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Sample records for rapid pressure swing

  1. Thermally moderated hollow fiber sorbent modules in rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption mode for hydrogen purification

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.; Bessho, Naoki; Bhandari, Dhaval A.; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki; Koros, William J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe thermally moderated multi-layered pseudo-monolithic hollow fiber sorbents entities, which can be packed into compact modules to provide small-footprint, efficient H2 purification/CO2 removal systems for use in on-site steam methane reformer product gas separations. Dual-layer hollow fibers are created via dry-jet, wet-quench spinning with an inner "active" core of cellulose acetate (porous binder) and zeolite NaY (69 wt% zeolite NaY) and an external sheath layer of pure cellulose acetate. The co-spun sheath layer reduces the surface porosity of the fiber and was used as a smooth coating surface for a poly(vinyl-alcohol) post-treatment, which reduced the gas permeance through the fiber sorbent by at least 7 orders of magnitude, essentially creating an impermeable sheath layer. The interstitial volume between the individual fibers was filled with a thermally-moderating paraffin wax. CO2 breakthrough experiments on the hollow fiber sorbent modules with and without paraffin wax revealed that the "passively" cooled paraffin wax module had 12.5% longer breakthrough times than the "non-isothermal" module. The latent heat of fusion/melting of the wax offsets the released latent heat of sorption/desorption of the zeolites. One-hundred rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption cycles were performed on the "passively" cooled hollow fiber sorbents using 25 vol% CO2/75 vol% He (H2 surrogate) at 60 °C and 113 psia, resulting in a product purity of 99.2% and a product recovery of 88.1% thus achieving process conditions and product quality comparable to conventional pellet processes. Isothermal and non-isothermal dynamic modeling of the hollow fiber sorbent module and a traditional packed bed using gPROMS® indicated that the fiber sorbents have sharper fronts (232% sharper) and longer adsorbate breakthrough times (66% longer), further confirming the applicability of the new fiber sorbent approach for H2 purification. © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC

  2. Thermally moderated hollow fiber sorbent modules in rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption mode for hydrogen purification

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.

    2012-10-01

    We describe thermally moderated multi-layered pseudo-monolithic hollow fiber sorbents entities, which can be packed into compact modules to provide small-footprint, efficient H2 purification/CO2 removal systems for use in on-site steam methane reformer product gas separations. Dual-layer hollow fibers are created via dry-jet, wet-quench spinning with an inner "active" core of cellulose acetate (porous binder) and zeolite NaY (69 wt% zeolite NaY) and an external sheath layer of pure cellulose acetate. The co-spun sheath layer reduces the surface porosity of the fiber and was used as a smooth coating surface for a poly(vinyl-alcohol) post-treatment, which reduced the gas permeance through the fiber sorbent by at least 7 orders of magnitude, essentially creating an impermeable sheath layer. The interstitial volume between the individual fibers was filled with a thermally-moderating paraffin wax. CO2 breakthrough experiments on the hollow fiber sorbent modules with and without paraffin wax revealed that the "passively" cooled paraffin wax module had 12.5% longer breakthrough times than the "non-isothermal" module. The latent heat of fusion/melting of the wax offsets the released latent heat of sorption/desorption of the zeolites. One-hundred rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption cycles were performed on the "passively" cooled hollow fiber sorbents using 25 vol% CO2/75 vol% He (H2 surrogate) at 60 °C and 113 psia, resulting in a product purity of 99.2% and a product recovery of 88.1% thus achieving process conditions and product quality comparable to conventional pellet processes. Isothermal and non-isothermal dynamic modeling of the hollow fiber sorbent module and a traditional packed bed using gPROMS® indicated that the fiber sorbents have sharper fronts (232% sharper) and longer adsorbate breakthrough times (66% longer), further confirming the applicability of the new fiber sorbent approach for H2 purification. © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC

  3. Sour pressure swing adsorption process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Shubhra Jyoti; Wright, Andrew David; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Kloosterman, Jeffrey William; Amy, Fabrice; Weist, Jr., Edward Landis

    2017-11-07

    Methods and apparatuses for separating CO.sub.2 and sulfur-containing compounds from a synthesis gas obtained from gasification of a carbonaceous feedstock. The primary separating steps are performed using a sour pressure swing adsorption (SPSA) system, followed by an acid gas enrichment system and a sulfur removal unit. The SPSA system includes multiple pressure equalization steps and a rinse step using a rinse gas that is supplied from a source other than directly from one of the adsorber beds of the SPSA system.

  4. Method for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Matson, Dean W.; Drost, M. Kevin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2003-10-07

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  5. Apparatus for thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Rassat, Scot D.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Matson, Dean W.; Drost, M. Kevin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2005-12-13

    The present invention provides compact adsorption systems that are capable of rapid temperature swings and rapid cycling. Novel methods of thermal swing adsorption and thermally-enhanced pressure swing adsorption are also described. In some aspects of the invention, a gas is passed through the adsorbent thus allowing heat exchangers to be very close to all portions of the adsorbent and utilize less space. In another aspect, the adsorption media is selectively heated, thus reducing energy costs. Methods and systems for gas adsorption/desorption having improved energy efficiency with capability of short cycle times are also described. Advantages of the invention include the ability to use (typically) 30-100 times less adsorbent compared to conventional systems.

  6. Optimization and Control of Pressure Swing Adsorption Processes Under Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Khajuria, Harish; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.

    2012-01-01

    The real-time periodic performance of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system strongly depends on the choice of key decision variables and operational considerations such as processing steps and column pressure temporal profiles, making its design

  7. Gas separation by pressure swing adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.; Gottzman, C.F.; Notaro, F.; Stewart, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past twenty years separation processes based upon pressure swing adsorption have replaced cryogenic processes in a number of selected applications such as air separation for production of moderate quantities of nitrogen and oxygen and recovery of hydrogen from refinery and chemical plant gases. Key events contributing to the emergence of PSA as an important process option have been the development of synthetic zeolite molecular sieves by Union Carbide Corporation in the USA and of carbon molecular sieves by Bergbau-Forschung in Germany. Today PSA processes enjoy significant commercial use producing oxygen from 0.1 Nm 3 /h for medical application to 1500 Nm 3 /h for steel mill use, for making nitrogen up to 1000 Nm 3 /h for inerting and in purifying hydrogen streams of up to 100,000 Nm 3 /h for refinery use. In this paper some of the principles of adsorptive separations are reviewed. The history of the technology is traced briefly with emphasis on key material, process and application events. The major commercial processes in the application of adsorption to bulk separation of air and hydrogen purification are reviewed in more detail with comparisons made to cryogenic alternatives in terms of specific characteristics, advantages and disadvantages where appropriate. Information on performance, reliability and comparative economics are discussed where available

  8. Separation of hydrogen isotopes via single column pressure swing adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Y.W.; Hill, F.B.

    1981-01-01

    Separation of hydrogen isotopes based on kinetic isotope effects was studied. The mixture separated was hydrogen containing a trace of tritium as HT and the hydride was vanadium monohydride. The separation was achieved using the single-column pressure swing process. Stage separation factors are larger and product cuts smaller than for a two-column pressure swing process operated in the same monohydride phase

  9. Pressure Swing Adsorption in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Jason

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a student laboratory in the Unit Operations Laboratory at the Colorado School of Mines: air separation by pressure swing adsorption. The flexibility of the system enables students to study the production of enriched nitrogen or oxygen streams. Automatic data acquisition permits the study of cycle steps and performance.…

  10. Pressure swing distillation of azeotropic mixture – A simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate a pressure-swing distillation column for the separation and purification of ethanol from the ethanol–water binary system. The choice for this system is due to the importance of the ethanol–water separation. A steady-state equilibrium-stage model based on normalised MESH equations is used to simulate pressure-swing distillation column applied for the production of ethanol. All the work has been carried out using Aspen Plus simulator, version 13.2. Among the activity coefficient models available, the WILSON-RK model with binary parameters predicted by the Aspen Plus simulator is shown to be the most accurate to correlate the experimental vapor-/liquid equilibrium (VLE data available for the ethanol–water system. The simulation has been satisfactorily carried out for a mixture of 20 mol% ethanol in water at 1 atm pressure and 90 °C with a molar flow rate of 100 kmol/h. The adjusting parameters include D/F ratio and reflux ratio of the two columns to get water purity of 99.5 mol% from the bottom of the Low Pressure Column (LPC and the ethanol purity of 99.7 mol% from the bottom of High Pressure Column (HPC.

  11. AIR SEPARATION BY PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION USING SUPERIOR ADSORBENTS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralph T Yang

    2001-01-01

    Li-X zeolite (Si/Al= 1.0) is currently the best sorbent for use in the separation of air by adsorption processes. In particular, pressure swing adsorption (PSA) using zeolite sorbents is being increasingly used for air separation. Silver is also known to strongly affect the adsorptive properties of zeolites; and it is known that thermal vacuum dehydration of silver zeolites leads to the formation of silver clusters within the zeolite. In this work we have synthesized type X zeolites containing Ag and also varying mixtures of Li and Ag. In this project, we developed the Ag-containing zeolite as the best sorbent for air separation. We have also studied Co-ligand compounds as oxygen-selective sorbents. Syntheses, structural characterization and adsorption properties have been performed on all sorbents. The results are described in detail in 5 chapters

  12. AIR SEPARATION BY PRESSURE SWING ADSORPTION USING SUPERIOR ADSORBENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph T. Yang

    2001-08-31

    Li-X zeolite (Si/Al = 1.0) is currently the best sorbent for use in the separation of air by adsorption processes. In particular, pressure swing adsorption (PSA) using zeolite sorbents is being increasingly used for air separation. Silver is also known to strongly affect the adsorptive properties of zeolites; and it is known that thermal vacuum dehydration of silver zeolites leads to the formation of silver clusters within the zeolite. In this work we have synthesized type X zeolites containing Ag and also varying mixtures of Li and Ag. In this project, we developed the Ag-containing zeolite as the best sorbent for air separation. We have also studied Co-ligand compounds as oxygen-selective sorbents. Syntheses, structural characterization and adsorption properties have been performed on all sorbents. The results are described in detail in 5 chapters.

  13. Optimization and Control of Pressure Swing Adsorption Processes Under Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Khajuria, Harish

    2012-03-21

    The real-time periodic performance of a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system strongly depends on the choice of key decision variables and operational considerations such as processing steps and column pressure temporal profiles, making its design and operation a challenging task. This work presents a detailed optimization-based approach for simultaneously incorporating PSA design, operational, and control aspects under the effect of time variant and invariant disturbances. It is applied to a two-bed, six-step PSA system represented by a rigorous mathematical model, where the key optimization objective is to maximize the expected H2 recovery while achieving a closed loop product H2 purity of 99.99%, for separating 70% H2, 30% CH4 feed. The benefits over sequential design and control approach are shown in terms of closed-loop recovery improvement of more than 3%, while the incorporation of explicit/multiparametric model predictive controllers improves the closed loop performance. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  14. Pressure swing adsorption: experimental study of an equilibrium theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, J C; Knaebel, K S

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical model of pressure swing adsorption (PSA) processes that is based on local, linear equilibrium of a binary gas mixture with an adsorbent was experimentally tested under conditions supportive of the inherent assumptions and constraints. The components studied were nitrogen, oxygen and argon with 5A zeolite molecular sieve, at temperatures from 20 to 60/sup 0/C. Simple breakthrough experiments were analyzed to predict the slopes of the isotherms within 5.4% (mean absolute error) of actual equilibrium values. In two-bed PSA experiments at pressure ratios from 6.5 to 840, the recoveries of the light component (oxygen and argon) were within 7.1% (mean absolute error) of those predicted by theory. Typically, the feed rate to the process was about 2751 (STP)/kg h, based on the total mass of adsorbent. The light-component product purity averaged 99.6% (based on volume) and was never less than 99.2%, while theory predicts complete separation is possible. The results support the validity of the theoretical model for the conditions of the experiments.

  15. Cellulose-Supported Ionic Liquids for Low-Cost Pressure Swing CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Daniel G.; Dowson, George R. M.; Styring, Peter, E-mail: p.styring@sheffield.ac.uk [UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-07

    Reducing the cost of capturing CO{sub 2} from point source emitters is a major challenge facing carbon capture, utilization, and storage. While solid ionic liquids (SoILs) have been shown to allow selective and rapid CO{sub 2} capture by pressure swing separation of flue gases, expectations of their high cost hinders their potential application. Cellulose is found to be a reliable, cheap, and sustainable support for a range of SoILs, reducing the total sorbent cost by improving the efficiency of the ionic liquid (IL) through increased ionic surface area that results from coating. It was also found that cellulose support imparts surface characteristics, which increased total sorbent uptake. Combined, these effects allowed a fourfold to eightfold improvement in uptake per gram of IL for SoILs that have previously shown high uptake and a 9- to 39-fold improvement for those with previously poor uptake. This offers the potential to drastically reduce the amount of IL required to separate a given gas volume. Furthermore, the fast kinetics are retained, with adsorb–desorb cycles taking place over a matter of seconds. This means that rapid cycling can be achieved, which results in high cumulative separation capacity relative to a conventional temperature swing process. The supported materials show an optimum at 75% cellulose:25% IL as a result of even coating of the cellulose surface. The projected reduction in plant size and operational costs represents a potentially ground-breaking step forward in carbon dioxide capture technologies.

  16. Next Generation Life Support (NGLS): Rapid Cycle Amine Swing Bed

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swingbed has been identified as a technology with high potential to meet the stringent requirements for the next generation spacesuit's...

  17. Rapid Temperature Swing Adsorption using Polymeric/Supported Amine Hollow Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chance, Ronald [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Chen, Grace [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Dai, Ying [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Fan, Yanfang [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Jones, Christopher [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kalyanaraman, Jayashree [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kawajiri, Yoshiaki [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Koros, William [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lively, Ryan [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); McCool, Benjamin [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Pang, Simon [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Realff, Matthew [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Rezaei, Fateme [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Searcy, Katherine [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sholl, David [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Subramanian, Swernath [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Pang, Simon [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    This project is a bench-scale, post-combustion capture project carried out at Georgia Tech (GT) with support and collaboration with GE, Algenol Biofuels, Southern Company and subcontract to Trimeric Corporation. The focus of the project is to develop a process based on composite amine-functionalized oxide / polymer hollow fibers for use as contactors in a rapid temperature swing adsorption post-combustion carbon dioxide capture process. The hollow fiber morphology allows coupling of efficient heat transfer with effective gas contacting, potentially giving lower parasitic loads on the power plant compared to traditional contacting strategies using solid sorbents.

  18. Pressure swing adsorption cycle for natural gas pretreatment for liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, R.E.

    1984-01-10

    An improved apparatus and method for a regeneration of a solid adsorbent used to pretreat a gas before liquefaction. The spent adsorbent is subjected to a two-step regenerative process, in the first of which the adsorbent is subjected to a low pressure produced by the use of mechanical vacuum pumps. When the pressure of the atmosphere in contact with the adsorbent has been reduced to a level sufficiently low to insure that the gas will flow under laminar rather than viscous conditions, the adsorbent is exposed to the action of a cryoplate condenser maintained at a sufficiently low temperature to cause any molecules of water which impinge thereon to condense and freeze, thereby reducing the partial pressure of water vapor within the chamber. The reduced partial pressure of the water vapor in turn causes adsorbed water on the adsorbent to be desorbed, thereby effectively removing the water from the adsorbent and depositing it as solid ice on the cryoplate condenser.

  19. Influence of the Pressure Difference and Door Swing on Heavy Contaminants Migration between Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendiger, Jacek; Chludzińska, Marta; Ziętek, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations whose aim was to describe the influence of the pressure difference level on the ability of contaminants migration between neighbouring rooms in dynamic conditions associated with door swing. The analysis was based on airflow visualization made with cold smoke, which simulated the heavy contaminants. The test room was pressurized to a specific level and then the door was opened to observe the trail of the smoke plume in the plane of the door. The door was opened in both directions: to the positively and negatively pressurized room. This study focuses on the visualization of smoke plume discharge and an uncertainty analysis is not applicable. Unlike other studies which focus on the analysis of pressure difference, the present study looks at the contaminants which are heavier than air and on "pumping out" the contaminants by means of door swing. Setting the proper level of pressure difference between the contaminated room and the neighbouring rooms can prove instrumental in ensuring protection against toxic contaminants migration. This study helped to establish the threshold of pressure difference necessary to reduce migration of heavy contaminants to neighbouring rooms.

  20. Rapid inversion: running animals and robots swing like a pendulum under ledges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Mongeau

    Full Text Available Escaping from predators often demands that animals rapidly negotiate complex environments. The smallest animals attain relatively fast speeds with high frequency leg cycling, wing flapping or body undulations, but absolute speeds are slow compared to larger animals. Instead, small animals benefit from the advantages of enhanced maneuverability in part due to scaling. Here, we report a novel behavior in small, legged runners that may facilitate their escape by disappearance from predators. We video recorded cockroaches and geckos rapidly running up an incline toward a ledge, digitized their motion and created a simple model to generalize the behavior. Both species ran rapidly at 12-15 body lengths-per-second toward the ledge without braking, dove off the ledge, attached their feet by claws like a grappling hook, and used a pendulum-like motion that can exceed one meter-per-second to swing around to an inverted position under the ledge, out of sight. We discovered geckos in Southeast Asia can execute this escape behavior in the field. Quantification of these acrobatic behaviors provides biological inspiration toward the design of small, highly mobile search-and-rescue robots that can assist us during natural and human-made disasters. We report the first steps toward this new capability in a small, hexapedal robot.

  1. Rapid Inversion: Running Animals and Robots Swing like a Pendulum under Ledges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongeau, Jean-Michel; McRae, Brian; Jusufi, Ardian; Birkmeyer, Paul; Hoover, Aaron M.; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Escaping from predators often demands that animals rapidly negotiate complex environments. The smallest animals attain relatively fast speeds with high frequency leg cycling, wing flapping or body undulations, but absolute speeds are slow compared to larger animals. Instead, small animals benefit from the advantages of enhanced maneuverability in part due to scaling. Here, we report a novel behavior in small, legged runners that may facilitate their escape by disappearance from predators. We video recorded cockroaches and geckos rapidly running up an incline toward a ledge, digitized their motion and created a simple model to generalize the behavior. Both species ran rapidly at 12–15 body lengths-per-second toward the ledge without braking, dove off the ledge, attached their feet by claws like a grappling hook, and used a pendulum-like motion that can exceed one meter-per-second to swing around to an inverted position under the ledge, out of sight. We discovered geckos in Southeast Asia can execute this escape behavior in the field. Quantification of these acrobatic behaviors provides biological inspiration toward the design of small, highly mobile search-and-rescue robots that can assist us during natural and human-made disasters. We report the first steps toward this new capability in a small, hexapedal robot. PMID:22701594

  2. CFD Simulation for Separation of Carbon Dioxide-Methane Mixture by Pressure Swing Adsorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rambabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A developing technology for gas separations is pressure swing adsorption, which has been proven to be more economical and energy efficient compared to other separation methods like cryogenic distillation and membrane separation. A pressure swing adsorption (PSA column, with carbon dioxide-methane as feed mixture and 6-FDA based polyimides as the adsorbent, was modeled and simulated in this work. Ansys Fluent 12.1, along with supplementary user defined functions, was used to develop a 2D transient Eulerian laminar viscous flow model for the PSA column. The model was validated by comparing the simulated results with established analytical models for PSA. The developed numerical model was used to determine the carbon dioxide concentration in the column as a function of time based on different operating conditions. Effect of various operating parameters like pressure, temperature, and flow rate on the separation efficiency has been studied and reported. Optimization studies were carried out to obtain suitable operating conditions for the feed gases separation. Simulation studies were carried out to determine the separation length required for complete separation of the feed mixture corresponding to different inlet feed concentrations which were entering the column at a given flow rate.

  3. Development of Pressure Swing Adsorption Technology for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, William; Paul, Heather; Thomas, Gretchen

    2006-01-01

    Metabolically produced carbon dioxide (CO2) removal in spacesuit applications has traditionally been accomplished utilizing non-regenerative Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) canisters. In recent years, regenerative Metal Oxide (MetOx) has been developed to replace the Extravehicular Mobility Unity (EMU) LiOH canister for extravehicular activity (EVA) missions in micro-gravity, however, MetOx may carry a significant weight burden for potential use in future Lunar or planetary EVA exploration missions. Additionally, both of these methods of CO2 removal have a finite capacity sized for the particular mission profile. Metabolically produced water vapor removal in spacesuits has historically been accomplished by a condensing heat exchanger within the ventilation process loop of the suit life support system. Advancements in solid amine technology employed in a pressure swing adsorption system have led to the possibility of combining both the CO2 and humidity control requirements into a single, lightweight device. Because the pressure swing adsorption system is regenerated to space vacuum or by an inert purge stream, the duration of an EVA mission may be extended significantly over currently employed technologies, while markedly reducing the overall subsystem weight compared to the combined weight of the condensing heat exchanger and current regenerative CO2 removal technology. This paper will provide and overview of ongoing development efforts evaluating the subsystem size required to manage anticipated metabolic CO2 and water vapor generation rates in a spacesuit environment.

  4. Method and apparatus for the selective separation of gaseous coal gasification products by pressure swing adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, M.R.; Yang, R.T.

    1985-10-03

    Bulk separation of the gaseous components of multi-component gases provided by the gasification of coal including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, and acid gases (carbon dioxide plus hydrogen sulfide) are selectively adsorbed by a pressure swing adsorption technique using activated carbon zeolite or a combination thereof as the adsorbent. By charging a column containing the adsorbent with a gas mixture and pressurizing the column to a pressure sufficient to cause the adsorption of the gases and then reducing the partial pressure of the contents of the column, the gases are selectively and sequentially desorbed. Hydrogen, the least absorbable gas of the gaseous mixture, is the first gas to be desorbed and is removed from the column in a co-current direction followed by the carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. With the pressure in the column reduced to about atmospheric pressure the column is evacuated in a countercurrent direction to remove the acid gases from the column. The present invention is particularly advantageous as a producer of high purity hydrogen from gaseous products of coal gasification and as an acid gas scrubber. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Hydrogen recovery by pressure swing adsorption. [From ammonia purge-gas streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    A pressure swing absorption process (PSA) designed to recover H/sub 2/ from ammonia purge-gas streams developed by Bergbarr-Forschung GmbH of West Germany is reviewed. The PSA unit is installed in the process stream after the ammonia absorber unit which washes the ammonia-containing purge gas which consists of NH/sub 3/, H/sub 2/O, CH/sub 4/, Ar, N/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/. Usually 4 absorber units containing carbon molecular sieves make up the PSA unit; however, only one unit is generally used to absorb all components except H/sub 2/ while the other units are being regenerated by depressurization. Economic comparisons of the PSA process with a cryogenic process indicate that for some ammonia plants there may be a 30% saving in fuel gas requirements with the PSA system. The conditions of the purge gas strongly influence which system of recovery is more suitable.

  6. Adding rectifying/stripping section type heat integration to a pressure-swing distillation (PSD) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Kejin; Shan Lan; Zhu Qunxiong; Qian Jixin

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the economical effect of considering rectifying/stripping section type heat integration in a pressure-swing distillation (PSD) process separating a binary homogeneous pressure-sensitive azeotrope. The schemes for arranging heat integration between the rectifying section and the stripping section of the high- and low-pressure distillation columns, respectively, are derived and an effective procedure is devised for the conceptual process design of the heat-integrated PSD processes. In terms of the separation of a binary azeotropic mixture of acetonitrile and water, intensive comparisons are made between the conventional and heat-integrated PSD processes. It is demonstrated that breaking a pressure-sensitive azeotropic mixture can be made more economical than the current practice with the conventional PSD process. For boosting further the thermodynamic efficiency of a PSD process, it is strongly suggested to consider simultaneously the condenser/reboiler type heat integration with the rectifying/stripping section type heat integration in process synthesis and design

  7. Adding rectifying/stripping section type heat integration to a pressure-swing distillation (PSD) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Kejin [School of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Chaoyang-qu, Beijing-shi, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: huangkj@mail.buct.edu.cn; Shan Lan; Zhu Qunxiong [School of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Chaoyang-qu, Beijing-shi, Beijing 100029 (China); Qian Jixin [School of Information Science and Technology, Zhejiang University, Xihu-qu, Hangzhou-shi, Zhejiang 300027 (China)

    2008-06-15

    This paper studies the economical effect of considering rectifying/stripping section type heat integration in a pressure-swing distillation (PSD) process separating a binary homogeneous pressure-sensitive azeotrope. The schemes for arranging heat integration between the rectifying section and the stripping section of the high- and low-pressure distillation columns, respectively, are derived and an effective procedure is devised for the conceptual process design of the heat-integrated PSD processes. In terms of the separation of a binary azeotropic mixture of acetonitrile and water, intensive comparisons are made between the conventional and heat-integrated PSD processes. It is demonstrated that breaking a pressure-sensitive azeotropic mixture can be made more economical than the current practice with the conventional PSD process. For boosting further the thermodynamic efficiency of a PSD process, it is strongly suggested to consider simultaneously the condenser/reboiler type heat integration with the rectifying/stripping section type heat integration in process synthesis and design.

  8. Pleural pressure swing and lung expansion after malignant pleural effusion drainage: the benefits of high-temporal resolution pleural manometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshuizen, Rogier C; Sinaasappel, Michiel; Vincent, Andrew D; Goldfinger, Vicky; Farag, Sheima; van den Heuvel, Michel M

    2013-07-01

    Malignant pleural effusion is a common complication in end-stage cancer patients and can cause severe dyspnea. Therapeutic thoracentesis is often limited to 1 to 1.5 L. Pleural manometry can be used to recognize a not-expanded lung. Interval pleural pressure measurements with a high temporal resolution were performed after each removal of 200 mL of fluid to observe pleural pressure swings. Pleural elastance was defined as the difference in pleural pressure divided by the change in volume. Chest x-rays were performed to evaluate lung expansion, reexpansion pulmonary edema, and fluid residue. Thirty-four procedures in 30 patients were eligible for analysis. Four patients had incomplete lung expansion after drainage. No reexpansion pulmonary edema was observed. Pleural pressure swing after 200 mL drainage was higher when the lung did not expand. Pleural elastance after removal of 500 mL was higher in the not-expanded subgroup. We demonstrated that a high pleural pressure swing after removal of only 200 mL was related to incomplete lung expansion. We confirmed the association between pleural elastance and lung expansion.

  9. Dynamic modeling and explicit/multi-parametric MPC control of pressure swing adsorption systems

    KAUST Repository

    Khajuria, Harish

    2011-01-01

    Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is a flexible, albeit complex gas separation system. Due to its inherent nonlinear nature and discontinuous operation, the design of a model based PSA controller, especially with varying operating conditions, is a challenging task. This work focuses on the design of an explicit/multi-parametric model predictive controller for a PSA system. Based on a system involving four adsorbent beds separating 70% H2, 30% CH4 mixture into high purity hydrogen, the key controller objective is to fast track H2 purity to a set point value of 99.99%. To perform this task, a rigorous and systematic framework is employed. First, a high fidelity detailed dynamic model is built to represent the system\\'s real operation, and understand its dynamic behavior. The model is then used to derive appropriate linear models by applying suitable system identification techniques. For the reduced models, a model predictive control (MPC) step is formulated, where latest developments in multi-parametric programming and control are applied to derive a novel explicit MPC controller. To test the performance of the designed controller, closed loop simulations are performed where the dynamic model is used as the virtual plant. Comparison studies of the derived explicit MPC controller are also performed with conventional PID controllers. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Temperature Measurements to Characterize Dispersion Within Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) Beds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buettner, L

    1997-01-01

    ...) as the feed contaminant and air as the carrier. In-bed, vapor-phase concentrations at each axial position were measured and correlated to the magnitude of the temperature swings during a cycle...

  11. High pressure adsorption isotherms of nitrogen onto granular activated carbon for a single bed pressure swing adsorption refrigeration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palodkar, Avinash V.; Anupam, Kumar; Roy, Zunipa; Saha, B. B.; Halder, G. N.

    2017-10-01

    Adsorption characteristics of nitrogen onto granular activated carbon for the wide range of temperature (303-323 K) and pressure (0.2027-2.0265 MPa) have been reported for a single bed pressure swing adsorption refrigeration system. The experimental data were fitted to Langmuir, Dubinin-Astakhov and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The Langmuir and D-R isotherm models were found appropriate in correlating experimental adsorption data with an average relative error of ±2.0541% and ±0.6659% respectively. The isosteric heat of adsorption data were estimated as a function of surface coverage of nitrogen and temperature using D-R isotherm. The heat of adsorption was observed to decrease from 12.65 to 6.98 kJ.mol-1 with an increase in surface concentration at 303 K and it followed the same pattern for other temperatures. It was found that an increase in temperature enhances the magnitude of the heat of adsorption.

  12. Java Swing

    CERN Document Server

    Loy, Marc; Eckstein, Robert; Elliott, James; Wood, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Swing is a fully-featured user interface development kit for Java applications. Building on the foundations of the Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT), Swing enables cross-platform applications to use any of several pluggable look-and-feels. Swing developers can take advantage of its rich, flexible features and modular components, building elegant user interfaces with very little code. This second edition of Java Swing thoroughly covers all the features available in Java 2 SDK 1.3 and 1.4. More than simply a reference, this new edition takes a practical approach. It is a book by developers for

  13. Development of a facility for the recovery of high-purity hydrogen from coke oven gas by pressure swing adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M; Saida, K; Uenoyama, K; Sugishita, M; Imokawa, K

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports 1) a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system comprising three towers, each packed with three different adsorbents; and 2) studies of the application of this system to the recovery of high-purity hydrogen from coke oven gas. Running the adsorption plant at 35 C and 9.5 kg/cm/sup 2/ gives optimum operating stability and economy. In addition, an optimum time cycle for the three-tower system has been developed. Gas from the PSA equipment proper still contains traces of oxygen. This is removed in a further tower packed with Pd catalyst. The ultimate recovery of hydrogen is closely related to its concentration in the raw coke oven gas and to the degree of purity attained. 3 references.

  14. Vacuum Exhaust Process in Pilot-Scale Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption for Coal Mine Ventilation Air Methane Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recovery and treatment of methane from coal mine ventilation air methane (VAM with cost-effective technologies have been an ongoing challenge due to low methane concentrations. In this study, a type of coconut shell-based active carbon was employed to enrich VAM with a three-bed vacuum pressure swing adsorption unit. A new vacuum exhaust step for the VPSA process was introduced. The results show that the vacuum exhaust step can increase the methane concentration of the product without changing adsorption and desorption pressure. Under laboratory conditions, the concentration of product increased from 0.4% to 0.69% as the vacuum exhaust ratio increased from 0 to 3.1 when the feed gas concentration was 0.2%. A 500 m³/h pilot-scale test system for VAM enrichment was built rendering good correlation with the laboratory results in terms of the vacuum exhaust step. By using a two-stage three-bed separation unit, the VAM was enriched from 0.2% to over 1.2%.

  15. Green Hydrogen Production from Raw Biogas: A Techno-Economic Investigation of Conventional Processes Using Pressure Swing Adsorption Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gioele Di Marcoberardino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the techno-economic assessment of hydrogen production from biogas with conventional systems. The work is part of the European project BIONICO, whose purpose is to develop and test a membrane reactor (MR for hydrogen production from biogas. Within the BIONICO project, steam reforming (SR and autothermal reforming (ATR, have been identified as well-known technologies for hydrogen production from biogas. Two biogases were examined: one produced by landfill and the other one by anaerobic digester. The purification unit required in the conventional plants has been studied and modeled in detail, using Aspen Adsorption. A pressure swing adsorption system (PSA with two and four beds and a vacuum PSA (VPSA made of four beds are compared. VPSA operates at sub-atmospheric pressure, thus increasing the recovery: results of the simulations show that the performances strongly depend on the design choices and on the gas feeding the purification unit. The best purity and recovery values were obtained with the VPSA system, which achieves a recovery between 50% and 60% at a vacuum pressure of 0.1 bar and a hydrogen purity of 99.999%. The SR and ATR plants were designed in Aspen Plus, integrating the studied VPSA model, and analyzing the behavior of the systems at the variation of the pressure and the type of input biogas. The SR system achieves a maximum efficiency, calculated on the LHV, of 52% at 12 bar, while the ATR of 28% at 18 bar. The economic analysis determined a hydrogen production cost of around 5 €/kg of hydrogen for the SR case.

  16. Air separation by pressure swing adsorption on a carbon molecular sieve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, M M; Ruthven, D M; Raghaven, N S

    1986-01-01

    A simplified dynamic model for a PSA air separation process is developed based on linearized mass transfer rate expressions and binary Langmuir equilibrium. Constant pressure is assumed during adsorption and desorption steps but the variation in flow rate through the column due to adsorption is accounted for. The model predictions, using independently measured kinetic and equilibrium data are compared with experimental results obtained in a simple two-bed air separation PSA system packed with a carbon molecular sieve adsorbent. The model is shown to provide a good representation of the experimentally observed behavior over a wide range of conditions.

  17. Evaluation of the Oxygen Concentrator Prototypes: Pressure Swing Adsorption Prototype and Electrochemical Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilkey, Kelly M.; Olson, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    An oxygen concentrator is needed to provide enriched oxygen in support of medical contingency operations for future exploration human spaceflight programs. It would provide continuous oxygen to an ill or injured crew member in a closed cabin environment. Oxygen concentration technology is being pursued to concentrate oxygen from the ambient environment so oxygen as a consumable resource can be reduced. Because oxygen is a critical resource in manned spaceflight, using an oxygen concentrator to pull oxygen out of the ambient environment instead of using compressed oxygen can provide better optimization of resources. The overall goal of this project is to develop an oxygen concentrator module that minimizes the hardware mass, volume, and power footprint while still performing at the required clinical capabilities. Should a medical event occur that requires patient oxygenation, the release of 100 percent oxygen into a small closed cabin environment can rapidly raise oxygen levels to the vehicles fire limit. The use of an oxygen concentrator to enrich oxygen from the ambient air and concentrate it to the point where it can be used for medical purposes means no oxygen is needed from the ultra-high purity (99.5+% O2) oxygen reserve tanks. By not adding oxygen from compressed tanks to the cabin environment, oxygen levels can be kept below the vehicle fire limit thereby extending the duration of care provided to an oxygenated patient without environmental control system intervention to keep the cabin oxygen levels below the fire limits. The oxygen concentrator will be a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearable device. A demonstration unit for the International Space Station (ISS) is planned to verify the technology and provide oxygen capability. For the ISS, the demonstration unit should not exceed 10 kg (approximately 22 lb), which is the soft stowage mass limit for launch on resupply vehicles for the ISS. The unit's size should allow for transport within the

  18. Optimization study of pressure-swing distillation for the separation process of a maximum-boiling azeotropic system of water-ethylenediamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulgueras, Alyssa Marie; Poudel, Jeeban; Kim, Dong Sun; Cho, Jungho [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The separation of ethylenediamine (EDA) from aqueous solution is a challenging problem because its mixture forms an azeotrope. Pressure-swing distillation (PSD) as a method of separating azeotropic mixture were investigated. For a maximum-boiling azeotropic system, pressure change does not greatly affect the azeotropic composition of the system. However, the feasibility of using PSD was still analyzed through process simulation. Experimental vapor liquid equilibrium data of water-EDA system was studied to predict the suitability of thermodynamic model to be applied. This study performed an optimization of design parameters for each distillation column. Different combinations of operating pressures for the low- and high-pressure columns were used for each PSD simulation case. After the most efficient operating pressures were identified, two column configurations, low-high (LP+HP) and high-low (HP+ LP) pressure column configuration, were further compared. Heat integration was applied to PSD system to reduce low and high temperature utility consumption.

  19. Optimization study of pressure-swing distillation for the separation process of a maximum-boiling azeotropic system of water-ethylenediamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulgueras, Alyssa Marie; Poudel, Jeeban; Kim, Dong Sun; Cho, Jungho

    2016-01-01

    The separation of ethylenediamine (EDA) from aqueous solution is a challenging problem because its mixture forms an azeotrope. Pressure-swing distillation (PSD) as a method of separating azeotropic mixture were investigated. For a maximum-boiling azeotropic system, pressure change does not greatly affect the azeotropic composition of the system. However, the feasibility of using PSD was still analyzed through process simulation. Experimental vapor liquid equilibrium data of water-EDA system was studied to predict the suitability of thermodynamic model to be applied. This study performed an optimization of design parameters for each distillation column. Different combinations of operating pressures for the low- and high-pressure columns were used for each PSD simulation case. After the most efficient operating pressures were identified, two column configurations, low-high (LP+HP) and high-low (HP+ LP) pressure column configuration, were further compared. Heat integration was applied to PSD system to reduce low and high temperature utility consumption.

  20. Rapid construction of concrete pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbert, D.; Weatherseed, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper opens with a general description of the concrete pressure vessel followed by a more detailed examination of the critical elements of the construction, including choice of methods and plant which were selected to ensure its rapid construction. The pressure vessel construction cannot be treated in isolation, because it is very closely linked with its surrounding structures - namely the reactor hall which surrounds it and the charge hall which tops it, as will be seen in the context of this paper. Rate of progress of construction is not entirely in the civil contractor's hands because so many of the operations affecting the civil works are of a mechanical nature, hence a very close liaison and understanding amongst all contractors concerned was of the utmost importance. (author)

  1. Droplet condensation in rapidly decaying pressure fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.F.; Bai, R.Y.; Schrock, V.E.; Hijikata, K.

    1992-01-01

    Certain promising schemes for cooling inertial confinement fusion reactors call for highly transient condensation in a rapidly decaying pressure field. After an initial period of condensation on a subcooled droplet, undesirable evaporation begins to occur. Recirculation within the droplet strongly impacts the character of this condensation-evaporation cycle, particularly when the recirculation time constant is of the order of the pressure decay time constant. Recirculation can augment the heat transfer, delay the onset of evaporation, and increase the maximum superheat inside the drop by as much as an order of magnitude. This numerical investigation identifies the most important parameters and physics characterizing transient, high heat flux droplet condensation. The results can be applied to conceptual designs of inertial confinement fusion reactors, where initial temperature differences on the order of 1,500 K decay to zero over time spans the order of tens of milliseconds

  2. Improved determination of dynamic balance using the centre of mass and centre of pressure inclination variables in a complete golf swing cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahnryul; Sim, Taeyong; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Golf requires proper dynamic balance to accurately control the club head through a harmonious coordination of each human segment and joint. In this study, we evaluated the ability for dynamic balance during a golf swing by using the centre of mass (COM)-centre of pressure (COP) inclination variables. Twelve professional, 13 amateur and 10 novice golfers participated in this study. Six infrared cameras, two force platforms and SB-Clinic software were used to measure the net COM and COP trajectories. In order to evaluate dynamic balance ability, the COM-COP inclination angle, COM-COP inclination angular velocity and normalised COM-COP inclination angular jerk were used. Professional golfer group revealed a smaller COM-COP inclination angle and angular velocity than novice golfer group in the lead/trail direction (P golf injuries.

  3. Rapid Onset Acute Epiglottitis Leading to Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema

    OpenAIRE

    V Saraswat; P V Madhu; Suresh S Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary edema is a potentially life-threatening complication of acute airway obstruction. It develops rapidly, without warning, in young healthy individuals. Two forms of post-obstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) (also known as negative pressure pulmonary edema, NPPE) have been identified. POPE I follows sudden, severe upper airway obstruction. POPE II occurs following surgical relief of chronic upper airway obstruction. Treatment for both is supportive. Full and rapid recovery can be expecte...

  4. Swinging, Adultery by Consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Von Der Weid

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to discuss issues related to the sexual-affective relationships between men and women in our society through the experience of couples who practice swinging. It considers especially the original conceptions of marriage, sexuality, infidelity, and also the rules of a swinger relationship. Does swinging create a new marriage model? Or, instead, does it reinforce pre-existing models? Through an analysis of the discourses of swinging couples about their erotic interactions, the paper examines how they articulate values such as love, sex, and pleasure in their relationships.

  5. Rapid Assessment of Protected area Pressures and Threats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular evaluation of protected area operations can enable policy makers develop strategic responses to pervasive management problems. Pressures and threats in seven National Parks of the National Park Service (NPS) were therefore assessed using the Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area ...

  6. Mechanical demands of kettlebell swing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to establish mechanical demands of kettlebell swing exercise and provide context by comparing them to mechanical demands of back squat and jump squat exercise. Sixteen men performed 2 sets of 10 swings with 16, 24, and 32 kg, 2 back squats with 20, 40, 60, and 80% 1-repetition maximum (1RM), and 2 jump squats with 0, 20, 40, and 60% 1RM. Sagittal plane motion and ground reaction forces (GRFs) were recorded during swing performance, and GRFs were recorded during back and jump squat performances. Net impulse, and peak and mean propulsion phase force and power applied to the center of mass (CM) were obtained from GRF data and kettlebell displacement and velocity from motion data. The results of repeated measures analysis of variance showed that all swing CM measures were maximized during the 32-kg condition but that velocity of the kettlebell was maximized during the 16-kg condition; displacement was consistent across different loads. Peak and mean force tended to be greater during back and jump squat performances, but swing peak and mean power were greater than back squat power and largely comparable with jump squat power. However, the highest net impulse was recorded during swing exercise with 32 kg (276.1 ± 45.3 N·s vs. 60% 1RM back squat: 182.8 ± 43.1 N·s, and 40% jump squat: 231.3 ± 47.1 N·s). These findings indicate a large mechanical demand during swing exercise that could make swing exercise a useful addition to strength and conditioning programs that aim to develop the ability to rapidly apply force.

  7. Pressure Swing Absorption Device and Process for Separating CO{sub 2} from Shifted Syngas and its Capture for Subsequent Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirkar, Kamalesh; Jie, Xingming; Chau, John; Obuskovic, Gordana

    2013-03-31

    Using the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([bmim][DCA]) as the absorbent on the shell side of a membrane module containing either a porous hydrophobized ceramic tubule or porous hydrophobized polyether ether ketone (PEEK) hollow fiber membranes, studies for CO{sub 2} removal from hot simulated pre-combustion shifted syngas were carried out by a novel pressure swing membrane absorption (PSMAB) process. Helium was used as a surrogate for H{sub 2} in a simulated shifted syngas with CO{sub 2} around 40% (dry gas basis). In this cyclic separation process, the membrane module was used to achieve non-dispersive gas absorption from a high-pressure feed gas (689-1724 kPag; 100-250 psig) at temperatures between 25-1000C into a stationary absorbent liquid on the module shell side during a certain part of the cycle followed by among other cycle steps controlled desorption of the absorbed gases from the liquid in the rest of the cycle. Two product streams were obtained, one He-rich and the other CO{sub 2}-rich. Addition of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer of generation 0 to IL [bmim][DCA] improved the system performance at higher temperatures. The solubilities of CO{sub 2} and He were determined in the ionic liquid with or without the dendrimer in solution as well as in the presence or absence of moisture; polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 was also studied as a replacement for the IL. The solubility selectivity of the ionic liquid containing the dendrimer for CO{sub 2} over helium was considerably larger than that for the pure ionic liquid. The solubility of CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}-He solubility selectivity of PEG 400 and a solution of the dendrimer in PEG 400 were higher than the corresponding ones in the IL, [bmim][DCA]. A mathematical model was developed to describe the PSMAB process; a numerical solution of the governing equations described successfully the observed performance of the PSMAB process for the pure ionic liquid-based system.

  8. Earthquakes, fluid pressures and rapid subduction zone metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viete, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    High-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) metamorphism is commonly incomplete, meaning that large tracts of rock can remain metastable at blueschist- and eclogite-facies conditions for timescales up to millions of years [1]. When HP/LT metamorphism does take place, it can occur over extremely short durations (the role of fluids in providing heat for metamorphism [2] or catalyzing metamorphic reactions [1]. Earthquakes in subduction zone settings can occur to depths of 100s of km. Metamorphic dehydration and the associated development of elevated pore pressures in HP/LT metamorphic rocks has been identified as a cause of earthquake activity at such great depths [3-4]. The process of fracturing/faulting significantly increases rock permeability, causing channelized fluid flow and dissipation of pore pressures [3-4]. Thus, deep subduction zone earthquakes are thought to reflect an evolution in fluid pressure, involving: (1) an initial increase in pore pressure by heating-related dehydration of subduction zone rocks, and (2) rapid relief of pore pressures by faulting and channelized flow. Models for earthquakes at depth in subduction zones have focussed on the in situ effects of dehydration and then sudden escape of fluids from the rock mass following fracturing [3-4]. On the other hand, existing models for rapid and incomplete metamorphism in subduction zones have focussed only on the effects of heating and/or hydration with the arrival of external fluids [1-2]. Significant changes in pressure over very short timescales should result in rapid mineral growth and/or disequilibrium texture development in response to overstepping of mineral reaction boundaries. The repeated process of dehydration-pore pressure development-earthquake-pore pressure relief could conceivably produce a record of episodic HP/LT metamorphism driven by rapid pressure pulses. A new hypothesis is presented for the origins of HP/LT metamorphism: that HP/LT metamorphism is driven by effective pressure

  9. Rapid Onset Acute Epiglottitis Leading to Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Saraswat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary edema is a potentially life-threatening complication of acute airway obstruction. It develops rapidly, without warning, in young healthy individuals. Two forms of post-obstructive pulmonary edema (POPE (also known as negative pressure pulmonary edema, NPPE have been identified. POPE I follows sudden, severe upper airway obstruction. POPE II occurs following surgical relief of chronic upper airway obstruction. Treatment for both is supportive. Full and rapid recovery can be expected with appropriate management. A case report of a middle aged man with acute onset epiglottitis who developed negative pressure pulmonary edema after intubation is presented. The report includes a brief discussion on etiology, clinical features and management dilemma of acute upper airway obstruction.

  10. SwingStates: adding state machines to the swing toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    Appert , Caroline; Beaudouin-Lafon , Michel

    2006-01-01

    International audience; This article describes SwingStates, a library that adds state machines to the Java Swing user interface toolkit. Unlike traditional approaches, which use callbacks or listeners to define interaction, state machines provide a powerful control structure and localize all of the interaction code in one place. SwingStates takes advantage of Java's inner classes, providing programmers with a natural syntax and making it easier to follow and debug the resulting code. SwingSta...

  11. The Kinetics of Swinging a Baseball Bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisco, Joseph J; Osvalds, Nikolas J; Rainbow, Michael J

    2018-04-13

    The purpose of this study was to compute the three-dimensional kinetics required to swing three youth baseball bats of varying moments of inertia (MOI). 306 swings by 22 male players (13-18 yrs.) were analyzed. Inverse dynamics with respect to the batter's hands were computed given the known kinematics and physical properties of the bats. We found that peak force increased with larger bat MOI and was strongly correlated with bat tip speed. In contrast, peak moments were weakly correlated with bat MOI and bat tip speed. Throughout the swing, the force applied to the bat was dominated by a component aligned with the long axis of the bat and directed away from the bat knob, while the moment applied to the bat was minimal until just prior to ball impact. These results indicate that players act to mostly "pull" the bat during their swing until just prior to ball impact, at which point they rapidly increase the moment on the bat. This kinetic analysis provides novel insight into the forces and moments used to swing baseball bats.

  12. Simulations of rapid pressure-induced solidification in molten metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Mehul V.; Streitz, Frederick H.

    2004-01-01

    The process of interest in this study is the solidification of a molten metal subjected to rapid pressurization. Most details about solidification occurring when the liquid-solid coexistence line is suddenly transversed along the pressure axis remain unknown. We present preliminary results from an ongoing study of this process for both simple models of metals (Cu) and more sophisticated material models (MGPT potentials for Ta). Atomistic (molecular dynamics) simulations are used to extract details such as the time and length scales that govern these processes. Starting with relatively simple potential models, we demonstrate how molecular dynamics can be used to study solidification. Local and global order parameters that aid in characterizing the phase have been identified, and the dependence of the solidification time on the phase space distance between the final (P,T) state and the coexistence line has been characterized

  13. Playing with a digital swing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Helle Marie

    2017-01-01

    Based on a field study in a kindergarten among children in Denmark, this paper explores playing activities on a digital swing, the SON-X Octavia (SON-X) and its Applause application. SON-X is an interactive sound unit that can be attached to any swing chain. Here, I explore the relationship between...... to highlight the features of swing play that children develop using the SON-X technology in terms of the danger-safety continuum. The feedback provided, it is found, enables children to independently manage risk and security within the limits of their playing activities; the digital swing supports play...

  14. Modeling unsteady forces and pressures on a rapidly pitching airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Nicole K.; Dawson, Scott T. M.; Rowley, Clarence W.; Williams, David R.

    2014-11-01

    This work develops models to quantify and understand the unsteady aerodynamic forces arising from rapid pitching motion of a NACA0012 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 50 000. The system identification procedure applies a generalized DMD-type algorithm to time-resolved wind tunnel measurements of the lift and drag forces, as well as the pressure at six locations on the suction surface of the airfoil. Models are identified for 5-degree pitch-up and pitch-down maneuvers within the overall range of 0-20 degrees. The identified models can accurately capture the effects of flow separation and leading-edge vortex formation and convection. We demonstrate that switching between different linear models can give accurate prediction of the nonlinear behavior that is present in high-amplitude maneuvers. The models are accurate for a wide-range of motions, including pitch-and-hold, sinusoidal, and pseudo-random pitching maneuvers. Providing the models access to a subset of the measured data channels can allow for improved estimates of the remaining states via the use of a Kalman filter, suggesting that the modeling framework could be useful for aerodynamic control applications. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, under Award No. FA9550-12-1-0075.

  15. Altering plasma sodium concentration rapidly changes blood pressure during haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; Swift, Pauline A; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2013-08-01

    Plasma sodium is increased following each meal containing salt. There is an increasing interest in the effects of plasma sodium concentration, and it has been suggested that it may have direct effects on blood pressure (BP) and possibly influences endothelial function. Experimental increases of plasma sodium concentration rapidly raise BP even when extracellular volume falls. Ten patients with end-stage renal failure established on haemodialysis were studied during the first 2 h of dialysis without fluid removal during this period. They were randomized to receive haemodialysis with (i) dialysate sodium concentration prescribed to 135 mmol/L and (ii) 145 mmol/L in random order in a prospective, single-blinded crossover study. BP measurements and blood samples were taken every 30 min. Pre-dialysis sitting BP was 137/76 ± 7/3 mmHg. Lower dialysate sodium concentration (135 mmol/L) reduced plasma sodium concentration [139.49 ± 0.67 to 135.94 ± 0.52 mmol/L (P area under the curve (AUC) 15823.50 ± 777.15 (mmHg)min] compared with 145 mmol/L [AUC 17018.20 ± 1102.17 (mmHg)min], mean difference 1194.70 ± 488.41 (mmHg)min, P < 0.05. There was a significant positive relationship between change in plasma sodium concentration and change in systolic BP. This direct relationship suggests that a fall of 1 mmol/L in plasma sodium concentration would be associated with a 1.7 mmHg reduction in systolic BP (P < 0.05). The potential mechanism for the increase in BP seen with salt intake may be through small but significant changes in plasma sodium concentration.

  16. Swing check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eminger, H.E.

    1977-01-01

    A swing check valve which includes a valve body having an inlet and outlet is described. A recess in the valve body designed to hold a seal ring and a check valve disc swingable between open and closed positions. The disc is supported by a high strength wire secured at one end in a support spacer pinned through bearing blocks fixed to the valve body and at its other end in a groove formed on the outer peripheral surface of the disc. The parts are designed and chosen such to provide a lightweight valve disc which is held open by minimum velocity of fluid flowing through the valve which thus reduces oscillations and accompanying wear of bearings supporting the valve operating parts. (Auth.)

  17. Swings and roundabouts: management of jealousy in heterosexual swinging couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, Richard; McDonald, Dee

    2007-06-01

    Swinging involves consensual mutual involvement in extra-dyadic sex. Jealousy in swinging couples is an interesting topic for social psychological research, because it is a common and acceptable response to a romantic partner's real or imagined infidelity. This qualitative study examined the management of jealousy among four active heterosexual swinging couples living in southern England. Participants highlighted the importance of discussion and negotiation to develop a shared couple identity and shared rules and boundaries that allowed them to manage jealousy so that they could better enjoy swinging. Rather than seeking to eliminate jealousy, swingers may manage their feelings of jealousy in order to increase sexual excitement and arousal. This study adds to our understanding of jealousy among swingers and the broader issue of jealousy in intimate relationships.

  18. Test Structures for Rapid Prototyping of Gas and Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, M.; Cheng, L. J.; Martin, D.

    1996-01-01

    A multi-project ceramic substrate was used in developing a gas sensor and pressure sensor. The ceramic substrate cantained 36 chips with six variants including sensors, process control monitors, and an interconnect ship. Tha gas sensor is being developed as an air quality monitor and the pressure gauge as a barometer.

  19. Endotracheal tube resistance and inertance in a model of mechanical ventilation of newborns and small infants—the impact of ventilator settings on tracheal pressure swings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, Roland; Buntzel, Julia; Guttmann, Josef; Schumann, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Resistive properties of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) are particularly relevant in newborns and small infants who are generally ventilated through ETTs with a small inner diameter. The ventilation rate is also high and the inspiratory time (ti) is short. These conditions effectuate high airway flows with excessive flow acceleration, so airway resistance and inertance play an important role. We carried out a model study to investigate the impact of varying ETT size, lung compliance and ventilator settings, such as peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) and inspiratory time (ti) on the pressure–flow characteristics with respect to the resistive and inertive properties of the ETT. Pressure at the Y piece was compared to direct measurement of intratracheal pressure (P trach ) at the tip of the ETT, and pressure drop (ΔP ETT ) was calculated. Applying published tube coefficients (Rohrer's constants and inertance), P trach was calculated from ventilator readings and compared to measured P trach using the root-mean-square error. The most relevant for ΔP ETT was the ETT size, followed by (in descending order) PIP, compliance, ti and PEEP, with gas flow velocity being the principle in common for all these parameters. Depending on the ventilator settings ΔP ETT exceeded 8 mbar in the smallest 2.0 mm ETT. Consideration of inertance as an additional effect in this setting yielded a better agreement of calculated versus measured P trach than Rohrer's constants alone. We speculate that exact tracheal pressure tracings calculated from ventilator readings by applying Rohrer's equation and the inertance determination to small size ETTs would be helpful. As an integral part of ventilator software this would (1) allow an estimate of work of breathing and implementation of an automatic tube compensation, and (2) be important for gentle ventilation in respiratory care, especially of small infants, since it enables the physician to

  20. Gas separation of landfill gas and other biogases by pressure swing adsorption. Final report. Gastrennung fuer Deponie- und Faulgase mittels Druckwechseltechnik. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilarczyk, E; Mellech, L

    1986-01-01

    A new PSA-process for recovery of methane with SNG-quality from biogases was developed in the laboratory and successfully tested in field trials at the German landfill Emscherbruch/Gelsenkirchen. A special carbon molecular sieve on which carbon dioxide is adsorbed much faster than methane was proved as the best suited adsorbent for biogas separation. Even part of nitrogen which is mostly contained in landfill gases from leakage air is simultaneously removed from methane together with carbon dioxide by using the carbon molecular sieve. Low quality-SNG with 88-90% by vol. methane could be processed from landfill gas containing up to 15% by vol. nitrogen at an adsorption pressure of 3-9 bar abs. The recovery of methane goes upt to 98%. High quality-SNG can be processed from N/sub 2/-free biogases like sewage gas. The capital and operational cost (not including prepurification) for recovery of low quality-SNG by PSA is estimated to about 0,12 DM/m/sup 3/ SNG. (orig.) With 13 refs., 13 tabs., 16 figs.

  1. Testing and Results of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Summer D.; Broerman, Craig D.; Swickrath, Michael; Anderson, Molly

    2011-01-01

    A principal concern for extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuits is the capability to control carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity (H2O) for the crewmember. The release of CO2 in a confined or unventilated area is dangerous for human health and leads to asphyxiation; therefore, CO2 and H2O control become leading factors in the design and development of the spacesuit. An amine-based CO2 and H2O vapor sorbent for use in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand. The application of solidamine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to concurrently manage CO2 and H2O levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating mission constraints imposed with nonregenerative technologies. Two prototype solid amine-based systems, known as rapid cycle amine (RCA), were designed to continuously remove CO2 and H2O vapor from a flowing ventilation stream through the use of a two-bed amine based, vacuum-swing adsorption system. The Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG) RCA implements radial flow paths, whereas the Hamilton Sundstrand RCA was designed with linear flow paths. Testing was performed in a sea-level pressure environment and a reduced-pressure environment with simulated human metabolic loads in a closed-loop configuration. This paper presents the experimental results of laboratory testing for a full-size and a sub-scale test article. The testing described here characterized and evaluated the performance of each RCA unit at the required Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) operating conditions. The test points simulated a range of crewmember metabolic rates. The experimental results demonstrated the ability of each RCA unit to sufficiently remove CO2 and H2O from a closed loop ambient or sub-ambient atmosphere.

  2. Electrical swing adsorption gas storage and delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, Roddie R.; Burchell, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods for electrical swing natural gas adsorption are described. An apparatus includes a pressure vessel; an electrically conductive gas adsorptive material located within the pressure vessel; and an electric power supply electrically connected to said adsorptive material. The adsorptive material can be a carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS). The systems and methods provide advantages in that both a high energy density and a high ratio of delivered to stored gas are provided.

  3. Effects of tempo, swing density, and listener's drumming experience, on swing detection thresholds for drum rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frane, Andrew V; Shams, Ladan

    2017-06-01

    Swing, a popular technique in music performance, has been said to enhance the "groove" of the rhythm. Swing works by delaying the onsets of even-numbered subdivisions of each beat (e.g., 16th-note swing delays the onsets of the second and fourth 16th-note subdivisions of each quarter-note beat). The "swing magnitude" (loosely speaking, the amount of delay) is often quite small. And there has been little investigation, using musical stimuli, into what swing magnitudes listeners can detect. To that end, this study presented continually-looped electronic drum rhythms, with 16th-note swing in the hi-hat on every other bar, to drummers and non-drummers. Swing magnitude was adjusted using a staircase procedure, to determine the magnitude where the difference between swinging and not-swinging bars was just-noticeable. Different tempi (60 to 140 quarter-notes per minute) and swing densities (how often notes occurred at even-numbered subdivisions) were used. Results showed that all subjects could detect smaller swing magnitudes when swing density was higher, thus confirming a previous speculation that the perceptual salience of swing increases with swing density. The just-noticeable magnitudes of swing for drummers differed from those of non-drummers, in terms of both overall magnitude and sensitivity to tempo, thus prompting questions for further exploration.

  4. Developments in time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction using rapid compression and decompression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Lin, Chuanlong; Rod, Eric; Bai, Ligang; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-01-01

    Complementary advances in high pressure research apparatus and techniques make it possible to carry out time-resolved high pressure research using what would customarily be considered static high pressure apparatus. This work specifically explores time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction with rapid compression and/or decompression of a sample in a diamond anvil cell. Key aspects of the synchrotron beamline and ancillary equipment are presented, including source considerations, rapid (de)compression apparatus, high frequency imaging detectors, and software suitable for processing large volumes of data. A number of examples are presented, including fast equation of state measurements, compression rate dependent synthesis of metastable states in silicon and germanium, and ultrahigh compression rates using a piezoelectric driven diamond anvil cell

  5. Nasopharyngeal cancer through maxillary swing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco Ojeda, Luis; Chicaiza Acosta, Jorge; Ulloa Miranda, Darwin

    2006-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal cancer is very rare in Ecuador. Radiotherapy associated to concurrent chemotherapy is currently the standard treatment. In case of tumor recurrence, these two treatment modalities are usually not effective. For this reason, several studies about the satisfactory results of salvage surgery in terms of locoregional control of the disease, have appeared recently in the literature. We report our first experience of surgical salvage resection of a recurrent tumor through an anterolateral approach (maxillary swing) with an initial satisfactory result. (The author)

  6. Discourse swings in understanding audiences:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    Traditional discourses of the relationship between media producers and consumers have been challenged as of late in post-industrialized countries.  The blurring of established consumer/producer identities due to changes in the mediascape, forecasted for decades, has changed how both academics......’s cooptation of these consumers, conceptualizing the people who engage with their media products as a combination of the previous two, or "audience-as-pusher".  This paper is an account of this discourse swing through the description of case studies that demonstrate the utilization of interactive marketing...

  7. Microfluidic size separation of cells and particles using a swinging bucket centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Joo Chuan; Wang, Zhiping; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2015-09-01

    Biomolecular separation is crucial for downstream analysis. Separation technique mainly relies on centrifugal sedimentation. However, minuscule sample volume separation and extraction is difficult with conventional centrifuge. Furthermore, conventional centrifuge requires density gradient centrifugation which is laborious and time-consuming. To overcome this challenge, we present a novel size-selective bioparticles separation microfluidic chip on a swinging bucket minifuge. Size separation is achieved using passive pressure driven centrifugal fluid flows coupled with centrifugal force acting on the particles within the microfluidic chip. By adopting centrifugal microfluidics on a swinging bucket rotor, we achieved over 95% efficiency in separating mixed 20 μm and 2 μm colloidal dispersions from its liquid medium. Furthermore, by manipulating the hydrodynamic resistance, we performed size separation of mixed microbeads, achieving size efficiency of up to 90%. To further validate our device utility, we loaded spiked whole blood with MCF-7 cells into our microfluidic device and subjected it to centrifugal force for a mere duration of 10 s, thereby achieving a separation efficiency of over 75%. Overall, our centrifugal microfluidic device enables extremely rapid and label-free enrichment of different sized cells and particles with high efficiency.

  8. New type of Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors for Environments with Rapidly Changing Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tykhan Myroslav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical aspects of a new type of piezo-resistive pressure sensors for environments with rapidly changing temperatures are presented. The idea is that the sensor has two identical diaphragms which have different coefficients of linear thermal expansion. Therefore, when measuring pressure in environments with variable temperature, the diaphragms will have different deflection. This difference can be used to make appropriate correction of the sensor output signal and, thus, to increase accuracy of measurement. Since physical principles of sensors operation enable fast correction of the output signal, the sensor can be used in environments with rapidly changing temperature, which is its essential advantage. The paper presents practical implementation of the proposed theoretical aspects and the results of testing the developed sensor.

  9. The definitive guide to Java Swing

    CERN Document Server

    Zukowski, John

    2005-01-01

    Updated for the 1.5 edition of the Java 2 Platform, this third edition is a one-stop resource for serious Java developers. It shows the parts of Java Swing API used to create graphical user interfaces (GUI); and Model-View-Controller architecture that lies behind all Swing components; and customizing components for specific environments.

  10. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a locking...

  11. Automatically closing swing gate closure assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Chih; Schuck, William J.; Gilmore, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    A swing gate closure assembly for nuclear reactor tipoff assembly wherein the swing gate is cammed open by a fuel element or spacer but is reliably closed at a desired closing rate primarily by hydraulic forces in the absence of a fuel charge.

  12. Pressure-jump induced rapid solidification of melt: a method of preparing amorphous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuru; Jia, Ru; Zhang, Doudou; Yuan, Chaosheng; Shao, Chunguang; Hong, Shiming

    2018-04-01

    By using a self-designed pressure-jump apparatus, we investigated the melt solidification behavior in rapid compression process for several kinds of materials, such as elementary sulfur, polymer polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and poly-ethylene-terephthalate, alloy La68Al10Cu20Co2 and Nd60Cu20Ni10Al10. Experimental results clearly show that their melts could be solidified to be amorphous states through the rapid compression process. Bulk amorphous PEEK with 24 mm in diameter and 12 mm in height was prepared, which exceeds the size obtained by melt quenching method. The bulk amorphous sulfur thus obtained exhibited extraordinarily high thermal stability, and an abnormal exothermic transition to liquid sulfur was observed at around 396 K for the first time. Furthermore, it is suggested that the glass transition pressure and critical compression rate exist to form the amorphous phase. This approach of rapid compression is very attractive not only because it is a new technique of make bulk amorphous materials, but also because novel properties are expected in the amorphous materials solidified by the pressure-jump within milliseconds or microseconds.

  13. Simulated Lunar Testing of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Sebastian A.; Bower, Chad E.; Iacomini, Christie S.; Paul, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO2) control for a Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. An Engineering Development Unit (EDU) of the MTSA Subassembly (MTSAS) was designed and assembled for optimized Martian operations, but also meets system requirements for lunar operations. For lunar operations the MTSA sorption cycle is driven via a vacuum swing between suit ventilation loop pressure and lunar vacuum. The focus of this effort was testing in a simulated lunar environment. This environment was simulated in Paragon's EHF vacuum chamber. The objective of the testing was to evaluate the full cycle performance of the MTSA Subassembly EDU, and to assess CO2 loading and pressure drop of the wash coated aluminum reticulated foam sorbent bed. Lunar environment testing proved out the feasibility of pure vacuum swing operation, making MTSA a technology that can be tested and used on the Moon prior to going to Mars. Testing demonstrated better than expected CO2 Nomenclature loading on the sorbent and nearly replicates the equilibrium data from the sorbent manufacturer. This exceeded any of the previous sorbent loading tests performed by Paragon. Subsequently, the increased performance of the sorbent bed design indicates future designs will require less mass and volume than the current EDU rendering MTSA as very competitive for Martian PLSS applications.

  14. Dependence of mitochondrial and cytosolic adenine nucleotides on oxygen partial pressure in isolated hepatocytes. Application of a new rapid high pressure filtration technique for fractionation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hummerich, H; de Groot, H; Noll, T; Soboll, S

    1988-01-01

    By using a new rapid high pressure filtration technique, mitochondrial and cytosolic ATP and ADP contents were determined in isolated hepatocytes at different oxygen partial pressures. At 670 mmHg, subcellular adenine nucleotide contents and ATP/ADP ratios were comparable with values obtained with the digitonin fractionation technique. However at lower oxygen partial pressure ADP appears to be rephosphorylated during digitonin fractionation whereas with high pressure filtration fractionation ...

  15. [Effects of swing on music appreciation: a study on perceived impressions of various swing ratios].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Shimpei; Shigeno, Sumi

    2013-06-01

    Swing is a musical performance technique, whose magnitude is indicated by the swing ratio. This study examines the effects of swing on music-listening appreciation. In Experiment 1, 21 participants were presented with synthesized performances with three swing ratios, and were asked to rate their impressions using the semantic differential method. The results show that there exists a certain relationship between swing and the affective evaluation of music and tempo. Experiment 2 explored the relationship between swing and melody, another dimension of music, in perceived dynamism and preference for swing. Two musical instruments were used: piano and drums. Twenty-two participants were presented with synthesized performances and were asked to rate the degree of dynamism and their preference using Scheffé's paired comparison method. The evaluations for five swing conditions were similar for those performed by the piano and by the drums. The discussion looks at the swing ratio and its psychological attributes as well as the relationships of perceived impressions of swing to tempo and musical instruments.

  16. BIOMEHANICAL MODEL OF THE GOLF SWING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Čoh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Golf is an extremely complex game which depends on a number of interconnected factors. One of the most important elements is undoubtedly the golf swing technique. High performance of the golf swing technique is generated by: the level of motor abilities, high degree of movement control, the level of movement structure stabilisation, morphological characteristics, inter- and intro-muscular coordination, motivation, and concentration. The golf swing technique was investigated using the biomechanical analysis method. Kinematic parameters were registered using two synchronised high-speed cameras at a frequency of 2,000 Hz. The sample of subjects consisted of three professional golf players. The study results showed a relatively high variability of the swing technique. The maximum velocity of the ball after a wood swing ranged from 233 to 227 km/h. The velocity of the ball after an iron swing was lower by 10 km/h on average. The elevation angle of the ball ranged from 11.7 to 15.3 degrees. In the final phase of the golf swing, i.e. downswing, the trunk rotators play the key role.

  17. Performance Characterization and Simulation of Amine-Based Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Watts,Carly; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Boerman, Craig; Colunga, Aaron; Vogel, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) concentrations in the vapor phase of a space suit is critical to ensuring an astronauts safety, comfortability, and capability to perform extra-vehicular activity (EVA) tasks. Historically, this has been accomplished using lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and metal oxides (MetOx). Lithium hydroxide is a consumable material and requires priming with water before it becomes effective at removing carbon dioxide. MetOx is regenerable through a power-intensive thermal cycle but is significantly heavier on a volume basis than LiOH. As an alternative, amine-based vacuum swing beds are under aggressive development for EVA applications which control atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and H2O through a fully-regenerative process. The current concept, referred to as the rapid cycle amine (RCA), has resulted in numerous laboratory prototypes. Performance of these prototypes have been assessed and documented from experimental and theoretical perspectives. To support developmental efforts, a first principles model has also been established for the vacuum swing adsorption technology. The efforts documented herein summarize performance characterization and simulation results for several variable metabolic profiles subjected to the RCA. Furthermore, a variety of control methods are explored including timed swing cycles, instantaneous CO2 feedback control, and time-averaged CO2 feedback control. A variety of off-nominal tests are also explored including high/low suit temperatures, increasingly high humidity cases, and dynamic pressure cases simulating the suit pre-breathe protocol. Consequently, this work builds on efforts previous efforts to fully bound the performance of the rapid cycle amine under a variety of nominal and off-nominal conditions.

  18. Mood Swings: An Affective Interactive Art System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S. S.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; van den Broek, Egon L.

    The progress in the field of affective computing enables the realization of affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes the affective interactive art system Mood Swings, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings is founded on the integration of a framework for affective movements and a color model. This enables Mood Swings to recognize affective movement characteristics as expressed by a person and display a color that matches the expressed emotion. With that, a unique interactive system is introduced, which can be considered as art, a game, or a combination of both.

  19. Sinkhole remediation at Swinging Bridge Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. [Devine Tarbell and Associates, Portland, ME (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This case history summary described a piping-related sinkhole that occurred after a flood at the Swinging Bridge Dam. The earth-filled embankment dam was constructed using a hydraulic fill technique. A foundation drilling and grouting program was constructed in areas of the dam founded on jointed sandstone and shale. The storage volumes of the reservoir is 32,000 acre-feet. A sinkhole 25 to 300 feet in diameter was observed on May 5, 2005 along the edge of the dam crest. The sinkhole extended to within 10 feet of the reservoir and was separated by a shallow berm of soil and driftwood. Cracking of the crest extended across an area of 180 feet. Operations staff notified the appropriate agencies, implemented a monitoring program, and mobilized construction equipment and sands for use as emergency sinkhole filler. An increase in tailrace turbidity was observed. Historical records for the dam showed significant cracking during the initial filling of the reservoir. Failure modes included increased pore pressures and seepages resulting in the piping of soil along the outside of the dam conduit. Emergency repairs included chemical grouting and weld repairs in the penstocks. A Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is currently addressing safety issues associated with conduits through dams. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  20. Pressure disequilibria induced by rapid valve closure in noble gas extraction lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Leah; Davidheiser-Kroll, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Pressure disequilibria during rapid valve closures can affect calculated molar quantities for a range of gas abundance measurements (e.g., K-Ar geochronology, (U-Th)/He geochronology, noble gas cosmogenic chronology). Modeling indicates this effect in a system with a 10 L reservoir reaches a bias of 1% before 1000 pipette aliquants have been removed from the system, and a bias of 10% before 10,000 aliquants. Herein we explore the causes and effects of this problem, which is the result of volume changes during valve closure. We also present a solution in the form of an electropneumatic pressure regulator that can precisely control valve motion. This solution reduces the effect to ∼0.3% even after 10,000 aliquants have been removed from a 10 L reservoir.

  1. Pressure disequilibria induced by rapid valve closure in noble gas extraction lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Leah E.; Davidheiser-Kroll, Brett

    2015-06-01

    Pressure disequilibria during rapid valve closures can affect calculated molar quantities for a range of gas abundance measurements (e.g., K-Ar geochronology, (U-Th)/He geochronology, noble gas cosmogenic chronology). Modeling indicates this effect in a system with a 10 L reservoir reaches a bias of 1% before 1000 pipette aliquants have been removed from the system, and a bias of 10% before 10,000 aliquants. Herein we explore the causes and effects of this problem, which is the result of volume changes during valve closure. We also present a solution in the form of an electropneumatic pressure regulator that can precisely control valve motion. This solution reduces the effect to ˜0.3% even after 10,000 aliquants have been removed from a 10 L reservoir.

  2. SwingStates: Adding state machines to Java and the Swing toolkit

    OpenAIRE

    Appert , Caroline; Beaudouin-Lafon , Michel

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This article describes SwingStates, a Java toolkit designed to facilitate the development of graphical user interfaces and bring advanced interaction techniques to the Java platform. SwingStates is based on the use of finite-state machines specified directly in Java to describe the behavior of interactive systems. State machines can be used to redefine the behavior of existing Swing widgets or, in combination with a new canvas widget that features a rich graphical mode...

  3. Different centre of pressure patterns within the golf stroke II: group-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, K A; Best, R J

    2007-05-01

    Although the golf coaching literature stresses the importance of weight transfer during the swing, research has been conflicting or lacking statistical support. A potential problem with previous studies is that no attempt was made to account for different movement strategies in the golf swing. This study evaluated the relationship between centre of pressure measures and club head velocity within two previously identified swing styles, the "Front Foot" and "Reverse" styles. Thirty-nine Front Foot golfers and 19 Reverse golfers performed swings with a driver while standing on two force plates. From the force plate data, centre of pressure displacement, velocity, range, and timing parameters were calculated. Correlation and regression analysis indicated that a larger range of centre of pressure and a more rapid centre of pressure movement in the downswing was associated with a larger club head velocity at ball contact for the Front Foot group. For the Reverse golfers, positioning the centre of pressure further from the back foot at late backswing and a more rapid centre of pressure transfer towards the back foot at ball contact was associated with a larger club head velocity at ball contact. This study has highlighted the importance of identifying different movement strategies before evaluating performance measures, as different parameters were found to be important for the Front Foot and Reverse styles.

  4. System for Rapid, Precise Modulation of Intraocular Pressure, toward Minimally-Invasive In Vivo Measurement of Intracranial Pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Stockslager

    Full Text Available Pathologic changes in intracranial pressure (ICP are commonly observed in a variety of medical conditions, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, and glaucoma. However, current ICP measurement techniques are invasive, requiring a lumbar puncture or surgical insertion of a cannula into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-filled ventricles of the brain. A potential alternative approach to ICP measurement leverages the unique anatomy of the central retinal vein, which is exposed to both intraocular pressure (IOP and ICP as it travels inside the eye and through the optic nerve; manipulating IOP while observing changes in the natural pulsations of the central retinal vein could potentially provide an accurate, indirect measure of ICP. As a step toward implementing this technique, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a system that is capable of manipulating IOP in vivo with <0.1 mmHg resolution and settling times less than 2 seconds. In vitro tests were carried out to characterize system performance. Then, as a proof of concept, we used the system to manipulate IOP in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri while video of the retinal vessels was recorded and the caliber of a selected vein was quantified. Modulating IOP using our system elicited a rapid change in the appearance of the retinal vein of interest: IOP was lowered from 10 to 3 mmHg, and retinal vein caliber sharply increased as IOP decreased from 7 to 5 mmHg. Another important feature of this technology is its capability to measure ocular compliance and outflow facility in vivo, as demonstrated in tree shrews. Collectively, these proof-of-concept demonstrations support the utility of this system to manipulate IOP for a variety of useful applications in ocular biomechanics, and provide a framework for further study of the mechanisms of retinal venous pulsation.

  5. Modeling cavitation in a rapidly changing pressure field - application to a small ultrasonic horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žnidarčič, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Dular, Matevž

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e. below the acoustic driving frequency. The term "acoustic supercavitation" was proposed for this type of cavitation Žnidarčič et al. (2014) [1]. We tested several established hydrodynamic cavitation models on this problem, but none of them was able to correctly predict the flow features. As a specific characteristic of such acoustic cavitation problems lies in the rapidly changing driving pressures, we present an improved approach to cavitation modeling, which does not neglect the second derivatives in the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Comparison with measurements of acoustic supercavitation at an ultrasonic horn of 20kHz frequency revealed a good agreement in terms of cavity dynamics, cavity volume and emitted pressure pulsations. The newly developed cavitation model is particularly suited for simulation of cavitating flow in highly fluctuating driving pressure fields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Where do golf driver swings go wrong? Factors influencing driver swing consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Shan, G

    2014-10-01

    One of the challenging skills in golfing is the driver swing. There have been a large number of studies characterizing golf swings, yielding insightful instructions on how to swing well. As a result, achieving a sub-18 handicap is no longer the top problem for golfers. Instead, players are now most troubled by a lack of consistency during swing execution. The goal of this study was to determine how to consistently execute good golf swings. Using 3D motion capture and full-body biomechanical modeling, 22 experienced golfers were analysed. For characterizing both successful and failed swings, 19 selected parameters (13 angles, 4 time parameters, and 2 distances) were used. The results showed that 14 parameters are highly sensitive and/or prone to motor control variations. These parameters sensitized five distinct areas of swing to variation: (a) ball positioning, (b) transverse club angle, (c) transition, (d) wrist control, and (e) posture migration between takeaway and impact. Suggestions were provided for how to address these five distinct problem areas. We hope our findings on how to achieve consistency in golf swings will benefit all levels of golf pedagogy and help maintain/develop interests to involve more golf/physical activity for a healthy lifestyle. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Phase composition and microhardness of rapidly quenched Al-Fe alloys after high pressure torsion deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tcherdyntsev, V.V.; Kaloshkin, S.D.; Gunderov, D.V.; Afonina, E.A.; Brodova, I.G.; Stolyarov, V.V.; Baldokhin, Yu.V.; Shelekhov, E.V.; Tomilin, I.A

    2004-07-15

    Aluminium-based Al-Fe alloys with Fe content of 2, 8, and 10 wt.% were prepared by rapid quenching (RQ) from the melt at a rate of 10{sup 6} K/s. Structure of the alloys was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Phase transformations of RQ alloys by high pressure torsion (HPT) were studied. Dependences of phase composition on the intensity of HPT were investigated. Microhardness measurements of HPT alloys show a considerable structural heterogeneity of specimens, the dependence of microhardness on the radius of the pills was found out. Phase composition and microhardness during the heating were investigated. At the initial step of heating (120-150 deg. C), an increase in microhardness was observed, whereas further heating leads to a decrease in the microhardness.

  8. Rapid and Efficient Protein Digestion using Trypsin Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles under Pressure Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoungsoo; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Kim, Byoung Chan; Na, Hyon Bin; Park, Yong Il; Weitz, Karl K.; Warner, Marvin G.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Sang-Won; Smith, Richard D.; Kim, Jungbae

    2011-01-01

    Trypsin-coated magnetic nanoparticles (EC-TR/NPs), prepared via a simple crosslinking of the enzyme to magnetic nanoparticles, were highly stable and could be easily captured using a magnet after the digestion was complete. EC-TR/NPs showed a negligible loss of trypsin activity after multiple uses and continuous shaking, while a control sample of covalently-attached trypsin on NPs resulted in a rapid inactivation under the same conditions due to the denaturation and autolysis of trypsin. Digestions were carried out on a single model protein, a five protein mixture, and a whole mouse brain proteome, and also compared for digestion at atmospheric pressure and 37 ºC for 12 h, and in combination with pressure cycling technology (PCT) at room temperature for 1 min. In all cases, the EC-TR/NPs performed equally as well or better than free trypsin in terms of the number of peptide/protein identifications and reproducibility across technical replicates. However, the concomitant use of EC-TR/NPs and PCT resulted in very fast (~1 min) and more reproducible digestions.

  9. Dusty Cloud Acceleration by Radiation Pressure in Rapidly Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Davis, Shane W.; Jiang, Yan-Fei; Stone, James M.

    2018-02-01

    We perform two-dimensional and three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations to study cold clouds accelerated by radiation pressure on dust in the environment of rapidly star-forming galaxies dominated by infrared flux. We utilize the reduced speed of light approximation to solve the frequency-averaged, time-dependent radiative transfer equation. We find that radiation pressure is capable of accelerating the clouds to hundreds of kilometers per second while remaining dense and cold, consistent with observations. We compare these results to simulations where acceleration is provided by entrainment in a hot wind, where the momentum injection of the hot flow is comparable to the momentum in the radiation field. We find that the survival time of the cloud accelerated by the radiation field is significantly longer than that of a cloud entrained in a hot outflow. We show that the dynamics of the irradiated cloud depends on the initial optical depth, temperature of the cloud, and intensity of the flux. Additionally, gas pressure from the background may limit cloud acceleration if the density ratio between the cloud and background is ≲ {10}2. In general, a 10 pc-scale optically thin cloud forms a pancake structure elongated perpendicular to the direction of motion, while optically thick clouds form a filamentary structure elongated parallel to the direction of motion. The details of accelerated cloud morphology and geometry can also be affected by other factors, such as the cloud lengthscale, reduced speed of light approximation, spatial resolution, initial cloud structure, and dimensionality of the run, but these have relatively little affect on the cloud velocity or survival time.

  10. Thermodynamic and fluid mechanic analysis of rapid pressurization in a dead-end tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Ian H.

    1989-01-01

    Three models have been applied to very rapid compression of oxygen in a dead-ended tube. Pressures as high as 41 MPa (6000 psi) leading to peak temperatures of 1400 K are predicted. These temperatures are well in excess of the autoignition temperature (750 K) of teflon, a frequently used material for lining hoses employed in oxygen service. These findings are in accord with experiments that have resulted in ignition and combustion of the teflon, leading to the combustion of the stainless steel braiding and catastrophic failure. The system analyzed was representative of a capped off-high-pressure oxygen line, which could be part of a larger system. Pressurization of the larger system would lead to compression in the dead-end line, and possible ignition of the teflon liner. The model consists of a large plenum containing oxygen at the desired pressure (500 to 6000 psi). The plenum is connected via a fast acting valve to a stainless steel tube 2 cm inside diameter. Opening times are on the order of 15 ms. Downstream of the valve is an orifice sized to increase filling times to around 100 ms. The total length from the valve to the dead-end is 150 cm. The distance from the valve to the orifice is 95 cm. The models describe the fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the flow, and do not include any combustion phenomena. A purely thermodynamic model assumes filling to be complete upstream of the orifice before any gas passes through the orifice. This simplification is reasonable based on experiment and computer modeling. Results show that peak temperatures as high as 4800 K can result from recompression of the gas after expanding through the orifice. An approximate transient model without an orifice was developed assuming an isentropic compression process. An analytical solution was obtained. Results indicated that fill times can be considerably shorter than valve opening times. The third model was a finite difference, 1-D transient compressible flow model. Results from

  11. Rapid formation of electric field profiles in repetitively pulsed high-voltage high-pressure nanosecond discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tsuyohito; Kobayashi, Kazunobu; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Rapid formation of electric field profiles has been observed directly for the first time in nanosecond narrow-gap parallel-plate discharges at near-atmospheric pressure. The plasmas examined here are of hydrogen, and the field measurement is based on coherent Raman scattering (CRS) by hydrogen molecules. Combined with the observation of spatio-temporal light emission profiles by a high speed camera, it has been found that the rapid formation of a high-voltage thin cathode sheath is accompanied by fast propagation of an ionization front from a region near the anode. Unlike well-known parallel-plate discharges at low pressure, the discharge formation process at high pressure is almost entirely driven by electron dynamics as ions and neutral species are nearly immobile during the rapid process. (fast track communication)

  12. Rocking the Boat: Damage to Eelgrass by Swinging Boat Moorings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. F. Unsworth

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass meadows commonly reside in shallow sheltered embayments typical of the locations that provide an attractive option for mooring boats. Given the potential for boat moorings to result in disturbance to the seabed due to repeated physical impact, these moorings may present a significant threat to seagrass meadows. The seagrass Zostera marina (known as eelgrass is extensive across the northern hemisphere, forming critical fisheries habitat and creating efficient long-term stores of carbon in sediments. Although boat moorings have been documented to impact seagrasses, studies to date have been conducted on the slow growing Posidonia species’ rather than the fast growing and rapidly reproducing Z. marina that may have a higher capacity to resist and recover from repeated disturbance. In the present study we examine swinging chain boat moorings in seagrass meadows across a range of sites in the United Kingdom to determine whether such moorings have a negative impact on the seagrass Zostera marina at the local and meadow scale. We provide conclusive evidence from multiple sites that Z. marina is damaged by swinging chain moorings leading to a loss of at least 6 ha of United Kingdom seagrass. Each swinging chain mooring was found to result in the loss of 122 m2 of seagrass. Loss is restricted to the area surrounding the mooring and the impact does not appear to translate to a meadow scale. This loss of United Kingdom seagrass from boat moorings is small but significant at a local scale. This is because it fragments existing meadows and ultimately reduces their resilience to other stressors. Boat moorings are prevalent in seagrass globally and it is likely this impairs their ecosystem functioning. Given the extensive ecosystem service value of seagrasses in terms of factors such as carbon storage and fish habitat such loss is of cause for concern. This indicates the need for the widespread use of seagrass friendly mooring systems in and around

  13. Extractive Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization (EAPPI) Mass Spectrometry: Rapid Analysis of Chemicals in Complex Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyuan; Yang, Jiuzhong; Wang, Jian; Hu, Yonghua; Zhao, Wan; Zhou, Zhongyue; Qi, Fei; Pan, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Extractive atmospheric pressure photoionization (EAPPI) mass spectrometry was designed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemicals in complex matrices. In this method, an ultrasonic nebulization system was applied to sample extraction, nebulization, and vaporization. Mixed with a gaseous dopant, vaporized analytes were ionized through ambient photon-induced ion-molecule reactions, and were mass-analyzed by a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). After careful optimization and testing with pure sample solution, EAPPI was successfully applied to the fast screening of capsules, soil, natural products, and viscous compounds. Analysis was completed within a few seconds without the need for preseparation. Moreover, the quantification capability of EAPPI for matrices was evaluated by analyzing six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil. The correlation coefficients (R (2) ) for standard curves of all six PAHs were above 0.99, and the detection limits were in the range of 0.16-0.34 ng/mg. In addition, EAPPI could also be used to monitor organic chemical reactions in real time. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. 33 CFR 118.70 - Lights on swing bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on swing bridges. 118.70 Section 118.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.70 Lights on swing bridges. (a) Swing span lights on through bridges. Each...

  15. Ignition of PTFE-lined flexible hoses by rapid pressurization with oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff, Dwight; Bamford, Larry J.; Newton, Barry E.; Bryan, Coleman J.

    1989-01-01

    A high-volume pneumatic-impact system has been used to test PTFE-lined stainless steel braided hoses, in order to characterize the roles played in the mechanism of oxygen-induced ignition by impact pressure, pressurization rate, and upstream and downstream volumes of the hose. Ignitions are noted to have occurred at impact pressures well below the working pressure of the hoses, as well as at pressurization rates easily obtainable through manual operation of valves. The use of stainless steel hardlines downstream of the hose prevented ignitions at all pressures and pressurization rates; internal observations have shown evidence of shock ionization in the oxygen prior to ignition.

  16. Method for estimating steam hammer effects on swing-check valves during closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uram, E.M.

    1976-01-01

    Relationships are developed for estimating the disk impact velocity resulting from a free swing closure of swing-check valves in normal flow and for pipe rupture. They derive from a phase-plane solution of the differential equation for the disk motion that accounts for the nature of the valve pressure drop variation due to steam-hammer effects during closure. For closure in normal flow, the method presented has a more correct foundation than that given in reference where a constant, average valve pressure differential based upon the steady-state pressure drop for the total piping system (which has no real relationship to the steam-hammer-induced valve pressure changes during the closure transient) is used in the valve disk motion equation

  17. Development of swing-free / shock free crane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, J. S.; Park, B. S.; Kim, S. H.; Kwon, D. A.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, J. H.; Jeon, B. K.; Lee, Y. E.; Lee, S. H.

    1999-04-01

    To develop the automatized crane and to apply the relevant technology to nuclear power plants, in this project and automatized crane control system is developed along with a swing and shock crane. Also, this technology has been transferred to Bando Machinery Co. Ltd. The drive mechanism of crane is designed by adopting vector drives which provide soft acceleration and deceleration characteristics. Also, radio modems and a long-range laser displacement sensor which are commercially available are introduced to accommodate the large scaled crane systems. Also, several devices are developed for the automation of crane system. These are a crane controller, a supervisory controller, a angle measuring device, and laser localizer, a drum grapple device, and crane supervisory program. The performance of developed crane system is revealed to rapidly reduce the residual swing of the transported object and precisely controls the object position in any case. Also, the laser localizer provides he capability of measuring any arbitrary located objects within 3 cm error range

  18. Atmospheric Pressure-Thermal Desorption (AP-TD)/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for the Rapid Analysis of Bacillus Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    A technique is described where an atmospheric pressure-thermal desorption (AP-TD) device and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry are coupled and used for the rapid analysis of Bacillus spores in complex matrices. The resulting AP-TD/ESI-MS technique combines the generation of volatile co...

  19. Pressure applied by the healthcare staff on a cricoids cartilage simulator during Sellick's maneuver in rapid sequence intubation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Calvache (Jose Andrés); L.C.B. Sandoval (Luz); W.A. Vargas (William Andres)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Sellick's maneuver or cricoid pressure is a strategy used to prevent bronchoaspiration during the rapid intubation sequence. Several studies have described that the force required for an adequate maneuver is of 2.5-3.5 kg. The purpose of this paper was to determine the force

  20. An prediction and explanation of 'climatic swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    with the specified periods and it multiple. Similar sort of a variations, for example, are seen in variations of average atmospheric pressure in northern and southern hemispheres. We shall emphasize, what even in these thin variations of climatic conditions on the Earth also should the phenomenon of inversion and asymmetry in relation to corresponding opposite hemispheres of the Earth, in particular in relation to northern and southern hemispheres is precise be shown. New important confirmations of developed geodynamic model, to theoretical results [2, 3] and told above have been obtained by scientists from the Great Britain, Germany, France and the USA [10]. On ice cores they had been studied changes of a climate in area of Greenland and Antarctica and have been obtained confirmations to the phenomenon of inversion changes of a climate in southern and northern hemispheres of the Earth. There was even a name to this phenomenon - "a climatic swing". As authors of clause have established, sharp downturn of temperature in northern hemisphere during last glacial age (100-15 thousand years ago) was accompanied by simultaneous warming of a climate in a southern hemisphere [10]. Scientists have found out this fact, analyzing isotope structure of sedimentary breeds of Atlantic. The phenomenon of contrast (inversion) tendencies in changes of a climate (secular and cyclic, including with the thousand-year periods and periods of Milankovitch) has been predicted in works [1, 2]. The contrast and opposite directed tendencies in change of a climate should be observed first of all in relation to northern and southern hemispheres of the Earth due to polar character of the core displacements. Thus, the nature of "a climatic swing" when one hemisphere gets warm, and the second is cooled, is connected with cyclic polar oscillations of the core-mantle system of the Earth in a corresponding time scale, in particular in a scale of cycles of Milankovitch. The amplitudes of the swing of the

  1. Divergent plate motion drives rapid exhumation of (ultra)high pressure rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jie; Malusà, Marco G.; Zhao, Liang; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Gerya, Taras

    2018-06-01

    Exhumation of (ultra)high pressure [(U)HP] rocks by upper-plate divergent motion above an unbroken slab, first proposed in the Western Alps, has never been tested by numerical methods. We present 2D thermo-mechanical models incorporating subduction of a thinned continental margin beneath either a continental or oceanic upper plate, followed by upper-plate divergent motion away from the lower plate. Results demonstrate how divergent plate motion may trigger rapid exhumation of large volumes of (U)HP rocks directly to the Earth's surface, without the need for significant overburden removal by erosion. Model exhumation paths are fully consistent with natural examples for a wide range of upper-plate divergence rates. Exhumation rates are systematically higher than the divergent rate imposed to the upper plate, and the modeled size of exhumed (U)HP domes is invariant for different rates of upper-plate divergence. Major variations are instead predicted at depth for differing model scenarios, as larger amounts of divergent motion may allow mantle-wedge exhumation to shallow depth under the exhuming domes. The transient temperature increase, due to ascent of mantle-wedge material in the subduction channel, has a limited effect on exhumed continental (U)HP rocks already at the surface. We test two examples, the Cenozoic (U)HP terranes of the Western Alps (continental upper plate) and eastern Papua New Guinea (oceanic upper plate). The good fit between model predictions and the geologic record in these terranes encourages the application of these models globally to pre-Cenozoic (U)HP terranes where the geologic record of exhumation is only partly preserved.

  2. Swing Weights of Baseball and Softball Bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Baseball and softball bats are sold according to length in inches and weight in ounces. Much to the consternation of players buying new bats, however, not all bats that weigh the same swing the same. The reason for this has to do with moment of inertia of the bat about a pivot point on the handle, or what the sporting goods industry refers to as…

  3. The Java Series. GUI Building with Swing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    The Swing Java package contains all the components that you expect to see in a modern User Interface, from buttons that contain pictures to trees and grids. It is a big library but it's designed to have the appropriate complexity for the task at hand - if something is simple you don't have to write much code to get it done, but if you want the power to manipulate and deeply customise it you also have it. This tutorial will introduce you to the basic set of components that Swing provides and to the mechanisms behind them. It will provide an overview of what you can do with Swing, even if you are new to GUI programming. However, if you want to follow closely the mechanisms behind what's being explained, it is convenient to have some basic knowledge of the main concepts of Java AWT (class hierarchy and event model) as provided by the previous tutorial of the Java Series. Organiser(s): M.Marquina and R.Ramos /IT-User Support

  4. Swing, o adultério consentido Swinging, adultery by consent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia von der Weid

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho tem como objetivo discutir questões referentes às relações afetivo-sexuais entre homens e mulheres na sociedade atual a partir da experiência de casais adeptos da prática do swing. Procura-se compreender as concepções nativas sobre casamento, sexualidade, infidelidade e, também, as regras de uma relação swinger. O swing cria um novo modelo de casamento? Ou reforça os modelos já existentes? Por meio da análise do discurso dos casais adeptos da troca sobre suas interações eróticas, busca-se compreender a forma como se articulam amor, sexo e prazer nesses relacionamentosThis research seeks to discuss issues related to the sexual-affective relationships between men and women in our society through the experience of couples who practice swinging. It considers especially the original conceptions of marriage, sexuality, infidelity, and also the rules of a swinger relationship. Does swinging create a new marriage model? Or, instead, does it reinforce pre-existing models? Through an analysis of the discourses of swinging couples about their erotic interactions, the paper examines how they articulate values such as love, sex, and pleasure in their relationships

  5. Swing-Down of 21-PWR Waste Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.K. Scheider

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the waste package (WP) swinging down from a horizontally suspended height. The WP used for that purpose is the 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities. This calculation is associated with the WP design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 13). AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' (Ref. 18) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The information provided by the sketches attached to this calculation is that of the potential design of the type of 21-PWR WP design considered in this calculation and provides the potential dimensions and materials for the 21-PWR WP design

  6. Gasdynamic modeling and parametric study of mesoscale internal combustion swing engine/generator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yongxian

    for current two-stroke swing engine is estimated as about 2.5 ms, which can be used in the prescribed burned mass fraction profile that follows the Wiebe's function. Finally, a 2D CFD code for compressible flow has been developed to study wave interactions in the engine and header system. It is found that with realistic working conditions, for a two-stroke swing engine, certain expansion waves can be created by the exhaust gas flows and the chamber pressure can reach as low as 5 psi below one atmosphere, which helps fill fresh reactant charge. The results also show that to obtain appropriate header tuning for the current two-stroke swing engine, the length of the header neck is about 40 cm.

  7. Cycle development and design for CO2 capture from flue gas by vacuum swing adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Webley, Paul A

    2008-01-15

    CO2 capture and storage is an important component in the development of clean power generation processes. One CO2 capture technology is gas-phase adsorption, specifically pressure (or vacuum) swing adsorption. The complexity of these processes makes evaluation and assessment of new adsorbents difficult and time-consuming. In this study, we have developed a simple model specifically targeted at CO2 capture by pressure swing adsorption and validated our model by comparison with data from a fully instrumented pilot-scale pressure swing adsorption process. The model captures nonisothermal effects as well as nonlinear adsorption and nitrogen coadsorption. Using the model and our apparatus, we have designed and studied a large number of cycles for CO2 capture. We demonstrate that by careful management of adsorption fronts and assembly of cycles based on understanding of the roles of individual steps, we are able to quickly assess the effect of adsorbents and process parameters on capture performance and identify optimal operating regimes and cycles. We recommend this approach in contrast to exhaustive parametric studies which tend to depend on specifics of the chosen cycle and adsorbent. We show that appropriate combinations of process steps can yield excellent process performance and demonstrate how the pressure drop, and heat loss, etc. affect process performance through their effect on adsorption fronts and profiles. Finally, cyclic temperature profiles along the adsorption column can be readily used to infer concentration profiles-this has proved to be a very useful tool in cyclic function definition. Our research reveals excellent promise for the application of pressure/vacuum swing adsorption technology in the arena of CO2 capture from flue gases.

  8. Sulfur transformation during rapid hydropyrolysis of coal under high pressure by using a continuous free fall pyrolyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.-C. Xu; M. Kumagai

    2003-02-01

    The behavior of sulfur transformation during rapid hydropyrolysis of coal was investigated using a pressurized, continuous free fall pyrolyzer under the conditions of temperature ranging from 923 to 1123 K and hydrogen pressure up to 5 MPa. The yields of sulfur converted to gas, tar and char were determined, together with the analyses of sulfur form distributions in coals and chars. The results showed that the decomposition of inorganic sulfur species was affected only by the temperature, while the increases in temperature and hydrogen pressure obviously enhanced the removal of organic sulfur from coal. The extent of organic sulfur removal was proportional to the coal conversion, depending on coal type. A significant retention of gaseous sulfur products by the organic matrix of the char was observed during hydropyrolysis of a Chinese coal above 1023 K, even under the pressurized hydrogen atmosphere. The kinetic analysis indicates that the rate of organic sulfur removal from coal was 0.2th-order with respect to the hydrogen pressure, and the activation energy for total sulfur removal and organic sulfur removal is 17 26 and 13 55 kJ/mol, respectively. The low activation energies suggest that the transformation and removal of sulfur from coal might be controlled by the diffusion and/or thermodynamic equilibrium during hydropyrolysis under the pressurized conditions. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. The dynamic pressure response to rapid dilatation of the resting urethra in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Thind, P; Colstrup, H

    1993-01-01

    beta e-t/tau beta, where Pequ, P alpha and P beta are constants, and tau alpha and tau beta are time constants; this equation has previously been demonstrated to describe the pressure decay following dilatation. On the basis of a theoretical model the elastic and viscous constants for the urethral......The urethral pressure response to a sudden forced dilatation was studied at the bladder neck, in the high-pressure zone and in the distal urethra in ten healthy female volunteers. The pressure response was fitted with a double exponential function of the form Pt = Pequ + P alpha e-t/tau alpha + P...... a detailed assessment of static and dynamic urethral responses to dilatation which can be applied as an experimental simulation of urine ingression, and is therefore presumed to be of value in the evaluation of normal and pathological urethral sphincter function....

  10. Rapid Chemical Vapor Infiltration of Silicon Carbide Minicomposites at Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Kenneth; Poges, Shannon; Monteleone, Chris; Grady, Joseph; Bhatt, Ram; Suib, Steven L

    2018-02-07

    The chemical vapor infiltration technique is one of the most popular for the fabrication of the matrix portion of a ceramic matrix composite. This work focuses on tailoring an atmospheric pressure deposition of silicon carbide onto carbon fiber tows using the methyltrichlorosilane (CH 3 SiCl 3 ) and H 2 deposition system at atmospheric pressure to create minicomposites faster than low pressure systems. Adjustment of the flow rate of H 2 bubbled through CH 3 SiCl 3 will improve the uniformity of the deposition as well as infiltrate the substrate more completely as the flow rate is decreased. Low pressure depositions conducted at 50 Torr deposit SiC at a rate of approximately 200 nm*h -1 , while the atmospheric pressure system presented has a deposition rate ranging from 750 nm*h -1 to 3.88 μm*h -1 . The minicomposites fabricated in this study had approximate total porosities of 3 and 6% for 10 and 25 SCCM infiltrations, respectively.

  11. CSS-Driven Java Swing Component

    OpenAIRE

    Hvězda, Matěj

    2014-01-01

    Tato práce je zaměřená na vytvoření komponenty Java Swing, která zobrazí obsah HTML dokumentu na základě kaskádových stylů (CSS). Důvod k vytvoření takové komponenty je umožnění vývojářům tvořit uživatelské rozhraní pomocí CSS v Javě bez nutnosti toho, aby znali rozhraní Java Swing.   K syntaktickému rozboru HTML a CSS je použit zobrazovací stroj CSSBox , který umožní získat veškeré potřebné informace ke správnému zobrazení dokumentu. Komponenta je implementována pomocí komponent Swingu...

  12. Ultra-rapid microwave variable pressure-induced histoprocessing : Description of a new tissue processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visinoni, F; Milios, J; Leong, ASY; Boon, ME; Kok, LP; Malcangi, F

    We describe a new method of ultra-rapid histoprocessing that reduces the processing times for needle and endoscopic biopsies to 30 min and that of other surgical biopsy tissue blocks of up to 4 mm thick to 120 min. The MicroMED U R M Histoprocessor, which combines microwave irradiation with precise

  13. Rapid redistribution and inhibition of renal sodium transporters during acute pressure natriuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y; Mircheff, A K; Hensley, C B

    1996-01-01

    and basolateral Na+ pumps to internal membranes. Arterial pressure was increased 50 mmHg by constricting various arteries. We also tested whether transporter internalization occurred when PT Na+ reabsorption was inhibited with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor benzolamide. Five minutes after initiating either...

  14. Encoded low swing for ultra low power interconnect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnan, R.; Pineda de Gyvez, J.

    2003-01-01

    We present a novel encoded-low swing technique for ultra low power interconnect. Using this technique and an efficient circuit implementation, we achieve an average of 45.7% improvement in the power-delay product over the schemes utilizing low swing techniques alone, for random bit streams. Also, we

  15. Mood swings: design and evaluation of affective interactive art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialoskorski, Leticia S.S.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; van den Broek, Egon

    2009-01-01

    The field of affective computing is concerned with developing emphatic products, such as affective consumer products, affective games, and affective art. This paper describes Mood Swings, an affective interactive art system, which interprets and visualizes affect expressed by a person. Mood Swings

  16. Development and Testing of a Temperature-swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide in Closed-loop Air Revitalization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloth, Lila M.; Rosen, Micha; Affleck, David; LeVan, M. Douglas; Wang, Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby dosing the air-loop. We have developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no rapidly moving parts for performing these tasks. The TSAC is a solid-state compressor that has the capability to remove CO2 from a low- pressure source, and subsequently store, compress, and deliver at a higher pressure as required by a processor. The TSAC is an ideal interface device for CO2 removal and reduction units in the air revitalization loop of a spacecraft for oxygen recovery. This paper discusses the design and testing of a TSAC for carbon dioxide that has application in the ISS and future spacecraft for closing the air revitalization loop.

  17. Malthus on long swings: the general case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, P C

    1988-02-01

    3 major assumptions provided the basis to Malthus' theory of population: food is necessary to human existence; passion between man and woman is necessary and will continue nearly in its present state; and the power of population is indefinitely greater than the earth's power to produce subsistence for humans. With this as his base, Malthus proposed the thesis that strong and constant forces need to hold the superior power of population over subsistence in check. The forces include both positive checks, e.g., infant mortality, and preventive checks, e.g., foregoing early marriage. Malthus evidently had a theory of long swings in mind because he began his essay questioning whether humankind will experience unlimited improvement or a state oscillating between happiness and misery. Waterman (1987) offers a new interpretation of Malthus' theory of long swings, concluding that "the Malthusian theory of oscillations' as sketched in the 'Essay on Population' may justly be represented by a zig-zag path of real wages." 2 questions arise: does the text literally mean what Waterman suggests; and is the text consistent with Malthus' general position. The quotation offered by Wasserman focuses on a special case that illustrates how oscillations might take place but fails to represent Malthus' general position. In any society the population's response to wages determines the "level" of subsistence. Due to the different living habits in each state, the subsistence level varies from state to state, and Malthus devotes much of the 1st "Essay" to discussing what determines the living habits and the subsistence level in different countries. In Malthus' theory of long swings, real wages do not follow a "zig-zag" path. This is due to the fact that neither the accumulation of capital nor the growth of population behaves as he proposes. Whenever the rate of profit is sufficiently attractive, capital accumulates, and the response of population to a change in wages depends on a complex of

  18. Simulated Lunar Testing of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Sebastian A.; Bower, Chad; Iacomini, Christie S.; Paul, H.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for thermal and carbon dioxide (CO2) control for a Portable Life Support System (PLSS), as well as water recycling. An Engineering Development Unit (EDU) of the MTSA subassembly was designed and assembled for optimized Martian operations, but also meets system requirements for lunar operations. For lunar operations the MTSA sorption cycle is driven via a vacuum swing between suit ventilation loop pressure and lunar vacuum. The focus of this effort is operations and testing in a simulated lunar environment. This environment was simulated in Paragon s EHF vacuum chamber. The objective of this testing was to evaluate the full cycle performance of the MTSA Subassembly EDU, and to assess CO2 loading and pressure drop of the wash coated aluminum reticulated foam sorbent bed. The lunar testing proved out the feasibility of pure vacuum swing operation, making MTSA a technology that can be tested and used on the Moon prior to going to Mars. Testing demonstrated better than expected CO2 loading on the sorbent and nearly replicates the equilibrium data from the sorbent manufacturer. This had not been achieved in any of the previous sorbent loading tests performed by Paragon. Subsequently, the increased performance of the sorbent bed design indicates future designs will require less mass and volume than the current EDU rendering MTSA as very competitive for Martian PLSS applications.

  19. Swing damped movement of suspended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.F.; Petterson, B.J.; Werner, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Transportation of large objects such as nuclear waste shipping casks using overhead cranes can induce pendular motion of the object. Residual oscillation from transportation typically must be damped or allowed to decay before the next process can take place. By properly programming the acceleration of the transporting device (e.g., crane) an oscillation damped transport and swing free stop are obtainable. This report reviews the theory associated with formulating such oscillation damped trajectories for a simply suspended object (e.g., simple pendulum). In addition, the use of force servo damping to eliminate initial oscillation of simply suspended objects is discussed. This is often needed to provide a well defined initial state for the system prior to executing an oscillation damped move. Also included are descriptions of experiments using a CIMCORP XR6100 gantry robot and results from these experiments. Finally, sources of error resulting in small residual oscillations are identified and possible solutions presented

  20. Swimming versus swinging effects in spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueron, Eduardo; Maia, Clovis A. S.; Matsas, George E. A.

    2006-01-01

    Wisdom has recently unveiled a new relativistic effect, called 'spacetime swimming', where quasirigid free bodies in curved spacetimes can 'speed up', 'slow down' or 'deviate' their falls by performing local cyclic shape deformations. We show here that for fast enough cycles this effect dominates over a nonrelativistic related one, named here 'space swinging', where the fall is altered through nonlocal cyclic deformations in Newtonian gravitational fields. We expect, therefore, to clarify the distinction between both effects leaving no room to controversy. Moreover, the leading contribution to the swimming effect predicted by Wisdom is enriched with a higher order term and the whole result is generalized to be applicable in cases where the tripod is in large redshift regions

  1. Rapid Atmospheric-Pressure-Plasma-Jet Processed Porous Materials for Energy Harvesting and Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ technology is a versatile technology that has been applied in many energy harvesting and storage devices. This feature article provides an overview of the advances in APPJ technology and its application to solar cells and batteries. The ultrafast APPJ sintering of nanoporous oxides and 3D reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with accompanying optical emission spectroscopy analyses are described in detail. The applications of these nanoporous materials to photoanodes and counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells are described. An ultrashort treatment (1 min on graphite felt electrodes of flow batteries also significantly improves the energy efficiency.

  2. The effects of baseball bat mass properties on swing mechanics, ground reaction forces, and swing timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Walter A; Fleisig, Glenn S; Aune, Kyle T; Diffendaffer, Alek Z

    2016-01-01

    Swing trajectory and ground reaction forces (GRF) of 30 collegiate baseball batters hitting a pitched ball were compared between a standard bat, a bat with extra weight about its barrel, and a bat with extra weight in its handle. It was hypothesised that when compared to a standard bat, only a handle-weighted bat would produce equivalent bat kinematics. It was also hypothesised that hitters would not produce equivalent GRFs for each weighted bat, but would maintain equivalent timing when compared to a standard bat. Data were collected utilising a 500 Hz motion capture system and 1,000 Hz force plate system. Data between bats were considered equivalent when the 95% confidence interval of the difference was contained entirely within ±5% of the standard bat mean value. The handle-weighted bat had equivalent kinematics, whereas the barrel-weighted bat did not. Both weighted bats had equivalent peak GRF variables. Neither weighted bat maintained equivalence in the timing of bat kinematics and some peak GRFs. The ability to maintain swing kinematics with a handle-weighted bat may have implications for swing training and warm-up. However, altered timings of kinematics and kinetics require further research to understand the implications on returning to a conventionally weighted bat.

  3. RAPID PROCESSING OF ARCHIVAL TISSUE SAMPLES FOR PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS USING PRESSURE-CYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinuth N. Puttamallesh1,2

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Advent of mass spectrometry based proteomics has revolutionized our ability to study proteins from biological specimen in a high-throughput manner. Unlike cell line based studies, biomedical research involving tissue specimen is often challenging due to limited sample availability. In addition, investigation of clinically relevant research questions often requires enormous amount of time for sample collection prospectively. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE archived tissue samples are a rich source of tissue specimen for biomedical research. However, there are several challenges associated with analysing FFPE samples. Protein cross-linking and degradation of proteins particularly affects proteomic analysis. We demonstrate that barocycler that uses pressure-cycling technology enables efficient protein extraction and processing of small amounts of FFPE tissue samples for proteomic analysis. We identified 3,525 proteins from six 10µm esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC tissue sections. Barocycler allows efficient protein extraction and proteolytic digestion of proteins from FFPE tissue sections at par with conventional methods.

  4. KINEMATIC AND KINETIC VARIABLES DIFFER BETWEEN KETTLEBELL SWING STYLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Garrett S; Schmitt, Abigail C; Shutt, Jason M; Cook, Gray; Butler, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    Kettlebell (KB) and indian club swings (ICS) are used diversely for developing strength and power. It has been proposed that multiple swing techniques can be used interchangeably to elicit similar adaptations within performance training. Hypothesis/Purpose: It was hypothesized that there will be not be a difference in peak joint angles between types of swings. Furthermore, given the nature of the overhead kettlebell swing (OKS), it was hypothesized that the OKS will be associated with a greater cycle time and a greater vertical impulse compared to shoulder height swing (SKS) and ICS. The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinematics and kinetics of the SKS, OKS, and ICS. Cross-sectional cohort. Fifteen healthy subjects underwent 3D biomechanical analysis for assessment of kinematic and kinetic data. Subjects performed two trials of ten repetitions at full effort for each swing in a randomized order using either a standard set of 0.45 kg indian clubs or sex specific KB loads (Female = 12kg, Male = 20kg). Lower extremity sagittal plane kinematics and kinetics were analyzed for peak values during the down and up portions of the swing patterns. Statistical analyses were carried out utilizing one-way ANOVAs ( p power training. 2.

  5. Brain networks governing the golf swing in professional golfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Han, Joung Kyue; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Han, Doug Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Golf, as with most complex motor skills, requires multiple different brain functions, including attention, motor planning, coordination, calculation of timing, and emotional control. In this study we assessed the correlation between swing components and brain connectivity from the cerebellum to the cerebrum. Ten female golf players and 10 age-matched female controls were recruited. In order to determine swing consistency among participants, the standard deviation (SD) of the mean swing speed time and the SD of the mean swing angle were assessed over 30 swings. Functional brain connectivity was assessed by resting state functional MRI. Pro-golfers showed greater positive left cerebellum connectivity to the occipital lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe and both frontal lobes compared to controls. The SD of play scores was positively correlated with the SD of the impact angle. Constant swing speed and back swing angle in professional golfers were associated with functional connectivity (FC) between the cerebellum and parietal and frontal lobes. In addition, the constant impact angle in professional golfers was associated with improved golf scores and additional FC of the thalamus.

  6. The Rapid Formation of Localized Compaction Bands Under Hydrostatic Load Leading to Pore-pressure Transients in Compacting Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, D.; Leclere, H.; Bedford, J. D.; Behnsen, J.; Wheeler, J.

    2017-12-01

    Compaction of porous rocks can occur uniformly or within localized deformation bands. The formation of compaction bands and their effects on deformation behaviour are poorly understood. Porosity may be primary and compaction can occur with burial, or it can be produced by metamorphic reactions with a solid volume reduction, that can then undergo collapse. We report results from hydrostatic compaction experiments on porous bassanite (CaSO4.0.5H2O) aggregates. Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) is first dehydrated under low effective pressure, 4 MPa, to produce a bassanite aggregate with a porosity of 27%. Compaction is induced by increasing confining pressure at rates from 0.001 MPa/s to 0.02 MPa/s while the sample is maintained at a temperature of 115°C. At slow compaction rates, porosity collapse proceeds smoothly. At higher compaction rates, sudden increases in the pore-fluid pressure occur with a magnitude of 5 MPa. Microstructural investigations using X-ray microtomography and SEM observations show that randomly oriented localized compaction features occur in all samples, where the bulk porosity of 18% outside the band is reduced to 5% inside the band. Previous work on deformation bands has suggested that localized compactive features only form under an elevated differential stress and not under a hydrostatic stress state. The magnitude of the pore-pressure pulses can be explained by the formation of compaction bands. The results indicate that the compaction bands can form by rapid (unstable) propagation across the sample above a critical strain rate, or quasi-statically at low compaction rates without pore-fluid pressure bursts. The absence of pore-fluid pressure bursts at slow compaction rates can be explained by viscous deformation of the bassanite aggregate around the tip of a propagating compaction band, relaxing stress, and promoting stable propagation. Conversely, at higher compaction rates, viscous deformation cannot relax the stress sufficiently and unstable

  7. Payments for carbon sequestration to alleviate development pressure in a rapidly urbanizing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan W.; Dorning, Monica; Shoemaker, Douglas A.; Méley, Andréanne; Dupey, Lauren; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine individuals' willingness to enroll in voluntary payments for carbon sequestration programs through the use of a discrete choice experiment delivered to forest owners living in the rapidly urbanizing region surrounding Charlotte, North Carolina. We examined forest owners' willingness to enroll in payments for carbon sequestration policies under different levels of financial incentives (annual revenue), different contract lengths, and different program administrators (e.g., private companies versus a state or federal agency). We also examined the influence forest owners' sense of place had on their willingness to enroll in hypothetical programs. Our results showed a high level of ambivalence toward participating in payments for carbon sequestration programs. However, both financial incentives and contract lengths significantly influenced forest owners' intent to enroll. Neither program administration nor forest owners' sense of place influenced intent to enroll. Although our analyses indicated that payments from carbon sequestration programs are not currently competitive with the monetary returns expected from timber harvest or property sales, certain forest owners might see payments for carbon sequestration programs as a viable option for offsetting increasing tax costs as development encroaches and property values rise.

  8. A Mixed-Oxide Assembly Design for Rapid Disposition of Weapons Plutonium in Pressurized Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Adams, Marvin L.

    2002-01-01

    We have created a new mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel assembly design for standard pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Design goals were to maximize the plutonium throughput while introducing the lowest perturbation possible to the control and safety systems of the reactor. Our assembly design, which we call MIX-33, offers some advantages for the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium; it increases the disposition rate by 8% while increasing the worth of control material, compared to a previous Westinghouse design. The MIX-33 design is based upon two ideas: the use of both uranium and plutonium fuel pins in the same assembly, and the addition of water holes in the assembly. The main result of this paper is that both of these ideas are effective at increasing Pu throughput and increasing the worth of control material. With this new design, according to our analyses, we can transition smoothly from a full low-enriched-uranium (LEU) core to a full MIX-33 core while meeting the operational and safety requirements of a standard PWR. Given an interruption of the MOX supply, we can transition smoothly back to full LEU while meeting safety margins and using standard LEU assemblies with uniform pinwise enrichment distribution. If the MOX supply is interrupted for only one cycle, the transition back to a full MIX-33 core is not as smooth; high peaking could cause power to be derated by a few percent for a few weeks at the beginning of one transition cycle

  9. Power Swing Generated in Francis Turbines by Part Load and Overload Instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Valentín

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydropower plays a key role in the actual energy market due to its fast response and regulation capacity. In that way, hydraulic turbines are increasingly demanded to work at off-design conditions, where complex flow patterns and cavitation appear, especially in Francis turbines. The draft tube cavitation surge is a hydraulic phenomenon that appears in Francis turbines below and above its Best Efficiency Point (BEP. It is a low frequency phenomenon consisting of a vortex rope in the runner outlet and draft tube, which can become unstable when its frequency coincides with a natural frequency of the hydraulic circuit. At this situation, the output power can significantly swing, endangering the electrical grid stability. This study is focused on the detection of these instabilities in Francis turbines and their relationship with the output power swings. To do so, extensive experimental tests for different operating conditions have been carried out in a large prototype Francis turbine (444 MW of rated power within the frame of the European Project Hyperbole (FP7-ENERGY-2013-1. Several sensors have been installed in the hydraulic circuit (pressure sensors in the draft tube, spiral casing, and penstock, in the rotating and static structures (vibration sensors, proximity probes, and strain gauges in the runner and in the shaft, as well as in the electrical side (output power, intensity, and voltage. Moreover, a numerical Finite Element Method (FEM has been also used to relate the hydraulic excitation with the output power swing.

  10. A Soft-Inflatable Exosuit for Knee Rehabilitation: Assisting Swing Phase During Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saivimal Sridar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a soft-inflatable exosuit to assist knee extension during gait training for stroke rehabilitation. The soft exosuit is designed to provide 25% of the knee moment required during the swing phase of the gait cycle and is integrated with inertial measurement units (IMUs and smart shoe insole sensors to improve gait phase detection and controller design. The stiffness of the knee joint during level walking is computed using inverse dynamics. The soft-inflatable actuators, with an I cross-section, are mechanically characterized at varying angles to enable generation of the required stiffness outputs. A linear relation between the inflatable actuator stiffness and internal pressure as a function of the knee angle is obtained, and a two-layer stiffness controller is implemented to assist the knee joint by providing appropriate stiffness during the swing phase. Finally, to evaluate the ability of the exosuit to assist in swing motion, surface-electromyography (sEMG sensors are placed on the three muscle groups of the quadriceps and two groups of the hamstrings, on three healthy participants. A reduction in muscle activity of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis is observed, which demonstrates feasibility of operation and potential future usage of the soft inflatable exosuit by impaired users.

  11. Dual swing-up elevator well drilling apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, H.; Vorarittinapa, T.

    1984-09-18

    A well drilling apparatus includes a first swing-up elevator platform on which the mast structure is pivotally mounted. After the mast structure has been raised to its erect position, the first elevator platform is elevated to carry the mast structure to a high operational level. A second swing-up elevator platform is provided to carry the drawworks to the same high level at which the two elevator platforms are coupled together to form the working floor. All of the raising and elevating operations can be accomplished with power supplied by the drawworks. The elevator platforms may be lowered after the drilling operation has been accomplished without interfering with any control valve structures that have been placed on the wellhead while the structure was at its raised operational level; the swing-up elevator platforms swing down in opposite directions over any such valve structure.

  12. Nanopatterning of swinging substrates by ion-beam sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sun Mi; Kim, J.-S., E-mail: jskim@sm.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-28

    Graphite substrates are azimuthally swung during ion-beam sputtering (IBS) at a polar angle θ = 78° from the surface normal. The swinging of the substrate not only causes quasi-two-dimensional mass transport but also makes various sputter effects from the different incident angles to work together. Through variation of the swing angle, both the transport and sputtering effects synergistically produce a series of salient patterns, such as asymmetric wall-like structures, which can grow to several tens of nanometers and exhibit a re-entrant orientational change with the increased swing angle. Thus, the present work demonstrates that dynamic variables such as the swing angle, which have been little utilized, offer an additional parameter space that can be exploited to diversify the sputtered patterns, thereby expanding the applicability of an IBS as well as the comprehension of the IBS nano patterning mechanism.

  13. Input Shaping for Helicopter Slung Load Swing Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents a feedforward swing reducing control system for augmenting already existing helicopter controllers and enables slung load flight with autonomous helicopters general cargo transport. The feedforward controller is designed to avoid excitation of the lightly damped modes...

  14. Nanopatterning of swinging substrates by ion-beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sun Mi; Kim, J.-S.

    2016-01-01

    Graphite substrates are azimuthally swung during ion-beam sputtering (IBS) at a polar angle θ = 78° from the surface normal. The swinging of the substrate not only causes quasi-two-dimensional mass transport but also makes various sputter effects from the different incident angles to work together. Through variation of the swing angle, both the transport and sputtering effects synergistically produce a series of salient patterns, such as asymmetric wall-like structures, which can grow to several tens of nanometers and exhibit a re-entrant orientational change with the increased swing angle. Thus, the present work demonstrates that dynamic variables such as the swing angle, which have been little utilized, offer an additional parameter space that can be exploited to diversify the sputtered patterns, thereby expanding the applicability of an IBS as well as the comprehension of the IBS nano patterning mechanism.

  15. Kinetic constrained optimization of the golf swing hub path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbit, Steven M; McGinnis, Ryan S

    2014-12-01

    This study details an optimization of the golf swing, where the hand path and club angular trajectories are manipulated. The optimization goal was to maximize club head velocity at impact within the interaction kinetic limitations (force, torque, work, and power) of the golfer as determined through the analysis of a typical swing using a two-dimensional dynamic model. The study was applied to four subjects with diverse swing capabilities and styles. It was determined that it is possible for all subjects to increase their club head velocity at impact within their respective kinetic limitations through combined modifications to their respective hand path and club angular trajectories. The manner of the modifications, the degree of velocity improvement, the amount of kinetic reduction, and the associated kinetic limitation quantities were subject dependent. By artificially minimizing selected kinetic inputs within the optimization algorithm, it was possible to identify swing trajectory characteristics that indicated relative kinetic weaknesses of a subject. Practical implications are offered based upon the findings of the study. Key PointsThe hand path trajectory is an important characteristic of the golf swing and greatly affects club head velocity and golfer/club energy transfer.It is possible to increase the energy transfer from the golfer to the club by modifying the hand path and swing trajectories without increasing the kinetic output demands on the golfer.It is possible to identify relative kinetic output strengths and weakness of a golfer through assessment of the hand path and swing trajectories.Increasing any one of the kinetic outputs of the golfer can potentially increase the club head velocity at impact.The hand path trajectory has important influences over the club swing trajectory.

  16. CFD Analysis of Swing of Cricket Ball and Trajectory Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Jithin; Tom, Josin; Ruishikesh, Kamat; Jose, Jyothish; Kumar, Sanjay

    2013-11-01

    This work aims to understand the aerodynamics associated with the flight and swing of a cricket ball and predict its flight trajectory over the course of the game: at start (smooth ball) and as the game progresses (rough ball). Asymmetric airflow over the ball due to seam orientation and surface roughness can cause flight deviation (swing). The values of Drag, Lift and Side forces which are crucial for determining the trajectory of the ball were found with the help of FLUENT using the standard K- ɛ model. Analysis was done to study how the ball velocity, spin imparted to be ball and the tilt of the seam affects the movement of the ball through air. The governing force balance equations in 3 dimensions in combination a MATLAB code which used Heun's method was used for obtaining the trajectory of the ball. The conditions for the conventional swing and reverse swing to occur were deduced from the analysis and found to be in alignment with the real life situation. Critical seam angle for maximum swing and transition speed for normal to reverse swing were found out. The obtained trajectories were compared to real life hawk eye trajectories for validation. The analysis results were in good agreement with the real life situation.

  17. Effects of moment of inertia on restricted motion swing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorah, David; Choppin, Simon; James, David

    2015-06-01

    In many sports, the maximum swing speed of a racket, club, or bat is a key performance parameter. Previous research in multiple sports supports the hypothesis of an inverse association between the swing speed and moment of inertia of an implement. The aim of this study was to rigorously test and quantify this relationship using a restricted swinging motion. Eight visually identical rods with a common mass but variable moment of inertia were manufactured. Motion capture technology was used to record eight participants' maximal effort swings with the rods. Strict exclusion criteria were applied to data that did not adhere to the prescribed movement pattern. The study found that for all participants, swing speed decreased with respect to moment of inertia according to a power relationship. However, in contrast to previous studies, the rate of decrease varied from participant to participant. With further analysis it was found that participants performed more consistently at the higher end of the moment of inertia range tested. The results support the inverse association between swing speed and moment of inertia but only for higher moment of inertia implements.

  18. High Pressure Electrochemical Oxygen Generation for ISS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Giner, Inc. has developed an advanced high pressure electrochemical oxygen concentrator (EOC) that offers a simple alternative to the use of pressure swing...

  19. Pressure overload stimulated cardiac hypertrophy leads to a rapid decrease in the mRNA for creatine kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boheler, K.; Popovich, B.; Dillmann, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy (CH) leads to a decrease in creatine kinase (CK) enzymatic activity. To determine if the mRNA for CK also decreases with CH, they performed the following studies. Cardiac RNA was isolated from rats subjected to either abdominal aortic stenosis (AS) or sham surgery. Through Northern blot analysis, total cardiac RNA was quantitated with a CK specific 32 P-labelled cDNA clone. At 3 and 8 days post-constriction, the mRNA for CK decreases by 54.6 +/- 7% and 65.3 +/- 18% respectively, whereas the heart weight increases by 19% and 37% relative to controls. Further studies indicate that CK mRNA also decreases by 41.8% in hypothyroid rats (Tx) but decreases by a total of 68.1% in Tx rats subjected to 8 days of AS. Pressure overload stimulated CH leads to a rapid decrease in CK mRNA in normal and Tx rats. This CK mRNA decrease may account for the decreased efficiency of contraction seen in CH

  20. WORK AND POWER ANALYSIS OF THE GOLF SWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Nesbit

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A work and power (energy analysis of the golf swing is presented as a method for evaluating the mechanics of the golf swing. Two computer models were used to estimate the energy production, transfers, and conversions within the body and the golf club by employing standard methods of mechanics to calculate work of forces and torques, kinetic energies, strain energies, and power during the golf swing. A detailed model of the golf club determined the energy transfers and conversions within the club during the downswing. A full-body computer model of the golfer determined the internal work produced at the body joints during the downswing. Four diverse amateur subjects were analyzed and compared using these two models. The energy approach yielded new information on swing mechanics, determined the force and torque components that accelerated the club, illustrated which segments of the body produced work, determined the timing of internal work generation, measured swing efficiencies, calculated shaft energy storage and release, and proved that forces and range of motion were equally important in developing club head velocity. A more comprehensive description of the downswing emerged from information derived from an energy based analysis

  1. Some design features of CO2 swing piston expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Haiqing; Ma Yitai; Li Minxia

    2006-01-01

    CO 2 is a potential substitute for synthesized refrigerants with favorable environmental properties. To improve the coefficient of performance (COP) of CO 2 heat pump systems, a swing piston expander prototype has been developed for replacing the throttling valve based on the thermodynamic analysis of the operating conditions of a CO 2 transcritical cycle. The measures on reducing the loss of friction and leakage are paramount important to improve the efficiency of the expander. The performance of the CO 2 swing expander prototype was actually tested in a CO 2 transcritical cycle water-to-water heat pump test rig, and the test results illustrate that the isentropic efficiency of the prototype can be more than 28% when running steadily and up to a maximum of about 44%. Some operating characteristics of the swing piston expander are presented according to the analysis of the test results

  2. A Standalone Vision Impairments Simulator for Java Swing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, Theofanis; Votis, Konstantinos; Korn, Peter; Tzovaras, Dimitrios; Likothanasis, Spriridon

    A lot of work has been done lately in an attempt to assess accessibility. For the case of web rich-client applications several tools exist that simulate how a vision impaired or colour-blind person would perceive this content. In this work we propose a simulation tool for non-web JavaTM Swing applications. Developers and designers face a real challenge when creating software that has to cope with a lot of interaction situations, as well as specific directives for ensuring an accessible interaction. The proposed standalone tool will assist them to explore user-centered design and important accessibility issues for their JavaTM Swing implementations.

  3. JavaFX2 a Swing

    OpenAIRE

    Čapek, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals mainly with the JavaFX2 library and its innovations. An aim is to acquaint readers with wider possibilities and help them with a transition from Swing to JavaFX2. In the thesis there are gone into benefits JavaFX2 which is accompanied by a source code examples for an illustration. A part of the thesis is also an application which shows differences between Swing and JavaFX2 both a graphical view as well as a viewing of the source code. Most of the information containe...

  4. Effect of arm swing strategy on local dynamic stability of human gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, Michiel; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Wittink, Harriet; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2015-02-01

    Falling causes long term disability and can even lead to death. Most falls occur during gait. Therefore improving gait stability might be beneficial for people at risk of falling. Recently arm swing has been shown to influence gait stability. However at present it remains unknown which mode of arm swing creates the most stable gait. To examine how different modes of arm swing affect gait stability. Ten healthy young male subjects volunteered for this study. All subjects walked with four different arm swing instructions at seven different gait speeds. The Xsens motion capture suit was used to capture gait kinematics. Basic gait parameters, variability and stability measures were calculated. We found an increased stability in the medio-lateral direction with excessive arm swing in comparison to normal arm swing at all gait speeds. Moreover, excessive arm swing increased stability in the anterior-posterior and vertical direction at low gait speeds. Ipsilateral and inphase arm swing did not differ compared to a normal arm swing. Excessive arm swing is a promising gait manipulation to improve local dynamic stability. For excessive arm swing in the ML direction there appears to be converging evidence. The effect of excessive arm swing on more clinically relevant groups like the more fall prone elderly or stroke survivors is worth further investigating. Excessive arm swing significantly increases local dynamic stability of human gait. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Early Improper Motion Detection in Golf Swings Using Wearable Motion Sensors: The First Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stančin, Sara; Tomažič, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a golf swing to detect improper motion in the early phase of the swing. Led by the desire to achieve a consistent shot outcome, a particular golfer would (in multiple trials) prefer to perform completely identical golf swings. In reality, some deviations from the desired motion are always present due to the comprehensive nature of the swing motion. Swing motion deviations that are not detrimental to performance are acceptable. This analysis is conducted using a golfer's leading arm kinematic data, which are obtained from a golfer wearing a motion sensor that is comprised of gyroscopes and accelerometers. Applying the principal component analysis (PCA) to the reference observations of properly performed swings, the PCA components of acceptable swing motion deviations are established. Using these components, the motion deviations in the observations of other swings are examined. Any unacceptable deviations that are detected indicate an improper swing motion. Arbitrarily long observations of an individual player's swing sequences can be included in the analysis. The results obtained for the considered example show an improper swing motion in early phase of the swing, i.e., the first part of the backswing. An early detection method for improper swing motions that is conducted on an individual basis provides assistance for performance improvement. PMID:23752563

  6. Effect of short-term rapid ventricular pacing followed by pacing interruption on arterial blood pressure in healthy pigs and pigs with tachycardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, P; Zyśko, D; Pasławska, U; Noszczyk-Nowak, A; Janiszewski, A; Gajek, J; Nicpoń, J; Kiczak, L; Bania, J; Zacharski, M; Tomaszek, A; Jankowska, E A; Ponikowski, P; Witkiewicz, W

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular tachycardia may lead to haemodynamic deterioration and, in the case of long term persistence, is associated with the development of tachycardiomyopathy. The effect of ventricular tachycardia on haemodynamics in individuals with tachycardiomyopathy, but being in sinus rhythm has not been studied. Rapid ventricular pacing is a model of ventricular tachycardia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rapid ventricular pacing on blood pressure in healthy animals and those with tachycardiomyopathy. A total of 66 animals were studied: 32 in the control group and 34 in the study group. The results of two groups of examinations were compared: the first performed in healthy animals (133 examinations) and the second performed in animals paced for at least one month (77 examinations). Blood pressure measurements were taken during chronic pacing--20 min after onset of general anaesthesia, in baseline conditions (20 min after pacing cessation or 20 min after onset of general anaesthesia in healthy animals) and immediately after short-term rapid pacing. In baseline conditions significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure was found in healthy animals than in those with tachycardiomyopathy. During an event of rapid ventricular pacing, a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was found in both groups of animals. In the group of chronically paced animals the blood pressure was lower just after restarting ventricular pacing than during chronic pacing. Cardiovascular adaptation to ventricular tachycardia develops with the length of its duration. Relapse of ventricular tachycardia leads to a blood pressure decrease more pronounced than during chronic ventricular pacing.

  7. Swing States, The Winner-Take-All Electoral College, and Fiscal Federalism

    OpenAIRE

    Duquette, Christopher; Mixon, Franklin; Cebula, Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a debate regarding the impact of swing or independent voters in American politics. While some argue that swing voters either do not swing or have a marginal impact on campaigns, the decline in voter partisan identification and the rise of independents means that they have a potential impact on elections, making them a desirable commodity to candidates. Additionally, presidential elections represent a unique case for swing voters. A robust literature notes that during the presidenti...

  8. Aeroacoustics of the swinging corrugated tube: Voice of the Dragon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakiboglu, G.; Rudenko, O.; Hirschberg, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    When one swings a short corrugated pipe segment around one’s head, it produces a musically interesting whistling sound. As a musical toy it is called a “Hummer” and as a musical instrument, the “Voice of the Dragon.” The fluid dynamics aspects of the instrument are addressed, corresponding to the

  9. Aeroacoustics of the swinging corrugated tube : voice of the dragon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakiboglu, G.; Rudenko, O.; Hirschberg, A.

    2012-01-01

    When one swings a short corrugated pipe segment around one’s head, it produces a musically interesting whistling sound. As a musical toy it is called a "Hummer" and as a musical instrument, the "Voice of the Dragon." The fluid dynamics aspects of the instrument are addressed, corresponding to the

  10. 77 FR 66703 - Safety Standard for Infant Swings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0..., compress the airway, and result in DEATH. 2. Warning Concerning Use of Cradle Swing (Comment 2) Five... the time of the NPR. CPSC staff has continued to work with ASTM to refine the seat deflection test for...

  11. Impulses for the wave swing and bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A brief overview is given of projects that will be subsidized within the Dutch Economy Ecology Technology (EET) programme. The purpose of EET is to develop technological solutions that result in a sustainable development. Two of those projects are highlighted in this article: the Archimedes Wave Swing and the production of oil from biomass by hydrothermal upgrading. 1 ill

  12. Expert Baseball Batters Have Greater Sensitivity in Making Swing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2010-01-01

    This study used signal detection theory to conceptualize the problem a baseball batter faces when deciding whether or not to swing at a pitch. It examined the launch angle (LA) criteria used by expert (college players) and less experienced (recreational league players) batters using a baseball batting simulation. This study showed that, although…

  13. Kinetic Constrained Optimization of the Golf Swing Hub Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Nesbit

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study details an optimization of the golf swing, where the hand path and club angular trajectories are manipulated. The optimization goal was to maximize club head velocity at impact within the interaction kinetic limitations (force, torque, work, and power of the golfer as determined through the analysis of a typical swing using a two-dimensional dynamic model. The study was applied to four subjects with diverse swing capabilities and styles. It was determined that it is possible for all subjects to increase their club head velocity at impact within their respective kinetic limitations through combined modifications to their respective hand path and club angular trajectories. The manner of the modifications, the degree of velocity improvement, the amount of kinetic reduction, and the associated kinetic limitation quantities were subject dependent. By artificially minimizing selected kinetic inputs within the optimization algorithm, it was possible to identify swing trajectory characteristics that indicated relative kinetic weaknesses of a subject. Practical implications are offered based upon the findings of the study.

  14. LUMBAR CORSETS CAN DECREASE LUMBAR MOTION IN GOLF SWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Hashimoto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Swinging a golf club includes the rotation and extension of the lumbar spine. Golf-related low back pain has been associated with degeneration of the lumbar facet and intervertebral discs, and with spondylolysis. Reflective markers were placed directly onto the skin of 11young male amateur golfers without a previous history of back pain. Using a VICON system (Oxford Metrics, U.K., full golf swings were monitored without a corset (WOC, with a soft corset (SC, and with a hard corset (HC, with each subject taking 3 swings. Changes in the angle between the pelvis and the thorax (maximum range of motion and angular velocity in 3 dimensions (lumbar rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral tilt were analyzed, as was rotation of the hip joint. Peak changes in lumbar extension and rotation occurred just after impact with the ball. The extension angle of the lumbar spine at finish was significantly lower under SC (38° or HC (28° than under WOC (44° conditions (p < 0.05. The maximum angular velocity after impact was significantly smaller under HC (94°/sec than under SC (177°/sec and WOC (191° /sec conditions, as were the lumbar rotation angles at top and finish. In contrast, right hip rotation angles at top showed a compensatory increase under HC conditions. Wearing a lumbar corset while swinging a golf club can effectively decrease lumbar extension and rotation angles from impact until the end of the swing. These effects were significantly enhanced while wearing an HC

  15. Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Katherine A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and faster sample throughput.

  16. A novel power swing blocking scheme using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadeh, Hassan Khorashadi; Li, Zuyi [Illinois Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 3301 S. Dearborn Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    A power swing may be caused by any sudden change in the configuration or the loading of an electrical network. During a power swing, the impedance locus moves along an impedance circle with possible encroachment into the distance relay zone, which may cause an unnecessary tripping. In order to prevent the distance relay from tripping under such condition, a novel power swing blocking (PSB) scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme uses an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) for preventing distance relay from tripping during power swings. The input signals to ANFIS, include the change of positive sequence impedance, positive and negative sequence currents, and power swing center voltage. Extensive tests show that the proposed PSB has two distinct features that are advantageous over existing schemes. The first is that the proposed scheme is able to detect various kinds of power swings thus block distance relays during power swings, even if the power swings are fast or the power swings occur during single pole open conditions. The second distinct feature is that the proposed scheme is able to clear the blocking if faults occur within the relay trip zone during power swings, even if the faults are high resistance faults, or the faults occur at the power swing center, or the faults occur when the power angle is close to 180 . (author)

  17. Swing Damping for Helicopter Slung Load Systems using Delayed Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2009-01-01

    of swing. The design of the delayed feedback controller is presented as an optimization problem which gives the possibility of an automated design process. Simulations and flight test verifications of the control system on two different autonomous helicopters are presented and it is shown how a significant......This paper presents the design and verification of a swing reducing controller for helicopter slung load systems using intentional delayed feedback. It is intended for augmenting a trajectory tracking helicopter controller and thereby improving the slung load handing capabilities for autonomous...... helicopters. The delayed feedback controller is added to actively reduce oscillations of the slung load by improving the damping of the slung load pendulum modes. Furthermore, it is intended for integration with a feedforward control scheme based on input shaping for concurrent avoidance and dampening...

  18. Optimization analysis of swing check valve closing induced water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wenwei; Han Weishi; Guo Qing; Wang Xin; Liu Chunyu

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical-physics model of double pump parallel feed system was constructed. The water hammer was precisely calculated, which was formed in the closing process of swing check valve. And a systematic analysis was carried out to determine the influence of the torques from both valve plate and damping torsion spring on the valve closing induced water hammer. The results show that the swing check valve would distinctly produce the water hammer during the closing procedure in the double pump parallel feed water system. The torques of the valve plate can partly reduce the water hammer effect, and implying appropriate materials of valve plate and appropriate spring can effectively relieve the harm of water hammer. (authors)

  19. Balance Devices Train Golfers for a Consistent Swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    As part of the effort to understand the effects of spaceflight on astronauts, NASA funded research that resulted in a commercial product to treat balance disorders. West Palm Beach, Florida-based Sports Therapy Inc. worked with the inventor to modify the technology, creating the Dynamic Balance System (DBS) for sports applications. DBS is now used by Professional Golfers' Association-owned facilities and golf academies to help players achieve an effective, balanced swing.

  20. Swing Damping for Helicopter Slung Load Systems using Delayed Feedback

    OpenAIRE

    Bisgaard, Morten; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design and verification of a swing reducing controller for helicopter slung load systems usingintentional delayed feedback. It is intended for augmenting a trajectory tracking helicopter controller and thereby improving the slung load handing capabilities for autonomous helicopters. The delayed feedback controller is added to actively reduce oscillations of the slung load by improving the damping of the slung load pendulum modes. Furthermore, it is intended for integra...

  1. Trunk muscle activation during golf swing: Baseline and threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís; Marta, Sérgio; Vaz, João; Fernandes, Orlando; Castro, Maria António; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro

    2013-10-01

    There is a lack of studies regarding EMG temporal analysis during dynamic and complex motor tasks, such as golf swing. The aim of this study is to analyze the EMG onset during the golf swing, by comparing two different threshold methods. Method A threshold was determined using the baseline activity recorded between two maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Method B threshold was calculated using the mean EMG activity for 1000ms before the 500ms prior to the start of the Backswing. Two different clubs were also studied. Three-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare methods, muscles and clubs. Two-way mixed Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) with absolute agreement was used to determine the methods reliability. Club type usage showed no influence in onset detection. Rectus abdominis (RA) showed the higher agreement between methods. Erector spinae (ES), on the other hand, showed a very low agreement, that might be related to postural activity before the swing. External oblique (EO) is the first being activated, at 1295ms prior impact. There is a similar activation time between right and left muscles sides, although the right EO showed better agreement between methods than left side. Therefore, the algorithms usage is task- and muscle-dependent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid production of metallurgical coke by a pressurized hot-briquetting method. Netsukan kaatsu seikei ni yoru cokes no jinsoku seizo no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K.; Hayashi, J.; Noguchi, N. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Research Laboratory of Carbonaceous Resources Conversion Technology); Hashimoto, K. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1993-09-20

    Rapid production of metallurgical coke from non- and slightly coking coals was studied by pressurized hot-briquetting method. Coal specimens were filled into the mold after pulverizing, and heated at a constant temperature rise rate up to caking temperature under loading pressure to obtain caked coal specimens. Such specimens were then carbonized in nitrogen gas at 800[degree]C. As a result, the coke obtained was superior in compressive strength as compared with commercial cokes, however, its CO2 reactivity was very high requiring heating up to 1,000[degree]C to decrease it, while the reactivity was strongly dependent on coal kind. The optimum processing conditions for slightly coking coal were as follows; loading pressure: 10 [times] 10[sup 5] Pa or more, temperature range under loading pressure: 300-450[degree]C, temperature rise rate: 2-100[degree]C/min, and caking temperature: nearly 500[degree]C. No coke could be produced from coking coals because no volatile matter could be removed from it in a short time under pressure. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Low Pressure Adsorbent for Recovery & Storage Vented Hydrogen, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high performance fullerene-based adsorbent is proposed for recovery and storage hydrogen and separating helium via pressure-swing-adsorption (PSA) process....

  4. The metabolic cost of human running: is swinging the arms worth it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Christopher J; Kram, Rodger

    2014-07-15

    Although the mechanical function is quite clear, there is no consensus regarding the metabolic benefit of arm swing during human running. We compared the metabolic cost of running using normal arm swing with the metabolic cost of running while restricting the arms in three different ways: (1) holding the hands with the arms behind the back in a relaxed position (BACK), (2) holding the arms across the chest (CHEST) and (3) holding the hands on top of the head (HEAD). We hypothesized that running without arm swing would demand a greater metabolic cost than running with arm swing. Indeed, when compared with running using normal arm swing, we found that net metabolic power demand was 3, 9 and 13% greater for the BACK, CHEST and HEAD conditions, respectively (all Prunning without arm swing, subjects significantly increased the peak-to-peak amplitudes of both shoulder and pelvis rotation about the vertical axis, most likely a compensatory strategy to counterbalance the rotational angular momentum of the swinging legs. In conclusion, our findings support our general hypothesis that swinging the arms reduces the metabolic cost of human running. Our findings also demonstrate that arm swing minimizes torso rotation. We infer that actively swinging the arms provides both metabolic and biomechanical benefits during human running. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Rapid Analysis of Apolar Low Molecular Weight Constituents in Wood Using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography with Evaporative Light Scattering Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, F.W.; Haar, van de C.; Beek, van T.A.; Dorado, J.; Martinez-Inigo, M.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.

    2000-01-01

    A new high pressure liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light scattering detection was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of apolar, low molecular weight constituents in wood. The wood extractives were obtained by means of a 6 h Soxhlet extraction with acetone. The

  6. Air-Cooled Design of a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloth, Lila M.; Affleck, Dave L.; Rosen, Micha; LeVan, M. Douglas; Wang, Yuan; Cavalcante, Celio L.

    2004-01-01

    The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. We have a developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for performing these tasks that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no rapidly moving parts. This paper discusses the mechanical design and the results of thermal model validation tests of a TSAC that uses air as the cooling medium.

  7. Rapid Characterization and Identification of Flavonoids in Radix Astragali by Ultra-High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Linear Ion Trap-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Xu, Xiao-Jie; Xu, Wen; Huang, Juan; Zhu, Da-yuan; Qiu, Xiao-Hui

    2015-07-01

    A simple and effective method was established for separation and characterization of flavonoid constituents in Radix Astragali (RA) by combination of ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography with LTQ-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (u-HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS(n)). For three major structural types of flavonoids, the proposed fragmentation pathways and major diagnostic fragment ions of isoflavones, pterocarpans and isoflavans were investigated to trace isoflavonoid derivatives in crude plant extracts. Based on the systematic identification strategy, 48 constituents were rapidly detected and characterized or tentatively identified, many of which were first reported in RA. The u-PHLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS(n) platform was proved as an effective tool for rapid qualitative analysis of secondary metabolite productions from natural resources. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Modeling the Rapid Boil-Off of a Cryogenic Liquid When Injected into a Low Pressure Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Many launch vehicle cryogenic applications require the modeling of injecting a cryogenic liquid into a low pressure cavity. The difficulty of such analyses lies in accurately predicting the heat transfer coefficient between the cold liquid and a warm wall in a low pressure environment. The heat transfer coefficient and the behavior of the liquid is highly dependent on the mass flow rate into the cavity, the cavity wall temperature and the cavity volume. Testing was performed to correlate the modeling performed using Thermal Desktop and Sinda Fluint Thermal and Fluids Analysis Software. This presentation shall describe a methodology to model the cryogenic process using Sinda Fluint, a description of the cryogenic test set up, a description of the test procedure and how the model was correlated to match the test results.

  9. Exposure to high hydrostatic pressure rapidly selects for increased RpoS activity and general stress-resistance in Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlint, Dietrich; Rutten, Nele; Govers, Sander K; Michiels, Chris W; Aertsen, Abram

    2013-04-15

    Exposure to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is increasingly being used in food preservation as a non-thermal pasteurization process, and its further implementation necessitates a more thorough understanding of bacterial resistance development and intraspecies variability with regard to inactivation by HHP. In this report, we discovered that exposure to high hydrostatic pressure stress can rapidly select for strongly increased RpoS activity in a hypersensitive Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain (ATCC 43888), leading to a simultaneous increase in HHP and heat resistance. Moreover, the level of RpoS activity correlated well with the original hypersensitivity and the extent of acquired HHP resistance, and extremely HHP-resistant mutants of ATCC 43888 clearly incurred a number of additional RpoS-dependent phenotypes. These findings suggest that implementation of novel processing techniques in the food production chain can readily affect the physiology of food-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A flowing liquid test system for assessing the linearity and time-response of rapid fibre optic oxygen partial pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R; Hahn, C E W; Farmery, A D

    2012-08-15

    The development of a methodology for testing the time response, linearity and performance characteristics of ultra fast fibre optic oxygen sensors in the liquid phase is presented. Two standard medical paediatric oxygenators are arranged to provide two independent extracorporeal circuits. Flow from either circuit can be diverted over the sensor under test by means of a system of rapid cross-over solenoid valves exposing the sensor to an abrupt change in oxygen partial pressure, P O2. The system is also capable of testing the oxygen sensor responses to changes in temperature, carbon dioxide partial pressure P CO2 and pH in situ. Results are presented for a miniature fibre optic oxygen sensor constructed in-house with a response time ≈ 50 ms and a commercial fibre optic sensor (Ocean Optics Foxy), when tested in flowing saline and stored blood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of arm swing strategy on local dynamic stability of human gait

    OpenAIRE

    Punt, M.; Bruijn, S.M.; Wittink, H.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Falling causes long term disability and can even lead to death. Most falls occur during gait. Therefore improving gait stability might be beneficial for people at risk of falling. Recently arm swing has been shown to influence gait stability. However at present it remains unknown which mode of arm swing creates the most stable gait. Aim: To examine how different modes of arm swing affect gait stability. Method: Ten healthy young male subjects volunteered for this study. All subj...

  12. The Analysis of Knee Joint Movement During Golf Swing in Professional and Amateur Golfers

    OpenAIRE

    M.Somjarod; V. Tanawat; l. Weerawat

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of knee movement during swing importance for golf swing improving and preventing injury. Thirty male professional and amateur golfers were assigned to swing time by time for 3 times. Data from a vedio-based motion capture were used to compute knee joint movement variables. The results showed that professional and amateur golfers were significantly in left knee flexion angle at the impact point and mid follow through phase. Nevertheless, left knee externa...

  13. Research on Normal Human Plantar Pressure Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available FSR400 pressure sensor, nRF905 wireless transceiver and MSP40 SCM are used to design the insole pressure collection system, LabVIEW is used to make HMI of data acquisition, collecting a certain amount of normal human foot pressure data, statistical analysis of pressure distribution relations about five stages of swing phase during walking, using the grid closeness degree to identify plantar pressure distribution pattern recognition, and the algorithm simulation, experimental results demonstrated this method feasible.

  14. The effect of unilateral arm swing motion on lower extremity running mechanics associated with injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agresta, Cristine; Ward, Christian R; Wright, W Geoffrey; Tucker, Carole A

    2018-06-01

    Many field sports involve equipment that restricts one or both arms from moving while running. Arm swing during running has been examined from a biomechanical and physiologic perspective but not from an injury perspective. Moreover, only bilateral arm swing suppression has been studied with respect to running. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of running with one arm restrained on lower extremity mechanics associated with running or sport-related injury. Fifteen healthy participants ran at a self-selected speed with typical arm swing, with one arm restrained and with both arms restrained. Lower extremity kinematics and spatiotemporal measures were analysed for all arm swing conditions. Running with one arm restrained resulted in increased frontal plane knee and hip angles, decreased foot strike angle, and decreased centre of mass vertical displacement compared to typical arm swing or bilateral arm swing restriction. Stride length was decreased and step frequency increased when running with one or both arms restrained. Unilateral arm swing restriction induces changes in lower extremity kinematics that are not similar to running with bilateral arm swing restriction or typical arm swing motion. Running with one arm restrained increases frontal plane mechanics associated with risk of knee injury.

  15. Power Swing Detection in UPFC-Compensated Line by Phase Angle of Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khodaparast, Jalal; Khederzadeh, M.; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2017-01-01

    Power swing blocker (PSB) is a complementary part of distance relay protection, that detects power swing, in order to prevent unintended operation of a distance relay. Unified power flow controller (UPFC) is used in power system to control both active and reactive powers and its operation during...... condition. The results show that these indices may no longer work in systems with UPFC. In addition, this paper proposes a new method for detecting power swing based on the phase angle of current at relay point and compares it with two other methods. The new method distinguishes power swing from a fault...

  16. Multiphysics Modeling of Electric-Swing Adsorption System with In-Vessel Condensation (POSTPRINT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petkovska, Menka; Antov-Bozalo, Danijela; Markovic, Ana; Sullivan, Patrick D

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of an Electric-Swing Adsorption (ESA) system (adsorption cycle with electrothermal desorption step, performed by direct heating of the adsorbent particles by passing electric current...

  17. Sound Synthesis of Objects Swinging through Air Using Physical Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Selfridge

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A real-time physically-derived sound synthesis model is presented that replicates the sounds generated as an object swings through the air. Equations obtained from fluid dynamics are used to determine the sounds generated while exposing practical parameters for a user or game engine to vary. Listening tests reveal that for the majority of objects modelled, participants rated the sounds from our model as plausible as actual recordings. The sword sound effect performed worse than others, and it is speculated that one cause may be linked to the difference between expectations of a sound and the actual sound for a given object.

  18. Early Prediction of Transient Voltage Sags caused by Rotor Swings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Van Cutsem, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates various methods to predict voltage sags at load buses caused by large generator rotor swings and following a transient disturbance. Three different prediction methods are proposed, which all use real-time measurements from PMUs. One of the methods uses a slightly extended v...... version of the E-SIME method. The other two methods use Measurements and process them by recursive least square estimation. It is shown that the prediction method employing E-SIME allows the earliest detection of a critical voltage sag with satisfactory accuracy....

  19. Imperfect Knowledge, Asset Price Swings, and Structural Slumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    emphasizes real interest rates and real exchange rates as potentially important determinants underlying the persistent fluctuations in aggregate activities, and the latter provides the conditions under which speculative behavior in currency markets generates such persistence. The paper argues that by combing...... the two theories we can shed new light on the two-way interdependence between persistent swings in asset markets and persistent fluctuations in the real economy. In particular, we may improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind the long recurrent spells of high unemployment that continue to mar our...

  20. Impulsive ankle push-off powers leg swing in human walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, Susanne W; Günther, Michael; Renjewski, Daniel; Seyfarth, Andre

    2014-04-15

    Rapid unloading and a peak in power output of the ankle joint have been widely observed during push-off in human walking. Model-based studies hypothesize that this push-off causes redirection of the body center of mass just before touch-down of the leading leg. Other research suggests that work done by the ankle extensors provides kinetic energy for the initiation of swing. Also, muscle work is suggested to power a catapult-like action in late stance of human walking. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the biomechanical process leading to this widely observed high power output of the ankle extensors. In our study, we use kinematic and dynamic data of human walking collected at speeds between 0.5 and 2.5 m s(-1) for a comprehensive analysis of push-off mechanics. We identify two distinct phases, which divide the push-off: first, starting with positive ankle power output, an alleviation phase, where the trailing leg is alleviated from supporting the body mass, and second, a launching phase, where stored energy in the ankle joint is released. Our results show a release of just a small part of the energy stored in the ankle joint during the alleviation phase. A larger impulse for the trailing leg than for the remaining body is observed during the launching phase. Here, the buckling knee joint inhibits transfer of power from the ankle to the remaining body. It appears that swing initiation profits from an impulsive ankle push-off resulting from a catapult without escapement.

  1. Dynamics of vapor plume in transient keyhole during laser welding of stainless steel: Local evaporation, plume swing and gas entrapment into porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shengyong; Chen, Xin; Shao, Xinyu; Gong, Shuili; Xiao, Jianzhong

    2016-07-01

    In order to better understand the local evaporation phenomena of keyhole wall, vapor plume swing above the keyhole and ambient gas entrapment into the porosity defects, the 3D time-dependent dynamics of the metallic vapor plume in a transient keyhole during fiber laser welding is numerically investigated. The vapor dynamical parameters, including the velocity and pressure, are successfully predicted and obtain good agreements with the experimental and literature data. It is found that the vapor plume flow inside the keyhole has complex multiple directions, and this various directions characteristic of the vapor plume is resulted from the dynamic evaporation phenomena with variable locations and orientations on the keyhole wall. The results also demonstrate that because of this dynamic local evaporation, the ejected vapor plume from the keyhole opening is usually in high frequency swinging. The results further indicate that the oscillation frequency of the plume swing angle is around 2.0-8.0 kHz, which is of the same order of magnitude with that of the keyhole depth (2.0-5.0 kHz). This consistency clearly shows that the swing of the ejected vapor plume is closely associated with the keyhole instability during laser welding. Furthermore, it is learned that there is usually a negative pressure region (several hundred Pa lower than the atmospheric pressure) of the vapor flow around the keyhole opening. This pressure could lead to a strong vortex flow near the rear keyhole wall, especially when the velocity of the ejected metallic vapor from the keyhole opening is high. Under the effect of this flow, the ambient gas is involved into the keyhole, and could finally be entrapped into the bubbles within a very short time (keyhole.

  2. Rapid, dynamic segregation of core forming melts: Results from in-situ High Pressure- High Temperature X-ray Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, H. C.; Yu, T.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The timing and mechanisms of core formation in the Earth, as well as in Earth-forming planetesimals is a problem of significant importance in our understanding of the early evolution of terrestrial planets . W-Hf isotopic signatures in meteorites indicate that core formation in small pre-differentiated planetesimals was relatively rapid, and occurred over the span of a few million years. This time scale is difficult to achieve by percolative flow of the metallic phase through a silicate matrix in textural equilibrium. It has been suggested that during this active time in the early solar system, dynamic processes such as impacts may have caused significant deformation in the differentiating planetesimals, which could lead to much higher permeability of the core forming melts. Here, we have measured the change in permeability of core forming melts in a silicate matrix due to deformation. Mixtures of San Carlos olivine and FeS close to the equilibrium percolation threshold (~5 vol%FeS) were pre-synthesized to achieve an equilibrium microstructure, and then loaded into the rotational Drickamer apparatus at GSE-CARS, sector 13-BMD, at the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory). The samples were subsequently pressed to ~2GPa, and heated to 1100°C. Alternating cycles of rotation to collect X-ray tomography images, and twisting to deform the sample were conducted until the sample had been twisted by 1080°. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed on the resulting 3-dimensional x-ray tomographic images to evaluate the effect of shear deformation on permeability and migration velocity. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations were conducted, and show a marked increase in the permeability with increasing deformation, which would allow for much more rapid core formation in planetesimals.

  3. Rapid fabrication of pressure-driven open-channel microfluidic devices in omniphobic R(F) paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavan, Ana C; Martinez, Ramses V; Maxwell, E Jane; Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Nunes, Rui M D; Soh, Siowling; Whitesides, George M

    2013-08-07

    This paper describes the fabrication of pressure-driven, open-channel microfluidic systems with lateral dimensions of 45-300 microns carved in omniphobic paper using a craft-cutting tool. Vapor phase silanization with a fluorinated alkyltrichlorosilane renders paper omniphobic, but preserves its high gas permeability and mechanical properties. When sealed with tape, the carved channels form conduits capable of guiding liquid transport in the low-Reynolds number regime (i.e. laminar flow). These devices are compatible with complex fluids such as droplets of water in oil. The combination of omniphobic paper and a craft cutter enables the development of new types of valves and switches, such as "fold valves" and "porous switches," which provide new methods to control fluid flow.

  4. Multicomponent mixed dopant optimization for rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sioud, Salim

    2012-05-04

    RATIONALE To enhance the ionization efficiencies in atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry a dopant with favorable ionization energy such as chlorobenzene is typically used. These dopants are typically toxic and difficult to mix with water-soluble organic solvents. In order to achieve a more efficient and less toxic dopant, a multicomponent mixed dopant was explored. METHODS A multicomponent mixed dopant for non-targeted rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was developed and optimized using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry. Various single and multicomponent mixed dopants consisting of ethanol, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, anisole and toluene were evaluated. RESULTS Fourteen out of eighteen PAHs were successfully separated and detected at low pg/μL levels within 5 min with high mass accuracy ≤4 ppm. The optimal mixed multicomponent dopant consisted of ethanol/chlorobenzene/bromobenzene/anisole (98.975:0.1:0.9:0.025, v/v %) and it improved the limit of detection (LOD) by 2- to 10-fold for the tested PAHs compared to those obtained with pure chlorobenzene. CONCLUSIONS A novel multicomponent dopant that contains 99% ethanol and 1% mixture of chlorobenzene, bromobenzene and anisole was found to be an effective dopant mixture to ionize PAHs. The developed UPLC multicomponent dopant assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry offered a rapid non targeted screening method for detecting the PAHs at low pg/;μL levels within a 5 min run time with high mass accuracy a;circ4 ppm. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Energy harvesting from human motion: exploiting swing and shock excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylli, K; Hoffmann, D; Willmann, A; Becker, P; Folkmer, B; Manoli, Y

    2015-01-01

    Modern compact and low power sensors and systems are leading towards increasingly integrated wearable systems. One key bottleneck of this technology is the power supply. The use of energy harvesting techniques offers a way of supplying sensor systems without the need for batteries and maintenance. In this work we present the development and characterization of two inductive energy harvesters which exploit different characteristics of the human gait. A multi-coil topology harvester is presented which uses the swing motion of the foot. The second device is a shock-type harvester which is excited into resonance upon heel strike. Both devices were modeled and designed with the key constraint of device height in mind, in order to facilitate the integration into the shoe sole. The devices were characterized under different motion speeds and with two test subjects on a treadmill. An average power output of up to 0.84 mW is achieved with the swing harvester. With a total device volume including the housing of 21 cm 3 a power density of 40 μW cm −3 results. The shock harvester generates an average power output of up to 4.13 mW. The power density amounts to 86 μW cm −3 for the total device volume of 48 cm 3 . Difficulties and potential improvements are discussed briefly. (paper)

  6. West Coast Swing Dancing as a Driven Harmonic Oscillator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Davon; Holzer, Marie; Kyere, Shirley

    The study of physics in sports not only provides valuable insight for improved athletic performance and injury prevention, but offers undergraduate students an opportunity to engage in both short- and long-term research efforts. In this project, conducted by two non-physics majors, we hypothesized that a driven harmonic oscillator model can be used to better understand the interaction between two west coast swing dancers since the stiffness of the physical connection between dance partners is a known factor in the dynamics of the dance. The hypothesis was tested by video analysis of two dancers performing a west coast swing basic, the sugar push, while changing the stiffness of the physical connection. The difference in stiffness of the connection from the ideal was estimated by the leader; the position with time data from the video was used to measure changes in the amplitude and phase difference between the leader and follower. While several aspects of our results agree with the proposed model, some key characteristics do not, possibly due to the follower relying on visual leads. Corresponding author and principal investigator.

  7. Cyclical swings: The bête noire of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Hannah S

    2016-02-01

    Progress in psychiatry in the West has been retarded by the proclivity of the discipline to swing violently between 2 approaches to viewing mental illness; that is, emphasizing-to the exclusion of the other-the material-somatic vs the psychical-experiential avenues to knowledge. Each time a shift occurs, the leaders of the new dominant approach emotionally denounce the principles and ideas that came before. We can examine this phenomenon historically by looking at Romantic psychiatry, mid-/late-19th century empirical psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and modern biological psychiatry. Looking at the 2 approaches in treatment today, the gold standard of patient care involves combining empirical/psychological care in 1 person (the psychiatrist) or shared between 2 clinicians working intimately with each other (psychiatrist with psychologist or social worker.) Yet as regards psychiatrists, they are discouraged from paying full attention to the psychological side by the way managed care and third-party payment have combined to remunerate them. Finally, how do we account for the intense swings and denunciations in psychiatry? The author speculates on possible explanations but leaves the question open for her readers. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Extension - Upgrading Methane Using Ultra-Fast Thermal Swing Adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anna Lee Tonkovich

    2008-08-11

    The need for cost effective technologies for upgrading coal mine methane to pipeline quality natural gas is becoming ever greater. The current work presents and investigates a new approach to reduce the impact of the most costly step in the conventional technology, nitrogen rejection. The proposed approach is based on the Velocys microchannel platform, which is being developed to commercialize compact and cost efficient chemical processing technology. For this separation, ultra fast thermal swing sorption is enabled by the very high rates of heat and mass transfer inherent in microchannel processing. In a first phase of the project solid adsorbents were explored. Feasibility of ultrafast thermal swing was demonstrated but the available adsorbents had insufficient differential methane capacity to achieve the required commercial economics. In a second phase, ionic liquids were adopted as absorbents of choice, and experimental work and economic analyses, performed to gauge their potential, showed promise for this novel alternative. Final conclusions suggest that a combination of a required cost target for ionic liquids or a methane capacity increase or a combination of both is required for commercialization.

  9. Motor abundance and control structure in the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, A; McGrath, D; Wallace, E S

    2016-04-01

    Variability and control structure are under-represented areas of golf swing research. This study investigated the use of the abundant degrees of freedom in the golf swing of high and intermediate skilled golfers using uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis. The variance parallel to (VUCM) and orthogonal to (VOrth) the UCM with respect to the orientation and location of the clubhead were calculated. The higher skilled golfers had proportionally higher values of VUCM than lower skilled players for all measured outcome variables. Motor synergy was found in the control of the orientation of the clubhead and the combined outcome variables but not for clubhead location. Clubhead location variance zeroed-in on impact as has been previously shown, whereas clubhead orientation variance increased near impact. Both skill levels increased their control over the clubhead location leading up to impact, with more control exerted over the clubhead orientation in the early downswing. The results suggest that to achieve higher skill levels in golf may not lie simply in optimal technique, but may lie more in developing control over the abundant degrees of freedom in the body. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Electromyography variables during the golf swing: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta, Sérgio; Silva, Luís; Castro, Maria António; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro; Cabri, Jan

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to review systematically the literature available on electromyographic (EMG) variables of the golf swing. From the 19 studies found, a high variety of EMG methodologies were reported. With respect to EMG intensity, the right erector spinae seems to be highly activated, especially during the acceleration phase, whereas the oblique abdominal muscles showed moderate to low levels of activation. The pectoralis major, subscapularis and latissimus dorsi muscles of both sides showed their peak activity during the acceleration phase. High muscle activity was found in the forearm muscles, especially in the wrist flexor muscles demonstrating activity levels above the maximal voluntary contraction. In the lower limb higher muscle activity of the trail side was found. There is no consensus on the influence of the golf club used on the neuromuscular patterns described. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies on average golf players, since most studies were executed on professional or low handicap golfers. Further EMG studies are needed, especially on lower limb muscles, to describe golf swing muscle activation patterns and to evaluate timing parameters to characterize neuromuscular patterns responsible for an efficient movement with lowest risk for injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Three-Dimensional Kinematic and Kinetic Study of the College-Level Female Softball Swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovich, Monica; Nesbit, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies and discusses the three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the female softball swing as performed by fourteen female collegiate amateur subjects. The analyses were performed using a three-dimensional computer model. The model was driven kinematically from subject swings data that were recorded with a multi-camera motion analysis system. Each subject used two distinct bats with significantly different inertial properties. Model output included bat trajectories, subject/bat interaction forces and torques, work, and power. These data formed the basis for a detailed analysis and description of fundamental swing kinematic and kinetic quantities. The analyses revealed that the softball swing is a highly coordinated and individual three-dimensional motion and subject-to-subject variations were significant in all kinematic and kinetic quantities. In addition, the potential effects of bat properties on swing mechanics are discussed. The paths of the hands and the centre-of-curvature of the bat relative to the horizontal plane appear to be important trajectory characteristics of the swing. Descriptions of the swing mechanics and practical implications are offered based upon these findings. Key Points The female softball swing is a highly coordinated and individual three-dimensional motion and subject-to-subject variations were significant in all kinematic and kinetic quantities. The paths of the grip point, bat centre-of-curvature, CG, and COP are complex yet reveal consistent patterns among subjects indicating that these patterns are fundamental components of the swing. The most important mechanical quantity relative to generating bat speed is the total work applied to the bat from the batter. Computer modeling of the softball swing is a viable means for study of the fundamental mechanics of the swing motion, the interactions between the batter and the bat, and the energy transfers between the two. PMID:24570623

  12. Swing Once More: Relating Timing and Tempo in Expert Jazz Drumming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; de Haas, W.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304841250

    2008-01-01

    Swing refers to a characteristic long-short subdivision of the beat that is generally considered a crucial aspect that contributes to the quality of a jazz or pop performance. The current study measures this pattern (referred to as the ‘swing ratio’) at different tempi in jazz drumming. The

  13. Swing once more: Relating timing and tempo in expert jazz drumming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; de Haas, W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Swing refers to a characteristic long-short subdivision of the beat that is generally considered a crucial aspect that contributes to the quality of a jazz or pop performance. The current study measures this pattern (referred to as the 'swing ratio') at different tempi in jazz drumming. The

  14. How Do Batters Use Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Information about the Success of a Baseball Swing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Bat/ball contact produces visual (the ball leaving the bat), auditory (the "crack" of the bat), and tactile (bat vibration) feedback about the success of the swing. We used a batting simulation to investigate how college baseball players use visual, tactile, and auditory feedback. In Experiment 1, swing accuracy (i.e., the lateral separation…

  15. Cycle-to-cycle control of swing phase of paraplegic gait induced by surface electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, H.M.; Franken, H.M.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Baardman, G.; Redmeijer, R.A.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1995-01-01

    Parameterised swing phase of gait in paraplegics was obtained using surface electrical stimulation of the hip flexors, hamstrings and quadriceps; the hip flexors were stimulated to obtain a desired hip angle range, the hamstrings to provide foot clearance in the forward swing, and the quadriceps to

  16. Movement Variability in the Golf Swing: Theoretical, Methodological, and Practical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Movement variability in the golf swing has recently been identified as a priority for future research in golf science. Although this ubiquitous aspect of golf performance has featured in previous empirical investigations of the golf swing, it has tended to be subordinate and studied as an adjunct to other more conventional research questions.…

  17. Comparative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and micro pressure chemical vapor deposition of phosphorus silicate glass layers after rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshkov, G.; Krastev, V.; Gogova, D.; Talik, E.; Adamies, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the bonding state of Phosphorus Silicate Glass (PSG) layers obtained by two different technological approaches, i.e. in two types of reactors: Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and Micro Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPCVD) are investigated employing XPS and AES. The PSG layers are deposited at 380 0 C and 420 0 C in corresponding reactors. XPS and AES analyses show that Si2p peak recorded from PECVD layers are not as expected at their position characteristics of silicon dioxide but instead they are at the characteristic of elemental silicon. Plasma enhancement during deposition leads to less oxidized and more inhomogeneous layer. After rapid thermal annealing the Si2p peak is situated at position characteristic of silicon dioxide. (authors)

  18. Performance Characterization and Simulation of Amine-Based Vacuum Swing Sorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Watts, Carly; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig; Colunga, Aaron; Vogel, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) vapor concentrations in a space suit is critical to ensuring an astronauts safety, comfort, and capability to perform extra-vehicular activity (EVA) tasks. Historically, this has been accomplished using lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and metal oxide (MetOx) canisters. Lithium hydroxide is a consumable material that requires priming with water before it becomes effective at removing carbon dioxide. MetOx is regenerable through a power-intensive thermal cycle but is significantly heavier on a volume basis than LiOH. As an alternative, amine-based vacuum swing beds are under aggressive development for EVA applications. The vacuum swing units control atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and H2O through fully-regenerative process. The current concept, referred to as the rapid cycle amine (RCA), has resulted in numerous laboratory prototypes. Performance of these prototypes have been assessed experimentally and documented in previous reports. To support developmental e orts, a first principles model has also been established for the vacuum swing sorption technology. For the first time in several decades, a major re-design of Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the extra-vehicular mobility unit (EMU) is underway. NASA at Johnson Space Center built and tested an integrated PLSS test bed of all subsystems under a variety of simulated EVA conditions of which the RCA prototype played a significant role. The efforts documented herein summarize RCA test performance and simulation results for single and variable metabolic rate experiments in an integrated context. In addition, a variety of off-nominal tests were performed to assess the capability of the RCA to function under challenging circumstances. Tests included high water production experiments, degraded vacuum regeneration, and deliberate valve/power failure and recovery.

  19. A low-power multi port register file design using a low-swing strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hao; Liu Yan; Hua Siliang; Wang Donghui; Hou Chaohuan

    2012-01-01

    A low-power register file is designed by using a low-swing strategy and modified NAND address decoders. The proposed low-swing strategy is based on the feedback scheme and uses dynamic logic to reduce the active feedback power. This method contains two parts: WRITE and READ strategy. In the WRITE low-swing scheme, the modified memory cell is used to support low-swing WRITE. The modified NAND decoder not only dissipates less power, but also enables a great deal of area reduction. Compared with the conventional single-ended register file, the low-swing strategy saves 34.5% and 51.15% bit-line power in WRITE and READ separately. The post simulation results indicate a 39.4% power improvement when the twelve ports are all busy. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. Investigation of the Linker Swing Motion in the Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework ZIF-90

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Bin

    2018-03-13

    The linker swing motion in the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-90 is investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculation, molecular dynamics (MD) and grand-canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. The relation between the terminal aldehyde group rotation and the linker swing motion is revealed. The extremely high activation energy of the linker swing motion in ZIF-90 can be attributed to the asymmetric geometry and electron distribution of aldehyde groups. The change in the gate structure resulting from the linker rotation is used to understand the guest adsorption in ZIF-90. This study shows that it is possible to tune the linker swing motion and then the properties of ZIF-90 by manipulating the terminal group rotation. The results highlight the importance of considering the internal freedom effects to correctly describe the linker swing motion and the flexibility of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs).

  1. The dynamic behavior of pressure during purge process in the anode of a PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Jun; Pei, Pucheng; Wang, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2006-11-22

    A one-dimensional mathematic computational fluid dynamics model of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is presented in this paper to simulate the transient behavior of hydrogen pressure in the flow field during a typical dynamic process-the purge process. This model accounts for the mechanism of pressure wave transmission in the channels by employing the characteristic line method. A unique parameter-pressure swing, which represents the top value of pressure variation at certain point in the channel during the purge process, is brought up and studied as well as the pressure drop. The pressure distribution along the channel and the pressure drop during the purge process for different operating pressures, lengths of purge time, stoichiometric ratios and current densities are studied. The results indicate that the distributed pressure, pressure drop and pressure swing all increase with the increment of operating pressure. With a high operating pressure a second-falling stage can be seen in the pressure drop profile while with a relatively low operating pressure, a homogeneous distribution of pressure swing can be attained. A long purge time will provide enough time to show the whole part of the pressure drop curve, while only a part of the curve can be attained if a short purge time is adopted, but a relatively uniform distribution of pressure swing will show up at the moment. Compared with the condition of stoichiometric ratio 1, the pressure drop curve decreases more sharply after the top value and the pressure swing displays a more uniform distribution when the ratio is set beyond 1. Different current densities have no apparent influence on the pressure drop and the pressure swing during this transient process. All the distribution rules of related parameters deducted from this study will be helpful for optimizing the purging strategies on vehicles. (author)

  2. Analysis of Golf Swing Motion and Applied Loads on the Human Body Using Soft-Golf TM Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Ki Young; So, Ha Ju; Kim, Sung Hyeon; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Nam Gyun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinetic effect of Soft-golf TM instrument on the human body structure. To analyze the kinetic effect of Soft-golf TM instrument, Golf swing using Soft-golf TM instrument and regular golf instrument was captured. And then Upper limbs and lumbar joint torques was calculated via computer simulation. Five man participated this study. Subjects performed golf swing using a regular golf and Soft-golf TM instrument. Golf swing motion was captured using three position sensor, active infrared LED maker and force plate. Golf swing model was generated and simulated using ADAMS/LifeMOD program. As a results, joint torque during Soft-golf swing were lower than regular golf swing. Thus soft-golf swing have joint load lower than regular golf swing and contribute to reduce joint injury

  3. Low swing differential logic for mixed signal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, P.; Kraft, E.

    2004-01-01

    Low swing differential logic operated at a constant bias current is a promising approach to reduce the switching noise in sensitive mixed mode circuits. Most differential logic families do not allow a significant change in bias current between cells so that it is difficult to optimize the power consumption for a required speed. A nonlinear load circuit for differential current-steering logic consisting of a current source in parallel with a diode connected FET is therefore proposed. The logic levels can be easily adjusted with an external supply voltage so that the circuit design is significantly simplified. As an example application a counter for the use in pixel readout chips is presented. The layout area using radiation hard design rules is not significantly larger than CMOS. The logic can be operated at very low power

  4. Mechanical stability of a salt cavern submitted to rapid pressure variations: Application to the underground storage of natural gas, compressed air and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djizanne-Djakeun, Hippolyte

    2014-01-01

    Salt caverns used for the underground storage of large volumes of natural gas are in high demand given the ever-increasing energy needs. The storage of renewable energy is also envisaged in these salt caverns for example, storage of compressed air and hydrogen mass storage. In both cases, salt caverns are more solicited than before because they are subject to rapid injection and withdrawal rates. These new operating modes raise new mechanical problems, illustrated in particular by sloughing, and falling of overhanging blocks at cavern wall. Indeed, to the purely mechanical stress related to changes in gas pressure variations, repeated dozens of degrees Celsius of temperature variation are superimposed; causes in particular during withdrawal, additional tensile stresses whom may lead to fractures at cavern wall; whose evolution could be dangerous. The mechanical behavior of rock salt is known: it is elasto-viscoplastic, nonlinear and highly thermo sensitive. The existing rock salt constitutive laws and failures and damages criteria have been used to analyze the behavior of caverns under the effects of these new loading. The study deals with the thermo mechanics of rocks and helps to analyze the effects of these new operations modes on the structural stability of salt caverns. The approach was to firstly design and validate a thermodynamic model of the behavior of gas in the cavern. This model was used to analyze blowout in gas salt cavern. Then, with the thermo mechanical coupling, to analyze the effects of rapid withdrawal, rapid injection and daily cycles on the structural stability of caverns. At the experimental level, we sought the optimal conditions to the occurrence and the development of cracks on a pastille and a block of rock salt. The creep behavior of rock salt specimens in triaxial extension also was analyzed. (author)

  5. Performance of an electrothermal swing adsorption system with postdesorption liquefaction for organic gas capture and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallouk, Kaitlin E; Rood, Mark J

    2013-07-02

    The use of adsorption on activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) followed by electrothermal swing adsorption (ESA) and postdesorption pressure and temperature control allows organic gases with boiling points below 0 °C to be captured from air streams and recovered as liquids. This technology has the potential to be a more sustainable abatement technique when compared to thermal oxidation. In this paper, we determine the process performance and energy requirements of a gas recovery system (GRS) using ACFC-ESA for three adsorbates with relative pressures between 8.3 × 10(-5) and 3.4 × 10(-3) and boiling points as low as -26.3 °C. The GRS is able to capture > 99% of the organic gas from the feed air stream, which is comparable to destruction efficiencies for thermal oxidizers. The energy used per liquid mole recovered ranges from 920 to 52,000 kJ/mol and is a function of relative pressure of the adsorbate in the feed gas. Quantifying the performance of the bench-scale gas recovery system in terms of its ability to remove organic gases from the adsorption stream and the energy required to liquefy the recovered organic gases is a critical step in developing new technologies to allow manufacturing to occur in a more sustainable manner. To our knowledge, this is the first time an ACFC-ESA system has been used to capture, recover, and liquefy organic compounds with vapor pressures as low as 8.3 × 10(-5) and the first time such a system has been analyzed for process performance and energy consumption.

  6. Effects of special composite stretching on the swing of amateur golf players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joong-Chul; Lee, Sung-Wan; Yeo, Yun-Ghi; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The study investigated stretching for safer a golf swing compared to present stretching methods for proper swings in order to examine the effects of stretching exercises on golf swings. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 amateur golf club members who were divided into two groups: an experimental group which performed stretching, and a control group which did not. The subjects had no bone deformity, muscle weakness, muscle soreness, or neurological problems. [Methods] A swing analyzer and a ROM measuring instrument were used as the measuring tools. The swing analyzer was a GS400-golf hit ball analyzer (Korea) and the ROM measuring instrument was a goniometer (Korea). [Results] The experimental group showed a statistically significant improvement in driving distance. After the special stretching training for golf, a statistically significant difference in hit-ball direction deviation after swings were found between the groups. The experimental group showed statistically significant decreases in hit ball direction deviation. After the special stretching training for golf, statistically significant differences in hit-ball speed were found between the groups. The experimental group showed significant increases in hit-ball speed. [Conclusion] To examine the effects of a special stretching program for golf on golf swing-related factors, 20 male amateur golf club members performed a 12-week stretching training program. After the golf stretching training, statistically significant differences were found between the groups in hit-ball driving distance, direction deviation, deflection distance, and speed.

  7. A Three-Dimensional Kinematic and Kinetic Study of the College-Level Female Softball Swing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Milanovich, Steven M. Nesbit

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper quantifies and discusses the three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the female softball swing as performed by fourteen female collegiate amateur subjects. The analyses were performed using a three-dimensional computer model. The model was driven kinematically from subject swings data that were recorded with a multi-camera motion analysis system. Each subject used two distinct bats with significantly different inertial properties. Model output included bat trajectories, subject/bat interaction forces and torques, work, and power. These data formed the basis for a detailed analysis and description of fundamental swing kinematic and kinetic quantities. The analyses revealed that the softball swing is a highly coordinated and individual three-dimensional motion and subject-to-subject variations were significant in all kinematic and kinetic quantities. In addition, the potential effects of bat properties on swing mechanics are discussed. The paths of the hands and the centre-of-curvature of the bat relative to the horizontal plane appear to be important trajectory characteristics of the swing. Descriptions of the swing mechanics and practical implications are offered based upon these findings.

  8. Performance analysis of power swing blocking feature in ABB 670 series impedance relays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Łosiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents test results of a distance protection’s PSD power swing detection feature in ABB 670 series relays. A RED670 relay was tested, which is part of the hydroelectric set protection in Żarnowiec Pumped Storage Plant. The power swing blocking feature’s performance was analysed on the basis of the results of object tests made with an Omicron digital tester. Also presented are simulation results that illustrate the PSD feature’s response to power swings caused by a disturbance in the power system. It is also shown how a distance protection may react to the same fault, depending on its settings.

  9. Designing Playful Interactive Installations for Urban Environments - The SwingScape Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kortbek, Karen Johanne; Christensen, Claus Møller

    2012-01-01

    . The design issues include: creating playful and collective interaction, making a familiar swing interaction simulate the experience of a music mixing board, providing gentle integration of multimedia (light and sound) in the atmosphere of an urban space, and finally making installations robust and safe...... at an urban playground. The objectives of SwingScape are to encourage physical activity as well as creating a playful and social experience in an urban space. The interaction techniques include movement sensors built into swings, LED lights, and an ambient loudspeaker system covering approx. 180 square meters...

  10. A Novel Approach to Detect Faults Occurring During Power Swings by Abrupt Change of Impedance Trajectory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khodaparast, Jalal; Khederzadeh, M.; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of power swing blocking is to distinguish faults from power swings. However, faults occurred during a power swing should still be detected and cleared promptly. This paper proposes an index based on detecting abrupt jump of impedance trajectory by utilization of the predicting...... of Taylor expansion is used to decrease the corrugation effect of impedance estimation and increase the reliability of the proposed method. Furthermore, in order to increase the selectivity of the proposed method, the proposed index is armed with phase comparison logic to detect internal faults...

  11. Plasma exhaust purification by thermal swing adsorption: Experimental results and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricapito, I.; Malara, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    For several years at the Joint Research Centre-Ispra laboratories, cyclic adsorption processes have been developed for the purification of the plasma exhaust stream of a deuterium-tritium fusion reactor. A purification process consisting of two coupled thermal swing adsorption systems seemed to be the most convenient process. In this context, a screening study was carried out to select the most suitable adsorbent materials and appropriate working temperatures. This was mainly done by experimental measurements of adsorption isotherms of the single components of the plasma exhaust stream and by a careful evaluation of the multicomponent adsorption equilibria. Experiments on adsorption dynamics were carried out in a pilot plant to demonstrate the feasibility and to evaluate the performance of the process. The experimental apparatus was designed to treat gas mixture flow rates up to 20 to 30 standard temperature and pressure l/h. A mathematical model was developed and tested against the experimental results to describe the adsorption process and, in particular, to evaluate and to optimize the process cycle time. 27 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs

  12. Biomechanical study on axillary crutches during single-leg swing-through gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, J C; Toh, S L; Bose, K

    1986-08-01

    This paper describes a kinetic and kinematic study on axillary crutches during one-leg swing-through gait. The primary objective is to evaluate the interplay of forces at the crutch and body interfaces and to relate them in the understanding of problems associated with the use of axillary crutches. Ten normal adult male subjects with simulated left leg impairment participated in the study. For data acquisition, the VICON kinematic system, a Kistler force plate and an instrumented crutch (with force transducers at the two upper struts close to the axillary bar and one near the crutch tip) were used. Results showed that the peak ground reaction force on the weight-bearing leg during lower limb stance increased by 21.6 percent bodyweight. The peak reaction force transmitted to the arm during crutch stance was 44.4 percent bodyweight. These increased loadings could be detrimental to patients with unsound weight-bearing leg and upper extremities respectively. When the crutches were used incorrectly, 34 percent bodyweight was carried by the underarm. This could cause undue pressure over the neurovascular structures at the axillary region.

  13. Rapid, High-Throughput, and Direct Molecular Beacon Delivery to Human Cancer Cells Using a Nanowire-Incorporated and Pneumatic Pressure-Driven Microdevice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Jung; Choi, Jong Seob; Bae, Sunwoong; Kwon, Donguk; Park, Inkyu; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2015-12-01

    Tracking and monitoring the intracellular behavior of mRNA is of paramount importance for understanding real-time gene expression in cell biology. To detect specific mRNA sequences, molecular beacons (MBs) have been widely employed as sensing probes. Although numerous strategies for MB delivery into the target cells have been reported, many issues such as the cytotoxicity of the carriers, dependence on the random probability of MB transfer, and critical cellular damage still need to be overcome. Herein, we have developed a nanowire-incorporated and pneumatic pressure-driven microdevice for rapid, high-throughput, and direct MB delivery to human breast cancer MCF-7 cells to monitor survivin mRNA expression. The proposed microdevice is composed of three layers: a pump-associated glass manifold layer, a monolithic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane, and a ZnO nanowire-patterned microchannel layer. The MB is immobilized on the ZnO nanowires by disulfide bonding, and the glass manifold and PDMS membrane serve as a microvalve, so that the cellular attachment and detachment on the MB-coated nanowire array can be manipulated. The combination of the nanowire-mediated MB delivery and the microvalve function enable the transfer of MB into the cells in a controllable way with high cell viability and to detect survivin mRNA expression quantitatively after docetaxel treatment. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid determination of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cardboard and paper intended for food contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Sander, Maren; Purcaro, Giorgia; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2013-10-15

    Packaging can represent a primary source of food contamination with mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), especially when recycled cardboard or mineral oil based printing inks are used. A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method, followed by on-line LC-GC analysis, has been optimized for rapid mineral oil determination in cardboard and paper samples. The proposed method involves extraction with hexane (2 cycles) at 60°C for 5 min, and allows for the processing of up to 6 samples in parallel with minimal sample manipulation and solvent consumption. It gave good repeatability (coefficient of variation lower than 5%) and practically quantitative extraction yield (less than 2% of the total contamination found in a third separate cycle). The method was applied to different cardboards and paper materials intended for food contact. Results obtained were similar to those obtained by applying classical solvent extraction with hexane/ethanol 1:1 (v/v) as described by Lorenzini et al. [20]. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Methods of and system for swing damping movement of suspended objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.F.; Petterson, B.J.; Strip, D.R.

    1991-03-05

    A payload suspended from a gantry is swing damped in accordance with a control algorithm based on the periodic motion of the suspended mass or by servoing on the forces induced by the suspended mass. 13 figures.

  16. The effects of the arm swing on biomechanical and physiological aspects of roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan; de Koning, Jos J; Rognstad, Asgeir Bakken; Hoset, Martin; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2014-08-01

    This study analyzed the biomechanical and physiological effects of the arm swing in roller ski skating, and compared leg-skating (i.e. ski skating without poles) using a pronounced arm swing (SWING) with leg-skating using locked arms (LOCKED). Sixteen elite male cross-country skiers performed submaximal stages at 10, 15 and 20kmh(-1) on a 2% inclined treadmill in the two techniques. SWING demonstrated higher peak push-off forces and a higher force impulse at all speeds, but a longer cycle length only at the highest speed (all Pskating increases the ski forces and aerobic energy cost at low and moderate speeds, whereas the greater forces at high speed lead to a longer cycle length and smaller anaerobic contribution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption for CO2, Thermal and Humidity Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Metabolic heat regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) technology is proposed for a Portable Life Support System to remove and reject heat and carbon dioxide...

  18. Investigation of the Linker Swing Motion in the Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework ZIF-90

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Bin; Fu, Fang; Wang, Lian Li; Yang, Limin; Zhu, Yihan; Du, Huiling

    2018-01-01

    The linker swing motion in the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-90 is investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculation, molecular dynamics (MD) and grand-canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. The relation between the terminal

  19. The Motion Planning of Overhead Crane Based on Suppressing Payload Residual Swing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hua-sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the overhead crane system is subject to under actuation system due to that overhead crane and payload are connected by flexibility wire rope. The payload generates residual swing when the overhead crane is accelerating/ decelerating the motions. This may cause trouble for the payload precise positioning and motion planning. Hence, an optimization input shaping control method is presented to reduce the under actuated overhead crane’s payload swing caused via the inertia force. The dynamic model of the overhead crane is proposed according to the physics structure of the crane. The input shaper based on the motion planning of the crane is used as the feed forward input to suppress payload residual swing. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the ZV input shaper and ZVD input shaper can reduce the payload swing of the overhead crane.

  20. Hybrid markerless tracking of complex articulated motion in golf swings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Sim Kwoh; Sundaraj, Kenneth; Ahamed, Nizam Uddin; Kiang, Lam Chee; Nadarajah, Sivadev; Sahayadhas, Arun; Ali, Md Asraf; Islam, Md Anamul; Palaniappan, Rajkumar

    2014-04-01

    Sports video tracking is a research topic that has attained increasing attention due to its high commercial potential. A number of sports, including tennis, soccer, gymnastics, running, golf, badminton and cricket have been utilised to display the novel ideas in sports motion tracking. The main challenge associated with this research concerns the extraction of a highly complex articulated motion from a video scene. Our research focuses on the development of a markerless human motion tracking system that tracks the major body parts of an athlete straight from a sports broadcast video. We proposed a hybrid tracking method, which consists of a combination of three algorithms (pyramidal Lucas-Kanade optical flow (LK), normalised correlation-based template matching and background subtraction), to track the golfer's head, body, hands, shoulders, knees and feet during a full swing. We then match, track and map the results onto a 2D articulated human stick model to represent the pose of the golfer over time. Our work was tested using two video broadcasts of a golfer, and we obtained satisfactory results. The current outcomes of this research can play an important role in enhancing the performance of a golfer, provide vital information to sports medicine practitioners by providing technically sound guidance on movements and should assist to diminish the risk of golfing injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Kettlebell Swing vs. Explosive Deadlift Training on Strength and Power

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew R. Maulit; David C. Archer; Whitney D. Leyva; Cameron N. Munger; Megan A. Wong; Lee E. Brown; Jared W. Coburn; Andrew J. Galpin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recent research has compared explosive deadlift to kettlebell training observing their effects on strength. The kettlebell swing is a popular practical exercise as it shares share a hip hinge movement with the explosive deadlift, but the two have not been compared. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of kettlebell swing vs. explosive deadlift training on strength and power. Methods: Thirty-one recreationally resistance-trained men (age = 23.1 ± 2.3 yea...

  2. Effects of training with a dynamic moment of inertia bat on swing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiang; Liu, Ya-Chen; Kao, Ying-Chieh; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the 8-week dynamic moment of inertia (DMOI) bat training on swing velocity, batted-ball speed, hitting distance, muscle power, and grip force. The DMOI bat is characterized in that the bat could be swung more easily by reducing the moment of inertia at the initial stage of swing without decreasing the bat weight and has a faster swing velocity and lower muscle activity. Seventeen varsity baseball players were randomly assigned to the DMOI bat training group (n = 9) and the normal bat training group (n = 8). The training protocol was 7 swings each set, 5-8 sets each time, 3 times each week, and 8 weeks' training period. The results showed that the swing training with the DMOI bat for 8 weeks significantly increased swing velocity by about 6.20% (96.86 ± 8.48 vs. 102.82 ± 9.93 km·h(-1)), hitting distance by about 6.69% (80.06 ± 9.16 vs. 84.99 ± 7.26 m), muscle power of the right arm by about 12.04% (3.34 ± 0.41 vs. 3.74 ± 0.61 m), and muscle power of the left arm by about 8.23% (3.36 ± 0.46 vs. 3.61 ± 0.39 m) (p bat training group had a significantly better change percentage in swing velocity, hitting distance, and grip force of the left hand than did the normal bat training group (p bat has a positive benefit on swing performance and that the DMOI bat could be used as a new training tool in baseball.

  3. Electromyographic analyses of the erector spinae muscles during golf swings using four different clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbie, Graeme G; Grace, Fergal M; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien S; Ugbolue, Ukadike C

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyography (EMG) patterns of the thoracic and lumbar regions of the erector spinae (ES) muscle during the golf swing whilst using four different golf clubs. Fifteen right-handed male golfers performed a total of twenty swings in random order using the driver, 4-iron, 7-iron and pitching-wedge. Surface EMG was recorded from the lead and trail sides of the thoracic and lumbar regions of the ES muscle (T8, L1 and L5 lateral to the spinous-process). Three-dimensional high-speed video analysis was used to identify the backswing, forward swing, acceleration, early and late follow-through phases of the golf swing. No significant differences in muscle-activation levels from the lead and trail sides of the thoracic and lumbar regions of the ES muscle were displayed between the driver, 4-iron, 7-iron and pitching-wedge (P > 0.05). The highest mean thoracic and lumbar ES muscle-activation levels were displayed in the forward swing (67-99% MVC) and acceleration (83-106% MVC) phases of the swing for all clubs tested. The findings from this study show that there were no significant statistical differences between the driver, 4-iron, 7-iron and pitching-wedge when examining muscle activity from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the ES muscle.

  4. Spine biomechanics associated with the shortened, modern one-plane golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, R Barry; Brumitt, Jason

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare kinetic, kinematic, and performance variables associated with full and shortened modern backswings in a skilled group of modern swing (one-plane) golfers. Shortening the modern golf backswing is proposed to reduce vertebral spine stress, but supporting evidence is lacking and performance implications are unknown. Thirteen male golfers performed ten swings of each swing type using their own 7-iron club. Biomechanical-dependent variables included the X-Factor kinematic data and spine kinetics. Performance-related dependent variables included club head velocity (CHV), shot distance, and accuracy (distance from the target line). Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA with an a priori alpha of 0.05 (SPSS 22.0, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). We found significant reductions for the X-Factor (p < 0.05) between the full and shortened swings. The shortened swing condition ameliorated vertebral compression force from 7.6 ± 1.4 to 7.0 ± 1.7 N (normalised to body weight, p = 0.01) and significantly reduced CHV (p < 0.05) by ~2 m/s with concomitant shot distance diminution by ~10 m (p < 0.05). Further research is necessary to examine the applicability of a shortened swing for golfers with low back pain.

  5. Development and anti-swing control of an automated measurement robot system for multi-stud tensioning machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haoyuan; Li Meng; Duan Xingguang; Gao Liang; Cui Tengfei; Guo Yanjun

    2017-01-01

    During nuclear power plant maintenance, the multi-stud tensioning machine is used to perform opening/sealing the cap of the reactor pressure vessel. This process incorporates elongations of 58 studs, whose extension values are monitored in real time by measurement meters. Conventionally, the placements of the meters are performed by human labor, which is time consuming and radioactively hazardous. In this paper, we introduce an automated measurement robot system, consisting of 58 node robots and multiple field bus based distributed control devices, to complete meter placement and data acquisition tasks without human involvement in the hazardous working site. In order to eliminate the swing phenomenon of the wire-driven meter adaptor on the robot distal end, extra-insensitive input shaper is employed for robot motion control, thus saving the overall operation time from traditionally over 10 minutes to less than 22 s. (author)

  6. Rapid prototyping of solar-powered, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, sugar-cube size microplasma on hybrid, 3D chips for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples using a portable optical emission spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Karanassios, V.

    2012-06-01

    A solar-powered, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, self-igniting microplasma the size of a sugar-cube developed on a hybrid, 3d-chip is described. Rapid prototyping of the 3d-chip; some fundamental aspects and a brief characterization of its background spectral emission using a portable, fiber-optic spectrometer are discussed.

  7. Kettlebell swing training improves maximal and explosive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect that kettlebell swing (KB) training had on measures of maximum (half squat-HS-1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and explosive (vertical jump height-VJH) strength. To put these effects into context, they were compared with the effects of jump squat power training (JS-known to improve 1RM and VJH). Twenty-one healthy men (age = 18-27 years, body mass = 72.58 ± 12.87 kg) who could perform a proficient HS were tested for their HS 1RM and VJH pre- and post-training. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a KB or JS training group after HS 1RM testing and trained twice a week. The KB group performed 12-minute bouts of KB exercise (12 rounds of 30-second exercise, 30-second rest with 12 kg if 70 kg). The JS group performed at least 4 sets of 3 JS with the load that maximized peak power-Training volume was altered to accommodate different training loads and ranged from 4 sets of 3 with the heaviest load (60% 1RM) to 8 sets of 6 with the lightest load (0% 1RM). Maximum strength improved by 9.8% (HS 1RM: 165-181% body mass, p < 0.001) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the effect of KB and JS training (p = 0.56). Explosive strength improved by 19.8% (VJH: 20.6-24.3 cm) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that the type of training did not significantly affect this either (p = 0.38). The results of this study clearly demonstrate that 6 weeks of biweekly KB training provides a stimulus that is sufficient to increase both maximum and explosive strength offering a useful alternative to strength and conditioning professionals seeking variety for their athletes.

  8. Enhanced aridity and atmospheric high-pressure stability over the western Mediterranean during the North Atlantic cold events of the past 50 k.y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combourieu Nebout, N.; Turon, J. L.; Zahn, R.; Capotondi, L.; Londeix, L.; Pahnke, K.

    2002-10-01

    Multiproxy paleoenvironmental records (pollen and planktonic isotope) from Ocean Drilling Program Site 976 (Alboran Sea) document rapid ocean and climate variations during the last glacial that follow the Dansgaard-Oeschger climate oscillations seen in the Greenland ice core records, thus suggesting a close link of the Mediterranean climate swings with North Atlantic climates. Continental conditions rapidly oscillated through cold-arid and warm-wet conditions in the course of stadial-interstadial climate jumps. At the time of Heinrich events, i.e., maximum meltwater flux to the North Atlantic, western Mediterranean marine microflora and microfauna show rapid cooling correlated with increasing continental dryness. Enhanced aridity conceivably points to prolonged wintertime stability of atmospheric high-pressure systems over the southwestern Mediterranean in conjunction with cooling of the North Atlantic.

  9. Progressing MoodSwings. The upgrade and evaluation of MoodSwings 2.0: An online intervention for Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, S.; Cosgrove, V.E.; Gliddon, E.; Grimm, D.; Dodd, S.; Berk, L.; Castle, D.; Suppes, T.S.; Berk, M.

    2017-01-01

    MoodSwings 2.0 is a self-guided online intervention for bipolar disorder. The intervention incorporates technological improvements on an earlier validated version of the intervention (MoodSwings 1.0). The previous MoodSwings trial provides this study with a unique opportunity to progress previous work, whilst being able to take into consideration lesson learnt, and technological enhancements. The structure and technology of MoodSwings 2.0 are described and the relevance to other online health interventions is highlighted. An international team from Australia and the US updated and improved the programs content pursuant to changes in DSM-5, added multimedia components and included larger numbers of participants in the group discussion boards. Greater methodological rigour in this trial includes an attention control condition, quarterly telephone assessments, and red flag alerts for significant clinical change. This paper outlines these improvements, including additional security and safety measures. A 3 arm RCT is currently evaluating the enhanced program to assess the efficacy of MS 2.0; the primary outcome is change in depressive and manic symptoms. To our knowledge this is the first randomised controlled online bipolar study with a discussion board attention control and meets the key methodological criteria for online interventions PMID:28257919

  10. A Comparative Study of Two Different Uncinectomy Techniques: Swing-Door and Classical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit A Singhania

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine which technique of uncinectomy, classical or swing door technique.  Materials and Methods: Four hundred eighty Cases of sinusitis were selected and operated for Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS. Out of these, in 240 uncinectomies classical uncinectomy was done whereas in another 240 uncinectomies swing door technique was used. Initially patients were medically managed treated according to their symptoms and prior management. Patients who had received previous adequate medical management were evaluated with CT scan of the sinuses. If disease still persists than they were operated for FESS. Results: The authors' experience indicates that Functional endoscopic sinus surgery can be performed under local or general anesthesia, as permitted or tolerated. In this review classical technique was used in 240 uncinectomies. Out of this, ethmoidal complex injury was noted in 4 cases, missed maxillary ostium syndrome (incomplete removal was reported in 12 patients and orbital fat exposure was encountered in 5 patients. As compared to 240 uncinectomies done with swing door technique, incomplete removal was evident in 2 cases and lacrimal duct injury was reported in 3 cases. 'Evidence that underscores how this 'swing door technique' successfully combines 'the conservation goals of the anterior-to-posterior approach and anatomic virtues of the posterior-to-anterior approach to ethmoidectomy of the total 480 uncinectomies operated. Out of which 240 uncinectomies have been performed using the 'swing-door' technique. The 240 uncinectomies performed using classical technique were used as controls. The incidence of orbital penetration, incomplete removal, ethmoidal complex injury and ostium non-identification was significantly less with the new technique. Three lacrimal injuries occurred with the 'swing-door' technique compared to no injuries with classical technique. Conclusion: The authors recommend

  11. Ground reaction forces produced by two different hockey skating arm swing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward-Ellis, Julie; Alexander, Marion J L; Glazebrook, Cheryl M; Leiter, Jeff

    2017-10-01

    The arm swing in hockey skating can have a positive effect on the forces produced by each skate, and the resulting velocity from each push off. The main purpose of this study was to measure the differences in ground reaction forces (GRFs) produced from an anteroposterior versus a mediolateral style hockey skating arm swing. Twenty-four elite-level female hockey players performed each technique while standing on a ground-mounted force platform, and all trials were filmed using two video cameras. Force data was assessed for peak scaled GRFs in the frontal and sagittal planes, and resultant GRF magnitude and direction. Upper limb kinematics were assessed from the video using Dartfish video analysis software, confirming that the subjects successfully performed two distinct arm swing techniques. The mediolateral arm swing used a mean of 18.38° of glenohumeral flexion/extension and 183.68° of glenohumeral abduction/adduction while the anteroposterior technique used 214.17° and 28.97° respectively. The results of this study confirmed that the mediolateral arm swing produced 37% greater frontal plane and 33% less sagittal plane GRFs than the anteroposterior arm swing. The magnitudes of the resultant GRFs were not significantly different between the two techniques; however, the mediolateral technique produced a resultant GRF with a significantly larger angle from the direction of travel (44.44°) as compared to the anteroposterior technique (31.60°). The results of this study suggest that the direction of GRFs produced by the mediolateral arm swing more closely mimic the direction of lower limb propulsion during the skating stride.

  12. Mechanical loading of the gymnast’s motor system during swings on rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Serafin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify the mechanical loading of the gymnast’s motor system during forward and backward swings on gymnastic rings. A junior gymnast of the First Class, aged 14, with body mass 53.1 kg and body length 1.61 m, participated in the study. He executed a series of ten cyclic swing movements on rings with his maximum amplitude. Kinematic variables of the gymnast’s centre of mass (COM as well as reaction forces in the cables were measured and synchronized using the SIMI MOTION movement analysis system. Two separate phases of mechanical loading of the motor system have been identified: resistance phase and non resistance phase. In the non resistance phase the gymnast attains similar values of the COM’s momentum but different angular displacements. In the resistance phase the forces acting on the motor system have their maximum. They amount to 5.5 BW for the forward swing and 6.5 BW for the backward swing movement. The maximum rate of change of the force for forward and backward swing is 42.6 BWs-1 and 67.4 BWs-1, respectively. These two variables differentiate the mechanical loading of the gymnast’s motor system between forward and backward swings. The reaction force produced by the gymnast is significantly greater during the execution of forward swings. It seems probable that horizontal displacements of COM may be the factor responsible for reduction of the mechanical loading experienced by the gymnast.

  13. A comparative study of two different uncinectomy techniques: swing-door and classical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, Ankit A; Bansal, Chetan; Chauhan, Nirali; Soni, Saurav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which technique of uncinectomy, classical or swing door technique. Four hundred eighty Cases of sinusitis were selected and operated for Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS). Out of these, in 240 uncinectomies classical uncinectomy was done whereas in another 240 uncinectomies swing door technique was used. Initially patients were medically managed treated according to their symptoms and prior management. Patients who had received previous adequate medical management were evaluated with CT scan of the sinuses. If disease still persists than they were operated for FESS. The authors' experience indicates that Functional endoscopic sinus surgery can be performed under local or general anesthesia, as permitted or tolerated. In this review classical technique was used in 240 uncinectomies. Out of this, ethmoidal complex injury was noted in 4 cases, missed maxillary ostium syndrome (incomplete removal) was reported in 12 patients and orbital fat exposure was encountered in 5 patients. As compared to 240 uncinectomies done with swing door technique, incomplete removal was evident in 2 cases and lacrimal duct injury was reported in 3 cases. 'Evidence that underscores how this 'swing door technique' successfully combines 'the conservation goals of the anterior-to-posterior approach and anatomic virtues of the posterior-to-anterior approach to ethmoidectomy of the total 480 uncinectomies operated. Out of which 240 uncinectomies have been performed using the 'swing-door' technique. The 240 uncinectomies performed using classical technique were used as controls. The incidence of orbital penetration, incomplete removal, ethmoidal complex injury and ostium non-identification was significantly less with the new technique. Three lacrimal injuries occurred with the 'swing-door' technique compared to no injuries with classical technique. The authors recommend swing door technique as it is easy to learn, allows complete removal of the

  14. An optical method for measuring exhaust gas pressure from an internal combustion engine at high speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Felix C P; Davy, Martin H; Siskin, Dmitrij; Pechstedt, Ralf; Richardson, David

    2017-12-01

    Measurement of exhaust gas pressure at high speed in an engine is important for engine efficiency, computational fluid dynamics analysis, and turbocharger matching. Currently used piezoresistive sensors are bulky, require cooling, and have limited lifetimes. A new sensor system uses an interferometric technique to measure pressure by measuring the size of an optical cavity, which varies with pressure due to movement of a diaphragm. This pressure measurement system has been used in gas turbine engines where the temperatures and pressures have no significant transients but has never been applied to an internal combustion engine before, an environment where both temperature and pressure can change rapidly. This sensor has been compared with a piezoresistive sensor representing the current state-of-the-art at three engine operating points corresponding to both light load and full load. The results show that the new sensor can match the measurements from the piezoresistive sensor except when there are fast temperature swings, so the latter part of the pressure during exhaust blowdown is only tracked with an offset. A modified sensor designed to compensate for these temperature effects is also tested. The new sensor has shown significant potential as a compact, durable sensor, which does not require external cooling.

  15. An optical method for measuring exhaust gas pressure from an internal combustion engine at high speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Felix C. P.; Davy, Martin H.; Siskin, Dmitrij; Pechstedt, Ralf; Richardson, David

    2017-12-01

    Measurement of exhaust gas pressure at high speed in an engine is important for engine efficiency, computational fluid dynamics analysis, and turbocharger matching. Currently used piezoresistive sensors are bulky, require cooling, and have limited lifetimes. A new sensor system uses an interferometric technique to measure pressure by measuring the size of an optical cavity, which varies with pressure due to movement of a diaphragm. This pressure measurement system has been used in gas turbine engines where the temperatures and pressures have no significant transients but has never been applied to an internal combustion engine before, an environment where both temperature and pressure can change rapidly. This sensor has been compared with a piezoresistive sensor representing the current state-of-the-art at three engine operating points corresponding to both light load and full load. The results show that the new sensor can match the measurements from the piezoresistive sensor except when there are fast temperature swings, so the latter part of the pressure during exhaust blowdown is only tracked with an offset. A modified sensor designed to compensate for these temperature effects is also tested. The new sensor has shown significant potential as a compact, durable sensor, which does not require external cooling.

  16. Engineering design solutions of flux swing with structural requirements for ohmic heating solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Here a more detailed publication is summarized which presents analytical methods with solutions that describe the structural behavior of ohmic heating solenoids to achieve a better understanding of the relationships between the functional variables that can provide the basis for recommended design improvements. The solutions relate the requirements imposed by structural integrity to the need for producing sufficient flux swing to initiate a plasma current in the tokamak fusion machine. A method is provided to perform a detailed structural analysis of every conducting turn in the radial build of the solenoid, and computer programmed listings for the closed form solutions are made available as part of the reference document. Distinction is made in deriving separate models for the regions of the solenoid where turn-to-turn radial contact is maintained with radial compression or with a bond in the presence of radial tension, and also where there is turn-to-turn radial separation due to the absence or the loss of bonding in the presence of would be radial tension. The derivations follow the theory of elasticity for a body possessing cylindrical anisotropy where the material properties are different in the radial and tangential directions. The formulations are made practical by presenting the methods for reducing stress and for relocating the relative position for potential turn-to-turn radial delamination by permitting an arbitrary traction at the outer radial surface of the solenoid in the form of pressure or displacement such as may be applied by a containment or a shrink fit structural cylinder

  17. Simulation and Optimization of Vacuum Swing Adsorption Units for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity levels in a spacesuit is critical to ensuring both the safety and comfort of an astronaut during extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Traditionally, this has been accomplished utilizing either non-regenerative lithium hydroxide (LiOH) or regenerative but heavy metal oxide (MetOx) canisters which pose a significant weight burden. Although such technology enables air revitalization, the volume requirements to store the waste canisters as well as the mass to transport multiple units become prohibitive as mission durations increase. Consequently, motivation exists toward developing a fully regenerative technology for spacesuit environmental control. The application of solid amine materials with vacuum swing adsorption technology has shown the capacity to control CO2 while concomitantly managing humidity levels through a fully regenerative cycle eliminating constraints imposed with the traditional technologies. Prototype air revitalization units employing this technology have been fabricated in both a rectangular and cylindrical geometry. Experimental results for these test articles have been collected and are described herein. In order to accelerate the developmental efforts, an axially-dispersed plug flow model with an accompanying energy balance has been established and correlated with the experimental data. The experimental and simulation results display good agreement for a variety of flow rates (110-170 ALM), replicated metabolic challenges (100-590 Watts), and atmosphere pressures under consideration for the spacesuit (248 and 760 mm Hg). The testing and model results lend insight into the operational capabilities of these devices as well as the influence the geometry of the device has on performance. In addition, variable metabolic profiles were imposed on the test articles in order to assess the ability of the technology to transition to new metabolic conditions. The advent of the model provides the capacity to apply

  18. Design and Trajectory Analysis of Incompletely Restrained Cable-Suspension Swing System Driven by Two Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naige Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to simulate the swing conditions of a suspended platform of a construction shaft, marine ships, cars, etc., an incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables (IRCSWs2 was designed and parameter trajectories of displacements, angles and tensions were systematically investigated. Firstly, the motion mechanism of the IRCSWs2 is described and the corresponding kinematic model is established. For further evaluating the analytical expressions, the ADAMS simulation model and the physical prototype experimental model were developed. The basic consistency and slight difference among the three models are illustrated by a comparison of different parameters. The approximately linear relationship between the driving displacements of two cables and the swing angles of the platform was obtained. Finally, the effects of various parameters on displacements, angles and tensions were analysed, and the results indicate that the translation of a suspended platform is slight during its swing and that the novel IRCSWs2 can be used to drive heavy loads using a relatively small driving force, which is useful for simulating swing environmental conditions long-term, in addition to being cost-effective.

  19. Nonlinear dynamic response of cable-suspended systems under swinging and heaving motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Guohua; Wang, Naige; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Zhencai

    2017-01-01

    In order to enhance the fidelity, convenient and flexibility of swinging motion, the structure of incompletely restrained cablesuspended system controlled by two drums was proposed, and the dynamic response of the system under swinging and heaving motion were investigated in this paper. The cables are spatially discretized using the assumed modes method and the system equations of motion are derived by Lagrange equations of the first kind. Based on geometric boundary conditions and linear complementary theory, the differential algebraic equations are transformed to a set of classical difference equations. Nonlinear dynamic behavior occurs under certain range of rotational velocity and frequency. The results show that asynchronous motion of suspension platform is easily caused imbalance for cable tension. Dynamic response of different swing frequencies were obtained via power frequency analysis, which could be used in the selection of the working frequency of the swing motion. The work will contribute to a better understanding of the swing frequency, cable tension and posture with dynamic characteristics of unilateral geometric and kinematic constraints in this system, and it is also useful to investigate the accuracy and reliability of instruments in future.

  20. Effects of constrained arm swing on vertical center of mass displacement during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyung Suk; Atkins, Lee T; Jensen, Daniel B; James, C Roger

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of constraining arm swing on the vertical displacement of the body's center of mass (COM) during treadmill walking and examine several common gait variables that may account for or mask differences in the body's COM motion with and without arm swing. Participants included 20 healthy individuals (10 male, 10 female; age: 27.8 ± 6.8 years). The body's COM displacement, first and second peak vertical ground reaction forces (VGRFs), and lowest VGRF during mid-stance, peak summed bilateral VGRF, lower extremity sagittal joint angles, stride length, and foot contact time were measured with and without arm swing during walking at 1.34 m/s. The body's COM displacement was greater with the arms constrained (arm swing: 4.1 ± 1.2 cm, arm constrained: 4.9 ± 1.2 cm, p reaction force data indicated that the COM displacement increased in both double limb and single limb stance. However, kinematic patterns visually appeared similar between conditions. Shortened stride length and foot contact time also were observed, although these do not seem to account for the increased COM displacement. However, a change in arm COM acceleration might have contributed to the difference. These findings indicate that a change in arm swing causes differences in vertical COM displacement, which could increase energy expenditure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationships between clubshaft motions and clubface orientation during the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Tokio; Yokozawa, Toshiharu; Inaba, Yuki; Matsuda, Yuji; Shiraki, Hitoshi

    2017-09-01

    Since clubface orientation at impact affects ball direction and ball spin, the ability to control clubface orientation is one of the most important skills for golfers. This study presents a new method to describe clubface orientation as a function of the clubshaft motions (i.e., swing plane orientation, clubshaft angle in the swing plane, and clubshaft rolling angle) during a golf swing and investigates the relationships between the clubshaft motions and clubface orientation at impact. The club motion data of driver shots were collected from eight skilled golfers using a three-dimensional motion capture system. The degrees of influence of the clubshaft motions on the clubface orientation were investigated using sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the swing plane horizontal angle affected the clubface horizontal angle to an extent of 100%, that the clubshaft angle in the swing plane affected both the clubface vertical and horizontal angles to extents of 74 and 68%, respectively, and that the clubshaft rolling angle affected both the clubface vertical and horizontal angles to extents of -67 and 75%, respectively. Since the method presented here relates clubface orientation to clubshaft motions, it is useful for understanding the clubface control of a golfer.

  2. Synchronized metronome training induces changes in the kinematic properties of the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Marius; Häger, Charlotte; Rönnqvist, Louise

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible effects of synchronized metronome training (SMT) on movement dynamics during golf-swing performance, as captured by kinematic analysis. A one-group, between-test design was applied on 13 male golfers (27.5 +/- 4.6 years old, 12.7 +/- 4.9 handicap) who completed 12 sessions of SMT over a four-week period. Pre- and post-assessments of golf swings with three different clubs (4-iron, 7-iron, and pitching wedge) were performed using a three-dimensional motion capture system. Club velocity at three different swing phases (backswing, downswing, and follow-through) was measured and cross-correlation analysis of time-series signals were made on joint couplings (wrist-elbow-shoulder) of both arms, and between joints and the club, during the full golf swing. There were significantly higher cross-correlations between joint-couplings and concomitant changes of the associated phase-shift differences, as well as reduced phase-shift variability at post-test. No significant effect of SMT was found for the club velocities. We suggest that domain-general influences of SMT on the underlying brain-based motor control strategies lead to a more coordinated movement pattern of the golf-swing performance, which may explain previous observations of significantly improved golf-shot accuracy and decreased variability after SMT.

  3. Increasing cognitive load attenuates right arm swing in healthy human walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Tim; Easthope, Christopher S.; Filli, Linard; Lőrincz, Lilla; Schrafl-Altermatt, Miriam; Brugger, Peter; Linnebank, Michael; Curt, Armin; Zörner, Björn; Bolliger, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Human arm swing looks and feels highly automated, yet it is increasingly apparent that higher centres, including the cortex, are involved in many aspects of locomotor control. The addition of a cognitive task increases arm swing asymmetry during walking, but the characteristics and mechanism of this asymmetry are unclear. We hypothesized that this effect is lateralized and a Stroop word-colour naming task-primarily involving left hemisphere structures-would reduce right arm swing only. We recorded gait in 83 healthy subjects aged 18-80 walking normally on a treadmill and while performing a congruent and incongruent Stroop task. The primary measure of arm swing asymmetry-an index based on both three-dimensional wrist trajectories in which positive values indicate proportionally smaller movements on the right-increased significantly under dual-task conditions in those aged 40-59 and further still in the over-60s, driven by reduced right arm flexion. Right arm swing attenuation appears to be the norm in humans performing a locomotor-cognitive dual-task, confirming a prominent role of the brain in locomotor behaviour. Women under 60 are surprisingly resistant to this effect, revealing unexpected gender differences atop the hierarchical chain of locomotor control.

  4. Skull base tumors: a comprehensive review of transfacial swing osteotomy approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Gonzalez, Andrea; Pieper, Daniel R; Cambra, Jorge Balaguer; Simman, Richard; Jackson, Ian T

    2005-03-01

    Numerous techniques have been proposed for the resection of skull base tumors, each one unique with regard to the region exposed and degree of technical complexity. This study describes the use of transfacial swing osteotomies in accessing lesions located at various levels of the cranial base. Eight patients who underwent transfacial swings for exposure and resection of cranial base lesions between 1996 and 2002 were studied. The mandible was the choice when wide exposure of nasopharyngeal and midline skull base tumors was necessary, especially when they involved the infratemporal fossa. The midfacial swing osteotomy was an option when access to the entire clivus was necessary. An orbital swing approach was used to access large orbital tumors lying inferior to the optic nerve and posterior to the globe, a region that is often difficult to visualize. Gross total tumor excision was possible in all patients. Six patients achieved disease control and two had recurrences. The complications of cerebrospinal fluid leak, infection, hematoma, or cranial nerve damage did not occur. After surgery, some patients experienced temporary symptoms caused by local swelling. The aesthetic result was considered good. Transfacial swing osteotomies provide a wide exposure to tumors that occur in the central skull base area. Excellent knowledge of the detailed anatomy of this region is paramount to the success of this surgery. The team concept is essential; it is built around the craniofacial surgeon and an experienced skull base neurosurgeon.

  5. [Recognition of walking stance phase and swing phase based on moving window].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaobo; Yang, Peng; Wang, Xinran; Geng, Yanli; Han, Yu

    2014-04-01

    Wearing transfemoral prosthesis is the only way to complete daily physical activity for amputees. Motion pattern recognition is important for the control of prosthesis, especially in the recognizing swing phase and stance phase. In this paper, it is reported that surface electromyography (sEMG) signal is used in swing and stance phase recognition. sEMG signal of related muscles was sampled by Infiniti of a Canadian company. The sEMG signal was then filtered by weighted filtering window and analyzed by height permitted window. The starting time of stance phase and swing phase is determined through analyzing special muscles. The sEMG signal of rectus femoris was used in stance phase recognition and sEMG signal of tibialis anterior is used in swing phase recognition. In a certain tolerating range, the double windows theory, including weighted filtering window and height permitted window, can reach a high accuracy rate. Through experiments, the real walking consciousness of the people was reflected by sEMG signal of related muscles. Using related muscles to recognize swing and stance phase is reachable. The theory used in this paper is useful for analyzing sEMG signal and actual prosthesis control.

  6. Nonlinear dynamic response of cable-suspended systems under swinging and heaving motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Guohua; Wang, Naige; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Zhencai [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2017-07-15

    In order to enhance the fidelity, convenient and flexibility of swinging motion, the structure of incompletely restrained cablesuspended system controlled by two drums was proposed, and the dynamic response of the system under swinging and heaving motion were investigated in this paper. The cables are spatially discretized using the assumed modes method and the system equations of motion are derived by Lagrange equations of the first kind. Based on geometric boundary conditions and linear complementary theory, the differential algebraic equations are transformed to a set of classical difference equations. Nonlinear dynamic behavior occurs under certain range of rotational velocity and frequency. The results show that asynchronous motion of suspension platform is easily caused imbalance for cable tension. Dynamic response of different swing frequencies were obtained via power frequency analysis, which could be used in the selection of the working frequency of the swing motion. The work will contribute to a better understanding of the swing frequency, cable tension and posture with dynamic characteristics of unilateral geometric and kinematic constraints in this system, and it is also useful to investigate the accuracy and reliability of instruments in future.

  7. Dynamic modeling and explicit/multi-parametric MPC control of pressure swing adsorption systems

    KAUST Repository

    Khajuria, Harish; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.

    2011-01-01

    objective is to fast track H2 purity to a set point value of 99.99%. To perform this task, a rigorous and systematic framework is employed. First, a high fidelity detailed dynamic model is built to represent the system's real operation, and understand its

  8. Development of Pressure Swing Adsorption Technology for Spaceflight Medical Oxygen Concentrators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There were 8 tasks associated with this project. These tasks are listed below. All were completed on schedule. In the year 1, Tasks 1, 2, and 6 were initiated. In...

  9. Effect of process parameters on power requirements of vacuum swing adsorption technology for CO2 capture from flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jun; Webley, Paul A.; Xiao, Penny

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the effects of process and operating parameters - feed gas temperature, evacuation pressure and feed concentration - on the performance of carbon dioxide vacuum swing adsorption (CO 2 VSA) processes for CO 2 capture from gas, especially as it affects power consumption. To obtain reliable data on the VSA process, experimental work was conducted on a purposely built three bed CO 2 VSA pilot plant using commercial 13X zeolite. Both 6 step and 9 step cycles were used to determine the influences of temperature, evacuation pressure and feed concentration on process performance (recovery, purity, power and corresponding capture cost). A simple economic model for CO 2 capture was developed and employed herein. Through experiments and analysis, it is found that the feed gas temperature, evacuation pressure and feed concentration have significant effects on power consumption and CO 2 capture cost. Our data demonstrate that the CO 2 VSA process has good recovery (>70%), purity (>90%) and low power cost (4-10 kW/TPDc) when operating with 40 C feed gas provided relatively deep vacuum is used. Enhanced performance is obtained when higher feed gas concentration is fed to the plant, as expected. Our data indicates large potential for application of CO 2 VSA to CO 2 capture from flue gas. (author)

  10. Quasi-stiffness of the knee joint in flexion and extension during the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ahnryul; Sim, Taeyong; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Biomechanical understanding of the knee joint during a golf swing is essential to improve performance and prevent injury. In this study, we quantified the flexion/extension angle and moment as the primary knee movement, and evaluated quasi-stiffness represented by moment-angle coupling in the knee joint. Eighteen skilled and 23 unskilled golfers participated in this study. Six infrared cameras and two force platforms were used to record a swing motion. The anatomical angle and moment were calculated from kinematic and kinetic models, and quasi-stiffness of the knee joint was determined as an instantaneous slope of moment-angle curves. The lead knee of the skilled group had decreased resistance duration compared with the unskilled group (P golf swing and developing rehabilitation strategies following surgery.

  11. Design and Implementation of a Bionic Mimosa Robot with Delicate Leaf Swing Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Liang Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study designed and developed a bionic mimosa robot with delicate leaf swing behaviors. For different swing behaviors, this study developed a variety of situations, in which the bionic mimosa robot would display different postures. The core technologies used were Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs, plastic material, and an intelligent control device. The technology particularly focused on the SMAs memory processing bend mode, directional guidance, and the position of SMAs installed inside the plastic material. Performance analysis and evaluation were conducted using two SMAs for mimosa opening/closing behaviors. Finally, by controlling the mimosa behavior with a micro-controller, the optimal strain swing behavior was realized through fuzzy logic control in order to display the different postures of mimosa under different situations. The proposed method is applicable to micro-bionic robot systems, entertainment robots, biomedical engineering, and architectural aesthetics-related fields in the future.

  12. Restricted Arm Swing Affects Gait Stability and Increased Walking Speed Alters Trunk Movements in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabastita, Tijs; Desloovere, Kaat; Meyns, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Observational research suggests that in children with cerebral palsy, the altered arm swing is linked to instability during walking. Therefore, the current study investigates whether children with cerebral palsy use their arms more than typically developing children, to enhance gait stability. Evidence also suggests an influence of walking speed on gait stability. Moreover, previous research highlighted a link between walking speed and arm swing. Hence, the experiment aimed to explore differences between typically developing children and children with cerebral palsy taking into account the combined influence of restricting arm swing and increasing walking speed on gait stability. Spatiotemporal gait characteristics, trunk movement parameters and margins of stability were obtained using three dimensional gait analysis to assess gait stability of 26 children with cerebral palsy and 24 typically developing children. Four walking conditions were evaluated: (i) free arm swing and preferred walking speed; (ii) restricted arm swing and preferred walking speed; (iii) free arm swing and high walking speed; and (iv) restricted arm swing and high walking speed. Double support time and trunk acceleration variability increased more when arm swing was restricted in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children and children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Trunk sway velocity increased more when walking speed was increased in children with unilateral cerebral palsy compared to children with bilateral cerebral palsy and typically developing children and in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children. Trunk sway velocity increased more when both arm swing was restricted and walking speed was increased in children with bilateral cerebral palsy compared to typically developing children. It is proposed that facilitating arm swing during gait rehabilitation can improve gait stability and decrease trunk movements in

  13. Kinematic relationship between rotation of lumbar spine and hip joints during golf swing in professional golfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Frederick; Suh, Seung Woo; Park, Hyun-Joon; Choi, Ahnryul

    2015-05-14

    Understanding the kinematics of the lumbar spine and hip joints during a golf swing is a basic step for identifying swing-specific factors associated with low back pain. The objective of this study was to examine the kinematic relationship between rotational movement of the lumbar spine and hip joints during a golf swing. Fifteen professional golfers participated in this study with employment of six infrared cameras to record their golf swings. Anatomical reference system of the upper torso, pelvis and thigh segments, and the location of each hip and knee joint were defined by the protocols of the kinematic model of previous studies. Lumbar spine and hip joint rotational angle was calculated utilizing the Euler angle method. Cross-correlation and angle-angle plot was used to examine the degree of kinematic relationship between joints. A fairly strong coupling relationship was shown between the lumbar spine and hip rotational movements with an average correlation of 0.81. Leading hip contribution to overall rotation was markedly high in the early stage of the downswing, while the lumbar spine contributed greater towards the end of the downswing; however, the relative contributions of the trailing hip and lumbar spine were nearly equal during the entire downswing. Most of the professional golfers participated in this study used a similar coordination strategy when moving their hips and lumbar spine during golf swings. The rotation of hips was observed to be more efficient in producing the overall rotation during the downswing when compared to the backswing. These results provide quantitative information to better understand the lumbar spine and hip joint kinematic characteristics of professional golfers. This study will have great potential to be used as a normal control data for the comparison with kinematic information among golfers with low back pain and for further investigation of golf swing-specific factors associated with injury.

  14. Correlation of Titleist Performance Institute (TPI) level 1 movement screens and golf swing faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulgin, Heather R; Schulte, Brian C; Crawley, Amy A

    2014-02-01

    Although some research in the past has examined how physical limitations in strength or flexibility affect a golfer's performance, the performance outcome most measured was driving distance. Currently, there are no data that have examined the relationship between selected strength and flexibility variables and golf swing faults. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Titleist Performance Institute (TPI) level 1 movement screen variables and 14 common golf swing faults. Thirty-six male and female golfers (mean age, 25.4 ± 9.9 years; height, 175.9 ± 16.2 cm; mass, 76.2 ± 14.6 kg; handicap, 14.2 ± 10.4) participated. Twelve physical tests of strength, flexibility, and balance were assessed using the TPI level 1 golf fitness screening tool. Golfers then hit 4 golf shots (with a 5-iron) while being videoed, and those were then analyzed for 14 different golf swing faults (using V1Pro software). Three significant associations between a physical limitation and a particular golf swing fault were found: toe touch and early hip extension (p = 0.015), bridge on right side with both early hip extension (p = 0.050), and loss of posture (p = 0.028). In addition, an odds ratio showed that when a golfer could not overhead deep squat or single leg balance on left side, they were 2-3 times more likely to exhibit a early hip extension, loss of posture, or slide during the golf swing, as compared with those who could perform a correct overhead deep squat. Based on our findings, it is important for the golf fitness professional to particularly address a golfer's core strength, balance, and hamstring flexibility to help avoid common golf swing faults, which affect a golfer's ball striking ability and ultimately their performance.

  15. Effect of Junction Temperature Swing Durations on a Lifetime of a Transfer Molded IGBT Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jorgensen, Soren

    2016-01-01

    results under 6 different conditions and it may improve a lifetime model for lifetime prediction of IGBT modules under various mission profiles of converters. The power cycling tests are performed by an advanced power cycling test setup which enables tested modules to be operated under more realistic......In this paper, the effect of junction temperature swing duration on the lifetime of a transfer molded Intelligent Power IGBT Module is studied and a relevant lifetime factor is modeled. A temperature swing duration dependent lifetime factor is defined based on 38 accelerated power cycling test...

  16. Multicomponent mixed dopant optimization for rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sioud, Salim; Amad, Maan H.; Al-Talla, Zeyad

    2012-01-01

    with water-soluble organic solvents. In order to achieve a more efficient and less toxic dopant, a multicomponent mixed dopant was explored. METHODS A multicomponent mixed dopant for non-targeted rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  17. The Effect of Biological Movement Variability on the Performance of the Golf Swing in High- and Low-Handicapped Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth J.; Keogh, Justin W. L.; Hume, Patria A.; Maulder, Peter S.; Nortje, Jacques; Marnewick, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of neuromotor noise on golf swing performance in high- and low-handicap players. Selected two-dimensional kinematic measures of 20 male golfers (n = 10 per high- or low-handicap group) performing 10 golf swings with a 5-iron club was obtained through video analysis. Neuromotor noise was calculated…

  18. A Semi-Analytical Method for Rapid Estimation of Near-Well Saturation, Temperature, Pressure and Stress in Non-Isothermal CO2 Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForce, T.; Ennis-King, J.; Paterson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir cooling near the wellbore is expected when fluids are injected into a reservoir or aquifer in CO2 storage, enhanced oil or gas recovery, enhanced geothermal systems, and water injection for disposal. Ignoring thermal effects near the well can lead to under-prediction of changes in reservoir pressure and stress due to competition between increased pressure and contraction of the rock in the cooled near-well region. In this work a previously developed semi-analytical model for immiscible, nonisothermal fluid injection is generalised to include partitioning of components between two phases. Advection-dominated radial flow is assumed so that the coupled two-phase flow and thermal conservation laws can be solved analytically. The temperature and saturation profiles are used to find the increase in reservoir pressure, tangential, and radial stress near the wellbore in a semi-analytical, forward-coupled model. Saturation, temperature, pressure, and stress profiles are found for parameters representative of several CO2 storage demonstration projects around the world. General results on maximum injection rates vs depth for common reservoir parameters are also presented. Prior to drilling an injection well there is often little information about the properties that will determine the injection rate that can be achieved without exceeding fracture pressure, yet injection rate and pressure are key parameters in well design and placement decisions. Analytical solutions to simplified models such as these can quickly provide order of magnitude estimates for flow and stress near the well based on a range of likely parameters.

  19. Operator control systems and methods for swing-free gantry-style cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddema, John T.; Petterson, Ben J.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    1998-01-01

    A system and method for eliminating swing motions in gantry-style cranes while subject to operator control is presented. The present invention comprises an infinite impulse response ("IIR") filter and a proportional-integral ("PI") feedback controller (50). The IIR filter receives input signals (46) (commanded velocity or acceleration) from an operator input device (45) and transforms them into output signals (47) in such a fashion that the resulting motion is swing free (i.e., end-point swinging prevented). The parameters of the IIR filter are updated in real time using measurements from a hoist cable length encoder (25). The PI feedback controller compensates for modeling errors and external disturbances, such as wind or perturbations caused by collision with objects. The PI feedback controller operates on cable swing angle measurements provided by a cable angle sensor (27). The present invention adjusts acceleration and deceleration to eliminate oscillations. An especially important feature of the present invention is that it compensates for variable-length cable motions from multiple cables attached to a suspended payload.

  20. An efficient pricing algorithm for swing options based on Fourier cosine expansions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, B.; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Swing options give contract holders the right to modify amounts of future delivery of certain commodities, such as electricity or gas. We assume that these options can be exercised at any time before the end of the contract, and more than once. However, a recovery time between any two consecutive

  1. Effect of arm swing strategy on local dynamic stability of human gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, M.; Bruijn, S.M.; Wittink, H.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Falling causes long term disability and can even lead to death. Most falls occur during gait. Therefore improving gait stability might be beneficial for people at risk of falling. Recently arm swing has been shown to influence gait stability. However at present it remains unknown which

  2. Rational design of temperature swing adsorption cycles for post-combustion CO2 capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joss, Lisa; Gazzani, Matteo; Mazzotti, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The design of temperature swing adsorption (TSA) cycles aimed at recovering the heavy product at high purity is investigated by model-based design and applied to the capture of CO2 from flue gases. This model based design strategy and an extensive parametric analysis enables gaining an understanding

  3. The Biomechanics of the Modern Golf Swing: Implications for Lower Back Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael H; Grimshaw, Paul N

    2016-03-01

    The modern golf swing is a complex and asymmetrical movement that places an emphasis on restricting pelvic turn while increasing thorax rotation during the backswing to generate higher clubhead speeds at impact. Increasing thorax rotation relative to pelvic rotation preloads the trunk muscles by accentuating their length and allowing them to use the energy stored in their elastic elements to produce more power. As the thorax and pelvis turn back towards the ball during the downswing, more skilled golfers are known to laterally slide their pelvis toward the target, which further contributes to final clubhead speed. However, despite the apparent performance benefits associated with these sequences, it has been argued that the lumbar spine is incapable of safely accommodating the forces they produce. This notion supports a link between the repeated performance of the golf swing and the development of golf-related low back injuries. Of the complaints reported by golfers, low back injuries continue to be the most prevalent, but the mechanism of these injuries is still poorly understood. This review highlights that there is a paucity of research directly evaluating the apparent link between the modern golf swing and golf-related low back pain. Furthermore, there has been a general lack of consensus within the literature with respect to the methods used to objectively assess the golf swing and the methods used to derived common outcome measures. Future research would benefit from a clear set of guidelines to help reduce the variability between studies.

  4. Jazz Style and Articulation: How to Get Your Band or Choir to Swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    The interpretation of jazz style is crucial to the element of swing in any jazz ensemble performance. Today, many charts for both large and small instrumental and vocal jazz ensembles are well marked with articulations and expression markings. However, in some cases, there is nothing to guide the musician. This article addresses some common jazz…

  5. Honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica) swing abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy landing on a wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jieliang; Huang, He; Yan, Shaoze

    2017-03-01

    Whether for insects or for aircrafts, landing is one of the indispensable links in the verification of airworthiness safety. The mechanisms by which insects achieve a fast and stable landing remain unclear. An intriguing example is provided by honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica), which use the swinging motion of their abdomen to dissipate residual flying energy and to achieve a smooth, stable, and quick landing. By using a high-speed camera, we observed that touchdown is initiated by honeybees extending their front legs or antennae and then landing softly on a wall. After touchdown, they swing the rest of their bodies until all flying energy is dissipated. We suggested a simplified model with mass-spring dampers for the body of the honeybee and revealed the mechanism of flying energy transfer and dissipation in detail. Results demonstrate that body translation and abdomen swinging help honeybees dissipate residual flying energy and orchestrate smooth landings. The initial kinetic energy of flying is transformed into the kinetic energy of the abdomen's rotary movement. Then, the kinetic energy of rotary movement is converted into thermal energy during the swinging cycle. This strategy provides more insight into the mechanism of insect flying, which further inspires better design on aerial vehicle with better landing performance.

  6. High Bar Swing Performance in Novice Adults: Effects of Practice and Talent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Albert; Marina, Michel; Irurtia, Alfredo; Ranz, Daniel; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M.

    2011-01-01

    An individual's a priori talent can affect movement performance during learning. Also, task requirements and motor-perceptual factors are critical to the learning process. This study describes changes in high bar swing performance after a 2-month practice period. Twenty-five novice participants were divided by a priori talent level…

  7. Neuro fuzzy control of the FES assisted freely swinging leg of paraplegic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, J.H.; Velthuis, W.J.R.; Veltink, Petrus H.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors designed a neuro fuzzy control strategy for control of cyclical leg movements of paraplegic subjects. The cyclical leg movements were specified by three `swing phase objectives', characteristic of natural human gait. The neuro fuzzy controller is a combination of a fuzzy logic controller

  8. An efficient pricing algorithm for swing options based on Fourier cosine expansions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Zhang (Bo); C.W. Oosterlee (Kees)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractSwing options give contract holders the right to modify amounts of future delivery of certain commodities, such as electricity or gas. We assume that these options can be exercised at any time before the end of the contract, and more than once. However, a recovery time between any two

  9. Hip joint torques during the golf swing of young and senior healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxworth, Judy L; Millar, Audrey L; Long, Benjamin L; Way, Michael; Vellucci, Matthew W; Vogler, Joshua D

    2013-09-01

    Descriptive, laboratory study. To compare the 3-D hip torques during a golf swing between young and senior healthy male amateur golfers. The secondary purpose was to compare the 3-D hip joint torques between the trail leg and lead leg. The generation of hip torques from the hip musculature is an important aspect of the golf swing. Golf is a very popular activity, and estimates of hip torques during the golf swing have not been reported. Twenty healthy male golfers were divided into a young group (mean ± SD age, 25.1 ± 3.1 years) and a senior group (age, 56.9 ± 4.7 years). All subjects completed 10 golf swings using their personal driver. A motion capture system and force plates were used to obtain kinematic and kinetic data. Inverse dynamic analyses were used to calculate 3-D hip joint torques of the trail and lead limbs. Two-way analyses of covariance (group by leg), with club-head velocity as a covariate, were used to compare peak hip torques between groups and limbs. Trail-limb hip external rotator torque was significantly greater in the younger group compared to the senior group, and greater in the trail leg versus the lead leg. When adjusting for club-head velocity, young and senior healthy male amateur golfers generated comparable hip torques during a golf swing, with the exception of the trail-limb hip external rotator torque. The largest hip torque found was the trail-limb hip extensor torque.

  10. The "swing-ding": a golf-related head injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Arthur; Cohen, Alan R; Robinson, Shenandoah

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased incidence of golf-associated head injuries in children and adolescents. At the authors' institution, they have identified a unique pattern of head injury associated with a swinging golf club. In this study, the authors highlight the mechanism of this injury and report their experience treating it. The authors reviewed the database of Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital Trauma Center and performed a retrospective analysis of golf injuries recorded over a 10-year period (January 2000-April 2010). They identified 13 children (9 boys and 4 girls) who sustained head injuries in golfing accidents. All patients were 10 years of age or younger. The medical charts were reviewed and follow-up interviews were conducted to better delineate the details of the injuries. Injuries included 13 depressed skull fractures, 7 epidural hematomas, and 1 cerebral contusion. All 13 patients sustained their injuries after being struck in the head by a golf club. Seven sustained injuries on the follow-through of the initial swing and 3 sustained injuries on the backswing. All but one patient required neurosurgical intervention. Five patients developed neurological sequelae. None of the children had prior experience with golf equipment. All but one injury occurred in the child's own backyard. There was no direct supervision by an adult in any of the cases. Golfing can lead to serious head injuries in children. The authors noticed a unique pattern of golf-related head injuries, previously not described, that they have termed the "swing-ding." This golf club-inflicted injury occurs when a child stands too close to a swinging golfer and is struck in the head, subsequently sustaining a comminuted depressed skull fracture in the frontal or temporal region, with or without further intracranial injury. The study suggests that a lack of adult supervision, minimal previous golf experience, and proximity of the child to the swinging golfer are all

  11. [Polish adaptation of swing questionnaire (Survey Work-home Interaction - Nijmegen)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mościcka-Teske, Agnieszka; Merecz, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the Polish adaptation of Survey Work-Home Interaction - Nijmegen (SWING). The analyses were based on the survey results from two groups of subjects, a sample of workers, representative in terms of sex and age, living in urban areas (N = 600) and a group of 59 employees examined twice with a help of SWING to assess the stability of the obtained results over a month time. The analyses performed proved that the Polish version of SWING is a reliable tool for studying work-home interactions. Correlation coefficients of items with total result of negative work-home interaction (WHI) subscale varied from 0.51 to 0.74, with positive WHI subscale from 0.26 to 0.60, negative home-work interaction (HWI) subscale, from 0.54 to 0.68 and positive HWI subscale from 0.31 to 0.59. Cronbach's alpha for the whole survey was 0.79, and for subscales varied from 0.73 to 0.89. The results of factorial analysis confirmed a our-factor structure of SWING. Factors I, items had loading from 0.58 to 0.81; II, from 0.29 to 0.78; III, from 0.60 to 0.80; and IV, from 0.28 to 0.74. The values of fit index for a four-factor model, were 0.91 (NNFI), 0.06 (RMSEA), and 0.92 (CFI), which means that this model is characterized by a good fit to empirical data. The correlation coefficient between two measurements at one month interval were also high and reached the range of 0.63 to 0.84. The results obtained are comparable to the psychometric characteristic of the English version of SWING.

  12. Rapid isolation of biomarkers for compound specific radiocarbon dating using high-performance liquid chromatography and flow injection analysis-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Smittenberg, R.H.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.

    2002-01-01

    Repeated semi-preparative normal-phase HPLC was performed to isolate selected biomarkers from sediment extracts for radiocarbon analysis. Flow injection analysis mass spectrometry was used for rapid analysis of collected fractions to evaluate the separation procedure, taking only 1 min per fraction.

  13. Rapid Blood Pressure Lowering According to Recovery at Different Time Intervals after Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Pooled Analysis of the INTERACT Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Arima, Hisatomi; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Woodward, Mark; Heeley, Emma; Stapf, Christian; Lavados, Pablo M; Robinson, Thompson; Huang, Yining; Wang, Jiguang; Delcourt, Candice; Anderson, Craig S

    2015-01-01

    Early intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering has been shown to improve functional outcome in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but the treatment effect is modest and without a clearly defined underlying explanatory mechanism. We aimed at more reliably quantifying the benefits of this treatment according to different time periods in the recovery of participants in the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT) studies. Pooled analysis of the pilot INTERACT1 (n = 404) and main INTERACT2 (n = 2,839) involving patients with spontaneous ICH (patient characteristic subgroups, with trends favoring those randomized early, and with higher SBP and milder neurological severity at baseline. Intensive BP lowering provides beneficial effects on physical functioning that manifests consistently through the early and later phases of recovery from ICH. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Relations between a novel, reliable, and rapid index of arterial compliance (PP-HDI) and well-established inidices of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in a sample of hypertensive elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, L; Finelli, M E; Bendini, C; Ferrari, E; Veschi, M; Neviani, F; Manni, B; Pelosi, A; Rioli, G; Neri, M

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for a long-lasting arterial wall-remodelling leading to stiffness. The rapid method measuring the pulse pressure (PP) by means of the tool of Hypertension Diagnostic Instruments (HDI) called PP-HDI, overcomes some of the problems arising with more-time consuming methods, like ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and give information about the elasticity of the arterial walls. We studied the relationship between the PP-HDI, the large artery compliance (LA-C) and small artery compliance (SA-C) and few well-established indices of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in a sample of 75 hypertensive subjects, aged 65 years and over. Significant correlations between LA-C and heart rate (HR), PP-ABPM and PP-HDI were found. SA-C relates with HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) measured in lying and standing positions. Applying a stepwise regression analysis, we found that LA-C variance stems from PP-HDI and HR, while SA-C variance stems from SBP in lying position. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves for thresholds of PP showed that PP-HDI reached levels of sensitivity/specificity similar to PP-ABPM. In conclusion, surveillance of ABP through hemo-dynamic indices, in particular of SBP, is essential, nevertheless the advantage of this control is not known in an elderly population where the organ damage is already evident. PP needs necessarily an instrumental measurement. The PP-HDI result is similar in reliability with respect to PPABPM, but is more rapid and well applicable in an elderly population.

  15. Rapid isolation of biomarkers for compound specific radiocarbon dating using high-performance liquid chromatography and flow injection analysis-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smittenberg, Rienk H; Hopmans, Ellen C; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2002-11-29

    Repeated semi-preparative normal-phase HPLC was performed to isolate selected biomarkers from sediment extracts for radiocarbon analysis. Flow injection analysis-mass spectrometry was used for rapid analysis of collected fractions to evaluate the separation procedure, taking only 1 min per fraction. In this way 100-1000 microg of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers, sterol fractions and chlorophyll-derived phytol were isolated from typically 100 g of marine sediment, i.e., in sufficient quantities for radiocarbon analysis, without significant carbon isotopic fractionation or contamination.

  16. Maxillary Swing Approach for Removal of Palatal Carcinoma: A Modified Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Nomura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We report a modification of the maxillary swing approach to remove a palatal tumor while preserving the anterior alveolar area. Methods. Case report using clinical records. Results. The patient was a 54-year-old male. TNM grade was T4bN0M0, and invasion to the base of the pterygoid process was seen. Two courses of induction chemotherapy were administered prior to the operation. Because there was no evidence of anterior maxillary invasion, the maxillary swing approach was chosen. The left anterior maxilla was cut and swung laterally, preserving the blood supply. After removal of the palatal tumor, the maxilla was repositioned and the defect was restored with an anterior lateral thigh flap. Postoperative course was typical, and facial appearance, speech, and masticatory function were satisfactory. Conclusions. This technique is particularly useful for preserving appearance as well as speech and mastication.

  17. Determination of the optimal conditions for inclination maneuvers using a Swing-by

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, O.; Celestino, C. C.; Prado, A. F. B. A.

    2018-05-01

    The search for methods to reduce the fuel consumption in orbital transfers is something relevant and always current in astrodynamics. Therefore, the maneuvers assisted by the gravity, also called Swing-by maneuvers, can be an advantageous option to save fuel. The proposal of the present research is to explore the influence of some parameters in a Swing-by of an artificial satellite orbiting a planet with one of the moons of this mother planet, with the goal of changing the inclination of the artificial satellite around the main body of the system. The fuel consumption of this maneuver is compared with the required consumption to perform the same change of inclination using the classical approach of impulsive maneuvers.

  18. Validation of an Inertial Sensor System for Swing Analysis in Golf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lückemann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wearable inertial sensor systems are an upcoming tool for self-evaluation in sports, and can be used for swing analysis in golf. The aim of this work was to determine the validity and repeatability of an inertial sensor system attached to a player’s glove using a radar system as a reference. 20 subjects performed five full swings with each of three different clubs (wood, 7-iron, wedge. Clubhead speed was measured simultaneously by both sensor systems. Limits of Agreement were used to determine the accuracy and precision of the inertial sensor system. Results show that the inertial sensor system is quite accurate but with a lack of precision. Random error was quantified to approximately 17 km/h. The measurement error was dependent on the club type and was weakly negatively correlated to the magnitude of clubhead speed.

  19. Treatment of uncertainty through the interval smart/swing weighting method: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Flávio Autran Monteiro Gomes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasingly competitive market means that many decisions must be taken, quickly and with precision, in complex, high risk scenarios. This combination of factors makes it necessary to use decision aiding methods which provide a means of dealing with uncertainty in the judgement of the alternatives. This work presents the use of the MAUT method, combined with the INTERVAL SMART/SWING WEIGHTING method. Although multicriteria decision aiding was not conceived specifically for tackling uncertainty, the combined use of MAUT and the INTERVAL SMART/SWING WEIGHTING method allows approaching decision problems under uncertainty. The main concepts which are involved in these two methods are described and their joint application to the case study concerning the selection of a printing service supplier is presented. The case study makes use of the WINPRE software as a support tool for the calculation of dominance. It is then concluded that the proposed approach can be applied to decision making problems under uncertainty.

  20. PKU: high plasma phenylalanine concentrations are associated with increased prevalence of mood swings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjema, Karen; van Rijn, Margreet; Verkerk, Paul H; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Heiner-Fokkema, M Rebecca; van Spronsen, Francjan J

    2011-11-01

    In phenylketonuria, knowledge about the relation between behavior and plasma phenylalanine is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether high phenylalanine is associated with disturbed behavior noticed by the patient and or close environment (parents or partners). 48 early treated PKU patients (median age 8.5, range 0-35 years) participated (median phenylalanine concentration in total sample 277 (range 89-1171) μmol/l; and in patients introvert or extravert behavior. The interviewer as well as the respondents were blinded with regard to the phenylalanine concentration. Patients reported less deviant behavior compared to close environment. Mood swings were positively associated with phenylalanine concentrations in the total group (P=0.039) and patients introvert and extravert behavior were not statistically significant. there is a positive association between phenylalanine concentrations and mood swings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Warm-up with weighted bat and adjustment of upper limb muscle activity in bat swinging under movement correction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Yoichi; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Nakamoto, Hiroki

    2014-02-01

    The effects of weighted bat warm-up on adjustment of upper limb muscle activity were investigated during baseball bat swinging under dynamic conditions that require a spatial and temporal adjustment of the swinging to hit a moving target. Seven male college baseball players participated in this study. Using a batting simulator, the task was to swing the standard bat coincident with the arrival timing and position of a moving target after three warm-up swings using a standard or weighted bat. There was no significant effect of weighted bat warm-up on muscle activity before impact associated with temporal or spatial movement corrections. However, lower inhibition of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle activity was observed in a velocity-changed condition in the weighted bat warm-up, as compared to a standard bat warm-up. It is suggested that weighted bat warm-up decreases the adjustment ability associated with inhibition of muscle activation under movement correction conditions.

  2. An electromechanical swing-phase-controlled prosthetic knee joint for conversion of physiological energy to electrical energy: feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrysek, Jan; Chau, Gilbert

    2007-12-01

    Microprocessor-controlled prostheses facilitate a more natural and efficient gait for individuals with above-knee amputations by continually adjusting the level of swing-phase damping. One caveat associated with these technologies is that the user must charge the onboard batteries on a daily basis. It is, therefore, the aim of this study to examine the feasibility of using an electromechanical system to provide prosthetic swing-phase damping and, concomitantly, the function of converting physiological energy that is normally dissipated during the swing phase, to electrical energy. Gait data from a single subject and data from a kinematic simulator were used to develop an empirical model. The findings in this study indicate that an electromagnetic system has appropriate characteristics for use in swing-phase control and also has the potential to recover energy under particular conditions.

  3. Analysis on one type of swing option in the energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistry, Hetal A.

    2005-01-01

    In the Nordic electricity market most of the trading takes place in derivates and options. To describe these products theoretically one needs to have knowledge from stochastic analysis. This thesis will derive a price model for one type of swing option in energy market. The main aim of writing this thesis is to introduce coal power plant and how to approach the problem if such power plant is built in Norway. This thesis uses the approach where I start out with a model for the spot price of electricity and coal, and then derive theoretical option prices. I use a Schwartz process for model and Ornstein Uhlenbeck processes to model the spot prices for electricity and coal. This model also incorporates mean-reversion, which is an important aspect of energy prices. Historical data for the spot prices is used to estimate my variables in the Schwartz model. The main objectives of this thesis were to find the price for a tolling contract in energy market and production volume that is producers control function. The first chapters gives an over view about the agreement and the formula used to derive the price. The second chapter provided me with the material I needed to derive these price and production volume such as dynamics for the spot prices for electricity and coal and their solution. Third chapter gives a statistical look on these stochastic processes. In the last chapter I tested the price model for stochastic control problem and found that the swing option can be bound in two ways: 1. Swing option limited as Margrabes solution. 2. Swing option limited as spread option. The use of the model is discussed. (Author)

  4. Study of limited angle swing laminography and its application in the inspection of flat components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Ming; Li Zheng; Wang Jing; Cheng Jianping; Wang Xuewu; Kang Kejun

    2002-01-01

    It is important to inspect the inner defects, density distribution of the multi-structure complex material. The conflict of resolution of reconstructed image and reconstruction efficiency baffled people long when applying radiation laminography to that kind of material. Limited angle swing laminography algorithm was put forward. A simulation of printed circuits board by MATLAB attested the rationality and high efficiency of this algorithm. Based upon the simulation, the principle of choosing optimal projection angle was discussed. Finally, an application example was given

  5. Effects of Kettlebell Swing vs. Explosive Deadlift Training on Strength and Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Maulit

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent research has compared explosive deadlift to kettlebell training observing their effects on strength. The kettlebell swing is a popular practical exercise as it shares share a hip hinge movement with the explosive deadlift, but the two have not been compared. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of kettlebell swing vs. explosive deadlift training on strength and power. Methods: Thirty-one recreationally resistance-trained men (age = 23.1 ± 2.3 years, height = 175.5 ± 6.6 cm, mass = 83.9 ± 13.8 kg, 1RM deadlift = 159.9 ± 31.7 kg were randomly assigned to one of two groups [kettlebell swing group (KBG n = 15, or explosive deadlift group (EDLG n = 16]. Vertical jump height, isometric mid-thigh pull (MTP, and 1RM deadlift were measured pre and post training. Both groups trained twice per week for 4 weeks. Volume and load were increased after the first 2 weeks of training. Results: A 2 (time x 2 (group mixed factor ANOVA revealed a significant (P<0.05 increase in deadlift 1RM (pre: 159.9 ± 31.7 kg, post: 168.9 ± 31.8 kg and vertical jump height (pre: 56.6 ± 9.9 cm, post: 57.9 ± 9.7 cm for both groups, but were not significantly different between groups. There were no significant changes in MTP. Conclusions: Strength and conditioning professionals may use both kettlebell swings and explosive deadlifts to increase deadlift strength and vertical jump power.

  6. Swing limb mechanics and minimum toe clearance in people with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Pazit; Lai, Daniel T H; Menz, Hylton B; Morrow, Adam D; Feller, Julian A; Bartlett, John R; Bergman, Neil R; Begg, Rezaul

    2012-02-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) has been shown to be a risk factor for falls. Reductions in foot clearance during the swing phase of walking can cause a trip and potentially lead to a fall. This study examined the swing phase mechanics of people with and without knee OA during walking. Minimum toe clearance (MTC) height, joint angles at the time of MTC and the influence of the angular changes of the hip, knee and ankle of the swing leg on foot clearance using sensitivity analysis were investigated in 50 knee OA participants and 28 age-matched asymptomatic controls. Although both groups had a similar MTC height (controls: 12.8±6.7 mm, knee OA: 13.4±7.0 mm), the knee OA group used a different strategy to achieve the same foot clearance, as evidenced by greater knee flexion (52.5±5.3° vs 49.4±4.8°, p=0.007), greater hip abduction (-3.6±3.3° vs -1.8±3.3°, p=0.03) and less ankle adduction (2.8±1.9° vs 4.2±2.1°, p=0.01). MTC height was comparable between the groups, however a different swing phase mechanism was used by the knee OA. Although adequate MTC is an important component of safe locomotion, it does not appear to be impaired in people with knee OA. Other factors, such as inadequate responses to postural perturbation, may be responsible for falls in this group. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolated sternal fracture - a swing-related injury in two children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFriend, D.E.; Franklin, K.

    2001-01-01

    Isolated fracture of the sternum is an uncommon injury in a child. We report two cases of sternal fracture following falls from swings, which illustrate the mechanisms of injury in sternal fracture. One fracture resulted from a flexion compression injury of the thoracic spine, which has very rarely been reported in children. Sternal fracture should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute chest pain in a child where there has been an activity involving hyperflexion force. (orig.)

  8. Brain blood-flow changes during motion sickness. [thalamus vascular changes in dogs during swing tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. H.; Hsuen, J.

    1973-01-01

    The possibility of diminished blood flow in the brain is studied as one of the factors resulting from an increase in skeletal muscle blood volume concomitant with other characteristics of motion sickness. Thermistors are implanted in the thalamus of dogs and blood flow changes are recorded while they are subjected to sinusoidal movement on a two pole swing. Results of these initial steps in a proposed long term exploration of different areas of the brain are presented.

  9. Computational intelligence for qualitative coaching diagnostics: Automated assessment of tennis swings to improve performance and safety

    OpenAIRE

    Bačić, Boris; Hume, Patria

    2017-01-01

    Coaching technology, wearables and exergames can provide quantitative feedback based on measured activity, but there is little evidence of qualitative feedback to aid technique improvement. To achieve personalised qualitative feedback, we demonstrated a proof-of-concept prototype combining kinesiology and computational intelligence that could help improving tennis swing technique. Three-dimensional tennis motion data were acquired from multi-camera video (22 backhands and 21 forehands, includ...

  10. Experiments on the Porch Swing Bearing of Michelson Interferometer for Low Resolution FTIR

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomas Välikylä; Jyrki Kauppinen

    2013-01-01

    Porch swing bearing for the linear motion of the mirror in Michelson interferometer for mid-infrared low resolution Fourier transform spectrometer was studied experimentally using the modulation depth of the collimated laser beam. The mirror tilting was measured to be lower than 5 μrad over 3 mm mirror travel using two different bearings assemblies. Additionally, the manufacturing tolerances of the bearing type were proved to be loose enough not to limit the interferometer application. These ...

  11. Comparison between swinging and playing of white noise among colicky babies: A paired randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezici, Emel; Yigit, Deniz

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of swinging and playing of white noise on the crying and sleeping durations of colicky babies. Infantile colic (IC) is one of the most common reasons for doctor visits among babies younger than 3 months. One of five babies older than 3 months also experiences IC. IC, unlike gastrointestinal problems, is regarded as an individual differentiation and maturation of the central nervous system. Providing a warm bath, breastfeeding, swinging and playing of white noise are nonpharmacological methods. The efficiency of these methods has been proven by various studies independently of one another. The study is a prospective, multicentre, paired randomised controlled trial. The study was conducted between April-December 2016. The study sample consisted of 40 1-month-old babies with gas pains who passed a hearing screening and their mothers. The total daily crying and sleeping durations of the babies were determined without any intervention on the first week. On the second week, 20 randomly selected babies (first group) were swung each time they cried, and on the third week, they were made to listen to white noise. The other 20 babies (second group) were made to listen to white noise on the second week and were swung on the third week. Swinging and playing of white noise were performed until the babies stopped crying. After every intervention, the total crying and sleeping durations of the babies were evaluated using a "Colicky Baby's Diary." Playing of white noise significantly decreased the daily crying durations (p white noise was found to be a more effective nonpharmacological method on crying and sleeping durations of colicky babies than swinging. Playing of white noise may be helpful for parents and healthcare personnel in reducing the gas pains of babies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Operational Investigation of Overhead Crane with Fuzzy Logic Anti-Swing Controller Using 3-D Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Petrenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of a crane control system is to provide load transfer with minimum swinging. The paper presents a developed three-dimensional simulation model of a bridge crane with fuzzy logic controller designed with application of genetic algorithms. Comparative indices of oscillation while load transferring are given in the paper. The indices have been obtained at various parameters of the fuzzy logic controller. 

  13. Lower extremity work is associated with club head velocity during the golf swing in experienced golfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, M P; Yontz, N; Chaudhari, A M

    2014-08-01

    While the golf swing is a complex whole body movement requiring coordination of all joints to achieve maximum ball velocity, the kinetic contribution of the lower extremities to club head velocity has not been quantified, despite the perception that the legs are a primary source of power during the swing. Mechanical power at the hips, knees, and ankles was estimated during the downswing phase of a full swing with a driver using a passive optical motion capture system and 2 force plates for adult males across a range of age and self-reported skill levels. Total work by the lower extremities was calculated by integrating the powers of all 6 joints over the downswing. Regression analyses showed that total lower extremity work was a strong predictor of club head velocity (R=0.63). Secondary analyses showed different relationships to club head velocity in lead and trail leg lower extremity joints, but none of these were as predictive of club head velocity as the total work performed by the lower extremities. These results provide quantitative evidence that the lower body's kinetic contribution may be an important factor in achieving greater club head velocity, contributing to greater driving distance and overall golf performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Looking to Learn: The Effects of Visual Guidance on Observational Learning of the Golf Swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Innocenzo, Giorgia; Gonzalez, Claudia C; Williams, A Mark; Bishop, Daniel T

    2016-01-01

    Skilled performers exhibit more efficient gaze patterns than less-skilled counterparts do and they look more frequently at task-relevant regions than at superfluous ones. We examine whether we may guide novices' gaze towards relevant regions during action observation in order to facilitate their learning of a complex motor skill. In a Pre-test-Post-test examination of changes in their execution of the full golf swing, 21 novices viewed one of three videos at intervention: i) a skilled golfer performing 10 swings (Free Viewing, FV); ii) the same video with transient colour cues superimposed to highlight key features of the setup (Visual Guidance; VG); iii) or a History of Golf video (Control). Participants in the visual guidance group spent significantly more time looking at cued areas than did the other two groups, a phenomenon that persisted after the cues had been removed. Moreover, the visual guidance group improved their swing execution at Post-test and on a Retention test one week later. Our results suggest that visual guidance to cued areas during observational learning of complex motor skills may accelerate acquisition of the skill.

  15. Investigations of leakage mechanisms and its influences on a micro swing engine considering rarefaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiong; Zhang, Zhenyu; Kong, Wenjun; Du, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mechanisms of the leakage flow in different flow regimes have been studied. • The leakage flow regime and patterns in the micro swing engine are presented. • Slip on the walls has a larger effect on leakage flow with decreasing the gap. • Rarefaction effects on the engine performance have been investigated. - Abstract: Considering rarefaction effects, this paper investigated mechanisms of the clearance leakage and its influences on a micro swing engine for the micro power generation by employing three different flow models named as discrete velocity direction (DVD) model, Navier-Stokes equations with slip boundary conditions (NS-slip) and no-slip boundary conditions (NS-no slip). Using the DVD model, this paper firstly studied leakage mechanisms of a micro Couette-Poisueille flow. Factors which control the leakage in different regimes were obtained. Furthermore, the system-level predictions of the clearance leakage in the micro swing engine have been conducted by solving the Navier-Stokes equations. The leakage flow regime, patterns and characteristics were presented. Results by NS-slip and NS-no slip were compared to study the rarefaction effects. Finally, investigations of the engine size and the gap height on the engine performance have been conducted. The significance of the leakage in different engine size regimes was presented, and the results show that rarefaction effects affect the indicated thermal efficiency greatly with the decrease of the engine size scale.

  16. Rapid extraction of PCDD/Fs from soil and fly ash samples. Pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, P.; Fabrellas, B. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    The main reference extraction method in the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) is still the Soxhlet extraction. But it requires long extraction times (up to 24 hs), large volumes of hazardous organic solvents (100-300 ml) and its automation is limited. Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE) and Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) are two relatively new extraction techniques that reduce the time and the volume of solvent required for extraction. However, very different PFE extraction conditions are found for the same enviromental matrices in the literature. MAE is not a extraction technique very applied for the analysis of PCDD/Fs yet, although it is used for the determination of other organic compounds, such as PCBs and PAHs. In this study, PFE and MAE extraction conditions were optimized to determine PCDDs y PCDFs in fly ash and soil/sediment samples. Conventional Soxhlet extraction with toluene was used to compare the extraction efficiency of both techniques.

  17. Between the Dance Studio and the Social Dance Floor: On Solidarity and Practices of Mutuality in Swing Dance Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Kravanja

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the dynamics of actualization of solidarity and hierarchical relations in contemporary swing dance communities. It shows how these communities are based on a specific solidarity ideology, at least it terms of dealing with processes of their institutionalization, commercialization and establishing of formal dance hierarchies. However, when we take into view the swing dancers themselves, diverse practices of mutuality become evident. In contrast to the formal solidarity discourses and practices, the latter are much more heterogeneous and as such more interesting for anthropological discussion, for they establish solidarity and hierarchical relations apart from wider mobilization movements of the swing dance industry, and many of them implicitly resist institutionalization. The thesis arising from this case study is that the practices of mutuality are not always in complementary relation with discourses of solidarity. On the contrary, they often bypass the major solidarity flows and, paradoxically, contribute most efficiently to the actual solidarity of vital parts of the swing communities. The author discusses the subject on the basis of six years of active participation in different Slovene swing dance scenes and occasional presence at international swing dance events in different European cities.

  18. Method of interplanetary trajectory optimization for the spacecraft with low thrust and swing-bys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, M. S.; Thein, M.

    2017-07-01

    The method developed to avoid the complexity of solving the multipoint boundary value problem while optimizing interplanetary trajectories of the spacecraft with electric propulsion and a sequence of swing-bys is presented in the paper. This method is based on the use of the preliminary problem solutions for the impulsive trajectories. The preliminary problem analyzed at the first stage of the study is formulated so that the analysis and optimization of a particular flight path is considered as the unconstrained minimum in the space of the selectable parameters. The existing methods can effectively solve this problem and make it possible to identify rational flight paths (the sequence of swing-bys) to receive the initial approximation for the main characteristics of the flight path (dates, values of the hyperbolic excess velocity, etc.). These characteristics can be used to optimize the trajectory of the spacecraft with electric propulsion. The special feature of the work is the introduction of the second (intermediate) stage of the research. At this stage some characteristics of the analyzed flight path (e.g. dates of swing-bys) are fixed and the problem is formulated so that the trajectory of the spacecraft with electric propulsion is optimized on selected sites of the flight path. The end-to-end optimization is carried out at the third (final) stage of the research. The distinctive feature of this stage is the analysis of the full set of optimal conditions for the considered flight path. The analysis of the characteristics of the optimal flight trajectories to Jupiter with Earth, Venus and Mars swing-bys for the spacecraft with electric propulsion are presented. The paper shows that the spacecraft weighing more than 7150 kg can be delivered into the vicinity of Jupiter along the trajectory with two Earth swing-bys by use of the space transportation system based on the "Angara A5" rocket launcher, the chemical upper stage "KVTK" and the electric propulsion system

  19. An evaluation of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for the rapid and simultaneous measurement of carbamate pesticides and organophorus pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Joo; So, Hun Young

    2000-01-01

    Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface (LC/APCI/MS) is evaluated for the simultaneous determination of carbamate pesticides and organophosphorus pesticides in a single chromatographic analysis. APCI mass spectra of those compounds were obtained to study their ionization characteristics. APCI provided abundant ions such as protonated molecules and characteristic fragment ions for carbamate pesticides and organophosphorus pesticides. To evaluate the feasibility of the LC/APCI/MS for a routine quantitative analysis, the linearity and repeatability of LC/APCI/MS were examined by measuring standard solution mixtures of five carbamate pesticides and four organophosphorus pesticides over the range of 1 to 100 μg/mL. The peak areas in chromatograms of characteristic ions for those compounds showed less than 3% of variation from run to tun. The standard calibration curves for the nine pesticides show good linearity in the concentration range. The detection limits of the LC/APCI/MS system for those compounds range from 0.006 to 0.2 ng

  20. An evaluation of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for the rapid and simultaneous measurement of carbamate pesticides and organophorus pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Joo; So, Hun Young [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Sceince, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface (LC/APCI/MS) is evaluated for the simultaneous determination of carbamate pesticides and organophosphorus pesticides in a single chromatographic analysis. APCI mass spectra of those compounds were obtained to study their ionization characteristics. APCI provided abundant ions such as protonated molecules and characteristic fragment ions for carbamate pesticides and organophosphorus pesticides. To evaluate the feasibility of the LC/APCI/MS for a routine quantitative analysis, the linearity and repeatability of LC/APCI/MS were examined by measuring standard solution mixtures of five carbamate pesticides and four organophosphorus pesticides over the range of 1 to 100 {mu}g/mL. The peak areas in chromatograms of characteristic ions for those compounds showed less than 3% of variation from run to tun. The standard calibration curves for the nine pesticides show good linearity in the concentration range. The detection limits of the LC/APCI/MS system for those compounds range from 0.006 to 0.2 ng.

  1. Altered kinematics of arm swing in Parkinson's disease patients indicates declines in gait under dual-task conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Elise I; Miller Koop, Mandy; Streicher, Matthew C; Rosenfeldt, Anson B; Alberts, Jay L

    2018-03-01

    Declines in simultaneous performance of a cognitive and motor task are present in Parkinson's disease due to compromised basal ganglia function related to information processing. The aim of this project was to determine if biomechanical measures of arm swing could be used as a marker of gait function under dual-task conditions in Parkinson's disease patients. Twenty-three patients with Parkinson's disease completed single and dual-task cognitive-motor tests while walking on a treadmill at a self-selected rate. Multiple cognitive domains were evaluated with five cognitive tests. Cognitive tests were completed in isolation (single-task) and simultaneously with gait (dual-task). Upper extremity biomechanical data were gathered using the Motek CAREN system. Primary outcomes characterizing arm swing were: path length, normalized jerk, coefficient of variation of arm swing time, and cognitive performance. Performance on the cognitive tasks were similar across single and dual-task conditions. However, biomechanical measures exhibited significant changes between single and dual-task conditions, with the greatest changes occurring in the most challenging conditions. Arm swing path length decreased significantly from single to dual-task, with the greatest decrease of 21.16%. Jerk, characterizing smoothness, increased significantly when moving from single to dual-task conditions. The simultaneous performance of a cognitive and gait task resulted in decrements in arm swing while cognitive performance was maintained. Arm swing outcomes provide a sensitive measure of declines in gait function in Parkinson's disease under dual-task conditions. The quantification of arm swing is a feasible approach to identifying and evaluating gait related declines under dual-task conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Research on Scheduling Algorithm for Multi-satellite and Point Target Task on Swinging Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Dai, G.; Peng, L.; Song, Z.; Chen, G.

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays, using satellite in space to observe ground is an important and major method to obtain ground information. With the development of the scientific technology in the field of space, many fields such as military and economic and other areas have more and more requirement of space technology because of the benefits of the satellite's widespread, timeliness and unlimited of area and country. And at the same time, because of the wide use of all kinds of satellites, sensors, repeater satellites and ground receiving stations, ground control system are now facing great challenge. Therefore, how to make the best value of satellite resources so as to make full use of them becomes an important problem of ground control system. Satellite scheduling is to distribute the resource to all tasks without conflict to obtain the scheduling result so as to complete as many tasks as possible to meet user's requirement under considering the condition of the requirement of satellites, sensors and ground receiving stations. Considering the size of the task, we can divide tasks into point task and area task. This paper only considers point targets. In this paper, a description of satellite scheduling problem and a chief introduction of the theory of satellite scheduling are firstly made. We also analyze the restriction of resource and task in scheduling satellites. The input and output flow of scheduling process are also chiefly described in the paper. On the basis of these analyses, we put forward a scheduling model named as multi-variable optimization model for multi-satellite and point target task on swinging mode. In the multi-variable optimization model, the scheduling problem is transformed the parametric optimization problem. The parameter we wish to optimize is the swinging angle of every time-window. In the view of the efficiency and accuracy, some important problems relating the satellite scheduling such as the angle relation between satellites and ground targets, positive

  3. Novel swing-assist un-motorized exoskeletons for gait training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banala Sai K

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robotics is emerging as a promising tool for functional training of human movement. Much of the research in this area over the last decade has focused on upper extremity orthotic devices. Some recent commercial designs proposed for the lower extremity are powered and expensive – hence, these could have limited affordability by most clinics. In this paper, we present a novel un-motorized bilateral exoskeleton that can be used to assist in treadmill training of motor-impaired patients, such as with motor-incomplete spinal cord injury. The exoskeleton is designed such that the human leg will have a desirable swing motion, once it is strapped to the exoskeleton. Since this exoskeleton is un-motorized, it can potentially be produced cheaply and could reduce the physical demand on therapists during treadmill training. Results A swing-assist bilateral exoskeleton was designed and fabricated at the University of Delaware having the following salient features: (i The design uses torsional springs at the hip and the knee joints to assist the swing motion. The springs get charged by the treadmill during stance phase of the leg and provide propulsion forces to the leg during swing. (ii The design of the exoskeleton uses simple dynamic models of sagittal plane walking, which are used to optimize the parameters of the springs so that the foot can clear the ground and have a desirable forward motion during walking. The bilateral exoskeleton was tested on a healthy subject during treadmill walking for a range of walking speeds between 1.0 mph and 4.0 mph. Joint encoders and interface force-torque sensors mounted on the exoskeleton were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the exoskeleton in terms of the hip and knee joint torques applied by the human during treadmill walking. Conclusion We compared two different cases. In case 1, we estimated the torque applied by the human joints when walking with the device using the joint kinematic

  4. Study on Effect of Junction Temperature Swing Duration on Lifetime of Transfer Molded Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jørgensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    levels are presented. This study enables to include the tΔTj effect on lifetime model of IGBT modules for its lifetime estimation and it may result in improved lifetime prediction of IGBT modules under given mission profiles of converters. A postfailure analysis of the tested IGBT modules is also......In this paper, the effect of junction temperature swing duration on lifetime of transfer molded power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules is studied and a relevant lifetime factor is modeled. This study is based on 39 accelerated power cycling test results under six different...

  5. A Resolution of the Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle: Imperfect Knowledge and Long Swings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydman, Roman; Goldberg, Michael D.; Johansen, Søren

    2009-01-01

    Asset prices undergo long swings that revolve around benchmark levels. In currency markets, fluctuations involve real exchange rates that are highly persistent and that move in near-parallel fashion with nominal rates. The inability to explain these two regularities with one model has been called...... the "purchasing power parity puzzle." In this paper, we trace the puzzle to exchange rate modelers' use of the "Rational Expectations Hypothesis." We show that once imperfect knowledge is recognized, a monetary model is able to account for the puzzle, as well as other salient features of the data, including...

  6. System and process for polarity swing assisted regeneration of gas selective capture liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Tegrotenhuis, Ward E.; Freeman, Charles J.; Elliott, Michael L.; Koech, Phillip K.; Humble, Paul H.; Zheng, Feng; Zhang, Jian

    2017-07-18

    A polarity swing-assisted regeneration (PSAR) process is disclosed for improving the efficiency of releasing gases chemically bound to switchable ionic liquids. Regeneration of the SWIL involves addition of a quantity of non-polar organic compound as an anti-solvent to destabilize the SWIL, which aids in release of the chemically bound gas. The PSAR decreases gas loading of a SWIL at a given temperature and increases the rate of gas release compared to heating in the absence of anti-solvent.

  7. Effects of Humidity Swings on Adsorption Columns for Air Revitalization: Modeling and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVan, M. Douglas; Finn, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Air purification systems are necessary to provide clean air in the closed environments aboard spacecraft. Trace contaminants are removed using adsorption. One major factor concerning the removal of trace contaminants is relative humidity. Water can reduce adsorption capacity and, due to constant fluctuations, its presence is difficult to incorporate into adsorption column designs. The purpose of the research was to allow for better design techniques in trace contaminant adsorption systems, especially for feeds with water present. Experiments and mathematical modeling research on effects of humidity swings on adsorption columns for air revitalization were carried out.

  8. Design and Development of an air-cooled Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloth, Lila M.

    2003-01-01

    The air revitalization system of the International Space Station (ISS) operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. We have a developed a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for performing these tasks that is energy efficient, quiet, and has no wearing parts. This paper discusses the design features of a TSAC hardware that uses air as the cooling medium and has Space Station application.

  9. [Maxillary swing approach in the management of tumors in the central and lateral cranial base].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua; Hua, Qing-quan; Wu, Zhan-yuan

    2006-04-01

    A retrospective review of seventeen patients who were operated through the maxillary swing approach was carried out to assess the efficacy of this approach in the management of tumors of the central and lateral cranial base. From May 2000 to January 2005, 17 patients with primary or recurrent neoplasms involving the central cranial or lateral base underwent surgical resection via maxillary swing approach. Ten patients were male, and other seven patients were female, and age range was 7 to 58 years, with a mean age of 42. 6 years. Eight patients had tumors originally involving lateral cranial base, and nine patients had tumors originated from central cranial base. The pathology spectrum was very wide. Among them, five suffered from chordoma, two had rhabdomyosarcoma, two had squamous cell carcinoma, one had malignant fibrous histiocytoma, one had malignant melanoma, one had esthesioneuroblastoma, one had invaded hypophysoma, two had schwannoma, one had pleomorphic adenoma, and one had angiofibroma. Three patients had received previous surgery, two patients had previous radiation therapy and nine patients received postoperative radiotherapy. Sixteen of all seventeen patients had oncologically complete resection, one had near-total resection. This group patients was followed up from 10 to 60 months, with a median follow-up time of 28 months. Two patients died 14 and 26 months after surgery respectively, as a result of local recurrence and metastasis. One patient defaulted follow-up at 12 months after operation, and the other 14 patients were alive at the time of analysis. Of the 12 malignant tumors, the 1-and 2-year survival rate were 91.67% and 72.92%, respectively. The facial wounds of all patients healed primarily, and there were no necrosis of the maxilla, damage of the temporal branch of the facial nerve, lower-lid ectropion, and facial deformity. Epiphora and facial hypoesthesia were detected in all patients. Four patients (23.5%) developed palatal fistula, ten

  10. The effect of spin in swing bowling in cricket: model trajectories for spin alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Garry; Robinson, Ian

    2015-02-01

    In ‘swing’ bowling, as employed by fast and fast-medium bowlers in cricket, back-spin along the line of the seam is normally applied in order to keep the seam vertical and to provide stability against ‘wobble’ of the seam. Whilst spin is normally thought of as primarily being the slow bowler's domain, the spin applied by the swing bowler has the side-effect of generating a lift or Magnus force. This force, depending on the orientation of the seam and hence that of the back-spin, can have a side-ways component as well as the expected vertical ‘lift’ component. The effect of the spin itself, in influencing the trajectory of the fast bowler's delivery, is normally not considered, presumably being thought of as negligible. The purpose of this paper is to investigate, using calculated model trajectories, the amount of side-ways movement due to the spin and to see how this predicted movement compares with the total observed side-ways movement. The size of the vertical lift component is also estimated. It is found that, although the spin is an essential part of the successful swing bowler's delivery, the amount of side-ways movement due to the spin itself amounts to a few centimetres or so, and is therefore small, but perhaps not negligible, compared to the total amount of side-ways movement observed. The spin does, however, provide a considerable amount of lift compared to the equivalent delivery bowled without spin, altering the point of pitching by up to 3 m, a very large amount indeed. Thus, for example, bowling a ball with the seam pointing directly down the pitch and not designed to swing side-ways at all, but with the amount of back-spin varied, could provide a very powerful additional weapon in the fast bowler's arsenal. So-called ‘sling bowlers’, who use a very low arm action, can take advantage of spin since effectively they can apply side-spin to the ball, giving rise to a large side-ways movement, ˜ 20{}^\\circ cm or more, which certainly is

  11. An adsorption of carbon dioxide on activated carbon controlled by temperature swing adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Korinek; Karel, Frana

    2017-09-01

    This work deals with a method of capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) in indoor air. Temperature Swing Adsorption (TSA) on solid adsorbent was chosen for CO2 capture. Commercial activated carbon (AC) in form of extruded pellets was used as a solid adsorbent. There was constructed a simple device to testing effectiveness of CO2 capture in a fixed bed with AC. The TSA cycle was also simulated using the open-source software OpenFOAM. There was a good agreement between results obtained from numerical simulations and experimental data for adsorption process.

  12. Temperature-dependent gate-swing hysteresis of pentacene thin film transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yow-Jon Lin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The temperature-dependent hysteresis-type transfer characteristics of pentacene-based organic thin film transistors (OTFTs were researched. The temperature-dependent transfer characteristics exhibit hopping conduction behavior. The fitting data for the temperature-dependent off-to-on and on-to-off transfer characteristics of OTFTs demonstrate that the hopping distance (ah and the barrier height for hopping (qϕt control the carrier flow, resulting in the hysteresis-type transfer characteristics of OTFTs. The hopping model gives an explanation of the gate-swing hysteresis and the roles played by qϕt and ah.

  13. Double Swing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    There are two main streams of understanding intercultural communication. The “classic” transmission models include the basic elements of communication involved in sending messages from a sender to a receiver. These models enable analysis of all communication elements and effects by focusing on sa...

  14. Swinging Networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadrava, Michal; Hlinka, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, suppl. 1 (2016), P146 ISSN 1471-2202 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-29835A; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02634S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : neurodynamics * connectivity * music * epilepsy Subject RIV: FH - Neurology https://bmcneurosci.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12868-016-0283-6

  15. Anti-Swing Control of Gantry and Tower Cranes Using Fuzzy and Time-Delayed Feedback with Friction Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Omar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We designed a feedback controller to automate crane operations by controlling the load position and its swing. First, a PD tracking controller is designed to follow a prescribed trajectory. Then, another controller is added to the control loop to damp the load swing. The anti-swing controller is designed based on two techniques: a time-delayed feedback of the load swing angle and an anti-swing fuzzy logic controller (FLC. The rules of the FLC are generated by mapping the performance of the time-delayed feedback controller. The same mapping method used for generating the rules can be applied to mimic the performance of an expert operator. The control algorithms were designed for gantry cranes and then extended to tower cranes by considering the coupling between the translational and rotational motions. Experimental results show that the controller is effective in reducing load oscillations and transferring the load in a reasonable time. To experimentally validate the theory, we had to compensate for friction. To this end, we estimated the friction and then applied a control action to cancel it. The friction force was estimated by assuming a mathematical model and then estimating the model coefficients using an off-line identification technique, the method of least squares (LS.

  16. On the Responses of Azeotropes to Pressure Variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; O’Connell, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Systems with azeotropes cannot be separated by simple distillation since the vapor and liquid compositions are the same. Variation of the applied pressure can shift the azeotropic composition out of the range of purification of a single column or may allow pressure swing operation of two columns....... Because of the sensitivity of column size to accurate estimates of the relative volatility, it is important to use reliable phase equilibrium thermodynamics when exploring the possibility of varying pressure to avoid an azeotrope. Based on an analysis of the pressure sensitivity of azeotropic compositions...

  17. Age-related differences in motor coordination during simultaneous leg flexion and finger extension: influence of temporal pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Hussein

    Full Text Available Although the effect of temporal pressure on spatio-temporal aspects of motor coordination and posture is well established in young adults, there is a clear lack of data on elderly subjects. This work examined the aging-related effects of temporal pressure on movement synchronization and dynamic stability. Sixteen young and eleven elderly subjects performed series of simultaneous rapid leg flexions in an erect posture paired with ipsilateral index-finger extensions, minimizing the difference between heel and finger movement onsets. This task was repeated ten times under two temporal conditions (self-initiated [SI] vs. reaction-time [RT]. Results showed that, first, temporal pressure modified movement synchronization; the finger extension preceded swing heel-off in RT, and inversely in SI. Synchronization error and associated standard deviation were significantly greater in elderly than in young adults in SI only, i.e. in the condition where proprioception is thought to be crucial for temporal coordination. Secondly, both groups developed a significantly shorter mediolateral (ML anticipatory postural adjustment duration in RT (high temporal pressure than in SI. In both groups, this shortening was compensated by an increase in the anticipatory peak of centre-of-gravity (CoG acceleration towards the stance-leg so that ML dynamic stability at foot-off, quantified with the "extrapolated centre-of-mass", remained unchanged across temporal conditions. This increased CoG acceleration was associated with an increased anticipatory peak of ML centre-of-pressure shift towards the swing-leg in young adults only. This suggested that the ability to accelerate the CoG with the centre-of-pressure shift was degraded in elderly, probably due to weakness in the lower limb muscles. Dynamic stability at foot-off was also degraded in elderly, with a consequent increased risk of ML imbalance and falling. The present study provides new insights into the ability of

  18. Age-related differences in motor coordination during simultaneous leg flexion and finger extension: influence of temporal pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Tarek; Yiou, Eric; Larue, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Although the effect of temporal pressure on spatio-temporal aspects of motor coordination and posture is well established in young adults, there is a clear lack of data on elderly subjects. This work examined the aging-related effects of temporal pressure on movement synchronization and dynamic stability. Sixteen young and eleven elderly subjects performed series of simultaneous rapid leg flexions in an erect posture paired with ipsilateral index-finger extensions, minimizing the difference between heel and finger movement onsets. This task was repeated ten times under two temporal conditions (self-initiated [SI] vs. reaction-time [RT]). Results showed that, first, temporal pressure modified movement synchronization; the finger extension preceded swing heel-off in RT, and inversely in SI. Synchronization error and associated standard deviation were significantly greater in elderly than in young adults in SI only, i.e. in the condition where proprioception is thought to be crucial for temporal coordination. Secondly, both groups developed a significantly shorter mediolateral (ML) anticipatory postural adjustment duration in RT (high temporal pressure) than in SI. In both groups, this shortening was compensated by an increase in the anticipatory peak of centre-of-gravity (CoG) acceleration towards the stance-leg so that ML dynamic stability at foot-off, quantified with the "extrapolated centre-of-mass", remained unchanged across temporal conditions. This increased CoG acceleration was associated with an increased anticipatory peak of ML centre-of-pressure shift towards the swing-leg in young adults only. This suggested that the ability to accelerate the CoG with the centre-of-pressure shift was degraded in elderly, probably due to weakness in the lower limb muscles. Dynamic stability at foot-off was also degraded in elderly, with a consequent increased risk of ML imbalance and falling. The present study provides new insights into the ability of elderly adults to deal

  19. Age-Related Differences in Motor Coordination during Simultaneous Leg Flexion and Finger Extension: Influence of Temporal Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Tarek; Yiou, Eric; Larue, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Although the effect of temporal pressure on spatio-temporal aspects of motor coordination and posture is well established in young adults, there is a clear lack of data on elderly subjects. This work examined the aging-related effects of temporal pressure on movement synchronization and dynamic stability. Sixteen young and eleven elderly subjects performed series of simultaneous rapid leg flexions in an erect posture paired with ipsilateral index-finger extensions, minimizing the difference between heel and finger movement onsets. This task was repeated ten times under two temporal conditions (self-initiated [SI] vs. reaction-time [RT]). Results showed that, first, temporal pressure modified movement synchronization; the finger extension preceded swing heel-off in RT, and inversely in SI. Synchronization error and associated standard deviation were significantly greater in elderly than in young adults in SI only, i.e. in the condition where proprioception is thought to be crucial for temporal coordination. Secondly, both groups developed a significantly shorter mediolateral (ML) anticipatory postural adjustment duration in RT (high temporal pressure) than in SI. In both groups, this shortening was compensated by an increase in the anticipatory peak of centre-of-gravity (CoG) acceleration towards the stance-leg so that ML dynamic stability at foot-off, quantified with the “extrapolated centre-of-mass”, remained unchanged across temporal conditions. This increased CoG acceleration was associated with an increased anticipatory peak of ML centre-of-pressure shift towards the swing-leg in young adults only. This suggested that the ability to accelerate the CoG with the centre-of-pressure shift was degraded in elderly, probably due to weakness in the lower limb muscles. Dynamic stability at foot-off was also degraded in elderly, with a consequent increased risk of ML imbalance and falling. The present study provides new insights into the ability of elderly adults to

  20. The effects of cognitive anxiety on the biomechanical characteristics of the golf swing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MBA De Ste Croix

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive anxiety (CA on the biomechanical characteristics of the golf swing. Written informed consent was obtained from 9 subjects, with a range of golf experience (handicap range 4-23. Each subject was filmed under a low anxiety condition (during practice, and a high anxiety condition (during competition and completed a revised version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2. Human movement analysis (Hu-m-an software package was used to identify the clubhead speeds during the backswing, downswing, and impact time, along with the completion times for each phase. The absolute angle of the club to the vertical, and the relative angle of the forearm, wrist, and club hinge, at the completion of the backswing stage were also examined. CA intensity scores were significantly lower during practice than competition (p<0.05. CA interpretation scores indicate that anxiety symptoms during practice were significantly more facilitative to performance (p<0.05. The time taken to complete the downswing phase was significantly lower during competition (p<0.05. The combined backswing and downswing times were significantly lower during the competition trial (p<0.05. There were no significant differences between the practice and competition trials on any of the remaining swing variables measured.

  1. Anti-Swing Control of Suspended Loads on Shipboard Robotic Cranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackrit Suthakorn

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the speed at which materials can be transferred between ships at sea is limited by sea conditions. Rough sea conditions cause the payload to swing making load transfer difficult and time-consuming. The objective of this research is to develop a real-time, command compensating control for reducing sea state induced payload swing for shipboard robotic cranes. The future use of this control strategy will be to facilitate faster "ship-to-ship" payload transfer in rough sea conditions. In this study, only the sea-induced rotational motion of the ship is considered, since it is assumed that a station-keeping control maintains a constant position of the ship. This rotational motion is modelled using pitch-yaw-roll Euler angles. The shipboard robotic crane is modelled as a spherical pendulum attached to a three-degree-of-freedom manipulator. The three degrees-of-freedom are azimuth (rotation about an axis normal to the ship's deck, elevation (rotation about an axis parallel with the ship's deck, also referred to as luffing, and lift-line length. An inverse kinematics based approach and a sliding mode control strategy are explored. Both approaches use the azimuth and the elevation capability of the crane manipulator to maintain a horizontal position of the suspended load to reduce sea-induced payload sway.

  2. The influence of the gait-related arm swing on elevation gain measured by sport watches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammann Rahel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The elevation gain is an important contributor to the total workload in endurance sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the arm swing on elevation gain in three sport watches (Garmin® Forerunner 910XT, Polar® RS800CX and Suunto® Ambit2 on a flat 400 m outdoor track. Altogether, a total of 120 repetitions of 1,200 m were performed at self-selected speeds corresponding to strolling, walking, jogging and running. During the assessment two devices of each sport watch, one secured on the hip and one on the wrist, were worn by the participants. A small but significant (effect size = .39; p < .001 influence of the arm swing on elevation was revealed in all sport watches. Elevation indication errors recorded on the wrist were significantly larger than the ones recorded on the hip (4.0-7.4 vs. 1.2-5.7 m per 1,200 m; p < .05. Furthermore, when wearing the devices on the wrist, errors in elevation indication increased when gait speed increased. Users should be aware that wearing the devices on the hip can significantly decrease measurement errors. This might be especially relevant for activities with high dynamics, such as jogging and running.

  3. Solar Power Ramp Events Detection Using an Optimized Swinging Door Algorithm: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2015-08-07

    Solar power ramp events (SPREs) are those that significantly influence the integration of solar power on non-clear days and threaten the reliable and economic operation of power systems. Accurately extracting solar power ramps becomes more important with increasing levels of solar power penetrations in power systems. In this paper, we develop an optimized swinging door algorithm (OpSDA) to detection. First, the swinging door algorithm (SDA) is utilized to segregate measured solar power generation into consecutive segments in a piecewise linear fashion. Then we use a dynamic programming approach to combine adjacent segments into significant ramps when the decision thresholds are met. In addition, the expected SPREs occurring in clear-sky solar power conditions are removed. Measured solar power data from Tucson Electric Power is used to assess the performance of the proposed methodology. OpSDA is compared to two other ramp detection methods: the SDA and the L1-Ramp Detect with Sliding Window (L1-SW) method. The statistical results show the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method. OpSDA can significantly improve the performance of the SDA, and it can perform as well as or better than L1-SW with substantially less computation time.

  4. Development of a doorframe-typed swinging seedling pick-up device for automatic field transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, H.; Mao, H.; Hu, J.; Tian, K.

    2015-07-01

    A doorframe-typed swing seedling pick-up device for automatic field transplanters was developed and evaluated in a laboratory. The device, consisting of a path manipulator and two grippers, can move the pins slowly to extract seedlings from the tray cells and return quickly to the pick-up point for the next extraction. The path manipulator was constructed with the creative design of type-Ⅱ mechanism combination in series. It consists of an oscillating guide linkage mechanism and a grooved globoidal cam mechanism. The gripper is a pincette-type mechanism using the pick-up pins to penetrate into the root mass for seedling extraction. The dynamic analysis of the designed seedling pick-up device was simulated with ADAMS software. Being the first prototype, various performance tests under local production conditions were conducted to find out the optimal machine operation parameters and transplant production conditions. As the gripper with multiple fine pins was moved by the swing pick-up device, it can effectively complete the transplanting work cycle of extracting, transferring, and discharging a seedling. The laboratory evaluation showed that the pick-up device equipped with two grippers can extract 80 seedlings/min with a 90% success and a 3% failure in discharging seedlings, using 42-day-old tomato plantlets. The quality of extracting seedlings was satisfactory. (Author)

  5. Getting into the flow: Red cells go on a roll, two-component vesicles swing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallat, Annie; Dupire, Jules; Khelloufi, Kamel; Al Halifa, Al Hair; Adhesion and Inflammation Team

    2013-11-01

    Red blood cells are soft capsules. Under shear flow, their two known motions were ``tumbling'' and ``swinging-tank treading,'' depending on cell mechanics and flow conditions. We reveal new wobbling regimes, among which the ``rolling'' regime, where red cells move as wheels on a road. We show, by coupling two video-microscopy approaches providing multi-directional cell pictures that the orientation of cells flipping into the flow is determined by the shear rate. Rolling permits to avoid energetically costly cellular deformations and is a true signature of the cytoskeleton elasticity. We highlight two transient dynamics: an intermittent regime during the ``tank-treading-to-flipping'' transition and a Frisbee-like ``spinning'' regime during the ``rolling-to-tank-treading'' transition. We find that the biconcave red cell shape is very stable under moderate shear stresses, and we interpret this result in terms of shape memory and elastic buckling. Finally, we generate lipid vesicles with a shape memory by using two lipids with different bending rigidities. These vesicles swing in shear flow similarly to red blood cells but their non-axisymmetric stress-free shape changes the periodicity of the motion and induces specific features.

  6. A new method to identify the location of the kick point during the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Christopher; Burnett, Angus; Matthews, Miccal

    2013-12-01

    No method currently exists to determine the location of the kick point during the golf swing. This study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, the static kick point of 10 drivers (having identical grip and head but fitted with shafts of differing mass and stiffness) was determined by two methods: (1) a visual method used by professional club fitters and (2) an algorithm using 3D locations of markers positioned on the golf club. Using level of agreement statistics, we showed the latter technique was a valid method to determine the location of the static kick point. In phase two, the validated method was used to determine the dynamic kick point during the golf swing. Twelve elite male golfers had three shots analyzed for two drivers fitted with stiff shafts of differing mass (56 g and 78 g). Excellent between-trial reliability was found for dynamic kick point location. Differences were found for dynamic kick point location when compared with static kick point location, as well as between-shaft and within-shaft. These findings have implications for future investigations examining the bending behavior of golf clubs, as well as being useful to examine relationships between properties of the shaft and launch parameters.

  7. The relationship between the golf swing plane and ball impact characteristics using trajectory ellipse fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Andrew; McGrath, Denise; Wallace, Eric S

    2018-02-01

    The trajectory of the clubhead close to ball impact during the golf swing has previously been shown to be planar. However, the relationship between the plane orientation and the orientation characteristics of the clubhead at ball impact has yet to be defined. Fifty-two male golfers (27 high skilled, 25 intermediate skilled) hit 40 drives each in an indoor biomechanics laboratory. This study successfully fitted the trajectory of the clubhead near impact to an ellipse for each swing for players of different skill levels to help better explain this relationship. Additionally, the eccentricities of the ellipses were investigated for links to skill level. The trajectory of the clubhead was found to fit to an ellipse with RMSE of 1.2 mm. The eccentricity of the ellipse was found to be greater in the high-skilled golfers. The club path and angle of attack generated from the ellipse fitted clubhead trajectory were found to have a normalised bias-corrected RMSE of 2% and 3%, respectively. A set of "rule of thumb" values for the relationship between the club path, angle of attack and delivery plane angle was generated for use by coaches.

  8. The effect of two different swinging methods upon colic and crying durations among the infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Yilmaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Swinging "repetitive and rhythmic" movements are helpful because these provide a continuous stimulus. These methods are reported to be effective upon decreasing baby′s pains or cry. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the factors of the two different methods (rhythmic rocking of infants in the arm and rhythmic rocking infants on a blanket on crying duration and colic as well as the factors affecting duration of crying with colic. Materials and Methods: A pre-test post-test quasi experimental model was used. Subjects included 72 infants (1-3 months who had colic and their mothers. The infants were healthy and were delivered after full-term gestation. Results: It has been determined that as the duration of application increased (at the end of the second week, the crying duration of babies who were in each of the two groups decreased. Conclusion: It has been found that swinging ( rhythmic rocking the infants on a blanket and in arm, decreased the colic and crying duration of infants.

  9. Biomechanical differences of arm swing countermovement jumps on sand and rigid surface performed by elite beach volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatsis, George; Panoutsakopoulos, Vassilios; Kollias, Iraklis A

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible arm swing effect on the biomechanical parameters of vertical counter movement jump due to differences of the compliance of the take-off surface. Fifteen elite male beach-volleyball players (26.2 ± 5.9 years; 1.87 ± 0.05 m; 83.4 ± 6.0 kg; mean ± standard deviation, respectively) performed counter movement jumps on sand and on a rigid surface with and without an arm swing. Results showed significant (p volleyball.

  10. Design of Low Voltage Low Power CMOS OP-AMPS with Rail-to-Rail Input/Output Swing

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalaiah, SV; Shivaprasad, AP; Panigrahi, Sukanta K

    2004-01-01

    A novel input and output biasing circuit to extend the input common mode (CM) voltage range and the output swing to rail-to-rail in a low voltage op-amp in standard CMOS technology is presented. The input biasing circuit uses a Switched Capacitor Based Attenuator (SCBA) approach to establish rail-to-rail common mode input voltage range. And the output biasing circuit uses an Output Driver (OD), with floating bias to give the rail-to-rail swing at output stage. Three different OD schemes in op...

  11. Subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory for nonvolatile operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, In; Cheon, Woo Young; Choi, Woo Young

    2016-04-01

    A subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory (SAT RAM) has been proposed and fabricated for low-power nonvolatile memory applications. The proposed SAT RAM cell demonstrates adjustable subthreshold swing (SS) depending on stored information: small SS in the erase state ("1" state) and large SS in the program state ("0" state). Thus, SAT RAM cells can achieve low read voltage (Vread) with a large memory window in addition to the effective suppression of ambipolar behavior. These unique features of the SAT RAM are originated from the locally stored charge, which modulates the tunneling barrier width (Wtun) of the source-to-channel tunneling junction.

  12. Testing Hypotheses in an I(2) Model with Applications to the Persistent Long Swings in the Dmk/$ Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Juselius, Katarina; Frydman, Roman

    and persistent swings in the foreign exchange market between Germany and USA. The data analyzed consist of nominal exchange rates, relative prices, US inflation rate, two long-term interest rates and two short-term interest rates over the 1975-1999 period. One important aim of the paper is to demonstrate...... that by structuring the data with the help of the I(2) model one can achieve a better understanding of the empirical regularities underlying the persistent swings in nominal exchange rates, typical in periods of floating exchange rates...

  13. Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Felix; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V.; Diaz, Ramon; Ibanez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000 Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MS E , enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater.

  14. Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Felix, E-mail: felix.hernandez@qfa.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Bijlsma, Lubertus, E-mail: bijlsma@guest.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Sancho, Juan V.; Diaz, Ramon; Ibanez, Maria [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2011-01-17

    This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000 Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MS{sup E}, enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater.

  15. The effect of swinging the arms on muscle activation and production of leg force during ski skating at different skiing speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göpfert, Caroline; Lindinger, Stefan J; Ohtonen, Olli; Rapp, Walter; Müller, Erich; Linnamo, Vesa

    2016-06-01

    The study investigated the effects of arm swing during leg push-off in V2-alternate/G4 skating on neuromuscular activation and force production by the leg muscles. Nine skilled cross-country skiers performed V2-alternate skating without poles at moderate, high, and maximal speeds, both with free (SWING) and restricted arm swing (NOSWING). Maximal speed was 5% greater in SWING (P<0.01), while neuromuscular activation and produced forces did not differ between techniques. At both moderate and high speed the maximal (2% and 5%, respectively) and average (both 5%) vertical force and associated impulse (10% and 14%) were greater with SWING (all P<0.05). At high speed range of motion and angular velocity of knee flexion were 24% greater with SWING (both P<0.05), while average EMG of m. biceps femoris was 31% lower (all P<0.05) in SWING. In a similar manner, the average EMG of m. vastus medialis and m. biceps femoris were lower (17% and 32%, P<0.05) during the following knee extension. Thus, swinging the arms while performing V2-alternate can enhance both maximal speed and skiing economy at moderate and, in particularly, high speeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verikas, Antanas; Vaiciukynas, Evaldas; Gelzinis, Adas; Parker, James; Olsson, M Charlotte

    2016-04-23

    This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG) signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each). The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG dynamics and features

  17. Modulating Arm Swing Symmetry with Cognitive Load: A Window on Rhythmic Spinal Locomotor Networks in Humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killeen, Tim; Easthope, Christopher S; Filli, Linard; Linnebank, Michael; Curt, Armin; Bolliger, Marc; Zörner, Björn

    2017-05-15

    In healthy subjects, changes in arm swing symmetry while walking are observed when a cognitive dual task is added, with a tendency toward left-dominant arm swing as cognitive load increases. We applied a modified Stroop word/color naming paradigm to investigate this effect in spinal cord injured (SCI) patients. Six patients with cervical SCI (cSCI), 6 with thoracic injuries (tSCI; all 12 patients American Spinal Injury Association [ASIA] Injury Score [AIS]D), and 12 healthy, matched controls underwent three-dimensional 3D gait analysis while walking normally at a comfortable speed (NW) and when performing an additional congruent (CS) and incongruent (IS) Stroop task. An arm swing symmetry index (ASI)-in which positive values indicate proportionally more movement on the left and vice versa-was calculated. Even in the baseline NW condition, all three subject groups showed larger arm movements on the left. In controls, ASI increased (NW, 13.7 ± 6.3; CS, 16.6 ± 6.4; IS, 19.6 ± 7.8) as the task became more demanding. A larger shift in tSCI patients (NW, 15.8 ± 6.0; CS, 23.4 ± 3.8; IS, 30.7 ± 4.4) was driven by a significant reduction in right wrist trajectory (p = 0.014), whereas cSCI patients showed a small reduction in mean ASI with high variability (NW, 14.2 ± 10.7; CS, 9.3 ± 13.5; IS, 6.0 ± 12.9). The effect of the IS task on ASI compared to baseline (NW) was significantly different between tSCI (+12.5 ± 6.3) and cSCI (-8.2 ± 6.0) patients (p = 0.011). Disruption of the long propriospinal connections coordinating arm and leg movements during walking may explain the heightened sensitivity to manipulation of cognitive load in tSCI, whereas the more robust automaticity in cSCI may be attributed to impaired supraspinal inputs in the context of preserved intraspinal pathways.

  18. Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antanas Verikas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each. The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG

  19. Long-Duration Testing of a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Micha; Mulloth, Lila; Varghese, Mini

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the results of long-duration testing of a temperature-swing adsorption compressor that has application in the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft for closing the air revitalization loop. The air revitalization system of the ISS operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from Earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. The TSAC is a solid-state compressor that has the capability to remove CO2 from a low-pressure source, and subsequently store, compress, and deliver at a higher pressure as required by a processor. The TSAC is an ideal interface device for CO2 removal and reduction units in the air revitalization loop of a spacecraft for oxygen recovery. The TSAC was developed and its operation was successfully verified in integration tests with the flight-like Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) at Marshall Space Flight Center prior to the long-duration tests. Long-duration tests reveal the impacts of repeated thermal cycling on the compressor components and the adsorbent material.

  20. Gait performance and foot pressure distribution during wearable robot-assisted gait in elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Hyun; Lee, Hwang-Jae; Chang, Won Hyuk; Choi, Byung-Ok; Lee, Jusuk; Kim, Jeonghun; Ryu, Gyu-Ha; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-11-28

    A robotic exoskeleton device is an intelligent system designed to improve gait performance and quality of life for the wearer. Robotic technology has developed rapidly in recent years, and several robot-assisted gait devices were developed to enhance gait function and activities of daily living in elderly adults and patients with gait disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of the Gait-enhancing Mechatronic System (GEMS), a new wearable robotic hip-assist device developed by Samsung Electronics Co, Ltd., Korea, on gait performance and foot pressure distribution in elderly adults. Thirty elderly adults who had no neurological or musculoskeletal abnormalities affecting gait participated in this study. A three-dimensional (3D) motion capture system, surface electromyography and the F-Scan system were used to collect data on spatiotemporal gait parameters, muscle activity and foot pressure distribution under three conditions: free gait without robot assistance (FG), robot-assisted gait with zero torque (RAG-Z) and robot-assisted gait (RAG). We found increased gait speed, cadence, stride length and single support time in the RAG condition. Reduced rectus femoris and medial gastrocnemius muscle activity throughout the terminal stance phase and reduced effort of the medial gastrocnemius muscle throughout the pre-swing phase were also observed in the RAG condition. In addition, walking with the assistance of GEMS resulted in a significant increase in foot pressure distribution, specifically in maximum force and peak pressure of the total foot, medial masks, anterior masks and posterior masks. The results of the present study reveal that GEMS may present an alternative way of restoring age-related changes in gait such as gait instability with muscle weakness, reduced step force and lower foot pressure in elderly adults. In addition, GEMS improved gait performance by improving push-off power and walking speed and reducing muscle activity in the lower

  1. Rotation of the swing plane of Foucault's pendulum and Thomas spin precession: two sides of one coin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivoruchenko, Mikhail I [Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Russian Federation State Scientific Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-31

    Using elementary geometric tools, we apply essentially the same methods to derive expressions for the rotation angle of the swing plane of Foucault's pendulum and the rotation angle of the spin of a relativistic particle moving in a circular orbit (the Thomas precession effect). (methodological notes)

  2. Restoration of gait for spinal cord injury patients using HAL with intention estimator for preferable swing speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Eguchi, Kiyoshi; Sankai, Yoshiyuki

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a novel gait intention estimator for an exoskeleton-wearer who needs gait support owing to walking impairment. The gait intention estimator not only detects the intention related to the start of the swing leg based on the behavior of the center of ground reaction force (CoGRF), but also infers the swing speed depending on the walking velocity. The preliminary experiments categorized into two stages were performed on a mannequin equipped with the exoskeleton robot [Hybrid Assistive Limb: (HAL)] including the proposed estimator. The first experiment verified that the gait support system allowed the mannequin to walk properly and safely. In the second experiment, we confirmed the differences in gait characteristics attributed to the presence or absence of the proposed swing speed profile. As a feasibility study, we evaluated the walking capability of a severe spinal cord injury patient supported by the system during a 10-m walk test. The results showed that the system enabled the patient to accomplish a symmetrical walk from both spatial and temporal standpoints while adjusting the speed of the swing leg. Furthermore, the critical differences of gait between our system and a knee-ankle-foot orthosis were obtained from the CoGRF distribution and the walking time. Through the tests, we demonstrated the effectiveness and practical feasibility of the gait support algorithms.

  3. Rotation of the swing plane of Foucault's pendulum and Thomas spin precession: two sides of one coin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchenko, Mikhail I

    2009-01-01

    Using elementary geometric tools, we apply essentially the same methods to derive expressions for the rotation angle of the swing plane of Foucault's pendulum and the rotation angle of the spin of a relativistic particle moving in a circular orbit (the Thomas precession effect). (methodological notes)

  4. METHODOLOGICAL NOTES: Rotation of the swing plane of Foucault's pendulum and Thomas spin precession: two sides of one coin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoruchenko, Mikhail I.

    2009-08-01

    Using elementary geometric tools, we apply essentially the same methods to derive expressions for the rotation angle of the swing plane of Foucault's pendulum and the rotation angle of the spin of a relativistic particle moving in a circular orbit (the Thomas precession effect).

  5. Explaining the Swing to the Right : the Dutch Debate on the Rise of Right-wing Populism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenampsen, M.; Wodak, Ruth; Mral, Brigitte; Khosravinik, Mral

    2013-01-01

    In these last ten years the Netherlands has experienced a dramatic swing to the Right. Long considered the epitome of tolerance and liberalism, the country now finds itself at the forefront of the political revival of nationalist and anti-immigrant sentiments in Europe. The motor behind this

  6. A Wireless Swing Angle Measurement Scheme Using Attitude Heading Reference System Sensing Units Based on Microelectromechanical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingtuan Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Feasible real-time swing angle measurement is significant to improve the efficiency and safety of industrial crane systems. This paper presents a wireless microelectromechanical system (MEMS-based swing angle measurement system. The system consists of two attitude heading reference system (AHRS sensing units with a wireless communication function, which are mounted on the hook (or payload and the jib (or base of the crane, respectively. With a combination of a three-axis accelerometer, a three-axis gyroscope and a three-axis magnetometer, the standard extended Kalman filter (EKF is used to estimate the desired orientation of the payload and the base. Wireless ZigBee communication is employed to transmit the orientation of the payload to the sensing unit mounted on the base, which measures the orientation of the base. Because several physical parameters from the payload to the base can be acquired from the original crane control system, the swing angles of the payload can be calculated based on the two measured orientation parameters together with the known physical parameters. Experiments were performed to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed swing angle measurement system.

  7. Biomechanical effect of altered lumbar lordosis on intervertebral lumbar joints during the golf swing: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Tae Soo; Cho, Woong; Kim, Kwon Hee; Chae, Soo Won

    2014-11-01

    Although the lumbar spine region is the most common site of injury in golfers, little research has been done on intervertebral loads in relation to the anatomical-morphological differences in the region. This study aimed to examine the biomechanical effects of anatomical-morphological differences in the lumbar lordosis on the lumbar spinal joints during a golf swing. The golf swing motions of ten professional golfers were analyzed. Using a subject-specific 3D musculoskeletal system model, inverse dynamic analyses were performed to compare the intervertebral load, the load on the lumbar spine, and the load in each swing phase. In the intervertebral load, the value was the highest at the L5-S1 and gradually decreased toward the T12. In each lumbar spine model, the load value was the greatest on the kypholordosis (KPL) followed by normal lordosis (NRL), hypolordosis (HPL), and excessive lordosis (EXL) before the impact phase. However, results after the follow-through (FT) phase were shown in reverse order. Finally, the load in each swing phase was greatest during the FT phase in all the lumbar spine models. The findings can be utilized in the training and rehabilitation of golfers to help reduce the risk of injury by considering individual anatomical-morphological characteristics.

  8. Swinging boys to take over the E-world. The role of engineers in a liberalized electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrauwers, A.

    2000-01-01

    The relatively reliable but also static electricity sector will in a few years change into a free market sector, including market shares, electricity exchanges and the inevitable rise of swinging persons. The market will regulate it all, but at the cost of what? An overview is given of the consequences of the liberalization process of the energy market in Europe

  9. Work-home interaction from a work psychological perspective : Development and validation of a new questionnaire, the SWING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, S.A.E.; Taris, T.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Dikkers, J.S.E.; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Kinnunen, U.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the stepwise development of a new questionnaire for measuring work-home interaction, i.e. the Survey Work-home Interaction—NijmeGen, the SWING). Inspired by insights from work psychology, more specifically from Effort-Recovery Theory (Meijman & Mulder, 1998), we defined

  10. Influence of the swing ankle angle on walking stability for a passive dynamic walking robot with flat feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xizhe Zang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To achieve high walking stability for a passive dynamic walking robot is not easy. In this article, we aim to investigate whether the walking performance for a passive dynamic walking robot can be improved by just simply changing the swing ankle angle before impact. To validate this idea, a passive bipedal walking model with two straight legs, two flat feet, a hip joint, and two ankle joints was built in this study. The walking dynamics that contains double stance phase was derived. By numerical simulation of the walking in MATLAB, we found that the walking performance can be adjusted effectively by only simply changing the swing ankle angle before impact. A bigger swing ankle angle in a reasonable range will lead to a higher walking stability and a lower initial walking speed of the next step. A bigger swing ankle angle before impact leads to a bigger amount of energy lost during impact for the quasi-passive dynamic walking robot which will influence the walking stability of the next step.

  11. Selectivity of power system protections at power swings in power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Machowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses out-of-step protection systems such as: generator pole slip protections, out of step tripping protections, distance protections of step-up transformer, distance protections of transmission lines and transformers, power swing blocking, and special out-of-step protection. It is shown that all these protections make up a protection system, to which a setting concept uniform for the entire power system has to be applied. If a power system is inappropriately equipped with these protections, or their settings are inappropriate, they may operate unselectively, thus contributing to the development of power system blackouts. In the paper the concepts for a real power system are given for the two stages: target stage fully compliant with selectivity criteria, and transitional stage between the current and target stages.

  12. Optimized Swinging Door Algorithm for Wind Power Ramp Event Detection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Florita, Anthony R.; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2015-08-06

    Significant wind power ramp events (WPREs) are those that influence the integration of wind power, and they are a concern to the continued reliable operation of the power grid. As wind power penetration has increased in recent years, so has the importance of wind power ramps. In this paper, an optimized swinging door algorithm (SDA) is developed to improve ramp detection performance. Wind power time series data are segmented by the original SDA, and then all significant ramps are detected and merged through a dynamic programming algorithm. An application of the optimized SDA is provided to ascertain the optimal parameter of the original SDA. Measured wind power data from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) are used to evaluate the proposed optimized SDA.

  13. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Street, J.; Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D.

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ∼0.2 Bq m −3 . This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m −3 to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m −3

  14. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, J.; Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D.

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ˜0.2 Bq m-3. This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m-3 to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m-3.

  15. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, J., E-mail: joseph.street@mines.sdsmt.edu; Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D. [Department of Physics, South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD 57701 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ∼0.2 Bq m{sup −3}. This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m{sup −3} to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m{sup −3}.

  16. Comments on "cyclical swings" by Professor Hannah Decker: The underappreciated "solid center" of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pies, Ronald W

    2016-02-01

    The history of psychiatry is characterized by some deep ideological and conceptual divisions, as adumbrated in Professor Hannah Decker's essay. However, the schism between "biological" and "psychosocial" models of mental illness and its treatment represents extreme positions among some psychiatrists-not the model propounded by academic psychiatry or its affiliated professional organizations. Indeed, the "biopsycho-social model" (BPSM) developed by Dr. George L. Engel has been, and remains, the foundational model for academic psychiatry, notwithstanding malign market forces that have undermined the BPSM's use in clinical practice. The BPSM is integrally related to "centralizing" and integrative trends in American psychiatry that may be traced to Franz Alexander, Karl Jaspers, and Engel himself, among others. This "Alexandrian-Jaspersian-Engelian" tradition is explored in relation to Professor Decker's "cyclical swing" model of psychiatry's history. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. CO2 Binding Organic Liquids Gas Capture with Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldebrant, David [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-05-31

    This report outlines the comprehensive bench-scale testing of the CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) solvent platform and its unique Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). This study outlines all efforts on a candidate CO2BOL solvent molecule, including solvent synthesis, material characterization, preliminary toxicology studies, and measurement of all physical, thermodynamic and kinetic data, including bench-scale testing. Equilibrium and kinetic models and analysis were made using Aspen Plus™. Preliminary process configurations, a technoeconomic assessment and solvent performance projections for separating CO2 from a subcritical coal-fired power plant are compared to the U.S. Department of Energy's Case 10 monoethanolamine baseline.

  18. A study of swing-curve physics in diffraction-based overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Kaustuve; den Boef, Arie; Storms, Greet; van Heijst, Joost; Noot, Marc; An, Kevin; Park, Noh-Kyoung; Jeon, Se-Ra; Oh, Nang-Lyeom; McNamara, Elliott; van de Mast, Frank; Oh, SeungHwa; Lee, Seung Yoon; Hwang, Chan; Lee, Kuntack

    2016-03-01

    With the increase of process complexity in advanced nodes, the requirements of process robustness in overlay metrology continues to tighten. Especially with the introduction of newer materials in the film-stack along with typical stack variations (thickness, optical properties, profile asymmetry etc.), the signal formation physics in diffraction-based overlay (DBO) becomes an important aspect to apply in overlay metrology target and recipe selection. In order to address the signal formation physics, an effort is made towards studying the swing-curve phenomena through wavelength and polarizations on production stacks using simulations as well as experimental technique using DBO. The results provide a wealth of information on target and recipe selection for robustness. Details from simulation and measurements will be reported in this technical publication.

  19. How joint torques affect hamstring injury risk in sprinting swing-stance transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuliang; Wei, Shutao; Zhong, Yunjian; Fu, Weijie; Li, Li; Liu, Yu

    2015-02-01

    The potential mechanisms of hamstring strain injuries in athletes are not well understood. The study, therefore, was aimed at understanding hamstring mechanics by studying loading conditions during maximum-effort overground sprinting. Three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction force data were collected from eight elite male sprinters sprinting at their maximum effort. Maximal isometric torques of the hip and knee were also collected. Data from the sprinting gait cycle were analyzed via an intersegmental dynamics approach, and the different joint torque components were calculated. During the initial stance phase, the ground reaction force passed anteriorly to the knee and hip, producing an extension torque at the knee and a flexion torque at the hip joint. Thus, the active muscle torque functioned to produce flexion torque at the knee and extension torque at the hip. The maximal muscle torque at the knee joint was 1.4 times the maximal isometric knee flexion torque. During the late swing phase, the muscle torque counterbalanced the motion-dependent torque and acted to flex the knee joint and extend the hip joint. The loading conditions on the hamstring muscles were similar to those of the initial stance phase. During both the initial stance and late swing phases, the large passive torques at both the knee and hip joints acted to lengthen the hamstring muscles. The active muscle torques generated mainly by the hamstrings functioned to counteract those passive effects. As a result, during sprinting or high-speed locomotion, the hamstring muscles may be more susceptible to high risk of strain injury during these two phases.

  20. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  1. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabandere, L.A. de; Borginon, H.A.; Pattyn, H.A.; Pollet, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  2. The relevance of coordination at the golf swing performance of junior players Importancia de la coordinación en el rendimiento del swing de golf en jóvenes promesas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Juarez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The golf swing is a skill which could be classified as a high velocity hitting where the main goal is that the head of the golf club reaches its maximum velocity at impact time. The aim of this study was to find the movement pattern of the golf swing in order to apply this pattern to improve their performance. Twelve golf swings executed by four young players were biomechanically analyzed. Automatic capture with Vicon Oxford Metrics © was used. The analysis of the maximum angular velocity sequence during the downswing showed, that depending on the gender, they described different timing. The angular velocity sequences had the same order, being first the hip turn, secondly the shoulder turn y finally the golf club head acceleration. It was found discriminant function for each gender group which could predict whether the golf swing was “good” or “bad” considering the club head speed as performance criteria. This separation at the timing of the key events could be the reason why that explains men reached more velocity at the head club near impact time than women.
    Key Words: Biomechanics, hitting, swing, golf, pattern, performance.

     

    El swing de golf es una destreza que podríamos catalogar de golpeo de velocidad donde el objetivo es que la cara del palo alcance la máxima velocidad en el momento del impacto. El objetivo de este estudio fue hallar el patrón de movimiento en el swing de golf y aplicar este patrón para la mejora del rendimiento. Se han analizado biomecánicamente doce golpeos de cuatro jugadores promesas, mediante el sistema fotogrametría 3D Vicon Oxford Metrics © de captura automática. El análisis de la secuencia de velocidades angulares máximas en el downswing muestra cómo siguen un timing diferente en función del género. Las secuencias

  3. The Development and Validation of a Golf Swing and Putt Skill Assessment for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Hardy, Louise L.; Brian, Ali S.; Robertson, Sam

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to describe development of a process-oriented instrument designed to assess the golf swing and putt stroke, and to assess the instrument’s discriminative validity in terms of age and reliability (intra-rater and re-test). A Delphi consultation (with golf industry professionals and researchers in movement skill assessment) was used to develop an assessment for each skill based on existing skill assessment protocols. Each skill had six components to be marked as present/absent. Individual scores were based on the number of performance components successfully demonstrated over two trials for each skill (potential score range 0 to 24). Children (n = 43) aged 6-10 years (M = 7.8 years, SD = 1.3) were assessed in both skills live in the field by one rater at Time 1(T1). A subset of children (n = 28) had consent for assessments to be videoed. Six weeks later 19 children were reassessed, five days apart (T2, T3). An ANOVA assessed discriminative validity i.e. whether skill competence at T1 differed by age (6 years, 7/8 years and 9/10 years). Intraclass correlations (ICC) assessed intra-rater reliability between the live and video assessment at T1 and test-retest reliability (between T2 and T3). Paired t-tests assessed any systematic differences between live and video assessments (T1) and between T2 and T3. Older children were more skilled (F (2, 40) = 11.18, p golf coaches and physical education teachers as part of systematic early player assessment and feedback. Key points Golf is becoming an increasingly popular sport among young children, however there is no standard protocol available to assess and identify skill deficits, mastery level, and talent identification in beginner young golf players. Process rather than product oriented outcomes better identify areas of skill deficit in young children. The proposed swing and putt instrument can reliably identify skill deficits in children of elementary school age who are new to golf and can be used by a range

  4. The development and validation of a golf swing and putt skill assessment for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Hardy, Louise L; Brian, Ali S; Robertson, Sam

    2015-03-01

    The aim was to describe development of a process-oriented instrument designed to assess the golf swing and putt stroke, and to assess the instrument's discriminative validity in terms of age and reliability (intra-rater and re-test). A Delphi consultation (with golf industry professionals and researchers in movement skill assessment) was used to develop an assessment for each skill based on existing skill assessment protocols. Each skill had six components to be marked as present/absent. Individual scores were based on the number of performance components successfully demonstrated over two trials for each skill (potential score range 0 to 24). Children (n = 43) aged 6-10 years (M = 7.8 years, SD = 1.3) were assessed in both skills live in the field by one rater at Time 1(T1). A subset of children (n = 28) had consent for assessments to be videoed. Six weeks later 19 children were reassessed, five days apart (T2, T3). An ANOVA assessed discriminative validity i.e. whether skill competence at T1 differed by age (6 years, 7/8 years and 9/10 years). Intraclass correlations (ICC) assessed intra-rater reliability between the live and video assessment at T1 and test-retest reliability (between T2 and T3). Paired t-tests assessed any systematic differences between live and video assessments (T1) and between T2 and T3. Older children were more skilled (F (2, 40) = 11.18, p < 0.001). The live assessment reflected the video assessment (ICC = 0.79, 95% CI 0.59, 0.90) and scores did not differ between live and video assessments. Test retest reliability was acceptable (ICC = 0.60, 95% CI 0.23, 0.82), although the mean score was slightly higher at retest. This instrument could be used reliably by golf coaches and physical education teachers as part of systematic early player assessment and feedback. Key pointsGolf is becoming an increasingly popular sport among young children, however there is no standard protocol available to assess and identify skill deficits, mastery level

  5. Subthreshold Current and Swing Modeling of Gate Underlap DG MOSFETs with a Source/Drain Lateral Gaussian Doping Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunal; Kumar, Sanjay; Goel, Ekta; Singh, Balraj; Kumar, Mirgender; Dubey, Sarvesh; Jit, Satyabrata

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new model for the subthreshold current and swing of the short-channel symmetric underlap ultrathin double gate metal oxide field effect transistors with a source/drain lateral Gaussian doping profile. The channel potential model already reported earlier has been utilized to formulate the closed form expression for the subthreshold current and swing of the device. The effects of the lateral straggle and geometrical parameters such as the channel length, channel thickness, and oxide thickness on the off current and subthreshold slope have been demonstrated. The devices with source/drain lateral Gaussian doping profiles in the underlap structure are observed to be highly resistant to short channel effects while improving the current drive. The proposed model is validated by comparing the results with the numerical simulation data obtained by using the commercially available ATLAS™, a two-dimensional (2-D) device simulator from SILVACO.

  6. Applying burnable poison particles to reduce the reactivity swing in high temperature reactors with batch-wise fuel loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.; Dam, H. van; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der

    2003-01-01

    Burnup calculations have been performed on a standard HTR fuel pebble with a radius of 3 cm containing 9 g of 8% enriched uranium and burnable poison particles (BPP) made of B 4 C highly enriched in 10 B. The radius of the BPP and the number of particles per fuel pebble have been varied to find the flattest reactivity-to-time curve. It was found that for a k∞ of 1.1, a reactivity swing as low as 2% can be obtained when each fuel pebble contains about 1070 BPP with a radius of 75 μm. For coated BPP that consist of a graphite kernel with a radius of 300 μm covered with a B 4 C burnable poison layer, a similar value for the reactivity swing can be obtained. Cylindrical particles seem to perform worse. In general, the modification of the geometry of BPP is an effective means to tailor the reactivity curve of HTRs

  7. A 'Swinging Cradle' model for in vitro classification of different types of response elements of a nuclear receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malo, Madhu S.; Pushpakaran, Premraj; Hodin, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear receptors are hormone-activated transcription factors that bind to specific target sequences termed hormone-response element (HRE). A HRE usually consists of two half-sites (5'-AGGTCA-3' consensus sequence) arranged as a direct, everted or inverted repeat with variable spacer region. Assignment of a HRE as a direct, everted or inverted repeat is based on its homology to the consensus half-site, but minor variations can make such an assignment confusing. We hypothesize a 'Swinging Cradle' model for HRE classification, whereby the core HRE functions as the 'sitting platform' for the NR, and the extra nucleotides at either end act as the 'sling' of the Cradle. We show that in vitro binding of the thyroid hormone receptor and 9-cis retinoic acid receptor heterodimer to an everted repeat TRE follows the 'Swinging Cradle' model, whereas the other TREs do not. We also show that among these TREs, the everted repeat mediates the highest biological activity

  8. Testing hypotheses in an I(2) model with applications to the persistent long swings in the Dmk/$ rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Juselius, Katarina; Frydman, Roman

    long-term interest rates and two short-term interest rates over the 1975-1999 period. One important aim of the paper is to demonstrate that by structuring the data with the help of the I(2) model one can achieve a better understanding of the empirical regularities underlying the persistent swings...... components in the I(2) model is discussed at some length. Model specification and tests are illustrated with an empirical analysis of long and persistent swings in the foreign exchange market between Germany and USA. The data analyzed consist of nominal exchange rates, relative prices, US inflation rate, two...... in nominal exchange rates, typical in periods of floating exchange rates....

  9. Allocation of ESS by interval optimization method considering impact of ship swinging on hybrid PV/diesel ship power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Shuli; Lan, Hai; Hong, Ying-Yi; Yu, David C.; Zhang, Lijun; Cheng, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An uncertainty model of PV generation on board is developed based on the experiments. • The moving and swinging of the ship are considered in the optimal ESS sizing problem. • Optimal sizing of ESS in a hybrid PV/diesel/ESS ship power system is gained by the interval optimization method. • Different cases were studied to show the significance of the proposed method considering the swinging effects on the cost. - Abstract: Owing to low efficiency of traditional ships and the serious environmental pollution that they cause, the use of solar energy and an energy storage system (ESS) in a ship’s power system is increasingly attracting attention. However, the swinging of a ship raises crucial challenges in designing an optimal system for a large oil tanker ship, which are associated with uncertainties in solar energy. In this study, a series of experiments are performed to investigate the characteristics of a photovoltaic (PV) system on a moving ship. Based on the experimental results, an interval uncertainty model of on-board PV generation is established, which considers the effect of the swinging of the ship. Due to the power balance equations, the outputs of the diesel generator and the ESS on a large oil tanker are also modeled using interval variables. An interval optimization method is developed to determine the optimal size of the ESS in this hybrid ship power system to reduce the fuel cost, capital cost of the ESS, and emissions of greenhouse gases. Variations of the ship load are analyzed using a new method, taking five operating conditions into account. Several cases are compared in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  10. Immediate Effects of Sports Taping Applied on the Lead Knee of Low- and High-Handicapped Golfers During Golf Swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Eun-Kuk; Park, Jong-Chul

    2017-04-01

    Kim, T-G, Kim, E-K, and Park, J-C. Immediate effects of sports taping applied on the lead knee of low- and high-handicapped golfers during golf swing. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 981-989, 2017-Elite golf athletes suffer from various musculoskeletal injuries due to repeated golf swings. Repetitive varus moment during golf swing has been suggested as a possible cause of injuries to the lead knee. The aim of this study was to objectively and quantitatively evaluate the immediate effects of sports taping on the lead knee of elite golfers to restrict varus moment. Thirty-one elite golfers were assigned to the low- (LHG, n = 15) or high-handicapped group (HHG, n = 16). Using 3-dimensional motion analysis, the lead knee position on the frontal plane with and without rigid taping (RT), elastic taping (ET), and placebo taping was identified in 4 separate phases by the 5 events of golf swing as follows: the peak of the backswing (E1), parallel to the ground during downswing (E2), ball impact (E3), parallel to the ground during follow-through (E4), and finish (E5). The LHG when using a driver club had decreased movement toward knee varus with RT and ET than that without it from E1 to E2 (p = 0.001). The LHG when using a 5-iron club decreased movement toward knee varus with RT than that without it from E1 to E2 (p = 0.006) and from E2 to E3 (p = 0.019). The HHG when using a driver club had decreased movement toward knee varus with RT from E1 to E2 (p = 0.014). Sports taping may be helpful for elite golfers in terms of reducing varus moment of the lead knee during the downswing and be useful for the development of preventive strategies for golf-related knee injuries.

  11. EMG Analysis and Sagittal Plane Kinematics of the Two-Handed and Single-Handed Kettlebell Swing: A Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gelder, Leonard H; Hoogenboom, Barbara J; Alonzo, Bryan; Briggs, Dayna; Hatzel, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Kettlebell (KB) swing exercises have been proposed as a possible method to improve hip and spinal motor control as well as improve power, strength, and endurance. To describe electromyographic (EMG) and sagittal plane kinematics during two KB exercises: the two-handed KB swing (THKS) and the single-handed KB swing (SHKS). In addition, the authors sought to investigate whether or not hip flexor length related to the muscular activity or the kinematics of the exercise. Twenty-three healthy college age subjects participated in this study. Demographic information and passive hip flexor length were recorded for each subject. A maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of bilateral gluteus maximus (GMAX), gluteus medius (GMED), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles was recorded. EMG activity and sagittal plane video was recorded during both the THKS and SHKS in a randomized order. Normalized muscular activation of the three studied muscles was calculated from EMG data. During both SHKS and THKS, the average percent of peak MVIC for GMAX was 75.02% ± 55.38, GMED 55.47% ± 26.33, and BF 78.95% ± 53.29. Comparisons of the mean time to peak activation (TTP) for each muscle showed that the biceps femoris was the first muscle to activate during the swings. Statistically significant (p < .05), moderately positive correlations (r = .483 and .417) were found between passive hip flexor length and % MVIC for the GMax during the SHKS and THKS, respectively. The THKS and SHKS provide sufficient muscular recruitment for strengthening of all of the muscles explored. This is the first study to show significant correlations between passive hip flexor length and muscular activation of hip extensors, particularly the GMax. Finally, the BF consistently reached peak activity before the GMax and GMed during the SHKS. Level 3.

  12. In vivo kinematics of healthy male knees during squat and golf swing using image-matching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Koji; Hamai, Satoshi; Okazaki, Ken; Ikebe, Satoru; Shimoto, Takeshi; Hara, Daisuke; Mizu-uchi, Hideki; Higaki, Hidehiko; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2016-03-01

    Participation in specific activities requires complex ranges of knee movements and activity-dependent kinematics. The purpose of this study was to investigate dynamic knee kinematics during squat and golf swing using image-matching techniques. Five healthy males performed squats and golf swings under periodic X-ray images at 10 frames per second. We analyzed the in vivo three-dimensional kinematic parameters of subjects' knees, namely the tibiofemoral flexion angle, anteroposterior (AP) translation, and internal-external rotation, using serial X-ray images and computed tomography-derived, digitally reconstructed radiographs. During squat from 0° to 140° of flexion, the femur moved about 25 mm posteriorly and rotated 19° externally relative to the tibia. Screw-home movement near extension, bicondylar rollback between 20° and 120° of flexion, and medial pivot motion at further flexion were observed. During golf swing, the leading and trailing knees (the left and right knees respectively in the right-handed golfer) showed approximately five millimeters and four millimeters of AP translation with 18° and 26° of axial rotation, respectively. A central pivot motion from set-up to top of the backswing, lateral pivot motion from top to ball impact, and medial pivot motion from impact to the end of follow-through were observed. The medial pivot motion was not always recognized during both activities, but a large range of axial rotation with bilateral condylar AP translations occurs during golf swing. This finding has important implications regarding the amount of acceptable AP translation and axial rotation at low flexion in replaced knees. IV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ON MEASURING AMPLITUDES AND PERIODS OF PHYSICAL PENDULUM MICRO-SWINGS WITH ROLLING-CONTACT BEARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Riznookaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a method and an instrument for measuring amplitudes and  periods of physical pendulum oscillations with rolling-contact bearing in the regime of micro-swings when the oscillation amplitude is significantly less of an elastic contact angle. It has been established that the main factors limiting a measuring accuracy are noises of the measuring circuit, base vibration and analog-digital conversion. A new measuring methodology based on original algorithms of data processing and application of the well-known methods for statistic processing of a measuring signal is  proposed in the paper. The paper contains error estimations for measuring oscillation amplitudes justified by discreteness of a signal conversion in a photoelectric receptor and also by the influence of measuring circuit noise. The paper reveals that the applied methodologies make it possible to ensure measuring of amplitudes with an error of 0.2 second of arc and measuring of a period with an error of 10–4 s. The original measuring instrument including mechanical and optical devices and also an electric circuit of optical-to-electrical measuring signal conversion is described in the paper. 

  14. New determination of the gravitational constant G with time-of-swing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Liangcheng; Li Qing; Wang Qinglan; Shao Chenggang; Yang Shanqing; Liu Linxia; Liu Qi; Luo Jun

    2010-01-01

    A new determination of the Newtonian gravitational constant G is presented by using a torsion pendulum with the time-of-swing method. Compared with our previous measurement with the same method, several improvements greatly reduced the uncertainties as follows: (i) two stainless steel spheres with more homogeneous density are used as the source masses instead of the cylinders used in the previous experiment, and the offset of the mass center from the geometric center is measured and found to be much smaller than that of the cylinders; (ii) a rectangular glass block is used as the main body of the pendulum, which has fewer vibration modes and hence improves the stability of the period and reduces the uncertainty of the moment of inertia; (iii) both the pendulum and source masses are placed in the same vacuum chamber to reduce the error of measuring the relative positions; (iv) changing the configurations between the ''near'' and ''far'' positions is remotely operated by using a stepper motor to lower the environmental disturbances; and (v) the anelastic effect of the torsion fiber is first measured directly by using two disk pendulums with the help of a high-Q quartz fiber. We have performed two independent G measurements, and the two G values differ by only 9 ppm. The combined value of G is (6.673 49±0.000 18)x10 -11 m 3 kg -1 s -2 with a relative uncertainty of 26 ppm.

  15. In vitro establishment and multiplication of Citrus aurantifolia Christm. Swing. var. `Mexicana' from seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Hernández Jerez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits are crops with high economic and medicinal value. The creole lime (Citrus aurantifolia Christm. Swing var. `Mexican' is widely consumed in Cuba but the incidence of pests and diseases has affected its production. The aim of this work was to achieve its establishment and in vitro multiplication. Seeds from mature fruits were disinfected with NaOCl (0.5, 1.0, 1.5% and different immersion times (5, 10 and 20 minutes. At 7 days the number of explants contaminated with microorganisms, with necrosis and alive was quantified. Subsequently the effect of growth regulators on the establishment stage (6-BAP, GA3 and IBA and in multiplication stage (6-BAP, GA3 was determined. The results indicated that the sodium hypochlorite was effective in disinfection of seeds and in its survival. With 1% NaOCl for 20 min the best results were obtained. It was shown that for seed germination adding growth regulators is not required but for multiplication the inclusion of 1.0 mg l-1 GA3 and 2.0 mg l-1 6-BAP yielded higher number of shoots and coefficient multiplication. The established protocol could be used in future studies of plant breeding. Key words: micropropagation, nodal cutting, plant growth regulators

  16. A study of the Armstrong Whitworth swing beam engine for automotive application

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The introduction of ceramics to those parts suffering high thermal loading was successfully demonstrated, and there is no question that the 100 kw (134 hp) naturally aspirated engine of the future will be developed to produce up to 300 kw (402 hp) by the application of turbocharging or its equivalent. However, at the 60 - 80 kw (80 - 107 hp) size needed for the economic automotive engine, scaling down the 300 kw (402 hp) is beset by the laws of scale. The conventional four stroke diesel was not shown to be successful at the small high speed engine size. The opposed piston two stroke engine does not suffer the same laws of scale and engines in the low power range have already been marketed successfully. The half liter/cylinder Armstrong Whitworth Swing Beam Engine is the latest to be designed with the automotive market in mind. Its low noise structure and balanced linkage system coupled with advantages for easy start and potential use of low grade fuels, derived from its variable compression ratio and slow piston motion, qualifies it for the application.

  17. Effect of an Arm Swing on Countermovement Vertical Jump Performance in Elite Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaverka Frantisek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine how elite volleyball players employed the arm swing (AS to enhance their jump performance. The study assessed how the AS influenced the duration and magnitude of the vertical ground reaction force (VGRF during the main phases (preparatory, braking and accelerating of the countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ, the starting position of the body at the beginning of the accelerating phase and the moment when the AS began contributing to increasing the jump height. Eighteen elite volleyball players performed three CMVJs with and without an AS. Kinetics and kinematics data were collected using two Kistler force plates and the C-motion system. The time and force variables were evaluated based on the VGRF, and the position of the body and the trajectory of the arm movement were determined using kinematic analysis. The AS improved the CMVJ by increasing the jump height by 38% relative to jumping without an AS. The AS significantly shortened the braking phase and prolonged the accelerating phase, however, it did not influence the preparatory phase or the overall jump duration. The AS also significantly increased the average force during the accelerating phase as well as the accelerating impulse. The AS upward began at 76% into the overall jump duration. The AS did not influence the body position at the beginning of the accelerating phase. These findings can be used to improve performance of the CMVJ with the AS and in teaching beginning volleyball players proper jumping technique.

  18. The effect of expert performance microtiming on listeners’ experience of groove in swing or funk music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Senn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the influence of expert performance microtiming on listeners' groove experience. Two professional rhythm section (bass/drums performances in swing and funk style were recorded, and the performances' original microtemporal deviations from a regular metronomic grid were scaled to several magnitude levels. Music expert (n=79 and non-expert (n=81 listeners rated the groove qualities of stimuli using a newly developed questionnaire that measures three dimensions of the groove experience (Entrainment, Enjoyment, and the absence of Irritation. Findings show that music expert listeners were more sensitive to microtiming manipulations than non-experts. Across both expertise groups and for both styles, groove ratings were high for microtiming magnitudes equal or smaller than those originally performed and decreased for exaggerated microtiming magnitudes. In particular, both the fully quantized music and the music with the originally performed microtiming pattern were rated equally high on groove. This means that neither the claims of PD theory (that microtiming deviations are necessary for groove nor the opposing exactitude hypothesis (that microtiming deviations are detrimental to groove were supported by the data.

  19. Swings between rotation and accretion power in a binary millisecond pulsar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papitto, A; Ferrigno, C; Bozzo, E; Rea, N; Pavan, L; Burderi, L; Burgay, M; Campana, S; Di Salvo, T; Falanga, M; Filipović, M D; Freire, P C C; Hessels, J W T; Possenti, A; Ransom, S M; Riggio, A; Romano, P; Sarkissian, J M; Stairs, I H; Stella, L; Torres, D F; Wieringa, M H; Wong, G F

    2013-09-26

    It is thought that neutron stars in low-mass binary systems can accrete matter and angular momentum from the companion star and be spun-up to millisecond rotational periods. During the accretion stage, the system is called a low-mass X-ray binary, and bright X-ray emission is observed. When the rate of mass transfer decreases in the later evolutionary stages, these binaries host a radio millisecond pulsar whose emission is powered by the neutron star's rotating magnetic field. This evolutionary model is supported by the detection of millisecond X-ray pulsations from several accreting neutron stars and also by the evidence for a past accretion disc in a rotation-powered millisecond pulsar. It has been proposed that a rotation-powered pulsar may temporarily switch on during periods of low mass inflow in some such systems. Only indirect evidence for this transition has hitherto been observed. Here we report observations of accretion-powered, millisecond X-ray pulsations from a neutron star previously seen as a rotation-powered radio pulsar. Within a few days after a month-long X-ray outburst, radio pulses were again detected. This not only shows the evolutionary link between accretion and rotation-powered millisecond pulsars, but also that some systems can swing between the two states on very short timescales.

  20. THE SWINGS OF SELENDANGIN RONGGENG DUKUH PARUK AND THE DANCER SCRUTINIZED THROUGH DECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Maria L.A. Fajarini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Known as an adornment and beautification for womenin dancing costume, a scarf (selendang – Javanese/Indonesian in RonggengDukuhParuk and The Dancer has two contradictory meanings. On the one hand, it represents the shackle of the dancer, Srintil. On the other hand, the scarf can be a symbol of Srintil‘s dominance againstthe patriarchal system. As far as patriarchal society is concerned, subjugation towards women tends to occur. Believed to be born as a ronggeng dancer, Srintilgoes through oppressions since her early adolescent. However, employing Derrida‘s deconstruction theory, this paper will argue that Srintil attempts veryhard to achieve her liberation and to overturn the control. The swings of the scarf during the dancing denote the domination of the dancer‘s fated life and her self-determination as a woman. Under a strong influence of Javanese female negotiation, Srintil endeavors to liberate herself – although she is rendered to be unsuccessful – yet, there are some efforts done by her. Through some discussionthe readers are supposed to observe that Srintil– who is treated unjustly by patriarchal society– manipulativelyresists and fights for her freedom.

  1. Ammonia Synthesis at Low Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cussler, Edward; McCormick, Alon; Reese, Michael; Malmali, Mahdi

    2017-08-23

    Ammonia can be synthesized at low pressure by the use of an ammonia selective absorbent. The process can be driven with wind energy, available locally in areas requiring ammonia for synthetic fertilizer. Such wind energy is often called "stranded," because it is only available far from population centers where it can be directly used. In the proposed low pressure process, nitrogen is made from air using pressure swing absorption, and hydrogen is produced by electrolysis of water. While these gases can react at approximately 400 °C in the presence of a promoted conventional catalyst, the conversion is often limited by the reverse reaction, which makes this reaction only feasible at high pressures. This limitation can be removed by absorption on an ammine-like calcium or magnesium chloride. Such alkaline metal halides can effectively remove ammonia, thus suppressing the equilibrium constraints of the reaction. In the proposed absorption-enhanced ammonia synthesis process, the rate of reaction may then be controlled not by the chemical kinetics nor the absorption rates, but by the rate of the recycle of unreacted gases. The results compare favorably with ammonia made from a conventional small scale Haber-Bosch process.

  2. Analytical modeling of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing of Gaussian-doped strained-Si-on-insulator MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, Gopal; Kumar, Sanjay; Goel, Ekta; Kumar, Mirgender; Jit, S.; Dubey, Sarvesh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analytical modeling of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing of short-channel fully-depleted (FD) strained-Si-on-insulator (SSOI) MOSFETs having vertical Gaussian-like doping profile in the channel. The subthreshold current and subthreshold swing have been derived using the parabolic approximation method. In addition to the effect of strain on silicon layer, various other device parameters such as channel length (L), gate-oxide thickness (t ox ), strained-Si channel thickness (t s-Si ), peak doping concentration (N P ), project range (R p ) and straggle (σ p ) of the Gaussian profile have been considered while predicting the device characteristics. The present work may help to overcome the degradation in subthreshold characteristics with strain engineering. These subthreshold current and swing models provide valuable information for strained-Si MOSFET design. Accuracy of the proposed models is verified using the commercially available ATLAS™, a two-dimensional (2D) device simulator from SILVACO. (semiconductor devices)

  3. Comparison of Two- and Three-Dimensional Methods for Analysis of Trunk Kinematic Variables in the Golf Swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aimée C; Roberts, Jonathan R; Wallace, Eric S; Kong, Pui; Forrester, Stephanie E

    2016-02-01

    Two-dimensional methods have been used to compute trunk kinematic variables (flexion/extension, lateral bend, axial rotation) and X-factor (difference in axial rotation between trunk and pelvis) during the golf swing. Recent X-factor studies advocated three-dimensional (3D) analysis due to the errors associated with two-dimensional (2D) methods, but this has not been investigated for all trunk kinematic variables. The purpose of this study was to compare trunk kinematic variables and X-factor calculated by 2D and 3D methods to examine how different approaches influenced their profiles during the swing. Trunk kinematic variables and X-factor were calculated for golfers from vectors projected onto the global laboratory planes and from 3D segment angles. Trunk kinematic variable profiles were similar in shape; however, there were statistically significant differences in trunk flexion (-6.5 ± 3.6°) at top of backswing and trunk right-side lateral bend (8.7 ± 2.9°) at impact. Differences between 2D and 3D X-factor (approximately 16°) could largely be explained by projection errors introduced to the 2D analysis through flexion and lateral bend of the trunk and pelvis segments. The results support the need to use a 3D method for kinematic data calculation to accurately analyze the golf swing.

  4. Investigating elite behavior through field experiment in Brazil: do candidates answer more to core or swing voters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Spada

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores recent advances in experimental methodology to analyze elite behavior. Using an email experiment conducted in the context of the Brazilian 2008 municipal elections, we studied whether candidates target "swing" or "core" voters during campaigns. Candidates from all parties – 1,000 candidates in all – were contacted by randomly generated citizens who identified themselves as either core or swing voters. Additionally, we randomized senders' past voting behavior and their gender. To identify the baseline answer rate, we employed a placebo treatment with no reference to the elections. Our results show that Brazilian candidates target any sender as long as she identifies herself as a potential voter. Within this general finding, models with city-specific fixed effects indicate that Brazilian politicians tend to target core voters. The paper contributes to the general experimental literature by providing an easily replicable design that can test the behavior of elite interaction with the public. At the same time, the paper extends the literature on core versus swing voters by providing an empirical test that can shed light on the effects of a specific political environment (type of election, voting rule, and party structure, and how it affects the relationship between candidates and voters during elections.

  5. Dynamic model and workspace analysis of novel incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naige Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables is introduced in this article. Based on wrench of forces theory and Lagrange’s equation of first kind, the static and dynamics models of incompletely restrained cable-suspension swing system driven by two cables are established, respectively. In order to obtain an intuitive understanding of the trajectory analysis, a dynamics model consisting of governing equation and geometric constraint conditions which is a set of the mixed differential-algebraic equation in mathematics is established. A typical feedback controller and an inverse model were set up to estimate the driving function. The effective workspace, which is used to guarantee an efficient swing process, mostly depends on the geometrical shape rather than the volume itself which was calculated by trajectory analysis. In order to estimate system features and ensure a limited range of tension in underconstrained spatial cable system, the probable location of unbalanced loading was evaluated by pointwise evaluation techniques during normal work.

  6. Is there really an eccentric action of the hamstrings during the swing phase of high-speed running? part I: A critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooren, Bas; Bosch, Frans

    2017-12-01

    It is widely assumed that there is an eccentric hamstring muscle fibre action during the swing phase of high-speed running. However, animal and modelling studies in humans show that the increasing distance between musculotendinous attachment points during forward swing is primarily due to passive lengthening associated with the take-up of muscle slack. Later in the swing phase, the contractile element (CE) maintains a near isometric action while the series elastic (tendinous) element first stretches as the knee extends, and then recoils causing the swing leg to forcefully retract prior to ground contact. Although modelling studies showed some active lengthening of the contractile (muscular) element during the mid-swing phase of high-speed running, we argue that the increasing distance between the attachment points should not be interpreted as an eccentric action of the CE due to the effects of muscle slack. Therefore, there may actually be no significant eccentric, but rather predominantly an isometric action of the hamstrings CE during the swing phase of high-speed running when the attachment points of the hamstrings are moving apart. Based on this, we propose that isometric rather than eccentric exercises are a more specific way of conditioning the hamstrings for high-speed running.

  7. Evaluating the traditional day and night shift in an acute care surgery fellowship: Is the swing shift a better choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestovich, Paul J; McNicoll, Christopher F; Ingalls, Nichole K; Kuhls, Deborah A; Fraser, Douglas R; Morrissey, Shawna L; Fildes, John J

    2018-01-01

    Fellowship trainees in acute care surgery require experience in the management of complex and operative trauma cases. Trauma center staffing usually follows standard 12-hour or 24-hour shifts, with resident and fellow trainees following a similar schedule. Although trauma admissions can be generally unpredictable, we analyzed temporal trends of trauma patient arrival times to determine the best time frame to maximize trainee experience during each day. We reviewed 10 years (2007-2016) of trauma registry data for blunt and penetrating trauma activations. Hourly volumetric trends were observed, and three specific events were chosen for detailed analysis: (1) trauma activation with Injury Severity Score (ISS) greater than 15, (2) laparotomy for trauma, and (3) thoracotomy for trauma. A retrospective shift log was created, which included day (7:00 AM to 7:00 PM), night (7:00 PM to 7:00 AM), and swing (noon to midnight) shifts. A swing shift was chosen because it captures the peak volume for all three events. Means and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and comparisons were made between shifts using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test with Bonferroni correction, and p less than 0.05 considered significant. During the 10-year study period, 28,287 patients were treated at our trauma center. This included the evaluation and management of 7,874 patients with ISS greater than 15, performance of 1,766 laparotomies, and 392 thoracotomies for trauma. Swing shift was superior to both day and night shifts for ISS greater than 15 (p night shifts were superior to day shift for laparotomies (p day shift (p night shift (p = 0.031). Shifts with the highest yield of ISS greater than 15, laparotomies, and thoracotomies include night and swing shifts on Fridays and Saturdays. Projected experience of acute care surgery fellows in managing complex trauma patients increases with the integration of swing shifts into the schedule. Daily trauma volume follows a temporal pattern

  8. Coupling of lever arm swing and biased Brownian motion in actomyosin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Miao Nie

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An important unresolved problem associated with actomyosin motors is the role of Brownian motion in the process of force generation. On the basis of structural observations of myosins and actins, the widely held lever-arm hypothesis has been proposed, in which proteins are assumed to show sequential structural changes among observed and hypothesized structures to exert mechanical force. An alternative hypothesis, the Brownian motion hypothesis, has been supported by single-molecule experiments and emphasizes more on the roles of fluctuating protein movement. In this study, we address the long-standing controversy between the lever-arm hypothesis and the Brownian motion hypothesis through in silico observations of an actomyosin system. We study a system composed of myosin II and actin filament by calculating free-energy landscapes of actin-myosin interactions using the molecular dynamics method and by simulating transitions among dynamically changing free-energy landscapes using the Monte Carlo method. The results obtained by this combined multi-scale calculation show that myosin with inorganic phosphate (Pi and ADP weakly binds to actin and that after releasing Pi and ADP, myosin moves along the actin filament toward the strong-binding site by exhibiting the biased Brownian motion, a behavior consistent with the observed single-molecular behavior of myosin. Conformational flexibility of loops at the actin-interface of myosin and the N-terminus of actin subunit is necessary for the distinct bias in the Brownian motion. Both the 5.5-11 nm displacement due to the biased Brownian motion and the 3-5 nm displacement due to lever-arm swing contribute to the net displacement of myosin. The calculated results further suggest that the recovery stroke of the lever arm plays an important role in enhancing the displacement of myosin through multiple cycles of ATP hydrolysis, suggesting a unified movement mechanism for various members of the myosin family.

  9. Coupling of lever arm swing and biased Brownian motion in actomyosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qing-Miao; Togashi, Akio; Sasaki, Takeshi N; Takano, Mitsunori; Sasai, Masaki; Terada, Tomoki P

    2014-04-01

    An important unresolved problem associated with actomyosin motors is the role of Brownian motion in the process of force generation. On the basis of structural observations of myosins and actins, the widely held lever-arm hypothesis has been proposed, in which proteins are assumed to show sequential structural changes among observed and hypothesized structures to exert mechanical force. An alternative hypothesis, the Brownian motion hypothesis, has been supported by single-molecule experiments and emphasizes more on the roles of fluctuating protein movement. In this study, we address the long-standing controversy between the lever-arm hypothesis and the Brownian motion hypothesis through in silico observations of an actomyosin system. We study a system composed of myosin II and actin filament by calculating free-energy landscapes of actin-myosin interactions using the molecular dynamics method and by simulating transitions among dynamically changing free-energy landscapes using the Monte Carlo method. The results obtained by this combined multi-scale calculation show that myosin with inorganic phosphate (Pi) and ADP weakly binds to actin and that after releasing Pi and ADP, myosin moves along the actin filament toward the strong-binding site by exhibiting the biased Brownian motion, a behavior consistent with the observed single-molecular behavior of myosin. Conformational flexibility of loops at the actin-interface of myosin and the N-terminus of actin subunit is necessary for the distinct bias in the Brownian motion. Both the 5.5-11 nm displacement due to the biased Brownian motion and the 3-5 nm displacement due to lever-arm swing contribute to the net displacement of myosin. The calculated results further suggest that the recovery stroke of the lever arm plays an important role in enhancing the displacement of myosin through multiple cycles of ATP hydrolysis, suggesting a unified movement mechanism for various members of the myosin family.

  10. Gender differences in triple jump phase ratios and arm swing motion of international level athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female triple jumping is a relatively new athletics event. A limited number of researchers have focused on comparing male and female jumpers competing in international events, resulting in scarce findings in the literature regarding gender differences of the determinants of triple jump performance. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the possible gender differences in the approach step characteristics, the spatiotemporal parameters of the separate phases of the triple jump as performed by athletes participating in sub-elite international events. Methods: The male and female participants of the 2015 European Team Championships triple jump event were recorded with a panning video camera. Approach speed was measured using photocells. Kinematical parameters were extracted using the APAS WIZARD 13.3.0.3 software. The relationships between the examined parameters and the actual triple jump performance were examined with Pearson's correlation analysis. Repeated measures ANOVA and chi-square statistical tests were run to examine the significance of the differences between genders. Results: Approach speed significantly correlated with the actual jumping distance in both males and females (p < .05. Significant gender differences (p < .05 existed concerning basic kinematical parameters. Men were found to have larger average horizontal speed of the 11 m to 1 m segment of the final approach, step length of the final six steps of the approach, step frequency of the final two steps, actual phase distances and percentage distribution of the step. Women, unlike men, used solely single arm swing techniques. No athlete executed the jump using a jump dominated technique. Conclusions: Gender differences in triple jump performance lies upon the kinematical parameters of the final two steps of the approach, the length of the step phase and the support time for the jump. The technique elements of the penultimate step are suggested to

  11. Constant speed control of four-stroke micro internal combustion swing engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dedong; Lei, Yong; Zhu, Honghai; Ni, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The increasing demands on safety, emission and fuel consumption require more accurate control models of micro internal combustion swing engine (MICSE). The objective of this paper is to investigate the constant speed control models of four-stroke MICSE. The operation principle of the four-stroke MICSE is presented based on the description of MICSE prototype. A two-level Petri net based hybrid model is proposed to model the four-stroke MICSE engine cycle. The Petri net subsystem at the upper level controls and synchronizes the four Petri net subsystems at the lower level. The continuous sub-models, including breathing dynamics of intake manifold, thermodynamics of the chamber and dynamics of the torque generation, are investigated and integrated with the discrete model in MATLAB Simulink. Through the comparison of experimental data and simulated DC voltage output, it is demonstrated that the hybrid model is valid for the four-stroke MICSE system. A nonlinear model is obtained from the cycle average data via the regression method, and it is linearized around a given nominal equilibrium point for the controller design. The feedback controller of the spark timing and valve duration timing is designed with a sequential loop closing design approach. The simulation of the sequential loop closure control design applied to the hybrid model is implemented in MATLAB. The simulation results show that the system is able to reach its desired operating point within 0.2 s, and the designed controller shows good MICSE engine performance with a constant speed. This paper presents the constant speed control models of four-stroke MICSE and carries out the simulation tests, the models and the simulation results can be used for further study on the precision control of four-stroke MICSE.

  12. Rapid charging of nickel-cadmium accumulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruck, F

    1972-01-01

    Four types of charging of gas-tight Ni-Cd accumulators (a) normal; (b) accelerated; (c) rapid; and (d) ultra-rapid are described. For rapid charging, a built-in temperature sensor cuts off charging current at a prescribed point. In ultra-rapid charging, 50% charge can be attained in 3.5 min. and 25% charge within 50 sec. In the second phase of ultra-rapid charging, a surplus of oxygen is released at the positive electrode and a safety valve is provided for pressure reduction. Characteristic curves are given for various rates of charging and some data on discharge rates is also given.

  13. Responses of azeotropes and relative volatilities to pressure variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; O’Connell, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Mixtures with azeotropes cannot be separated by simple distillation since the vapor and liquid compositions are the same. One option to overcome this limitation is to vary the applied pressure to shift the azeotropic composition out of the range of a single column or use pressure-swing operation...... of two columns. Because operating costs are highly sensitive to the pressure dependence of azeotropic compositions, reliable and accurate phase equilibrium thermodynamic property information is needed to computationally explore pressure variation for such processes. An analysis of property modeling has...... been done for the pressure sensitivity of azeotropic composition, and examples are given of modeling strategies for binary and ternary mixtures. A quantitative criterion for the need to consider nonideality effects in both modeling and parameter regression has been established, based on similarity...

  14. Four-chamber view and 'swing technique' (FAST) echo: a novel and simple algorithm to visualize standard fetal echocardiographic planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, L; Romero, R; Jodicke, C; Oggè, G; Lee, W; Kusanovic, J P; Vaisbuch, E; Hassan, S

    2011-04-01

    To describe a novel and simple algorithm (four-chamber view and 'swing technique' (FAST) echo) for visualization of standard diagnostic planes of fetal echocardiography from dataset volumes obtained with spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) and applying a new display technology (OmniView). We developed an algorithm to image standard fetal echocardiographic planes by drawing four dissecting lines through the longitudinal view of the ductal arch contained in a STIC volume dataset. Three of the lines are locked to provide simultaneous visualization of targeted planes, and the fourth line (unlocked) 'swings' through the ductal arch image (swing technique), providing an infinite number of cardiac planes in sequence. Each line generates the following plane(s): (a) Line 1: three-vessels and trachea view; (b) Line 2: five-chamber view and long-axis view of the aorta (obtained by rotation of the five-chamber view on the y-axis); (c) Line 3: four-chamber view; and (d) 'swing line': three-vessels and trachea view, five-chamber view and/or long-axis view of the aorta, four-chamber view and stomach. The algorithm was then tested in 50 normal hearts in fetuses at 15.3-40 weeks' gestation and visualization rates for cardiac diagnostic planes were calculated. To determine whether the algorithm could identify planes that departed from the normal images, we tested the algorithm in five cases with proven congenital heart defects. In normal cases, the FAST echo algorithm (three locked lines and rotation of the five-chamber view on the y-axis) was able to generate the intended planes (longitudinal view of the ductal arch, pulmonary artery, three-vessels and trachea view, five-chamber view, long-axis view of the aorta, four-chamber view) individually in 100% of cases (except for the three-vessels and trachea view, which was seen in 98% (49/50)) and simultaneously in 98% (49/50). The swing technique was able to generate the three-vessels and trachea view, five-chamber view and/or long

  15. KINEMATIC ANALYSES OF THE GOLF SWING HUB PATH AND ITS ROLE IN GOLFER/CLUB KINETIC TRANSFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Nesbit

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the fundamental geometric and kinematic characteristics of the swing hub path of the golf shot for four diverse subjects. In addition, the role of the hub path geometry in transferring the kinetic quantities from the golfer to the club were investigated. The hub path was found to have a complex geometry with significantly changing radii, and a constantly moving center-of-curvature during the downswing for all subjects. While the size and shape of the hub path differed considerably among the subjects, a three phase radius-based pattern was revealed that aligned with distinct stages of the downswing. Artificially controlling and optimizing the hub path of the better golfer in the group indicated that a non-circular hub path was superior to a constant radius path in minimizing the kinetic loading while generating the highest possible club head velocity. The shape and purpose of the hub path geometry appears to result from a complex combination of achieving equilibrium between the golfer and the club, and a purposeful configuring of the path to control the outward movement of the club while minimizing the kinetic loading on the golfer yet transferring the maximum kinetic quantities to the club. Describing the downswing relative to the hub path phasing is presented and was found to be informative since the phases align with significant swing, kinetic and kinematic markers. These findings challenge golf swing modeling methodologies which fix the center-of-curvature of the hub path thus constraining it to constant radius motion

  16. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  17. Supplemental Stimulation Improves Swing Phase Kinematics During Exoskeleton Assisted Gait of SCI Subjects With Severe Muscle Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelem, Andrew; Goldfarb, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Spasticity is a common comorbidity associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Robotic exoskeletons have recently emerged to facilitate legged mobility in people with motor complete SCI. Involuntary muscle activity attributed to spasticity, however, can prevent such individuals from using an exoskeleton. Specifically, although most exoskeleton technologies can accommodate low to moderate spasticity, the presence of moderate to severe spasticity can significantly impair gait kinematics when using an exoskeleton. In an effort to potentially enable individuals with moderate to severe spasticity to use exoskeletons more effectively, this study investigates the use of common peroneal stimulation in conjunction with exoskeleton gait assistance. The electrical stimulation is timed with the exoskeleton swing phase, and is intended to acutely suppress extensor spasticity through recruitment of the flexion withdrawal reflex (i.e., while the stimulation is activated) to enable improved exoskeletal walking. In order to examine the potential efficacy of this approach, two SCI subjects with severe extensor spasticity (i.e., modified Ashworth ratings of three to four) walked in an exoskeleton with and without supplemental stimulation while knee and hip motion was measured during swing phase. Stimulation was alternated on and off every ten steps to eliminate transient therapeutic effects, enabling the acute effects of stimulation to be isolated. These experiments indicated that common peroneal stimulation on average increased peak hip flexion during the swing phase of walking by 21.1° (236%) and peak knee flexion by 14.4° (56%). Additionally, use of the stimulation decreased the swing phase RMS motor current by 228 mA (15%) at the hip motors and 734 mA (38%) at the knee motors, indicating improved kinematics were achieved with reduced effort from the exoskeleton. Walking with the exoskeleton did not have a significant effect on modified Ashworth scores, indicating the common

  18. Supplemental Stimulation Improves Swing Phase Kinematics During Exoskeleton Assisted Gait of SCI Subjects With Severe Muscle Spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelem, Andrew; Goldfarb, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Spasticity is a common comorbidity associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Robotic exoskeletons have recently emerged to facilitate legged mobility in people with motor complete SCI. Involuntary muscle activity attributed to spasticity, however, can prevent such individuals from using an exoskeleton. Specifically, although most exoskeleton technologies can accommodate low to moderate spasticity, the presence of moderate to severe spasticity can significantly impair gait kinematics when using an exoskeleton. In an effort to potentially enable individuals with moderate to severe spasticity to use exoskeletons more effectively, this study investigates the use of common peroneal stimulation in conjunction with exoskeleton gait assistance. The electrical stimulation is timed with the exoskeleton swing phase, and is intended to acutely suppress extensor spasticity through recruitment of the flexion withdrawal reflex (i.e., while the stimulation is activated) to enable improved exoskeletal walking. In order to examine the potential efficacy of this approach, two SCI subjects with severe extensor spasticity (i.e., modified Ashworth ratings of three to four) walked in an exoskeleton with and without supplemental stimulation while knee and hip motion was measured during swing phase. Stimulation was alternated on and off every ten steps to eliminate transient therapeutic effects, enabling the acute effects of stimulation to be isolated. These experiments indicated that common peroneal stimulation on average increased peak hip flexion during the swing phase of walking by 21.1° (236%) and peak knee flexion by 14.4° (56%). Additionally, use of the stimulation decreased the swing phase RMS motor current by 228 mA (15%) at the hip motors and 734 mA (38%) at the knee motors, indicating improved kinematics were achieved with reduced effort from the exoskeleton. Walking with the exoskeleton did not have a significant effect on modified Ashworth scores, indicating the common

  19. Supplemental Stimulation Improves Swing Phase Kinematics During Exoskeleton Assisted Gait of SCI Subjects With Severe Muscle Spasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ekelem

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Spasticity is a common comorbidity associated with spinal cord injury (SCI. Robotic exoskeletons have recently emerged to facilitate legged mobility in people with motor complete SCI. Involuntary muscle activity attributed to spasticity, however, can prevent such individuals from using an exoskeleton. Specifically, although most exoskeleton technologies can accommodate low to moderate spasticity, the presence of moderate to severe spasticity can significantly impair gait kinematics when using an exoskeleton. In an effort to potentially enable individuals with moderate to severe spasticity to use exoskeletons more effectively, this study investigates the use of common peroneal stimulation in conjunction with exoskeleton gait assistance. The electrical stimulation is timed with the exoskeleton swing phase, and is intended to acutely suppress extensor spasticity through recruitment of the flexion withdrawal reflex (i.e., while the stimulation is activated to enable improved exoskeletal walking. In order to examine the potential efficacy of this approach, two SCI subjects with severe extensor spasticity (i.e., modified Ashworth ratings of three to four walked in an exoskeleton with and without supplemental stimulation while knee and hip motion was measured during swing phase. Stimulation was alternated on and off every ten steps to eliminate transient therapeutic effects, enabling the acute effects of stimulation to be isolated. These experiments indicated that common peroneal stimulation on average increased peak hip flexion during the swing phase of walking by 21.1° (236% and peak knee flexion by 14.4° (56%. Additionally, use of the stimulation decreased the swing phase RMS motor current by 228 mA (15% at the hip motors and 734 mA (38% at the knee motors, indicating improved kinematics were achieved with reduced effort from the exoskeleton. Walking with the exoskeleton did not have a significant effect on modified Ashworth scores, indicating the

  20. The Development and Validation of a Golf Swing and Putt Skill Assessment for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Barnett, Louise L. Hardy, Ali S. Brian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to describe development of a process-oriented instrument designed to assess the golf swing and putt stroke, and to assess the instrument’s discriminative validity in terms of age and reliability (intra-rater and re-test. A Delphi consultation (with golf industry professionals and researchers in movement skill assessment was used to develop an assessment for each skill based on existing skill assessment protocols. Each skill had six components to be marked as present/absent. Individual scores were based on the number of performance components successfully demonstrated over two trials for each skill (potential score range 0 to 24. Children (n = 43 aged 6-10 years (M = 7.8 years, SD = 1.3 were assessed in both skills live in the field by one rater at Time 1(T1. A subset of children (n = 28 had consent for assessments to be videoed. Six weeks later 19 children were reassessed, five days apart (T2, T3. An ANOVA assessed discriminative validity i.e. whether skill competence at T1 differed by age (6 years, 7/8 years and 9/10 years. Intraclass correlations (ICC assessed intra-rater reliability between the live and video assessment at T1 and test-retest reliability (between T2 and T3. Paired t-tests assessed any systematic differences between live and video assessments (T1 and between T2 and T3. Older children were more skilled (F (2, 40 = 11.18, p < 0.001. The live assessment reflected the video assessment (ICC = 0.79, 95% CI 0.59, 0.90 and scores did not differ between live and video assessments. Test retest reliability was acceptable (ICC = 0.60, 95% CI 0.23, 0.82, although the mean score was slightly higher at retest. This instrument could be used reliably by golf coaches and physical education teachers as part of systematic early player assessment and feedback.

  1. Analytical solution of the problem of acceleration of cargo by a bridge crane with constant acceleration at elimination of swings of a cargo rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korytov, M. S.; Shcherbakov, V. S.; Titenko, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    Limitation of the swing of the bridge crane cargo rope is a matter of urgency, as it can significantly improve the efficiency and safety of the work performed. In order to completely dampen the pendulum swing after the break-up of a bridge or a bridge-crane freight cart to maximum speed, it is necessary, in the normal repulsion control of the electric motor, to split the process of dispersion into a minimum of three gaps. For a dynamic system of swinging of a bridge crane on a flexible cable hanger in a separate vertical plane, an analytical solution was obtained to determine the temporal dependence of the cargo rope angle relative to the gravitational vertical when the cargo suspension point moves with constant acceleration. The resulting analytical dependence of the cargo rope angle and its first derivative can break the process of dispersing the cargo suspension point into three stages of dispersal and braking with various accelerations and enter maximum speed of movement of the cargo suspension point. In doing so, the condition of eliminating the swings of the cargo rope relative to the gravitational vertical is fulfilled. Provides examples of the maximum speed output constraints-to-time when removing the rope swing.

  2. Implementation of a smartphone as a wireless gyroscope platform for quantifying reduced arm swing in hemiplegie gait with machine learning classification by multilayer perceptron neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoyne, Robert; Mastroianni, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    Natural gait consists of synchronous and rhythmic patterns for both the lower and upper limb. People with hemiplegia can experience reduced arm swing, which can negatively impact the quality of gait. Wearable and wireless sensors, such as through a smartphone, have demonstrated the ability to quantify various features of gait. With a software application the smartphone (iPhone) can function as a wireless gyroscope platform capable of conveying a gyroscope signal recording as an email attachment by wireless connectivity to the Internet. The gyroscope signal recordings of the affected hemiplegic arm with reduced arm swing arm and the unaffected arm are post-processed into a feature set for machine learning. Using a multilayer perceptron neural network a considerable degree of classification accuracy is attained to distinguish between the affected hemiplegic arm with reduced arm swing arm and the unaffected arm.

  3. Prosthetic reconstruction with an obturator using swing-lock attachment for a patient underwent maxillectomy: A clinical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Patients who underwent resection of maxilla due to benign or malignant tumor, or accident will have defect in palatal area. They get retention, support and stability from remaining tissues which are hardly optimal. The advantage of swing-lock attachment design is having multiple contacts on labial and lingual side of the abutment teeth by retentive strut and palatal bracing component. Because the force is distributed equally to abutment teeth, abutment teeth of poor prognosis can be benefited from it. It is also more advantageous to cover soft tissue defects which are hard to reach with conventional prosthesis. A 56-year-old female patient who had undergone a maxillectomy due to malignant melanoma complaining of loose and unstable surgical obturator. Surveyed crowns were placed on #12, 26, and 27. Teeth #11, 21, 22, and 23 had lingual rest seat and #24 had mesial rest seat to improve stability and support of the obturator. This clinical report presents the prosthetic management of a patient treated with obturator on the maxilla using swing-lock attachment to the remaining teeth. PMID:27826392

  4. Black Phosphorus Based Field Effect Transistors with Simultaneously Achieved Near Ideal Subthreshold Swing and High Hole Mobility at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinke; Ang, Kah-Wee; Yu, Wenjie; He, Jiazhu; Feng, Xuewei; Liu, Qiang; Jiang, He; Dan Tang; Wen, Jiao; Lu, Youming; Liu, Wenjun; Cao, Peijiang; Han, Shun; Wu, Jing; Liu, Wenjun; Wang, Xi; Zhu, Deliang; He, Zhubing

    2016-04-22

    Black phosphorus (BP) has emerged as a promising two-dimensional (2D) material for next generation transistor applications due to its superior carrier transport properties. Among other issues, achieving reduced subthreshold swing and enhanced hole mobility simultaneously remains a challenge which requires careful optimization of the BP/gate oxide interface. Here, we report the realization of high performance BP transistors integrated with HfO2 high-k gate dielectric using a low temperature CMOS process. The fabricated devices were shown to demonstrate a near ideal subthreshold swing (SS) of ~69 mV/dec and a room temperature hole mobility of exceeding >400 cm(2)/Vs. These figure-of-merits are benchmarked to be the best-of-its-kind, which outperform previously reported BP transistors realized on traditional SiO2 gate dielectric. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis further reveals the evidence of a more chemically stable BP when formed on HfO2 high-k as opposed to SiO2, which gives rise to a better interface quality that accounts for the SS and hole mobility improvement. These results unveil the potential of black phosphorus as an emerging channel material for future nanoelectronic device applications.

  5. Eu, tu, ele(s, ela(s: cartografando heteroconjugalidades na prática do swing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Marília Alves de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo As experimentações da sexualidade produzidas nas heteroconjugalidades contemporâneas têm vivido transições nos seus suportes afetivo-relacionais, maior flexibilização em suas hierarquias de gênero e enriquecimento das suas possibilidades institucionais. Problematizaremos a prática do swing como uma das linhas de tensionamento produzidas nesta agonística cultural, tomando como objeto de estudo hetero/casais em cenas eróticas ‘dissidentes’. Nesta cena da pesquisa nos valemos de conversações entre interlocutoras/res swingers cearenses e uma das pesquisadoras. Os princípios do método do nosso estudo se (desacomodam em perspectivas feministas e desde os estudos queer, assumindo um modo de análise em posição discursivo-desconstrucionista, a partir dos pressupostos foucaultianos da análise do discurso. Esta cartografia íntima nos permitiu acompanhar algo dos/nos trânsitos das relações hetero/conjugais contemporâneas e suas (dissidentes performances de gênero e experimentações das sexualidades. De modo que assumimos, pelo instante, a ideia do swing como prática de subjetivação e modo de experimentação da heteroconjugalidade.

  6. Liquid-crystal microlens array with swing and adjusting focus and constructed by dual patterned ITO-electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wanwan; Xie, Xingwang; Li, Dapeng; Han, Xinjie; Liu, Zhonglun; Wei, Dong; Xin, Zhaowei; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Haiwei; Xie, Changsheng

    2018-02-01

    Under the condition of existing intense turbulence, the object's wavefront may be severely distorted. So, the wavefront sensors based on the traditional microlens array (MLA) with a fixed focal length can not be used to measure the wavefront effectively. In order to obtain a larger measurement range and higher measurement accuracy, we propose a liquid-crystal microlens array (LCMLA) with needed ability of swing focus over the focal plane and further adjusting focal length, which is constructed by a dual patterned ITO electrodes. The main structure of the LCMLA is divided into two layers, which are made of glass substrate with ITO transparent electrodes. The top layer of each liquid-crystal microlens consists of four rectangular electrodes, and the bottom layer is a circular electrode. In common optical measurements performed, the operations are carried out such as adding the same signal voltage over four electrodes of each microlens to adjust the focal length of the lens cell and adding a signal voltage with different RMS amplitude to adjust the focus position on the focal plane. Experiments show that the LCMLA developed by us demonstrate a desired focal length adjustable function and dynamic swing ability, so as to indicate that the method can be used not only to measure wavefront but also correct the wavefront with strong distortion.

  7. Bio-inspired swing leg control for spring-mass robots running on ground with unexpected height disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejdani, H R; Hurst, J W; Blum, Y; Daley, M A

    2013-01-01

    We proposed three swing leg control policies for spring-mass running robots, inspired by experimental data from our recent collaborative work on ground running birds. Previous investigations suggest that animals may prioritize injury avoidance and/or efficiency as their objective function during running rather than maintaining limit-cycle stability. Therefore, in this study we targeted structural capacity (maximum leg force to avoid damage) and efficiency as the main goals for our control policies, since these objective functions are crucial to reduce motor size and structure weight. Each proposed policy controls the leg angle as a function of time during flight phase such that its objective function during the subsequent stance phase is regulated. The three objective functions that are regulated in the control policies are (i) the leg peak force, (ii) the axial impulse, and (iii) the leg actuator work. It should be noted that each control policy regulates one single objective function. Surprisingly, all three swing leg control policies result in nearly identical subsequent stance phase dynamics. This implies that the implementation of any of the proposed control policies would satisfy both goals (damage avoidance and efficiency) at once. Furthermore, all three control policies require a surprisingly simple leg angle adjustment: leg retraction with constant angular acceleration. (paper)

  8. Bio-inspired swing leg control for spring-mass robots running on ground with unexpected height disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejdani, H R; Blum, Y; Daley, M A; Hurst, J W

    2013-12-01

    We proposed three swing leg control policies for spring-mass running robots, inspired by experimental data from our recent collaborative work on ground running birds. Previous investigations suggest that animals may prioritize injury avoidance and/or efficiency as their objective function during running rather than maintaining limit-cycle stability. Therefore, in this study we targeted structural capacity (maximum leg force to avoid damage) and efficiency as the main goals for our control policies, since these objective functions are crucial to reduce motor size and structure weight. Each proposed policy controls the leg angle as a function of time during flight phase such that its objective function during the subsequent stance phase is regulated. The three objective functions that are regulated in the control policies are (i) the leg peak force, (ii) the axial impulse, and (iii) the leg actuator work. It should be noted that each control policy regulates one single objective function. Surprisingly, all three swing leg control policies result in nearly identical subsequent stance phase dynamics. This implies that the implementation of any of the proposed control policies would satisfy both goals (damage avoidance and efficiency) at once. Furthermore, all three control policies require a surprisingly simple leg angle adjustment: leg retraction with constant angular acceleration.

  9. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  10. 2-D analytical modeling of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing for ion-implanted strained-Si double-material double-gate (DMDG) MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ekta; Singh, Kunal; Singh, Balraj; Kumar, Sanjay; Jit, Satyabrata

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the subthreshold behavior of ion-implanted strained-Si double-material double-gate (DMDG) MOSFETs has been analyzed by means of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing. The surface potential based formulation of subthreshold current and subthreshold swing is done by solving the 2-D Poisson's equations in the channel region using parabolic approximation method. The dependence of subthreshold characteristics on various device parameters such as gate length ratio, Ge mole fraction, peak doping concentration, projected range, straggle parameter etc. has been studied. The modeling results are found to be well matched with the simulation data obtained by a 2-D device simulator, ATLAS™, from SILVACO.

  11. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  12. Hydrostatic pressure mimics gravitational pressure in characean cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staves, M. P.; Wayne, R.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrostatic pressure applied to one end of a horizontal Chara cell induces a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming, thus mimicking the effect of gravity. A positive hydrostatic pressure induces a more rapid streaming away from the applied pressure and a slower streaming toward the applied pressure. In contrast, a negative pressure induces a more rapid streaming toward and a slower streaming away from the applied pressure. Both the hydrostatic pressure-induced and gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming respond identically to cell ligation, UV microbeam irradiation, external Ca2+ concentrations, osmotic pressure, neutral red, TEA Cl-, and the Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine and LaCl3. In addition, hydrostatic pressure applied to the bottom of a vertically-oriented cell can abolish and even reverse the gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming. These data indicate that both gravity and hydrostatic pressure act at the same point of the signal transduction chain leading to the induction of a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming and support the hypothesis that characean cells respond to gravity by sensing a gravity-induced pressure differential between the cell ends.

  13. Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They commonly ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which are ...

  14. Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.; Martinez, R.K.; Baca, E.T.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids

  15. Intracranial Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Radojicic, Aleksandra; Moudrous, Walid

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a new method of noninvasive intracranial pressure (nICP) measurement with conventional lumbar puncture (LP) opening pressure. METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study, patients undergoing LP for diagnostic purposes underwent intracranial pressure measurements with HeadSen...

  16. Pressure Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Monfre, Jill M.

    2016-01-01

    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers, which affect up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease.

  17. Is the modified Tardieu scale in semi-standing position better associated with knee extension and hamstring activity in terminal swing than the supine Tardieu?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, I.R.; Nienhuis, B.; Rijs, N.P.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the modified Tardieu scale (MTS) in a semi-standing position, used for the assessment of hamstrings spasticity, was better associated with knee extension and hamstrings activity in terminal swing than the MTS in a supine position in children with

  18. Adaptation and validation of the Spanish Versión of the "Survey Work-Home Interaction - NijmeGen" (SWING to Spanish speaking countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Romeo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the adaptation and validation of the "Survey Work-Home Interaction - NijmeGen" (SWING developed by Geurts and colleagues to Spanish speaking countries (SWING-SSC. In order to analyze the questionnaire's psychometnc properties, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was carried out with a sample of 203 employees from various Spanish-speaking countries. Criterion related validity was tested by examining correlations between the SWING-SSC, and the theoretically relevant variables: health, role conflict, role clarity and supervisor support. Finally, reliability was tested analyzing the internal consistency of the scales. The analyses carried out indicate that SWING-SSC has good psychometric properties. In addition, the present results support the relation of the construct with health, role conflict, role clarity, and supervisor support. This study offers evidence for a sound work-life balance measure that contributes to encourage adequate conditions in the workplace, to reduce the conflict between the two spheres of professional and personal life, and to enhance positive relationships.

  19. Design of a Golf Swing Injury Detection and Evaluation open service platform with Ontology-oriented clustering case-based reasoning mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Hao-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, people can easily use a smartphone to get wanted information and requested services. Hence, this study designs and proposes a Golf Swing Injury Detection and Evaluation open service platform with Ontology-oritened clustering case-based reasoning mechanism, which is called GoSIDE, based on Arduino and Open Service Gateway initative (OSGi). GoSIDE is a three-tier architecture, which is composed of Mobile Users, Application Servers and a Cloud-based Digital Convergence Server. A mobile user is with a smartphone and Kinect sensors to detect the user's Golf swing actions and to interact with iDTV. An application server is with Intelligent Golf Swing Posture Analysis Model (iGoSPAM) to check a user's Golf swing actions and to alter this user when he is with error actions. Cloud-based Digital Convergence Server is with Ontology-oriented Clustering Case-based Reasoning (CBR) for Quality of Experiences (OCC4QoE), which is designed to provide QoE services by QoE-based Ontology strategies, rules and events for this user. Furthermore, GoSIDE will automatically trigger OCC4QoE and deliver popular rules for a new user. Experiment results illustrate that GoSIDE can provide appropriate detections for Golfers. Finally, GoSIDE can be a reference model for researchers and engineers.

  20. A one-step separation of human serum high density lipoproteins 2 and 3 by rate-zonal density gradient ultracentrifugation in a swinging bucket rotor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, P.H.E.; Scheek, L.M.; Havekes, L.; Noort, W.L. van; Hooft, F.M. van 't

    1982-01-01

    A method was developed for the separation of the high density lipoprotein subclasses HDL2 and HDL3 from human serum. Six serum samples are fractionated in a single-step ultracentrifugal procedure using the Beckman (SW-40) swinging bucket rotor. The method is based on a difference in flotation rate

  1. gestion d'une agence de voyage selon le modele client/serveur avec swing et mySQL

    OpenAIRE

    BELGACEM, Hicham; BOUAZZA, Mohammed Reda

    2014-01-01

    L’objectif de ce modeste travail est le développement d'une application Client/serveur pour la gestion d’une agence de voyage en se basant sur SWING et MySQL. Dans le premier chapitre de notre rapport nous avons présenté les outils misent en place pour la réalisation de notre application, en commençant par le langage Java utilisés sous Netbeans, MySQL pour la gestion de base de données et phpMyAdmin pour créer la BDD. Le deuxième chapitre est consacré à la présentation de notre...

  2. Neural-net based calculation of voltage dips at maximum angular swing in direct transient stability analysis [of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M [Inst. ' Nikola Tesla' , Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Sobajic, D J; Pao, Yohhan [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Computer Engineering and Science AI WARE inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1992-10-01

    In heavily stressed power systems, post-fault transient voltage dips can lead to undesired tripping of industrial drives and large induction motors. The lowest transient voltage dips occur when fault clearing times are less than critical ones. In this paper, we propose a new iterative analytical methodology to obtain more accurate estimates of voltage dips at maximum angular swing in direct transient stability analysis. We also propose and demonstrate the possibility of storing the results of these computations in the associative memory (AM) system, which exhibits remarkable generalization capabilities. Feature-based models stored in the AM can be utilized for fast and accurate prediction of the location, duration and the amount of the worst voltage dips, thereby avoiding the need and cost for lengthy time-domain simulations. Numerical results obtained using the example of the New England power system are presented to illustrate our approach. (Author)

  3. Integrated Testing of a 4-Bed Molecular Sieve, Air-Cooled Temperature Swing Adsorption Compressor, and Sabatier Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, James C.; Miller, Lee; Campbell, Melissa; Mulloth, Lila; Varghese, Mini

    2006-01-01

    Accumulation and subsequent compression of carbon dioxide that is removed from the space cabin are two important processes involved in a closed-loop air revitalization scheme of the International Space Station (ISS). The 4-Bed Molecular Sieve (4BMS) of ISS currently operates in an open loop mode without a compressor. The Sabatier Engineering Development Unit (EDU) processes waste CO2 to provide water to the crew. This paper reports the integrated 4BMS, air-cooled Temperature Swing Adsorption Compressor (TSAC), and Sabatier EDU testing. The TSAC prototype was developed at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). The 4BMS was modified to a functionally flight-like condition at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Testing was conducted at MSFC. The paper provides details of the TSAC operation at various CO2 loadings and corresponding performance of the 4BMS and Sabatier.

  4. FAST (Four chamber view And Swing Technique) Echo: a Novel and Simple Algorithm to Visualize Standard Fetal Echocardiographic Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Lami; Romero, Roberto; Jodicke, Cristiano; Oggè, Giovanna; Lee, Wesley; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Vaisbuch, Edi; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe a novel and simple algorithm (FAST Echo: Four chamber view And Swing Technique) to visualize standard diagnostic planes of fetal echocardiography from dataset volumes obtained with spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) and applying a new display technology (OmniView). Methods We developed an algorithm to image standard fetal echocardiographic planes by drawing four dissecting lines through the longitudinal view of the ductal arch contained in a STIC volume dataset. Three of the lines are locked to provide simultaneous visualization of targeted planes, and the fourth line (unlocked) “swings” through the ductal arch image (“swing technique”), providing an infinite number of cardiac planes in sequence. Each line generated the following plane(s): 1) Line 1: three-vessels and trachea view; 2) Line 2: five-chamber view and long axis view of the aorta (obtained by rotation of the five-chamber view on the y-axis); 3) Line 3: four-chamber view; and 4) “Swing” line: three-vessels and trachea view, five-chamber view and/or long axis view of the aorta, four-chamber view, and stomach. The algorithm was then tested in 50 normal hearts (15.3 – 40 weeks of gestation) and visualization rates for cardiac diagnostic planes were calculated. To determine if the algorithm could identify planes that departed from the normal images, we tested the algorithm in 5 cases with proven congenital heart defects. Results In normal cases, the FAST Echo algorithm (3 locked lines and rotation of the five-chamber view on the y-axis) was able to generate the intended planes (longitudinal view of the ductal arch, pulmonary artery, three-vessels and trachea view, five-chamber view, long axis view of the aorta, four-chamber view): 1) individually in 100% of cases [except for the three-vessel and trachea view, which was seen in 98% (49/50)]; and 2) simultaneously in 98% (49/50). The “swing technique” was able to generate the three-vessels and trachea view, five

  5. How to quantify the transition phase during golf swing performance: Torsional load affects low back complaints during the transition phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Taeyong; Choi, Ahnryul; Lee, Soeun; Mun, Joung Hwan

    2017-10-01

    The transition phase of a golf swing is considered to be a decisive instant required for a powerful swing. However, at the same time, the low back torsional loads during this phase can have a considerable effect on golf-related low back pain (LBP). Previous efforts to quantify the transition phase were hampered by problems with accuracy due to methodological limitations. In this study, vector-coding technique (VCT) method was proposed as a comprehensive methodology to quantify the precise transition phase and examine low back torsional load. Towards this end, transition phases were assessed using three different methods (VCT, lead hand speed and X-factor stretch) and compared; then, low back torsional load during the transition phase was examined. As a result, the importance of accurate transition phase quantification has been documented. The largest torsional loads were observed in healthy professional golfers (10.23 ± 1.69 N · kg -1 ), followed by professional golfers with a history of LBP (7.93 ± 1.79 N · kg -1 ), healthy amateur golfers (1.79 ± 1.05 N · kg -1 ) and amateur golfers with a history of LBP (0.99 ± 0.87 N · kg -1 ), which order was equal to that of the transition phase magnitudes of each group. These results indicate the relationship between the transition phase and LBP history and the dependency of the torsional load magnitude on the transition phase.

  6. Use of Real‐Time GNSS‐RF Data to Characterize the Swing Movements of Forestry Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryer M. Becker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The western United States faces significant forest management challenges after severe bark beetle infestations have led to substantial mortality. Minimizing costs is vital for increasing the feasibility of management operations in affected forests. Multi‐transmitter Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS‐radio frequencies (RF technology has applications in the quantification and analysis of harvest system production efficiency and provision of real‐time operational machine position, navigation, and timing. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy with which multi‐transmitter GNSS‐RF captures the swinging and forwarding motions of ground based harvesting machines at varying transmission intervals. Assessing the accuracy of GNSS in capturing intricate machine movements is a first step toward development of a real‐time production model to assist timber harvesting of beetle‐killed lodgepole pine stands. In a complete randomized block experiment with four replicates, a log loader rotated to 18 predetermined angles with GNSS‐RF transponders collecting and sending data at two points along the machine boom (grapple and heel rack and at three transmission intervals (2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 s. The 2.5 and 5.0 s intervals correctly identified 94% and 92% of cycles at the grapple and 92% and 89% of cycles at the heel, respectively. The 2.5 s interval successfully classified over 90% of individual cycle elements, while the 5.0 s interval returned statistically similar results. Predicted swing angles obtained the highest level of similarity to observed angles at the 2.5 s interval. Our results show that GNSS‐RF is useful for realtime, model‐based analysis of forest operations, including woody biomass production logistics.

  7. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  8. Ultra(high)-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight-ion mobility-high definition mass spectrometry for the rapid identification and structural characterization of flavonoid glycosides from cauliflower waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Raes, Katleen; Coelus, Sofie; Struijs, Karin; Smagghe, Guy; Van Camp, John

    2014-01-03

    In this paper, a strategy for the detection and structural elucidation of flavonoid glycosides from a complex matrix in a single chromatographic run using U(H)PLC-ESI-IMS-HDMS/MS(E) is presented. This system operates using alternative low and high energy voltages that is able to perform the task of conventional MS/MS in a data-independent way without re-injection of the sample, which saves analytical time. Also, ion mobility separation (IMS) was employed as an additional separation technique for compounds that are co-eluting after U(H)PLC separation. First, the fragmentation of flavonoid standards were analyzed and criteria was set for structural elucidation of flavonoids in a plant extract. Based on retention times, UV spectra, exact mass, and MS fragment characteristics, such as abundances of daughter ions and the presence of radical ions ([Y0-H](-)), a total 19 flavonoid glycosides, of which 8 non-acylated and 11 acylated, were detected and structurally characterized in a cauliflower waste extract. Kaempferol and quercetin were the main aglycones detected while sinapic and ferulic acid were the main phenolic acids. C-glycosides were also found although their structure could not be elucidated. The proposed method can be used as a rapid screening test for flavonoid identification and for routine analysis of plant extracts, such as these derived from cauliflower waste. The study also confirms that agroindustrial wastes, such as cauliflower leaves, could be seen as a valuable source of different bioactive phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pressure-Application Device for Testing Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A portable pressure-application device has been designed and built for use in testing and calibrating piezoelectric pressure transducers in the field. The device generates pressure pulses of known amplitude. A pressure pulse (in contradistinction to a steady pressure) is needed because in the presence of a steady pressure, the electrical output of a piezoelectric pressure transducer decays rapidly with time. The device includes a stainless- steel compressed-air-storage cylinder of 500 cu cm volume. A manual hand pump with check valves and a pressure gauge are located at one end of the cylinder. A three-way solenoid valve that controls the release of pressurized air is located at the other end of the cylinder. Power for the device is provided by a 3.7-V cordless-telephone battery. The valve is controlled by means of a pushbutton switch, which activates a 5 V to +/-15 V DC-to-DC converter that powers the solenoid. The outlet of the solenoid valve is connected to the pressure transducer to be tested. Before the solenoid is energized, the transducer to be tested is at atmospheric pressure. When the solenoid is actuated by the push button, pressurized air from inside the cylinder is applied to the transducer. Once the pushbutton is released, the cylinder pressure is removed from the transducer and the pressurized air applied to the transducer is vented, bringing the transducer back to atmospheric pressure. Before this device was used for actual calibration, its accuracy was checked with a NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) traceable calibrator and commercially calibrated pressure transducers. This work was done by Wanda Solano of Stennis Space Center and Greg Richardson of Lockheed Martin Corp.

  10. Dynamic pressure measures for long pipeline leak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likun Wang; Hongchao Wang; Min Xiong; Bin Xu; Dongjie Tan; Hengzhang Zhou [PetroChina Pipeline Company, Langfang (China). R and D Center

    2009-07-01

    Pipeline leak detection method based on dynamic pressure is studied. The feature of dynamic pressure which is generated by the leakage of pipeline is analyzed. The dynamic pressure method is compared with the static pressure method for the advantages and disadvantages in pipeline leak detection. The dynamic pressure signal is suitable for pipeline leak detection for quick-change of pipeline internal pressure. Field tests show that the dynamic pressure method detects pipeline leak rapidly and precisely. (author)

  11. The Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) and its operations from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) during the AROMAT campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlaud, Alexis; Tack, Frederik; Constantin, Daniel; Georgescu, Lucian; Maes, Jeroen; Fayt, Caroline; Mingireanu, Florin; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Meier, Andreas Carlos; Schönardt, Anja; Ruhtz, Thomas; Bellegante, Livio; Nicolae, Doina; Den Hoed, Mirjam; Allaart, Marc; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2018-01-01

    The Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) is a compact remote sensing instrument dedicated to mapping trace gases from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). SWING is based on a compact visible spectrometer and a scanning mirror to collect scattered sunlight. Its weight, size, and power consumption are respectively 920 g, 27 cm × 12 cm × 8 cm, and 6 W. SWING was developed in parallel with a 2.5 m flying-wing UAV. This unmanned aircraft is electrically powered, has a typical airspeed of 100 km h-1, and can operate at a maximum altitude of 3 km. We present SWING-UAV experiments performed in Romania on 11 September 2014 during the Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign, which was dedicated to test newly developed instruments in the context of air quality satellite validation. The UAV was operated up to 700 m above ground, in the vicinity of the large power plant of Turceni (44.67° N, 23.41° E; 116 m a. s. l. ). These SWING-UAV flights were coincident with another airborne experiment using the Airborne imaging differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP), and with ground-based DOAS, lidar, and balloon-borne in situ observations. The spectra recorded during the SWING-UAV flights are analysed with the DOAS technique. This analysis reveals NO2 differential slant column densities (DSCDs) up to 13±0.6×1016 molec cm-2. These NO2 DSCDs are converted to vertical column densities (VCDs) by estimating air mass factors. The resulting NO2 VCDs are up to 4.7±0.4×1016 molec cm-2. The water vapour DSCD measurements, up to 8±0.15×1022 molec cm-2, are used to estimate a volume mixing ratio of water vapour in the boundary layer of 0.013±0.002 mol mol-1. These geophysical quantities are validated with the coincident measurements.

  12. The Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING and its operations from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV during the AROMAT campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Merlaud

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING is a compact remote sensing instrument dedicated to mapping trace gases from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. SWING is based on a compact visible spectrometer and a scanning mirror to collect scattered sunlight. Its weight, size, and power consumption are respectively 920 g, 27 cm  ×  12 cm  ×  8 cm, and 6 W. SWING was developed in parallel with a 2.5 m flying-wing UAV. This unmanned aircraft is electrically powered, has a typical airspeed of 100 km h−1, and can operate at a maximum altitude of 3 km. We present SWING-UAV experiments performed in Romania on 11 September 2014 during the Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT campaign, which was dedicated to test newly developed instruments in the context of air quality satellite validation. The UAV was operated up to 700 m above ground, in the vicinity of the large power plant of Turceni (44.67° N, 23.41° E; 116 m a. s. l. . These SWING-UAV flights were coincident with another airborne experiment using the Airborne imaging differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP, and with ground-based DOAS, lidar, and balloon-borne in situ observations. The spectra recorded during the SWING-UAV flights are analysed with the DOAS technique. This analysis reveals NO2 differential slant column densities (DSCDs up to 13±0.6×1016 molec cm−2. These NO2 DSCDs are converted to vertical column densities (VCDs by estimating air mass factors. The resulting NO2 VCDs are up to 4.7±0.4×1016 molec cm−2. The water vapour DSCD measurements, up to 8±0.15×1022 molec cm−2, are used to estimate a volume mixing ratio of water vapour in the boundary layer of 0.013±0.002 mol mol−1. These geophysical quantities are validated with the coincident measurements.

  13. Swing Boat: Inducing and Recording Locomotor Activity in a Drosophila melanogaster Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Berlandi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that physical activity can slow down progression of neurodegeneration in humans. To date, automated ways to induce activity have been predominantly described in rodent models. To study the impact of activity on behavior and survival in adult Drosophila melanogaster, we aimed to develop a rotating tube device “swing boat” which is capable of monitoring activity and sleep patterns as well as survival rates of flies. For the purpose of a first application, we tested our device on a transgenic fly model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Activity of flies was recorded in a climate chamber using the Drosophila Activity Monitoring (DAM System connected to data acquisition software. Locomotor activity was induced by a rotating tube device “swing boat” by repetitively tilting the tubes for 30 min per day. A non-exercising group of flies was used as control and activity and sleep patterns were obtained. The GAL4-/UAS system was used to drive pan-neuronal expression of human Aβ42 in flies. Immunohistochemical stainings for Aβ42 were performed on paraffin sections of adult fly brains. Daily rotation of the fly tubes evoked a pronounced peak of activity during the 30 min exercise period. Pan-neuronal expression of human Aβ42 in flies caused abnormalities in locomotor activity, reduction of life span and elevated sleep fragmentation in comparison to wild type flies. Furthermore, the formation of amyloid accumulations was observed in the adult fly brain. Gently induced activity over 12 days did not evoke prominent effects in wild type flies but resulted in prolongation of median survival time by 7 days (32.6% in Aβ42-expressing flies. Additionally, restoration of abnormally decreased night time sleep (10% and reduced sleep fragmentation (28% were observed compared to non-exercising Aβ42-expressing flies. On a structural level no prominent effects regarding prevalence of amyloid aggregations and Aβ42 RNA expression were

  14. Limb swinging in elephants and giraffes and implications for the reconstruction of limb movements and speed estimates in large dinosaurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Christian

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Speeds of walking dinosaurs that left fossil trackways have been estimated using the stride length times natural pendulum frequency of the limbs. In a detailed analysis of limb movements in walking Asian elephants and giraffes, however, distinct differences between actual limb movements and the predicted limb movements using only gravity as driving force were observed. Additionally, stride frequency was highly variable. Swing time was fairly constant, but especially at high walking speeds, much shorter than half the natural pendulum period. An analysis of hip and shoulder movements during walking showed that limb swinging was influenced by accelerations of hip and shoulder joints especially at high walking speeds. These results suggest an economical fast walking mechanism that could have been utilised by large dinosaurs to increase maximum speeds of locomotion. These findings throw new light on the dynamics of large vertebrates and can be used to improve speed estimates in large dinosaurs. Geschwindigkeiten gehender Dinosaurier, die fossile Fährten hinterlassen haben, wurden als Produkt aus Schrittlänge und natürlicher Pendelfrequenz der Beine abgeschätzt. Eine detaillierte Analyse der Beinbewegungen von gehenden Asiatischen Elefanten und Giraffen offenbarte allerdings klare Unterschiede zwischen den tatsächlichen Extremitätenbewegungen und den Bewegungen, die zu erwarten wären, wenn die Gravitation die einzige treibende Kraft darstellte. Zudem erwies sich die Schrittfrequenz als hochgradig variabel. Die Schwingzeit der Gliedmaßen war recht konstant, aber besonders bei hohen Gehgeschwindigkeiten viel kürzer als die halbe natürliche Pendelperiode der Extremitäten. Eine Analyse der Bewegungen der Hüft- und Schultergelenke während des Gehens zeigte, daß das Schwingen der Gliedmaßen durch Beschleunigungen dieser Gelenke beeinflußt wurde, insbesondere bei hohen Gehgeschwindigkeiten. Die Resultate legen einen ökonomischen Mechanismus

  15. Pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    Strain gauges pressure transducers types are presented. Models, characteristics and calibration procedures were also analysed. Initially, a theoretical study was accomplished to evaluate metallic alloys behavior on sensing elements manufacturing, and diaphragm was used as deflecting elements. Electrical models for potenciometric transducers were proposed at the beginning and subsequently comproved according our experiments. Concerning bridge transducers, existing models confirmed the conditions of linearity and sensitivity related to the electrical signal. All the work done was of help on the calibration field and pressure measurements employing unbounded strain gauge pressure transducers

  16. Analytical Subthreshold Current and Subthreshold Swing Models for a Fully Depleted (FD) Recessed-Source/Drain (Re-S/D) SOI MOSFET with Back-Gate Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramekala, Gopi Krishna; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) analytical models for the subthreshold current and subthreshold swing of the back-gated fully depleted recessed-source/drain (Re-S/D) silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) are presented. The surface potential is determined by solving the 2D Poisson equation in both channel and buried-oxide (BOX) regions, considering suitable boundary conditions. To derive closed-form expressions for the subthreshold characteristics, the virtual cathode potential expression has been derived in terms of the minimum of the front and back surface potentials. The effect of various device parameters such as gate oxide and Si film thicknesses, thickness of source/drain penetration into BOX, applied back-gate bias voltage, etc. on the subthreshold current and subthreshold swing has been analyzed. The validity of the proposed models is established using the Silvaco ATLAS™ 2D device simulator.

  17. Analytical model for subthreshold current and subthreshold swing of short-channel double-material-gate MOSFETs with strained-silicon channel on silicon—germanium substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari Pramod Kumar; Saramekala Gopi Krishna; Mukhopadhyay Anand Kumar; Dubey Sarvesh

    2014-01-01

    The present work gives some insight into the subthreshold behaviour of short-channel double-material-gate strained-silicon on silicon—germanium MOSFETs in terms of subthreshold swing and off-current. The formulation of subthreshold current and, thereupon, the subthreshold swing have been done by exploiting the expression of potential distribution in the channel region of the device. The dependence of the subthreshold characteristics on the device parameters, such as Ge mole fraction, gate length ratio, work function of control gate metal and gate length, has been tested in detail. The analytical models have been validated by the numerical simulation results that were obtained from the device simulation software ATLAS™ by Silvaco Inc. (semiconductor devices)

  18. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  19. Effect of spinal manipulative therapy with stretching compared with stretching alone on full-swing performance of golf players: a randomized pilot trial☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Soraya M.V.; Chibana, Yumi E.T.; Giavarotti, Leandro; Compagnoni, Débora S.; Shiono, Adriana H.; Satie, Janice; Bracher, Eduardo S.B.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective There has been a steady growth of chiropractic treatment using spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) that aims to increase the performance of athletes in various sports. This study evaluates the effect of SMT by chiropractors on the performance of golf players. Methods Golfers of 2 golf clubs in São Paulo, Brazil, participated in this study. They were randomized to 1 of 2 groups: Group I received a stretch program, and group II received a stretch program in addition to SMT. Participants in both groups performed the same standardized stretching program. Spinal manipulative therapy to dysfunctional spinal segments was performed on group II only. All golfers performed 3 full-swing maneuvers. Ball range was considered as the average distance for the 3 shots. Treatment was performed after the initial measurement, and the same maneuvers were performed afterward. Each participant repeated these procedures for a 4-week period. Student t test, Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, and 1-way analysis of variance for repeated measures with significance level of 5% were used to analyze the study. Results Forty-three golfers completed the protocol. Twenty participants were allocated to group I and 23 to group II. Average age, handicap, and initial swing were comparable. No improvement of full-swing performance was observed during the 4 sessions on group I (stretch only). An improvement was observed at the fourth session of group II (P = .005); when comparing the posttreatment, group II had statistical significance at all phases (P = .003). Conclusions Chiropractic SMT in association with muscle stretching may be associated with an improvement of full-swing performance when compared with muscle stretching alone. PMID:19948307

  20. Comparison of the Percentage Stance and Swing Phases and Ground Reaction Force between Young and Older Adults during Walking at different speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Brooshak

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: In general, the percentage of stance and swing phases of a gait cycle is similar between young and older adults. Lower VGRFs of weight acceptance and push off phases in the elders reflects the weakness of the knee extensor, hip extensors and ankle plantar flexors. It seems that older adults reduce the rate of force production during fast gait to achieve the necessary capacity for power generation and thereby, overcome the weakness of the lower extremity muscles.

  1. Constructed wetlands and solar-driven disinfection technologies for sustainable wastewater treatment and reclamation in rural India: SWINGS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, J A; Ávila, C; Otter, P; Kilian, R; Istenič, D; Rolletschek, M; Molle, P; Khalil, N; Ameršek, I; Mishra, V K; Jorgensen, C; Garfi, A; Carvalho, P; Brix, H; Arias, C A

    2017-09-01

    SWINGS was a cooperation project between the European Union and India, aiming at implementing state of the art low-cost technologies for the treatment and reuse of domestic wastewater in rural areas of India. The largest wastewater treatment plant consists of a high-rate anaerobic system, followed by vertical and horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands with a treatment area of around 1,900 m 2 and a final step consisting of solar-driven anodic oxidation (AO) and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection units allowing direct reuse of the treated water. The implementation and operation of two pilot plants in north (Aligarh Muslim University, AMU) and central India (Indira Gandhi National Tribal University, IGNTU) are shown in this study. The overall performance of AMU pilot plant during the first 7 months of operation showed organic matter removal efficiencies of 87% total suspended solids, 95% 5-day biological oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) and 90% chemical oxygen demand, while Kjeldahl nitrogen removal reached 89%. The UV disinfection unit produces water for irrigation and toilet flushing with pathogenic indicator bacteria well below WHO guidelines. On the other hand, the AO disinfection unit implemented at IGNTU and operated for almost a year has been shown to produce an effluent of sufficient quality to be reused by the local population for agriculture and irrigation.

  2. Protonic/electronic hybrid oxide transistor gated by chitosan and its full-swing low voltage inverter applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Jin Yu [Shanxi Province Key Laboratory High Gravity Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhu, Li Qiang, E-mail: lqzhu@nimte.ac.cn; Xiao, Hui [Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Yuan, Zhi Guo, E-mail: ncityzg@163.com [Shanxi Province Key Laboratory High Gravity Chemical Engineering, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China)

    2015-12-21

    Modulation of charge carrier density in condensed materials based on ionic/electronic interaction has attracted much attention. Here, protonic/electronic hybrid indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) transistors gated by chitosan based electrolyte were obtained. The chitosan-based electrolyte illustrates a high proton conductivity and an extremely strong proton gating behavior. The transistor illustrates good electrical performances at a low operating voltage of ∼1.0 V such as on/off ratio of ∼3 × 10{sup 7}, subthreshold swing of ∼65 mV/dec, threshold voltage of ∼0.3 V, and mobility of ∼7 cm{sup 2}/V s. Good positive gate bias stress stabilities are obtained. Furthermore, a low voltage driven resistor-loaded inverter was built by using an IZO transistor in series with a load resistor, exhibiting a linear relationship between the voltage gain and the supplied voltage. The inverter is also used for decreasing noises of input signals. The protonic/electronic hybrid IZO transistors have potential applications in biochemical sensors and portable electronics.

  3. Swing Phase Control of Semi-Active Prosthetic Knee Using Neural Network Predictive Control With Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkachai, Kittipong; Nilkhamhang, Itthisek

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, intelligent prosthetic knees have been developed that enable amputees to walk as normally as possible when compared to healthy subjects. Although semi-active prosthetic knees utilizing magnetorheological (MR) dampers offer several advantages, they lack the ability to generate active force that is required during some states of a normal gait cycle. This prevents semi-active knees from achieving the same level of performance as active devices. In this work, a new control algorithm for a semi-active prosthetic knee during the swing phase is proposed to reduce this gap. The controller uses neural network predictive control and particle swarm optimization to calculate suitable command signals. Simulation results using a double pendulum model show that the generated knee trajectory of the proposed controller is more similar to the normal gait than previous open-loop controllers at various ambulation speeds. Moreover, the investigation shows that the algorithm can be calculated in real time by an embedded system, allowing for easy implementation on real prosthetic knees.

  4. Suicide and general elections in Austria: do preceding regional suicide rate differentials foreshadow subsequent voting behavior swings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Formann, Anton K; Fülöp, Gerhard; Sonneck, Gernot

    2003-05-01

    Suicide-epidemiological research on short-term effects of elections on national/regional suicide and parasuicide incidence has yielded contradictory evidence. Reversing the cause-effect relationship of this line of research we investigated whether preceding regional suicide rates are related to subsequent election results. For Austria's 121 districts, we regressed averaged standardized suicide rates for the preceding period (1988-1994) on political parties' subsequent electoral gains/losses (1999-to-1995) while controlling for a set of 12 domain-relevant psychosocial/economic indices. Stepwise weighted multiple regression led to a significant model. The 1999-to-1995 electoral gains/losses of two opposition parties, together with the population variation caused by migration balance and by births/deaths balance, accounted for a substantial part (30%) of the variability in preceding district-level suicide rates. Various other social indices failed to contribute further substantial increments to this model. This finding suggests that variations in preceding regional suicide incidence might be mirrored in subsequent changes in voting behavior. A speculative post hoc explanation for the finding is offered: on a community level, suicide's aftermath might produce socially and politically alienated survivors of suicide who co-shape swings towards opposition parties in subsequent general elections. The finding calls for more research on suicide's long-term aftermath. Within-country replicability and cross-national generalizability await further investigation. At present, the factor/mechanism accounting for this finding is neither well-established nor has been directly tested.

  5. Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for: Teens Dealing With Bullying Emotional Intelligence Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Coping With Stressful Situations Prom Pressure What Stresses You Out About School? Virginity: A Very Personal Decision Stress & Coping Center ...

  6. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  7. Population pressures: threat to democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The desire for political freedom and representative government is spreading throughout the world. The stability of democratic bodies is dependent on wise leaders, foreign aid, and slowing population growth. Rapid population growth strains political institutions and increases pressure on services. A Population Crisis Committee study found that only a few democratic countries with serious demographic pressures remained stable. The most stable countries were ones with lower levels of population pressure. Most of the 31 unstable countries were in Africa and in a band stretching from the Middle East to South Asia, and almost all had serious demographic pressures. Only 5 stable countries had high or very high demographic pressures. Since countries in the world are interdependent, population pressures have adverse consequences everywhere. Population pressures in the developing world are considered enhanced by the rapid growth of cities. Both the developed and the developing world face the problems of clogged highways, loss of wilderness, polluted lakes and streams, and stifling smog and acid rain conditions. The sociopolitical implications of demographic changes vary from country to country, but rapid growth and maldistribution of population strains existing political, social, and economic structures and relations between nations. Urban areas are the arena for clashes of cultures, competition for scarce housing and jobs, the breakdown of traditional family and social structures, and juxtapositions of extreme wealth next to extreme poverty. The growth of independent nation states since the 1940s has not allowed much time for development of effective political institutions. There are many obstacles to national unity and popular political participation. The potential for political instability is correlated with a number of factors: large youth populations in overcrowded cities with too high expectations and limited opportunities, diverse and intense ethnic and religious

  8. Rapid improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  9. Rapid response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrick G; Edelson, Dana P; Churpek, Matthew M

    2018-07-01

    Rapid response systems are commonly employed by hospitals to identify and respond to deteriorating patients outside of the intensive care unit. Controversy exists about the benefits of rapid response systems. We aimed to review the current state of the rapid response literature, including evolving aspects of afferent (risk detection) and efferent (intervention) arms, outcome measurement, process improvement, and implementation. Articles written in English and published in PubMed. Rapid response systems are heterogeneous, with important differences among afferent and efferent arms. Clinically meaningful outcomes may include unexpected mortality, in-hospital cardiac arrest, length of stay, cost, and processes of care at end of life. Both positive and negative interventional studies have been published, although the two largest randomized trials involving rapid response systems - the Medical Early Response and Intervention Trial (MERIT) and the Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients (EPOCH) trial - did not find a mortality benefit with these systems, albeit with important limitations. Advances in monitoring technologies, risk assessment strategies, and behavioral ergonomics may offer opportunities for improvement. Rapid responses may improve some meaningful outcomes, although these findings remain controversial. These systems may also improve care for patients at the end of life. Rapid response systems are expected to continue evolving with novel developments in monitoring technologies, risk prediction informatics, and work in human factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of an installation for the production of high-purity hydrogen using the pressure-swing-adsorption process with coke-oven gas as feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, M; Sugishita, M

    1986-04-01

    This paper describes how Nippon Steel developed a process for producing high-purity hydrogen using the PSA method with coke-oven gas as a feedstock. The process comprises a gas-compression and gas-cooling stage, a pre-treatment stage, an adsorption stage, a de-oxygenation stage and various control and maintenance devices, etc. The triple-tower plant constructed is the equivalent of a four-tower conventional installation, with a maximum capacity of around 10,000 Nm/sup 3//h. 1 tab., 14 figs., 3 refs.

  11. Radiography of pressure ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstroem, P.S.; Ekberg, O.; Lasson, A.

    1988-01-01

    In patients with longstanding and/or deep pressure ulcers radiology is usually consulted. Survey radiography and sinography in 14 patients with pressure ulcers (6 over the tuber ischii and 8 over the femoral trochanter) were evaluated. Osteomyelitic involvement of adjacent bone was revealed in 9 patients on survey radiography. However, it was usually impossible to assess whether or not bony involvement represents healed or active osteomyelitis. Sinography did not contribute to the assessment of whether or not adjacent cortical bone was involved. However, when a fistulation to an adjacent joint was revealed this contributed substantially to the preoperative planning of resection. We therefore recommend that survey radiography and sinography should be included in the evaluation of these patients but that the results from such examinations are critically evaluated. Joint involvement should be taken seriously as progression of septic arthritis usually occurs rapidly. (orig.)

  12. Rapid pile load tests in the geotechnical centrifuge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holscher, P.; Van Tol, A.F.; Huy, N.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Centrifiige experiments were carried out to gain insight into the factors that affect the mobilized resistance during rapid load testing on piles in sand. The influence of generated pore water pressure during rapid load tests is shidied, and its effect on the commonly used unloadmg point method to

  13. Rapid die manufacturing using direct laser metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFVT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the work undertaken at the CSIR on the issue of rapid die manufacturing through the application and evaluation of a rapid prototyping technique and coating technologies applied to die components of a high pressure casting die...

  14. LOFT fuel rod pressure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billeter, T.R.

    1979-01-01

    Pressure sensors selected for measuring fuel rod pressure within the LOFT reactor exhibited stable, repeatable operating characteristics during calibrations at temperatures up to 800 0 F and pressures to 2500 psig. All sensors have a nominal sensitivity of .5 millivolts per psi, decreasing monotonically with temperature. Output signal increases linearly with increasing pressure up to 2000 psig. For imposed slow and rapid temperature variations and for pressure applied during these tests, the sensor indicates a pressure at variance with the actual value by up to 15% of reading. However, the imposed temperature rates of change often exceeded the value of -10 0 F/sec. specified for LOFT. The series of tests in an autoclave permit creation of an environment most closely resembling sensor operating conditions within LOFT. For multiple blowdowns and for longtime durations the sensor continued to provide pressure-related output signals. For temperature rates up to -87 0 F/sec, the indicated pressure measurement error remained less than 13% of reading. Adverse effects caused by heating the 1/16 inch O.D. signal cable to 800 0 F contributed only insignificantly to the noted pressure measurement error

  15. rapid assessment of protected area pressures and threats in nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH

    Consequently, much of tropical biodiversity is unlikely to survive without .... conservation of biodiversity was highest in KLNP followed by CRNP and CBNP. GGNP ..... Myers N., Mittermeier R. A., Mittermeier C. G., da. Fonseca G. A. B. and Kent J., 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorties. Nature 403: 853 – 858.

  16. A semi-immersive virtual reality incremental swing balance task activates prefrontal cortex: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso Moro, Sara; Bisconti, Silvia; Muthalib, Makii; Spezialetti, Matteo; Cutini, Simone; Ferrari, Marco; Placidi, Giuseppe; Quaresima, Valentina

    2014-01-15

    Previous functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies indicated that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in the maintenance of the postural balance after external perturbations. So far, no studies have been conducted to investigate the PFC hemodynamic response to virtual reality (VR) tasks that could be adopted in the field of functional neurorehabilitation. The aim of this fNIRS study was to assess PFC oxygenation response during an incremental and a control swing balance task (ISBT and CSBT, respectively) in a semi-immersive VR environment driven by a depth-sensing camera. It was hypothesized that: i) the PFC would be bilaterally activated in response to the increase of the ISBT difficulty, as this cortical region is involved in the allocation of attentional resources to maintain postural control; and ii) the PFC activation would be greater in the right than in the left hemisphere considering its dominance for visual control of body balance. To verify these hypotheses, 16 healthy male subjects were requested to stand barefoot while watching a 3 dimensional virtual representation of themselves projected onto a screen. They were asked to maintain their equilibrium on a virtual blue swing board susceptible to external destabilizing perturbations (i.e., randomizing the forward-backward direction of the impressed pulse force) during a 3-min ISBT (performed at four levels of difficulty) or during a 3-min CSBT (performed constantly at the lowest level of difficulty of the ISBT). The center of mass (COM), at each frame, was calculated and projected on the floor. When the subjects were unable to maintain the COM over the board, this became red (error). After each error, the time required to bring back the COM on the board was calculated (returning time). An eight-channel continuous wave fNIRS system was employed for measuring oxygenation changes (oxygenated-hemoglobin, O2Hb; deoxygenated-hemoglobin, HHb) related to the PFC activation (Brodmann Areas 10, 11

  17. MCDA swing weighting and discrete choice experiments for elicitation of patient benefit-risk preferences: a critical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Tommi; Gelhorn, Heather; Sri Bhashyam, Sumitra; Poon, Jiat-Ling; Gries, Katharine S; Rentz, Anne; Marsh, Kevin

    2017-12-01

    Multiple criteria decision analysis swing weighting (SW) and discrete choice experiments (DCE) are appropriate methods for capturing patient preferences on treatment benefit-risk trade-offs. This paper presents a qualitative comparison of the 2 methods. We review and critically assess similarities and differences of SW and DCE based on 6 aspects: comprehension by study participants, cognitive biases, sample representativeness, ability to capture heterogeneity in preferences, reliability and validity, and robustness of the results. The SW choice task can be more difficult, but the workshop context in which SW is conducted may provide more support to patients who are unfamiliar with the end points being evaluated or who have cognitive impairments. Both methods are similarly prone to a number of biases associated with preference elicitation, and DCE is prone to simplifying heuristics, which limits its application with large number of attributes. The low cost per patient of the DCE means that it can be better at achieving a representative sample, though SW does not require such large sample sizes due to exact nature of the collected preference data. This also means that internal validity is automatically enforced with SW, while the internal validity of DCE results needs to be assessed manually. Choice between the 2 methods depends on characteristics of the benefit-risk assessment, especially on how difficult the trade-offs are for the patients to make and how many patients are available. Although there exist some empirical studies on many of the evaluation aspects, critical evidence gaps remain. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Effects of wide step walking on swing phase hip muscle forces and spatio-temporal gait parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajelan, Soheil; Nagano, Hanatsu; Sparrow, Tony; Begg, Rezaul K

    2017-07-01

    Human walking can be viewed essentially as a continuum of anterior balance loss followed by a step that re-stabilizes balance. To secure balance an extended base of support can be assistive but healthy young adults tend to walk with relatively narrower steps compared to vulnerable populations (e.g. older adults and patients). It was, therefore, hypothesized that wide step walking may enhance dynamic balance at the cost of disturbed optimum coupling of muscle functions, leading to additional muscle work and associated reduction of gait economy. Young healthy adults may select relatively narrow steps for a more efficient gait. The current study focused on the effects of wide step walking on hip abductor and adductor muscles and spatio-temporal gait parameters. To this end, lower body kinematic data and ground reaction forces were obtained using an Optotrak motion capture system and AMTI force plates, respectively, while AnyBody software was employed for muscle force simulation. A single step of four healthy young male adults was captured during preferred walking and wide step walking. Based on preferred walking data, two parallel lines were drawn on the walkway to indicate 50% larger step width and participants targeted the lines with their heels as they walked. In addition to step width that defined walking conditions, other spatio-temporal gait parameters including step length, double support time and single support time were obtained. Average hip muscle forces during swing were modeled. Results showed that in wide step walking step length increased, Gluteus Minimus muscles were more active while Gracilis and Adductor Longus revealed considerably reduced forces. In conclusion, greater use of abductors and loss of adductor forces were found in wide step walking. Further validation is needed in future studies involving older adults and other pathological populations.

  19. MoS2 Negative-Capacitance Field-Effect Transistors with Subthreshold Swing below the Physics Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingqiang; Liang, Renrong; Gao, Guoyun; Pan, Caofeng; Jiang, Chunsheng; Xu, Qian; Luo, Jun; Zou, Xuming; Yang, Zhenyu; Liao, Lei; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2018-05-21

    The Boltzmann distribution of electrons induced fundamental barrier prevents subthreshold swing (SS) from less than 60 mV dec -1 at room temperature, leading to high energy consumption of MOSFETs. Herein, it is demonstrated that an aggressive introduction of the negative capacitance (NC) effect of ferroelectrics can decisively break the fundamental limit governed by the "Boltzmann tyranny". Such MoS 2 negative-capacitance field-effect transistors (NC-FETs) with self-aligned top-gated geometry demonstrated here pull down the SS value to 42.5 mV dec -1 , and simultaneously achieve superior performance of a transconductance of 45.5 μS μm and an on/off ratio of 4 × 10 6 with channel length less than 100 nm. Furthermore, the inserted HfO 2 layer not only realizes a stable NC gate stack structure, but also prevents the ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) from fatigue with robust stability. Notably, the fabricated MoS 2 NC-FETs are distinctly different from traditional MOSFETs. The on-state current increases as the temperature decreases even down to 20 K, and the SS values exhibit nonlinear dependence with temperature due to the implementation of the ferroelectric gate stack. The NC-FETs enable fundamental applications through overcoming the Boltzmann limit in nanoelectronics and open up an avenue to low-power transistors needed for many exciting long-endurance portable consumer products. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Step-by-step variability of swing phase trajectory area during steady state walking at a range of speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Christopher P.; Brown, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Background Step kinematic variability has been characterized during gait using spatial and temporal kinematic characteristics. However, people can adopt different trajectory paths both between individuals and even within individuals at different speeds. Single point measures such as minimum toe clearance (MTC) and step length (SL) do not necessarily account for the multiple paths that the foot may take during the swing phase to reach the same foot fall endpoint. The purpose of this study was to test a step-by-step foot trajectory area (SBS-FTA) variability measure that is able to characterize sagittal plane foot trajectories of varying areas, and compare this measure against MTC and SL variability at different speeds. We hypothesize that the SBS-FTA variability would demonstrate increased variability with speed. Second, we hypothesize that SBS-FTA would have a stronger curvilinear fit compared with the CV and SD of SL and MTC. Third, we hypothesize SBS-FTA would be more responsive to change in the foot trajectory at a given speed compared to SL and MTC. Fourth, SBS-FTA variability would not strongly co-vary with SL and MTC variability measures since it represents a different construct related to foot trajectory area variability. Methods We studied 15 nonimpaired individuals during walking at progressively faster speeds. We calculated SL, MTC, and SBS-FTA area. Results SBS-FTA variability increased with speed, had a stronger curvilinear fit compared with the CV and SD of SL and MTC, was more responsive at a given speed, and did not strongly co-vary with SL and MTC variability measures. Conclusion SBS foot trajectory area variability was sensitive to change with faster speeds, captured a relationship that the majority of the other measures did not demonstrate, and did not co-vary strongly with other measures that are also components of the trajectory. PMID:29370202

  1. Manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents by a rapid prototyping process chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knitter, R.; Bauer, W.; Goehring, D.; Hausselt, J.

    2001-01-01

    Manufacturing of new ceramic components may be improved significantly by the use of rapid prototyping processes especially in the development of miniaturized or micropatterned components. Most known generative ceramic molding processes do not provide a sufficient resolution for the fabrication of microstructured components. In contrast to this, a rapid prototyping process chain that for example, combines micro-stereolithography and low-pressure injection molding, allows the rapid manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents from functional models to preliminary or small-lot series. (orig.)

  2. Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV): Results from the 2014 AROMAT campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlaud, Alexis; Tack, Frederik; Constantin, Daniel; Fayt, Caroline; Maes, Jeroen; Mingireanu, Florin; Mocanu, Ionut; Georgescu, Lucian; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The Small Whiskbroom Imager for atmospheric compositioN monitorinG (SWING) is an instrument dedicated to atmospheric trace gas retrieval from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The payload is based on a compact visible spectrometer and a scanning mirror to collect scattered sunlight. Its weight, size, and power consumption are respectively 920 g, 27x12x12 cm3, and 6 W. The custom-built 2.5 m flying wing UAV is electrically powered, has a typical airspeed of 100 km/h, and can operate at a maximum altitude of 3 km. Both the payload and the UAV were developed in the framework of a collaboration between the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB) and the Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Romania. We present here SWING-UAV test flights dedicated to NO2 measurements and performed in Romania on 10 and 11 September 2014, during the Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign. The UAV performed 5 flights in the vicinity of the large thermal power station of Turceni (44.67° N, 23.4° E). The UAV was operated in visual range during the campaign, up to 900 m AGL , downwind of the plant and crossing its exhaust plume. The spectra recorded on flight are analyzed with the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) method. The retrieved NO2 Differential Slant Column Densities (DSCDs) are up to 1.5e17 molec/cm2 and reveal the horizontal gradients around the plant. The DSCDs are converted to vertical columns and compared with coincident car-based DOAS measurements. We also present the near-future perspective of the SWING-UAV observation system, which includes flights in 2015 above the Black Sea to quantify ship emissions, the addition of SO2 as a target species, and autopilot flights at higher altitudes to cover a typical satellite pixel extent (10x10 km2).

  3. Effects of bilateral swing-away grab bars on the biomechanics of stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand toilet transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jin; Mehta-Desai, Ricky; Oh, Kyunggeune; Sanford, Jon; Prilutsky, Boris I

    2018-03-09

    Kinetic characteristics of transfers to and from a toilet performed using bilateral grab bars are not fully quantified to inform grab bar design and configuration. The purpose of this study was to (1) determine effects of bilateral swing-away grab bars on peaks of ankle, knee and hip joint moments during grab bar assisted stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand transfers; and (2) determine effects of three different heights and widths of swing-away grab bars on the same kinetic characteristics. Healthy subjects (N = 11, age 25-58 years) performed stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand transfers with and without grab bars. In transfers with grab bars, 9 grab bar configurations were tested by varying their height from the floor (0.787 m, 0.813 m, 0.838 m; 31″-33″) and width, the distance of each grab bar from the toilet's centerline (0.330 m, 0.356 m, 0.381 m; 13″-15″). Motion capture, force plate and inverse dynamics analysis were used to determine lower limb joint moments. The use of bilateral grab bars generally reduced the peak magnitude of extension moments at lower limb joints during stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand transfers (p away grab bars is useful for informing grab bar design and configuration recommendations for assisted living and skilled nursing facilities. Our findings suggest that the swing-away grab bars located at certain ranges are a reasonable alternative to the grab bars mandated by the current Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines. Future research investigating the effects of grab bars on transfer performance should consider additional factors, such as a wider range of abilities and transfer methods of the users.

  4. Rapid world modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Charles; Jensen, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and developed systems capable of large-scale, three-dimensional mapping of unstructured environments in near real time. This mapping technique is called rapid world modeling and has proven invaluable when used by prototype systems consisting of sensory detection devices mounted on mobile platforms. These systems can be deployed into previously unmapped environments and transmit real-time 3-D visual images to operators located remotely. This paper covers a brief history of the rapid world modeling system, its implementation on mobile platforms, and the current state of the technology. Applications to the nuclear power industry are discussed. (author)

  5. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on relativistic multiparticle processes in the central rapidity region at asymptotically high energies, a new experimental study of charged K→3π decays, pre-Cherenkov radiation as a phenomenon of 'light barrier', stable S=-2 H dibaryon found in Dubna, calculation of Green functions and gluon top in some unambiguous gauges, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment and the manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

  6. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  7. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on invisible Z-boson width and restrictions on next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, cosmic test of honeycomb drift chambers, fission of 209 Bi, 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 237 Np in a spallation neutron field, rapid screening of spontaneous and radiation-induced structural changes at the vestigial gene of Drosophila melanogaster by polymerase chain reaction, gamma-ray multiplicities in sub-barrier fission of 226 Th and the decay constants of the scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the quark models with quasilocal interaction

  8. Auscultatory versus oscillometric measurement of blood pressure in octogenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Jens-Ulrik; Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang; Matzen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement.......Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement....

  9. Integrated Testing of a Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly and a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, J. C.; Mulloth, Lila; Frederick, Kenneth; Affleck, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Accumulation and subsequent compression of carbon dioxide that is removed from space cabin are two important processes involved in a closed-loop air revitalization scheme of the International Space Station (ISS). The carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA) of ISS currently operates in an open loop mode without a compressor. This paper describes the integrated test results of a flight-like CDRA and a temperature-swing adsorption compressor (TSAC) for carbon dioxide removal and compression. The paper provides details of the TSAC operation at various CO2 loadings and corresponding performance of CDRA.

  10. Testing hypotheses in an I(2) model with piecewise linear trends. An analysis of the persistent long swings in the Dmk/$ rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Juselius, Katarina; Frydman, Roman

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the I(2) model with breaks in the deterministic component and illustrates with an analysis of German and US prices, exchange rates, and interest rates in 1975--1999. It provides new results on the likelihood ratio test of overidentifying restrictions on the cointegrating...... relations when they contain piecewise linear trends. One important aim of the paper is to demonstrate that a structured I(2) analysis is useful for a better understanding of the empirical regularities underlying the persistent swings in nominal exchange rates, typical in periods of floating exchange rates....

  11. Quantifying error of lidar and sodar Doppler beam swinging measurements of wind turbine wakes using computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Clifton, A.

    2015-02-01

    Wind-profiling lidars are now regularly used in boundary-layer meteorology and in applications such as wind energy and air quality. Lidar wind profilers exploit the Doppler shift of laser light backscattered from particulates carried by the wind to measure a line-of-sight (LOS) velocity. The Doppler beam swinging (DBS) technique, used by many commercial systems, considers measurements of this LOS velocity in multiple radial directions in order to estimate horizontal and vertical winds. The method relies on the assumption of homogeneous flow across the region sampled by the beams. Using such a system in inhomogeneous flow, such as wind turbine wakes or complex terrain, will result in errors. To quantify the errors expected from such violation of the assumption of horizontal homogeneity, we simulate inhomogeneous flow in the atmospheric boundary layer, notably stably stratified flow past a wind turbine, with a mean wind speed of 6.5 m s-1 at the turbine hub-height of 80 m. This slightly stable case results in 15° of wind direction change across the turbine rotor disk. The resulting flow field is sampled in the same fashion that a lidar samples the atmosphere with the DBS approach, including the lidar range weighting function, enabling quantification of the error in the DBS observations. The observations from the instruments located upwind have small errors, which are ameliorated with time averaging. However, the downwind observations, particularly within the first two rotor diameters downwind from the wind turbine, suffer from errors due to the heterogeneity of the wind turbine wake. Errors in the stream-wise component of the flow approach 30% of the hub-height inflow wind speed close to the rotor disk. Errors in the cross-stream and vertical velocity components are also significant: cross-stream component errors are on the order of 15% of the hub-height inflow wind speed (1.0 m s-1) and errors in the vertical velocity measurement exceed the actual vertical velocity

  12. Swing into Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Julia; Loesing, Jenine; Soucie, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    The "Math by the Month" activities of May 2005 are focused on connecting sports with mathematics. The problems provide an opportunity to integrate mathematics into students' everyday lives, whereby students will be able to explore linear and time measurement, data collection, statistics, number operations, geometry, discrete mathematics, and…

  13. The Pendulum Swings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maura King

    2009-01-01

    The gender gap in higher education has been a reality across the developed world for the past two decades, and it continues to grow. In the United States today, 57 percent of college students are women. Women also hold the majority of associate and master's degrees, and men and women have just achieved parity at the doctorate level, where women…

  14. The Mythical Swing Voter

    OpenAIRE

    Rothschild, David; Goel, Sharad; Gelman, Andrew; Rivers, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The only acceptable form of polling in the multi-billion dollar survey research field utilizes representative samples. We argue that with proper statistical adjustment, non-representative polling can provide accurate predictions, and often in a much more timely and cost-effective fashion. We demonstrate this by applying multilevel regression and post-stratification (MRP) to a 2012 election survey on the Xbox gaming platform. Not only do the transformed top-line projections from this data clos...

  15. Swinging in Imaginary Time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    !2 if f(z + n!1 + m!2) = f(z) for any pair of integers n; m. Double periodicity .... According to the `Standard Model' of fundamental particle physics, strong, electromagnetic and weak .... thus weighs in with its phasor, i.e., a complex number of unit modulus. Since S is ... a transmission amplitude proportional to exp(−R x2 x1 p(E ...

  16. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  17. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  18. High-pressure plastic scintillation detector for measuring radiogenic gases in flow systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schell, W R; Yoon, S R; Tobin, M J

    1999-01-01

    Radioactive gases are emitted into the atmosphere from nuclear electric power and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, from hospitals discarding xenon used in diagnostic medicine, as well as from nuclear weapons tests. A high-pressure plastic scintillation detector was constructed to measure atmospheric levels of such radioactive gases by detecting the beta and internal conversion (IC) electron decays. Operational tests and calibrations were made that permit integration of the flow detectors into a portable Gas Analysis, Separation and Purification system (GASP). The equipment developed can be used for measuring fission gases released from nuclear reactor sources and/or as part of monitoring equipment for enforcing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The detector is being used routinely for in-line gas separation efficiency measurements, at the elevated operational pressures used for the high-pressure swing analysis system (2070 kPa) and at flow rates of 5-15 l/min . This paper presents the design features, opera...

  19. Three-Dimensional Crane Modelling and Control Using Euler-Lagrange State-Space Approach and Anti-Swing Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksjonov Andrei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of the three-dimensional crane using the Euler-Lagrange approach is derived. A state-space representation of the derived model is proposed and explored in the Simulink® environment and on the laboratory stand. The obtained control design was simulated, analyzed and compared with existing encoder-based system provided by the three-dimensional (3D Crane manufacturer Inteco®. As well, an anti-swing fuzzy logic control has been developed, simulated, and analyzed. Obtained control algorithm is compared with the existing anti-swing proportional-integral controller designed by the 3D crane manufacturer Inteco®. 5-degree of freedom (5DOF control schemes are designed, examined and compared with the various load masses. The topicality of the problem is due to the wide usage of gantry cranes in industry. The solution is proposed for the future research in sensorless and intelligent control of complex motor driven application.

  20. A novel gate and drain engineered charge plasma tunnel field-effect transistor for low sub-threshold swing and ambipolar nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dharmendra Singh; Raad, Bhagwan Ram; Sharma, Dheeraj

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we focus on the improvement of figures of merit for charge plasma based tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) in terms of ON-state current, threshold voltage, sub-threshold swing, ambipolar nature, and gate to drain capacitance which provides better channel controlling of the device with improved high frequency response at ultra-low supply voltages. Regarding this, we simultaneously employ work function engineering on the drain and gate electrode of the charge plasma TFET. The use of gate work function engineering modulates the barrier on the source/channel interface leads to improvement in the ON-state current, threshold voltage, and sub-threshold swing. Apart from this, for the first time use of work function engineering on the drain electrode increases the tunneling barrier for the flow of holes on the drain/channel interface, it results into suppression of ambipolar behavior. The lowering of gate to drain capacitance therefore enhanced high frequency parameters. Whereas, the presence of dual work functionality at the gate electrode and over the drain region improves the overall performance of the charge plasma based TFET.

  1. Comparison of Muscle Onset Activation Sequences between a Golf or Tennis Swing and Common Training Exercises Using Surface Electromyography: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Vasudevan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this pilot study is to use surface electromyography to determine an individual athlete’s typical muscle onset activation sequence when performing a golf or tennis forward swing and to use the method to assess to what degree the sequence is reproduced with common conditioning exercises and a machine designed for this purpose. Methods. Data for 18 healthy male subjects were collected for 15 muscles of the trunk and lower extremities. Data were filtered and processed to determine the average onset of muscle activation for each motion. A Spearman correlation estimated congruence of activation order between the swing and each exercise. Correlations of each group were pooled with 95% confidence intervals using a random effects meta-analytic strategy. Results. The averaged sequences differed among each athlete tested, but pooled correlations demonstrated a positive association between each exercise and the participants’ natural muscle onset activation sequence. Conclusion. The selected training exercises and Turning Point™ device all partially reproduced our athletes’ averaged muscle onset activation sequences for both sports. The results support consideration of a larger, adequately powered study using this method to quantify to what degree each of the selected exercises is appropriate for use in both golf and tennis.

  2. Studying the errors in the estimation of the variation of energy by the "patched-conics" model in the three-dimensional swing-by

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Rodolfo Batista; Prado, Antonio Fernando Bertachini de Almeida; Sukhanov, Alexander

    2017-11-01

    The swing-by maneuver is a technique used to change the energy of a spacecraft by using a close approach in a celestial body. This procedure was used many times in real missions. Usually, the first approach to design this type of mission is based on the "patched-conics" model, which splits the maneuver into three "two-body dynamics." This approach causes an error in the estimation of the energy variations, which depends on the geometry of the maneuver and the system of primaries considered. Therefore, the goal of the present paper is to study the errors caused by this approximation. The comparison of the results are made with the trajectories obtained using the more realistic restricted three-body problem, assumed here to be the "real values" for the maneuver. The results shown here describe the effects of each parameter involved in the swing-by. Some examples using bodies in the solar system are used in this part of the paper. The study is then generalized to cover different mass parameters, and its influence is analyzed to give an idea of the amount of the error expected for a given system of primaries. The results presented here may help in estimating errors in the preliminary mission analysis using the "patched-conics" approach.

  3. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for microfluidics K. LAND, S. HUGO, M MBANJWA, L FOURIE CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidics refers to the manipulation of very small volumes of fluid.... Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  4. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  5. Rapid MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, R.R.; Buxton, R.B.; Brady, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods typically require several minutes to produce an image, but the periods of respiration, cardiac motion and peristalsis are on the order of seconds or less. The need to reduce motion artifact, as well as the need to reduce imaging time for patient comfort and efficiency, have provided a strong impetus for the development of rapid imaging methods. For abdominal imaging, motion artifacts due to respiration can be significantly reduced by collecting the entire image during one breath hold. For other applications, such as following the kinetics of administered contrast agents, rapid imaging is essential to achieve adequate time resolution. A shorter imaging time entails a cost in image signal/noise (S/N), but improvements in recent years in magnet homogeneity, gradient and radiofrequency coil design have led to steady improvements in S/N and consequently in image quality. For many chemical applications the available S/N is greater than needed, and a trade-off of lower S/N for a shorter imaging time is acceptable. In this chapter, the authors consider the underlying principles of rapid imaging as well as clinical applications of these methods. The bulk of this review concentrates on short TR imaging, but methods that provide for a more modest decrease in imaging time as well as or those that dramatically shorten the imaging time to tens of milliseconds are also discussed

  6. Ultra-modified rapid sequence induction with transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange: Challenging convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Sakharam Kulkarni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During positive pressure ventilation, gastric inflation and subsequent pulmonary aspiration can occur. Rapid sequence induction (RSI technique is an age-old formula to prevent this. We adopted a novel approach of RSI for patients with high risk of aspiration and evaluated it further in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgeries. We believe that, in patients with risk of gastric insufflation and pulmonary aspiration, transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange can be useful in facilitating pre- and apnoeic oxygenation till tracheal isolation is achieved.

  7. Fission gas pressure build-up and fast-breeder economy; Accumulation de la pression des gaz de fission et economie des reacteurs surgenerateurs a neutrons rapides; Nakoplenie davleniya gazov produktov deleniya i ehkonomika reaktorov-razmnozhitelej na bystrykh nejtronakh; Aumento de la presion de los gases de fision y economia de los reactores reproductores rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, P [Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1962-03-15

    Fuel-cycle costs and doubling time of fast-breeder reactors are strongly affected by the fuel-burn-up obtainable. Use of oxide or carbide fuel offers the possibility of reaching a burn-up of 100 000 MWd/t. In fuel-clad elements, a limiting factor is the fission-gas-pressure build-up. At the high burn-up considered, an appreciable fraction of the fission gases gets into the pores and thus contributes to the pressure on the can. Starting from the known fission-product yields and decay chains, gas production and pressure build-up have been calculated. Three physical models have been employed in calculating the pressure acting upon the can : the gas is contained either in interconnected pores, in separate pores, or in a central hole. The pressure-dependence upon free volume (fuel density) and temperature will be discussed. Cans made of high-strength materials as Ineonel-X and molybdenum could stand the fission-gas pressure at operating temperatures. Unfortunately, these materials have higher absorption cross-sections than stainless steel. Results of a multi-group calculation are given, showing the effect of using these can materials and of decreasing the fuel density on critical mass and breeding ratio in small and medium-size breeders. (author) [French] Le cout du cycle de combustible et la periode de doublement des reacteurs surgenerateurs a neutrons rapides dependent etroitement du taux de combustion. En utilisant pour combustible un oxyde ou un carbure, on peut atteindre un taux de combustion de 100 000 MW j/t. Avec des combustibles gaines, l'accumulation de la pression des gaz de fission est un facteur limitatif. Pour le fort taux de combustion envisage, une fraction non negligeable des gaz de fission penetre dans les interstices et contribue ainsi a la pression sur la gaine. A partir des rendements en produits de fission et des chaines de desintegration connus, l'auteur a calcule la production de gaz et l'accumulation de pression. Pour calculer la pression

  8. High-pressure oxidation of ethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; G. Jacobsen, Jon; Rasmussen, Christian T.

    2017-01-01

    Ethane oxidation at intermediate temperatures and high pressures has been investigated in both a laminar flow reactor and a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor measurements at 600–900 K and 20–100 bar showed an onset temperature for oxidation of ethane between 700 and 825 K, depending...... on pressure, stoichiometry, and residence time. Measured ignition delay times in the RCM at pressures of 10–80 bar and temperatures of 900–1025 K decreased with increasing pressure and/or temperature. A detailed chemical kinetic model was developed with particular attention to the peroxide chemistry. Rate...

  9. Sensing line effects on PWR-based differential pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.P.; Neff, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    An incorrrect configuration of the fluid-filled pressure sensing lines connecting differential pressure transducers to the pressure taps in a pressurized water reactor system can cause errors in the measurement and, during rapid pressure transients, could cause the transducer to fail. Testing was performed in both static and dynamic modes to experimentally determine the effects of sensing lines of various lengths, diameters, and materials. Testing was performed at ambient temperature with absolute line pressures at about 17 MPa using water as the pressure transmission fluid

  10. Experimental Hydro-Mechanical Characterization of Full Load Pressure Surge in Francis Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A.; Favrel, A.; Landry, C.; Yamamoto, K.; Avellan, F.

    2017-04-01

    Full load pressure surge limits the operating range of hydro-electric generating units by causing significant power output swings and by compromising the safety of the plant. It appears during the off-design operation of hydraulic machines, which is increasingly required to regulate the broad integration of volatile renewable energy sources into the existing power network. The underlying causes and governing physical mechanisms of this instability were investigated in the frame of a large European research project and this paper documents the main findings from two experimental campaigns on a reduced scale model of a Francis turbine. The multi-phase flow in the draft tube is characterized by Particle Image Velocimetry, Laser Doppler Velocimetry and high-speed visualizations, along with synchronized measurements of the relevant hydro-mechanical quantities. The final result is a comprehensive overview of how the unsteady draft tube flow and the mechanical torque on the runner shaft behave during one mean period of the pressure oscillation, thus defining the unstable fluid-structure interaction responsible for the power swings. A discussion of the root cause is initiated, based on the state of the art. Finally, the latest results will enable a validation of recent RANS flow simulations used for determining the key parameters of hydro-acoustic stability models.

  11. Nitrogen evolution during rapid hydropyrolysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, W.-C.; Kumagai, M. [Institute of Research and Innovation, Kashiwa (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    The behavior of nitrogen evolution during rapid hydropyrolysis of coal has been investigated at temperatures ranging from 923 to 1123 K and hydrogen pressure up to 5 MPa using a continuous free fall pyrolyzer. Three coals have been tested in this study. The dominant nitrogen gaseous species is ammonia, together with a little amount of HCN because most of HCN is converted to NH{sub 3} through secondary reactions. The results show that the evolution of nitrogen in coal is caused mainly by devolatilization at temperatures below 973 K, while the evolution of volatile nitrogen in char is accelerated with increasing temperature and hydrogen pressure. The mineral matter in coal act as catalysts to promote the evolution of volatile nitrogen in char to N{sub 2} apparently at high temperatures of 1123 K, as found during pyrolysis of coal by Ohtsuka et al. A pseudo-first-order kinetic model was applied to the evolution of nitrogen in coal during rapid hydropyrolysis. The model shows the activation energy for the nitrogen evolution from coal is 36.6 58.6 kJ/mol while the rate of the nitrogen evolution depends on hydrogen pressure in the order of 0.16 0.24. 41 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  13. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest at night and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low ... low blood pressure. Medications that can cause low blood pressure Some medications can cause low blood pressure, including: ...

  14. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  15. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a pressure sore required? play_arrow How long is the typical healing time for a pressure ... arrow Why do some pressure sores take so long to heal? play_arrow Can a pressure sore ...

  16. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on decays of excited strange mesons in the extended NJL model, production of heavy evaporation residues in the reactions induced by an extracted 48 Ca beam on a 208 Pb target, scaling behaviour of tensor analyzing power (A yy ) in the inelastic scattering or relativistic deuterons,two-photon collisions at very low Q 2 from LEP2: forthcoming results, high magnetic field uniformity superconducting magnet for a movable polarized target, multichannel time-to-digital converter for drift detector and wavelet-analysis: application to Gaussian signals

  17. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on the measurement of charge radii for Ti nuclei, spectroscopy of 13 Be, concentrations of hadrons and quark-gluon plasma in mixed phase, experimental results on one-spin pion asymmetry in the d↑ + A → π±(90 0 ) + X process, new results on cumulative pion and proton production in p-D collisions, investigation of charge exchange reactions, the study of the tensor analyzing power in cumulative particle production on a deuteron beam and an evidence for the excited states of the S = -2 stable light dibaryon. 32 figs., 6 tabs

  18. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate reports on analytic QCD running coupling with finite IR behaviour and universal α bar s (0) value, quark condensate in the interacting pion- nucleon medium at finite temperature and baryon number density, γ-π 0 discrimination with a shower maximum detector using neural networks for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC, off-specular neutron reflection from magnetic media with nondiagonal reflectivity matrices and molecular cytogenetics of radiation-induced gene mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. 21 fig., 1 tab

  19. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on additional conditions on eigenvectors in solving inverse problem for two-dimensional Schroedinger equation, on an absolute calibration of deuteron beam polarization at LHE, determination of the vector component of the polarization of the JINR synchrophasotron deuteron beam, wavelet-analysis: criterion of reliable signal selection, on asymptotics in inclusive production of antinuclei and nuclear fragments, use of neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor for atmospheric monitoring and impulse method for temperature measurement of silicon detectors

  20. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate reports on Monte Carlo simulation of silicon detectors for the ALICE experiment at LHC, a study of single tagged multihadronic γγ* events at an average Q 2 of 90 GeV 2 , epithermal neutron activation analysis of moss, lichen and pine needles in atmospheric deposition monitoring, the theory of neutrino oscillation, coupled quadrupole and monopole vibrations of large amplitude and test of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule using parametrization of the measured lepton-proton asymmetry. 21 figs., 18 tabs