios with rapid-acting analog insulin were 0.51 (non-severe nocturnal) and 0.80 (severe). No differences in non-severe diurnal hypoglycemia were modeled. Discount rates of 3% were applied to future costs and clinical benefits accrued over the 50-year time horizon. In the base-case analysis, rapid-acting analog insulin was associated with an improvement in quality-adjusted life expectancy of 1.01 quality-adjusted life-years per patient (12.54 vs. 11.53 quality-adjusted life-years). Rapid-acting analog insulin was also associated with an increase in direct costs of €4490, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €4427 per quality-adjusted life-year gained vs. human insulin. Sensitivity analyses showed that the base case was driven predominantly by differences in hypoglycemia; abolishing these differences reduced incremental quality-adjusted life expectancy to 0.07 quality-adjusted life-years, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of €74,622 per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Rapid-acting analog insulin is associated with beneficial outcomes in patients with type 1 diabetes and is likely to be considered cost effective in the German setting vs. regular human insulin.

  3. Quality assurance (QA) procedures for software: Evaluation of an ADC quality system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathopoulos, E. P.; Benekos, O.; Molfetas, M.; Charou, E.; Kottou, S.; Argentos, S.; Kelekis, N. L.

    2005-01-01

    Image viewing and processing software in computed radiography manipulates image contrast in such a way that all relevant image features are rendered to an appropriate degree of visibility, and improves image quality using enhancement algorithms. The purpose of this study was to investigate procedures for the quality assessment of image processing software for computed radiography with the use of existing test objects and to assess the influence that processing introduces on physical image quality characteristics. Measurements of high-contrast resolution, low-contrast resolution, spatial resolution, grey scale (characteristic curve) and geometric distortion were performed 'subjectively' by three independent observers and 'objectively' by the use of criteria based on pixel intensity values. Results show quality assessment is possible without the need for human evaluators, using digital images. It was discovered that the processing software evaluated in this study was able to improve some aspects of image quality, without introducing geometric distortion. (authors)

  4. Report. no. 20. Sensory evaluation of indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Birgitta; Bluyssen, Philomena; Clausen, Geo

    Human subjects are indispensable in the measurement of perceived indoor air quality. Chemical and physical methods of characterisation often are insensitive to odorous and sensory irritating air pollutants, or do not take account of combinations of singular pollutants in a biologically meaningful...... way. Therefore, sensory methods many times are the only or the preferred tool for evaluation of perceived indoor air quality. This report presents background to and advice on methodologies for sensory evaluation of perceived indoor air quality. It proposes methods which apply to source assessments...... as well as field investigations. The methods will assist in labelling of building materials, characterising air quality in indoor spaces, controlling ventilation performance, and measuring occupant responses in questionnaire field studies of the sick building syndrome. The proposed methods will enable...

  5. Patients' Evaluation of the Quality of Diabetes Care (PEQD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, F; Snoek, Frank J

    2002-01-01

    aspects of the quality of diabetes care as delivered by the specialist in internal medicine (internist) and the diabetes nurse specialist (DNS). Two principal components analyses (internist/DNS) both yielded one 14 item factor with a high internal consistency. Satisfaction with diabetes care, fewer......OBJECTIVES: To develop a brief measure of patients' evaluation of the quality of diabetes care and to study predictors of consumers' rating of the quality of diabetes care. DESIGN: A prospective design. SUBJECTS: 176 adults with type 1 (39%) or type 2 (61%) diabetes. MAIN MEASURES: Demographic...... variables, HbA1c, number of diabetes complications, satisfaction with diabetes care, diabetes related distress, and fear of hypoglycaemia were assessed by self-report. In addition, satisfaction with diabetes care and evaluations about quality of the care were measured at 16 month follow up. Statistical...

  6. Expediting the Analysis of Qualitative Data in Evaluation: A Procedure for the Rapid Identification of Themes from Audio Recordings (RITA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Neal, Zachary P.; VanDyke, Erika; Kornbluh, Mariah

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative data offer advantages to evaluators, including rich information about stakeholders' perspectives and experiences. However, qualitative data analysis is labor-intensive and slow, conflicting with evaluators' needs to provide punctual feedback to their clients. In this method note, we contribute to the literature on rapid evaluation and…

  7. Evaluation of perception of quality of life of disabled athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Bolach; Tetyana. Prystupa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the perception of quality of life for athletes - disabled, participating in individual and team Paralympic sports. Material: The study involved 32 athletes sports club "Start" in Wroclaw in 2013, engaged in individual sports: swimming, weightlifting, powerlifting (powerlifting) and command: wheelchair basketball and volleyball in a sitting position. Results: Studies have proven that sports people with physical disabilities have a positive effect on the quality of their li...

  8. Clinical Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Test Kit for Scrub Typhus with Improved Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Sungman; Premaratna, Ranjan; Selvaraj, Stephen; Park, Sang-Jin; Kim, Sora; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Min Soo; Shin, Dong Hoon; Choi, Kyung-Chan; Kwon, Soon-Hwan; Seo, Wonjun; Lee, Nam Taek; Kim, Seung-Han; Kang, Heui Keun; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2016-08-01

    Diagnosis of scrub typhus is challenging due to its more than twenty serotypes and the similar clinical symptoms with other acute febrile illnesses including leptospirosis, murine typhus and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Accuracy and rapidity of a diagnostic test to Orientia tsutsugamushi is an important step to diagnose this disease. To discriminate scrub typhus from other diseases, the improved ImmuneMed Scrub Typhus Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) was evaluated in Korea and Sri Lanka. The sensitivity at the base of each IgM and IgG indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) in Korean patients was 98.6% and 97.1%, and the specificity was 98.2% and 97.7% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for retrospective diagnosis at the base of IFA in Sri Lanka was 92.1% and 96.1%. ImmuneMed RDT was not reactive to any serum from seventeen diseases including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (n = 48), leptospirosis (n = 23), and murine typhus (n = 48). ImmuneMed RDT shows superior sensitivity (98.6% and 97.1%) compared with SD Bioline RDT (84.4% at IgM and 83.3% at IgG) in Korea. The retrospective diagnosis of ImmuneMed RDT exhibits 94.0% identity with enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using South India patient serum samples. These results suggest that this RDT can replace other diagnostic tests and is applicable for global diagnosis of scrub typhus. This rapid and accurate diagnosis will be beneficial for diagnosing and managing scrub typhus.

  9. Ecological evaluation of rangeland quality in dry subtropics of Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasanova, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The results of ecological evaluation of soil-landscape complexes of winter rangelands of Gobustan with the use of energy criteria are discussed. The diagnostic characteristics of soil fertility and correction coefficients for the thickness of texture of soil horizons, soil salinization, soil erosion, and microelemental composition of soils have been used to separate the soils of winter rangelands into several quality groups. A larger part of the soils belongs to the medium quality group with the mean weighted quality factor (bonitet) of 52. Special assessment scales have been suggested for the differential ecological assessment and monitoring of the rangelands. In the past 40 years, the area of steppe landscapes has decreased from 22.7 to 12%, whereas the area of semideserts has increased up to 64%. The area of best-quality soils within the studied rangelands had decreased by three times, and their average quality factor has decreased from 92 to 86.

  10. Water quality evaluation of Al-Gharraf river by two water quality indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewaid, Salam Hussein

    2017-11-01

    Water quality of Al-Gharraf river, the largest branch of Tigris River south of Iraq, was evaluated by the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NFS WQI) and the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) depending on 13 physical, chemical, and biological parameters of water quality measured monthly at ten stations on the river during 2015. The NSF-WQI range obtained for the sampling sites was 61-70 indicating a medium water quality. The HPI value was 98.6 slightly below the critical value for drinking water of 100, and the water quality in the upstream stations is better than downstream due to decrease in water and the accumulation of contaminants along the river. This study explains the significance of applying the water quality indices that show the aggregate impact of ecological factors in charge of water pollution of surface water and which permits translation of the monitoring data to assist the decision makers.

  11. [Systematic economic assessment and quality evaluation for traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Guo, Li-ping; Shang, Hong-cai; Ren, Ming; Lei, Xiang

    2015-05-01

    To learn about the economic studies on traditional Chinese medicines in domestic literatures, in order to analyze the current economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines and explore the existing problems. Efforts were made to search CNKI, VIP, Wanfang database and CBM by computer and include all literatures about economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines published on professional domestic journals in the systematic assessment and quality evaluation. Finally, 50 articles were included in the study, and the systematic assessment and quality evaluation were made for them in terms of titles, year, authors' identity, expense source, disease type, study perspective, study design type, study target, study target source, time limit, cost calculation, effect indicator, analytical technique and sensitivity analysis. The finally quality score was 0.74, which is very low. The results of the study showed insufficient studies on economics of traditional Chinese medicines, short study duration and simple evaluation methods, which will be solved through unremitting efforts in the future.

  12. Rapid chilling cannot prevent inferior pork quality caused by high preslaughter stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hambrecht, E.; Eissen, J.J.; Klein, W.J.H.; Ducro, B.J.; Smits, C.H.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hartog, den L.A.

    2004-01-01

    The present experiment investigated whether increasing chilling rate could improve meat quality in pigs exposed to either minimal or high stress immediately preslaughter. Pigs (n = 192) were offspring of halothane-free lines. On various days, four groups of 48 pigs were processed at a commercial

  13. Palliative care making a difference in rural Uganda, Kenya and Malawi: three rapid evaluation field studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettega Nadia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people live and die in pain in Africa. We set out to describe patient, family and local community perspectives on the impact of three community based palliative care interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Three palliative care programmes in Uganda, Kenya and Malawi were studied using rapid evaluation field techniques in each country, triangulating data from three sources: interviews with key informants, observations of clinical encounters and the local health and social care context, and routine data from local reports and statistics. Results We interviewed 33 patients with advanced illness, 27 family carers, 36 staff, 25 volunteers, and 29 community leaders and observed clinical care of 12 patients. In each site, oral morphine was being used effectively. Patients valued being treated with dignity and respect. Being supported at home reduced physical, emotional and financial burden of travel to, and care at health facilities. Practical support and instruction in feeding and bathing patients facilitated good deaths at home. In each country mobile phones enabled rapid access to clinical and social support networks. Staff and volunteers generally reported that caring for the dying in the face of poverty was stressful, but also rewarding, with resilience fostered by having effective analgesia, and community support networks. Conclusions Programmes were reported to be successful because they integrated symptom control with practical and emotional care, education, and spiritual care. Holistic palliative care can be delivered effectively in the face of poverty, but a public health approach is needed to ensure equitable provision.

  14. Evaluation of a New and Rapid Serologic Test for Detecting Brucellosis: Brucella Coombs Gel Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanci, Hayrunisa; Igan, Hakan; Uyanik, Muhammet Hamidullah

    2017-01-01

    Many serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. A new serological method is identified as Brucella Coombs gel test based on the principle of centrifugation gel system similar to the gel system used in blood group determination. In this system, if Brucella antibodies were present in the serum, antigen and antibody would remain as a pink complex on the gel. Otherwise, the pink Brucella antigens would precipitate at the bottom of the gel card system. In this study, we aimed to compare the Brucella Coombs gel test, a new, rapid screen and titration method for detection of non-agglutinating IgG with the Brucella Coombs test. For this study, a total of 88 serum samples were obtained from 45 healthy persons and 43 individuals who had clinical signs and symptoms of brucellosis. For each specimen, Rose Bengal test, standard agglutination test, Coombs test and Brucella Coombs gel test were carried out. Sensitivity and specificity of Brucella Coombs gel test were found as 100.0 and 82.2%, respectively. Brucella Coombs gel test can be used as a screening test with high sensitivity. By the help of pink Brucella antigen precipitation, the tests' evaluation is simple and objective. In addition, determination of Brucella antibody by rapid titration offers another important advantage.

  15. Evaluation of the diagnostic performance and operational characteristics of four rapid immunochromatographic syphilis tests in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocoum, Fadima Yaya; Ouédraogo, Henri; Tarnagda, Grissoum; Kiba, Alice; Tiendrebeogo, Simon; Bationo, Fabrice; Liestman, Benjamin; Diagbouga, Serge; Zarowsky, Christina; Traoré, Ramata Ouédraogo; Kouanda, Séni

    2015-06-01

    Little information is available on the rapid diagnostic testing for syphilis in Burkina Faso. The objectives of the study were (i) to assess the sensitivity and specificity of four on site rapid tests in comparison with Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) as a gold standard and (ii) to evaluate the operational characteristics of those tests among health workers in a maternity unit. Four rapid syphilis tests commercially available in Burkina Faso were evaluated using archived serum samples and Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA) as the gold standard. Blood samples were collected between November 2011 and June 2012 from blood donors at the Regional Blood Transfusion Center of Ouagadougou. The sensitivity and specificity of the tests were calculated. Evaluation of operational characteristics such as clarity of pamphlet, complexity of technique, duration, was conducted in a first-level healthcare center with health workers in maternity unit. Alere DetermineTM Syphilis was the most sensitive of the four rapid syphilis tests evaluated. It was followed by SD Bioline Syphilis 3.0, Cypress Diagnostics Syphilis Quick test and Accu-Tell ® Rapid Anti-TP, which was the least sensitive. The four tests demonstrated a good diagnostic specificity for syphilis (95-98%), and healthcare workers found them easy to use. The study allowed confirming the good performance of three of four rapid syphilis tests in Burkina Faso. More research will be conducted to assess the feasibility of introducing selected rapid tests for syphilis in antenatal care services.

  16. A methodology to enable rapid evaluation of aviation environmental impacts and aircraft technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Keith Frederick

    Commercial aviation has become an integral part of modern society and enables unprecedented global connectivity by increasing rapid business, cultural, and personal connectivity. In the decades following World War II, passenger travel through commercial aviation quickly grew at a rate of roughly 8% per year globally. The FAA's most recent Terminal Area Forecast predicts growth to continue at a rate of 2.5% domestically, and the market outlooks produced by Airbus and Boeing generally predict growth to continue at a rate of 5% per year globally over the next several decades, which translates into a need for up to 30,000 new aircraft produced by 2025. With such large numbers of new aircraft potentially entering service, any negative consequences of commercial aviation must undergo examination and mitigation by governing bodies so that growth may still be achieved. Options to simultaneously grow while reducing environmental impact include evolution of the commercial fleet through changes in operations, aircraft mix, and technology adoption. Methods to rapidly evaluate fleet environmental metrics are needed to enable decision makers to quickly compare the impact of different scenarios and weigh the impact of multiple policy options. As the fleet evolves, interdependencies may emerge in the form of tradeoffs between improvements in different environmental metrics as new technologies are brought into service. In order to include the impacts of these interdependencies on fleet evolution, physics-based modeling is required at the appropriate level of fidelity. Evaluation of environmental metrics in a physics-based manner can be done at the individual aircraft level, but will then not capture aggregate fleet metrics. Contrastingly, evaluation of environmental metrics at the fleet level is already being done for aircraft in the commercial fleet, but current tools and approaches require enhancement because they currently capture technology implementation through post

  17. Improving the Quality of Freeze Dried Rice: Initial Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    a soft consistency and swells more during this period without disintegration of cell walls [10]. Evaluation of freshly cooked rice 4.1.2...synthetic/ plastic aroma and flavour. Comparison between Parboiled and Control-A 4.1.6. A more detailed series of rehydration tests with texture...the clumps rapidly and easily disintegrated into individual grains. Control-C and Parboiled differed in colour post- cooking due to the different

  18. Evaluation of mobile phone camera benchmarking using objective camera speed and image quality metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani

    2014-11-01

    When a mobile phone camera is tested and benchmarked, the significance of image quality metrics is widely acknowledged. There are also existing methods to evaluate the camera speed. However, the speed or rapidity metrics of the mobile phone's camera system has not been used with the quality metrics even if the camera speed has become a more and more important camera performance feature. There are several tasks in this work. First, the most important image quality and speed-related metrics of a mobile phone's camera system are collected from the standards and papers and, also, novel speed metrics are identified. Second, combinations of the quality and speed metrics are validated using mobile phones on the market. The measurements are done toward application programming interface of different operating systems. Finally, the results are evaluated and conclusions are made. The paper defines a solution to combine different image quality and speed metrics to a single benchmarking score. A proposal of the combined benchmarking metric is evaluated using measurements of 25 mobile phone cameras on the market. The paper is a continuation of a previous benchmarking work expanded with visual noise measurement and updates of the latest mobile phone versions.

  19. Measuring service life and evaluating the quality of solid tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charoenyut Dechwayukul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to propose procedures for measuring service life and evaluating the quality of locallymade and used solid tires in Thailand. The solid tires were stressed and rotated until blowout on a drum-like test apparatuswhich is designed, constructed by the authors and equipped with laboratory instrumentation. Solid tires from five differentmanufacturers were selected for testing. We measured service life, length of time to tire failure, at three different loadingamplitudes and three different speeds on the testing drum. The service life of all specimens was studied and compared todetermine the possibility of using service life to evaluate the quality of a solid tire.

  20. Development of a novel and simple method to evaluate disintegration of rapidly disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoashi, Yohei; Tozuka, Yuichi; Takeuchi, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a novel and simple method for evaluating the disintegration time of rapidly disintegrating tablets (RDTs) in vitro, since the conventional disintegration test described in the pharmacopoeia produces poor results due to the difference of its environmental conditions from those of an actual oral cavity. Six RDTs prepared in our laboratory and 5 types of commercial RDTs were used as model formulations. Using our original apparatus, a good correlation was observed between in vivo and in vitro disintegration times by adjusting the height from which the solution was dropped to 8 cm and the weight of the load to 10 or 20 g. Properties of RDTs, such as the pattern of their disintegrating process, can be assessed by verifying the load. These findings confirmed that our proposed method for an in vitro disintegration test apparatus is an excellent one for estimating disintegration time and the disintegration profile of RDTs.

  1. Radiometric macrophage culture assay for rapid evaluation of antileprosy activity of rifampin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittal, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Prasad, H.K.; Sathish, M.; Nath, I.

    1983-10-01

    The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of (3H)thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of (3H)thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay.

  2. OVERVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT OF P-CARES: PROBABILISTIC COMPUTER ANALYSIS FOR RAPID EVALUATION OF STRUCTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIE, J.; XU, J.; COSTANTINO, C.; THOMAS, V.

    2007-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) undertook an effort to revise the CARES (Computer Analysis for Rapid Evaluation of Structures) program under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The CARES program provided the NRC staff a capability to quickly check the validity and/or accuracy of the soil-structure interaction (SSI) models and associated data received from various applicants. The aim of the current revision was to implement various probabilistic simulation algorithms in CARES (referred hereinafter as P-CARES [1]) for performing the probabilistic site response and soil-structure interaction (SSI) analyses. This paper provides an overview of the development process of P-CARES, including the various probabilistic simulation techniques used to incorporate the effect of site soil uncertainties into the seismic site response and SSI analyses and an improved graphical user interface (GUI)

  3. Radiometric macrophage culture assay for rapid evaluation of antileprosy activity of rifampin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, A.; Seshadri, P.S.; Prasad, H.K.; Sathish, M.; Nath, I.

    1983-01-01

    The antileprosy effect of rifampin was evaluated by a newly developed rapid in vitro assay wherein 31 human-derived strains and 1 armadillo-derived strain of Mycobacterium leprae were maintained for 2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in murine and human macrophages in the presence of [3H]thymidine. Of these strains, 27 showed significant incorporation of the radiolabel in cultures of live bacilli as compared with control cultures of heat-killed bacilli of the same strain. Consistent and significant inhibition of [3H]thymidine uptake was observed in M. leprae resident cultures with 3 to 200 ng of rifampin per ml as compared with similar cultures without the drug. In general, an increase in percent inhibition was seen from 3 to 20 ng/ml, with marginal increases at 40, 50, and 100 ng/ml. M. leprae strains appear to be remarkably susceptible to this drug in the in vitro assay

  4. Blueberry juices: a rapid multi-analysis of quality indicators by means of dispersive Raman spectroscopy excited at 1064 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaccheri, L.; Yuan, T.; Zhang, S.; Mencaglia, A. A.; Trono, C.; Yuan, L.; Mignani, A. G.

    2017-04-01

    Blueberry juices produced in China and in Italy were analyzed by means of Raman spectroscopy. The reference data of important nutraceutical indicators such as degrees Brix and carbohydrates were available. Some juices were produced from fresh organic fruits, while others were industrial grade, differing in qualities and prices. Raman spectra obtained with excitation at 1064 nm were acquired using a dispersive fiber-optic spectrometer. Degrees Brix were measured by means of a commercial refractometer, while carbohydrate contents were available from the producers. Multivariate processing was used for predicting Brix and carbohydrates from Raman spectra and from the reference data. Determination coefficients equal to 0.88 and 0.84, respectively, were obtained. This experiment further confirms the excellent potentials of Raman spectroscopy for both non-destructive and rapid assessments of food quality.

  5. Quality assurance in RapidArc with Alderson anthropomorphic phantom using radiochromic film in comparison to MATLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Paulo L.; Silva, Leonardo P.; Santos, Maira R.; Trindade, Cassia; Martins, Lais P.; Batista, Delano V.S.; Alves, Victor G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presented the quality control for RapidArc using an Alderson human body phantom and radiochromic film as an alternative system to approve the treatment plan for brain tumor. Thus, it was comprised the dose distributions provided by the treatment planning system with those measured by the film radiochromic. The gamma index (Γ) analysis, to verify the acceptability of the dose distribution, was 95% of approved points, with the mostly non-compliance points in regions near the PTV’s edges. These non-compliance points may be associated to transmission blades aspects, because the regions near the edges present significant losses compared to the central areas. Also, MATLAB has proved an effective tool for that measurements and it can be used in quality assurance programs. (author)

  6. Laboratory evaluation of three dual rapid diagnostic tests for HIV and syphilis in China and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yue-Ping; Ngige, Evelyn; Anyaike, Chukwuma; Ijaodola, Gbenga; Oyelade, Taiwo A; Vaz, Rui Gama; Newman, Lori M; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    To determine the laboratory-based performance and operational characteristics of three dual rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for testing HIV and syphilis. Three dual RDTs (SD Bioline, Chembio, and MedMira) were evaluated using 1514 serum specimens archived at laboratories or collected from clinics in China and Nigeria to determine sensitivity and specificity, with 95% confidence intervals. Concordance of testing results read by two technicians, stability of testing results read at two time points, and test operation characteristics were also assessed. All three of the evaluated RDTs gave excellent performance with a combined sensitivity ranging from 99.0%-99.6% for HIV and 98.3%-99.0% for syphilis, and a combined specificity ranging from 97.9%-99.0% for HIV and 97.2%-99.6% for syphilis. Concordance of testing results between two technicians and stability of testing results read within and one hour past the recommended reading period showed excellent agreement, with Kappa greater than or equal to 0.98. All the tests were found to be very or fairly easy to use and easy to interpret the results. Further evaluations of these dual RDTs with whole blood in field settings, and more studies on the implication of introduction of these tests in HIV and syphilis control programs are needed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Rapid, high-temperature, field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcium carbonate scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.

    1986-09-01

    A new test method is described that allows the rapid field testing of calcium carbonate scale inhibitors at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). The method evolved from use of a full-flow test loop on a well with a mass flow rate of about 1 x 10/sup 6/ lbm/hr (126 kg/s). It is a simple, effective way to evaluate the effectiveness of inhibitors under field conditions. Five commercial formulations were chosen for field evaluation on the basis of nonflowing, laboratory screening tests at 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C). Four of these formulations from different suppliers controlled calcium carbonate scale deposition as measured by the test method. Two of these could dislodge recently deposited scale that had not age-hardened. Performance-profile diagrams, which were measured for these four effective inhibitors, show the concentration interrelationship between brine calcium and inhibitor concentrations at which the formulations will and will not stop scale formation in the test apparatus. With these diagrams, one formulation was chosen for testing on the full-flow brine line. The composition was tested for 6 weeks and showed a dramatic decrease in the scaling occurring at the flow-control valve. This scaling was about to force a shutdown of a major, long-term flow test being done for reservoir economic evaluations. The inhibitor stopped the scaling, and the test was performed without interruption.

  8. Rapid evaluation of buildings and infrastructure to accidental and deliberate aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennant, D.; Levine, H.; Mould, J.; Vaughan, D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent events involving the impact of large transport aircraft such as the Boeing 767 and 757 into the World Trade Center Towers and the Pentagon have revealed the vulnerability of such structures to terrorist attack. Incidents involving smaller general aviation aircraft have shown the damage that this class of plane can do beyond a protected perimeter. These incidents have elicited inquiries with regard to the effects of impacts of these aircraft types into other critical facilities including aboveground and below ground storage facilities, nuclear power plants, damns and other military and civilian installations. A significant capability to evaluate these threats has been developed during the past 10 years. Small medium and large aircraft have been impacted into buried and aboveground reinforced concrete and light steel frame storage facilities. Both explicit aircraft models and Riera functions (a simplified aircraft impact loading function) have been used to generate an extensive data base. The effects of engines impacting have been studied separately as penetrators. Illustrated in this paper is validation of computational tools for impacts into structures and the initial development of a generalized evaluation tool for rapid evaluation of threats and consequence of aircraft impact into protected facilities

  9. Rapid evaluation of buildings and infrastructure to accidental and deliberate aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennant, D., E-mail: tennant@wai.com [Weidlinger Associates, Inc., 6301 Indian School Road NE, Suite 501, Albuquerque, NM 87122 (United States); Levine, H., E-mail: levine@ca.wai.com [Weidlinger Associates, Inc., 399 W. El Camino Real, Suite 200, Mountain View, CA 94040 (United States); Mould, J.; Vaughan, D. [Weidlinger Associates, Inc., 399 W. El Camino Real, Suite 200, Mountain View, CA 94040 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Recent events involving the impact of large transport aircraft such as the Boeing 767 and 757 into the World Trade Center Towers and the Pentagon have revealed the vulnerability of such structures to terrorist attack. Incidents involving smaller general aviation aircraft have shown the damage that this class of plane can do beyond a protected perimeter. These incidents have elicited inquiries with regard to the effects of impacts of these aircraft types into other critical facilities including aboveground and below ground storage facilities, nuclear power plants, damns and other military and civilian installations. A significant capability to evaluate these threats has been developed during the past 10 years. Small medium and large aircraft have been impacted into buried and aboveground reinforced concrete and light steel frame storage facilities. Both explicit aircraft models and Riera functions (a simplified aircraft impact loading function) have been used to generate an extensive data base. The effects of engines impacting have been studied separately as penetrators. Illustrated in this paper is validation of computational tools for impacts into structures and the initial development of a generalized evaluation tool for rapid evaluation of threats and consequence of aircraft impact into protected facilities.

  10. Field evaluation of a dual rapid diagnostic test for HIV infection and syphilis in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Claire C; Leon, Segundo R; Huang, Emily; Brown, Brandon J; Ramos, Lourdes B; Vargas, Silver K; Flores, Juan A; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-05-01

    Screening for HIV and syphilis in key populations is recommended by the WHO to reduce the morbidity, mortality and transmission associated with undiagnosed and untreated infections. Rapid point-of-care tests that can detect multiple infections with a single fingerprick whole blood specimen using a single device are gaining popularity. We evaluated the field performance of a rapid dual HIV and syphilis test in people at high risk of HIV and syphilis infections. Participants included men who have sex with men and transgender women recruited in Lima, Peru. Reference standard testing for detection of HIV and syphilis infections, conducted using blood samples from venipuncture, included Treponema pallidum particle agglutination and fourth-generation HIV enzyme immunoassay for which positive results had a confirmation HIV Western blot test. For the evaluation test, SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo test (Standard Diagnostics, Korea), a fingerprick blood specimen was used. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and the exact binomial method was used to determine 95% CIs. A total of 415 participants were recruited for the study. The dual test sensitivity for detection of T. pallidum infection was 89.2% (95% CI 83.5% to 93.5%) and specificity 98.8% (95% CI 96.5% to 99.8%). For detection of HIV infection, the sensitivity of the dual test was 99.1% (95% CI 94.8% to 100%) and specificity 99.4% (95% CI 97.7% to 99.9%). This high performing dual test should be considered for the use in clinical settings to increase uptake of simultaneous testing of HIV and syphilis and accelerate time to treatment for those who need it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. A semi-automated tool for treatment plan-quality evaluation and clinical trial quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiazhou; Chen, Wenzhou; Studenski, Matthew; Cui, Yunfeng; Lee, Andrew J.; Xiao, Ying

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this work is to develop a plan-quality evaluation program for clinical routine and multi-institutional clinical trials so that the overall evaluation efficiency is improved. In multi-institutional clinical trials evaluating the plan quality is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. In this note, we present a semi-automated plan-quality evaluation program which combines MIMVista, Java/MATLAB, and extensible markup language (XML). More specifically, MIMVista is used for data visualization; Java and its powerful function library are implemented for calculating dosimetry parameters; and to improve the clarity of the index definitions, XML is applied. The accuracy and the efficiency of the program were evaluated by comparing the results of the program with the manually recorded results in two RTOG trials. A slight difference of about 0.2% in volume or 0.6 Gy in dose between the semi-automated program and manual recording was observed. According to the criteria of indices, there are minimal differences between the two methods. The evaluation time is reduced from 10-20 min to 2 min by applying the semi-automated plan-quality evaluation program.

  12. A semi-automated tool for treatment plan-quality evaluation and clinical trial quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiazhou; Chen, Wenzhou; Studenski, Matthew; Cui, Yunfeng; Xiao, Ying; Lee, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work is to develop a plan-quality evaluation program for clinical routine and multi-institutional clinical trials so that the overall evaluation efficiency is improved. In multi-institutional clinical trials evaluating the plan quality is a time-consuming and labor-intensive process. In this note, we present a semi-automated plan-quality evaluation program which combines MIMVista, Java/MATLAB, and extensible markup language (XML). More specifically, MIMVista is used for data visualization; Java and its powerful function library are implemented for calculating dosimetry parameters; and to improve the clarity of the index definitions, XML is applied. The accuracy and the efficiency of the program were evaluated by comparing the results of the program with the manually recorded results in two RTOG trials. A slight difference of about 0.2% in volume or 0.6 Gy in dose between the semi-automated program and manual recording was observed. According to the criteria of indices, there are minimal differences between the two methods. The evaluation time is reduced from 10–20 min to 2 min by applying the semi-automated plan-quality evaluation program. (note)

  13. Evaluation of a Quality Improvement Resource for Public Health Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, Deborah S; Marcial, Laura H; Brown, Stephen; Throop, Cynthia; Pina, Jamie

    Quality improvement is a critical mechanism to manage public health agency performance and to strengthen accountability for public funds. The objective of this study was to evaluate a relatively new quality improvement resource, the Public Health Quality Improvement Exchange (PHQIX), a free online communication platform dedicated to making public health quality improvement information accessible to practitioners. We conducted an internet-based survey of registered PHQIX users (n = 536 respondents) in 2013 and key informant interviews with PHQIX frequent users (n = 21) in 2014, in the United States. We assessed use of the PHQIX website, user engagement and satisfaction, communication and knowledge exchange, use of information, and impact on quality improvement capacity and accreditation readiness. Of 462 respondents, 369 (79.9%) browsed quality improvement initiatives, making it the most commonly used site feature, and respondents described PHQIX as a near-unique source for real-world quality improvement examples. Respondents were satisfied with the quality and breadth of topics and relevance to their settings (average satisfaction scores, 3.9-4.1 [where 5 was the most satisfied]). Of 407 respondents, 237 (58.2%) said that they had put into practice information learned on PHQIX, and 209 of 405 (51.6%) said that PHQIX had helped to improve quality improvement capacity. Fewer than half of respondents used the commenting function, the Community Forum, and the Ask an Expert feature. Findings suggest that PHQIX, particularly descriptions of the quality improvement initiatives, is a valued resource for public health practitioners. Users reported sharing information with colleagues and applying what they learned to their own work. These findings may relate to other efforts to disseminate quality improvement knowledge.

  14. [A quality evaluation tableau for health institutions: an educational tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Marie Christine; Decavel, Frédérique; Merlet, Christine

    2009-09-01

    For a few years, health institutions have had to comply with the certification and the need to establish the new governance. Thanks to the accreditation version 2 (obtained in 2005), the elaboration of the hospital project (adopted in October, 2006) and the organization in poles since 2006, the quality oriented management became a priority axis at the University Hospital of Angers. The strategic adaptation to quality requirements leads to develop the hospital management, more especially at the level of the clinical, medico technical and administrative poles. The elements of the hospital project including the part about the quality, risk and evaluation aim at being adapted by every pole according to the level of its project. This adaptation which is imposed to each pole manager requires a practical and educational accompaniment allowing at the same time to realize a diagnosis of the progress of the quality approach, a measure of the impact of the global impregnation within the institution and a comparison between pole. A eight axis dashboard with criteria and a user guide were developed from certification ISO 9001, the EFQM manual and the certification manual version 2 of the Healthcare High Authorities. The criteria are transcribed in an EXCEL grid ready to use. Succeeding in estimating your own quality system means that you demonstrate the maturity of the quality approach. The results of this evaluation confirmed those of the certification. The dashboard is a management structuring tool at the service of the multidisciplinary team. Two considerations emerge from these results: First of all, for the hospital top management, the axes to be improved emerge as a priority to determine and target the next annual action plans. The results also allow to support the auto evaluation for the certification version 2010 planned in January of the same year. It is a pragmatic tool which allows auto evaluation and comparison to estimate the pole performances. It is a strategic

  15. Quality of Life, Sleep, and Health of Air Traffic Controllers With Rapid Counterclockwise Shift Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonati, Jaqueline Girnos; De Martino, Milva Maria Figueiredo; Vilarta, Roberto; da Silva Maciel, Érika; Sonati, Renato José Ferreira; Paduan, Paulo Cézar

    2016-08-01

    Rotating shiftwork is common for air traffic controllers and usually causes sleep deprivation, biological adaptations, and life changes for these workers. This study assessed quality of life, the sleep, and the health of 30 air traffic controllers employed at an international airport in Brazil. The objective was to identify health and quality of life concerns of these professionals. The results identified physical inactivity, overweight, excess body fat, low scores for physical and social relationships, and sleep deprivation for workers in all four workshifts. In conclusion, these workers are at risk for chronic non-transmittable diseases and compromised work performance, suggesting the need for more rest time before working nightshifts and work environments that stimulate physical activity and healthy diets. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Evaluation of Metallurgical Quality of Master Heat IN-713C Nickel Alloy Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Binczyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of evaluation of the metallurgical quality of master heat ingots and of the identification of non-metallic inclusions (oxides of Al., Zr, Hf, Cr, etc., which have been found in the shrinkage cavities formed in these ingots. The inclusions penetrate into the liquid alloy, and on pouring of mould are transferred to the casting, especially when the filtering system is not sufficiently effective. The specific nature of the melting process of nickel and cobalt alloys, carried out in vacuum induction furnaces,excludes the possibility of alloy refining and slag removal from the melt surface. Therefore, to improve the quality of castings (parts of aircraft engines, it is so important to evaluate the quality of ingots before charging them into the crucible of an induction furnace. It has been proved that one of the methods for rapid quality evaluation is an ATD analysis of the sample solidification process, where samples are taken from different areas of the master heat ingot. The evaluation is based on a set of parameters plotted on the graph of the dT/dt derivative curve during the last stage of the solidification process in a range from TEut to Tsol.

  17. Evaluation of Metallurgical Quality of Master Heat IN-713C Nickel Alloy Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binczyk F.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of evaluation of the metallurgical quality of master heat ingots and of the identification of non-metallic inclusions (oxides of Al., Zr, Hf, Cr, etc., which have been found in the shrinkage cavities formed in these ingots. The inclusions penetrate into the liquid alloy, and on pouring of mould are transferred to the casting, especially when the filtering system is not sufficiently effective. The specific nature of the melting process of nickel and cobalt alloys, carried out in vacuum induction furnaces, excludes the possibility of alloy refining and slag removal from the melt surface. Therefore, to improve the quality of castings (parts of aircraft engines, it is so important to evaluate the quality of ingots before charging them into the crucible of an induction furnace. It has been proved that one of the methods for rapid quality evaluation is an ATD analysis of the sample solidification process, where samples are taken from different areas of the master heat ingot. The evaluation is based on a set of parameters plotted on the graph of the dT/dt derivative curve during the last stage of the solidification process in a range from TEut to Tsol.

  18. Module-based quality system functionality evaluation in production logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabbazi, M.R.; Wikander, J.; Onori, M.; Maffei, A.; Chen, D.

    2016-07-01

    This paper addresses a comprehensive modeling and functionality evaluation of a module-based quality system in production logistics at the highest domain abstract level of business processes. All domain quality business processes and quality data transactions are modeled using BPMN and UML tools and standards at the business process and data modeling. A modular web-based prototype is developed to evaluate the models addressing the quality information system functionality requirements and modularity in production logistics through data scenarios and data queries. Using the object-oriented technique in design at the highest domain level, the proposed models are subject further development in the lower levels for the implementing case. The models are specifically able to manipulate all quality operations including remedy and control in a lot-based make-to-order production logistics system as an individual module. Due to the specification of system as domain design structure, all proposed BPMs, data models, and the actual database prototype are seen referential if not a solution as a practical “to-be” quality business process re-engineering template. This paper sets out to provide an explanatory approach using different practical technique at modeling steps as well as the prototype implementation. (Author)

  19. Rapid City Collective Impact: A City-Wide Effort to Create Quality of Life for All Its Citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Linderman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Rapid City, South Dakota, community, business, nonprofit, and faith communities leaders, along with a number of citizens across all demographics, are collaborating in a unique plan to create quality of life for all its citizens. Named Rapid City Collective Impact (RCCI, this initiative began with the vision of several local philanthropists and has expanded quickly throughout the community. Cultural anthropologist Albert Linderman along with expertise from community based systems dynamics experts Don Greer, Megan Odenthal, and Christine Capra have formed a facilitative “backbone” organization for RCCI. Based on the model for “Collective Impact” made popular by an article by a Stanford Innovation Review article by authors John Kania and Mark Kramer, organizations and programs serving Rapid City citizens are committed to significantly increasing the amount of collaboration occurring within the social service sector, while business and other community leaders work to leverage newly understood leverage points within the intersecting systems of the city which often limits ability to address entrenched social issues.

  20. Quality evaluation in distance undergraduate courses in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Netto

    2015-01-01

    of distance-run undergraduate courses (D.Ed.. The data from the instruments were then processed according to Discourse Textual Analysis (DTA. The evaluation process for undergraduate distance education courses in the USA was evaluated by identifying those quality indicators adopted by international accreditation agencies. Based on the analysis of the evaluation process of distance undergraduate courses in Brazil, a further study was carried out about the results and impacts of the Brazilian system, especially the indicators used and the level of confidence that existed when measuring the quality of distance-based undergraduate courses. As a result of this research, our researchers observed there was a real need to establish a quality assurance benchmark in Brazil along these conceptual lines, namely one that represents quality in D.Ed. and includes the usage of indicators that reflect the excellence of the degree course that are offered. This level of excellence is assessed on the basis of the training, experience, knowledge and skills of the evaluators, as well as on clear, precise and transparent criteria for measuring the quality-based distance degree courses. On the other hand, it is also necessary to be equipped with a Bank of Evaluators – not only for those who work in this field, but also for a group of experts that is large enough to implement the Brazilian evaluation system in distance education programs.

  1. QUALITY GROWTH AND EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE OF LOCAL PUBLIC SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Gherman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Public sector reform aims to increase performance by improving its efficiency and effectiveness by improving the quality of services provided by public service in order to maximize individual welfare of citizens. The purpose of reform is to improve public services because they have to deal with uncertainties and rapid changes that take place in the internal environmental and external pressures. Public administration, in quality of service provider must make a series of efforts to ensure that citizens know their rights and public services on witch they can benefit taking into account the simplification of service delivery, a high quality of its, new administrative procedures for allocating resources in a transparent way and informing the citizens of standards of services and of the methods of compensation in case if the provided quality is different from that promised. Most important is the fact that the local government must realize that effectiveness involves defining objectives that must be achieved simultaneously with the estimation of the results obtained.

  2. [Care quality in intensive care evaluated by the patients using a service quality scale (SERVQUAL)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regaira Martínez, E; Sola Iriarte, M; Goñi Viguria, R; Del Barrio Linares, M; Margall Coscojuela, M A; Asiain Erro, M C

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation made by the patients on the quality of service received is important to introduce improvement strategies in the care quality. 1. To evaluate the care quality through the analysis of the differences obtained between expectations and perceptions, that the patients have of the service received in the ICU. 2. To analyze if there is any relationship between care quality evaluated by the patients and the sociodemographic variables. A total of 86 patients who were conscious and oriented during their stay in the ICU were studied prospectively. At 24h of the discharge from the ICU, the SERVQUAL (Service Quality) scale, adapted for the hospital setting by Babakus and Mangold (1992), was applied. This scale measures the care quality based on the difference in scores obtained between expectations and perceptions of the patients. The positive scores indicate that the perceptions of the patients exceed their expectations. The scale has 5 dimensions: Tangibility, Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurances and Empathy. It includes 15 items for perceptions and the same for expectations, with 5 grades of response (1 totally disagree - 5 totally agree). The mean score of perceptions 66.92) exceeded that of the expectations (62.30). The mean score of the difference between perceptions and expectations for the total of the SERVQUAL scale was 4.62. It was also positive for each one of the dimensions: Tangibility=1.44, Reliability=0.53, Responsiveness=0.95, Assurances=0.99, Empathy=0.71. No statistically significant associations were found between care quality evaluated by the patients and the sociodemographic variables. The care quality perceived by the patients in the ICU exceeds their expectations, and had no relationship with the sociodemographic characteristics. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  3. A New Method for Rapid Detection of the Volume and Quality of Watermelon Based on Processing of X-Ray Images

    OpenAIRE

    Zou , Ling; Ming , Sun; Zhang , Di

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Real-time online detection of fruit quality system has been applied to production practice because online testing and grading of fruits screening technology has matured. However, fruit size and quality online testing have always been difficult. Many detection methods of fruit size and quality are very complicated and time consuming, which cannot meet the needs of real-time detection. In this paper, a new method for rapid detecting small watermelon of volume and quality...

  4. A new quantitative method for the rapid evaluation of buildings against earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoodzadeh, Amir; Mazaheri, Mohammad Mehdi

    2008-01-01

    At the present time there exist numerous weak buildings which are not able to withstand earthquakes. At the same time, both private and public developers are trying to use scientific methods to prioritize and allocate budget in order to reinforce the above mentioned structures. This is because of the limited financial resources and time. In the recent years the procedure of seismic assessment before rehabilitation of vulnerable buildings has been implemented in many countries. Now, it seems logical to reinforce the existing procedures with the mass of available data about the effects caused by earthquakes on buildings. The main idea is driven from FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) in quality management where the main procedure is to recognize the failure, the causes, and the priority of each cause and failure. Specifying the causes and effects which lead to a certain shortcoming in structural behavior during earthquakes, an inventory is developed and each building is rated through a yes-or-no procedure. In this way, the rating of the structure is based on some standard forms which along with relative weights are developed in this study. The resulted criteria by rapid assessment will indicate whether the structure is to be demolished, has a high, medium or low vulnerability or is invulnerable

  5. Evaluation of a rapid method for measurement of catalase activity in cooked beef and sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C E; Cyrus, S

    1998-02-01

    Catalase (CAT) activity in ground beef and pork was determined on samples cooked from 60 to 71.1 degrees C. One-gram samples of ground round (4% fat), hamburger (24% fat), and commercial pork sausage (38%fat) were cooked in a controlled-temperature waterbath at 65, 68.3 and 71 degrees C. Chilled samples were immersed in direct contact with the cooking water; the test samples were removed every 15 s and immediately immersed in an ice-water bath (O to 1 degrees C) to quick-chill the samples to prevent temperature over-run. Samples retained high (HMB value 20+, over range) CAT activity through 90, 60, and 45 s at 65, 68.3, and 71 degrees C, respectively, before showing rapid activity decreases. Four USDA-FSIS approved meat patty heating processes (66.1 degrees C, 41 s; 67.2 degrees C, 26 s; 68.3 degrees C, 16 s; and 69.4 degrees C, 10 s) were analyzed for CAT activity in meat frozen prior to cooking was slightly lower (P sausage products and may be useful to USDA FSIS process inspectors and food processors in quality assurance and HACCP (hazard analysis critical control points) programs for thermal input verification.

  6. An assessment of the usefulness of a rapid immuno-chromatographic test, "Determine™ malaria pf" in evaluation of intervention measures in forest villages of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Manmohan

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria, is a major health problem in forested tribal belt of central India. Rapid and accurate methods are needed for the diagnosis of P. falciparum. We performed a blinded evaluation of the recently introduced Determine™ malaria pf test (Abbott, Laboratories, Japan compared with microscopy and splenomegaly in children in epidemic prone areas of district Mandla to assess the impact of intervention measures. Methods Children aged 2–10 yrs with and without fever were examined for spleen enlargement by medical specialist by establishing a mobile field clinic. From these children thick blood smears were prepared from finger prick and read by a technician. Simultaneously, rapid tests were performed by a field lab attendant. The figures for specificity, sensitivity and predictive values were calculated using microscopy as gold standard. Results In all 349 children were examined. The sensitivity and specificity for Determine rapid diagnostic test were 91 and 80% respectively. The positive predictive values (PPV, negative predictive values (NPV and accuracy of the test were respectively 79, 91 and 85%. On the contrary, the sensitivity and specificity of spleen in detecting malaria infection were 57 and 74 % respectively with PPV of 73%, NPV 59 % and an accuracy of 65%. Conclusions Determine™ malaria rapid diagnostic test is easier and quicker to perform and has other advantages over microscopy in not requiring prior training of personnel or quality control. Thus, highlighting the usefulness of a rapid antigen test in assessing prevailing malaria situation in remote areas.

  7. Rapid quality control for coal seams by gamma ray transmission technique

    CERN Document Server

    Raja-Sekhar, N; Nageswara-Rao, A S

    1999-01-01

    The quality of coal expressed as useful heat value (UHV) depends on various parameters such as fixed carbon, volatiles, ash and moisture. These factors have been assessed and the detailed dependence of UHV on these parameters has been studied for samples of coal from a local mine. The samples were subjected to collimated low energy gamma beams and correlation was obtained between the attenuation coefficient and UHV. The method is reliable, fast and non-destructive and can be used in the field for estimating UHV.

  8. Microbiological Evaluation and Nutritional Quality of Ogi made from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological evaluation and nutritional quality of ogi made from sorghum substituted with millet was carried out in this research work. A standard method was used for the proximate composition analysis and characterization of isolates was carried out by standard microbiological techniques. Protein content was found to ...

  9. Health-educator performance evaluation for quality teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of health educator performance evaluation procedures using the Integrated Quality Management System. This quantitative study used questionnaires to collect data from three hundred and thirty eight respondents selected through a convenient sampling procedure.

  10. Developing an Evaluation Framework of Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Specht, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from the continuous process of developing an evaluation framework of quality indicators for learning analytics (LA). Building on a previous study, a group concept mapping approach that uses multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering, the study presented here

  11. Quality evaluation of 'gari' produced from cassava and sweet potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality evaluation of gari produced from mixes of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) and Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tubers were investigated and reported. This is done to allow for the establishment of the best mixes of cassava and potato tubers to be adopted in the composite gari produced. Gari was produced ...

  12. New evaluation tool now available to assess research quality | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-25

    Apr 25, 2016 ... New evaluation tool now available to assess research quality ... Ratings on a scale defined by rubrics, to indicate the level at which a project ... Report: The value-for-money discourse: risks and opportunities for research for development ... Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics ...

  13. Evaluation of Technological Quality of Meat Produced from Nsukka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The technological quality of raw meat from Nsukka local abattoir was evaluated by analyzing the proximate composition, water holding capacity, pH, Napole yield and sensory colour and texture of longissimus dorsi [LD] and psoas major [PM] of beef and pork. Results show that moisture [71.36 – 72.76%], protein [21.37 ...

  14. Production and quality evaluation of probiotic soy milk | Onyibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soy milk is produced from a protein rich legume with high nutritional value. Adding probiotic agent(s) to soy milk increases its health value. In this study, soy milk and probiotic soy milk samples were produced, their qualities evaluated and shelf life at different temperatures of storage monitored. Products were of good taste ...

  15. Quality evaluation of processed clay soil samples | Steiner-Asiedu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: This study assessed the microbial quality of clay samples sold on two of the major Ghanaian markets. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional assessing the evaluation of processed clay and effects it has on the nutrition of the consumers in the political capital town of Ghana. The items for the examination was ...

  16. Evaluating Quality in Associate Degree Culinary Arts Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzman, Jean; Ackerman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine which categories and indicators of quality are best suited to evaluating associate degree culinary arts programs (ADCAP). Design/methodology/approach: The researchers surveyed a national sample of culinary educators and industry chefs in the USA. The instrument asked the participants to rate the…

  17. Evaluating Frequency Quality of Nordic System using PMU data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on analysing frequency quality of Nordic power system using measurements from Phasor Measurement Units (PMU). The PMU data of one year long period is used which has very high time resolution (20 ms per sample) and is able to provide detailed information in evaluating frequency...

  18. Evaluation of Drug Quality (III): Determination of Ciprofloxacin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Evaluation of Drug Quality (III): Determination of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride ... two methods were interpreted in terms of differences in sensitivities of the methods. It was ..... Agency for Food, Drug Administration and. Control ... regulatory standards and specified identity. Therefore drug analysis requires that drugs meet their.

  19. Student Evaluations of Teaching: Improving Teaching Quality in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammonds, Frank; Mariano, Gina J.; Ammons, Gracie; Chambers, Sheridan

    2017-01-01

    Student evaluations of teaching (SET) are widely used in both North America and the UK as a means of documenting and improving teaching quality. This article discusses current research on SET administration and interpretation in both regions. Sections of the article are dedicated to various problems associated with SETs and how these may be…

  20. Evaluation of quality parameters of strawberry fruits in modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) during storage on some quality parameters of strawberries. Strawberries (cv. Camarosa) were harvested when mature, forced air cooled and divided into two groups as fruits in MAP and control. After packaging, fruits were ...

  1. Evaluating Service Quality in Universities: A Service Department Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gareth; Smith, Alison; Clarke, Alison

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to report on an in-depth exploration of service quality in an Information Technology service department in a Higher Education Institute (HEI) and to evaluate the instrument used. Design/methodology/approach: The study surveys customers using the SERVQUAL instrument, which is one of the most widely used and…

  2. Evaluating and Enhancing Outcomes Assessment Quality in Higher Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kenneth; Goodwin, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Accreditation is a mark of distinction indicating that an institution has met high standards set by the profession, and an increasingly important feature of the accreditation process in higher education is "outcomes assessment." This article presents two rubrics for evaluating the quality of an institution's outcomes assessment system. One rubric…

  3. Designing the model for evaluating business quality in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ježovita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper includes designing a model for evaluating the financial quality of business operations. In that context, for the paper purposes, the financial quality of business operations is defined as an ability to achieve adequate value of individual financial ratios for financial position and performance evaluation. The objective of the model is to obtain comprehensive conclusion about the financial quality of business operation using only value of the function. Data used for designing the model is limited to financial data available from the annual balance sheet and income statement. Those limitations offer the opportunity for all sizes of companies from the non-financial business economy sector to use the designed model for evaluation purposes. Statistical methods used for designing the model are multivariate discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Discriminant analysis resulted in the function which includes five individual financial ratios with the best discriminant power. Respecting the results obtained in the classification matrix with classification accuracy of 95.92% by the original sample, or accuracy of 96.06% for the independent sample, it can be concluded that it is possible to evaluate the financial quality of business operations of companies in Croatia by using the model composed of individual financial ratios. Conducted logistic regression confirms the results obtained using discriminant analysis.

  4. Evaluation of quality protein maize hybrids for yield, association of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was initiated with the objectives to evaluate quality protein maize pipeline varieties in terms of yield and yield related traits, and to investigate association of yield with its components and other desirable traits at Bako. Eighteen genotypes were planted in randomized complete block design with three replications.

  5. Evaluation of a quality control program in radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacovenco, Alejandro; Infantosi, A.F.C.; Tauhata, L.

    1996-01-01

    A quality assurance program, implemented at the Radiologic Service of the Hospital of the Military Police in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is evaluated. The results show a reduction around of 70% in the number of rejected films and 75% in the costs. A return to the former conditions is reported as after the discontinuation of the program

  6. Evaluating Quality in Educational Spaces: OECD/CELE Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ahlefeld, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    CELE's International Pilot Project on Evaluating Quality in Educational Spaces aims to assist education authorities, schools and others to maximise the use of and investment in learning environments. This article provides an update on the pilot project, which is currently being implemented in Brazil, Mexico, New Zealand, Portugal and the United…

  7. Evaluation of Pharmaceutical and Microbial Qualities of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical tests were carried out to assess the class of compounds present in the formulations and the microbial quality of the products was also evaluated. Results: The results show that twelve (57.1%) of the products had their manufacturing and expiry dates stated, nine (42.9%) products have been registered by ...

  8. Evaluation of perception of quality of life of disabled athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Bolach

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the perception of quality of life for athletes - disabled, participating in individual and team Paralympic sports. Material: The study involved 32 athletes sports club "Start" in Wroclaw in 2013, engaged in individual sports: swimming, weightlifting, powerlifting (powerlifting and command: wheelchair basketball and volleyball in a sitting position. Results: Studies have proven that sports people with physical disabilities have a positive effect on the quality of their lives. Conclusions: 1. Study aspects of perception of quality of life is a complex issue, but deserves proper attention and appropriate force to study it. 2. Athletes - Disabled involved both individual and team sports, the perception of quality of life is average.

  9. Evaluating the Effect of Software Quality Characteristics on Health Care Quality Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Aghazadeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Various types of software are used in health care organizations to manage information and care processes. The quality of software has been an important concern for both health authorities and designers of Health Information Technology. Thus, assessing the effect of software quality on the performance quality of healthcare institutions is essential. Method: The most important health care quality indicators in relation to software quality characteristics are provided via an already performed literature review. ISO 9126 standard model is used for definition and integration of various characteristics of software quality. The effects of software quality characteristics and sub-characteristics on the healthcare indicators are evaluated through expert opinion analyses. A questionnaire comprising of 126 questions of 10-point Likert scale was used to gather opinions of experts in the field of Medical/Health Informatics. The data was analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling. Results: Our findings showed that software Maintainability was rated as the most effective factor on user satisfaction (R2 =0.89 and Functionality as the most important and independent variable affecting patient care quality (R2 =0.98. Efficiency was considered as the most effective factor on workflow (R2 =0.97, and Maintainability as the most important factor that affects healthcare communication (R2 =0.95. Usability and Efficiency were rated as the most effectual factor affecting patient satisfaction (R2 =0.80, 0.81. Reliability, Maintainability, and Efficiency were considered as the main factors affecting care costs (R2 =0.87, 0.74, 0.87. Conclusion: We presented a new model based on ISO standards. The model demonstrates and weighs the relations between software quality characteristics and healthcare quality indicators. The clear relationships between variables and the type of the metrics and measurement methods used in the model make it a reliable method to assess

  10. The evaluation of the environmental quality in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surd Vasile

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of the environmental quality concerns the analysis of the physical, chemical, biological and statistical features that allow the scientists to classify a territory in a certain category or hierarchic scale. In the model used in this study, the environmental quality was assessed at the administrative unit level (county, as a result of the interaction of different components. Fifty indicators were selected and included into 6 major groups based on several factors (natural hazards, air quality, biodiversity, water quality, human health, soil quality, economic activities that increase the communities' susceptibility to different negative aspects concerning the environment. Each indicator was classified on a scale from 1 to 5 (1-very good…5-very weak. The sum of the indicators was reclassified according to the same model, until the total environmental quality was finally determined. The analysis of the environmental quality on a departmental level provides the opportunity to identify the regions that need to be allotted financial resources in order to diminish the negative impact of the disturbing (anthropic and natural factors. At the same time, by focusing the research on the most vulnerable counties, a more detailed analysis has revealed the most vulnerable administrative units (towns and communes.

  11. Rural Tourism – Evaluating the Quality of Destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryglová Kateřina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the topic of rural destination quality from the viewpoint of tourism development. The research exploring crucial quality factors from the viewpoint of demand is presented. Rural tourism participants attribute the highest significance to Destination cleanliness and Sense of security. The evaluation of the importance of most research quality factors is not dependent on gender and on the contrary, the importance of 16 quality factors depends on the visitor´s age. In the case of the factor of “Friendly acceptance by the locals”, the most significant influence on the visitor´s return to the destination was confirmed. On the contrary, this impact was not proven for the factor of “Level of prices of services and goods in the destination”. The research and the successive factor analysis revealed 6 dimensions representing the rural destination quality: Services, Image, Transportation, Well-being, Information/Communication and Attractions/ Experiences; Well-being was identified as the most important. This was consecutively confirmed by the analysis of the quality factors’ impact on the visitor´s overall satisfaction and loyalty to the destination. The research findings provide the theory with topical destination quality dimensions as well as contribute to better understanding of visitor´s behavioural mechanisms in rural areas.

  12. Evaluating the service quality of undergraduate nursing education in Taiwan--using quality function deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shieu-Ming

    2004-05-01

    This study applies quality function deployment (QFD) techniques to evaluate the quality of service of undergraduate nursing education in Taiwan from the perspective of nursing students. Survey data from 560 undergraduate nursing students at four Taiwanese universities were subjected to QFD analysis in order to identify the quality characteristics most highly valued by students, the elements of educational service they consider most important and least important, and relationships/discrepancies between student quality requirements and institutional service elements. Results show that students value traditional elements of nursing education - clinical practice and lectures - more highly than recent additions such as computer-aided instruction and multimedia teaching. Results also show that students are looking for quality primarily in the area of faculty characteristics. The implication is that institutions which provide nursing education should not neglect the importance of investing in faculty when they are seeking to upgrade the quality of their programs. Further QFD studies are recommended to evaluate the quality of nursing education from the perspective of preceptors and nurses who help to train students in clinical settings.

  13. Evaluating quality indicators for patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, D C; Goetz, M B; Shekelle, P G

    2001-11-01

    Several organizations have published evidence-based quality indicators for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, there is variability in the types of indicators presented between organizations and the level of supporting evidence for each of the indicators. A systematic review of the literature and relevant Internet Web sites was performed to identify quality indicators for CAP that have been proposed or recommended by organizations, and each of the indicators was then critically appraised, using a well-defined set of criteria. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Best Evidence, and Cochrane Systematic Review databases and Internet Web sites were searched for articles and guidelines published between January 1980 and May 2001 to identify quality indicators for CAP and relevant evidence. Experts in the area of health services research were contacted to identify additional sources. A well-defined set of criteria was applied to evaluate each of the quality indicators. The systematic review of the literature and Internet Web sites yielded 44 CAP-specific quality indicators. The critical appraisal of these indicators yielded 16 indicators that were supported by a study that identified an association between quality of care and the process of care or outcome measure, were applied to enough patients to be able to detect clinically meaningful differences, were clinically and/or economically relevant, were measurable in a clinical practice setting, and were precise in their specifications. Many organizations recommend indicators for CAP. Indicators may serve as measures of clinical performance for clinicians and hospitals, may help in benchmarking, and may ultimately facilitate improvements in quality of care and cost reductions. However, CAP indicators often vary in their meaningfulness, scientific soundness, and interpretability of results. A set of five critical appraisal questions may assist in the evaluation of which quality indicators are most valid.

  14. [Rapid assessment of critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica (II): strategy of NIR assignment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yan-Ling; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Zhou, Lu-Wei; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-09-01

    The present paper firstly reviewed the research progress and main methods of NIR spectral assignment coupled with our research results. Principal component analysis was focused on characteristic signal extraction to reflect spectral differences. Partial least squares method was concerned with variable selection to discover characteristic absorption band. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy was mainly adopted for spectral assignment. Autocorrelation peaks were obtained from spectral changes, which were disturbed by external factors, such as concentration, temperature and pressure. Density functional theory was used to calculate energy from substance structure to establish the relationship between molecular energy and spectra change. Based on the above reviewed method, taking a NIR spectral assignment of chlorogenic acid as example, a reliable spectral assignment for critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica (CMM) was established using deuterium technology and spectral variable selection. The result demonstrated the assignment consistency according to spectral features of different concentrations of chlorogenic acid and variable selection region of online NIR model in extract process. Although spectral assignment was initial using an active pharmaceutical ingredient, it is meaningful to look forward to the futurity of the complex components in CMM. Therefore, it provided methodology for NIR spectral assignment of critical quality attributes in CMM.

  15. Current status of quality evaluation of nursing care through director review and reflection from the Nursing Quality Control Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xia; Shi, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The quality evaluation of nursing care is a key link in medical quality management. It is important and worth studying for the nursing supervisors to know the disadvantages during the process of quality evaluation of nursing care and then to improve the whole nursing quality. This study was to provide director insight on the current status of quality evaluation of nursing care from Nursing Quality Control Centers (NQCCs). Material and Methods: This qualitative study used a sample of 12 directors from NQCCs who were recruited from 12 provinces in China to evaluate the current status of quality evaluation of nursing care. Data were collected by in-depth interviews. Content analysis method was used to analyze the data. Results: Four themes emerged from the data: 1) lag of evaluation index; 2) limitations of evaluation content; 3) simplicity of evaluation method; 4) excessive emphasis on terminal quality. Conclusion: It is of great realistic significance to ameliorate nursing quality evaluation criteria, modify the evaluation content based on patient needs-oriented idea, adopt scientific evaluation method to evaluate nursing quality, and scientifically and reasonably draw horizontal comparisons of nursing quality between hospitals, as well as longitudinal comparisons of a hospital’s nursing quality. These methods mentioned above can all enhance a hospital’s core competitiveness and benefit more patients. PMID:25419427

  16. Evaluation of the need for a rapid depressurization capability for Combustion Engineering plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, L.; Liang, C.

    1984-12-01

    This report documents the NRC staff evaluation of the need for providing a rapid primary system depressurization capability, in particular by using a power-operated relief valve(s) (PORVs), in the current 3410-MWt and 3800-MWt classes of plants designed by Combustion Engineering (CE). The staff reviewed the responses of licensees, applicants, and vendors to staff questions, supplemented by independent analyses by the staff and its contractors. The staff review led to the conclusion that, on the basis of risk reduction and cost/benefit considerations, no overwhelming benefit would result from requiring the installation of PORVs in CE plants that currently do not have them. However, when other unquantifiable considerations regarding the potential benefits of a PORV are factored into the evaluation, it appears that more substantial benefits could be realized. Given the more comprehensive studies currently under way to resolve the generic unresolved safety issue, USI A-45, Decay Heat Removal Reliability, the staff concludes that the decision regarding PORVs for these CE plants should be deferred and incorporated into the technical resolution of USI A-45

  17. Evaluation of the rapid plasma reagin "teardrop" card test for screening of syphilis in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, E; Van de Velden, L; Ndoye, I; Piot, P; Meheus, A

    1993-01-01

    The availability of simple diagnostic methods may contribute to more efficient control of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in developing countries. For the detection of syphilis, a simple rapid plasma reagin (RPR) "teardrop" assay for finger-prick blood samples was developed in 1962. The reliability of this test is compared with RPR, Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA), and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-Abs) assays performed on venous blood samples. To evaluate the potential usefulness of the finger-stick RPR teardrop assay for diagnosis of syphilis in settings with poor medical resources. Pregnant women evaluated at two health centers in Pikine, Senegal were tested for STDs. The RPR teardrop assay was performed on plasma from blood samples obtained by finger prick, and standard RPR, TPHA, and FTA-Abs procedures were performed on serum obtained by vein puncture. The sensitivity and specificity of the finger-prick RPR teardrop assay were 69.7% and 96.5%, respectively, and its reactivity was correlated with RPR serum antibody titer. The finger-prick RPR teardrop assay is not a reliable alternative to the classic serum RPR test.

  18. Danger and usefulness: an alternative framework for understanding rapid evaluation effects in perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurm, Lee H

    2007-12-01

    Previous studies have shown effects of rated danger and usefulness on lexical access. All of them have used stimuli selected for connotations of danger and/or usefulness. Stimuli for the present lexical decision study were all of the nouns, verbs, and adjectives from the Balota et al. (2002) English Lexicon Project (subject to constraints relating to experimental control; none had anything to do with danger or usefulness). The interaction between danger and usefulness ratings previously demonstrated (Wurm & Vakoch, 2000; Wurm, Vakoch, Seaman, & Buchanan, 2004; Wurm, Whitman, Seaman, Hill, & Ulstad, 2007) was found for nouns, even when age of acquisition was controlled. It was also found for verbs and adjectives. The interaction is believed to reflect competing pressures to (1) avoid dangerous objects/events and (2) approach valuable resources. It may be a manifestation of the rapid evaluation effects pervasive in the literature. Post hoc analyses showed that danger and usefulness explain as much variance as valence and arousal, or evaluation, potency, and activity.

  19. Tracheostomy Complications as a Trigger for an Airway Rapid Response: Analysis and Quality Improvement Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassekh, Christopher H; Zhao, Jing; Martin, Niels D; Chalian, Ara A; Atkins, Joshua H

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the subset of airway rapid response (ARR) calls related to tracheostomy identified over a 46-month period from August 2011 to May 2015 to determine proximate cause, intervention, and outcome and to develop process improvement initiatives. Single-institution multidisciplinary retrospective cohort study. Tertiary care academic medical center in a large urban setting. Hospital inpatients with an in situ tracheostomy or laryngectomy who experienced an ARR. Detailed review of operator, hospital, and patient records related to ARR system activations over a 46-month period. ARR was activated for 28 patients with existing tracheostomy. The cohort included open tracheostomy (n = 14), percutaneous tracheostomy (n = 8), laryngectomy stoma (n = 3), and indeterminate technique (n = 3). The most frequent triggers for emergency airway intervention were decannulation (n = 16), followed by mucus plugging (n = 4). The mean body mass index of ARR patients was higher than that of a comparator tracheostomy cohort (32.9 vs 26.3, P 40 in 9 ARR patients. There was 1 mortality in the series. Tracheostomy is a major trigger for ARR with potential fatal outcome. Factors that may contribute to tracheostomy emergencies include high body mass index, surgical technique for open tracheostomy or percutaneous tracheostomy, tracheostomy tube size, and bedside tracheostomy management. Results have triggered a hospital-wide practice improvement plan focused on tracheostomy awareness and documentation, discrete process changes, and implementation of guidelines for emergency management. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  20. Rapid assessment of historic, current and future habitat quality for biodiversity around UK Natura 2000 sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogiatzakis, I.N.; Stirpe, M.T.; Rickebusch, S.; Metzger, M.J.; Xu, G.; Rounsevell, M.D.A.; Bommarco, R.; Potts, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in landscape composition and structure may impact the conservation and management of protected areas. Species that depend on specific habitats are at risk of extinction when these habitats are degraded or lost. Designing robust methods to evaluate landscape composition will assist decision-

  1. High quality data: An evaluation of AIM data quality and data quality procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of every monitoring program is to collect high-quality data which can then be used to provide information to decision makers. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring (AIM) program is one such data set which provides rangeland status, condition, and trend in...

  2. QUALITY EVALUATION OF THE TPP POWER GENERATING UNITS WEAR RECONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Farhadzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconditioning of the power generating unit worn equipment and devices is conducted during the scheduled repair period. Quality of wear reconditioning is evaluated by technical state and repair work implementation. Quality of the repair work execution characterizes logistical activities of the power station and the repair services and is rated by a five-grade scale. There are three technical conditions: adequate, subject to reservations, falling short of the technical standard documentation requirements. In practical work these constraints give place to essential ambiguity of the decision. Further to regulating techniques by way of informational support, the authors propose conducting the wear-reconditioning quality evaluation (repair quality accordingly the technical-and-economic indexes pattern of change. The paper recommends applying similarly the fivegrade system in evaluating the power generating unit technical state and distinguishes intolerable, dissatisfactory, fair, good and model estimates. The study demonstrates the assessment criteria dependence on the character of reliability and economical efficiency of performance variation after the repair with increase or decrease of the technical-and-economic indexes in reference to their mean, minimum and maximum values before the repair. The cases ascribed to intolerable quality of the wear reconditioning are those with one or more technical-and-economic indexes that not only failed to improve their values but deteriorated, and at that they became the worst amongst observable values. The model quality estimate of the wear reconditioning is allotted under condition that the power unit technical-and-economic index valuations after the repair not merely improved but also exceeded the best among those under observation. The developed method and algorithm for quality evaluation of the scheduled repair implementation contribute to practical realization of the independent monitoring. This monitoring

  3. An adaptive toolkit for image quality evaluation in system performance test of digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guozhi; Petrov, Dimitar; Marshall, Nicholas; Bosmans, Hilde

    2017-03-01

    Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a relatively new diagnostic imaging modality for women. Currently, various models of DBT systems are available on the market and the number of installations is rapidly increasing. EUREF, the European Reference Organization for Quality Assured Breast Screening and Diagnostic Services, has proposed a preliminary Guideline - protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of digital breast tomosynthesis systems, with an ultimate aim of providing limiting values guaranteeing proper performance for different applications of DBT. In this work, we introduce an adaptive toolkit developed in accordance with this guideline to facilitate the process of image quality evaluation in DBT performance test. This toolkit implements robust algorithms to quantify various technical parameters of DBT images and provides a convenient user interface in practice. Each test is built into a separate module with configurations set corresponding to the European guideline, which can be easily adapted to different settings and extended with additional tests. This toolkit largely improves the efficiency for image quality evaluation of DBT. It is also going to evolve with the development of protocols in quality control of DBT systems.

  4. Some aspects of evaluation of image quality in computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travassos, Paulo Cesar Baptista; Peixoto, Jose Guilherme; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Veloso de; Campos, Luciana Tourinho; Magalhaes, Luis Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of CT scanners image quality includes measuring the Hounsfield values, HU, using a table with the limit values. This table does not consider that different devices have different effective energies, which may cause some false results. The evaluation of 90 computerized tomography, by the American College Radiology methodology, showed that some failed devices in the evaluation showed excellent linear fit between the values of the linear attenuation coefficients calculated for the actual energy used, according to the HU values. The analysis of the coefficient of determination suggests that 10 of these devices could have been approved. (author)

  5. Rapid continuous flow synthesis of high-quality silver nanocubes and nanospheres

    KAUST Repository

    Mehenni, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    We report a biphasic-liquid segmented continuous flow method for the synthesis of high-quality plasmonic single crystal silver nanocubes and nanospheres. The nanocubes were synthesized with controllable edge lengths from 20 to 48 nm. Single crystal nanospheres with a mean size of 29 nm were obtained by in-line continuous-flow etching of as-produced 39 nm nanocubes with an aqueous solution of FeNO3. In comparison to batch synthesis, the demonstrated processes represent highly scalable reactions, in terms of both production rate and endurance. The reactions were conducted in a commercially available flow-reactor system that is easily adaptable to industrial-scale production, facilitating widespread utilization of the procedure and the resulting nanoparticles. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  6. Quality assurance and evaluation system in japanese higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mami Yamaguchi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we aim to contribute to the debate over accountability and assessment of higher education (HE by introducing the Japanese system. We first discuss the circumstances and issues surrounding Japanese HE and then examine the historical development of the quality assurance and evaluation system. Since the 1990s, with the implementation of policies that focused on liberalization, deregulation and increased institutional autonomy, the role of the government has shifted from setting strict regulations and quality standards to organizing an evaluation system for assessing the learning outcomes and improving accountability of the HE institutions. Finally, we suggest how Japan may take hints from Brazil in organizing an evaluation system on a national level that can more efficiently support and assess HE institutions

  7. Rapid instrument prototyping with open source hardware and software: Application to water quality in hypersaline estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loose, B.; O'Shea, R.

    2016-02-01

    We describe the design and deployment of a water quality sonde that utilizes mobile phone networks for near-real time data telemetry. The REOL or Realtime Estuary Ocean Logger has the unique and valuable capability of logging data internally and simultaneously relaying the information to a webserver using a cellular modem. The internal circuitry consists of a GSM cellular modem, a microcontroller, and an SD card for data storage - these components are low cost, and backed up with circuit diagrams and programming libraries that are published under open source license. This configuration is versatile and is capable of reading instrument output from a broad spectrum of devices, including serial, TTL, analog voltage (0 - 5V), and analog current (typically 4-20 mA). We find the greatest challenges lie in development of smart software that is capable of handling the conditions brought on by this harsh environment. We have programmed the sonde to first determine whether it is submerged by water, and record the temperature on the electronics before deciding whether to telemeter measurements over the cellular network. The Google App EngineTM provides an interactive visualization platform. We have tested the REOL with a variety of water quality sensors. In the configuration described here, we use a thermistor, depth gauge and torroidal conductivity sensor to measure water temperature, water level and conductivity up to 200 mS/cm. The latter is necessary for studies in hypersaline estuaries, where porewater salinity can exceed 100 g/kg. We present data from two estuaries in West Africa and from a longer-term deployment in the Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island.

  8. Purine nitrogen index, potentially a new parameter for rapid feed evaluation in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.B.; Oerskov, E.R.; Subba, D.B.; Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    1999-01-01

    The concept of a new parameter 'Purine Nitrogen Index (PNI)' for feed evaluation in ruminants is discussed. PNI refers to the ratio of purine derivative (PD) nitrogen to total nitrogen in urine. It is suggested that PNI can potentially be used as an indicator of the efficiency with which degradable dietary nitrogen is converted to microbial protein in the rumen. The excretion of PD in the urine provides an estimation of the intestinal flow of microbial protein, and therefore, PNI effectively corresponds to the amount of microbial protein produced in the rumen relative to the nitrogen loss in the urine. If a diet or a dietary regime has a high conversion efficiency, proportionally more rumen degradable nitrogen is converted to microbial protein and less nitrogen is excreted in the urine, resulting in a high PNI. Conversely, if a diet has a poor conversion efficiency, proportionally less dietary nitrogen is converted to microbial protein and more is excreted in the urine, resulting in a low PNI. Preliminary data from six experiments involving 34 sheep confirmed a positive correlation between PNI and the nitrogen conversion efficiency, and suggested that a dietary regime with a PNI lower than 0.08 for sheep appeared to be a less efficient in the production of microbial protein and have a greater loss of nitrogen in the urine. PNI can theoretically be determined in spot urine samples, and has the potential to serve as a 'dipstick' method for the rapid evaluation of ruminant feeds. However, more research with a mathematical modelling approach is required to evaluate and develop the concept further. (author)

  9. Calretinin immunohistochemistry versus improvised rapid Acetylcholinesterase histochemistry in the evaluation of colorectal biopsies for Hirschsprung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokendra Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE histochemistry on rectal mucosal biopsies accurately diagnoses Hirschsprung disease (HD, but is not widely employed as it requires special tissue handling and pathologist expertise. Calretinin immunohistochemistry (IHC has been reported to be comparable to AChE staining with the loss of expression correlating with aganglionosis. Aim: The aim was to evaluate calretinin IHC as a primary diagnostic tool in comparison to the improvised rapid AChE technique in the diagnosis of HD. Materials and Methods: A total of 74 rectal biopsies (18 fresh frozen - 18 cases, 56 formalin fixed - 33 cases from 51 cases of suspect HD were evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin/AChE/Calretinin. Ten biopsies each from ganglionated and aganglionated segments served as positive and negative controls. Ileal (3, appendiceal (3 and ring bowel (2 biopsies were also included. Two pathologists blinded to the clinical details evaluated the histomorphology with AChE and calretinin. Observations were statistically analyzed and Cohen′s k coefficient employed to assess agreement between two pathologists and calretinin and the AChE. Results: The study confirmed HD in 26 and non-HD in 25 cases. There were 7 neonates, 5 low level biopsies and 14 "inadequate" biopsies. The results of calretinin were comparable with AChE with a statistically significant measure of agreement of k = 0.973 between the two. One false-positive case of HD was noted with calretinin. The advantages and disadvantages of calretinin versus AChE are discussed. Conclusion: Calretinin is a reliable single immune marker for ruling out HD by its specific positive mucosal staining of formalin fixed rectal biopsy. The improvised AChE staining remains indispensable to confirm HD on fresh biopsies and thus, along with calretinin IHC maximizes the diagnostic accuracy of HD in difficult cases.

  10. Purine nitrogen index, potentially a new parameter for rapid feed evaluation in ruminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X B; Oerskov, E R [Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Subba, D B [Pakhribas Agricultural Centre, Dhankuta, Kathmandu (Nepal); Jayasuriya, M C.N. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Animal Production and Health Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1999-06-01

    The concept of a new parameter `Purine Nitrogen Index (PNI)` for feed evaluation in ruminants is discussed. PNI refers to the ratio of purine derivative (PD) nitrogen to total nitrogen in urine. It is suggested that PNI can potentially be used as an indicator of the efficiency with which degradable dietary nitrogen is converted to microbial protein in the rumen. The excretion of PD in the urine provides an estimation of the intestinal flow of microbial protein, and therefore, PNI effectively corresponds to the amount of microbial protein produced in the rumen relative to the nitrogen loss in the urine. If a diet or a dietary regime has a high conversion efficiency, proportionally more rumen degradable nitrogen is converted to microbial protein and less nitrogen is excreted in the urine, resulting in a high PNI. Conversely, if a diet has a poor conversion efficiency, proportionally less dietary nitrogen is converted to microbial protein and more is excreted in the urine, resulting in a low PNI. Preliminary data from six experiments involving 34 sheep confirmed a positive correlation between PNI and the nitrogen conversion efficiency, and suggested that a dietary regime with a PNI lower than 0.08 for sheep appeared to be a less efficient in the production of microbial protein and have a greater loss of nitrogen in the urine. PNI can theoretically be determined in spot urine samples, and has the potential to serve as a `dipstick` method for the rapid evaluation of ruminant feeds. However, more research with a mathematical modelling approach is required to evaluate and develop the concept further. (author) 15 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  11. P-CARES 2.0.0, Probabilistic Computer Analysis for Rapid Evaluation of Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: P-CARES 2.0.0 (Probabilistic Computer Analysis for Rapid Evaluation of Structures) was developed for NRC staff use to determine the validity and accuracy of the analysis methods used by various utilities for structural safety evaluations of nuclear power plants. P-CARES provides the capability to effectively evaluate the probabilistic seismic response using simplified soil and structural models and to quickly check the validity and/or accuracy of the SSI data received from applicants and licensees. The code is organized in a modular format with the basic modules of the system performing static, seismic, and nonlinear analysis. 2 - Methods: P-CARES is an update of the CARES program developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory during the 1980's. A major improvement is the enhanced analysis capability in which a probabilistic algorithm has been implemented to perform the probabilistic site response and soil-structure interaction (SSI) analyses. This is accomplished using several sampling techniques such as the Latin Hypercube sampling (LHC), engineering LHC, the Fekete Point Set method, and also the traditional Monte Carlo simulation. This new feature enhances the site response and SSI analysis such that the effect of uncertainty in local site soil properties can now be quantified. Another major addition to P-CARES is a graphical user interface (GUI) which significantly improves the performance of P-Cares in terms of the inter-relations among different functions of the program, and facilitates the input/output processing and execution management. It also provides many user friendly features that would allow an analyst to quickly develop insights from the analysis results. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: None noted

  12. Integral Criteria for Measuring the Quality of Teacher Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Navickienė

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—To construct the knowledge evaluation quality integral criteria, which allows to ascertain whether the different teachers properly assess the students’ knowledge. The criteria has been tested setting up the educational experiment and examining the six mathematics lecturers’ assessments.Design/methodology/approach—This research involved the Mykolas Romeris University students of Public Administration degree second year and Management of Organizations degree first year. The test questions for students were designed using the mathematical knowledge assessment information system, which allows for closed-ended mathematical test, to obtain statistical data about test takers, to perform quality analysis of the test; in the middle and the end of the semester.Findings—The construction technique for the evaluation quality criteria of the students’ working results assessment, which were performed by six different lecturers, during practical trainings, seminars, laboratory and other sessions is proposed in this article.Research limitations/implications—The constructed evaluation criteria is universal: it does not depend on the particular subject; it can be applied to several groups, courses or lecturers. It depends on three calculated indicators I, S, K, which show in two ways obtained estimates of the measured information compatibility of degrees, marks matching and correlation terms.Practical implications—The integral criteria has been tested examining the six mathematics lecturers’ assessments.Originality/Value—Constructing the criteria have been used the educational measurement models of authors of this article and other researchers, however its’ connection to general (integral criteria, best of authors’ knowledge, is original and have not be researched before.Keywords: knowledge evaluation, quality of teacher evaluation, evaluation of teachers, mathematical modeling.Research type: research paper.

  13. Assessment of the quality of pharmacoeconomic evaluation literature in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; He, Xu; Xiang, Wei; Li, Shu Chuen

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the quality of Chinese pharmacoeconomic-evaluation literature published between 2012-2014 retrieved from the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) in order to assess their adherence to recommendations of the Chinese Pharmacoeconomic Guidelines. Identified literature was screened according to pre-specified criteria to access legibility for inclusion. Each included piece of literature was systematically compared against the recommendations proposed by the relevant Chinese guidelines. After culling, 259 studies were included in the comparative analysis. When compared to a previous study evaluating the quality of similar literature published between 1997-2007, the results showed improvements in certain technical aspects over the years. Particularly, an improvement was observed in more diverse evaluation methods being used, increased use of cost-utility analysis (2.43% in 2012-2014 vs 0.26% in 1997-2007) and use of discounting (45% in 2012-2014 vs 4.35% in 1997- 2007). In addition, a small number of studies were starting to apply modeling. The quality of economic evaluation literature has improved in recent years, with more researchers realizing the importance and necessity of using discounting, sensitivity analysis, and modeling when conducting economic evaluation. This study also highlights certain important areas needing further attention when conducting economic evaluations in China. These include the ICER threshold of economic analysis, more detailed guidance in performing sensitivity analysis and modeling, as well as transferability of cost data across different regions. Overall, the results would support the positive contribution of the Chinese Economic Guideline in promoting economic evaluations in China.

  14. Evaluation of the Iodine Concentration in Serum and Urine of Hypothyroid Males Using an Inexpensive and Rapid Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Abbas Kandhro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the iodine/iodide status in biological samples (serum and urine of 172 male hypothyroid patients (HPs and their supplemental effects on thyroid hormones. For comparison purpose, non-goitrous subjects (n= 220 of same age group and socioeconomic status were also studied. A simple and rapid iodide-ion selective electrode (ISE was used to measure the concentration of iodine in microwave assisted acid digested serum and urine samples. Quality control for the methodology was established with certified samples and with those obtained by conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference materials (CRMs and real samples. A linear calibration curve was obtained for a reasonable concentration range of the potassium iodide solutions. The mean concentration of iodine in the serum and urine samples of the HPs was significantly reduced as compared to control male subjects (p< 0.01. The low levels of free triiodothyronine and thyroxin were found in HPs than age matched healthy control (p< 0.005 and 0.002 respectively while high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone were observed in HPs (p< 0.008. The proposed method was relatively efficient as well as cost effective by using inexpensive equipment. It was observed that iodine in biological samples of HPs can play an important role in determining the severity of the hypothyroidism.

  15. Evaluation of the iodine concentration in serum and urine of hypothyroid males an inexpensive and rapid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhro, G.A.; Kazi, T.G.; Sirajuddin; Afridi, H.I.; Baig, J.A.; Shah, A.Q.; Arain, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of present study was to evaluate the iodine/iodide status in biological samples (serum and urine) of 172 male hypothyroid patients (HPs) and their supplemental effects on thyroid hormones. For comparison purpose, non-goitrous subjects (n= 220) of same age group and socioeconomic status were also studied. A simple and rapid iodide-ion selective electrode (ISE) was used to measure the concentration of iodine in microwave assisted acid digested serum and urine samples. Quality control for the methodology was established with certified samples and with those obtained by conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference materials (CRMs) and real samples. A linear calibration curve was obtained for a reasonable concentration range of the potassium iodide solutions. The mean concentration of iodine in the serum and urine samples of the HPs was significantly reduced as compared to control male subjects (p< 0.01). The low levels of free triiodothyronine and thyroxin were found in HPs than age matched healthy control (p< 0.005 and 0.002) respectively while high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone were observed in HPs (p< 0.008). The proposed method was relatively efficient as well as cost effective by using inexpensive equipment. It was observed that iodine in biological samples of HPs can play an important role in determining the severity of the hypothyroidism. (author)

  16. Subjective Evaluation of Vocal Quality in Nasal Polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Saltürk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Nose is a resonator organ in production of voice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of nasal obstruction caused by nasal polyposis on voice quality subjectively. Methods: Thirty-six patients diagnosed with nasal polyposis were included in the study. The 30-item voice handicap index 30 was used in order to evaluate subjective status of voice. Nasal endoscopy and computed tomography imaging of the paranasal sinuses were performed for each patient. Lund-Kennedy endoscopy scores and Lund-MacKay computed tomography scores were evaluated. Control group composed of 20 healthy subjects. Results: The mean voice handicap score in the patient group was 43.16 (SD 15.53 and it was 2.15 (SD 1.92 in control group. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (p=0.001. The mean Lund-Kennedy and Lund-Mackay scores were 8.58 (SD 2.5 and 17 (SD 5.52, respectively. It was found that increased severity of nasal polyposis was the cause for decreased satisfaction with voice quality. Conclusion: Nasal obstruction caused by nasal polyposis affects voice quality adversely and as the severity of nasal polyposis increases, satisfaction with voice quality decreases.

  17. Three dimensional evaluation of alveolar bone changes in response to different rapid palatal expansion activation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian LaBlonde

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this multi-center retrospective study was to quantify the changes in alveolar bone height and thickness after using two different rapid palatal expansion (RPE activation protocols, and to determine whether a more rapid rate of expansion is likely to cause more adverse effects, such as alveolar tipping, dental tipping, fenestration and dehiscence of anchorage teeth. Methods: The sample consisted of pre- and post-expansion records from 40 subjects (age 8-15 years who underwent RPE using a 4-banded Hyrax appliance as part of their orthodontic treatment to correct posterior buccal crossbites. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their RPE activation rates (0.5 mm/day and 0.8 mm/day; n = 20 each group. Three-dimensional images for all included subjects were evaluated using Dolphin Imaging Software 11.7 Premium. Maxillary base width, buccal and palatal cortical bone thickness, alveolar bone height, and root angulation and length were measured. Significance of the changes in the measurements was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and comparisons between groups were done using ANOVA. Significance was defined at p ≤ 0.05. Results: RPE activation rates of 0.5 mm per day (Group 1 and 0.8 mm per day (Group 2 caused significant increase in arch width following treatment; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Buccal alveolar height and width decreased significantly in both groups. Both treatment protocols resulted in significant increases in buccal-lingual angulation of teeth; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Both activation rates are associated with significant increase in intra-arch widths. However, 0.8 mm/day resulted in greater increases. The 0.8 mm/day activation rate also resulted in more increased dental tipping and decreased buccal alveolar bone thickness over 0.5 mm/day.

  18. Multiple modes of water quality impairment by fecal contamination in a rapidly developing coastal area: southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Lawrence B; Hales, Jason C; Carey, Erin S; Loucaides, Socratis; Rowland, Kevin R; Toothman, Byron R

    2016-02-01

    Fecal contamination of surface waters is a significant problem, particularly in rapidly developing coastal watersheds. Data from a water quality monitoring program in southwest Brunswick County, North Carolina, gathered in support of a regional wastewater and stormwater management program were used to examine likely modes and sources of fecal contamination. Sampling was conducted at 42 locations at 3-4-week intervals between 1996 and 2003, including streams, ponds, and estuarine waters in a variety of land use settings. Expected fecal sources included human wastewater systems (on-site and central), stormwater runoff, and direct deposition by animals. Fecal coliform levels were positively associated with rainfall measures, but frequent high fecal coliform concentrations at times of no rain indicated other modes of contamination as well. Fecal coliform levels were also positively associated with silicate levels, a groundwater source signal, indicating that flux of fecal-contaminated groundwater was a mode of contamination, potentially elevating FC levels in impacted waters independent of stormwater runoff. Fecal contamination by failing septic or sewer systems at many locations was significant and in addition to effects of stormwater runoff. Rainfall was also linked to fecal contamination by central sewage treatment system failures. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple modes of water pollution and different ways in which human activities cause water quality degradation. Management of water quality in coastal regions must therefore recognize diverse drivers of fecal contamination to surface waters.

  19. Assessing concentrations and health impacts of air quality management strategies: Framework for Rapid Emissions Scenario and Health impact ESTimation (FRESH-EST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milando, Chad W; Martenies, Sheena E; Batterman, Stuart A

    2016-09-01

    In air quality management, reducing emissions from pollutant sources often forms the primary response to attaining air quality standards and guidelines. Despite the broad success of air quality management in the US, challenges remain. As examples: allocating emissions reductions among multiple sources is complex and can require many rounds of negotiation; health impacts associated with emissions, the ultimate driver for the standards, are not explicitly assessed; and long dispersion model run-times, which result from the increasing size and complexity of model inputs, limit the number of scenarios that can be evaluated, thus increasing the likelihood of missing an optimal strategy. A new modeling framework, called the "Framework for Rapid Emissions Scenario and Health impact ESTimation" (FRESH-EST), is presented to respond to these challenges. FRESH-EST estimates concentrations and health impacts of alternative emissions scenarios at the urban scale, providing efficient computations from emissions to health impacts at the Census block or other desired spatial scale. In addition, FRESH-EST can optimize emission reductions to meet specified environmental and health constraints, and a convenient user interface and graphical displays are provided to facilitate scenario evaluation. The new framework is demonstrated in an SO2 non-attainment area in southeast Michigan with two optimization strategies: the first minimizes emission reductions needed to achieve a target concentration; the second minimizes concentrations while holding constant the cumulative emissions across local sources (e.g., an emissions floor). The optimized strategies match outcomes in the proposed SO2 State Implementation Plan without the proposed stack parameter modifications or shutdowns. In addition, the lower health impacts estimated for these strategies suggest that FRESH-EST could be used to identify potentially more desirable pollution control alternatives in air quality management planning

  20. QUALITY SERVICES EVALUATION MODEL BASED ON DEDICATED SOFTWARE TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA CRISTINA IONICĂ

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduced a new model, called Service Quality (SQ, which combines QFD and SERVQUAL methods. This model takes from the SERVQUAL method the five dimensions of requirements and three of characteristics and from the QFD method the application methodology. The originality of the SQ model consists in computing a global index that reflects the customers’ requirements accomplishment level by the quality characteristics. In order to prove the viability of the SQ model, there was developed a software tool that was applied for the evaluation of a health care services provider.

  1. Would you procure radioactive containers without a supplier quality evaluation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kapoor, A.; Natali, R.B.

    2004-07-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites/contractors purchase several different types of containers (such as boxes, drums, large bulk dump trucks, railcars, cargo containers, burrito wraps, and super sacks) for use in the storage and transportation of low-level waste. These containers are purchased from several suppliers - all of whom must be pre-approved according to DOE rules, orders and guidelines - and the suppliers must manufacture the containers to exact specifications and designs supplied by the DOE site/contractor. DOE studies and qualitative evaluations indicate that the current supplier evaluation process is too costly and inefficient. Therefore, DOE, in coordination with sites/contractors, instituted a corporate approach to centralize the supplier quality evaluation program for the procurement of containers. That effort resulted in the development of this Container Suppler Evaluation Program. The program was implemented when two suppliers were evaluated using this program.

  2. Would you procure radioactive containers without a supplier quality evaluation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawk, M.; Kapoor, A.; Natali, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites/contractors purchase several different types of containers (such as boxes, drums, large bulk dump trucks, railcars, cargo containers, burrito wraps, and super sacks) for use in the storage and transportation of low-level waste. These containers are purchased from several suppliers - all of whom must be pre-approved according to DOE rules, orders and guidelines - and the suppliers must manufacture the containers to exact specifications and designs supplied by the DOE site/contractor. DOE studies and qualitative evaluations indicate that the current supplier evaluation process is too costly and inefficient. Therefore, DOE, in coordination with sites/contractors, instituted a corporate approach to centralize the supplier quality evaluation program for the procurement of containers. That effort resulted in the development of this Container Suppler Evaluation Program. The program was implemented when two suppliers were evaluated using this program

  3. Implementing hospital quality assurance policies in Iran: balancing licensing, annual evaluation, inspections and quality management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei Hashjin, Asgar; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Kringos, Dionne S; Tabibi, Seyed Jamaladin; Manouchehri, Jila; Klazinga, Niek S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of applied hospital quality assurance (QA) policies in Iran. A mixed method (quantitative data and qualitative document analysis) study was carried out between 1996 and 2010. The QA policy cycle forms a tight monitoring system to assure hospital quality by combining mandatory and voluntary methods in Iran. The licensing, annual evaluation and grading, and regulatory inspections statutorily implemented by the government as a national package to assure and improve hospital care quality, while implementing quality management systems (QMS) was voluntary for hospitals. The government's strong QA policy legislation role and support has been an important factor for successful QA implementation in Iran, though it may affected QA assessment independency and validity. Increased hospital evaluation independency and repositioning, updating standards, professional involvement and effectiveness studies could increase QA policy impact and maturity. The study highlights the current QA policy implementation cycle in Iranian hospitals. It provides a basis for further quality strategy development in Iranian hospitals and elsewhere. It also raises attention about finding the optimal balance between different QA policies, which is topical for many countries. This paper describes experiences when implementing a unique approach, combining mandatory and voluntary QA policies simultaneously in a developing country, which has invested considerably over time to improve hospital quality. The experiences with a mixed obligatory/voluntary approach and comprehensive policies in Iran may contain lessons for policy makers in developing and developed countries.

  4. Ior-CEA-1: Labelling, quality control and clinical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Within the Co-ordinated Programme on Labelling, Quality Control and Evaluation of Monoclonal Antibodies, the IAEA has made a great effort to expand efficient labelling methods, mainly those with radioisotopes which have been used for radioimmunoscintigraphy. In this sense, more recently 99 Tc m has been mostly employed in the majority of the investigations due to its ideal physical characteristics. Efficient labelling of monoclonal antibodies depends on a number of factors including the method and way of the label incorporation into the protein. During the last years several direct labelling approaches have been developed, which led to attain simple and inexpensive methods for medical practice, as well as safe and stable techniques which bring accurate and good quality images. Accordingly, this paper describes the results obtained during last five years which come from the comparison among different labelling systems, passing through the quality control to test the labelled monoclonal stability and the protein bioreactivity, to continue in the clinical evaluation of ior-CEA-1, as well as the evaluation of other antibodies. Up to now we have evaluated more than 70 patients with the anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (ior-CEA-1), examined in different clinical assays such as: pilot, phase I-II and extensive phase III-IV trials, whose results are encouraging. It confirms that the employed labelling approach was safe and adequate

  5. Exploring in integrated quality evaluation of Chinese herbal medicines: the integrated quality index (IQI) for aconite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-kun; Wang, Jia-bo; Yang, Ming; Peng, Cheng; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2015-07-01

    Good medicinal herbs, good drugs. Good evaluation method and indices are the prerequisite of good medicinal herbs. However, there exist numerous indices for quality evaluation and control in Chinese medicinal materials. However, most of these indices are non-interrelated each other, as well as having little relationship with efficiency and safety. The results of different evaluatior methods may not be consistent, even contradictory. Considering the complex material properties of Chinese medicinal materials, single method and index is difficult to objectively and comprehensively reflect the quality. Therefore, it is essential to explore the integrated evaluation methods. In this paper, oriented by the integrated evaluation strategies for traditional Chinese medicine quality, a new method called integrated quality index (IQI) by the integration of empirical evaluation, chemical evaluation, and biological evaluation was proposed. In addition, a study case of hypertoxic herb Aconitum carmichaelii Debx. was provided to explain this method in detail. The results suggested that in the view of specifications, the average weight of Jiangyou aconite was the greatest, followed by Weishan aconite, Butuo aconite, Hanzhong aconite, and Anxian aconite; from the point of chemical components, Jiangyou aconite had the characteristic with strong efficacy and weak toxicity, next was Hanzhong aconite, Butuo aconite, Weishan aconite, and Anxian aconite; taking toxicity price as the index, Hanzhong aconite and Jiangyou aconite have the lower toxicity, while Butuo aconite, Weishan aconite, and Anxian aconite have the relatively higher one. After the normalization and integration of evaluation results, we calculated the IQI value of Jiangyou aconite, Hanzhong aconite, Butuo aconite, Weishan aconite, and Anxian aconite were 0.842 +/- 0.091, 0.597 +/- 0.047, 0.442 +/- 0.033, 0.454 +/- 0.038, 0.170 +/- 0.021, respectively. The quality of Jiangyou aconite is significantly better than the

  6. Criteria for the Evaluation of Quality Improvement Programs and the Use of Quality Improvement Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document provides a set of criteria to be used by psychologists in evaluating quality improvement programs (QIPs) that have been promulgated by health care organizations, government agencies, professional associations, or other entities. These criteria also address the privacy and confidentiality issues evoked by the intended use of patient…

  7. Measuring, evaluating and improving hospital quality parameters/dimensions--an integrated healthcare quality approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zineldin, Mosad; Camgöz-Akdağ, Hatice; Vasicheva, Valiantsina

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the major factors affecting cumulative summation, to empirically examine the major factors affecting satisfaction and to address the question whether patients in Kazakhstan evaluate healthcare similarly or differently from patients in Egypt and Jordan. A questionnaire, adapted from previous research, was distributed to Kazakhstan inpatients. The questionnaire contained 39 attributes about five newly-developed quality dimensions (5Qs), which were identified to be the most relevant attributes for hospitals. The questionnaire was translated into Russian to increase the response rate and improve data quality. Almost 200 usable questionnaires were returned. Frequency distribution, factor analysis and reliability checks were used to analyze the data. The three biggest concerns for Kazakhstan patients are: infrastructure; atmosphere; and interaction. Hospital staffs concern for patients' needs, parking facilities for visitors, waiting time and food temperature were all common specific attributes, which were perceived as concerns. These were shortcomings in all three countries. Improving health service quality by applying total relationship management and the 5Qs model together with a customer-orientation strategy is recommended. Results can be used by hospital staff to reengineer and redesign creatively their quality management processes and help move towards more effective healthcare quality strategies. Patients in three countries have similar concerns and quality perceptions. The paper describes a new instrument and method. The study assures relevance, validity and reliability, while being explicitly change-oriented. The authors argue that patient satisfaction is a cumulative construct, summing satisfaction as five different qualities (5Qs): object; processes; infrastructure; interaction and atmosphere.

  8. Acoustic transfer function of cavity and its application to rapid evaluation of sound field at low frequency band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Gang; CHEN Hualing; HU Xuanli; HUANG Xieqing

    2001-01-01

    A new method to obtain numerical solution of Acoustic Transfer Function (ATF) by BEM is presented. For a simply supported panel backed by a rectangular cavity at low frequency band (0-200 Hz), the frequency property of ATF is analyzed. The relation between the accuracy of the rapid evaluation of sound field and the discretization schemes of the vibrational panel is discussed. The result shows that the method to obtain ATF and the rapid evaluation of sound field using the ATF is suitable to low frequency band. If an appropriate discretization scheme is choosed based on the frequency involved and the effort to obtain ATF, the accuracy of the rapid evaluation of sound field is acceptable.

  9. Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test for yaws infection in a community surveillance setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marks

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yaws is a non-venereal treponemal infection caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue. The WHO has launched a worldwide control programme, which aims to eradicate yaws by 2020. The development of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT for serological diagnosis in the isolated communities affected by yaws is a key requirement for the successful implementation of the WHO strategy. We conducted a study to evaluate the utility of the DPP test in screening for yaws, utilizing samples collected as part of a community prevalence survey conducted in the Solomon Islands. 415 serum samples were tested using both traditional syphilis serology (TPPA and quantitative RPR and the Chembio DPP Syphilis Screen and Confirm RDT. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the RDT as compared to gold standard serology. The sensitivity of the RDT against TPPA was 58.5% and the specificity was 97.6%. The sensitivity of the RDT against RPR was 41.7% and the specificity was 95.2%. The sensitivity of the DPP was strongly related to the RPR titre with a sensitivity of 92.0% for an RPR titre of >1/16. Wider access to DPP testing would improve our understanding of worldwide yaws case reporting and the test may play a key role in assessing patients presenting with yaws like lesions in a post-mass drug administration (MDA setting.

  10. Evaluation of disintegration properties of orally rapidly disintegrating tablets using a novel disintegration tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keita; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a new disintegration tester that can determine not only the disintegration time of orally rapidly disintegrating tablets (ODT), but also the disintegration behavior and mechanism. Using the tester, the disintegration properties of the tablets prepared in a previous study were examined. The purpose of this study is to confirm the utility of the tester as an instrument for evaluating the disintegration properties of ODT and determine relations among time, behavior and mechanism of the disintegration. Results demonstrated that in vitro disintegration time in the tester is similar to that in the commercial disintegration tester for ODT and is highly correlated with oral disintegration time. Observations of disintegration process revealed that a difference in disintegration behavior between tablets compressed at 50-75 MPa and 100 MPa; the disintegration behavior of the tablets were designated immediate disintegrating type and gradual disintegrating type, respectively. The dynamic swelling profile and water absorption profile indicated that the disintegration mechanism of the tablets involved wicking action induced by swelling of the disintegrant; the disintegration time was closely related to the initial rates of swelling and water absorption. Furthermore, the mechanism of water absorption of tablets compressed at 50-75 MPa and 100 MPa shows anomalous diffusion and case-II transport, respectively. The shift in this mechanism is consistent with differences in disintegration time and behavior between the tablets. These findings suggest that information on disintegration properties obtained by our tester is useful for understanding of disintegration phenomena of ODT.

  11. The design evaluation of inductive power-transformer for personal rapid transit by measuring impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Byung-Song; Baek, Soo-Hyun

    2008-01-01

    The contact-less inductive power transformer (IPT) uses the principle of electromagnetic induction. The concept of the IPT for vehicles such as the personal rapid transit (PRT) system is proposed and some suggestions for power collector design of IPT to improve power transfer performance are presented in this paper. The aim of this paper is to recommend the concept of IPT for vehicles such as the PRT system and also to present some propositions for the power collector design of the IPT, which is to improve the power transfer performance. Generally, there are diverse methods to evaluate transfer performance of the traditional transformers. Although the principle of IPT is similar to that of the general transformer, it is impossible to apply the methods directly because of large air gap. The system must be compensated by resonant circuit due to the large air gap. Consequently, it is difficult to apply numerical formulas to the magnetic design of IPT systems. This paper investigates the magnetic design of a PRT system using three-dimensional magnetic modeling and measurements of the pick-up coupling coefficient and its impedances. In addition, how the use of Litz wire and leakage inductance is related will be observed through experiment and simulation

  12. Rapid prototyping and evaluation of programmable SIMD SDR processors in LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Liu, Hengzhu; Zhang, Botao; Liu, Dongpei

    2013-03-01

    With the development of international wireless communication standards, there is an increase in computational requirement for baseband signal processors. Time-to-market pressure makes it impossible to completely redesign new processors for the evolving standards. Due to its high flexibility and low power, software defined radio (SDR) digital signal processors have been proposed as promising technology to replace traditional ASIC and FPGA fashions. In addition, there are large numbers of parallel data processed in computation-intensive functions, which fosters the development of single instruction multiple data (SIMD) architecture in SDR platform. So a new way must be found to prototype the SDR processors efficiently. In this paper we present a bit-and-cycle accurate model of programmable SIMD SDR processors in a machine description language LISA. LISA is a language for instruction set architecture which can gain rapid model at architectural level. In order to evaluate the availability of our proposed processor, three common baseband functions, FFT, FIR digital filter and matrix multiplication have been mapped on the SDR platform. Analytical results showed that the SDR processor achieved the maximum of 47.1% performance boost relative to the opponent processor.

  13. Screening test for rapid food safety evaluation by menadione-catalysed chemiluminescent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashoji, Shiro; Yoshikawa, Naoko; Kirihara, Masayuki; Tsuneyoshi, Toshihiro

    2013-06-15

    The chemiluminescent assay of menadione-catalysed H2O2 production by living mammalian cells was proposed to be useful for rapid food safety evaluation. The tested foods were extracted with water, ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide, and each extract was incubated with NIH3T3, Neuro-2a and HepG2 cells for 4h. Menadione-catalysed H2O2 production by living mammalian cells exposed to each extract was determined by the chemiluminescent assay requiring only 10 min, and the viability of the cells was estimated as percentage based on H2O2 production by intact cells. In this study the cytotoxicity of food was rated in order of inhibitory effect on H2O2 production by intact cells. The well known natural toxins such as Fusarium mycotoxin, tomato toxin tomatine, potato toxin solanine and marine toxins terodotoxin and brevetoxin could be detected by the above chemiluminescent assay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel Detection Strategy To Rapidly Evaluate the Efficacy of Antichlamydial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xian, Yuqi; Gao, Leiqiong; Elaasar, Hiba; Wang, Yao; Tauhid, Lamiya; Hua, Ziyu; Shen, Li

    2017-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections present a major heath burden worldwide. The conventional method used to detect C. trachomatis is laborious. In the present study, a novel strategy was utilized to evaluate the impact of antimicrobial agents on the growth of C. trachomatis and its expression of ompA promoter-driven green fluorescence protein (GFP). We demonstrate that this GFP reporter system gives a robust fluorescent display of C. trachomatis growth in human cervical epithelial cells and, further, that GFP production directly correlates to changes in ompA expression following sufficient exposure to antimicrobials. Validation with azithromycin, the first-line macrolide drug used for the treatment of C. trachomatis infection, highlights the advantages of this method over the traditional method because of its simplicity and versatility. The results indicate both that ompA is highly responsive to antimicrobials targeting the transcription and translation of C. trachomatis and that there is a correlation between changing GFP levels and C. trachomatis growth. This proof-of-concept study also reveals that the ompA-GFP system can be easily adapted to rapidly assess antimicrobial effectiveness in a high-throughput format. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Evaluation of ViroCyt® Virus Counter for Rapid Filovirus Quantitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A. Rossi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Development and evaluation of medical countermeasures for diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics requires production of standardized, reproducible, and well characterized virus preparations. For filoviruses this includes plaque assay for quantitation of infectious virus, transmission electron microscopy (TEM for morphology and quantitation of virus particles, and real-time reverse transcription PCR for quantitation of viral RNA (qRT-PCR. The ViroCyt® Virus Counter (VC 2100 (ViroCyt, Boulder, CO, USA is a flow-based instrument capable of quantifying virus particles in solution. Using a proprietary combination of fluorescent dyes that stain both nucleic acid and protein in a single 30 min step, rapid, reproducible, and cost-effective quantification of filovirus particles was demonstrated. Using a seed stock of Ebola virus variant Kikwit, the linear range of the instrument was determined to be 2.8E+06 to 1.0E+09 virus particles per mL with coefficient of variation ranging from 9.4% to 31.5% for samples tested in triplicate. VC particle counts for various filovirus stocks were within one log of TEM particle counts. A linear relationship was established between the plaque assay, qRT-PCR, and the VC. VC results significantly correlated with both plaque assay and qRT-PCR. These results demonstrated that the VC is an easy, fast, and consistent method to quantify filoviruses in stock preparations.

  16. Evaluation of ViroCyt® Virus Counter for Rapid Filovirus Quantitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A. Rossi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Development and evaluation of medical countermeasures for diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics requires production of standardized, reproducible, and well characterized virus preparations. For filoviruses this includes plaque assay for quantitation of infectious virus, transmission electron microscopy (TEM for morphology and quantitation of virus particles, and real-time reverse transcription PCR for quantitation of viral RNA (qRT-PCR. The ViroCyt® Virus Counter (VC 2100 (ViroCyt, Boulder, CO, USA is a flow-based instrument capable of quantifying virus particles in solution. Using a proprietary combination of fluorescent dyes that stain both nucleic acid and protein in a single 30 min step, rapid, reproducible, and cost-effective quantification of filovirus particles was demonstrated. Using a seed stock of Ebola virus variant Kikwit, the linear range of the instrument was determined to be 2.8E+06 to 1.0E+09 virus particles per mL with coefficient of variation ranging from 9.4% to 31.5% for samples tested in triplicate. VC particle counts for various filovirus stocks were within one log of TEM particle counts. A linear relationship was established between the plaque assay, qRT-PCR, and the VC. VC results significantly correlated with both plaque assay and qRT-PCR. These results demonstrated that the VC is an easy, fast, and consistent method to quantify filoviruses in stock preparations.

  17. An inexpensive and portable microvolumeter for rapid evaluation of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, John K; Wcislo, William T

    2010-08-01

    We describe an improved microvolumeter (MVM) for rapidly measuring volumes of small biological samples, including live zooplankton, embryos, and small animals and organs. Portability and low cost make this instrument suitable for widespread use, including at remote field sites. Beginning with Archimedes' principle, which states that immersing an arbitrarily shaped sample in a fluid-filled container displaces an equivalent volume, we identified procedures that maximize measurement accuracy and repeatability across a broad range of absolute volumes. Crucial steps include matching the overall configuration to the size of the sample, using reflected light to monitor fluid levels precisely, and accounting for evaporation during measurements. The resulting precision is at least 100 times higher than in previous displacement-based methods. Volumes are obtained much faster than by traditional histological or confocal methods and without shrinkage artifacts due to fixation or dehydration. Calibrations using volume standards confirmed accurate measurements of volumes as small as 0.06 microL. We validated the feasibility of evaluating soft-tissue samples by comparing volumes of freshly dissected ant brains measured with the MVM and by confocal reconstruction.

  18. A rapid in vitro screening system for the identification and evaluation of anticancer drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, J.W.; Collins, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    We report the development of an in vitro screening system that can be used to identify new anticancer drugs that are specifically cytotoxic for dividing cells. The screening system takes advantage of the potential of many cell lines, including tumor cells, to stop dividing when they are plated at high cell density. The cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs on dividing (i.e., cells plated at low cell density) and nondividing cells (i.e., cells plated at high cell density) is measured by the incorporation of 51Cr. This in vitro system was evaluated by measuring the cytotoxic effects of the anticancer drugs cisplatin, thiotepa, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and vinblastine on the cell lines B/C-N, ME-180, and MCF-7. In this in vitro system the concentrations of the anticancer drugs that produced significant cytotoxicity on only dividing cells are similar to the concentrations that are used clinically. The fact that this in vitro system is rapid, simple, applicable to many cell types, and able to predict effective concentrations of anticancer drugs should make it useful for the screening of new anticancer drugs and for the design of preclinical studies

  19. Evaluation of mechanical properties for spherical magnetic regenerator materials fabricated by rapid solidification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, M.; Sori, N.; Saito, A.

    1997-01-01

    Various magnetic regenerator materials, such as Er 3 Ni, Er 3 Co and ErNi, are fabricated in the form of a spherical particle by a rapid solidification process. 4 K level refrigeration has been obtained by a GM refrigerator using these materials. However, the magnetic regenerator materials are considered brittle, as they are intermetallic compounds. It is important to evaluate the mechanical properties of these materials to confirm reliability as a regenerator material. In this paper, experimental results of compression and vibration tests for magnetic regenerator materials are described. The technical point of this study is to use spherical particles as test samples. The compressive stress of 20 MPa was applied to these spherical particles and no fractured spheres were observed. Similarly, no fractured spheres were found after the vibration test, in which the maximum acceleration was 30 X 9.8 m/s 2 and the number of vibration times was 1 X 10 6 , insofar as there was no room to stir spherical particles in a regenerator. In practice, the reliability of magnetic regenerator materials has been confirmed by a long-run test of 7,000 h in a usual GM refrigerator

  20. Management of unscheduled tetanus prophylaxis in Emergency Departments: Point-of-Care implementation as a rapid tool for the evaluation of anti-tetanus antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rocchetti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Each analytical activity, including those carried out in Point of Care (POCT must be, at law, under the control of Laboratory Medicine. Before the implementation of the rapid tetanus quick stick (TQS test for the evaluation of the specific tetanus immunisation, a multi-disciplinary and multi-professional group was created. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of Emergency Department (ED staff to manage and correctly understand the result of TQS test in POCT. Materials and Methods: This analysis took into consideration 152 patients admitted to ED with traumatic wounds; information on the state of tetanus immunisation at their arrival wasn’t recorded. Blood sample analysis was performed twice. The Laboratory confirmed a 100% concordance between their results and ELISA test (standard criterion. Study design consisted of 2 phases: the first one (50 test to preliminarily evaluate if any corrective action or improvement of procedures is required, and the second one (102 tests to confirm the quality of corrective actions. Results: The concordance of results between TQS test in Laboratory and POCT test in ED was 80% in the first phase and 95% in the second one.Conclusions: The use of the rapid TQS test is a valuable tool; however, to avoid serious mistakes of interpretation, periodic checks on the quality of the results must be arranged.

  1. Evaluation of quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Jamille A. Lopes; Lira, Renata F. de; Santos, Marcus Aurelio P. dos

    2014-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are a type of pharmaceutical preparation associated with radionuclides with purpose of diagnosis and therapy. Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS) should perform quality control of radiopharmaceuticals according to the recommendations of the manufacturer and scientific evidences accepted by the National Agency Sanitary Surveillance ( Brazilian ANVISA). This study evaluated the quality of the main radiopharmaceuticals in a NMS of the state of Pernambuco in relation to pH and radiochemical purity. The results showed that 96.8% of the radiopharmaceuticals showed radiochemical purity and all pH values were within the range recommended by the American pharmacopoeia. The study found that the quality control when inserted into the NMS, provides important data that allows exclusion of radiopharmaceuticals with low radiochemistry purity, favoring a reliable diagnosis and ensuring good radiation protection practices and biosecurity for patient and occupationally exposed individuals

  2. Evaluating the police service quality for handling traffic crash reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær; Kaplan, Sigal; Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2017-01-01

    at the police service quality for handling the reporting of traffic crashes. Design/methodology/approach This study introduces a novel approach to evaluate service quality that combines multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) with latent class analysis (LCA). Moreover, this study presents the design of a web....../value This study advances the knowledge about police service quality with a novel expert-based decision support tool based on SERVQUAL, MCDA and LCA, demonstrates its applicability in countries with a high-police service, and opportunities and barriers for increasing the crash reporting rate....... participated in the survey that yielded 86 complete responses. Findings The novel approach was successfully applied and its implementation demonstrated the usefulness of the tool even in countries with a high police service. Results showed that the participating stakeholders perceived human factors as more...

  3. Quality Evaluation of Agricultural Distillates Using an Electronic Nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Dymerski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing in quality was obtained by barbotage. Interpretation of the results involved three data analysis techniques: principal component analysis, single-linkage cluster analysis and cluster analysis with spheres method. The investigations prove the usefulness of the presented technique in the quality control of agricultural distillates. Optimum measurements conditions were also defined, including volumetric flow rate of carrier gas (15 L/h, thermostat temperature during the barbotage process (15 °C and time of sensor signal acquisition from the onset of the barbotage process (60 s.

  4. Quality evaluation of agricultural distillates using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-11-25

    The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing in quality was obtained by barbotage. Interpretation of the results involved three data analysis techniques: principal component analysis, single-linkage cluster analysis and cluster analysis with spheres method. The investigations prove the usefulness of the presented technique in the quality control of agricultural distillates. Optimum measurements conditions were also defined, including volumetric flow rate of carrier gas (15 L/h), thermostat temperature during the barbotage process (15 °C) and time of sensor signal acquisition from the onset of the barbotage process (60 s).

  5. Rapid and simple method for quantitative evaluation of neurocytotoxic effects of radiation on developing medaka brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Takako; Maeda, Keiko; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Maruyama, Kouichi; Ishikawa, Yuji; Yoshimoto, Masami

    2008-01-01

    We describe a novel method for rapid and quantitative evaluation of the degree of radiation-induced apoptosis in the developing brain of medaka (Oryzias latipes). Embryos at stage 28 were irradiated with 1, 2, 3.5, and 5 Gy x-ray. Living embryos were stained with a vital dye, acridine orange (AO), for 1-2 h, and whole-mount brains were examined under an epifluorescence microscope. From 7 to 10 h after irradiation with 5 Gy x-ray, we found two morphologically different types of AO-stained structures, namely, small single nuclei and rosette-shaped nuclear clusters. Electron microscopy revealed that these two distinct types of structures were single apoptotic cells with condensed nuclei and aggregates of apoptotic cells, respectively. From 10 to 30 h after irradiation, a similar AO-staining pattern was observed. The numbers of AO-stained rosette-shaped nuclear clusters and AO-stained single nuclei increased in a dose-dependent manner in the optic tectum. We used the number of AO-stained rosette-shaped nuclear clusters/optic tectum as an index of the degree of radiation-induced brain cell death at 20-24 h after irradiation. The results showed that the number of rosette-shaped nuclear clusters/optic tectum in irradiated embryos exposed to 2 Gy or higher doses was highly significant compared to the number in nonirradiated control embryos, whereas no difference was detected at 1 Gy. Thus, the threshold dose for brain cell death in medaka embryos was taken as being between 1-2 Gy, which may not be so extraordinarily large compared to those for rodents and humans. The results show that medaka embryos are useful for quantitative evaluation of developmental neurocytotoxic effects of radiation. (author)

  6. Digital radiographic evaluation of the midpalatal suture in patients submitted to rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Batista de Melo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze the density of the midpalatal suture by means of digital radiographs three months after retention to evaluate if this period of retention is really sufficient for bone repair. Materials and Methods: This prospective study consisted of 31 patients (11 girls and 20 boys in the mixed or permanent dentition stage, treated using a tooth-tissue borne expanders (Haas. Occlusal digital radiographs were taken at three stages: prior to rapid maxillary expansion (Stage I; immediately after desired maxillary expansion (Stage II; and after three months of retention (Stage III. Radiographs were taken on a dental X-ray machine, set at 70 kVp and 7 mA with an exposure time of 0.04 s. A phosphor storage plate system, imaging plate size n. 2 (35 × 45 × 1.6 mm, was used. Three regions (A, B and C measured 0.02 mm² were selected for optical density analysis. The difference between the measurements was evaluated with the paired t-test. Results: The optical density was reduced at Stages II and III compared with Stage I. Between-stage comparison showed statistically significant changes for all variables (P < 0.05, with the highest mean optical density at Stage I and the lowest at Stage II, in all groups. Actually, there was an increase in optical density between Stages II and III, but they are reduced compared with Stage I. Conclusion: The results strongly suggest that bone formation did not occur as expected, and that a longer retention period for bone repair may be necessary.

  7. Service Quality Evaluation and Ranking of Container Terminal Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Sayareh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the service industry, the regular assessment of service quality is considered as a means of promoting the quality of services. Container market is no exception, and the quality of providing service in a container terminal is of prime importance in attracting new customers and maintaining the existing ones. The main aim of present research is to evaluate the quality of service being offered at Shahid Rajaee Container Terminal (SRCT in Bandar Abbas port. The evaluation process uses SERVQUAL model which is an appropriate tool for measuring the service quality, identifying and analyzing available gaps between service expectations and perceptions. Target population in this research includes customers of SRCT. The standard and customized questionnaires were distributed among 165 samples, out of which 127 (77% were returned. For the purpose of data analyses, initially the reliability of SERVQUAL model was checked, and then paired sample t-test was performed to reveal any possible gap between expectations and perceptions of respondents. Finally, TOPSIS was used to rank the 9 main container service companies in the SRCT. The results indicated that there are significant gaps between customers’ expectations and perceptions in SRCT, in all five dimensions of services quality. Additionally, from weighing point of view, ‘Tangibles’ was the most important dimension, followed by ‘Reliability’, ‘Assurance’, ‘Responsiveness’ and ‘Empathy’. In addition, ‘Tangibles’ dimension had maximum gap and ‘Empathy’ dimension had minimum gap between customers’ expectations and perceptions. Finally, after ranking companies, BandarAbbas Aria Container Terminal (BACT Company was ranked first among nine companies in satisfying customers’ expectations.

  8. Evaluation of three rapid oral fluid test devices on the screening of multiple drugs of abuse including ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Magdalene H Y; Ching, C K; Poon, Simon; Chan, Suzanne S S; Ng, W Y; Lam, M; Wong, C K; Pao, Ronnie; Lau, Angus; Mak, Tony W L

    2018-05-01

    Rapid oral fluid testing (ROFT) devices have been extensively evaluated for their ability to detect common drugs of abuse; however, the performance of such devices on simultaneous screening for ketamine has been scarcely investigated. The present study evaluated three ROFT devices (DrugWipe ® 6S, Ora-Check ® and SalivaScreen ® ) on the detection of ketamine, opiates, methamphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and MDMA. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS) assay was firstly established and validated for confirmation analysis of the six types of drugs and/or their metabolites. In the field test, the three ROFT devices were tested on subjects recruited from substance abuse clinics/rehabilitation centre. Oral fluid was also collected using Quantisal ® for confirmation analysis. A total of 549 samples were collected in the study. LCMS analysis on 491 samples revealed the following drugs: codeine (55%), morphine (49%), heroin (40%), methamphetamine (35%), THC (8%), ketamine (4%) and cocaine (2%). No MDMA-positive cases were observed. Results showed that the overall specificity and accuracy were satisfactory and met the DRUID standard of >80% for all 3 devices. Ora-Check ® had poor sensitivities (ketamine 36%, methamphetamine 63%, opiates 53%, cocaine 60%, THC 0%). DrugWipe ® 6S showed good sensitivities in the methamphetamine (83%) and opiates (93%) tests but performed relatively poorly for ketamine (41%), cocaine (43%) and THC (22%). SalivaScreen ® also demonstrated good sensitivities in the methamphetamine (83%) and opiates (100%) tests, and had the highest sensitivity for ketamine (76%) and cocaine (71%); however, it failed to detect any of the 28 THC-positive cases. The test completion rate (proportion of tests completed with quality control passed) were: 52% (Ora-Check ® ), 78% (SalivaScreen ® ) and 99% (DrugWipe ® 6S). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the BYG Carba Test, a New Electrochemical Assay for Rapid Laboratory Detection of Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Sami; Massart, Marion; Huang, Te-Din; Glupczynski, Youri

    2015-01-01

    Accurate detection of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) constitutes a major laboratory diagnostic challenge. We evaluated an electrochemical technique (the BYG Carba test) which allows detection of CPE in less than 35 min. The BYG Carba test was first validated in triplicate against 57 collection isolates with previously characterized β-lactam resistance mechanisms (OXA-48, n = 12; KPC, n = 8; NDM, n = 8; VIM, n = 8; IMP, n = 3; GIM, n = 1; GES-6, n = 1; no carbapenemase, n = 16) and against a panel of 10 isolates obtained from the United Kingdom National External Quality Assessment Service (NEQAS). The test was then evaluated prospectively against 324 isolates referred to the national reference center for suspicion of CPE. The BYG Carba test results were compared with those obtained with the Carba NP test using multiplex PCR sequencing as the gold standard. Of the 57 collection and the 10 NEQAS isolates, all but one GES-6-producing isolate were correctly identified by the Carba BYG test. Among the 324 consecutive Enterobacteriaceae isolates tested prospectively, 146 were confirmed as noncarbapenemase producers by PCR while 178 harbored a carbapenemase gene (OXA-48, n = 117; KPC, n = 25; NDM, n = 23; and VIM, n = 13). Prospectively, in comparison with PCR results, the BYG Carba test displayed 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity versus 89% and 100%, respectively, for the Carba NP test. The BYG Carba test is a novel, rapid, and efficient assay based on an electro-active polymer biosensing technology discriminating between CPE and non-CPE. The precise electrochemical signal (electrochemical impedance variations) allows the establishment of real-time objective measurement and interpretation criteria which should facilitate the accreditation process of this technology. PMID:26637378

  10. Understanding biomaterial-tissue interface quality: combined in vitro evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasik, Michael

    2017-12-01

    One of the greatest challenges in the development of new medical products and devices remains in providing maximal patient safety, efficacy and suitability for the purpose. A 'good quality' of the tissue-implant interface is one of the most critical factors for the success of the implant integration. In this paper this challenge is being discussed from the point of view of basic stimuli combination to experimental testing. The focus is in particular on bacterial effects on tissue-implant interaction (for different materials). The demonstration of the experimental evaluation of the tissue-implant interface is for dental abutment with mucosal contact. This shows that testing of the interface quality could be the most relevant in controlled conditions, which mimic as possible the clinical applications, but consider variables being under the control of the evaluator.

  11. Evaluation of air quality and noise impact assessments, Davis Canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In this report, several issues are identified regarding the air quality and noise assessments presented in the final salt repository environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the US Department of Energy for the Davis Canyon, Utah, site. Necessary revisions to the data and methods used to develop the EA impact assessment are described. Then, a comparative evaluation is presented in which estimated impacts based upon the revised data and methods are compared with the impacts published in the EA. The evaluation indicates that the conclusions of the EA air quality and noise impact sections would be unchanged. Consequently, the guideline findings presented in Chapter 6 of the EA are also unchanged by the revised analysis. 50 refs., 16 tabs

  12. Quality of life evaluation of workers for diagnostic radiology services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Ivani Martins

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of diagnostic radiology services workers at a hospital of Sao Paulo city. It aimed also to draw the profile of these workers identifying the variables, as its influence on their quality of life. A descriptive exploratory study with qualitative and quantitative approaches was carried out. The data were collected using the questionnaires: the abbreviated instrument for the assessment of the QOL, World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument bref (WHOQOL-bref) and a questionnaire including the social demographic variables, work conditions and the variables that express the lifestyle of individuals, both questionnaires self-applied. The sample was formed by 118 workers, among them: physicians, technologists/technicians in radiology, nurses, technicians and assistants in nursing, and others health professionals. The data analysis included descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and the use of a linear regression model. The reliability of the instrument for the studied sample was verified by Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient (α). The WHOQOL-bref proved to be an adequate instrument, with a good level of internal consistency (α=0.884), being easily and quickly administrated for the evaluation of the QOL. The study provided an overview of the perception of quality of life of the studied group. (author)

  13. Rapid, easy, and cheap randomization: prospective evaluation in a study cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Melissa J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When planning a randomized controlled trial (RCT, investigators must select randomization and allocation procedures based upon a variety of factors. While third party randomization is cited as being among the most desirable randomization processes, many third party randomization procedures are neither feasible nor cost-effective for small RCTs, including pilot RCTs. In this study we present our experience with a third party randomization and allocation procedure that utilizes current technology to achieve randomization in a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective manner. Methods This method was developed by the investigators for use in a small 48-participant parallel group RCT with four study arms. As a nested study, the reliability of this randomization procedure was prospectively evaluated in this cohort. The primary outcome of this nested study was the proportion of subjects for whom allocation information was obtained by the Research Assistant within 15 min of the initial participant randomization request. A secondary outcome was the average time for communicating participant group assignment back to the Research Assistant. Descriptive information regarding any failed attempts at participant randomization as well as costs attributable to use of this method were also recorded. Statistical analyses included the calculation of simple proportions and descriptive statistics. Results Forty-eight participants were successfully randomized and group allocation instruction was received for 46 (96% within 15 min of the Research Assistant placing the initial randomization request. Time elapsed in minutes until receipt of participant allocation instruction was Mean (SD 3.1 +/− 3.6; Median (IQR 2 (2,3; Range (1–20 for the entire cohort of 48. For the two participants for whom group allocation information was not received by the Research Assistant within the 15-min pass threshold, this information was obtained following a second

  14. Quality Evaluation of Agricultural Distillates Using an Electronic Nose

    OpenAIRE

    Dymerski, Tomasz; Gębicki, Jacek; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the application of an electronic nose instrument to fast evaluation of agricultural distillates differing in quality. The investigations were carried out using a prototype of electronic nose equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors by FIGARO Co., an electronic circuit converting signal into digital form and a set of thermostats able to provide gradient temperature characteristics to a gas mixture. A volatile fraction of the agricultural distillate samples differing ...

  15. The GLAaS algorithm for portal dosimetry and quality assurance of RapidArc, an intensity modulated rotational therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolini, Giorgia; Vanetti, Eugenio; Clivio, Alessandro; Fogliata, Antonella; Korreman, Stine; Bocanek, Jiri; Cozzi, Luca

    2008-01-01

    To expand and test the dosimetric procedure, known as GLAaS, for amorphous silicon detectors to the RapidArc intensity modulated arc delivery with Varian infrastructures and to test the RapidArc dosimetric reliability between calculation and delivery. The GLAaS algorithm was applied and tested on a set of RapidArc fields at both low (6 MV) and high (18 MV) beam energies with a PV-aS1000 detector. Pilot tests for short arcs were performed on a 6 MV beam associated to a PV-aS500. RapidArc is a novel planning and delivery method in the category of intensity modulated arc therapies aiming to deliver highly modulated plans with variable MLC shapes, dose rate and gantry speed during rotation. Tests were repeated for entire (360 degrees) gantry rotations on composite dose plans and for short partial arcs (of ~6 or 12 degrees) to assess GLAaS and RapidArc mutual relationships on global and fine delivery scales. The gamma index concept of Low and the Modulation Index concept of Webb were applied to compare quantitatively TPS dose matrices and dose converted PV images. The Gamma Agreement Index computed for a Distance to Agreement of 3 mm and a Dose Difference (ΔD) of 3% was, as mean ± 1 SD, 96.7 ± 1.2% at 6 MV and 94.9 ± 1.3% at 18 MV, over the field area. These findings deteriorated slightly is ΔD was reduced to 2% (93.4 ± 3.2% and 90.1 ± 3.1%, respectively) and improved with ΔD = 4% (98.3 ± 0.8% and 97.3 ± 0.9%, respectively). For all tests a grid of 1 mm and the AAA photon dose calculation algorithm were applied. The spatial resolution of the PV-aS1000 is 0.392 mm/pxl. The Modulation Index for calculations resulted 17.0 ± 3.2 at 6 MV and 15.3 ± 2.7 at 18 MV while the corresponding data for measurements were: 18.5 ± 3.7 and 17.5 ± 3.7. Partial arcs findings were (for ΔD = 3%): GAI = 96.7 ± 0.9% for 6° rotations and 98.0 ± 1.1% for 12° rotations. The GLAaS method can be considered as a valid Quality Assurance tool for the verification of RapidArc fields

  16. Ejercicio interlaboratorio de bioensayos marinos para la evaluacion de la calidad ambiental de sedimentos costeros en Espana. II Ensayo de inhibicion dela bioluminiscencia para la evaluacion rapida de la toxicidad de sedimentos = Interlaboratory assessment of marine bioassays to evaluate the environmental quality of coastal sediments in Spain. II. Bioluminescence inhibition test for rapid sediment toxicity assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casado-Martinez, M.C.; Campisi, T.; Diaz, A.; Re, Lo R.; Obispo, R.; Postma, J.F.; Riba, I.; Sneekes, A.C.; Buceta, J.L.; DelValls, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    The Microtox (R) bioassay was tested in an interlaboratory study to evaluate the variability when using solid-phase samples. The exercise consisted of two consecutive phases each one carried out with six sediment samples from Spanish ports. Phase I included six laboratories that reported results for

  17. Non-invasive quality evaluation of confluent cells by image-based orientation heterogeneity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kei; Sasaki, Hiroto; Takahashi, Atsuki; Kang, Siu; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Kato, Ryuji

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, cell and tissue therapy in regenerative medicine have advanced rapidly towards commercialization. However, conventional invasive cell quality assessment is incompatible with direct evaluation of the cells produced for such therapies, especially in the case of regenerative medicine products. Our group has demonstrated the potential of quantitative assessment of cell quality, using information obtained from cell images, for non-invasive real-time evaluation of regenerative medicine products. However, image of cells in the confluent state are often difficult to evaluate, because accurate recognition of cells is technically difficult and the morphological features of confluent cells are non-characteristic. To overcome these challenges, we developed a new image-processing algorithm, heterogeneity of orientation (H-Orient) processing, to describe the heterogeneous density of cells in the confluent state. In this algorithm, we introduced a Hessian calculation that converts pixel intensity data to orientation data and a statistical profiling calculation that evaluates the heterogeneity of orientations within an image, generating novel parameters that yield a quantitative profile of an image. Using such parameters, we tested the algorithm's performance in discriminating different qualities of cellular images with three types of clinically important cell quality check (QC) models: remaining lifespan check (QC1), manipulation error check (QC2), and differentiation potential check (QC3). Our results show that our orientation analysis algorithm could predict with high accuracy the outcomes of all types of cellular quality checks (>84% average accuracy with cross-validation). Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Research Quality Plus (RQ+) A Holistic Approach to Evaluating Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, R.K.D.; Feinstein, O.N.

    2016-07-01

    The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) strives to fund excellence in research - defining excellence as, {sup m}ethodologically sound, evidence-based, and scientifically robust{sup .} But how is the concept of excellence identified and evaluated across the diverse range of research the IDRC supports? The Research Quality Plus (RQ+) Assessment Framework was developed in order to address these complex issues. It provides a systems-informed approach to defining and evaluating the quality of research, and its positioning for use and impact. It allows tailoring to context, values, mandate and purpose, and can support planning, management and learning processes at any stage in the lifetime of a research project, program or grants portfolio. This paper presents: 1) the rationale for RQ+ creation, 2) the RQ+ Assessment Framework, and how it can be adapted and used, 3) our early experiences applying it in a series of extenal evaluations of research quality. The paper is presented by an RQ+ designer and an external user. (Author)

  19. Azimuthally acoustic logging tool to evaluate cementing quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Junqiang; Ju, Xiaodong; Qiao, Wenxiao; Men, Baiyong; Wang, Ruijia; Wu, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    An azimuthally sensitive acoustic bond tool (AABT) uses a phased arc array transmitter that can provide directionally focused radiation. The acoustic sonde consists of a phased arc array transmitter and two monopole receivers, the spaces from the transmitter being 0.91 m and 1.52 m, respectively. The transmitter includes eight transducer sub-units. By controlling the high-voltage firing signal phase for each transmitter, the radiation energy of the phased arc array transducer can be focused in a single direction. Compared with conventional monopole and dipole transmitters, the new transmitter provides cement quality evaluation with azimuthal sensitivity, which is not possible with conventional cement bond log/variable density log tools. Laboratory measurements indicate that the directivity curves for the phased arc array and those computed theoretically are consistent and show good agreement. We acquire measurements from a laboratory cistern and from the field to validate the reliability and applicability of the AABT. Results indicate that the AABT accurately evaluates the azimuthal cement quality of case-cement interfaces by imaging the amplitude of the first-arrival wave. This tool visualizes the size, position and orientation of channeling and holes. In the case of good case-cement bonding, the AABT also evaluates the azimuthal cementing quality of the cement formation interface by imaging the amplitude of formation waves. (paper)

  20. Quality Evaluation Scores are no more Reliable than Gestalt in Evaluating the Quality of Emergency Medicine Blogs: A METRIQ Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Brent; Sebok-Syer, Stefanie S; Colmers-Gray, Isabelle; Sherbino, Jonathan; Ankel, Felix; Trueger, N Seth; Grock, Andrew; Siemens, Marshall; Paddock, Michael; Purdy, Eve; Kenneth Milne, William; Chan, Teresa M

    2018-01-30

    Construct: We investigated the quality of emergency medicine (EM) blogs as educational resources. Online medical education resources such as blogs are increasingly used by EM trainees and clinicians. However, quality evaluations of these resources using gestalt are unreliable. We investigated the reliability of two previously derived quality evaluation instruments for blogs. Sixty English-language EM websites that published clinically oriented blog posts between January 1 and February 24, 2016, were identified. A random number generator selected 10 websites, and the 2 most recent clinically oriented blog posts from each site were evaluated using gestalt, the Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) Approved Instructional Resources (AIR) score, and the Medical Education Translational Resources: Impact and Quality (METRIQ-8) score, by a sample of medical students, EM residents, and EM attendings. Each rater evaluated all 20 blog posts with gestalt and 15 of the 20 blog posts with the ALiEM AIR and METRIQ-8 scores. Pearson's correlations were calculated between the average scores for each metric. Single-measure intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) evaluated the reliability of each instrument. Our study included 121 medical students, 88 EM residents, and 100 EM attendings who completed ratings. The average gestalt rating of each blog post correlated strongly with the average scores for ALiEM AIR (r = .94) and METRIQ-8 (r = .91). Single-measure ICCs were fair for gestalt (0.37, IQR 0.25-0.56), ALiEM AIR (0.41, IQR 0.29-0.60) and METRIQ-8 (0.40, IQR 0.28-0.59). The average scores of each blog post correlated strongly with gestalt ratings. However, neither ALiEM AIR nor METRIQ-8 showed higher reliability than gestalt. Improved reliability may be possible through rater training and instrument refinement.

  1. Headache service quality: evaluation of quality indicators in 14 specialist-care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Sara; Uluduz, Derya; Gouveia, Raquel Gil; Jensen, Rigmor; Siva, Aksel; Uygunoglu, Ugur; Gvantsa, Giorgadze; Mania, Maka; Braschinsky, Mark; Filatova, Elena; Latysheva, Nina; Osipova, Vera; Skorobogatykh, Kirill; Azimova, Julia; Straube, Andreas; Eren, Ozan Emre; Martelletti, Paolo; De Angelis, Valerio; Negro, Andrea; Linde, Mattias; Hagen, Knut; Radojicic, Aleksandra; Zidverc-Trajkovic, Jasna; Podgorac, Ana; Paemeleire, Koen; De Pue, Annelien; Lampl, Christian; Steiner, Timothy J; Katsarava, Zaza

    2016-12-01

    The study was a collaboration between Lifting The Burden (LTB) and the European Headache Federation (EHF). Its aim was to evaluate the implementation of quality indicators for headache care Europe-wide in specialist headache centres (level-3 according to the EHF/LTB standard). Employing previously-developed instruments in 14 such centres, we made enquiries, in each, of health-care providers (doctors, nurses, psychologists, physiotherapists) and 50 patients, and analysed the medical records of 50 other patients. Enquiries were in 9 domains: diagnostic accuracy, individualized management, referral pathways, patient's education and reassurance, convenience and comfort, patient's satisfaction, equity and efficiency of the headache care, outcome assessment and safety. Our study showed that highly experienced headache centres treated their patients in general very well. The centres were content with their work and their patients were content with their treatment. Including disability and quality-of-life evaluations in clinical assessments, and protocols regarding safety, proved problematic: better standards for these are needed. Some centres had problems with follow-up: many specialised centres operated in one-touch systems, without possibility of controlling long-term management or the success of treatments dependent on this. This first Europe-wide quality study showed that the quality indicators were workable in specialist care. They demonstrated common trends, producing evidence of what is majority practice. They also uncovered deficits that might be remedied in order to improve quality. They offer the means of setting benchmarks against which service quality may be judged. The next step is to take the evaluation process into non-specialist care (EHF/LTB levels 1 and 2).

  2. Evaluation of a rapid LMP-based approach for calculating marginal unit emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Michelle M.; Wang, Yang; Wang, Caisheng; McElmurry, Shawn P.; Miller, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Pollutant emissions estimated based on locational marginal price and eGRID data. • Stochastic model using IEEE RTS-96 system used to evaluate LMP approach. • Incorporating membership function enhanced reliability of pollutant estimate. • Error in pollutant estimate typically 2 and X and SO 2 . - Abstract: To evaluate the sustainability of systems that draw power from electrical grids there is a need to rapidly and accurately quantify pollutant emissions associated with power generation. Air emissions resulting from electricity generation vary widely among power plants based on the types of fuel consumed, the efficiency of the plant, and the type of pollution control systems in service. To address this need, methods for estimating real-time air emissions from power generation based on locational marginal prices (LMPs) have been developed. Based on LMPs the type of the marginal generating unit can be identified and pollutant emissions are estimated. While conceptually demonstrated, this LMP approach has not been rigorously tested. The purpose of this paper is to (1) improve the LMP method for predicting pollutant emissions and (2) evaluate the reliability of this technique through power system simulations. Previous LMP methods were expanded to include marginal emissions estimates using an LMP Emissions Estimation Method (LEEM). The accuracy of emission estimates was further improved by incorporating a probability distribution function that characterize generator fuel costs and a membership function (MF) capable of accounting for multiple marginal generation units. Emission estimates were compared to those predicted from power flow simulations. The improved LEEM was found to predict the marginal generation type approximately 70% of the time based on typical system conditions (e.g. loads and fuel costs) without the use of a MF. With the addition of a MF, the LEEM was found to provide emission estimates with

  3. Comparative evaluation of two rapid Salmonella-IgM tests and blood culture in the diagnosis of enteric fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K J; Oberoi, J K; Goel, N; Wattal, C

    2015-01-01

    Enteric fever is a major public health problem in developing countries like India. An early and accurate diagnosis is necessary for a prompt and effective treatment. We have evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of two Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests (Typhidot-IgM and Enteroscreen-IgM) as compared to blood culture in rapid and early diagnosis of enteric fever. A total of 2,699 patients' serum samples were tested by Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests and blood culture. Patients were divided into two groups. Test group - patients with enteric fever and blood culture positives for Salmonella Typhi; and three types of Controls, i.e. patients with non-enteric fever illnesses, normal healthy controls and patients positive for S. Paratyphi- A. In addition to this we have also evaluated the significance of positive Salmonella-IgM tests among blood culture-negative cases. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the Typhidot-IgM test and Enteroscreen-IgM test considering blood culture as gold standard were 97.29% and 88.13%, 97.40% and 87.83%, 98.18% and 92.03%, 96.15% and 82.27%, respectively. Typhidot-IgM test was found to be significantly more sensitive and specific as compared to Enteroscreen-IgM. Among blood culture-negative patients, Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests detected 72.25% additional cases of enteric fever. Although the Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests are meant to diagnose S. Typhi only, but these tests detect S. Paratyphi- A also. Thirty-eight patients who were blood culture-positive for S. Paratyphi- A were also positive by Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests. Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests offer an advantage of increased sensitivity, rapidity, early diagnosis and simplicity over blood culture.

  4. Effect of Rapid Chilling on Beef Quality and Cytoskeletal Protein Degradation in of Chinese Yellow Crossbred Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Mao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rapid chilling (RC on beef quality and the degradation of cytoskeletal proteins. Twenty Chinese Yellow crossbred bulls were selected and randomly divided into two groups. RC and conventional chilling (CC were applied to left and right sides of the carcasses respectively after slaughtering. To determine whether electrical stimulation (ES treatment can alleviate the potential hazard of RC on meat quality, ES was applied to one group. The effects of RC and ES were determined by meat color, shear force and cytoskeletal protein degradation postmortem (PM. The results showed that RC decreased beef tenderness at 1 d and 3 d postmortem, but had no detrimental effect on meat color. Western blotting showed that RC decreased the degradation rate of desmin and troponin-T, but the effects weakened gradually as postmortem aging extended. Degradation rates of both desmin and troponin-T were accelerated by ES. The combination of RC and ES could improve beef color, accelerate degradation rate of cytoskeletal protein and improve beef tenderness.

  5. Continuing Professional Development Evaluation: Two Rapid Review Courses inNephrology and Rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Shehab

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Continuing professional development (CPD is anovel approach to increase professional knowledge and skills. The aim of this study is to explore participants’ characteristics and to understand participants’ views on two rapid review courses (RRCs as part of CPD program, and to assess healthcare providers’ views about the use of internet for accessing medical information.Methods: Data were collected from 150 participants who attended an RRC in Nephrology and Rheumatology as part of an ongoing CME program.Results: Participants’ response rate was 92% and 84.4% in Nephrology and Rheumatology RRCs, respectively. Participants’ Mean Age±SD were 39±2.1 and 41±2.1 years in the Nephrology and Rheumatology courses, respectively. Demographic variables, i.e., age, gender, and specialization showed a significant (p<0.01 impact on the learning objectives of the program. Further, participants reported that the course material had a significant (p<0.02 impacton their knowledge. Finding new medical information was the primary motive to search the internet among all participants. About half of the subjects reported knowledge of their preferred medical education sites and had access at their clinical setup. Barriers to internet use included lack of specific information, difficulty to download contents, and excessive material. Professional association websites, online journals, and CME programs were the most frequently searched sources of information. Most of the subjects reported significant (p<0.02 barriers to find medical resources on the internet and to adequately utilize the currently available medical search engines available in the healthcare system.Conclusion: A discipline specific and integrated CPD programmay have provided dual benefit such as accredited CME hours and a significant change in the participants’ knowledge. There is a need to increase Internet accessibility and capacity in the current healthcare facilities. Future CPD

  6. Prospective evaluation of three rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of human leptospirosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga G A Goris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of leptospirosis by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT or by culture is confined to specialized laboratories. Although ELISA techniques are more common, they still require laboratory facilities. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs can be used for easy point-of-care diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the RDTs LeptoTek Dri Dot, LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and Leptocheck-WB, prospectively. METHODOLOGY: During 2001 to 2012, one or two of the RDTs at the same time have been applied prior to routine diagnostics (MAT, ELISA and culture on serum specimens from participants sent in for leptospirosis diagnosis. The case definition was based on MAT, ELISA and culture results. Participants not fulfilling the case definition were considered not to have leptospirosis. The diagnostic accuracy was determined based on the 1(st submitted sample and paired samples, either in an overall analysis or stratified according to days post onset of illness. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity for the LeptoTek Dri Dot was 75% respectively 96%, for the LeptoTek Lateral Flow 78% respectively 95%, and for the Leptocheck-WB 78% respectively 98%. Based on the 1(st submitted sample the sensitivity was low (51% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 69% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 55% for Leptocheck-WB, but substantially increased when the results of paired samples were combined, although accompanied by a lower specificity (82% respectively 91% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 86% respectively 84% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 80% respectively 93% for Leptocheck-WB. CONCLUSIONS: All three tests present antibody tests contributing to the diagnosis of leptospirosis, thus supporting clinical suspicion and contributing to awareness. Since the overall sensitivity of the tested RDTs did not exceed 80%, one should be cautious to rely only on an RDT result, and confirmation by reference tests is strongly recommended.

  7. Laboratory evaluation of immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests for cholera in Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo R Matias

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for cholera are promising tools for detecting cholera in areas with limited laboratory infrastructure. However, evidence on the characteristics of the many available RDTs is scarce, and their use has been limited by suboptimal performance. We evaluated the performance characteristics of three cholera RDTs from Span Diagnostics, Artron Laboratories, and Standard Diagnostics in a regional laboratory in Haiti.We retrospectively reviewed records from May 2014 to October 2015 of a laboratory-based surveillance program for Vibrio cholerae at Hôpital Saint-Nicolas in Saint-Marc, Haiti. We compared the results of 511 Crystal VC, 129 Artron and 451 SD Bioline RDTs to bacterial culture as the gold standard. Of 905 cultures, 477 (52.7% were positive for V. cholerae O1, of which 27.7% were serotype Inaba. No cultures grew V. cholerae O139. Sensitivity and specificity of Crystal VC were 98.6% (95%CI: 96.5%-99.6% and 71.1% (95%CI: 64.7%-76.9%, respectively. Artron demonstrated a sensitivity of 98.6% (95%CI: 92.7%-100% and specificity of 69.1% (95%CI: 55.2%-80.9%. SD Bioline demonstrated a sensitivity of 81.1% (95%CI: 75.6%-85.8% and specificity of 92.8% (95%CI: 88.4%-95.9%. Crystal VC and Artron frequently showed false positive O139 bands, whereas none were seen with SD Bioline.There is significant variation in the performance of different cholera diagnostic RDTs. Artron and Crystal VC RDTs have high sensitivity and low specificity, while SD Bioline RDT has low to moderate sensitivity and high specificity when performed by laboratory technicians in Haiti. Study limitations included its retrospective design. The suboptimal characteristics of these tests limit their use as clinical point-of-care tests; however, they may be useful in outbreak response, surveillance, and research in resource-limited settings.

  8. Comparative evaluation of blood and serum samples in rapid immunochromatographic tests for visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Khanal, Basudha; Tiwary, Puja; Mudavath, Shyam Lal; Tiwary, Narendra K; Singh, Rupa; Koirala, Kanika; Boelaert, Marleen; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam

    2013-12-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based on the detection of specific antibodies in serum are commonly used for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Several commercial kits are available, and some of them allow the use of whole-blood samples instead of serum. An RDT is much more user-friendly for blood samples than for serum samples. In this study, we examined the sensitivities and specificities of six different commercially available immunochromatographic tests for their accuracy in detecting Leishmania infection in whole blood and serum of parasitologically confirmed VL cases. This study was performed in areas of India and Nepal where VL is endemic. A total of 177 confirmed VL cases, 208 healthy controls from areas of endemicity (EHCs), 26 malaria patients (MP), and 37 tuberculosis (TB) patients were enrolled. The reproducibilities of the blood and serum results and between-reader and between-laboratory results were tested. In India, the sensitivities of all the RDTs ranged between 94.7 and 100.0%, with no significant differences between whole blood and serum. The specificities ranged between 92.4 and 100.0%, except for the specificity of the Onsite Leishmania Ab RevB kit, which was lower (33.6 to 42.0%). No differences in specificities were observed for blood and serum. In Nepal, the sensitivities of all the test kits, for whole-blood as well as serum samples, ranged between 96.3 and 100.0%, and the specificities ranged between 90.1 and 96.1%, again with the exception of that of the Onsite Leishmania Ab RevB test, which was markedly lower (48.7 to 49.3%). The diagnostic accuracies of all the tests, except for one brand, were excellent for the whole-blood and serum samples. We conclude that whole blood is an adequate alternative for serum in RDTs for VL, with sensitivities and specificities comparable to those obtained in serum samples, provided that the test kit is of overall good quality.

  9. Evaluation of the potassium adsorption capacity of a potassium adsorption filter during rapid blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, H; Akatsuka, Y; Muramatsu, C; Isogai, S; Sugiura, Y; Arakawa, S; Murayama, M; Kurahashi, M; Takasuga, H; Oshige, T; Yuba, T; Mizuta, S; Emi, N

    2015-05-01

    The concentration of extracellular potassium in red blood cell concentrates (RCCs) increases during storage, leading to risk of hyperkalemia. A potassium adsorption filter (PAF) can eliminate the potassium at normal blood transfusion. This study aimed to investigate the potassium adsorption capacity of a PAF during rapid blood transfusion. We tested several different potassium concentrations under a rapid transfusion condition using a pressure bag. The adsorption rates of the 70-mEq/l model were 76·8%. The PAF showed good potassium adsorption capacity, suggesting that this filter may provide a convenient method to prevent hyperkalemia during rapid blood transfusion. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  10. The potential of rapid visco-analysis starch pasting profiles to gauge the quality of sorghum as a feed grain for chicken-meat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha H. Truong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen extensively characterised grain sorghum varieties were evaluated in a series of 7 broiler bioassays. The efficiency of energy utilisation of broiler chickens offered sorghum-based diets is problematic and the bulk of dietary energy is derived from sorghum starch. For this reason, rapid visco-analysis (RVA starch pasting profiles were determined as they may have the potential to assess the quality of sorghum as a feed grain for chicken-meat production. In review, it was found that concentrations of kafirin and total phenolic compounds were negatively correlated with peak and holding RVA viscosities to significant extents across 13 sorghums. In a meta-analysis of 5 broiler bioassays it was found that peak, holding, breakdown and final RVA viscosities were positively correlated with ME:GE ratios and peak and breakdown RVA viscosities with apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn to significant extents. In a sixth study involving 10 sorghum-based diets peak, holding and breakdown RVA viscosities were positively correlated with ME:GE ratios and AMEn. Therefore, it emerged that RVA starch pasting profiles do hold promise as a relatively rapid means to assess sorghum quality as a feed grain for chicken-meat production. This potential appears to be linked to quantities of kafirin and total phenolic compounds present in sorghum and it would seem that both factors depress RVA starch viscosities in vitro and, in turn, also depress energy utilisation in birds offered sorghum-based diets. Given that other feed grains do not contain kafirin and possess considerably lower concentrations of phenolic compounds, their RVA starch pasting profiles may not be equally indicative.

  11. Rating Evaluation of the Quality of Life in Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Valentinovich Kuznetsov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors consider the quality of life as an objective and its indicators as the criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of balanced spatial development. The problem of measuring the quality of life has a complex and integrated nature, therefore, we should develop the practice of ratings in its spatial comparisons. The article demonstrates the possibility of using the rating lists of the quality of life of Russian regions by the rating agency “RIA Rating” for 2013–2015 as an information tool for the analysis of the efficiency and effectiveness of the public development of the regional administration. The authors have concluded that with a consecutive growth of an average value of the integrated rating index of quality of life, the different ways of assessing the degree of differentiation of the regions according to the quality of life provide conflicting results. It is necessary to pay attention not so much to ranging and grading of regions as to their classification depending on to the nature of typical problems. Therefore, the rating scale is structured on the basis of the “problematic principle of regional grouping”. The authors have proposed the method of the gradation of the rating scale, allowing to take into account the direction of change of the region’s position in the ranking. The relevance of the rating as a key information tool to reduce the regional differentiation of the life quality of the population among the regulatory bodies and civil society will increase if: it is also used for other subnational entities of the Russian Federation; there is the use of econometric and computational capabilities of high-tech software systems for a posteriori analysis and models for strategic forecasting of the rankings; there is the search of a synergistic effect from a variety of estimates of the degree of spatial development.

  12. A Laboratory-Based Evaluation of Four Rapid Point-of-Care Tests for Syphilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causer, Louise M.; Kaldor, John M.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Donovan, Basil; Karapanagiotidis, Theo; Leslie, David E.; Robertson, Peter W.; McNulty, Anna M.; Anderson, David; Wand, Handan; Conway, Damian P.; Denham, Ian; Ryan, Claire; Guy, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Syphilis point-of-care tests may reduce morbidity and ongoing transmission by increasing the proportion of people rapidly treated. Syphilis stage and co-infection with HIV may influence test performance. We evaluated four commercially available syphilis point-of-care devices in a head-to-head comparison using sera from laboratories in Australia. Methods Point-of-care tests were evaluated using sera stored at Sydney and Melbourne laboratories. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated by standard methods, comparing point-of-care results to treponemal immunoassay (IA) reference test results. Additional analyses by clinical syphilis stage, HIV status, and non-treponemal antibody titre were performed. Non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals (CI) were considered statistically significant differences in estimates. Results In total 1203 specimens were tested (736 IA-reactive, 467 IA-nonreactive). Point-of-care test sensitivities were: Determine 97.3%(95%CI:95.8–98.3), Onsite 92.5%(90.3–94.3), DPP 89.8%(87.3–91.9) and Bioline 87.8%(85.1–90.0). Specificities were: Determine 96.4%(94.1–97.8), Onsite 92.5%(90.3–94.3), DPP 98.3%(96.5–99.2), and Bioline 98.5%(96.8–99.3). Sensitivity of the Determine test was 100% for primary and 100% for secondary syphilis. The three other tests had reduced sensitivity among primary (80.4–90.2%) compared to secondary syphilis (94.3–98.6%). No significant differences in sensitivity were observed by HIV status. Test sensitivities were significantly higher among high-RPR titre (RPR≥8) (range: 94.6–99.5%) than RPR non-reactive infections (range: 76.3–92.9%). Conclusions The Determine test had the highest sensitivity overall. All tests were most sensitive among high-RPR titre infections. Point-of-care tests have a role in syphilis control programs however in developed countries with established laboratory infrastructures, the lower sensitivities of some tests observed in primary syphilis suggest these would

  13. Developing Cyberinfrastructure Tools and Services for Metadata Quality Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecum, B.; Gordon, S.; Habermann, T.; Jones, M. B.; Leinfelder, B.; Powers, L. A.; Slaughter, P.

    2016-12-01

    Metadata and data quality are at the core of reusable and reproducible science. While great progress has been made over the years, much of the metadata collected only addresses data discovery, covering concepts such as titles and keywords. Improving metadata beyond the discoverability plateau means documenting detailed concepts within the data such as sampling protocols, instrumentation used, and variables measured. Given that metadata commonly do not describe their data at this level, how might we improve the state of things? Giving scientists and data managers easy to use tools to evaluate metadata quality that utilize community-driven recommendations is the key to producing high-quality metadata. To achieve this goal, we created a set of cyberinfrastructure tools and services that integrate with existing metadata and data curation workflows which can be used to improve metadata and data quality across the sciences. These tools work across metadata dialects (e.g., ISO19115, FGDC, EML, etc.) and can be used to assess aspects of quality beyond what is internal to the metadata such as the congruence between the metadata and the data it describes. The system makes use of a user-friendly mechanism for expressing a suite of checks as code in popular data science programming languages such as Python and R. This reduces the burden on scientists and data managers to learn yet another language. We demonstrated these services and tools in three ways. First, we evaluated a large corpus of datasets in the DataONE federation of data repositories against a metadata recommendation modeled after existing recommendations such as the LTER best practices and the Attribute Convention for Dataset Discovery (ACDD). Second, we showed how this service can be used to display metadata and data quality information to data producers during the data submission and metadata creation process, and to data consumers through data catalog search and access tools. Third, we showed how the centrally

  14. Original Article. Evaluation of Rapid Detection of Nasopharyngeal Colonization with MRSA by Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Feng-feng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical application of Real-Time PCR for rapid detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA directly from nasopharyngeal swab specimens.

  15. Selection of a Battery of Rapid Toxicity Sensors for Drinking Water Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van der Schalie, William H; James, Ryan R; Gargan, II., Thomas P

    2006-01-01

    .... Ten toxicity sensors utilizing enzymes, bacteria, or vertebrate cells were tested to determine the minimum number of sensors that could rapidly identify toxicity in water samples containing one of 12...

  16. Evaluation of rapid radiometric method for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.H.; Libonati, J.P.; Middlebrook, G.

    1981-01-01

    A total of 106 isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were tested for drug susceptibility by the conventional 7H11 plate method and by a new rapid radiometric method using special 7H12 liquid medium with 14 C-labeled substrate. Results obtained by the two methods were compared for rapidity, sensitivity, and specificity of the new test method. There was 98% overall agreement between the results obtained by the two methods. Of a total of 424 drug tests, only 8 drug results did not agree, mostly in the case of streptomycin. This new procedure was found to be rapid, with 87% of the tests results reportable within 4 days and 98% reportable within 5 days as compared to the usual 3 weeks required with the conventional indirect susceptibility test method. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the rapid radiometric method seems to have the potential for routine laboratory use and merits further investigations

  17. Evaluation of OXA-48 K-Se T: an immunochromatographic assay for rapid detection of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Javier; Fleites, Ana; Rodcio, María Rosario; Vazquez, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    The OXA-48 K-Se T, a new immunochromatographic assay for rapid detection of OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae, has been evaluated in a Spanish Hospital during a 3-month period. A collection of 100 Enterobacteriaceae including 79 isolates producing OXA-48 has been tested. Sensitivity and specificity of 100% were obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mexico City Air Quality Research Initiative; Volume 5, Strategic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    Members of the Task HI (Strategic Evaluation) team were responsible for the development of a methodology to evaluate policies designed to alleviate air pollution in Mexico City. This methodology utilizes information from various reports that examined ways to reduce pollutant emissions, results from models that calculate the improvement in air quality due to a reduction in pollutant emissions, and the opinions of experts as to the requirements and trade-offs that are involved in developing a program to address the air pollution problem in Mexico City. The methodology combines these data to produce comparisons between different approaches to improving Mexico City`s air quality. These comparisons take into account not only objective factors such as the air quality improvement or cost of the different approaches, but also subjective factors such as public acceptance or political attractiveness of the different approaches. The end result of the process is a ranking of the different approaches and, more importantly, the process provides insights into the implications of implementing a particular approach or policy.

  19. Teacher evaluation system, institutions of technology higher education: quality guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Belkis Parada Romero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the globalization of education, it has become prevalent to strengthen the quality systems to ensure that educational actors in higher education institutions are the best. In this context teachers are given a main role since they are cornerstones in educational processes. Currently, teacher quality is assessed through an assessment or evaluation system. Almost every university evaluates its teachers, but there is no legal regulation on how to do it, in most institutions there is a professional in charge of designing and applying assessment instruments according to the authors he/she prefers. In most universities, on the one hand, it is used a traditional questionnaire aiming to collect data about dimensions associated with teaching, on the other hand, there is another option in which assessment models include self-evaluation, as in some cases in Chile. That’s why one of the concerns of this research is to propose guidelines for a more qualitative and formative assessment not exclusively following political parameters –based on administrative decisions–, but following emerging proposals with a deeper analysis. Nowadays the main actors in teacher evaluation are teachers, students and administrative staff, every six months these actors are evaluated by using an assessment tool that they usually do not know. The research investigates the perception actors in teacher evaluation have regarding its objectives, methods and stages, so they put forward ideas on how to restructure the current institutional assessment and propose improvements aiming at both the quantitative aspect and the qualitative analysis of performances and skills.

  20. Evaluation of the Specificity and Sensitivity of a Potential Rapid Influenza Screening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    misuse of antibiotic therapy for treatment of influenza infections. Rapid identification of influenza infections would further reduce transmission of...amplification tests in combination with Type I BESt™ Cassette have been developed and used to rapidly detect other pathogenic microorgan- isms including herpes ... simplex virus types 1 and 2 (Kim et al., 2011), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Motre et al., 2011), human immunode- ficiency virus (Tang et al., 2010), and

  1. Evaluation of life quality after arterial uterine embolization for leiomyoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhaoyu; Shan Ming; Lu Zaiming; Zheng Jiahe; Zhang Jun; Sun Wei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the quality of life in women with uterine leiomyoma after treatment by uterine arterial embolization. Methodes: 118 patients of uterine leiomyoma were treated by uterine arterial embolization (UAE) from January 2003 to March 2005. The quality of life was measured by a fibroid specific symptom and HRQOL questionnaire pre-and post-embolization. Patients satisfaction was surveyed together with decrease of fibroids' mass measurement. Results: The decrease of fibroid size and uterine volume were 49.6% and 45.2% at 6 months after embolization with simultaneously obvious improvement of clinical symptoms. The scores of quality of life obviously improved in all follow-up subscales (P<0.001). No amenorrhea occurred during the period of observation with more than 60% of respondents acknowledging the positive improvement in fibroid-related symptoms though UAE; and 80% would probably or definitely take UAE as the first choice of treatment again. Conclusion: The treatment of symptomatic leiomyomas by UAE can improve the quality of life dramatically with a promising satisfaction. (authors)

  2. Quality evaluation of parmesan-type cheese: a chemometric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Jaster

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parmesan-type cheeses are the most consumed special cheeses in Brazil. It is generally sold in retail shops, either grated or in wedge-shaped pieces, and its quality varies considerably, which is reflected directly in its price. There is lack of processing standardization and, since the ripening period is fundamental for the quality of this hard, semi-fat cooked cheese, this stage seems to be the thin line between low and high quality products. It is important to note that the Italian Parmegiano Reggiano is matured for a period of twelve months, as well as its rival Grana Padano, and this long ripening period causes changes making them gourmet, highly-valued cheeses. In the present study, twelve different Parmesan-type cheeses were purchased from the Brazilian retail market and evaluated for microbiological, physicochemical, and instrumental parameters. Heterogeneous quality was confirmed by microbiological problems detected in the samples and physicochemical composition that did not meet current Brazilian specifications. The use of principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis made it possible to separate the samples into three distinct groups, mainly due to different acidity and moisture levels, water activity, and hardness values. The price per kg was also considered and was correlated with moisture, acidity, and texture.

  3. Quality of care in reproductive health programmes: monitoring and evaluation of quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwast, B E

    1998-12-01

    As 200 million women become pregnant every year, at least 30 million will develop life-threatening complications requiring emergency treatment at any level of society where they live. But it is a basic human right that pregnancy be made safe for all women as complications are mostly unpredictable. This requires reproductive health programmes which are responsive to women's and their families' needs and expectations on the one hand and enhancement of community participation, high quality obstetric services, and both provider collaboration and satisfaction on the other. Monitoring and evaluation of these facets need to be an integral part of any safe motherhood programme, not only to assess progress, but also to use this information for subsequent planning and implementation cycles of national programmes. Lessons learned from ten years' implementation of Safe Motherhood programmes indicate that process and outcome indicators are more feasible for short-term evaluation purposes than impact indicators, such as maternal mortality reduction. The former are described in this paper with relevant country examples. This is the third, and last, article in a series on quality of care in reproductive health programmes. The first (Kwast 1998a) contains an overview of concepts, assessments, barriers and improvements of quality of care. The second (Kwast 1998b) addresses education issues for quality improvement.

  4. Application of rapid prototyping technology in the prototype manufacturing for evaluation of NPP components and equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. Y.; Kim, J. W.; Shon, H. K.; Choi, H. S.; Yang, D. Y.

    2001-01-01

    A brief overview of rapid prototyping technology in which a part with complex shape can be produced easily and rapidly in a layer-by-layer additive manner is given in this article. In addition, a prototype model of a complex fan is manufactured using three-dimensional solid CAD modeling and Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM), a rapid prototyping technology. This enables designers to verify and modify design rapidly at an early stage of product development; and the prototype model of a fan can be used as a pattern for various secondary casting process such as vacumm casting, lost-paper casting to make prototypes of a fan. It has been shown that the combination of three-dimensional solid CAD modeling and rapid prototyping technology can reduce greatly the cost and time of prototyping of fans and turbine blades in comparison with conventional CNC machining. It should also be noted that rapid prototyping technology enables the visualization of various physical and chemical defects at a nuclear power plant so that it can help engineers understand those defects in an effective way

  5. A model to evaluate quality and effectiveness of disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, K M M; Nieboer, A P; van Schayck, C P; Asin, J D; Huijsman, R

    2008-12-01

    Disease management has emerged as a new strategy to enhance quality of care for patients suffering from chronic conditions, and to control healthcare costs. So far, however, the effects of this strategy remain unclear. Although current models define the concept of disease management, they do not provide a systematic development or an explanatory theory of how disease management affects the outcomes of care. The objective of this paper is to present a framework for valid evaluation of disease-management initiatives. The evaluation model is built on two pillars of disease management: patient-related and professional-directed interventions. The effectiveness of these interventions is thought to be affected by the organisational design of the healthcare system. Disease management requires a multifaceted approach; hence disease-management programme evaluations should focus on the effects of multiple interventions, namely patient-related, professional-directed and organisational interventions. The framework has been built upon the conceptualisation of these disease-management interventions. Analysis of the underlying mechanisms of these interventions revealed that learning and behavioural theories support the core assumptions of disease management. The evaluation model can be used to identify the components of disease-management programmes and the mechanisms behind them, making valid comparison feasible. In addition, this model links the programme interventions to indicators that can be used to evaluate the disease-management programme. Consistent use of this framework will enable comparisons among disease-management programmes and outcomes in evaluation research.

  6. Participant evaluation results for two indoor air quality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Dudney, C.S.; Cohen, M.A.; Spengler, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    After two surveys for indoor air pollutants (radon and other chemicals) the homeowners were surveyed for their reactions. The results of these participant evaluation surveys, assuming that the participants that responded to the survey were representative, indicate that homeowners will accept a significant level of monitoring activity as part of an indoor air quality field study. Those participants completing surveys overwhelmingly enjoyed being in the studies and would do it again. We believe that the emphasis placed on positive homeowner interactions and efforts made to inform participants throughout our studies were positive factors in this result. There was no substantial differences noted in the responses between the 70-house study, which included a homeowner compensation payment of $100, and the 300-house study, which did not include a compensation payment. These results provide encouragement to conduct future complex, multipollutant indoor air quality studies when they are scientifically sound and cost effective

  7. Limited streamer chamber testing and quality evaluation in ASTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzivino, G.; Bianco, S.; Casaccia, R.

    1991-01-01

    Limited streamer chambers are extensively used for high-energy and nuclear physics experiments in accelerator and underground laboratories. The tracking system of LVD, an underground experiment to study muons and nutrino astronomy, will use roughly 15000 limited streamer chambers and 100000 external pickup strips with digital readout electronics. In the article the different aspects of chamber operation that serve to establish a testing procedure and to define acceptance criteria for selecting reliable and long-life devices, are discussed. The procedures and the results obtained from a long-term test to evaluate streamer chamber quality, based upon a sample of 2900 items, are described. The selection tests and the long-term observations have been performed in the ASTRA laboratory, established at the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati to carry out quality control procedures for streamer chambers on a large scale and in a controlled environment

  8. Evaluating the police service quality for handling traffic crash reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janstrup, Kira Hyldekær; Kaplan, Sigal; Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The phenomenon of traffic crash under-reporting has been extensively documented in terms of its extent, but not equally analysed in terms of its reasons. As police distrust has been recently identified as a major reason for crash under-reporting, the purpose of this paper is to look...... at the police service quality for handling the reporting of traffic crashes. Design/methodology/approach This study introduces a novel approach to evaluate service quality that combines multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) with latent class analysis (LCA). Moreover, this study presents the design of a web......-based survey on the basis of the SERVQUAL approach to detecting strengths, opportunities and threats with crash reporting to the police at a strategic level. Transportation stakeholders (e.g. researchers, authorities, consultants, NGO representatives, suppliers) with an interest in traffic safety in Denmark...

  9. Quality in mass-produced insects: definition and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    The insect that is mass-produced and released in a control programme is in effect a biological bullet, a self-guided missile designed to deliver a beneficial effect against a pest insect. The ability of the released insect to achieve this objective may be influenced in many ways. The control of the quality of mass-produced insects must include an understanding of the behavioural components critical to their success and an evaluation of their performance based upon these behavioural components. The paper discusses some of the principles and techniques being used and developed to study behavioural performance and quality. Included are discussions of tests of: vigour, irritability, activity, sound production, response thresholds, reproductive preference and drive, biotic potential, and others. (author)

  10. Dose Evaluation and Quality Criteria in Dental Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, C.; Rossi, F.; Stecco, A.; Villari, N.; Zatelli, G.

    2000-01-01

    Radioprotection in dental radiology is of particular interest in the framework of the Revised Medical Exposure Directive for the great number of examinations involving the adult as well as the paediatric population (Article 9: Special Practice). The present study is intended to find the quality criteria of orthodontic imaging and for evaluating the dose absorbed within the dental and maxillary volume in connection with radiological examinations performed with either spiral CT, dental panoramic tomography or teleradiography. The X ray dose to organs sited in the body, neck, ocular and intracranial area was measured using lithium fluoride dosemeters, positioned in a Rando phantom. Quality criteria have been established by an expert radiologist considering the diagnostic information obtained in the images. The dosimetric data obtained were comparable with other authors', although with some differences due to technical characteristics. These result data are useful for choosing the patient's diagnostic path, considering the radiobiological risk associated with increasing orthodontic imaging. (author)

  11. Three-dimensional portal image-based dose reconstruction in a virtual phantom for rapid evaluation of IMRT plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansbacher, W.

    2006-01-01

    A new method for rapid evaluation of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans has been developed, using portal images for reconstruction of the dose delivered to a virtual three-dimensional (3D) phantom. This technique can replace an array of less complete but more time-consuming measurements. A reference dose calculation is first created by transferring an IMRT plan to a cylindrical phantom, retaining the treatment gantry angles. The isocenter of the fields is placed on or near the phantom axis. This geometry preserves the relative locations of high and low dose regions and has the required symmetry for the dose reconstruction. An electronic portal image (EPI) is acquired for each field, representing the dose in the midplane of a virtual phantom. The image is convolved with a kernel to correct for the lack of scatter, replicating the effect of the cylindrical phantom surrounding the dose plane. This avoids the need to calculate fluence. Images are calibrated to a reference field that delivers a known dose to the isocenter of this phantom. The 3D dose matrix is reconstructed by attenuation and divergence corrections and summed to create a dose matrix (PI-dose) on the same grid spacing as the reference calculation. Comparison of the two distributions is performed with a gradient-weighted 3D dose difference based on dose and position tolerances. Because of its inherent simplicity, the technique is optimally suited for detecting clinically significant variances from a planned dose distribution, rather than for use in the validation of IMRT algorithms. An analysis of differences between PI-dose and calculation, δ PI , compared to differences between conventional quality assurance (QA) and calculation, δ CQ , was performed retrospectively for 20 clinical IMRT cases. PI-dose differences at the isocenter were in good agreement with ionization chamber differences (mean δ PI =-0.8%, standard deviation σ=1.5%, against δ CQ =0.3%, σ=1.0%, respectively). PI

  12. The Usability of SEEQ in Quality Evaluation of Arabic Secondary Education in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Muslim, M.; Arifin, Zamri

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the quality of Arabic education in Malaysia needs to be conducted on a continuous basis to achieve the objectives of Arabic education. Student Evaluation of Education Quality (SEEQ) was proposed as one of the evaluation instruments of the quality of Arabic education. This study aimed to evaluate the usability of SEEQ in the context…

  13. New Methods for Air Quality Model Evaluation with Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T.; Harkey, M.

    2015-12-01

    Despite major advances in the ability of satellites to detect gases and aerosols in the atmosphere, there remains significant, untapped potential to apply space-based data to air quality regulatory applications. Here, we showcase research findings geared toward increasing the relevance of satellite data to support operational air quality management, focused on model evaluation. Particular emphasis is given to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument aboard the NASA Aura satellite, and evaluation of simulations from the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. This work is part of the NASA Air Quality Applied Sciences Team (AQAST), and is motivated by ongoing dialog with state and federal air quality management agencies. We present the response of satellite-derived NO2 to meteorological conditions, satellite-derived HCHO:NO2 ratios as an indicator of ozone production regime, and the ability of models to capture these sensitivities over the continental U.S. In the case of NO2-weather sensitivities, we find boundary layer height, wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity to be the most important variables in determining near-surface NO2 variability. CMAQ agreed with relationships observed in satellite data, as well as in ground-based data, over most regions. However, we find that the southwest U.S. is a problem area for CMAQ, where modeled NO2 responses to insolation, boundary layer height, and other variables are at odds with the observations. Our analyses utilize a software developed by our team, the Wisconsin Horizontal Interpolation Program for Satellites (WHIPS): a free, open-source program designed to make satellite-derived air quality data more usable. WHIPS interpolates level 2 satellite retrievals onto a user-defined fixed grid, in effect creating custom-gridded level 3 satellite product. Currently, WHIPS can process the following data products: OMI NO2 (NASA retrieval); OMI NO2 (KNMI retrieval); OMI

  14. Evaluation and Quality Control for the Copernicus Seasonal Forecast Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manubens, N.; Hunter, A.; Bedia, J.; Bretonnière, P. A.; Bhend, J.; Doblas-Reyes, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    The EU funded Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) will provide authoritative information about past, current and future climate for a wide range of users, from climate scientists to stakeholders from a wide range of sectors including insurance, energy or transport. It has been recognized that providing information about the products' quality and provenance is paramount to establish trust in the service and allow users to make best use of the available information. This presentation outlines the work being conducted within the Quality Assurance for Multi-model Seasonal Forecast Products project (QA4Seas). The aim of QA4Seas is to develop a strategy for the evaluation and quality control (EQC) of the multi-model seasonal forecasts provided by C3S. First, we present the set of guidelines the data providers must comply with, ensuring the data is fully traceable and harmonized across data sets. Second, we discuss the ongoing work on defining a provenance and metadata model that is able to encode such information, and that can be extended to describe the steps followed to obtain the final verification products such as maps and time series of forecast quality measures. The metadata model is based on the Resource Description Framework W3C standard, being thus extensible and reusable. It benefits from widely adopted vocabularies to describe data provenance and workflows, as well as from expert consensus and community-support for the development of the verification and downscaling specific ontologies. Third, we describe the open source software being developed to generate fully reproducible and certifiable seasonal forecast products, which also attaches provenance and metadata information to the verification measures and enables the user to visually inspect the quality of the C3S products. QA4Seas is seeking collaboration with similar initiatives, as well as extending the discussion to interested parties outside the C3S community to share experiences and establish global

  15. Evaluation of the Palutop+4 malaria rapid diagnostic test in a non-endemic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Esbroeck Marjan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Palutop+4 (All. Diag, Strasbourg, France, a four-band malaria rapid diagnostic test (malaria RDT targeting the histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP-2, Plasmodium vivax-specific parasite lactate dehydrogenase (Pv-pLDH and pan Plasmodium-specific pLDH (pan-pLDH was evaluated in a non-endemic setting on stored whole blood samples from international travellers suspected of malaria. Methods Microscopy corrected by PCR was the reference method. Samples include those infected by Plasmodium falciparum (n = 323, Plasmodium vivax (n = 97, Plasmodium ovale (n = 73 and Plasmodium malariae (n = 25 and 95 malaria negative samples. Results The sensitivities for the diagnosis of P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale were 85.1%, 66.0%, 32.0% and 5.5%. Sensitivities increased at higher parasite densities and reached 90.0% for P. falciparum >100/μl and 83.8% for P. vivax > 500/μl. Fourteen P. falciparum samples reacted with the Pv-pLDH line, one P. vivax sample with the HRP-2 line, and respectively two and four P. ovale and P. malariae samples reacted with the HRP-2 line. Two negative samples gave a signal with the HRP-2 line. Faint and weak line intensities were observed for 129/289 (44.6% HRP-2 lines in P. falciparum samples, for 50/64 (78.1% Pv-pLDH lines in P. vivax samples and for 9/13 (69.2% pan-pLDH lines in P. ovale and P. malariae samples combined. Inter-observer reliabilities for positive and negative readings were excellent for the HRP-2 and Pv-pLDH lines (overall agreement > 92.0% and kappa-values for each pair of readers ≥ 0.88, and good for the pan-pLDH line (85.5% overall agreement and kappa-values ≥ 0.74. Conclusions Palutop+4 performed moderately for the detection of P. falciparum and P. vivax, but sensitivities were lower than those of three-band malaria RDTs.

  16. Rapid improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  17. [Exploration of rapidly determining quality of traditional Chinese medicines by (NIR) spectroscopy based on internet sharing mode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Li-Jun; Luan, Shao-Rong; Zhang, Li-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Because of the numerous varieties of herbal species and active ingredients in the traditional Chinese medicine(TCM),the traditional methods employed could hardly satisfy the current determination requirements of TCM.The present work proposed an idea to realize rapid determination of the quality of TCM based on near infrared(NIR)spectroscopy and internet sharing mode. Low cost and portable multi-source composite spectrometer was invented by our group for in-site fast measurement of spectra of TCM samples. The database could be set up by sharing spectra and quality detection data of TCM samples among TCM enterprises based on the internet platform.A novel method called as keeping same relationship between X and Y space based on K nearest neighbors(KNN-KSR for short)was applied to predict the contents of effective compounds of the samples. In addition,a comparative study between KNN-KSR and partial least squares(PLS)was conducted. Two datasets were applied to validate above idea:one was about 58 Ginkgo Folium samples samples measured with four near-infrared spectroscopy instruments and two multi-source composite spectrometers,another one was about 80 corn samples available online measured with three NIR instruments. The results show that the KNN-KSR method could obtain more reliable outcomes without correcting spectrum.However transforming the PLS models to other instruments could hardly acquire better predictive results until spectral calibration is performed. Meanwhile,the similar analysis results of total flavonoids and total lactones of Ginkgo Folium samples are achieved on the multi-source composite spectrometers and near-infrared spectroscopy instruments,and the prediction results of KNN-KSR are better than PLS. The idea proposed in present study is in urgent need of more samples spectra, and then to be verified by more case studies. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Quality evaluation of fish and other seafood by traditional and nondestructive instrumental methods: Advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassoun, Abdo; Karoui, Romdhane

    2017-06-13

    Although being one of the most vulnerable and perishable products, fish and other seafoods provide a wide range of health-promoting compounds. Recently, the growing interest of consumers in food quality and safety issues has contributed to the increasing demand for sensitive and rapid analytical technologies. Several traditional physicochemical, textural, sensory, and electrical methods have been used to evaluate freshness and authentication of fish and other seafood products. Despite the importance of these standard methods, they are expensive and time-consuming, and often susceptible to large sources of variation. Recently, spectroscopic methods and other emerging techniques have shown great potential due to speed of analysis, minimal sample preparation, high repeatability, low cost, and, most of all, the fact that these techniques are noninvasive and nondestructive and, therefore, could be applied to any online monitoring system. This review describes firstly and briefly the basic principles of multivariate data analysis, followed by the most commonly traditional methods used for the determination of the freshness and authenticity of fish and other seafood products. A special focus is put on the use of rapid and nondestructive techniques (spectroscopic techniques and instrumental sensors) to address several issues related to the quality of these products. Moreover, the advantages and limitations of each technique are reviewed and some perspectives are also given.

  19. Limitations of ambient air quality standards in evaluating indoor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the kinds of data used for the derivation of ambient air quality standards (AAQSs) for carbon monoxide and ozone shows that these values are based on the toxicology of the materials and thus are suitable for evaluating potential health effects of indoor environments, especially on the very young, the aged, and the infirm. A similar analysis shows that the AAQSs for suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide are strictly empirical and that they should not be used for any but their first, intended purpose. The AAQSs for non-methane hydrocarbons are based on photochemical smog production, not injury of any kind, and have no utility for indoor environment evaluation

  20. Rapid high temperature field test method for evaluation of geothermal calcite scale inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.

    1982-08-01

    A test method is described which allows the rapid field testing of calcite scale inhibitors in high- temperature geothermal brines. Five commercial formulations, chosen on the basis of laboratory screening tests, were tested in brines with low total dissolved solids at ca 500 F. Four were found to be effective; of these, 2 were found to be capable of removing recently deposited scale. One chemical was tested in the full-flow brine line for 6 wks. It was shown to stop a severe surface scaling problem at the well's control valve, thus proving the viability of the rapid test method. (12 refs.)

  1. Classification and Quality Evaluation of Tobacco Leaves Based on Image Processing and Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xinhong

    2011-01-01

    Most of classification, quality evaluation or grading of the flue-cured tobacco leaves are manually operated, which relies on the judgmental experience of experts, and inevitably limited by personal, physical and environmental factors. The classification and the quality evaluation are therefore subjective and experientially based. In this paper, an automatic classification method of tobacco leaves based on the digital image processing and the fuzzy sets theory is presented. A grading system based on image processing techniques was developed for automatically inspecting and grading flue-cured tobacco leaves. This system uses machine vision for the extraction and analysis of color, size, shape and surface texture. Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation provides a high level of confidence in decision making based on the fuzzy logic. The neural network is used to estimate and forecast the membership function of the features of tobacco leaves in the fuzzy sets. The experimental results of the two-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) show that the accuracy rate of classification is about 94% for the trained tobacco leaves, and the accuracy rate of the non-trained tobacco leaves is about 72%. We believe that the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation is a viable way for the automatic classification and quality evaluation of the tobacco leaves. PMID:22163744

  2. Evaluation of nutritive quality of common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubojević, D.; Đorđević, V.; Ćirković, M.

    2017-09-01

    Common carp is the most important commercial fish species in Serbia. This fish is a valuable source of nutritive components and plays a role in healthy human nutrition. This review evaluates the nutritive quality of common carp including proximate and fatty acid compositions as well as their effects on human health. The fat content and fatty acid composition of carp have been shown to vary due to different environmental factors and particularly due to nutrition. Technology of production and composition of planktonic and benthic organisms in fish ponds have been recognised as significant factors affecting carp meat quality and desirable chemical and fatty acid composition. Carp meat quality but also production parameters and fish health are positively influenced by a balanced feed mixture. Due to the low content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol plus high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, common carp meat consumption could be linked with reduced risk of different heart diseases in humans. Also, fish proteins can have many beneficial roles in the preservation of human health. This paper emphasises the importance of consumption of common carp in order to prevent many diseases and preserve human health.

  3. Evaluating the implementation of a quality improvement process in General Practice using a realist evaluation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moule, Pam; Clompus, Susan; Fieldhouse, Jon; Ellis-Jones, Julie; Barker, Jacqueline

    2018-05-25

    Underuse of anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation is known to increase the risk of stroke and is an international problem. The National Institute for Health Care and Excellence guidance CG180 seeks to reduce atrial fibrillation related strokes through prescriptions of Non-vitamin K antagonist Oral Anticoagulants. A quality improvement programme was established by the West of England Academic Health Science Network (West of England AHSN) to implement this guidance into General Practice. A realist evaluation identified whether the quality improvement programme worked, determining how and in what circumstances. Six General Practices in 1 region, became the case study sites. Quality improvement team, doctor, and pharmacist meetings within each of the General Practices were recorded at 3 stages: initial planning, review, and final. Additionally, 15 interviews conducted with the practice leads explored experiences of the quality improvement process. Observation and interview data were analysed and compared against the initial programme theory. The quality improvement resources available were used variably, with the training being valued by all. The initial programme theories were refined. In particular, local workload pressures and individual General Practitioner experiences and pre-conceived ideas were acknowledged. Where key motivators were in place, such as prior experience, the programme achieved optimal outcomes and secured a lasting quality improvement legacy. The employment of a quality improvement programme can deliver practice change and improvement legacy outcomes when particular mechanisms are employed and in contexts where there is a commitment to improve service. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of air quality in a megacity using statistics tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Luciana Maria Baptista; de Oliveira Pinto, Fellipe; Soares, Laiza Molezon; Luna, Aderval Severino; Gioda, Adriana

    2017-03-01

    Local physical characteristics (e.g., meteorology and topography) associate to particle concentrations are important to evaluate air quality in a region. Meteorology and topography affect air pollutant dispersions. This study used statistics tools (PCA, HCA, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney's test and others) to a better understanding of the relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels and seasons, meteorological conditions and air basins. To our knowledge, it is one of the few studies performed in Latin America involving all parameters together. PM2.5 samples were collected in six sampling sites with different emission sources (industrial, vehicular, soil dust) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The PM2.5 daily concentrations ranged from 1 to 61 µg m-3, with averages higher than the annual limit (15 µg m-3) for some of the sites. The results of the statistics evaluation showed that PM2.5 concentrations were not influenced by seasonality. Furthermore, air basins defined previously were not confirmed, because some sites presented similar emission sources. Therefore, new redefinitions of air basins need to be done, once they are important to air quality management.

  5. Quality Evaluation of the Modified Diesel-Electric Train (KRDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Hidayat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Quality of the diesel-electric train (KRDE modified from the electric train (A and B types which were used in three operating regions in the Indonesian Railway Company has been evaluated by analyzing the cause of the KRDE damages in terms of some aspects including: design, components quality, maintenance (method, finance, human resources, environment and way of operation. Based on the evaluation, it was found that the modification of the both types of KRDE provided a very low reliability and availability due to design and technical problems, as well as unoptimal maintenance. In KRDE type A, damage occurs in the cabling system, compressor, radiator fan system, and the braking system. While in type B, damage occurs in the traction motors, static inverter, and radiator fan. It is predicted that their life span can not reach the design life of 25 years, and even they are expected to be grounded. Many improvement is required to lengten their service life including: repair, modification, human resource competence, facilities, spare parts, maintenance and management.

  6. Evaluation of air quality in a megacity using statistics tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Luciana Maria Baptista; de Oliveira Pinto, Fellipe; Soares, Laiza Molezon; Luna, Aderval Severino; Gioda, Adriana

    2018-06-01

    Local physical characteristics (e.g., meteorology and topography) associate to particle concentrations are important to evaluate air quality in a region. Meteorology and topography affect air pollutant dispersions. This study used statistics tools (PCA, HCA, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney's test and others) to a better understanding of the relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels and seasons, meteorological conditions and air basins. To our knowledge, it is one of the few studies performed in Latin America involving all parameters together. PM2.5 samples were collected in six sampling sites with different emission sources (industrial, vehicular, soil dust) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The PM2.5 daily concentrations ranged from 1 to 61 µg m-3, with averages higher than the annual limit (15 µg m-3) for some of the sites. The results of the statistics evaluation showed that PM2.5 concentrations were not influenced by seasonality. Furthermore, air basins defined previously were not confirmed, because some sites presented similar emission sources. Therefore, new redefinitions of air basins need to be done, once they are important to air quality management.

  7. Applicability of rapid and on-site measured enzyme activity for surface water quality monitoring in an agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Sommer, Regina; Kumpan, Monika; Zessner, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    For the near real time and on-site detection of microbiological fecal pollution of water, the measurement of beta-D- Glucuronidase (GLUC) enzymatic activity has been suggested as a surrogate parameter and has been already successfully operated for water quality monitoring of ground water resources (Ryzinska-Paier et al. 2014). Due to possible short measure intervals of three hours, this method has high potential as a water quality monitoring tool. While cultivation based standard determination takes more than one working day (Cabral 2010) the potential advantage of detecting the GLUC activity is the high temporal measuring resolution. Yet, there is still a big gap of knowledge on the fecal indication capacity of GLUC (specificity, sensitivity, persistence, etc.) in relation to potential pollution sources and catchment conditions (Cabral 2010, Ryzinska-Paier et al. 2014). Furthermore surface waters are a big challenge for automated detection devices in a technical point of view due to the high sediment load during event conditions. This presentation shows results gained form two years of monitoring in an experimental catchment (HOAL) dominated by agricultural land use. Two enzymatic measurement devices are operated parallel at the catchment outlet to test the reproducibility and precision of the method. Data from continuous GLUC monitoring under both base flow and event conditions is compared with reference samples analyzed by standardized laboratory methods for fecal pollution detection (e.g. ISO 16649-1, Colilert18). It is shown that rapid enzymatic on-site GLUC determination can successfully be operated from a technical point of view for surface water quality monitoring under the observed catchment conditions. The comparison of enzyme activity with microbiological standard analytics reveals distinct differences in the dynamic of the signals during event conditions. Cabral J. P. S. (2010) "Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water" International Journal of

  8. evaluation of a rapid test for hiv antibodies in saliva and blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To test whole blood and saliva for HIV antibodies. (anti-HIV) using a rapid test strip capillary flow . immunoassay ... Design. A prospective pilot study of selected HIV-positive and ... defined by the underlying illness or condition is illustrated in.

  9. A Global Comparative Evaluation of Commercial Immunochromatographic Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Visceral Leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, Jane; Hasker, Epco; Das, Pradeep; El Safi, Sayda; Goto, Hiro; Mondal, Dinesh; Mbuchi, Margaret; Mukhtar, Maowia; Rabello, Ana; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam; Wasunna, Monique; Adams, Emily; Menten, Joris; Peeling, Rosanna; Boelaert, Marleen; Khanal, Basudha; Das, Murari; Oliveira, Edward; de Assis, Tália Machado; Costa, Dorcas Lamounier; Bhaskar, Khondaker Rifathassan; Huda, M. Mamun; Hassan, Mukidul; Abdoun, Asim Osman; Awad, Aymen; Osman, Mohamed; Prajapati, Dinesh Kumar; Gidwani, Kamlesh; Tiwary, Puja; Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda; Sanchez, Maria Carmen Arroyo; Celeste, Beatriz Julieta; Jacquet, Diane; Magiri, Charles; Muia, A.; Kesusu, J.; Ageed, Al Farazdag; Galal, Nuha; Osman, Osman Salih; Gupta, A. K.; Bimal, Afrad S.; Das, V. N. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Poor access to diagnosis stymies control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Antibody-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) can be performed in peripheral health settings. However, there are many brands available and published reports of variable accuracy. Methods. Commercial VL RDTs

  10. Evaluation of the clinical utility of a rapid blood test for human leptospirosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eapen, C. K.; Sugathan, Sheela; Kuriakose, Mariamma; Abdoel, Theresia; Smits, Henk L.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid assay device for the detection of Leptospira-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies was applied on whole blood samples collected from a group of consecutive patients admitted with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis to a district hospital in Kerala, India. The hospital is located in an

  11. Evaluation of a rapid test for HIV antibodies in saliva and blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To test whole blood and saliva for HIV antibodies (anti-HIV) using a rapid test strip capillary flow . immunoassay, and to correlate the test strip results with blood specimen results obtained from routine diagnostic antiHIV assays. Design. A prospective pilot study of selected HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals ...

  12. Indicators to support the dynamic evaluation of air quality models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunis, P.; Clappier, A.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality models are useful tools for the assessment and forecast of pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere. Most of the evaluation process relies on the “operational phase” or in other words the comparison of model results with available measurements which provides insight on the model capability to reproduce measured concentrations for a given application. But one of the key advantages of air quality models lies in their ability to assess the impact of precursor emission reductions on air quality levels. Models are then used in a dynamic mode (i.e. response to a change in a given model input data) for which evaluation of the model performances becomes a challenge. The objective of this work is to propose common indicators and diagrams to facilitate the understanding of model responses to emission changes when models are to be used for policy support. These indicators are shown to be useful to retrieve information on the magnitude of the locally produced impacts of emission reductions on concentrations with respect to the “external to the domain” contribution but also to identify, distinguish and quantify impacts arising from different factors (different precursors). In addition information about the robustness of the model results is provided. As such these indicators might reveal useful as first screening methodology to identify the feasibility of a given action as well as to prioritize the factors on which to act for an increased efficiency. Finally all indicators are made dimensionless to facilitate the comparison of results obtained with different models, different resolutions, or on different geographical areas.

  13. Online hyperspectral imaging system for evaluating quality of agricultural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Giyoung; Lim, Jongguk

    2017-06-01

    The consumption of fresh-cut agricultural produce in Korea has been growing. The browning of fresh-cut vegetables that occurs during storage and foreign substances such as worms and slugs are some of the main causes of consumers' concerns with respect to safety and hygiene. The purpose of this study is to develop an on-line system for evaluating quality of agricultural products using hyperspectral imaging technology. The online evaluation system with single visible-near infrared hyperspectral camera in the range of 400 nm to 1000 nm that can assess quality of both surfaces of agricultural products such as fresh-cut lettuce was designed. Algorithms to detect browning surface were developed for this system. The optimal wavebands for discriminating between browning and sound lettuce as well as between browning lettuce and the conveyor belt were investigated using the correlation analysis and the one-way analysis of variance method. The imaging algorithms to discriminate the browning lettuces were developed using the optimal wavebands. The ratio image (RI) algorithm of the 533 nm and 697 nm images (RI533/697) for abaxial surface lettuce and the ratio image algorithm (RI533/697) and subtraction image (SI) algorithm (SI538-697) for adaxial surface lettuce had the highest classification accuracies. The classification accuracy of browning and sound lettuce was 100.0% and above 96.0%, respectively, for the both surfaces. The overall results show that the online hyperspectral imaging system could potentially be used to assess quality of agricultural products.

  14. Probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, nocturnal disturbances and quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a case-controlled study using the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Keisuke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence provides a clear association between rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorders (RBD and Parkinson’s disease (PD, but the clinical features that determine the co-morbidity of RBD and PD are not yet fully understood. Methods We evaluated the characteristics of nocturnal disturbances and other motor and non-motor features related to RBD in patients with PD and the impact of RBD on their quality of life. Probable RBD (pRBD was evaluated using the Japanese version of the RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ-J. Results A significantly higher frequency of pRBD was observed in PD patients than in the controls (RBDSQ-J ≥ 5 or ≥ 6: 29.0% vs. 8.6%; 17.2% vs. 2.2%, respectively. After excluding restless legs syndrome and snorers in the PD patients, the pRBD group (RBDSQ-J≥5 showed higher scores compared with the non-pRBD group on the Parkinson’s disease sleep scale-2 (PDSS-2 total and three-domain scores. Early morning dystonia was more frequent in the pRBD group. The Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39 domain scores for cognition and emotional well-being were higher in the patients with pRBD than in the patients without pRBD. There were no differences between these two groups with respect to the clinical subtype, disease severity or motor function. When using a cut-off of RBDSQ-J = 6, a similar trend was observed for the PDSS-2 and PDQ-39 scores. Patients with PD and pRBD had frequent sleep onset insomnia, distressing dreams and hallucinations. The stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the PDSS-2 domain “motor symptoms at night”, particularly the PDSS sub-item 6 “distressing dreams”, was the only predictor of RBDSQ-J in PD. Conclusion Our results indicate a significant impact of RBD co-morbidity on night-time disturbances and quality of life in PD, particularly on cognition and emotional well-being. RBDSQ may be a useful tool for not only screening RBD in PD patients

  15. Evaluating the quality of Internet health resources in pediatric urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Angela M; Deibert, Christopher M; Hruby, Gregory W; Glassberg, Kenneth I

    2013-04-01

    Many patients and their parents utilize the Internet for health-related information, but quality is largely uncontrolled and unregulated. The Health on the Net Foundation Code (HONcode) and DISCERN Plus were used to evaluate the pediatric urological search terms 'circumcision,' 'vesicoureteral reflux' and 'posterior urethral valves'. A google.com search was performed to identify the top 20 websites for each term. The HONcode toolbar was utilized to determine whether each website was HONcode accredited and report the overall frequency of accreditation for each term. The DISCERN Plus instrument was used to score each website in accordance with the DISCERN Handbook. High and low scoring criteria were then compared. A total of 60 websites were identified. For the search terms 'circumcision', 'posterior urethral valves' and 'vesicoureteral reflux', 25-30% of the websites were HONcode certified. Out of the maximum score of 80, the average DISCERN Plus score was 60 (SD = 12, range 38-78), 40 (SD = 12, range 22-69) and 45 (SD = 19, range 16-78), respectively. The lowest scoring DISCERN criteria included: 'Does it describe how the treatment choices affect overall quality of life?', 'Does it describe the risks of each treatment?' and 'Does it provide details of additional sources of support and information?' (1.35, 1.83 and 1.95 out of 5, respectively). These findings demonstrate the poor quality of information that patients and their parents may use in decision-making and treatment choices. The two lowest scoring DISCERN Plus criteria involved education on quality of life issues and risks of treatment. Physicians should know how to best use these tools to help guide patients and their parents to websites with valid information. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality of Recovery Evaluation of the Protection Schemes for Fiber-Wireless Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Minglei; Chai, Zhicheng; Le, Zichun

    2016-03-01

    With the rapid development of fiber-wireless (FiWi) access network, the protection schemes have got more and more attention due to the risk of huge data loss when failures occur. However, there are few studies on the performance evaluation of the FiWi protection schemes by the unified evaluation criterion. In this paper, quality of recovery (QoR) method was adopted to evaluate the performance of three typical protection schemes (MPMC scheme, OBOF scheme and RPMF scheme) against the segment-level failure in FiWi access network. The QoR models of the three schemes were derived in terms of availability, quality of backup path, recovery time and redundancy. To compare the performance of the three protection schemes comprehensively, five different classes of network services such as emergency service, prioritized elastic service, conversational service, etc. were utilized by means of assigning different QoR weights. Simulation results showed that, for the most service cases, RPMF scheme was proved to be the best solution to enhance the survivability when planning the FiWi access network.

  17. Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group to play a leading role in guiding the production of informed high-quality, timely research evidence syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garritty, Chantelle; Stevens, Adrienne; Gartlehner, Gerald; King, Valerie; Kamel, Chris

    2016-10-28

    Policymakers and healthcare stakeholders are increasingly seeking evidence to inform the policymaking process, and often use existing or commissioned systematic reviews to inform decisions. However, the methodologies that make systematic reviews authoritative take time, typically 1 to 2 years to complete. Outside the traditional SR timeline, "rapid reviews" have emerged as an efficient tool to get evidence to decision-makers more quickly. However, the use of rapid reviews does present challenges. To date, there has been limited published empirical information about this approach to compiling evidence. Thus, it remains a poorly understood and ill-defined set of diverse methodologies with various labels. In recent years, the need to further explore rapid review methods, characteristics, and their use has been recognized by a growing network of healthcare researchers, policymakers, and organizations, several with ties to Cochrane, which is recognized as representing an international gold standard for high-quality, systematic reviews. In this commentary, we introduce the newly established Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group developed to play a leading role in guiding the production of rapid reviews given they are increasingly employed as a research synthesis tool to support timely evidence-informed decision-making. We discuss how the group was formed and outline the group's structure and remit. We also discuss the need to establish a more robust evidence base for rapid reviews in the published literature, and the importance of promoting registration of rapid review protocols in an effort to promote efficiency and transparency in research. As with standard systematic reviews, the core principles of evidence-based synthesis should apply to rapid reviews in order to minimize bias to the extent possible. The Cochrane Rapid Reviews Methods Group will serve to establish a network of rapid review stakeholders and provide a forum for discussion and training. By facilitating

  18. Use of Quality Models and Indicators for Evaluating Test Quality in an ESP Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IEVA RUDZINSKA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative methods of assessment play a decisive role in education in general and in language learning in particular. The necessity to perform a qualitative assessment comes from both increased student competition in higher education institutions (HEIs, and hence higher demands for fair assessment, and a growing public awareness on higher education issues, and therefore the need to account for a wider circle of stakeholders, including society as a whole. The aim of the present paper is to study the regulations and laws pertaining to the issue of assessment in Latvian HEIs, as well as to carry out literature sources analysis about assessment in language testing, seeking to select criteria characterizing the quality of English for Specific Purposes (ESP tests and to apply the model of evaluating the quality of a language test on an example of a test in sport English, developed in a Latvian higher education institution. An analysis of the regulations and laws about assessment in higher education and literature sources about tests in language courses has enabled the development of a test quality model, consisting of seven intrinsic quality criteria: clarity, adequacy, deep approach, attractiveness, originality/similarity, orientation towards student learning result/process, test scoring objectivity/subjectivity. Quality criteria comprise eleven indicators. The reliability of the given model is evaluated by means of the whole model, its criteria and indicator Cronbach’s alphas and point-biserial (item-total correlations or discrimination indexes DI. The test was taken by 63 participants, all of them 2nd year full time students attending a Latvian higher education institution. A statistical data analysis was performed with SPSS 17.0. The results show that, although test adequacy and clarity is sufficiently high, attractiveness and deep approach should be improved. Also the reliability of one version of the test is higher than that of the other one

  19. Study on a Quality Evaluation Method for College English Classroom Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-hua Sun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A quality evaluation method is an important means and the main basis on which to evaluate the college English classroom teaching quality of teachers. To overcome the one-sided subjectivity and resulting imprecision of the traditional classroom teaching quality evaluation method, a scientific and reasonable quality evaluation index system for college English classroom teaching is constructed. The fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method and the analytic hierarchy process method are combined to propose an improved multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model for obtaining a new college English classroom teaching quality evaluation method. In the proposed method, according to the fuzzy characteristics of a college English classroom teaching quality evaluation, the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method is used to transform the qualitative evaluation indexes into limited quantitative evaluation indexes, then a judgment matrix is constructed to determine the weights among different levels by using the analytic hierarchy process method. Additionally, the college English classroom teaching quality is evaluated in detail. Finally, an actual case of college English classroom teaching is used to verify the effectiveness of the college English classroom teaching quality evaluation method. The results show that the proposed college English classroom teaching method can overcome the subjectivity and randomness shortcomings of the traditional classroom teaching quality evaluation methods, and improve the reliability, accuracy, and objectivity of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. It is an effective method to evaluate college English classroom teaching quality.

  20. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part IV. Evaluation of quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S; Rajalakshmi, D; Chand, N

    1987-01-01

    Capsicum fruits are popular worldwide and are used in the cuisines of both the developing and the developed countries. With its different varieties, forms, and uses, the spice capsicum contributes to the entire gamut of sensory experience--color as finely ground paprika powder or extract in sausages, goulash, cheese, and snacks; both pungency and color as the many varieties of chillies used in Mexican, African, Indian, and southeast Asian cuisines; color, aroma, and mild pungency as the fresh green chillies used in many of the growing countries; and appearance, color, aroma, and texture as fresh fruit in salads and as a pickled and canned product. In three earlier parts in this series, the varieties, cultivation, and primary processing; the processed products, world production, and trade; and the chemistry of the color, aroma, and pungency stimuli have been reviewed. In this part, the evaluation of quality through instrumental determination of the causal components and the sensory evaluation of color, aroma, and pungency are discussed. Several methods for quantitative determination of the stimuli and the sensory evaluation of the responses to the stimuli are reviewed. The problems of sensory evaluation of color, aroma, and pungency, the dominant attributes for validation of the instrumentally determined values for carotenoids, volatiles, or particular fractions, and total and individual capsaicinoids are specifically discussed. Summarized details of selected instrumental methods for evaluating the stimuli, which are either validated by correlation to sensorily perceived responses or to adopted standards, are given along with representative data obtained for discussing the adequacy and reliability of the methods. Pungency as a specific gustatory perception and the many methods proposed to evaluate this quality are discussed. A recommended objective procedure for obtaining reproducible values is discussed, and a method for relating different panel results is shown

  1. The impact of economic evaluation on quality management in spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Norbert

    2009-08-01

    Health care expenditures are substantially increasing within the last two decades prompting the imperative need for economic evaluations in health care. Historically, economic evaluations in health care have been carried out by four approaches: (1) the human-capital approach (HCA), (2) cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), (3) cost-utility analysis (CUA) and (4) cost-benefit analysis (CBA). While the HCA cannot be recommended because of methodological shortcomings, CEA and CUA have been used frequently in healthcare. In CEA, costs are measured in monetary terms and health effects are measured in a non-monetary unit, e.g. number of successfully treated patients. In an attempt to develop an effectiveness measure that incorporates effects on both quantity and quality of life, so-called Quality Adjusted Life Years (QUALYs) were introduced. Contingent valuation surveys are used in cost-benefit analyses (CBA) to elicit the consumer's monetary valuations for program benefits by applying the willingness-to-pay approach. A distinguished feature of CBA is that costs and benefits are expressed in the same units of value, i.e. money. Only recently, economic evaluations have started to explore various spinal interventions particularly the very expensive fusion operations. While most of the studies used CEA or CUA approaches, CBAs are still rare. Most studies fail to show that sophisticated spinal interventions are more cost-effective than conventional treatments. In spite of the lack of therapeutic or cost-effectiveness for most spinal surgeries, there is rapidly growing spinal implant market demonstrating market imperfection and information asymmetry. A change can only be anticipated when physicians start to focus on the improvement of health care quality as documented by outcome research and economic evaluations of cost-effectiveness and net benefits.

  2. Quality Rating and Improvement System State Evaluations and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A quality rating and improvement system (QRIS) is a method used by states and local jurisdictions to assess the level of quality of child care and early education programs, improve quality, and convey quality ratings to parents and other consumers. A typical QRIS incorporates the following components: quality standards for participating providers;…

  3. Evaluation of Blood-Based Antibody Rapid Testing for HIV Early Therapy: A Meta-Analysis of the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Huang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWestern blot (WB assay is considered the gold standard test for HIV infection confirmation. However, it requires technical expertise and is quite time-consuming. WHO recommends blood-based rapid diagnosis to achieve same-day test and treatment. However, this rapid testing strategy has not been promoted worldwide due to inadequate research evaluating the effectiveness of rapid tests (RTs as an alternative confirmatory HIV test for WB. This study aims to compare the diagnostic performance of rapid HIV tests compared with WB.MethodsPubMed and Web of Science were searched for publications on rapid HIV tests using blood specimen. A meta-analysis was performed to quantitatively evaluate the diagnostic performance of rapid HIV tests compared with the WB assay in terms of pooled sensitivity, specificity, area under summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC curve, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR.ResultsTwenty articles involving 27,343 fresh specimens for rapid HIV tests were included in the meta-analysis. Regarding Capillus HIV-1/HIV-2, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, area under SROC curve, and DOR derived from six studies were 0.999 (95% CI, 0.956–1.000, 0.999 (95% CI, 0.991–1.00, 1.00 (95% CI, 0.99–1.00, and 1.0 × 106 (95% CI, 2.6 × 104–3.9 × 107 compared with the WB assay, respectively. With respect to Determine HIV-1/2, the pooled sensitivity, specificity area under SROC, and DOR derived from eight studies were 1.00 (95% CI, 0.789–1.000, 0.992 (95% CI, 0.985–0.996, 1.00 (95% CI, 0.99–1.00, and 1.8 × 106 (95% CI 406.049–7.8 × 109 compared with the WB assay, respectively. Regarding two-step serial RTs, the pooled sensitivity, specificity area under SROC, and DOR derived from eight studies were 0.998 (95% CI, 0.991–1.000, 0.998 (95% CI, 0.994–0.999, and 1.00 (95% CI 0.99–1.00 compared with the WB assay, respectively.ConclusionOur meta-analysis results may provide evidenced-based support

  4. Rapid assessment of Schistosoma mansoni: the validity, applicability and cost-effectiveness of the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Simon; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Myatt, Mark; Russell Stothard, J; Fenwick, Alan

    2005-07-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of communities at highest risk of morbidity from schistosomiasis is key for sustainable control. Although school questionnaires can effectively and inexpensively identify communities with a high prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, parasitological screening remains the preferred option for S. mansoni. To help reduce screening costs, we investigated the validity of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) in classifying schools according to categories of S. mansoni prevalence in Uganda, and explored its applicability and cost-effectiveness. First, we evaluated several sampling plans using computer simulation and then field tested one sampling plan in 34 schools in Uganda. Finally, cost-effectiveness of different screening and control strategies (including mass treatment without prior screening) was determined, and sensitivity analysis undertaken to assess the effect of infection levels and treatment costs. In identifying schools with prevalences > or =50%, computer simulations showed that LQAS had high levels of sensitivity and specificity (>90%) at sample sizes LQAS where 15 children were sampled had excellent diagnostic performance (sensitivity: 100%, specificity: 96.4%, positive predictive value: 85.7% and negative predictive value: 92.3%). Screening using LQAS was more cost-effective than mass treating all schools (US$218 vs. US$482/high prevalence school treated). Threshold analysis indicated that parasitological screening and mass treatment would become equivalent for settings where prevalence > or =50% in 75% of schools and for treatment costs of US$0.19 per schoolchild. We conclude that, in Uganda, LQAS provides a rapid, valid and cost-effective method for guiding decision makers in allocating finite resources for the control of schistosomiasis.

  5. Water Quality Changes during Rapid Urbanization in the Shenzhen River Catchment: An Integrated View of Socio-Economic and Infrastructure Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-peng Qin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastructure development and socio-economic policies. The results indicate that the water quality deteriorated rapidly during the earlier urbanization stages before gradually improving over recent years, and that rapid increases in domestic discharge were the major causes of water quality deterioration. Although construction of additional wastewater infrastructure can significantly improve water quality, it was unable to dispose all of the wastewater in the catchment. However, it was found that socio-economic measures can significantly improve water quality by decreasing pollutant load per gross regional production (GRP or increasing labor productivity. Our findings suggest that sustainable development during urbanization is possible, provided that: (1 the wastewater infrastructure should be constructed timely and revitalized regularly in line with urbanization, and wastewater treatment facilities should be upgraded to improve their nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies; (2 administrative regulation policies, economic incentives and financial policies should be implemented to encourage industries to prevent or reduce the pollution at the source; (3 the environmental awareness and education level of local population should be increased; (4 planners from various sectors should consult each other and adapt an integrated planning approach for socio-economic and wastewater infrastructure development.

  6. Psychophysical evaluation of image quality : from judgment to impression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de H.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    Designs of imaging systems, image processing algorithms etc. usually take for granted that methods for assessing perceived image quality produce unbiased estimates of the viewers' quality impression. Quality judgments, however, are affected by the judgment strategies induced by the experimental

  7. Evaluation of analytical results on DOE Quality Assessment Program Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaquish, R.E.; Kinnison, R.R.; Mathur, S.P.; Sastry, R.

    1985-01-01

    Criteria were developed for evaluating the participants analytical results in the DOE Quality Assessment Program (QAP). Historical data from previous QAP studies were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods to determine the interlaboratory precision that had been attained. Performance criteria used in other similar programs were also reviewed. Using these data, precision values and control limits were recommended for each type of analysis performed in the QA program. Results of the analysis performed by the QAP participants on the November 1983 samples were statistically analyzed and evaluated. The Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) values were used as the known values and 3-sigma precision values were used as control limits. Results were submitted by 26 participating laboratories for 49 different radionuclide media combinations. The participants reported 419 results and of these, 350 or 84% were within control limits. Special attention was given to the data from gamma spectral analysis of air filters and water samples. both normal probability and box plots were prepared for each nuclide to help evaluate the distribution of the data. Results that were outside the expected range were identified and suggestions made that laboratories check calculations, and procedures on these results

  8. A Monte Carlo evaluation of RapidArc dose calculations for oropharynx radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, I M; Ansbacher, W; Zavgorodni, S; Popescu, C; Beckham, W A

    2008-01-01

    RapidArc(TM), recently released by Varian Medical Systems, is a novel extension of IMRT in which an optimized 3D dose distribution may be delivered in a single gantry rotation of 360 deg. or less. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA), the sole algorithm for photon dose calculations of RapidArc(TM) treatment plans. The clinical site chosen was oropharynx and the associated nodes involved. The VIMC-Arc system, which utilizes BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc for particle transport through the linac head and patient CT phantom, was used as a benchmarking tool. As part of this study, the dose for a single static aperture, typical for RapidArc(TM) delivery, was calculated by the AAA, MC and compared with the film. This film measurement confirmed MC modeling of the beam aperture in water. It also demonstrated that the AAA dosimetric error can be as high as 12% near isolated leaf edges and up to 5% at the leaf end. The composite effect of these errors in a full RapidArc(TM) calculation in water involving a C-shaped target and the associated organ at risk produced a 1.5% overprediction of the mean target dose. In our cohort of six patients, the AAA was found, on average, to overestimate the PTV60 coverage at the 95% level in the presence of air cavities by 1.0% (SD = 1.1%). Removing the air cavities from the target volumes reduced these differences by about a factor of 2. The dose to critical structures was also overestimated by the AAA. The mean dose to the spinal cord was higher by 1.8% (SD = 0.8%), while the effective maximum dose (D 2% ) was only 0.2% higher (SD = 0.6%). The mean dose to the parotid glands was overestimated by ∼9%. This study has shown that the accuracy of the AAA for RapidArc(TM) dose calculations, performed at a resolution of 2.5 mm or better, is adequate for clinical use.

  9. Production and Quality Evaluation of Pineapple Fruit Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ningli; Ma, Lina; Li, Liuji; Gong, Xiao; Ye, Jianzhi

    2017-12-01

    The fermentation process of pineapple fruit wine was studied. The juice was inoculated with 5% (v/v) active yeast and held at 20 °C for 7 days. Total sugar and pH decreased while the alcoholic strength increased with increasing length of fermentation. The fermented fruit wine contains 2.29 g/L total acid, 10.2 % (v/v) alcohol, 5.4 °Brix soluble solids, pH 3.52. Pineapple wine detected 68 kinds of aroma components, including 34 esters, 13 alcohols. The ester material accounted for 52.25% of the main aroma components. The quality and sensory evaluation results indicated that pineapple fruit wine belongs to a kind of low alcohol wine, so it is easy to be accepted by the public.

  10. Practical evaluation of clinical image quality (4). Determination of image quality in digital radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Reiji

    2016-01-01

    Recently, for medical imaging, digital radiography systems are widely used in clinical practices. However, a study in the past reported that a patient radiation exposure level by digital radiography is in fact not lower than that by analog radiography system. High level of attention needs to be paid for over-exposure when using the conventional analog radiography with a screen and a film, as it results in high density of the film. However, for digital radiography systems, since the automatic adjusting function of image density is equipped with them, no attention for radiation dose need to be paid. Thus technologists tend to be careless and results in higher chance for over-exposure. Current digital radiography systems are high-performance in the image properties and capable of patient dose reduction. Especially, the image quality of the flat panel detector system is recognized, higher than that of the computed radiography system by imaging plates, in both objective and subjective evaluations. Therefore, we technologists are responsible for optimizing the balance between the image quality of the digital radiogram and the radiation dose required for each case. Moreover, it is also required for us as medical technologists to make effective use of such evaluation result of medical images for patients. (author)

  11. Quality Indicators for Evaluating Prehospital Emergency Care: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ian; Cameron, Peter; Wallis, Lee; Castren, Maaret; Lindstrom, Veronica

    2018-02-01

    all, 42.8% were categorized as primarily Clinical, with Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest contributing the highest number within this domain (30.4%). Of the QIs categorized as Non-Clinical (57.2%), Time-Based Intervals contributed the greatest number (28.8%). Population on Whom the Data Collection was Constructed made up the most commonly reported QI component (79.8%), followed by a Descriptive Statement (63.6%). Least reported were Timing of Data Collection (12.1%) and Timing of Reporting (12.1%). Pilot testing of the QIs was reported on 34.7% of QIs identified in the review. Overall, there is considerable interest in the understanding and development of PEC quality measurement. However, closer attention to the details and reporting of QIs is required for research of this type to be more easily extrapolated and generalized. Howard I , Cameron P , Wallis L , Castren M , Lindstrom V . Quality indicators for evaluating prehospital emergency care: a scoping review. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):43-52.

  12. Gas quality analysis and evaluation program for project Gasbuggy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C F [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Experimental results of the gas quality analysis program for Project Gasbuggy through August 1969 are presented graphically, addressing the questions raised by the preshot program goals. The chemical composition and the concentrations of tritium, krypton-85, carbon-14 and argon-37, 39 are presented as a function of time and gas production from the nuclear chimney. Chemically, the presence of CO{sub 2}, CO and H{sub 2} served to dilute the formation gas and caused reactions which significantly altered the gas composition at early times. The radionuclide content of the chimney gas at reentry was some 800 pCi/cm{sup 3} of which about 80% was CH{sub 3}T. Lesser quantities of tritium were observed as HT, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}T and C{sub 3}H{sub 7}T. The other major contaminant was Kr{sup 85} which was present at about one-fifth the level of CH{sub 3}T. Small quantities of carbon-14 and argon-39 were also identified. The only other radionuclides identified in the gas were relatively short-lived rare gases. During the production testing, about two and one-half chimney volumes of gas at formation pressure were removed. This removal, accompanied by dilution, has reduced the radionuclide concentrations to about 7% of their levels at reentry. The production characteristics of the Gasbuggy environment prevented an adequate test of the effectiveness of chimney flushing. However, the rapid drawdown concept is supported by the available data as an effective means of reducing contaminant levels. The changes in composition during production or testing are seen to be consistent with a model involving a non-uniform gas influx rate and flow distribution over the chimney region. Mixing times are estimated to be on the order of a few days, so that increasing concentrations following a sudden gas influx can be explained. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the quality of CR mammography images in Chugoku Rosai Hospital. Visual evaluation and digital evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makihata, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Tomoya; Aomori, Masaji; Hara, Shinji

    2005-01-01

    New mammography system (50-micrometer system) composed of Fuji computed tomography (FCR) both sides IP, 5000MA and dry imager was introduced in the Department of Physical Checkup of Chugoku Rosai Hospital in 2003. We performed visual evaluation and digital evaluation using 50-micrometer system in accordance with (the quality control guidance of) Non-Profit Organization the Central Committee on Quality Control of Mammographic Screening. In visual evaluation using RMI156 phantom the system cleared the quality control guidance about a fiber, calcification, and masses. On step phantom, it passed about 10 steps, masses, and calcifications. Since a success standard was not announced officially, the performance in digital evaluation cannot be judged and only the result is presented. In digital evaluation, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 14.9, root of mean squares (RMS) is 32.9, SNRC is 16.4, SNRT is 3.65. This system image has high sharpness and is considered from the result in visual evaluation to have the ability of offering images with a high degree of information. (author)

  14. Development and quality evaluation of quick cooking dhal-A convenience product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Shruti; Samuel, D V K; Khan, Islam

    2014-03-01

    Owing to rapid urbanization and more women joining the workforce, use of ready-to-eat and ready-to-use convenience foods is gaining increasing popularity. Women require dhal that cooks fast and increases in volume when cooked. In an attempt to prepare quick cooking dhal from pigeon pea, variety UPAS 120 was milled, pre-treated with sodium chloride solution (1%), flaked and dried. The quick cooking dhal was packed in three packaging materials, namely, high molecular weight high density polyethylene (HMHDPE), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and laminated pouches. The quality evaluation of the prepared flakes with respect to the cooking quality attributes, changes in proximate composition, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value (PV) were carried out during storage at ambient temperature (8-36°C) at regular intervals for a period of 10 months. During storage, quick cooking dhal packed in laminated pouches performed better than samples stored in other pouches with respect to the changes in the overall quality and acceptability of the product.

  15. Colorimetric grading scale can promote the standardization of experiential and sensory evaluation in quality control of traditional Chinese medicines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-bo Wang

    Full Text Available Experiential and sensory evaluation is an ancient method that remains important in the current quality control system of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs. The process is rapid and convenient when evaluating the quality of crude materials in TCM markets. However, sensory evaluation has been met with skepticism because it is mainly based on experience and lacks a scientific basis. In this study, rhubarb was selected to demonstrate how color-based sensory evaluation could differentiate the quality of herbal medicines objectively. The colors of the rhubarb samples, expressed as RGB values, were obtained from different parts and forms of the plant, including the plant's surface, fracture surface color, and a powdered form with or without treatment with a color-developing reagent. We first divided the rhubarb samples into three grades based on the total content of five hydroxyanthraquinone derivatives, the major pharmacological components in rhubarb. Then, a three-layer back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN, calibrated with selected training samples, was used to correlate the quality of the rhubarb with its color. The color of the rhubarb powder after coloration attained the highest accuracy (92.3% in predicting the quality grade of the test samples with the established artificial neural networks. Finally, a standardized colorimetric grading scale was created based on the spatial distribution of the rhubarb samples in a two-dimensional chromaticity diagram according to the colors of the powdered rhubarb after color enhancement. By comparing the color between the scale and the tested samples, similar to performing a pH test with indicator paper, subjects without sensory evaluation experience could quickly determine the quality grade of rhubarb. This work illustrates the technical feasibility of the color-based grading of rhubarb quality and offers references for quantifying and standardizing the sensory evaluation of TCMs, foods and

  16. Back to basics: an evaluation of NaOH and alternative rapid DNA extraction protocols for DNA barcoding, genotyping, and disease diagnostics from fungal and oomycete samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmundson, Todd W; Eyre, Catherine A; Hayden, Katherine M; Dhillon, Jaskirn; Garbelotto, Matteo M

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquity, high diversity and often-cryptic manifestations of fungi and oomycetes frequently necessitate molecular tools for detecting and identifying them in the environment. In applications including DNA barcoding, pathogen detection from plant samples, and genotyping for population genetics and epidemiology, rapid and dependable DNA extraction methods scalable from one to hundreds of samples are desirable. We evaluated several rapid extraction methods (NaOH, Rapid one-step extraction (ROSE), Chelex 100, proteinase K) for their ability to obtain DNA of quantity and quality suitable for the following applications: PCR amplification of the multicopy barcoding locus ITS1/5.8S/ITS2 from various fungal cultures and sporocarps; single-copy microsatellite amplification from cultures of the phytopathogenic oomycete Phytophthora ramorum; probe-based P. ramorum detection from leaves. Several methods were effective for most of the applications, with NaOH extraction favored in terms of success rate, cost, speed and simplicity. Frozen dilutions of ROSE and NaOH extracts maintained PCR viability for over 32 months. DNA from rapid extractions performed poorly compared to CTAB/phenol-chloroform extracts for TaqMan diagnostics from tanoak leaves, suggesting that incomplete removal of PCR inhibitors is an issue for sensitive diagnostic procedures, especially from plants with recalcitrant leaf chemistry. NaOH extracts exhibited lower yield and size than CTAB/phenol-chloroform extracts; however, NaOH extraction facilitated obtaining clean sequence data from sporocarps contaminated by other fungi, perhaps due to dilution resulting from low DNA yield. We conclude that conventional extractions are often unnecessary for routine DNA sequencing or genotyping of fungi and oomycetes, and recommend simpler strategies where source materials and intended applications warrant such use. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Rapid on-site evaluation of the development of resistance to quinone outside inhibitors in Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X R; Dai, D J; Wang, H D; Zhang, C Q

    2017-10-24

    Botrytis cinerea, a typical "high-risk" pathogenic fungus that rapidly develops resistance to fungicides, affects more than 1,000 species of 586 plant genera native to most continents and causes great economic losses. Therefore, a rapid and sensitive assay of fungicide resistance development in B. cinerea populations is crucial for scientific management. In this study, we established a Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) system for the monitoring and evaluation of the risk of development of B. cinerea resistance to QoI fungicides; the method uses two LAMP assays. The first assay detects G143A mutants of B. cinerea, which are highly resistance to QoI fungicides. BCbi143/144 introns in B. cinerea are then detected by the second assay. HNB acts as a visual LAMP reaction indicator. The optimum reaction conditions of the LAMP assays were 61 °C for 50 min, and the detection limit of the LAMP assays was 100 × 10 -4  ng/μl. We directly pre-treated the field samples by using All-DNA-Fast-Out to extract DNA within ten minutes, then performed the LAMP assay to achieve one-step rapid detection. In conclusion, we established a rapid and sensitive LAMP assay system for resistance risk assessment and for monitoring QoI-resistance of B. cinerea in the field.

  18. Evaluation of a new rapid lateral flow chromatography test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaklikkaya, N.; Dinc, U.; Dabanca, Pinar A.; Aydin, F.; Erturk, M.; Akdogan, Remzi A.; Ozgur, O.; Uzun, Dogan Y.; Gungor, E.; Arslan, M.; Cobanoglu, U.

    2006-01-01

    The rapid, simple and non-invasive diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is important in implementing chemotherapy in appropriate manner, and in assessing persistent H. pylori infection after eradication therapy. The Immuno Card STAT HpSA kit (Meridian Bioscience, Europe) is a lateral flow chromatography test which utilizes a monoclonal anti-H. pylori antibody. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of the ImmunoCard STAT HpSA test before and after eradication therapy on patients referred to undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Sixty-five consecutive patients who were referred to undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at the Department of Gastroenterology, Karadeniz Technical University Medical School, Turkey between February and August 2005 were included in this study. The ImmunoCard STAT HpSA was compared with 4 invasive tests (histology, gram staining, rapid urease test, and culture). The reference method was defined as positive when 2 of the 4 invasive tests were positive. A negative H. pylori status was considered when all 4 tests present concordant negative results. Overall, the ImmunoCard STAT HpSA test had 77.8% sensitivity, 79.3% specificity, 82.4% positive predictive value (PPV) and 74.2% negative predictive value (NPV) in all patients. With regard to pre-treatment values, the sensitivity was 70.6%, specificity 70.6%, PPV 100% and NPV 100% while on post-treatment group the sensitivity was 84.2%, specificity 64.7%, PPV 72.7% and NPV 78.6%. Our results indicate that the ImmunoCard STAT HpSA test is a rapid, simple, and helpful procedure not only to determine H. pylori infection but also to assess the success of eradication therapy. (author)

  19. [Attempt for development of rapid word reading test for children--evaluation of reliability and validity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ryusaku; Kashiwagi, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Shuhei

    2008-09-01

    We developed a rapid word reading test for examining the phonological processing ability of Japanese children. We prepared two versions of the test, version A and B. Each test has word and non-word tasks. Twenty-two healthy boys of third grade in primary schools participated in this validation study. For criterion related validity, we performed the serial Hiragana reading test, the sentence reading test, Raven's coloured progressive matrices (RCPM), the Token test for children, the Kana word dictation test, the standardized comprehension test of abstract words (SCTAW), and Trail Circle test. The reading times of the newly developed test correlated moderately or highly with those of the serial Hiragana reading test and the sentence reading test. However, the scores of the other tests (RCPM, Token test for children, Kana word dictation test, SCTAW, Trail Circle test) did not correlated with the reading time of the rapid word reading test. Test-retest reliabilities in the word tasks were more than moderate: 0.52 and 0.76 in versions A and B, while those in the non-word tasks were high: 0.91 and 0.88 in versions A and B. The correlation coefficient between versions A and B was 0.7 for the word tasks and 0.92 for the non-word tasks. This study showed that the rapid word reading test has substantial validity and reliability for testing the phonological processing ability of Japanese children. In addition, the non-word tasks were more suitable for selectively examining the speed of the grapheme to phoneme conversion process.

  20. Microplastic contamination in natural mussel beds from a Brazilian urbanized coastal region: Rapid evaluation through bioassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M F M; Ascer, L G; Custódio, M R; Moreira, F T; Turra, A

    2016-05-15

    Microplastic pollution (particles urbanized area of the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. A simple and rapid assessment showed that 75% of sampled mussels had ingested microplastics, an issue of human and environmental concern. All sampling points had contaminated mussels and this contamination had no clear pattern of distribution along the estuary. This was the first time that microplastic bioavailability was assessed in nature for the southern hemisphere and that wild P. perna was found contaminated with this pollutant. This is an important issue that should be better assessed due to an increase in seafood consumption and culture in Brazil and worldwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid Development of Specialty Population Registries and Quality Measures from Electronic Health Record Data*. An Agile Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Vaishnavi; Fish, Jason S; Mutz, Jacqueline M; Carrington, Angela R; Lai, Ki; Davis, Lisa S; Youngblood, Josh E; Rauschuber, Mark R; Flores, Kathryn A; Sara, Evan J; Bhat, Deepa G; Willett, DuWayne L

    2017-06-14

    both (a) real-time patient lists of registry patients and (b) EDW-generated CQM data. Agile project management methods were employed, including co-development, lightweight requirements documentation with User Stories and acceptance criteria, and time-boxed iterative development of EHR features in 2-week "sprints" for rapid-cycle feedback and refinement. Using this approach, in calendar year 2015 we developed a total of 43 specialty chronic disease registries, with 111 new EHR data collection and clinical decision support tools, 163 new clinical quality measures, and 30 clinic-specific dashboards reporting on both real-time patient care gaps and summarized and vetted CQM measure performance trends. This study suggests concurrent design of EHR data collection tools and reporting can quickly yield useful EHR structured data for chronic disease registries, and bodes well for efforts to migrate away from manual abstraction. This work also supports the view that in new EHR-based registry development, as in new product development, adopting agile principles and practices can help deliver valued, high-quality features early and often.

  2. Evaluation of the Current State of Integrated Water Quality Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhonditsis, G. B.; Wellen, C. C.; Ecological Modelling Laboratory

    2010-12-01

    Environmental policy and management implementation require robust methods for assessing the contribution of various point and non-point pollution sources to water quality problems as well as methods for estimating the expected and achieved compliance with the water quality goals. Water quality models have been widely used for creating the scientific basis for management decisions by providing a predictive link between restoration actions and ecosystem response. Modelling water quality and nutrient transport is challenging due a number of constraints associated with the input data and existing knowledge gaps related to the mathematical description of landscape and in-stream biogeochemical processes. While enormous effort has been invested to make watershed models process-based and spatially-distributed, there has not been a comprehensive meta-analysis of model credibility in watershed modelling literature. In this study, we evaluate the current state of integrated water quality modeling across the range of temporal and spatial scales typically utilized. We address several common modeling questions by providing a quantitative assessment of model performance and by assessing how model performance depends on model development. The data compiled represent a heterogeneous group of modeling studies, especially with respect to complexity, spatial and temporal scales and model development objectives. Beginning from 1992, the year when Beven and Binley published their seminal paper on uncertainty analysis in hydrological modelling, and ending in 2009, we selected over 150 papers fitting a number of criteria. These criteria involved publications that: (i) employed distributed or semi-distributed modelling approaches; (ii) provided predictions on flow and nutrient concentration state variables; and (iii) reported fit to measured data. Model performance was quantified with the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency, the relative error, and the coefficient of determination. Further, our

  3. Evaluation of working air quality by using semipermeable membrane devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A.; Pastor, Agustin; Guardia, Miguel de la

    2008-01-01

    It has been evaluated the use of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive samplers of organophosphorus pesticides from air, in order to determine the contamination of working environments. Additionally, the use of SPMDs as portable samplers has been also considered. The analytical methodology for the determination of diazinon, chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos and fenthion in SPMDs exposed to contaminated air was based on microwave-assisted extraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry determination. Limit of detection (LOD) values from 2 to 4 ng SPMD -1 and repeatability from 2 to 7% were obtained by using the aforementioned methodology. Theoretical calculated sampling rates were employed for the estimation of the pesticide concentration in air, by using the pesticide mass retained in the deployed SPMD. The obtained LOD values, for a sampling time of 7 days, were from 1 to 2 ng m -3 . The evaluation of the air quality of a pesticide laboratory with an intensive use of diazinon and chlorpyrifos has been made in order to check the operation safety conditions

  4. Evaluation of working air quality by using semipermeable membrane devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A. [Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Valencia, Edifici Jeroni Munoz, 50 Dr. Moliner, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Pastor, Agustin [Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Valencia, Edifici Jeroni Munoz, 50 Dr. Moliner, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: agustin.pastor@uv.es; Guardia, Miguel de la [Analytical Chemistry Department, University of Valencia, Edifici Jeroni Munoz, 50 Dr. Moliner, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2008-09-19

    It has been evaluated the use of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive samplers of organophosphorus pesticides from air, in order to determine the contamination of working environments. Additionally, the use of SPMDs as portable samplers has been also considered. The analytical methodology for the determination of diazinon, chlorpyrifos-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos and fenthion in SPMDs exposed to contaminated air was based on microwave-assisted extraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry determination. Limit of detection (LOD) values from 2 to 4 ng SPMD{sup -1} and repeatability from 2 to 7% were obtained by using the aforementioned methodology. Theoretical calculated sampling rates were employed for the estimation of the pesticide concentration in air, by using the pesticide mass retained in the deployed SPMD. The obtained LOD values, for a sampling time of 7 days, were from 1 to 2 ng m{sup -3}. The evaluation of the air quality of a pesticide laboratory with an intensive use of diazinon and chlorpyrifos has been made in order to check the operation safety conditions.

  5. Evaluation of urban sprawl and urban landscape pattern in a rapidly developing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhi-Qiang; Dai, Fu-Qiang; Sun, Cheng

    2012-10-01

    Urban sprawl is a worldwide phenomenon happening particularly in rapidly developing regions. A study on the spatiotemporal characteristics of urban sprawl and urban pattern is useful for the sustainable management of land management and urban land planning. The present research explores the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban sprawl in the context of a rapid urbanization process in a booming economic region of southern China from 1979 to 2005. Three urban sprawl types are distinguished by analyzing overlaid urban area maps of two adjacent study years which originated from the interpretation of remote sensed images and vector land use maps. Landscape metrics are used to analyze the spatiotemporal pattern of urban sprawl for each study period. Study results show that urban areas have expanded dramatically, and the spatiotemporal landscape pattern configured by the three sprawl types changed obviously. The different sprawl type patterns in five study periods have transformed significantly, with their proportions altered both in terms of quantity and of location. The present research proves that urban sprawl quantification and pattern analysis can provide a clear perspective of the urbanization process during a long time period. Particularly, the present study on urban sprawl and sprawl patterns can be used by land use and urban planners.

  6. Evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Mewara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical features of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK are non-specific and closely resemble bacterial, viral and fungal keratitis. Materials and Methods: We compared loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP with microscopy, non-nutrient agar (NNA culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR in clinical suspects of AK. Results: Of 52 clinical samples (42 AK suspects and 10 proven bacterial, viral or fungal keratitis, 3 were positive by direct microscopy (sensitivity 60%, confidence interval [CI]: 17%–92.7%, and 5 by NNA culture, 18S rDNA PCR and LAMP (sensitivity 100%, CI: 46.3%–100%. The limit of detection of Acanthamoeba DNA was 1 pg/μl by both LAMP and PCR. Conclusion: PCR and LAMP assays targeting 18S rDNA gene were found particularly suitable for a rapid and accurate diagnosis of AK. LAMP assay takes 2–3 h lesser than PCR, and thus offers a rapid, highly sensitive and specific, simple and affordable diagnostic modality for patients suspected of AK, especially in resource limited settings

  7. [Evaluation of Prolex for the rapid identification of streptococci isolated in medical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubinoux, J; Mihaila-Amrouche, L; Bouvet, A

    2004-10-01

    The need to rapidly identify streptococci responsible for acute infectious diseases has led to the development of agglutination techniques that are able to identify streptococcal group antigens (A, B, C, D, F, and G) directly from primoculture colonies on blood agar. The Prolex agglutination tests (Pro-Lab Diagnostics, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada), distributed in France by i2a, have been used for the determination of group antigens of 166 isolates of streptococci and enterococci previously identified in the National Reference Center for Streptococci. The results obtained with the Prolex reagents have permitted to correctly identify all pyogenic beta-hemolytic streptococci (23 Streptococcus pyogenes, 21 Streptococcus agalactiae, 33 Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis including 6 group C and 27 group G, and 5 Streptococcus porcinus including 4 group B). Four differences between unexpected agglutinations (A or F) and species identifications have been obtained. These differences were observed for four non-hemolytic isolates of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus infantarius, and Streptococcus suis. The anti-D reagent has been of value as a marker for isolates of enterococci. Thus, these results confirm the abilities of these agglutination tests for the grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci. Moreover, the use of Prolex has the advantage to be rapid because of the non-enzymatic but chemical extraction of streptococcal antigens.

  8. A novel rapid access testicular cancer clinic: prospective evaluation after one year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, K; Davis, N F; Elamin, S; Ahern, P; Brady, C M; Sweeney, P

    2016-02-01

    Our institution has recently developed a rapid access outpatient clinic to investigate men with testicular lumps and/or pain suspicious for testicular cancer (TCa). To present our experience after 12 months. All referrals to the rapid access testicular clinic (RATC) clinic were prospectively analysed from 01/01/2013 to 01/01/2014. The primary outcome variable was incidence of TCa in the referred patient cohort. Secondary outcome variables were waiting times prior to clinical review and waiting times prior to radical orchidectomy in patients diagnosed with TCa. Seventy-four new patients were referred to the RATC during the 1-year period and the mean age was 34 (range 15-81 years). TCa was the most common diagnosis and was found in 18 (25 %) patients. Patients diagnosed with TCa underwent radical orchidectomy, a median of 3 (range 1-5) days after their initial GP referral. Patients requiring surgical intervention for benign scrotal pathology underwent their procedure a median of 32 (range 3-61) days after their initial referral. Of the 18 patients diagnosed with TCa, 9 (50 %) were diagnosed with a seminomatous germ cell tumour on histopathology. The RATC is a new initiative in Ireland that provides expedient and definitive treatment of patients with newly diagnosed TCa. Early treatment will ultimately improve long-term prognosis in this patient cohort.

  9. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF CONVENTIONAL VERSUS RAPID METHODS FOR AMPLIFIABLE GENOMIC DNA ISOLATION OF CULTURED Azospirillum sp. JG3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalis Norma Ethica

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As an initial attempt to reveal genetic information of Azospirillum sp. JG3 strain, which is still absence despite of the strains' ability in producing valued enzymes, two groups of conventional methods: lysis-enzyme and column-kit; and two rapid methods: thermal disruption and intact colony were evaluated. The aim is to determine the most practical method for obtaining high-grade PCR product using degenerate primers as part of routine-basis protocols for studying the molecular genetics of the Azospirillal bacteria. The evaluation includes the assessment of electrophoresis gel visualization, pellet appearance, preparation time, and PCR result of extracted genomic DNA from each method. Our results confirmed that the conventional methods were more superior to the rapid methods in generating genomic DNA isolates visible on electrophoresis gel. However, modification made in the previously developed DNA isolation protocol giving the simplest and most rapid method of all methods used in this study for extracting PCR-amplifiable DNA of Azospirillum sp. JG3. Intact bacterial cells (intact colony loaded on electrophoresis gel could present genomic DNA band, but could not be completely amplified by PCR without thermal treatment. It can also be inferred from our result that the 3 to 5-min heating in dH2O step is critical for the pre-treatment of colony PCR of Azospirillal cells.

  10. Evaluation of Quality Aspects in Vocational Training Programmes. Synthesis Report. CEDEFOP Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Erwin

    National evaluations of quality aspects of vocational training programs (VTPs) in five European countries--Belgium, Germany, France, Greece, and Portugal--were reviewed to determine how VTP quality is currently being evaluated and identify a more coherent approach to evaluating VTPs. Special attention was paid to how existing evaluation studies…

  11. Quality of dementia diagnostic evaluation for ethnic minority patients: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T Rune; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Kastrup, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: Diagnostic evaluation of dementia for ethnic minority patients may be challenging. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of diagnostic evaluation of dementia for patients from ethnic minorities in Denmark. Methods: The Danish national hospital registers were used to identify p......: There are significant ethnic disparities in the quality of diagnostic evaluations and outcome of dementia in the secondary healthcare sector....

  12. Quality of life evaluation of children with sleep bruxism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavião Maria

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of potential factors associated with sleep bruxism (SB may help in determining the etiology of such parafunction. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of life (QoL of children with SB by means of a generic scale, in addition to the association of sociodemographic characteristics and other parafunctional habits. Methods This cross-sectional study included healthy children of both genders, aged 7.18 ± 0.59 years, with (n = 25 and without (n = 69 signs and symptoms of SB. Data were collected in caries-free children from public schools by applying a translated and validated version of the Autoquestionnaire Qualite de Vie Enfant Image (AUQUEI, clinical examination and interview with the parents. The psychometric properties evaluated for the scale referred to internal consistency (ceiling and floor effects, Cronbach's Alpha coefficient, Items Correlation Matrix, and corrected Item-Total Correlation and the discriminant validity (t-test. By means of logistic regression with stepwise backward elimination, associations were evaluated between SB and age, gender, body mass index, maternal use of alcohol/tobacco/medicine during pregnancy, maternal age at birth, parent's schooling, presence of sucking habit, nail biting, enuresis, number of children, child's order (first born, occurrence of divorce/parent's death, and AUQUEI scores. Results The results of the AUQUEI psychometric analysis showed homogeneity of items and a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.65; no negative correlations between the items were found. The mean AUQUEI scores for children with SB did not differ significantly from those of children without the parafunction. Only the independent variable "maternal age at birth" showed a significant negative association with SB. Conclusions In the studied sample, children with SB presented scores of QoL that were similar to those without the parafunction, and children from the youngest mothers were more likely

  13. Quality of life evaluation of children with sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo, Paula M; Barbosa, Taís S; Gavião, Maria Beatriz D

    2010-06-14

    The study of potential factors associated with sleep bruxism (SB) may help in determining the etiology of such parafunction. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of life (QoL) of children with SB by means of a generic scale, in addition to the association of sociodemographic characteristics and other parafunctional habits. This cross-sectional study included healthy children of both genders, aged 7.18 +/- 0.59 years, with (n = 25) and without (n = 69) signs and symptoms of SB. Data were collected in caries-free children from public schools by applying a translated and validated version of the Autoquestionnaire Qualite de Vie Enfant Image (AUQUEI), clinical examination and interview with the parents. The psychometric properties evaluated for the scale referred to internal consistency (ceiling and floor effects, Cronbach's Alpha coefficient, Items Correlation Matrix, and corrected Item-Total Correlation) and the discriminant validity (t-test). By means of logistic regression with stepwise backward elimination, associations were evaluated between SB and age, gender, body mass index, maternal use of alcohol/tobacco/medicine during pregnancy, maternal age at birth, parent's schooling, presence of sucking habit, nail biting, enuresis, number of children, child's order (first born), occurrence of divorce/parent's death, and AUQUEI scores. The results of the AUQUEI psychometric analysis showed homogeneity of items and a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.65; no negative correlations between the items were found. The mean AUQUEI scores for children with SB did not differ significantly from those of children without the parafunction. Only the independent variable "maternal age at birth" showed a significant negative association with SB. In the studied sample, children with SB presented scores of QoL that were similar to those without the parafunction, and children from the youngest mothers were more likely to present SB.

  14. A framework for assessing Health Economic Evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Astrid

    2012-08-16

    Health economic evaluations support the health care decision-making process by providing information on costs and consequences of health interventions. The quality of such studies is assessed by health economic evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments. At present, there is no instrument for measuring and improving the quality of such HEE quality appraisal instruments. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to establish a framework for assessing the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments to support and improve their quality, and to apply this framework to those HEE quality appraisal instruments which have been subject to more scrutiny than others, in order to test the framework and to demonstrate the shortcomings of existing HEE quality appraisal instruments. To develop the quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments, the experiences of using appraisal tools for clinical guidelines are used. Based on a deductive iterative process, clinical guideline appraisal instruments identified through literature search are reviewed, consolidated, and adapted to produce the final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments. The final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments consists of 36 items organized within 7 dimensions, each of which captures a specific domain of quality. Applying the quality assessment framework to four existing HEE quality appraisal instruments, it is found that these four quality appraisal instruments are of variable quality. The framework described in this study should be regarded as a starting point for appraising the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments. This framework can be used by HEE quality appraisal instrument producers to support and improve the quality and acceptance of existing and future HEE quality appraisal instruments. By applying this framework, users of HEE quality appraisal instruments can become aware of methodological deficiencies

  15. Evaluation of two methods of rapid blood-glucose monitoring by unskilled personnel during surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, S; Adelhøj, B; Bigler, Dennis Richard

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of two rapid methods of blood-glucose monitoring without (Haemo-glucotest 1-44) and with a reflectance meter (Hypocount B) was compared using a laboratory method. The assessment was carried out by personnel with no previous experience in measuring blood glucose. Eighty-five percent...... of the 92 measurements obtained with the hypocount B were within +/- 20% of the laboratory glucose values. Using haemo-glucotest 1-44 strips, 74% of the readings were within +/- 20% of the reference laboratory values. For values below 5.5 mmol/l, there was a tendency for results to be too low, with 77......% of the readings below laboratory values -20%. All situations with severe hypoglycaemia were detected with both strips. The study also demonstrates the ineffectiveness of s.c. insulin regimens during surgery. Only 47% of the measured blood glucose values were within the range of 5.5-10 mmol/l and two of ten...

  16. Methodologies for rapid evaluation of seismic demand levels in nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, M.; Asfura, A.; Mukhim, G.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology for rapid assessment of both acceleration spectral peak and 'zero period acceleration' (ZPA) values for virtually any major structure in a nuclear power plant is presented. The methodology is based on spectral peak and ZPA amplification factors, developed from regression analyses of an analytical database. The developed amplification factors are applied to the plant's design ground spectrum to obtain amplified response parameters. A practical application of the methodology is presented. This paper also presents a methodology for calculating acceleration response spectrum curves at any number of desired damping ratios directly from a single known damping ratio spectrum. The methodology presented is particularly useful and directly applicable to older vintage nuclear power plant facilities (i.e. such as those affected by USI A-46). The methodology is based on principles of random vibration theory. The methodology has been implemented in a computer program (SPECGEN). SPECGEN results are compared with results obtained from time history analyses. (orig.)

  17. A Simple and Rapid Method to Evaluate Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen in Sewage Sludge Amended Calcareous Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdan Lotfi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN can be usually considered as labile nitrogen. Measurement of PMN is expensive and time consuming; therefore, a simpler and more rapid alternative may facilitate routine laboratory analysis. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between PMN and biological index of nitrogen availability (BINA. The studied soil was previously treated with 0, 25, and 100 tons ha-1 of sewage sludge with 0, 1, 2 and 3 consecutive years of application. Soil samples were taken 6 months after the latest application. PMN was measured according to Stanford and Smith procedure (20 weeks of aerobic incubation with 2 weeks leaching intervals and BINA measured as described by Bundy and Meisinger (7 days of anaerobic incubation at 40˚ C followed by extraction of NH4+. Results showed that PMN was significantly correlated with BINA (r = 0.938, P

  18. A rapid and inexpensive bioassay to evaluate the decontamination of organophosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claborn, David M; Martin-Brown, Skylar A; Sagar, Sanjay Gupta; Durham, Paul

    2012-01-01

    An inexpensive and rapid bioassay using adult red flour beetles was developed for use in assessing the decontamination of environments containing organophosphates and related chemicals. A decontamination protocol was developed which demonstrated that 2 to 3 applications of 5% bleach solution were required to obtain nearly complete decontamination of malathion. The bioassay was also used to screen common household cleaners as potential decontaminating agents, but only 5% bleach was effective at improving survival of insects on steel plates treated with 25% malathion. A toxic degradation product (malaoxon) was detected using gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry; this toxin affected the decontamination efficacy and resulted in continued toxicity to the beetles until subsequent decontaminations. The bioassay provides evidence to support the use of red flour beetles as a sensitive, less expensive method for determining safety levels of environments contaminated with malathion and other toxins, and may have application in the study of chemical warfare agents.

  19. Evaluation of three commercial rapid tests for detecting antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K P; Saw, T L; Baki, A; Kamarudin, R

    2003-08-01

    Determine HIV-1/2, Chembio HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK and PenTest are simple/rapid tests for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in human whole blood, serum and plasma samples. The assay is one step and the result is read visually within 15 minutes. Using 92 known HIV-1 reactive sera and 108 known HIV-1 negative sera, the 3 HIV tests correctly identified all the known HIV-1 reactive and negative samples. The results indicated that Determine HIV-1/2, Chembio HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK and PenTest HIV are as sensitive and specific (100% concordance) as Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay. The data indicated that these 3 HIV tests are effective testing systems for diagnosis of HIV infection in a situation when the conventional Enzyme Immunoassay is not suitable.

  20. Preparation and Evaluation of Oxaliplatin Thermosensitive Liposomes with Rapid Release and High Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunying Zeng

    Full Text Available Oxaliplatin (OXP was reported to show low anti-tumor activity when used alone and to display side effects; this low activity was attributed to high partitioning to erythrocytes and low accumulation in tumors. Thermosensitive liposomes (TSL were considered able to specifically deliver drugs to heated tumors and to resolve the OXP distribution problem. Regretfully, TSL encapsulating doxorubicin did not demonstrate significant improvement in progression-free survival. Drug release below 41°C and significant leakage were considered major reasons for the failure. The purpose of this study was to acquire OXP TSL with rapid release at the triggered temperature and high stability at body temperature and at storage temperatures. A small quantity of poloxamer 188 was introduced into the TSL formulation to stabilize the encapsulated drug. It was shown that the addition of poloxamer 188 had no influence on the TSL characteristics. More than 90% of OXP was released within 10 min at 42°C, and less than 15% was released within 60 min at temperatures below 39°C. TSL were stable at 37°C for 96 h and at 4°C for 6 months. The anti-tumor activity of TSL at the dose of 2.5 mg/kg was certified to be equal to those of OXP injection and non-thermosensitive liposomes (NTSL at the dose of 5 mg/kg, and significant improvement of tumor inhibition was observed in TSL compared with injection and NTSL at the same dose. It was also shown from the histological transmutation of tumors that TSL had stronger anti-tumor activity. Therefore, it could be concluded that TSL composed of a proper amount of poloxamer had rapid release and high stability, and OXP TSL would be anticipated to exert prominent anti-tumor activity in the clinic.

  1. Evaluation of Ion Torrent sequencing technology for rapid clinical human leucocyte antigen typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Sandra G; Chong, Winnie; Brown, Colin J; Navarrete, Cristina V

    2018-06-05

    The development of techniques to define the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region has proven to be challenging due to its high level of polymorphism. Within a clinical laboratory, a technique for high-resolution HLA typing, which is rapid and cost effective is essential. NGS has provided a rapid, high-resolution HLA typing solution, which has reduced the number of HLA ambiguities seen with other typing methods. In this study, the One Lambda NXType NGS kit was tested on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. A total of 362 registry donors from four ethnic populations (Europeans, South Asians, Africans and Chinese) were NGS HLA typed across 9-loci (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1,-DRB345 -DQB1 and -DPB1). Concordance rates of 91%-98% were obtained (for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1) when compared to historical PCR-SSO HLA types, and the identification of uncommon alleles such as A*24:07:01 and C*04:82 were observed. A turnaround time of four days was achieved for typing 44 samples. However, some limitations were observed; primer locations did not allow all ambiguities to be resolved for HLA Class II where Exon I and IV amplification are needed (HLA-DRB1*04:07:01/04:92, HLA-DRB1*09:01:02/*09:21 and HLA-DRB1*12:01:01/*12:10). This study has demonstrated high-resolution typing by NGS can be achieved in an acceptable turnaround time for a clinical laboratory; however, the Ion Torrent workflow has some technical limitations that should be addressed. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Quality evaluation of rapeseed oils used as engine fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Světlík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples from six reference decentralised facilities and one industrial production unit of rapeseed oils were taken for the evaluation of the influence of production processes to the properties specified in the technical standard; in the laboratories, the properties limited by the standard for rapeseed oils were determined. In addition, long-term monitoring of changes in the oxidation stability in the storage test of rapeseed oils additived in the quantities of 200, 400 and 600 mg.kg−1 of the Baynox antioxidant was started. The results confirmed that the critical points in the rapeseed oil production process consist in the contamination with ash-forming elements, such as phosphorus, magnesium, calcium and overall impurities. Not only in the case of hot pressing, but also in two-step cold pressing of rapeseed it is necessary to reduce the content of ash-forming elements using additional processes, such as degumming, neutralisation and whitening. The safety step consisting of filtration down to maximum particle size of 1 μm must be always in place before the oil distribution. A positive effect of the Baynox antioxidant was clearly proved. As 200 mg.kg−1 of Baynox was added, the oxidation stability value increased from 8 to 9.05 hrs immediately after the pressing with a consequent decrease to 6 hrs after 270 days. With using of addition 400 ppm Baynox decreased oxidation stability under 6 hours not until after 390 days of storage. With addition 600 ppm Baynox the oxidation stability of rapeseed oil even after 510 days of storage makes 6.5 hours. The quality monitoring brought about necessary findings and knowledge for the optimisation of the rapeseed oil production and distribution as engine fuels. In addition, it serves as an initial supporting document for the creation of the necessary quality control system.

  3. Evaluation of the Tactical Human Optimization, Rapid Rehabilitation, and Reconditioning Program (THOR3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    0.3-0.9). Evidence from this evaluation suggests that ARSOF Soldiers may benefit from participation in THOR3 compared to other human performance...factor that was not modifiable and one of the strongest risk factors for injury. Evidence from this evaluation suggests that Soldiers may benefit from...a Motorized Vehicle 7 2 Walking or Hiking 7 2 Rough Housing or Fighting 3 1 Stepping/Climbing 1 < 1 Repairing or maintaining equipment 1

  4. Software Quality Evaluation Models Applicable in Health Information and Communications Technologies. A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor Ordozgoiti, Alberto; Delgado Hito, Pilar; Guix Comellas, Eva María; Fernandez Sanchez, Carlos Manuel; Garcia Hernandez, Milagros; Lluch Canut, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Information and Communications Technologies in healthcare has increased the need to consider quality criteria through standardised processes. The aim of this study was to analyse the software quality evaluation models applicable to healthcare from the perspective of ICT-purchasers. Through a systematic literature review with the keywords software, product, quality, evaluation and health, we selected and analysed 20 original research papers published from 2005-2016 in health science and technology databases. The results showed four main topics: non-ISO models, software quality evaluation models based on ISO/IEC standards, studies analysing software quality evaluation models, and studies analysing ISO standards for software quality evaluation. The models provide cost-efficiency criteria for specific software, and improve use outcomes. The ISO/IEC25000 standard is shown as the most suitable for evaluating the quality of ICTs for healthcare use from the perspective of institutional acquisition.

  5. Comparison of Epson scanner quality for radiochromic film evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnawaf, Hani; Yu, Peter K N; Butson, Martin

    2012-09-06

    Epson Desktop scanners have been quoted as devices which match the characteristics required for the evaluation of radiation dose exposure by radiochromic films. Specifically, models such as the 10000XL have been used successfully for image analysis and are recommended by ISP for dosimetry purposes. This note investigates and compares the scanner characteristics of three Epson desktop scanner models including the Epson 10000XL, V700, and V330. Both of the latter are substantially cheaper models capable of A4 scanning. As the price variation between the V330 and the 10000XL is 20-fold (based on Australian recommended retail price), cost savings by using the cheaper scanners may be warranted based on results. By a direct comparison of scanner uniformity and reproducibility we can evaluate the accuracy of these scanners for radiochromic film dosimetry. Results have shown that all three scanners can produce adequate scanner uniformity and reproducibility, with the inexpensive V330 producing a standard deviation variation across its landscape direction of 0.7% and 1.2% in the portrait direction (reflection mode). This is compared to the V700 in reflection mode of 0.25% and 0.5% for landscape and portrait directions, respectively, and 0.5% and 0.8% for the 10000XL. In transmission mode, the V700 is comparable in reproducibility to the 10000XL for portrait and landscape mode, whilst the V330 is only capable of scanning in the landscape direction and produces a standard deviation in this direction of 1.0% compared to 0.6% (V700) and 0.25% (10000XL). Results have shown that the V700 and 10000XL are comparable scanners in quality and accuracy with the 10000XL obviously capable of imaging over an A3 area as opposed to an A4 area for the V700. The V330 scanner produced slightly lower accuracy and quality with uncertainties approximately twice as much as the other scanners. However, the results show that the V330 is still an adequate scanner and could be used for radiation

  6. An evaluation of the American Indian Air Quality Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartaroli, Marylynn

    During centuries of geographic, economic, and cultural domination, the federal government held the responsibility for the management of environmental issues on tribal lands. Today, tribes are reasserting their sovereignty in many ways, including the development of their own environmental programs. Tribal agencies desperately search for tribal members who are qualified to make decisions for the benefit of the tribes from both Western scientific and traditional cultural viewpoints. To meet this need, the American Indian Air Quality Training Program (AIAQTP) offers technical and regulatory training courses that are both scientifically up-to-date and culturally responsive to this community. This study is an evaluation of these courses. To supplement data from existing program documents and databases, I also observed five courses, sent follow-up questionnaires, and interviewed lead instructors and course participants to develop an understanding of their perceptions of the training received. Computer analysis of this quantitative and qualitative data revealed patterns and themes; an external reviewer also independently analyzed the data set. The training courses offered by AIAQTP were judged to have merit and value by the course instructors, the participants, the external evaluator, and me. Designed to be both culturally responsive and technically rigorous, these courses provided relevant and useful information and skills to the tribal environmental professionals in attendance, meeting the demands of their jobs. Although not all training needs or expectations were met, the study participants indicated their intentions to continue their education and training in air quality and other environmental media. A significant benefit of attendance at AIAQTP training courses was the development of a network of tribal professionals across the nation that acts as a support system for the implementation and continuation of changes in the professional practice for the trainees and

  7. Reflections on Post-Evaluation of Baccalaureate Programs: Revisiting Education Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianrong, Sun

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the distinction between two types of educational quality: quality at the institutional level and quality at the student learning level. The key element for continuous institutional improvement after completion of the evaluation of institutional teaching should be on redefining quality in student learning and developing a…

  8. How the task of evaluating image quality influences viewing behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alers, H.; Bos, Lennart; Heynderickx, I.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Image quality scores collected in subjective experiments are widely used in image quality research, particularly in the design of objective quality assessment algorithms. It is therefore of vital importance to make sure that the collected scores reflect viewers' opinions in real-life situations.

  9. A History and Critique of Quality Evaluation in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Lee

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a history of the emergence of quality systems from the mid-1980s. To show how quality became a primary policy concern in higher education policy. To map the development of quality processes and raise questions about dominant approaches and express concerns for the future. Design/methodology/approach: Historical document…

  10. Evaluating Education Quality in Terms of ISO9000 Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengchun, Cheng; Vogel, Linda R.; Zhaoyu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    While nations measure the quality of educational systems by different standards, many nations, such as China, have adopted the ISO9000 quality standards to assess the quality of schools. This article explores the various elements of the the ISO9000 standards and how each element relates to the various groups that are consumers or stakeholders in…

  11. Multiplex real-time quantitative PCR, microscopy and rapid diagnostic immuno-chromatographic tests for the detection of Plasmodium spp: performance, limit of detection analysis and quality assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralevski Filip

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate laboratory diagnosis of malaria species in returning travelers is paramount in the treatment of this potentially fatal infectious disease. Materials and methods A total of 466 blood specimens from returning travelers to Africa, Asia, and South/Central America with suspected malaria infection were collected between 2007 and 2009 at the reference public health laboratory. These specimens were assessed by reference microscopy, multipex real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR, and two rapid diagnostic immuno-chromatographic tests (ICT in a blinded manner. Key clinical laboratory parameters such as limit of detection (LOD analysis on clinical specimens by parasite stage, inter-reader variability of ICTs, staffing implications, quality assurance and cost analysis were evaluated. Results QPCR is the most analytically sensitive method (sensitivity 99.41%, followed by CARESTART (sensitivity 88.24%, and BINAXNOW (sensitivity 86.47% for the diagnosis of malaria in returning travelers when compared to reference microscopy. However, microscopy was unable to specifically identify Plasmodia spp. in 18 out of 170 positive samples by QPCR. Moreover, the 17 samples that were negative by microscopy and positive by QPCR were also positive by ICTs. Quality assurance was achieved for QPCR by exchanging a blinded proficiency panel with another reference laboratory. The Kappa value of inter-reader variability among three readers for BINAXNOW and CARESTART was calculated to be 0.872 and 0.898 respectively. Serial dilution studies demonstrated that the QPCR cycle threshold correlates linearly with parasitemia (R2 = 0.9746 in a clinically relevant dynamic range and retains a LOD of 11 rDNA copies/μl for P. falciparum, which was several log lower than reference microscopy and ICTs. LOD for QPCR is affected not only by parasitemia but the parasite stage distribution of each clinical specimen. QPCR was approximately 6-fold more

  12. Smoking, health-related quality of life and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Nicolás, Ángel; Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Muñoz, Celia

    2018-06-01

    The economic evaluation of tobacco control policies requires the adoption of assumptions about the impact of changes in smoking status on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Estimates for such impacts are necessary for different populations. This paper aims to test whether smoking status has an independent effect on HRQoL over and above the effect derived from the increased likelihood of suffering a tobacco related disease, and to calculate utility values for the Spanish population. Using data from the Spanish Encuesta Nacional de Salud of 2011-12, we estimate statistical models for HRQoL as measured by the EQ-5D-5L instrument as a function of smoking status. We include a comprehensive set of controls for biological, clinical, lifestyle and socioeconomic characteristics. Smoking status has an independent, statistically significant effect on HRQoL. However, the size of the effect is small. The typical smoking related diseases, such as lung cancer, are associated with a reduction in HRQoL about 5 times larger than the difference between current smokers and never smokers. Attributing substantive HRQoL gains to quitting smoking as well as accounting for the concomitant HRQoL gain derived from a smaller likelihood of contracting tobacco related diseases might lead to an overestimation of the benefits of tobacco control policies. Nonetheless, the relatively large drops in HRQoL associated with being diagnosed with diseases that might be causally linked to tobacco suggest that such diseases should not be omitted from the economic evaluations of tobacco control policies.

  13. Changing Water Quality in the Middle Mahakam Lakes : Water Quality Trends in a Context of Rapid Deforestation, Mining and Palm Oil Plantation Development in Indonesia’s Middle Mahakam Wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, E.B.P.; Ragas, A.M.J.; Nooteboom, G.; Mursidi, M.

    The degradation of Indonesia’s wetlands is continuing at a rapid pace. People living in the Middle Mahakam Lakes (MML) region, part of a major wetland area in Indonesia, have observed various negative changes in their local environment, especially with regard to water quality. We verify these local

  14. Quality evaluation and species differentiation of Rhizoma coptidis by using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Gang; Zhang Mengying; Zhou Xiangdong; Lai Xianrong; Yue Qinghong; Tang Ce; Luo Weizao; Zhang Yi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We report a qNMR method for the determination of six alkaloids in Rhizoma coptidis. ► The results of the qNMR method are reliable by comparison with a HPLC method. ► The proposed method has good selectivity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. ► This method coupled with chemometrics can distinguish three Rhizoma coptidis species. - Abstract: Rhizoma coptidis, a broadly used traditional Chinese medicine, derives from the dried rhizomes of Coptis chinensis Franch, Coptis deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao and Coptis teeta Wall. Quantitative determination of protoberberine alkaloids in R. coptidis is critical for controlling its quality. In this study, a rapid, simple and accurate quantitative 1 H NMR (qNMR) method was developed for simultaneous determination of berberine, jatrorrhizine, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine and columbamine in R. coptidis from the three species. Method validation was performed in terms of selectivity, precision, repeatability, stability, accuracy, robustness and linearity. The average recoveries obtained were in the range of 96.9–102.4% for all the six alkaloids. In addition, the qNMR data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), and the results showed that the contents of the active alkaloids have significant difference among the three species. Compared with the conventional HPLC approach, the proposed qNMR method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for quantifying the six alkaloids due to its unique advantages of high robustness, rapid analysis time and no need of standard compounds for calibration curves preparation. These findings indicate that this method has potential as a reliable method for quality evaluation of herb medicines, especially for protoberberine alkaloid-containing ones.

  15. Quality evaluation and species differentiation of Rhizoma coptidis by using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Gang [College of Ethnic Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137 (China); Zhang Mengying [China Agricultural University, Beijing 100094 (China); Zhou Xiangdong, E-mail: zhouxd88@yahoo.cn [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Lai Xianrong; Yue Qinghong; Tang Ce [College of Ethnic Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137 (China); Luo Weizao [Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica, Chongqing 400065 (China); Zhang Yi, E-mail: tcmzhangyi@yahoo.cn [College of Ethnic Medicine, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu 611137 (China)

    2012-10-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a qNMR method for the determination of six alkaloids in Rhizoma coptidis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results of the qNMR method are reliable by comparison with a HPLC method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed method has good selectivity, precision, repeatability and accuracy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method coupled with chemometrics can distinguish three Rhizoma coptidis species. - Abstract: Rhizoma coptidis, a broadly used traditional Chinese medicine, derives from the dried rhizomes of Coptis chinensis Franch, Coptis deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao and Coptis teeta Wall. Quantitative determination of protoberberine alkaloids in R. coptidis is critical for controlling its quality. In this study, a rapid, simple and accurate quantitative {sup 1}H NMR (qNMR) method was developed for simultaneous determination of berberine, jatrorrhizine, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine and columbamine in R. coptidis from the three species. Method validation was performed in terms of selectivity, precision, repeatability, stability, accuracy, robustness and linearity. The average recoveries obtained were in the range of 96.9-102.4% for all the six alkaloids. In addition, the qNMR data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA), hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), and the results showed that the contents of the active alkaloids have significant difference among the three species. Compared with the conventional HPLC approach, the proposed qNMR method was demonstrated to be a powerful tool for quantifying the six alkaloids due to its unique advantages of high robustness, rapid analysis time and no need of standard compounds for calibration curves preparation. These findings indicate that this method has potential as a reliable method for quality evaluation of herb medicines, especially for protoberberine alkaloid-containing ones.

  16. A rapid method for evaluation of the oxidation stability of castor oil FAME: influence of antioxidant type and concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Susana V.; Luna, F. Murilo T.; Rola, Estelio M. Jr.; Azevedo, Diana C.S.; Cavalcante, Celio L. Jr. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Grupo de Pesquisa em Separacoes por Adsorcao - GPSA, Campus do Pici, 709, Fortaleza, CE, 60.455-900 (Brazil)

    2009-10-15

    The oxidation stability of castor oil fatty methyl ester (FAME), doped with four different phenolic antioxidants, was evaluated using a rapid method of thermal and air-contact degradation. The methodology is based on the induction times observed when the samples are contacted with pure oxygen at elevated pressures and temperatures. The results indicate different performances of the antioxidants as well as synergisms between antioxidants and biodiesel. In general, the addition of antioxidants increased from 6-15 times the stability of castor oil FAME., with BHA (butylated hydroxyanisol) showing the best results for improving antioxidation in castor oil biodiesel. (author)

  17. Evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and volume of rapidly exchangeable water in man by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depresseux, J