WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid pressure rise

  1. Rising workload or rising work pressure in general practice in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.H. de; Hutten, J.B.F.; Steultjens, M.; Schellevis, F.

    2002-01-01

    Background: General practice in the Netherlands seems to be in a crisis. Worries about shortages of GP's, the first strike of general practitioners in 2001 and the rapid increase of triage systems in out of hours care are signs that work pressure and/or workload are rising. But systematic evidence

  2. Beam Induced Pressure Rise at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, S Y; Bai, Mei; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Cameron, Peter; Drees, Angelika; Fischer, Wolfram; Gullotta, Justin; He, Ping; Hseuh Hsiao Chaun; Huang, Haixin; Iriso, Ubaldo; Lee, Roger C; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; MacKay, William W; Nicoletti, Tony; Oerter, Brian; Peggs, Steve; Pilat, Fulvia Caterina; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Satogata, Todd; Smart, Loralie; Snydstrup, Louis; Thieberger, Peter; Trbojevic, Dejan; Wang, Lanfa; Wei, Jie; Zeno, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Beam induced pressure rise in RHIC warm sections is currently one of the machine intensity and luminosity limits. This pressure rise is mainly due to electron cloud effects. The RHIC warm section electron cloud is associated with longer bunch spacings compared with other machines, and is distributed non-uniformly around the ring. In addition to the countermeasures for normal electron cloud, such as the NEG coated pipe, solenoids, beam scrubbing, bunch gaps, and larger bunch spacing, other studies and beam tests toward the understanding and counteracting RHIC warm electron cloud are of interest. These include the ion desorption studies and the test of anti-grazing ridges. For high bunch intensities and the shortest bunch spacings, pressure rises at certain locations in the cryogenic region have been observed during the past two runs. Beam studies are planned for the current 2005 run and the results will be reported.

  3. RAPIDLY RISING TRANSIENTS IN THE SUPERNOVA—SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVA GAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcavi, Iair; Howell, D. Andrew [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope, 6740 Cortona Dr., Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93111 (United States); Wolf, William M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Bildsten, Lars; McCully, Curtis; Valenti, Stefano [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Leloudas, Giorgos; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Katz, Boaz [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel); Hardin, Delphine; Astier, Pierre; Balland, Cristophe [LPNHE, CNRS-IN2P3 and University of Paris VI and VII, F-75005 Paris (France); Prajs, Szymon; Sullivan, Mark [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Perley, Daniel A. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Svirski, Gilad [Racah Institute for Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Cenko, S. Bradley [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lidman, Chris [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Carlberg, Ray G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Conley, Alex, E-mail: iarcavi@lcogt.net [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-389 (United States); and others

    2016-03-01

    We present observations of four rapidly rising (t{sub rise} ≈ 10 days) transients with peak luminosities between those of supernovae (SNe) and superluminous SNe (M{sub peak} ≈ −20)—one discovered and followed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) and three by the Supernova Legacy Survey. The light curves resemble those of SN 2011kl, recently shown to be associated with an ultra-long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB), though no GRB was seen to accompany our SNe. The rapid rise to a luminous peak places these events in a unique part of SN phase space, challenging standard SN emission mechanisms. Spectra of the PTF event formally classify it as an SN II due to broad Hα emission, but an unusual absorption feature, which can be interpreted as either high velocity Hα (though deeper than in previously known cases) or Si ii (as seen in SNe Ia), is also observed. We find that existing models of white dwarf detonations, CSM interaction, shock breakout in a wind (or steeper CSM), and magnetar spin down cannot readily explain the observations. We consider the possibility that a “Type 1.5 SN” scenario could be the origin of our events. More detailed models for these kinds of transients and more constraining observations of future such events should help to better determine their nature.

  4. Numerical Investigation of Microgravity Tank Pressure Rise Due to Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylton, Sonya; Ibrahim, Mounir; Kartuzova, Olga; Kassemi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The ability to control self-pressurization in cryogenic storage tanks is essential for NASAs long-term space exploration missions. Predictions of the tank pressure rise in Space are needed in order to inform the microgravity design and optimization process. Due to the fact that natural convection is very weak in microgravity, heat leaks into the tank can create superheated regions in the liquid. The superheated regions can instigate microgravity boiling, giving rise to pressure spikes during self-pressurization. In this work, a CFD model is developed to predict the magnitude and duration of the microgravity pressure spikes. The model uses the Schrage equation to calculate the mass transfer, with a different accommodation coefficient for evaporation at the interface, condensation at the interface, and boiling in the bulk liquid. The implicit VOF model was used to account for the moving interface, with bounded second order time discretization. Validation of the models predictions was carried out using microgravity data from the Tank Pressure Control Experiment, which flew aboard the Space Shuttle Mission STS-52. Although this experiment was meant to study pressurization and pressure control, it underwent boiling during several tests. The pressure rise predicted by the CFD model compared well with the experimental data. The ZBOT microgravity experiment is scheduled to fly on February 2016 aboard the ISS. The CFD model was also used to perform simulations for setting parametric limits for the Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiments Test Matrix in an attempt to avoid boiling in the majority of the test runs that are aimed to study pressure increase rates during self-pressurization. *Supported in part by NASA ISS Physical Sciences Research Program, NASA HQ, USA

  5. Behavior of pressure rise and condensation caused by water evaporation under vacuum at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Kazuyuki; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Fujii, Sadao

    1998-01-01

    Pressure rise and condensation characteristics during the ingress-of-coolant event (ICE) in fusion reactors were investigated using the preliminary ICE apparatus with a vacuum vessel (VV), an additional tank (AT) and an isolation valve (IV). A surface of the AT was cooled by water at RT. The high temperature and pressure water was injected into the VV which was heated up to 250degC and pressure and temperature transients in the VV were measured. The pressure increased rapidly with an injection time of the water because of the water evaporation. After the IV was opened and the VV was connected with the AT, the pressure in the VV decreased suddenly. From a series of the experiments, it was confirmed that control factors on the pressure rise were the flushing evaporation and boiling heat transfer in the VV, and then, condensation of the vapor after was effective to the depressurization in the VV. (author)

  6. Rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure influences vascular sympathetic response to mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Khadigeh; Macefield, Vaughan G; Hissen, Sarah L; Joyner, Michael J; Taylor, Chloe E

    2016-12-15

    Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. In this study, we examined the early blood pressure responses (including the peak, time of peak and rate of rise in blood pressure) to mental stress in positive and negative responders. Negative MSNA responders to mental stress exhibit a more rapid rise in diastolic pressure at the onset of the stressor, suggesting a baroreflex-mediated suppression of MSNA. In positive responders there is a more sluggish rise in blood pressure during mental stress, which appears to be MSNA-driven. This study suggests that whether MSNA has a role in the pressor response is dependent upon the reactivity of blood pressure early in the task. Research indicates that individuals may experience a rise (positive responders) or fall (negative responders) in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during mental stress. The aim was to examine the early blood pressure response to stress in positive and negative responders and thus its influence on the direction of change in MSNA. Blood pressure and MSNA were recorded continuously in 21 healthy young males during 2 min mental stressors (mental arithmetic, Stroop test) and physical stressors (cold pressor, handgrip exercise, post-exercise ischaemia). Participants were classified as negative or positive responders according to the direction of the mean change in MSNA during the stressor tasks. The peak changes, time of peak and rate of changes in blood pressure were compared between groups. During mental arithmetic negative responders experienced a significantly greater rate of rise in diastolic blood pressure in the first minute of the task (1.3 ± 0.5 mmHg s -1 ) compared with positive responders (0.4 ± 0.1 mmHg s -1 ; P = 0.03). Similar results were found for the Stroop test. Physical tasks elicited robust parallel increases in blood pressure and MSNA across

  7. Study on rapid evacuation in high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available More and more high rising buildings emerged in modern cities, but emergency evacuation of tall buildings has been a worldwide difficult problem. In this paper, a new evacuation device for high rising buildings in fire accident was proposed and studied. This device mainly consisted of special spiral slideway and shunt valve. People in this device could fast slide down to the first floor under gravity without any electric power and physical strength, which is suitable for various emergency evacuation including mobility-impaired persons. The plane simulation test has shown that human being in alternative clockwise and counterclockwise movement will not become dizzy. The evacuated people should wear protection pad, which can prevent slider from being injured by surface friction with the slide, and eliminate the friction coefficient difference caused by different clothes and slide surface. The calculation results show that the evacuation speed of the new device is much faster than traditional staircases. Moreover, such new evacuation device can also be used as a means of vertical transportation in high-rise buildings partly. People can take it from any floor to ground floor directly, which not only save time for waiting for the lifts but also save the power. The new evacuation system is of simple structure, easy to use, and suitable for evacuation and partly used as vertical downwards traffic, which shows light on solving world-wide difficulties on fast evacuation in high-rise buildings.

  8. Finland: Scandinavia's top gas user sees demand rising rapidly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    The rising demand for natural gas in Finland which already uses more gas than any other Nordic country is noted. The natural gas market which is based on sales to large industries and for heating is compared to the market in Denmark which is geared to small private heating customers. Imports of Norwegian gas allowing increased sales for power generation in Finland, and the influence of the impending Finnish application for membership of the EC on the gas market are considered. (UK)

  9. Simulation of late inspiratory rise in airway pressure during pressure support ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chun-Hsiang; Su, Po-Lan; Lin, Wei-Chieh; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang; Chen, Chang-Wen

    2015-02-01

    Late inspiratory rise in airway pressure (LIRAP, Paw/ΔT) caused by inspiratory muscle relaxation or expiratory muscle contraction is frequently seen during pressure support ventilation (PSV), although the modulating factors are unknown. We investigated the effects of respiratory mechanics (normal, obstructive, restrictive, or mixed), inspiratory effort (-2, -8, or -15 cm H2O), flow cycle criteria (5-40% peak inspiratory flow), and duration of inspiratory muscle relaxation (0.18-0.3 s) on LIRAP during PSV using a lung simulator and 4 types of ventilators. LIRAP occurred with all lung models when inspiratory effort was medium to high and duration of inspiratory muscle relaxation was short. The normal lung model was associated with the fastest LIRAP, whereas the obstructive lung model was associated with the slowest. Unless lung mechanics were normal or mixed, LIRAP was unlikely to occur when inspiratory effort was low. Different ventilators were also associated with differences in LIRAP speed. Except for within the restrictive lung model, changes in flow cycle level did not abolish LIRAP if inspiratory effort was medium to high. Increased duration of inspiratory relaxation also led to the elimination of LIRAP. Simulation of expiratory muscle contraction revealed that LIRAP occurred only when expiratory muscle contraction occurred sometime after the beginning of inspiration. Our simulation study reveals that both respiratory resistance and compliance may affect LIRAP. Except for under restrictive lung conditions, LIRAP is unlikely to be abolished by simply lowering flow cycle criteria when inspiratory effort is strong and relaxation time is rapid. LIRAP may be caused by expiratory muscle contraction when it occurs during inspiration. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  10. Reactive rise in blood pressure upon cuff inflation: cuff inflation at the arm causes a greater rise in pressure than at the wrist in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmoy, Alexia; Würzner, Grégoire; Ruffieux, Christiane; Hasler, Christopher; Cachat, François; Waeber, Bernard; Burnier, Michel

    2007-10-01

    Cuff inflation at the arm is known to cause an instantaneous rise in blood pressure, which might be due to the discomfort of the procedure and might interfere with the precision of the blood pressure measurement. In this study, we compared the reactive rise in blood pressure induced by cuff inflation when the cuff was placed at the upper arm level and at the wrist. The reactive rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure to cuff inflation was measured in 34 normotensive participants and 34 hypertensive patients. Each participant was equipped with two cuffs, one around the right upper arm (OMRON HEM-CR19, 22-32 cm) and one around the right wrist (OMRON HEM-CS 19, 17-22 cm; Omron Health Care Europe BV, Hoofddorp, The Netherlands). The cuffs were inflated in a double random order (maximal cuff pressure and position of the cuff) with two maximal cuff pressures: 180 and 240 mmHg. The cuffs were linked to an oscillometric device (OMRON HEM 907; Omron Health Care). Simultaneously, blood pressure was measured continuously at the middle finger of the left hand using photoplethysmography. Three measurements were made at each level of blood pressure at the arm and at the wrist, and the sequence of measurements was randomized. In normotensive participants, no significant difference was observed in the reactive rise in blood pressure when the cuff was inflated either at the arm or at the wrist irrespective of the level of cuff inflation. Inflating a cuff at the arm, however, induced a significantly greater rise in blood pressure than inflating it at the wrist in hypertensive participants for both systolic and diastolic pressures (Pblood pressure response to cuff inflation was independent of baseline blood pressure. The results show that in hypertensive patients, cuff inflation at the wrist produces a smaller reactive rise in blood pressure. The difference between the arm and the wrist is independent of the patient's level of blood pressure.

  11. Rapid construction of concrete pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbert, D.; Weatherseed, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper opens with a general description of the concrete pressure vessel followed by a more detailed examination of the critical elements of the construction, including choice of methods and plant which were selected to ensure its rapid construction. The pressure vessel construction cannot be treated in isolation, because it is very closely linked with its surrounding structures - namely the reactor hall which surrounds it and the charge hall which tops it, as will be seen in the context of this paper. Rate of progress of construction is not entirely in the civil contractor's hands because so many of the operations affecting the civil works are of a mechanical nature, hence a very close liaison and understanding amongst all contractors concerned was of the utmost importance. (author)

  12. Droplet condensation in rapidly decaying pressure fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.F.; Bai, R.Y.; Schrock, V.E.; Hijikata, K.

    1992-01-01

    Certain promising schemes for cooling inertial confinement fusion reactors call for highly transient condensation in a rapidly decaying pressure field. After an initial period of condensation on a subcooled droplet, undesirable evaporation begins to occur. Recirculation within the droplet strongly impacts the character of this condensation-evaporation cycle, particularly when the recirculation time constant is of the order of the pressure decay time constant. Recirculation can augment the heat transfer, delay the onset of evaporation, and increase the maximum superheat inside the drop by as much as an order of magnitude. This numerical investigation identifies the most important parameters and physics characterizing transient, high heat flux droplet condensation. The results can be applied to conceptual designs of inertial confinement fusion reactors, where initial temperature differences on the order of 1,500 K decay to zero over time spans the order of tens of milliseconds

  13. White-Coat Hypertension: When Blood Pressure Rises at the Doctor's Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    White coat hypertension: When blood pressure rises at the doctor's office My blood pressure is always higher in the ... You could have a condition known as white coat hypertension. White coat hypertension occurs when the blood ...

  14. Effects of pressure rise on cw laser ablation of tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCarpentier, Gerald L.; Motamedi, Massoud; Welch, Ashley J.

    1991-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to identify mechanisms responsible for the initiation of continuous wave (cw) laser ablation of tissue and investigate the role of pressure in the ablation process. Porcine aorta samples were irradiated in a chamber pressurized from 1 X 10-4 to 12 atmospheres absolute pressure. Acrylic and Zn-Se windows in the experimental pressure chamber allowed video and infrared cameras to simultaneously record mechanical and thermal events associated with cw argon laser ablation of these samples. Video and thermal images of tissue slabs documented the explosive nature of cw laser ablation of soft biological media and revealed similar ablation threshold temperatures and ablation onset times under different environmental pressures; however, more violent initiation explosions with decreasing environmental pressures were observed. These results suggest that ablation initiates with thermal alterations in the mechanical strength of the tissue and proceeds with an explosion induced by the presence superheated liquid within the tissue.

  15. Minimal distal pressure rise after reconstructive arterial surgery in patients with multiple obstructive arteriosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Ivan; Tønnesen, K H; Sager, P

    1980-01-01

    fifteen had ischemic ulcers. The preoperative median pressure index (per cent of arm systolic pressure) was 10% on the 1st toe. At the 10th postoperative day the median toe pressure rose to 25%. A further rise took place at the one month control to 30% which was unchanged throughout the study. All...... patients with a persistent postoperative toe pressure above 20% of arm systolic pressure were ultimately relieved from rest pain and chronic ulcers....

  16. Modelling surface pressure fluctuation on medium-rise buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snæbjörnsson, J.T.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the results of two experiments into the fluctuating characteristics of windinduced pressures on buildings in a built-up environment. The experiments have been carried out independently in Iceland and The Netherlands and can be considered to represent two separate cases of

  17. Relationship of pressure to temperature rise in overfilled cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, E.J.

    1979-01-01

    Mild steel pressure vessels containing uranium hexafluoride are heated in 96-inch diameter autoclaves to allow the feed material to enter the gaseous diffusion process equipment for enrichment in the uranium 235 isotope. For purposes of safety analysis it is necessary to establish the ability of the instrumentation to shut off the steam supply to the autoclave prior to cylinder rupture if the cylinder has been overfilled. To make this determination requires estimates of the rate of change of pressure with respect to change of temperature at constant volume as a function of the temperature at which the ullage disappears. The paper presents the calculations for the estimation of this rate of change for liquid uranium hexafluoride using the ratio of the coefficients of expansion and compressibility using empirical liquid density data and the Eyring equation of state for liquids. 5 figs. (MB)

  18. The evolution of blood pressure and the rise of mankind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Kevin; Kunter, Uta; Moeller, Marcus J

    2015-05-01

    Why is it that only human beings continuously perform acts of heroism? Looking back at our evolutionary history can offer us some potentially useful insight. This review highlights some of the major steps in our evolution-more specifically, the evolution of high blood pressure. When we were fish, the first kidney was developed to create a standardized internal 'milieu' preserving the primordial sea within us. When we conquered land as amphibians, the evolution of the lung required a low systemic blood pressure, which explains why early land vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles) are such low performers. Gaining independence from water required the evolution of an impermeable skin and a water-retaining kidney. The latter was accomplished twice with two different solutions in the two major branches of vertebrate evolution: mammals excrete nitrogenous waste products as urea, which can be utilized by the kidney as an osmotic agent to produce more concentrated urine. Dinosaurs and birds have a distinct nitrogen metabolism and excrete nitrogen as water-insoluble uric acid-therefore, their kidneys cannot use urea to concentrate as well. Instead, some birds have developed the capability to reabsorb water from their cloacae. The convergent development of a separate small circulation of the lung in mammals and birds allowed for the evolution of 'high blood-pressure animals' with better capillarization of the peripheral tissues allowing high endurance performance. Finally, we investigate why mankind outperforms any other mammal on earth and why, to this day, we continue to perform acts of heroism on our eternal quest for personal bliss. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid sea level rise in the aftermath of a Neoproterozoic snowball Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrow, P M; Lamb, M P; Ewing, R C

    2018-04-19

    Earth's most severe climate changes occurred during global-scale snowball-Earth glaciations, which profoundly altered Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere. Extreme rates of glacio-eustatic sea-level rise are a fundamental prediction of the snowball Earth hypothesis, but supporting geologic evidence is lacking. We use paleohydraulic analysis of wave ripples and tidal laminae of the Elatina Formation, Australia - deposited following the Marinoan glaciation ca. 635Ma - to show that water depths of 9-16m remained nearly constant for ~100yrs throughout 27m of sediment accumulation. This accumulation rate was too great to have been accommodated by subsidence, and instead indicates an extraordinarily rapid rate of sea-level rise (0.2-0.27m/yr). Our results substantiate a fundamental prediction of snowball Earth models of rapid deglaciation during the early transition to a super-greenhouse climate. Copyright © 2018, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Pressure rise analysis in superconducting coils during dumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tada, E.; Shimamoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes the ALPHE computer code, whose purpose is to calculate transient helium behavior in a poolboiling coil and to determine suitable characteristics of safety devices to minimize the maximum pressure and the liquid helium lost during dumping due to quench, or when discharging without normalcy. The analysis is compared with the measurements obtained in the domestic test of the Japanese LCT coil. Topics considered include basic equations (helium behavior, heat generation), manual dump without quench, and dumping due to quench. It is demonstrated that the transient behavior, calculated by ALPHE assuming quasi-static equilibrium between helium and coil, is in good agreement with the experimental measurements observed in the domestic test of the Japanese LCT coil. The engineering technique required for the design criteria of superconducting coils and safety device during dumping is established. ALPHE can be used to design an emergency safety system for a helium refrigerator during dumping

  1. Different Selection Pressures Give Rise to Distinct Ethnic Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Cristina; Boyd, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Many accounts of ethnic phenomena imply that processes such as stereotyping, essentialism, ethnocentrism, and intergroup hostility stem from a unitary adaptation for reasoning about groups. This is partly justified by the phenomena’s co-occurrence in correlational studies. Here we argue that these behaviors are better modeled as functionally independent adaptations that arose in response to different selection pressures throughout human evolution. As such, different mechanisms may be triggered by different group boundaries within a single society. We illustrate this functionalist framework using ethnographic work from the Quechua-Aymara language boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano. We show that different group boundaries motivate different ethnic phenomena. For example, people have strong stereotypes about socioeconomic categories, which are not cooperative units, whereas they hold fewer stereotypes about communities, which are the primary focus of cooperative activity. We also show that, despite the cross-cultural importance of ethnolinguistic boundaries, the Quechua-Aymara linguistic distinction does not strongly motivate any of these intergroup processes. PMID:25731969

  2. Rapid Onset Acute Epiglottitis Leading to Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema

    OpenAIRE

    V Saraswat; P V Madhu; Suresh S Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary edema is a potentially life-threatening complication of acute airway obstruction. It develops rapidly, without warning, in young healthy individuals. Two forms of post-obstructive pulmonary edema (POPE) (also known as negative pressure pulmonary edema, NPPE) have been identified. POPE I follows sudden, severe upper airway obstruction. POPE II occurs following surgical relief of chronic upper airway obstruction. Treatment for both is supportive. Full and rapid recovery can be expecte...

  3. Primary flow meter for calibrating a sniffer test leak artefact by a pressure rise method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kenta; Yoshida, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    Sniffer tests are used to locate leaks in equipment during operation. The sensitivity of a sniffer leak detector must be calibrated against a known gas flow to atmospheric pressure generated by a sniffer test leak artefact. We have developed a primary flow meter for calibrating gas flows to atmospheric pressure through the leak artefact. The flow meter is based on a pressure rise method and two chambers are used to measure the pressure rise with small uncertainty even at atmospheric pressure. The calibration range of the flow rate is 5 × 10-7 Pa m3 s-1 to 7 × 10-4 Pa m3 s-1 to atmospheric pressure at 23.0 °C with a minimum uncertainty of 1.4% (k = 2), as well as 4 × 10-8 Pa m3 s-1 to 5 × 10-4 Pa m3 s-1 to a vacuum at 23.0 °C. The long term stability of the flow meter was determined as 0.41% by repeated measurements of the conductance of the leak artefact. In case of the flow rate into a vacuum, the flow meter was successfully linked to the international reference value of CCM.P-K12 by a lab-internal comparison.

  4. Rapidly Rising Optical Transients from the Birth of Binary Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotokezaka, Kenta; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Murase, Kohta

    2017-11-01

    We study optical counterparts of a new-born pulsar in a double neutron star system like PSR J0737-3039A/B. This system is believed to have ejected a small amount of mass of { O }(0.1 {M}⊙ ) at the second core-collapse supernova. We argue that the initial spin of the new-born pulsar can be determined by the orbital period at the time when the second supernova occurs. The spin angular momentum of the progenitor is expected to be similar to that of the He-burning core, which is tidally synchronized with the orbital motion, and then the second remnant may be born as a millisecond pulsar. If the dipole magnetic field strength of the nascent pulsar is comparable with that inferred from the current spin-down rate of PSR J0737-3039B, the initial spin-down luminosity is comparable to the luminosity of super-luminous supernovae. We consider thermal emission arising from the supernova ejecta driven by the relativistic wind from such a new-born pulsar. The resulting optical light curves have a rise time of ˜10 days and a peak luminosity of ˜1044 erg s-1. The optical emission may last for a month to several months, due to the reprocessing of X-rays and UV photons via photoelectric absorption. These features are broadly consistent with those of the rapidly rising optical transients. The high spin-down luminosity and small ejecta mass are favorable for the progenitor of the repeating fast radio burst, FRB 121102. We discuss a possible connection between new-born double pulsars and fast radio bursts.

  5. Safety demonstration tests on pressure rise in ventilation system and blower integrity of a fuel-reprocessing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Junichi; Suzuki, Motoe; Tsukamoto, Michio; Koike, Tadao; Nishio, Gunji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-12-01

    In JAERI, the demonstration test was carried out as a part of safety researches of the fuel-reprocessing plant using a large-scale facility consist of cells, ducts, dumpers, HEPA filters and a blower, when an explosive burning due to a rapid reaction of thermal decomposition for solvent/nitric acid occurs in a cell of the reprocessing plant. In the demonstration test, pressure response propagating through the facility was measured under a blowing of air from a pressurized tank into the cell in the facility to elucidate an influence of pressure rise in the ventilation system. Consequently, effective pressure decrease in the facility was given by a configuration of cells and ducts in the facility. In the test, transient responses of HEPA filters and the blower by the blowing of air were also measured to confirm the integrity. So that, it is confirmed that HEPA filters and the blower under pressure loading were sufficient to maintain the integrity. The content described in this report will contribute to safety assessment of the ventilation system in the event of explosive burning in the reprocessing plant. (author)

  6. Rapid Assessment of Protected area Pressures and Threats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular evaluation of protected area operations can enable policy makers develop strategic responses to pervasive management problems. Pressures and threats in seven National Parks of the National Park Service (NPS) were therefore assessed using the Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area ...

  7. Improvement of the bubble rise velocity model in the pressurizer using ALMOD 3 computer code to calculate evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madeira, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    It's studied the improvement for the calculation of bubble rise velocity, by adding two different ways to estimate this velocity, one of which more adequate to pressures normally found in the Reactor Cooling System. Additionally, a limitation in bubble rise velocity growth was imposed, to account for the actual behavior of bubble rise in two-phase mixtures. (Author) [pt

  8. Introduction of the bubble rise dynamic model into the ALMOD 3 code pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madeira, A.A.; Camargo, C.T.M.

    1985-01-01

    A new evaporation model for the ALMOD 3 code pressurizer is implemented in order to estimate more accurately the water level behaviour and its influence in the pressure transient for very fast depressurization cases. For the inclusion of the bubble rise dynamic model it was necessary to consider a two-phase mixture in the water volume. The modifications don't require additional input data and virtually had not modified the processing time. The results and processing time for the original and the new models are presented. (F.E.) [pt

  9. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TROYER, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse rise time versus photo peak position and resolution. These data were collected to investigate the effect of pulse rise time compensation on resolution and efficiency

  10. Influence of placement and height of high-rise buildings on wind pressure distribution and natural ventilation of low- and medium-rise buildings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Butova, A.; Pospíšil, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 15, 3/4 (2016), s. 253-266 ISSN 1473-3315 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12892S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : natural ventilation * high-rise building s * low- and medium-rise building s * wind pressure coefficient * wind tunnel tests Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.391, year: 2016 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14733315.2016.1214396

  11. Earthquakes, fluid pressures and rapid subduction zone metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viete, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    High-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) metamorphism is commonly incomplete, meaning that large tracts of rock can remain metastable at blueschist- and eclogite-facies conditions for timescales up to millions of years [1]. When HP/LT metamorphism does take place, it can occur over extremely short durations (the role of fluids in providing heat for metamorphism [2] or catalyzing metamorphic reactions [1]. Earthquakes in subduction zone settings can occur to depths of 100s of km. Metamorphic dehydration and the associated development of elevated pore pressures in HP/LT metamorphic rocks has been identified as a cause of earthquake activity at such great depths [3-4]. The process of fracturing/faulting significantly increases rock permeability, causing channelized fluid flow and dissipation of pore pressures [3-4]. Thus, deep subduction zone earthquakes are thought to reflect an evolution in fluid pressure, involving: (1) an initial increase in pore pressure by heating-related dehydration of subduction zone rocks, and (2) rapid relief of pore pressures by faulting and channelized flow. Models for earthquakes at depth in subduction zones have focussed on the in situ effects of dehydration and then sudden escape of fluids from the rock mass following fracturing [3-4]. On the other hand, existing models for rapid and incomplete metamorphism in subduction zones have focussed only on the effects of heating and/or hydration with the arrival of external fluids [1-2]. Significant changes in pressure over very short timescales should result in rapid mineral growth and/or disequilibrium texture development in response to overstepping of mineral reaction boundaries. The repeated process of dehydration-pore pressure development-earthquake-pore pressure relief could conceivably produce a record of episodic HP/LT metamorphism driven by rapid pressure pulses. A new hypothesis is presented for the origins of HP/LT metamorphism: that HP/LT metamorphism is driven by effective pressure

  12. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Troyer, G L

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse r...

  13. Factors affecting shut-in pressure rise: kicks in offshore HPHT wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilhab, L C [Sedco Forex, (Country unknown/Code not available); Rezmer-Cooper, I M [Anadril, (Country unknown/Code not available)

    1997-05-01

    Deep water and HPHT operations are two areas where the use of sophisticated simulators can enable difficult processes and procedures to be broken down into individual identifiable contributions. In the paper we discuss some of the factors that are likely to affect shut-in pressure rise in offshore drilling operations, and how a simulator can be used to answer other, less obvious questions concerning deep water well control operations. We examine the effect of gas solubility by considering a gas-kick in a deep HPHT well drilled with oil-base mud. In this case, most of the influx will be dissolved in the mud, thus removing one of the processes for increasing the wellbore pressure. In terms of s safe state to disconnect from a well in rough weather, provided that the mud yield stress negates migration of the gas-cut mud, leaving the influx in solution at the bottom of the well should not lead to increasing wellbore pressures. Significant wellbore pressure effects may also occur after closing the blowout preventers (BOP`s) on a well without an influx (or with an influx in solution), and allowing the mud to heat up. We show that in typical HPHT geometries the pressure can rise by up to 8 bar/deg C. Similar magnitudes of pressure can also increase whilst circulating trapped gas out of a BOP at the end of a well control operation. We note that these effects may also be attenuated by fluid loss and wellbore compliance for wells with significant open hole sections. Indeed, gas trapped in the BOP should be safety removed by established well control procedures. However, preliminary studies with the simulator (and confirmed by field tests in the literature) have shown that an accidental release of a small amount of gas into a deep water riser may disperse, and not cause the riser to unload. (authors) 5 refs.

  14. Rapid Onset Acute Epiglottitis Leading to Negative Pressure Pulmonary Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Saraswat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary edema is a potentially life-threatening complication of acute airway obstruction. It develops rapidly, without warning, in young healthy individuals. Two forms of post-obstructive pulmonary edema (POPE (also known as negative pressure pulmonary edema, NPPE have been identified. POPE I follows sudden, severe upper airway obstruction. POPE II occurs following surgical relief of chronic upper airway obstruction. Treatment for both is supportive. Full and rapid recovery can be expected with appropriate management. A case report of a middle aged man with acute onset epiglottitis who developed negative pressure pulmonary edema after intubation is presented. The report includes a brief discussion on etiology, clinical features and management dilemma of acute upper airway obstruction.

  15. Rapid evolution of a marsh tidal creek network in response to sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Z. J.; Fitzgerald, D. M.; Mahadevan, A.; Wilson, C. A.; Pennings, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    In the Santee River Delta (SRD), South Carolina, tidal creeks are extending rapidly onto the marsh platform. A time-series of aerial photographs establishes that these channels were initiated in the 1950's and are headward eroding at a rate of 1.9 m /yr. Short-term trends in sea level show an average relative sea level rise (RSLR) of 4.6 mm/yr over a 20-year tide gauge record from nearby Winyah Bay and Charleston Harbor (1975-1995). Longer-term (85-year) records in Charleston suggest a rate of 3.2 mm/yr. RSLR in the SRD is likely even higher as sediment cores reveal that the marsh is predominantly composed of fine-grained sediment, making it highly susceptible to compaction and subsidence. Furthermore, loss in elevation will have been exacerbated by the decrease in sediment supply due to the damming of the Santee River in 1939. The rapid rate of headward erosion indicates that the marsh platform is in disequilibrium; unable to keep pace with RSLR through accretionary processes and responding to an increased volume and frequency of inundation through the extension of the drainage network. The observed tidal creeks show no sinuosity and a distinctive morphology associated with their young age and biological mediation during their evolution. Feedbacks between tidal flow, vegetation and infauna play a strong role in the morphological development of the creeks. The creek heads are characterized by a region denuded of vegetation, the edges of which are densely populated and burrowed by Uca Pugnax (fiddler crab). Crab burrowing destabilizes sediment, destroys rooting and impacts drainage. Measured infiltration rates are three orders of magnitude higher in the burrowed regions than in a control area (1000 ml/min and 0.6 ml/min respectively). Infiltration of oxygenated water enhances decomposition of organic matter and root biomass is reduced within the creek head (marsh=4.3 kg/m3, head=0.6 kg/m3). These processes lead to the removal and collapse of the soils, producing

  16. Coral reef growth in an era of rapidly rising sea level: predictions and suggestions for long-term research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, R W; Smith, S V

    1988-01-01

    Coral reef growth is intimately linked to sea level. It has been postulated that over the next century, sea level will rise at a probable average rate of 15 mm/year, in response to fossil fuel emissions, heating, and melting of the Antarctic ice cap. This predicted rate of sea level rise is five times the present modal rate of vertical accretion on coral reef flats and 50% greater than the maximum vertical accretion rates apparently attained by coral reefs. We use these predictions and observations to offer the following hypothesis for reef growth over the next century. The vertical accretion rates of protected reef flats will accelerate from the present modal rate up to the maximum rate, in response to the more rapidly rising sea level. This more rapid vertical accretion rate will be insufficient to keep up with sea level rise, if present predictions prove to be correct. Less protected reef flats will slow their rate of growth as they become inundated and subjected to erosion by progressively larger waves. This projected sea level rise and postulated reef response will provide an opportunity for long- term studies of the response of coral reef systems to a predictable and measurable forcing function.

  17. Simulations of rapid pressure-induced solidification in molten metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Mehul V.; Streitz, Frederick H.

    2004-01-01

    The process of interest in this study is the solidification of a molten metal subjected to rapid pressurization. Most details about solidification occurring when the liquid-solid coexistence line is suddenly transversed along the pressure axis remain unknown. We present preliminary results from an ongoing study of this process for both simple models of metals (Cu) and more sophisticated material models (MGPT potentials for Ta). Atomistic (molecular dynamics) simulations are used to extract details such as the time and length scales that govern these processes. Starting with relatively simple potential models, we demonstrate how molecular dynamics can be used to study solidification. Local and global order parameters that aid in characterizing the phase have been identified, and the dependence of the solidification time on the phase space distance between the final (P,T) state and the coexistence line has been characterized

  18. Gas Injection And Fast Pressure-Rise Measurements For The Linac4 H− Source

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, E; Lettry, J; Mattei, S; O'Neil, M; Neupert, H; Pasquino, C; Schmitzer, C

    2013-01-01

    In the era of the Large Hadron Collider, the CERN injector complex comprising the 34 years old Linac2 with its primary proton source, is presently upgraded with a new linear accelerator for H− (Linac4). The design, construction, and test of volume production and cesiated RF-driven H− ion sources is presently ongoing with the final goal of producing an H− beam with 80 mA beam current, 45 keV beam energy, 500 s pulse length, and a repetition rate of 2 Hz. In order to have quantitative information of the hydrogen gas density at the moment of plasma ignition the dynamic vacuum properties of the plasma generator were studied experimentally. We describe the experimental setup and present fast pressure-rise measurements for different parameters of the gas injection system, such as gas species (H2, He, N2, Ar), piezo valve voltage pulse length (200 - 500 s), and injection pressure (400 - 2800 mbar). The obtained data are compared with a conductance model of the plasma generator.

  19. On the Rapid Rise of Social Networking Sites: New Findings and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Sonia; Brake, David R

    2010-01-01

    Social networking sites have been rapidly adopted by children and, especially, teenagers and young people worldwide, enabling new opportunities for the presentation of the self, learning, construction of a wide circle of relationships, and the management of privacy and intimacy. On the other hand, there are also concerns that social networking…

  20. Coral mass spawning predicted by rapid seasonal rise in ocean temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Keith, Sally A.; Maynard, Jeffrey A.; Edwards, Alasdair J.; Guest, James R.; Bauman, Andrew G.; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Heron, Scott F.; Berumen, Michael L.; Bouwmeester, Jessica; Piromvaragorn, Srisakul; Rahbek, Carsten; Baird, Andrew H.

    2016-01-01

    Coral spawning times have been linked to multiple environmental factors; however, to what extent these factors act as generalized cues across multiple species and large spatial scales is unknown. We used a unique dataset of coral spawning from 34 reefs in the Indian and Pacific Oceans to test if month of spawning and peak spawning month in assemblages of Acropora spp. can be predicted by sea surface temperature (SST), photosynthetically available radiation, wind speed, current speed, rainfall or sunset time. Contrary to the classic view that high mean SST initiates coral spawning, we found rapid increases in SST to be the best predictor in both cases (month of spawning: R2 = 0.73, peak: R2 = 0.62). Our findings suggest that a rapid increase in SST provides the dominant proximate cue for coral mass spawning over large geographical scales. We hypothesize that coral spawning is ultimately timed to ensure optimal fertilization success.

  1. Coral mass spawning predicted by rapid seasonal rise in ocean temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Keith, Sally A.

    2016-05-11

    Coral spawning times have been linked to multiple environmental factors; however, to what extent these factors act as generalized cues across multiple species and large spatial scales is unknown. We used a unique dataset of coral spawning from 34 reefs in the Indian and Pacific Oceans to test if month of spawning and peak spawning month in assemblages of Acropora spp. can be predicted by sea surface temperature (SST), photosynthetically available radiation, wind speed, current speed, rainfall or sunset time. Contrary to the classic view that high mean SST initiates coral spawning, we found rapid increases in SST to be the best predictor in both cases (month of spawning: R2 = 0.73, peak: R2 = 0.62). Our findings suggest that a rapid increase in SST provides the dominant proximate cue for coral mass spawning over large geographical scales. We hypothesize that coral spawning is ultimately timed to ensure optimal fertilization success.

  2. Projections of rapidly rising surface temperatures over Africa under low mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, Francois; Bopape, Mary-Jane; Naidoo, Mogesh; Garland, Rebecca; Adegoke, Jimmy; Thatcher, Marcus; McGregor, John; Katzfey, Jack; Werner, Micha; Ichoku, Charles; Gatebe, Charles

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of observed trends in African annual-average near-surface temperatures over the last five decades reveals drastic increases, particularly over parts of the subtropics and central tropical Africa. Over these regions, temperatures have been rising at more than twice the global rate of temperature increase. An ensemble of high-resolution downscalings, obtained using a single regional climate model forced with the sea-surface temperatures and sea-ice fields of an ensemble of global circulation model (GCM) simulations, is shown to realistically represent the relatively strong temperature increases observed in subtropical southern and northern Africa. The amplitudes of warming are generally underestimated, however. Further warming is projected to occur during the 21st century, with plausible increases of 4–6 °C over the subtropics and 3–5 °C over the tropics by the end of the century relative to present-day climate under the A2 (a low mitigation) scenario of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios. High impact climate events such as heat-wave days and high fire-danger days are consistently projected to increase drastically in their frequency of occurrence. General decreases in soil-moisture availability are projected, even for regions where increases in rainfall are plausible, due to enhanced levels of evaporation. The regional dowscalings presented here, and recent GCM projections obtained for Africa, indicate that African annual-averaged temperatures may plausibly rise at about 1.5 times the global rate of temperature increase in the subtropics, and at a somewhat lower rate in the tropics. These projected increases although drastic, may be conservative given the model underestimations of observed temperature trends. The relatively strong rate of warming over Africa, in combination with the associated increases in extreme temperature events, may be key factors to consider when interpreting the suitability of global mitigation targets in terms of

  3. Accelerated relative sea-level rise and rapid coastal erosion: Testing a causal relationship for the Louisiana barrier islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, J.H.; Sallenger, A.H.; Hansen, M.E.; Jaffe, B.E.

    1997-01-01

    The role of relative sea-level rise as a cause for the rapid erosion of Louisiana's barrier island coast is investigated through a numerical implementation of a modified Bruun rule that accounts for the low percentage of sand-sized sediment in the eroding Louisiana shoreface. Shore-normal profiles from 150 km of coastline west of the Mississippi delta are derived from bathymetric surveys conducted during the 1880s. 1930s and 1980s. An RMS difference criterion is employed to test whether an equilibrium profile form is maintained between survey years. Only about half the studied profiles meet the equilibrium Criterion this represents a significant limitation on the potential applicability of the Bruun rule. The profiles meeting the equilibrium criterion, along with measured rates of relative sea-level rise, are used to hindcast shoreline retreat rates at 37 locations within the study area. Modeled and observed shoreline retreat rates show no significant correlation. Thus in terms of the Bruun approach relative sea-level rise has no power for hindcasting (and presumably forecasting) rates of coastal erosion for the Louisiana barrier islands.

  4. Modeling unsteady forces and pressures on a rapidly pitching airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Nicole K.; Dawson, Scott T. M.; Rowley, Clarence W.; Williams, David R.

    2014-11-01

    This work develops models to quantify and understand the unsteady aerodynamic forces arising from rapid pitching motion of a NACA0012 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 50 000. The system identification procedure applies a generalized DMD-type algorithm to time-resolved wind tunnel measurements of the lift and drag forces, as well as the pressure at six locations on the suction surface of the airfoil. Models are identified for 5-degree pitch-up and pitch-down maneuvers within the overall range of 0-20 degrees. The identified models can accurately capture the effects of flow separation and leading-edge vortex formation and convection. We demonstrate that switching between different linear models can give accurate prediction of the nonlinear behavior that is present in high-amplitude maneuvers. The models are accurate for a wide-range of motions, including pitch-and-hold, sinusoidal, and pseudo-random pitching maneuvers. Providing the models access to a subset of the measured data channels can allow for improved estimates of the remaining states via the use of a Kalman filter, suggesting that the modeling framework could be useful for aerodynamic control applications. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, under Award No. FA9550-12-1-0075.

  5. AIRFLOW PATTERNS AND STACK PRESSURE SIMULATION IN A HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDING LOCATED IN SEOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoukhi Maatouk

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Buoyancy forces due to air density difference between outdoor air and indoor air cause stack effect in high-rise buildings in cold climates. This stack effect occurs mainly at the core of the building such as the stairway and elevator shafts and causes many problems such as the energy loss caused by air flow, the blocked elevator door and discomfort due to inflowing of strong outdoor air. The main purpose of this work is to model the airflow pattern in a highrise building during the winter period by mean of COMIS. The presented building which is situated in Korea contains 30 floors above the ground level and 5 basement floors. Using COMIS, the simulation has been carried out for the entire building. However, the simulation failed due to the huge number of zones and interactions between them. Therefore, a model of building which contains 14 floors with 5 floors in the basement has been considered; and a simplified model based on the considered one has been constructed and compared with the 14 floors model. The simplified model consists on reducing the number of floors by combining a certain number of stories into one so that to enable the simulation to be carried on with a minimum number of zones and links. The result of the simulation shows that this approach could be used with accuracy still being satisfied. Therefore, the simplified procedure has been extended and applied to the high rise building model with 30 stories above the ground level and 5 stories in the basement. The effect of the exterior wall air-tightness of the building with 30 stories on the stack pressure and airflow by infiltration and/or by exfiltration has been investigated. The result shows that the total air by infiltration and/or exfiltration within the elevator shafts increases with the decrease of the level of the air-tightness of the exterior wall of the building. It has been also shown that a huge amount of air infiltrates through the shuttle and emergency elevator

  6. Use of the buble rise model in the simulation of the pressurizer in ALMOD 3 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madeira, A.A.; Camargo, C.T.M.

    1984-01-01

    The implementation of the buble rise model in the ALMOD 3 computer code to simulate the pressurizer of a nuclear power plant is presented. Some transients for Angra I were calculated and results obtained from the original and modified models were compared. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Rosid radiation and the rapid rise of angiosperm-dominated forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hengchang; Moore, Michael J.; Soltis, Pamela S.; Bell, Charles D.; Brockington, Samuel F.; Alexandre, Roolse; Davis, Charles C.; Latvis, Maribeth; Manchester, Steven R.; Soltis, Douglas E.

    2009-01-01

    The rosid clade (70,000 species) contains more than one-fourth of all angiosperm species and includes most lineages of extant temperate and tropical forest trees. Despite progress in elucidating relationships within the angiosperms, rosids remain the largest poorly resolved major clade; deep relationships within the rosids are particularly enigmatic. Based on parsimony and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses of separate and combined 12-gene (10 plastid genes, 2 nuclear; >18,000 bp) and plastid inverted repeat (IR; 24 genes and intervening spacers; >25,000 bp) datasets for >100 rosid species, we provide a greatly improved understanding of rosid phylogeny. Vitaceae are sister to all other rosids, which in turn form 2 large clades, each with a ML bootstrap value of 100%: (i) eurosids I (Fabidae) include the nitrogen-fixing clade, Celastrales, Huaceae, Zygophyllales, Malpighiales, and Oxalidales; and (ii) eurosids II (Malvidae) include Tapisciaceae, Brassicales, Malvales, Sapindales, Geraniales, Myrtales, Crossosomatales, and Picramniaceae. The rosid clade diversified rapidly into these major lineages, possibly over a period of ferns. PMID:19223592

  8. Rapid further heating of tokamak plasma by fast-rising magnetic pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, N.; Nihei, H.; Yamazaki, K.; Ichimura, M.; Morikawa, J.; Hoshino, K.; Uchida, T.

    1977-01-01

    The object of the experiment was to study the rapid further heating of a tokamak plasma and its influence on confinement. For this purpose, a high-voltage theta-pinch pulse was applied to a tokamak plasma and production of a high-temperature (keV) plasma was ensured within a microsecond. The magnetic pulse is applied at the plasma current maximum parallel or antiparallel to the study toroidal field. In either case, the pulsed field quickly penetrates the plasma and the plasma resistivity estimated from the penetration time is about 100 times larger than the classical. A burst of energetic neutrals of approximately 1 μs duration was observed and the energy distribution had two components of the order of 1 keV and 0.1 keV in the antiparallel case. Doppler broadening measurement shows heating of ions to a temperature higher than 200 eV; however, the line profile is not always Maxwellian distribution. The X-rays disappear at the moment of applying the magnetic pulse and reappear about 100 μs later with an intensive burst, while both energy levels are the same (approximately 100 keV). (author)

  9. Altering plasma sodium concentration rapidly changes blood pressure during haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; Swift, Pauline A; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2013-08-01

    Plasma sodium is increased following each meal containing salt. There is an increasing interest in the effects of plasma sodium concentration, and it has been suggested that it may have direct effects on blood pressure (BP) and possibly influences endothelial function. Experimental increases of plasma sodium concentration rapidly raise BP even when extracellular volume falls. Ten patients with end-stage renal failure established on haemodialysis were studied during the first 2 h of dialysis without fluid removal during this period. They were randomized to receive haemodialysis with (i) dialysate sodium concentration prescribed to 135 mmol/L and (ii) 145 mmol/L in random order in a prospective, single-blinded crossover study. BP measurements and blood samples were taken every 30 min. Pre-dialysis sitting BP was 137/76 ± 7/3 mmHg. Lower dialysate sodium concentration (135 mmol/L) reduced plasma sodium concentration [139.49 ± 0.67 to 135.94 ± 0.52 mmol/L (P area under the curve (AUC) 15823.50 ± 777.15 (mmHg)min] compared with 145 mmol/L [AUC 17018.20 ± 1102.17 (mmHg)min], mean difference 1194.70 ± 488.41 (mmHg)min, P < 0.05. There was a significant positive relationship between change in plasma sodium concentration and change in systolic BP. This direct relationship suggests that a fall of 1 mmol/L in plasma sodium concentration would be associated with a 1.7 mmHg reduction in systolic BP (P < 0.05). The potential mechanism for the increase in BP seen with salt intake may be through small but significant changes in plasma sodium concentration.

  10. Maternal Blood Pressure Rise During Pregnancy and Offspring Obesity Risk at 4 to 7 Years Old: The Jiaxing Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Liu, Huijuan; Ong, Ken K; Huang, Tao; Guan, Yuhong; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Bo; Wang, Fenglei; Li, Duo

    2017-11-01

    Maternal hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are suggested to affect obesity risk in offspring. However, little is known about the prospective association of rise in maternal blood pressure within normal range during pregnancy with this risk for obesity. To clarify the associations of diastolic and systolic blood pressure during pregnancy among normotensive women with the risk for obesity in offspring. Prospective cohort study. Southeast China. Up to 2013, a total of 88,406 mother-child pairs with anthropometric measurements of offspring age 4 to 7 years were included in the present analysis. Overweight/obesity risk in offspring. Among normotensive women, second- and third-trimester diastolic and systolic blood pressures were positively associated with risk for overweight/obesity in offspring: odds ratios per 10-mm Hg higher second- and third-trimester diastolic blood pressure were 1.05 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01 to 1.09] and 1.05 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.10), respectively, and for systolic blood pressure were 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.11) and 1.06 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.09). Each 10-mm Hg greater rise in blood pressure between first and third trimesters was associated with a higher risk for offspring overweight/obesity: diastolic, 1.06 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.10); systolic, 1.05 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.07). Among all women (combining normotensive and hypertensive women), maternal hypertension in the second and third trimesters was associated with 49% and 14% higher risks for overweight/obesity in offspring, respectively. These results suggest that rise in maternal blood pressure during pregnancy and hypertension during pregnancy, independent of maternal body size before pregnancy, are risk factors for offspring childhood obesity.

  11. Test Structures for Rapid Prototyping of Gas and Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, M.; Cheng, L. J.; Martin, D.

    1996-01-01

    A multi-project ceramic substrate was used in developing a gas sensor and pressure sensor. The ceramic substrate cantained 36 chips with six variants including sensors, process control monitors, and an interconnect ship. Tha gas sensor is being developed as an air quality monitor and the pressure gauge as a barometer.

  12. Effect of air content and mass inflow on the pressure rise in a containment during blowdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.; Holland, P.G.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were made to investigate conditions arising during blowdown of a vessel filled with saturated steam/water at 7 MPa pressure into a containment vessel. The initial air pressure in the containment vessel was varied from one atmosphere to near vacuum. The initial water content of the high pressure vessel was varied. Pressure and temperature distributions were measured during the blowdown transient and compared with calculations based on a simple lumped-parameter model. The effect of condensation heat transfer on the containment pressure is discussed and attention drawn to the inadequacy of most available data. (Author)

  13. Effects of Freestream Turbulence on the Pressure Acting on a Low-Rise Building Roof in the Separated Flow Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. Fernández-Cabán

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental design and subsequent findings from a series of experiments in a large boundary layer wind tunnel to investigate the variation of surface pressures with increasing upwind terrain roughness on low-rise buildings. Geometrically scaled models of the Wind Engineering Research Field Laboratory experimental building were subjected to a wide range of turbulent boundary layer flows, through precise adjustment of a computer control terrain generator called the Terraformer. The study offers an in-depth examination of the effects of freestream turbulence on extreme pressures under the separation “bubble” for the case of the wind traveling perpendicular to wall surfaces, independently confirming previous findings that the spatial distribution of the peaks is heavily influenced by the mean reattachment length. Further, the study shows that the observed peak pressures collapse if data are normalized by the mean reattachment length and a non-Gaussian estimator for peak velocity pressure.

  14. Large sharing networks and unusual injection practices explain the rapid rise in HIV among IDUs in Sargodha, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qureshi Salman U

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the nearly 100,000 street-based IDUs in Pakistan, 20% have HIV. We investigated the recent rise in HIV prevalence from 12 to 52% among IDUs in Sargodha despite > 70% coverage with syringe exchanges. Methods We interviewed approximately 150 IDUs and 30 outreach workers in focus group discussions. Results We found six rural and 28 urban injecting locations. Urban locations have about 20–30 people at any time and about 100 daily; rural locations have twice as many (national average: 4–15. About half of the IDUs started injecting within the past 2 years and are not proficient at injecting themselves. They use street injectors, who have 15–16 clients daily. Heroin is almost exclusively the drug used. Most inject 5–7 times daily. Nearly all injectors claim to use fresh syringes. However, they load, inject and share using a locally developed method called scale. Most Pakistani IDUs prefer to double pump drug the syringe, which allows mixing of blood with drug in the syringe. The injector injects 3 ml and keeps 2 ml (the scale as injection fee. The injector usually pools all the leftover scale (now with some blood mixed with drug either for his own use or to sell it. Most IDUs backload the scale they buy into their own fresh syringes. Discussion Use of an unprecedented method of injecting drugs that largely bypasses fresh syringes, larger size of sharing networks, higher injection frequency and near universal use of street injectors likely explain for the rapid rise in HIV prevalence among IDUs in Sargodha despite high level provision of fresh syringes. This had been missed by us and the national surveillance, which is quantitative. We have addressed this by hiring injectors as peer outreach workers and increasing syringe supply. Our findings highlight both the importance of qualitative research and operations research to enrich the quality of HIV prevention programs.

  15. Sedimentary Evidence for a Rapid Sea Level Rise at 7,600 cal yr BP from North-Central Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peros, M. C.; Agosta G'meiner, A. M.; Collins, S.

    2016-12-01

    A lack of high-resolution relative sea level (RSL) proxy data has meant that the pattern of early Holocene RSL change in the Caribbean is poorly understood. A RSL curve published by Toscano and Macintyre (2003) using inter-tidal mangrove peats and submerged corals suggests RSL underwent a relatively fast and `smooth' curvilinear increase during the Holocene. However, others, such as Blanchon and Shaw (1995), suggest that RSL increased rapidly at around 7600 cal yr BP, in response to the final stages of the melting of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (melt water pulse 1C or catastrophic rise event 3). We investigated this question using multi-proxy data from a flooded sinkhole (Cenote Jennifer) on the north coast of central Cuba. Cenote Jennifer is located 7 m above mean sea level and 2 km from the Bahamas Channel and appears to have a high degree of connectivity with the ocean through a network of underground caverns. The water depth is 13 m and the bottommost 5 m is anoxic. A sediment core collected from Cenote Jennifer was studied using loss-on-ignition, pollen analysis, high-resolution XRF core-scanning, and grain size analysis. An age-depth model was generated for the core by AMS dating. The results show that the bottommost stratigraphic unit ( 9000 to 7600 cal yr BP) is a fine-grained carbonate-rich mud (i.e., marl). This unit abruptly transitions into finely laminated organic-rich sediment from 7600 cal yr BP to the present. The pollen analysis shows that the sinkhole supported a cattail (Typha) community until 7600 cal yr BP, indicating low water levels ( 1 m). At 7600 cal yr BP, the cattail community disappeared and the vegetation of the surrounding bedrock became dominated by a thorny coastal scrubland. In addition, a 3 cm thick fining-upward siliciclastic unit is present immediately above the marl-organic contact, suggesting: 1) a marine sediment source given the limestone-dominated nature of the region, and 2) the presence of a short-duration, high

  16. Wind-tunnel investigations of pressure distribution over high-rise buildings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cwik, M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available of evaluating wind loads of high-rise structures. The second part provides a description of the research, conducted at the wind-tunnel of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, in Pretoria, South Africa. The aim of this research was to determine...

  17. Abnormal albuminuria and blood pressure rise in incipient diabetic nephropathy induced by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of light to moderate dynamic work (450 kpm/min followed by 600 kpm/min during 20 min each) on the blood pressure and renal protein handling in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (D3) (elevated baseline albumin excretion...... diastolic blood pressure was elevated [92.1 mm Hg +/- 6.0 (mean +/- SD)] compared to D2 (80.9 mm Hg +/- 4.8, 2P = 0.003%) and C (79.5 mm Hg +/- 12.4, 2P = 1.2%). Baseline systolic blood pressure was not significantly different in the three groups, but systolic blood pressure was more elevated at 600 kpm...... blood pressure and maximal exercise induced albumin excretion was demonstrable in D3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  18. Rapidly rising incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes in Chinese population: epidemiology in Shanghai during 1997-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuhui; Sun, Chengjun; Wang, Chunfang; Li, Pin; Wang, Wei; Ye, Jun; Gu, Xuefan; Wang, Xiaodong; Shen, Shuixian; Zhi, Dijing; Lu, Zhong; Ye, Rong; Cheng, Ruoqian; Xi, Li; Li, Xiaojing; Zheng, Zhangqian; Zhang, Miaoying; Luo, Feihong

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate incidence trend of childhood type 1 diabetes in Shanghai, a megalopolis in east China. We established a population-based retrospective registry for the disease in the city's registered population during 1997-2011 and collected 622 incident type 1 diabetes in children aged 0-14 years. Standardized incidence rates and 95 % CI were estimated by applying the capture-recapture method and assuming Poisson distribution. Incidence trend was analyzed using the Poisson regression model. The mean annual incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes was 3.1 per 100,000 person-years. We did not observe significant difference in incidence between boys and girls. The incidence is unstable and had a mean annual increase 14.2 % per year during the studied period. A faster annual increase was observed in boys, warmer seasons, and in the outer regions of the city. If present trends continue, the number of new type 1 diabetes cases will double from 2016 to 2020, and prevalent cases will sextuple by 2025. Our results showed the incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes was rising rapidly in Shanghai. More studies are needed to analyze incidence changes in other regions of China for appropriate allocation of healthcare resources.

  19. Abnormal albuminuria and blood pressure rise in incipient diabetic nephropathy induced by exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of light to moderate dynamic work (450 kpm/min followed by 600 kpm/min during 20 min each) on the blood pressure and renal protein handling in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (D3) (elevated baseline albumin excretion...

  20. Temperature and humidity based projections of a rapid rise in global heat stress exposure during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffel, Ethan D.; Horton, Radley M.; de Sherbinin, Alex

    2018-01-01

    As a result of global increases in both temperature and specific humidity, heat stress is projected to intensify throughout the 21st century. Some of the regions most susceptible to dangerous heat and humidity combinations are also among the most densely populated. Consequently, there is the potential for widespread exposure to wet bulb temperatures that approach and in some cases exceed postulated theoretical limits of human tolerance by mid- to late-century. We project that by 2080 the relative frequency of present-day extreme wet bulb temperature events could rise by a factor of 100-250 (approximately double the frequency change projected for temperature alone) in the tropics and parts of the mid-latitudes, areas which are projected to contain approximately half the world’s population. In addition, population exposure to wet bulb temperatures that exceed recent deadly heat waves may increase by a factor of five to ten, with 150-750 million person-days of exposure to wet bulb temperatures above those seen in today’s most severe heat waves by 2070-2080. Under RCP 8.5, exposure to wet bulb temperatures above 35 °C—the theoretical limit for human tolerance—could exceed a million person-days per year by 2080. Limiting emissions to follow RCP 4.5 entirely eliminates exposure to that extreme threshold. Some of the most affected regions, especially Northeast India and coastal West Africa, currently have scarce cooling infrastructure, relatively low adaptive capacity, and rapidly growing populations. In the coming decades heat stress may prove to be one of the most widely experienced and directly dangerous aspects of climate change, posing a severe threat to human health, energy infrastructure, and outdoor activities ranging from agricultural production to military training.

  1. Pressure integration technique for predicting wind-induced response in high-rise buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Mousaad Aly

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a procedure for response prediction in high-rise buildings under wind loads. The procedure is illustrated in an application example of a tall building exposed to both cross-wind and along-wind loads. The responses of the building in the lateral directions combined with torsion are estimated simultaneously. Results show good agreement with recent design standards; however, the proposed procedure has the advantages of accounting for complex mode shapes, non-uniform mass distribution, and interference effects from the surrounding. In addition, the technique allows for the contribution of higher modes. For accurate estimation of the acceleration response, it is important to consider not only the first two lateral vibrational modes, but also higher modes. Ignoring the contribution of higher modes may lead to underestimation of the acceleration response; on the other hand, it could result in overestimation of the displacement response. Furthermore, the procedure presented in this study can help decision makers, involved in a tall building design/retrofit to choose among innovative solutions like aerodynamic mitigation, structural member size adjustment, damping enhancement, and/or materials change, with an objective to improve the resiliency and the serviceability under extreme wind actions.

  2. Developments in time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction using rapid compression and decompression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Lin, Chuanlong; Rod, Eric; Bai, Ligang; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-01-01

    Complementary advances in high pressure research apparatus and techniques make it possible to carry out time-resolved high pressure research using what would customarily be considered static high pressure apparatus. This work specifically explores time-resolved high pressure x-ray diffraction with rapid compression and/or decompression of a sample in a diamond anvil cell. Key aspects of the synchrotron beamline and ancillary equipment are presented, including source considerations, rapid (de)compression apparatus, high frequency imaging detectors, and software suitable for processing large volumes of data. A number of examples are presented, including fast equation of state measurements, compression rate dependent synthesis of metastable states in silicon and germanium, and ultrahigh compression rates using a piezoelectric driven diamond anvil cell

  3. Comparison of levobunolol and brimonidine in prophylaxis of intraocular pressure (iop|) rise following nd: yag laser capsulotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, M.; Akram, A

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of topical 0.5% Levobunolol and 0.2% Brimonidine in preventing intraocular pressure rise after Nd: YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Setting and Duration of Study: Ophthalmology Department Combined Military Hospital Multan, from September 2010 to March 2011. Patients and Methods: A total of 82 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected from out-patient department and randomly divided into two equal groups. Topical 0.5% levobunolol was instilled in group A while 0.2% brimonidine was instilled in group B one hour before and immediately after doing Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. The intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured using Goldmann applanation tonometer 1, 3 and 24 hours later. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in mean IOP between 0.5% Levobunolol group (Group A) and 0.2% Brimonidine group (Group B) at 1 hour, 3 hours and 24 hours after Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. The mean intraocular pressure (IOP) one hour after Nd:YAG laser and topical treatment in group A was 16.10 ± 1.60 mmHg while in group B was 15.65 ± 3.01 mmHg (P=0.401). Mean IOP after three hours in group A was 15.80 ± 1.35 mm Hg and in group B was 15.05 ± 2.15 mmHg (p=0.062). Mean IOP after 24 hours in group A was 15.13 ± 2.05 mmHg while in group B was 14.32 ± 1.62 mmHg (p=0.058). Conclusion: Both 0.5% Levobunolol and 0.2% Brimonidine are equally effective in controlling the IOP spike after Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy. Either of these medicines can be used as a prophylaxis to prevent rise in IOP after Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy. (author)

  4. Recent rapid rise of a permethrin knock down resistance allele in Aedes aegypti in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gustavo Ponce; Flores, Adriana E; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Saavedra-Rodríguez, Karla; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Guillermo Bond, J; Casas-Martínez, Mauricio; Ramsey, Janine M; García-Rejón, Julián; Domínguez-Galera, Marco; Ranson, Hilary; Hemingway, Janet; Eisen, Lars; Black IV, William C

    2009-10-13

    -2008 collections, which ranged from 45.7% (+ or - 2.00% CI95) in the state of Veracruz to 51.2% (+ or - 4.36% CI95) in the Yucatán peninsula and 14.5% (+ or - 2.23% CI95) in and around Tapachula in the state of Chiapas. Spatial heterogeneity was also evident at smaller geographic scales. For example within the city of Chetumal, Quintana Roo, Ile1,016 frequencies varied from 38.3%-88.3%. A linear regression analysis based on seven collections from 2007 revealed that the frequency of Ile1,016 homozygotes accurately predicted knockdown rate for mosquitoes exposed to permethrin in a bioassay (R(2) = 0.98). We have recorded a dramatic increase in the frequency of the Ile1,016 mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of Ae. aegypti in México from 1996 to 2009. This may be related to heavy use of permethrin-based insecticides in mosquito control programs. Spatial heterogeneity in Ile1,016 frequencies in 2007 and 2008 collections may reflect differences in selection pressure or in the initial frequency of Ile1,016. The rapid recent increase in Ile1,016 is predicted by a simple model of positive directional selection on a recessive allele. Unfortunately this model also predicts rapid fixation of Ile1,016 unless there is negative fitness associated with Ile1,016 in the absence of permethrin. If so, then spatial refugia of susceptible Ae. aegypti or rotational schedules of different classes of adulticides could be established to slow or prevent fixation of Ile1,016.

  5. Recent rapid rise of a permethrin knock down resistance allele in Aedes aegypti in México.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ponce García

    heterogeneity in Ile1,016 frequencies among 2007-2008 collections, which ranged from 45.7% (+ or - 2.00% CI95 in the state of Veracruz to 51.2% (+ or - 4.36% CI95 in the Yucatán peninsula and 14.5% (+ or - 2.23% CI95 in and around Tapachula in the state of Chiapas. Spatial heterogeneity was also evident at smaller geographic scales. For example within the city of Chetumal, Quintana Roo, Ile1,016 frequencies varied from 38.3%-88.3%. A linear regression analysis based on seven collections from 2007 revealed that the frequency of Ile1,016 homozygotes accurately predicted knockdown rate for mosquitoes exposed to permethrin in a bioassay (R(2 = 0.98. CONCLUSIONS: We have recorded a dramatic increase in the frequency of the Ile1,016 mutation in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of Ae. aegypti in México from 1996 to 2009. This may be related to heavy use of permethrin-based insecticides in mosquito control programs. Spatial heterogeneity in Ile1,016 frequencies in 2007 and 2008 collections may reflect differences in selection pressure or in the initial frequency of Ile1,016. The rapid recent increase in Ile1,016 is predicted by a simple model of positive directional selection on a recessive allele. Unfortunately this model also predicts rapid fixation of Ile1,016 unless there is negative fitness associated with Ile1,016 in the absence of permethrin. If so, then spatial refugia of susceptible Ae. aegypti or rotational schedules of different classes of adulticides could be established to slow or prevent fixation of Ile1,016.

  6. A current-pulsed power supply with rapid rising and falling edges for magnetic perturbation coils on the J-TEXT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, M.X.; Rao, B.; Ding, Y.H.; Hu, Q.M.; Hu, F.R.; Li, D.; Li, M.; Ji, X.K.; Xu, G.; Zheng, W.; Jiang, Z.H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The power supply is required to have rapid rising and falling edges. • A modified topology based on the buck chopper of current-pulsed power supply is presented and analyzed. • An entity meeting the electrical requirements has been constructed. • The spike voltage of IGBT is qualitatively analyzed. - Abstract: This study presents the design and principle of a current-pulsed power supply (CPPS) for the tearing mode (TM) feedback control of the J-TEXT tokamak. CPPS is a new method of stabilizing large magnetic islands and accelerating mode rotation through the use of modulated magnetic perturbation. In this application, continuous magnetic perturbation pulse trains with frequency of 1 kHz to kHz, amplitude of 0.25 G, and duty ratio of 20%–50% are required generating via in-vessel magnetic coils. A modified topology based on buck chopper is raised to satisfy the demands of inductive load. This modified topology is characterized by high frequency, rapid rising and falling edges, and large amplitude of current pulses. Appropriate RCD snubber circuit is applied to protect the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) switch device. Equipment with peak current that reaches 1 kA, frequency that ranges from 1 kHz to 3 kHz, and rising and falling time within 100 μs was constructed and applied to physical experiment.

  7. A current-pulsed power supply with rapid rising and falling edges for magnetic perturbation coils on the J-TEXT tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, M.X. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Rao, B., E-mail: borao@hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ding, Y.H.; Hu, Q.M.; Hu, F.R.; Li, D.; Li, M.; Ji, X.K.; Xu, G.; Zheng, W.; Jiang, Z.H. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • The power supply is required to have rapid rising and falling edges. • A modified topology based on the buck chopper of current-pulsed power supply is presented and analyzed. • An entity meeting the electrical requirements has been constructed. • The spike voltage of IGBT is qualitatively analyzed. - Abstract: This study presents the design and principle of a current-pulsed power supply (CPPS) for the tearing mode (TM) feedback control of the J-TEXT tokamak. CPPS is a new method of stabilizing large magnetic islands and accelerating mode rotation through the use of modulated magnetic perturbation. In this application, continuous magnetic perturbation pulse trains with frequency of 1 kHz to kHz, amplitude of 0.25 G, and duty ratio of 20%–50% are required generating via in-vessel magnetic coils. A modified topology based on buck chopper is raised to satisfy the demands of inductive load. This modified topology is characterized by high frequency, rapid rising and falling edges, and large amplitude of current pulses. Appropriate RCD snubber circuit is applied to protect the Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) switch device. Equipment with peak current that reaches 1 kA, frequency that ranges from 1 kHz to 3 kHz, and rising and falling time within 100 μs was constructed and applied to physical experiment.

  8. Lung Cancer in a Rural Area of China: Rapid Rise in Incidence and Poor Improvement in Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Chen, Yong-Sheng; Ding, Lu-Lu; Kensler, Thomas W; Chen, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has been a major health problem in developed countries for several decades, and has emerged recently as the leading cause of cancer death in many developing countries. The incidence of lung cancer appears to be increasing more rapidly in rural than in urban areas of China. This paper presents the trends of lung cancer incidence and survival derived from a 40-year population-based cancer monitoring program in a rural area, Qidong, China. The Qidong cancer registration data of 1972- 2011 were used to calculate the crude rate, age-standardized rate by Chinese population (CASR) and by world population (WASR), birth cohort rates, and other descriptive features. Active and passive methods were used to construct the data set, with a deadline of the latest follow-up of April 30, 2012. The total number of lung cancer cases was 15,340, accounting for 16.5% of all sites combined. The crude incidence rate, CASR and WASR of this cancer were 34.1, 15.7 and 25.4 per 100,000, respectively. Males had higher crude rates than females (49.7 vs 19.0). Rapidly increasing trends were found in annual percent change resulting in lung cancer being a number one cancer site after year 2010 in Qidong. Birth cohort analysis showed incidence rates have increased for all age groups over 24 years old. The 5 year observed survival rates were 3.55% in 1973-1977, 3.92 in 1983-1987, 3.69% in 1993-1997, and 6.32% in 2003-2007. Males experienced poorer survival than did females. Lung cancer has become a major cancer-related health problem in this rural area. The rapid increases in incidence likely result from an increased cigarette smoking rate and evolving environmental risk factors. Lung cancer survival, while showing some improvement in prognosis, still remains well below that observed in the developed areas of the world.

  9. Rapid production of metallurgical coke by a pressurized hot-briquetting method. Netsukan kaatsu seikei ni yoru cokes no jinsoku seizo no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K.; Hayashi, J.; Noguchi, N. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Research Laboratory of Carbonaceous Resources Conversion Technology); Hashimoto, K. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1993-09-20

    Rapid production of metallurgical coke from non- and slightly coking coals was studied by pressurized hot-briquetting method. Coal specimens were filled into the mold after pulverizing, and heated at a constant temperature rise rate up to caking temperature under loading pressure to obtain caked coal specimens. Such specimens were then carbonized in nitrogen gas at 800[degree]C. As a result, the coke obtained was superior in compressive strength as compared with commercial cokes, however, its CO2 reactivity was very high requiring heating up to 1,000[degree]C to decrease it, while the reactivity was strongly dependent on coal kind. The optimum processing conditions for slightly coking coal were as follows; loading pressure: 10 [times] 10[sup 5] Pa or more, temperature range under loading pressure: 300-450[degree]C, temperature rise rate: 2-100[degree]C/min, and caking temperature: nearly 500[degree]C. No coke could be produced from coking coals because no volatile matter could be removed from it in a short time under pressure. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. New type of Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors for Environments with Rapidly Changing Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tykhan Myroslav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical aspects of a new type of piezo-resistive pressure sensors for environments with rapidly changing temperatures are presented. The idea is that the sensor has two identical diaphragms which have different coefficients of linear thermal expansion. Therefore, when measuring pressure in environments with variable temperature, the diaphragms will have different deflection. This difference can be used to make appropriate correction of the sensor output signal and, thus, to increase accuracy of measurement. Since physical principles of sensors operation enable fast correction of the output signal, the sensor can be used in environments with rapidly changing temperature, which is its essential advantage. The paper presents practical implementation of the proposed theoretical aspects and the results of testing the developed sensor.

  11. Beam-Loss Induced Pressure Rise of LHC Collimator Materials Irradiated with 158 GeV/u $In^{49+}$ Ions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, Edgar; Hansen, Jan; Page, Eric; Vincke, Helmut H

    2004-01-01

    During heavy ion operation, large pressure rises, up to a few orders of magnitude, were observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL. The dynamic pressure rises were triggered by lost beam ions that impacted onto the vacuum chamber walls and desorbed about 1044 to 107 molecules per ion. The deterioration of the dynamic vacuum conditions can enhance charge-exchange beam losses and can lead to beam instabilities or even to beam abortion triggered by vacuum interlocks. Consequently, a dedicated measure-ment of heavy-ion induced molecular desorption in the GeV/u energy range is important for LHC ion operation. In 2003, a desorption experiment was installed at the SPS to measure the beam-loss induced pressure rise of potential LHC collimator materials. Samples of bare graphite, sputter coated (Cu, TiZrV) graphite, and 316 LN stainless steel, were irradiated under grazing angle with 158 GeV/u indium ions. After a description of the new experimental set-up, the results of the pressure rise measurements are presented, and the deri...

  12. Pressure-jump induced rapid solidification of melt: a method of preparing amorphous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuru; Jia, Ru; Zhang, Doudou; Yuan, Chaosheng; Shao, Chunguang; Hong, Shiming

    2018-04-01

    By using a self-designed pressure-jump apparatus, we investigated the melt solidification behavior in rapid compression process for several kinds of materials, such as elementary sulfur, polymer polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and poly-ethylene-terephthalate, alloy La68Al10Cu20Co2 and Nd60Cu20Ni10Al10. Experimental results clearly show that their melts could be solidified to be amorphous states through the rapid compression process. Bulk amorphous PEEK with 24 mm in diameter and 12 mm in height was prepared, which exceeds the size obtained by melt quenching method. The bulk amorphous sulfur thus obtained exhibited extraordinarily high thermal stability, and an abnormal exothermic transition to liquid sulfur was observed at around 396 K for the first time. Furthermore, it is suggested that the glass transition pressure and critical compression rate exist to form the amorphous phase. This approach of rapid compression is very attractive not only because it is a new technique of make bulk amorphous materials, but also because novel properties are expected in the amorphous materials solidified by the pressure-jump within milliseconds or microseconds.

  13. Dependence of mitochondrial and cytosolic adenine nucleotides on oxygen partial pressure in isolated hepatocytes. Application of a new rapid high pressure filtration technique for fractionation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hummerich, H; de Groot, H; Noll, T; Soboll, S

    1988-01-01

    By using a new rapid high pressure filtration technique, mitochondrial and cytosolic ATP and ADP contents were determined in isolated hepatocytes at different oxygen partial pressures. At 670 mmHg, subcellular adenine nucleotide contents and ATP/ADP ratios were comparable with values obtained with the digitonin fractionation technique. However at lower oxygen partial pressure ADP appears to be rephosphorylated during digitonin fractionation whereas with high pressure filtration fractionation ...

  14. Pressure disequilibria induced by rapid valve closure in noble gas extraction lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Leah; Davidheiser-Kroll, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Pressure disequilibria during rapid valve closures can affect calculated molar quantities for a range of gas abundance measurements (e.g., K-Ar geochronology, (U-Th)/He geochronology, noble gas cosmogenic chronology). Modeling indicates this effect in a system with a 10 L reservoir reaches a bias of 1% before 1000 pipette aliquants have been removed from the system, and a bias of 10% before 10,000 aliquants. Herein we explore the causes and effects of this problem, which is the result of volume changes during valve closure. We also present a solution in the form of an electropneumatic pressure regulator that can precisely control valve motion. This solution reduces the effect to ∼0.3% even after 10,000 aliquants have been removed from a 10 L reservoir.

  15. Pressure disequilibria induced by rapid valve closure in noble gas extraction lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Leah E.; Davidheiser-Kroll, Brett

    2015-06-01

    Pressure disequilibria during rapid valve closures can affect calculated molar quantities for a range of gas abundance measurements (e.g., K-Ar geochronology, (U-Th)/He geochronology, noble gas cosmogenic chronology). Modeling indicates this effect in a system with a 10 L reservoir reaches a bias of 1% before 1000 pipette aliquants have been removed from the system, and a bias of 10% before 10,000 aliquants. Herein we explore the causes and effects of this problem, which is the result of volume changes during valve closure. We also present a solution in the form of an electropneumatic pressure regulator that can precisely control valve motion. This solution reduces the effect to ˜0.3% even after 10,000 aliquants have been removed from a 10 L reservoir.

  16. Beam-loss induced pressure rise of Large Hadron Collider collimator materials irradiated with 158 GeV/u $In^{49+}$ ions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, Edgar; Hansen, Jan; Page, Eric; Vincke, H

    2004-01-01

    During heavy ion operation, large pressure rises, up to a few orders of magnitude, were observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL. The dynamic pressure rises were triggered by lost beam ions that impacted onto the vacuum chamber walls and desorbed about 10/sup 4/ to 10/sup 7/ molecules per ion. The deterioration of the dynamic vacuum conditions can enhance charge-exchange beam losses and can lead to beam instabilities or even to beam abortion triggered by vacuum interlocks. Consequently, a dedicated measurement of heavy-ion induced molecular desorption in the GeV/u energy range is important for Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ion operation. In 2003, a desorption experiment was installed at the super proton synchrotron to measure the beam-loss induced pressure rise of potential LHC collimator materials. Samples of bare graphite, sputter coated (Cu, TiZrV) graphite, and 316 LN (low carbon with nitrogen) stainless steel were irradiated under grazing angle with 158 GeV/u indium ions. After a description of the new experimental ...

  17. System for Rapid, Precise Modulation of Intraocular Pressure, toward Minimally-Invasive In Vivo Measurement of Intracranial Pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Stockslager

    Full Text Available Pathologic changes in intracranial pressure (ICP are commonly observed in a variety of medical conditions, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, and glaucoma. However, current ICP measurement techniques are invasive, requiring a lumbar puncture or surgical insertion of a cannula into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-filled ventricles of the brain. A potential alternative approach to ICP measurement leverages the unique anatomy of the central retinal vein, which is exposed to both intraocular pressure (IOP and ICP as it travels inside the eye and through the optic nerve; manipulating IOP while observing changes in the natural pulsations of the central retinal vein could potentially provide an accurate, indirect measure of ICP. As a step toward implementing this technique, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a system that is capable of manipulating IOP in vivo with <0.1 mmHg resolution and settling times less than 2 seconds. In vitro tests were carried out to characterize system performance. Then, as a proof of concept, we used the system to manipulate IOP in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri while video of the retinal vessels was recorded and the caliber of a selected vein was quantified. Modulating IOP using our system elicited a rapid change in the appearance of the retinal vein of interest: IOP was lowered from 10 to 3 mmHg, and retinal vein caliber sharply increased as IOP decreased from 7 to 5 mmHg. Another important feature of this technology is its capability to measure ocular compliance and outflow facility in vivo, as demonstrated in tree shrews. Collectively, these proof-of-concept demonstrations support the utility of this system to manipulate IOP for a variety of useful applications in ocular biomechanics, and provide a framework for further study of the mechanisms of retinal venous pulsation.

  18. NSAID-antihypertensive drug interactions: Which outpatients are at risk for a rise in systolic blood pressure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floor-Schreudering, Annemieke; De Smet, Peter Agm; Buurma, Henk; Kramers, Cornelis; Tromp, P. Chris; Belitser, Svetlana V.; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Management guidelines for drug-drug interactions between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antihypertensives recommend blood pressure monitoring in hypertensive patients. We measured the short-term effect of initiating NSAIDs on systolic blood pressure (SBP) in users of

  19. NSAID-antihypertensive drug interactions: which outpatients are at risk for a rise in systolic blood pressure?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floor-Schreudering, A.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Buurma, H.; Kramers, C.; Tromp, P.C.; Belitser, S.V.; Bouvy, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Management guidelines for drug-drug interactions between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antihypertensives recommend blood pressure monitoring in hypertensive patients. We measured the short-term effect of initiating NSAIDs on systolic blood pressure (SBP) in users of

  20. Modeling cavitation in a rapidly changing pressure field - application to a small ultrasonic horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žnidarčič, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Dular, Matevž

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e. below the acoustic driving frequency. The term "acoustic supercavitation" was proposed for this type of cavitation Žnidarčič et al. (2014) [1]. We tested several established hydrodynamic cavitation models on this problem, but none of them was able to correctly predict the flow features. As a specific characteristic of such acoustic cavitation problems lies in the rapidly changing driving pressures, we present an improved approach to cavitation modeling, which does not neglect the second derivatives in the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Comparison with measurements of acoustic supercavitation at an ultrasonic horn of 20kHz frequency revealed a good agreement in terms of cavity dynamics, cavity volume and emitted pressure pulsations. The newly developed cavitation model is particularly suited for simulation of cavitating flow in highly fluctuating driving pressure fields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines rise rapidly during ECMO-related SIRS due to the release of preformed stores in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McILwain, R Britt; Timpa, Joseph G; Kurundkar, Ashish R; Holt, David W; Kelly, David R; Hartman, Yolanda E; Neel, Mary Lauren; Karnatak, Rajendra K; Schelonka, Robert L; Anantharamaiah, G M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2010-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-saving support system used in neonates and young children with severe cardiorespiratory failure. Although ECMO has reduced mortality in these critically ill patients, almost all patients treated with ECMO develop a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) characterized by a 'cytokine storm', leukocyte activation, and multisystem organ dysfunction. We used a neonatal porcine model of ECMO to investigate whether rising plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines during ECMO reflect de novo synthesis of these mediators in inflamed tissues, and therefore, can be used to assess the severity of ECMO-related SIRS. Previously healthy piglets (3-week-old) were subjected to venoarterial ECMO for up to 8 h. SIRS was assessed by histopathological analysis, measurement of neutrophil activation (flow cytometry), plasma cytokine concentrations (enzyme immunoassays), and tissue expression of inflammatory genes (PCR/western blots). Mast cell degranulation was investigated by measurement of plasma tryptase activity. Porcine neonatal ECMO was associated with systemic inflammatory changes similar to those seen in human neonates. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentrations rose rapidly during the first 2 h of ECMO, faster than the tissue expression of these cytokines. ECMO was associated with increased plasma mast cell tryptase activity, indicating that increased plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines during ECMO may result from mast cell degranulation and associated release of preformed cytokines stored in mast cells. TNF-alpha and IL-8 concentrations rose faster in plasma than in the peripheral tissues during ECMO, indicating that rising plasma levels of these cytokines immediately after the initiation of ECMO may not reflect increasing tissue synthesis of these cytokines. Mobilization of preformed cellular stores of inflammatory cytokines such as in mucosal mast cells may have

  2. Phase composition and microhardness of rapidly quenched Al-Fe alloys after high pressure torsion deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tcherdyntsev, V.V.; Kaloshkin, S.D.; Gunderov, D.V.; Afonina, E.A.; Brodova, I.G.; Stolyarov, V.V.; Baldokhin, Yu.V.; Shelekhov, E.V.; Tomilin, I.A

    2004-07-15

    Aluminium-based Al-Fe alloys with Fe content of 2, 8, and 10 wt.% were prepared by rapid quenching (RQ) from the melt at a rate of 10{sup 6} K/s. Structure of the alloys was examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. Phase transformations of RQ alloys by high pressure torsion (HPT) were studied. Dependences of phase composition on the intensity of HPT were investigated. Microhardness measurements of HPT alloys show a considerable structural heterogeneity of specimens, the dependence of microhardness on the radius of the pills was found out. Phase composition and microhardness during the heating were investigated. At the initial step of heating (120-150 deg. C), an increase in microhardness was observed, whereas further heating leads to a decrease in the microhardness.

  3. Payments for carbon sequestration to alleviate development pressure in a rapidly urbanizing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan W.; Dorning, Monica; Shoemaker, Douglas A.; Méley, Andréanne; Dupey, Lauren; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine individuals' willingness to enroll in voluntary payments for carbon sequestration programs through the use of a discrete choice experiment delivered to forest owners living in the rapidly urbanizing region surrounding Charlotte, North Carolina. We examined forest owners' willingness to enroll in payments for carbon sequestration policies under different levels of financial incentives (annual revenue), different contract lengths, and different program administrators (e.g., private companies versus a state or federal agency). We also examined the influence forest owners' sense of place had on their willingness to enroll in hypothetical programs. Our results showed a high level of ambivalence toward participating in payments for carbon sequestration programs. However, both financial incentives and contract lengths significantly influenced forest owners' intent to enroll. Neither program administration nor forest owners' sense of place influenced intent to enroll. Although our analyses indicated that payments from carbon sequestration programs are not currently competitive with the monetary returns expected from timber harvest or property sales, certain forest owners might see payments for carbon sequestration programs as a viable option for offsetting increasing tax costs as development encroaches and property values rise.

  4. Rapid and Efficient Protein Digestion using Trypsin Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles under Pressure Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoungsoo; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Kim, Byoung Chan; Na, Hyon Bin; Park, Yong Il; Weitz, Karl K.; Warner, Marvin G.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Sang-Won; Smith, Richard D.; Kim, Jungbae

    2011-01-01

    Trypsin-coated magnetic nanoparticles (EC-TR/NPs), prepared via a simple crosslinking of the enzyme to magnetic nanoparticles, were highly stable and could be easily captured using a magnet after the digestion was complete. EC-TR/NPs showed a negligible loss of trypsin activity after multiple uses and continuous shaking, while a control sample of covalently-attached trypsin on NPs resulted in a rapid inactivation under the same conditions due to the denaturation and autolysis of trypsin. Digestions were carried out on a single model protein, a five protein mixture, and a whole mouse brain proteome, and also compared for digestion at atmospheric pressure and 37 ºC for 12 h, and in combination with pressure cycling technology (PCT) at room temperature for 1 min. In all cases, the EC-TR/NPs performed equally as well or better than free trypsin in terms of the number of peptide/protein identifications and reproducibility across technical replicates. However, the concomitant use of EC-TR/NPs and PCT resulted in very fast (~1 min) and more reproducible digestions.

  5. Dusty Cloud Acceleration by Radiation Pressure in Rapidly Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Davis, Shane W.; Jiang, Yan-Fei; Stone, James M.

    2018-02-01

    We perform two-dimensional and three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations to study cold clouds accelerated by radiation pressure on dust in the environment of rapidly star-forming galaxies dominated by infrared flux. We utilize the reduced speed of light approximation to solve the frequency-averaged, time-dependent radiative transfer equation. We find that radiation pressure is capable of accelerating the clouds to hundreds of kilometers per second while remaining dense and cold, consistent with observations. We compare these results to simulations where acceleration is provided by entrainment in a hot wind, where the momentum injection of the hot flow is comparable to the momentum in the radiation field. We find that the survival time of the cloud accelerated by the radiation field is significantly longer than that of a cloud entrained in a hot outflow. We show that the dynamics of the irradiated cloud depends on the initial optical depth, temperature of the cloud, and intensity of the flux. Additionally, gas pressure from the background may limit cloud acceleration if the density ratio between the cloud and background is ≲ {10}2. In general, a 10 pc-scale optically thin cloud forms a pancake structure elongated perpendicular to the direction of motion, while optically thick clouds form a filamentary structure elongated parallel to the direction of motion. The details of accelerated cloud morphology and geometry can also be affected by other factors, such as the cloud lengthscale, reduced speed of light approximation, spatial resolution, initial cloud structure, and dimensionality of the run, but these have relatively little affect on the cloud velocity or survival time.

  6. Thermodynamic and fluid mechanic analysis of rapid pressurization in a dead-end tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Ian H.

    1989-01-01

    Three models have been applied to very rapid compression of oxygen in a dead-ended tube. Pressures as high as 41 MPa (6000 psi) leading to peak temperatures of 1400 K are predicted. These temperatures are well in excess of the autoignition temperature (750 K) of teflon, a frequently used material for lining hoses employed in oxygen service. These findings are in accord with experiments that have resulted in ignition and combustion of the teflon, leading to the combustion of the stainless steel braiding and catastrophic failure. The system analyzed was representative of a capped off-high-pressure oxygen line, which could be part of a larger system. Pressurization of the larger system would lead to compression in the dead-end line, and possible ignition of the teflon liner. The model consists of a large plenum containing oxygen at the desired pressure (500 to 6000 psi). The plenum is connected via a fast acting valve to a stainless steel tube 2 cm inside diameter. Opening times are on the order of 15 ms. Downstream of the valve is an orifice sized to increase filling times to around 100 ms. The total length from the valve to the dead-end is 150 cm. The distance from the valve to the orifice is 95 cm. The models describe the fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the flow, and do not include any combustion phenomena. A purely thermodynamic model assumes filling to be complete upstream of the orifice before any gas passes through the orifice. This simplification is reasonable based on experiment and computer modeling. Results show that peak temperatures as high as 4800 K can result from recompression of the gas after expanding through the orifice. An approximate transient model without an orifice was developed assuming an isentropic compression process. An analytical solution was obtained. Results indicated that fill times can be considerably shorter than valve opening times. The third model was a finite difference, 1-D transient compressible flow model. Results from

  7. Regenerative response in the pig liver remnant varies with the degree of resection and rise in portal pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kim Erlend; Conley, Lene Nagsrrup; Hedegaard, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    After parenchymal loss, the liver regenerates restoring normal mass and metabolic function. Prevailing theories on triggering events leading to regeneration include humoral, metabolic, and flow-mediated mechanisms, the latter emphasizing the importance of shear stress mediated nitric oxide...... in the high portal pressure resection group to have functions related primarily to apoptosis, nitric oxide metabolism and oxidative stress, whereas differentially expressed genes in the low portal pressure resection group potentially regulate the cell cycle. Common to both groups was the upregulation of genes...... regulating inflammation, transport, cell proliferation, development, and protein metabolism. Also common to both groups was both up- and downregulation of genes regulating cell-cell signaling, signal transduction, cell adhesion, and translation. Genes regulating the metabolism of lipids, hormones, amines...

  8. Rapid formation of electric field profiles in repetitively pulsed high-voltage high-pressure nanosecond discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tsuyohito; Kobayashi, Kazunobu; Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Rapid formation of electric field profiles has been observed directly for the first time in nanosecond narrow-gap parallel-plate discharges at near-atmospheric pressure. The plasmas examined here are of hydrogen, and the field measurement is based on coherent Raman scattering (CRS) by hydrogen molecules. Combined with the observation of spatio-temporal light emission profiles by a high speed camera, it has been found that the rapid formation of a high-voltage thin cathode sheath is accompanied by fast propagation of an ionization front from a region near the anode. Unlike well-known parallel-plate discharges at low pressure, the discharge formation process at high pressure is almost entirely driven by electron dynamics as ions and neutral species are nearly immobile during the rapid process. (fast track communication)

  9. Extractive Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization (EAPPI) Mass Spectrometry: Rapid Analysis of Chemicals in Complex Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyuan; Yang, Jiuzhong; Wang, Jian; Hu, Yonghua; Zhao, Wan; Zhou, Zhongyue; Qi, Fei; Pan, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Extractive atmospheric pressure photoionization (EAPPI) mass spectrometry was designed for rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemicals in complex matrices. In this method, an ultrasonic nebulization system was applied to sample extraction, nebulization, and vaporization. Mixed with a gaseous dopant, vaporized analytes were ionized through ambient photon-induced ion-molecule reactions, and were mass-analyzed by a high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). After careful optimization and testing with pure sample solution, EAPPI was successfully applied to the fast screening of capsules, soil, natural products, and viscous compounds. Analysis was completed within a few seconds without the need for preseparation. Moreover, the quantification capability of EAPPI for matrices was evaluated by analyzing six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil. The correlation coefficients (R (2) ) for standard curves of all six PAHs were above 0.99, and the detection limits were in the range of 0.16-0.34 ng/mg. In addition, EAPPI could also be used to monitor organic chemical reactions in real time. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  10. Chance findings about early holocene tidal marshes of Grays Harbor, Washington, in relation to rapidly rising seas and great subduction earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, James B.; Hemphill-Haley, Eileen; Atwater, Brian F.

    2015-06-18

    Tidal marshes commonly build upward apace with gradual rise in the level of the sea. It is expected, however, that few tidal marshes will keep up with accelerated sea-level rise later in this century. Tidal marshes have been drowned, moreover, after subsiding during earthquakes.

  11. Different selection pressures give rise to distinct ethnic phenomena : a functionalist framework with illustrations from the Peruvian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Cristina; Boyd, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Many accounts of ethnic phenomena imply that processes such as stereotyping, essentialism, ethnocentrism, and intergroup hostility stem from a unitary adaptation for reasoning about groups. This is partly justified by the phenomena's co-occurrence in correlational studies. Here we argue that these behaviors are better modeled as functionally independent adaptations that arose in response to different selection pressures throughout human evolution. As such, different mechanisms may be triggered by different group boundaries within a single society. We illustrate this functionalist framework using ethnographic work from the Quechua-Aymara language boundary in the Peruvian Altiplano. We show that different group boundaries motivate different ethnic phenomena. For example, people have strong stereotypes about socioeconomic categories, which are not cooperative units, whereas they hold fewer stereotypes about communities, which are the primary focus of cooperative activity. We also show that, despite the cross-cultural importance of ethnolinguistic boundaries, the Quechua-Aymara linguistic distinction does not strongly motivate any of these intergroup processes.

  12. Ignition of PTFE-lined flexible hoses by rapid pressurization with oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff, Dwight; Bamford, Larry J.; Newton, Barry E.; Bryan, Coleman J.

    1989-01-01

    A high-volume pneumatic-impact system has been used to test PTFE-lined stainless steel braided hoses, in order to characterize the roles played in the mechanism of oxygen-induced ignition by impact pressure, pressurization rate, and upstream and downstream volumes of the hose. Ignitions are noted to have occurred at impact pressures well below the working pressure of the hoses, as well as at pressurization rates easily obtainable through manual operation of valves. The use of stainless steel hardlines downstream of the hose prevented ignitions at all pressures and pressurization rates; internal observations have shown evidence of shock ionization in the oxygen prior to ignition.

  13. Atmospheric Pressure-Thermal Desorption (AP-TD)/Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry for the Rapid Analysis of Bacillus Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    A technique is described where an atmospheric pressure-thermal desorption (AP-TD) device and electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry are coupled and used for the rapid analysis of Bacillus spores in complex matrices. The resulting AP-TD/ESI-MS technique combines the generation of volatile co...

  14. Pressure applied by the healthcare staff on a cricoids cartilage simulator during Sellick's maneuver in rapid sequence intubation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Calvache (Jose Andrés); L.C.B. Sandoval (Luz); W.A. Vargas (William Andres)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Sellick's maneuver or cricoid pressure is a strategy used to prevent bronchoaspiration during the rapid intubation sequence. Several studies have described that the force required for an adequate maneuver is of 2.5-3.5 kg. The purpose of this paper was to determine the force

  15. Divergent plate motion drives rapid exhumation of (ultra)high pressure rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jie; Malusà, Marco G.; Zhao, Liang; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Gerya, Taras

    2018-06-01

    Exhumation of (ultra)high pressure [(U)HP] rocks by upper-plate divergent motion above an unbroken slab, first proposed in the Western Alps, has never been tested by numerical methods. We present 2D thermo-mechanical models incorporating subduction of a thinned continental margin beneath either a continental or oceanic upper plate, followed by upper-plate divergent motion away from the lower plate. Results demonstrate how divergent plate motion may trigger rapid exhumation of large volumes of (U)HP rocks directly to the Earth's surface, without the need for significant overburden removal by erosion. Model exhumation paths are fully consistent with natural examples for a wide range of upper-plate divergence rates. Exhumation rates are systematically higher than the divergent rate imposed to the upper plate, and the modeled size of exhumed (U)HP domes is invariant for different rates of upper-plate divergence. Major variations are instead predicted at depth for differing model scenarios, as larger amounts of divergent motion may allow mantle-wedge exhumation to shallow depth under the exhuming domes. The transient temperature increase, due to ascent of mantle-wedge material in the subduction channel, has a limited effect on exhumed continental (U)HP rocks already at the surface. We test two examples, the Cenozoic (U)HP terranes of the Western Alps (continental upper plate) and eastern Papua New Guinea (oceanic upper plate). The good fit between model predictions and the geologic record in these terranes encourages the application of these models globally to pre-Cenozoic (U)HP terranes where the geologic record of exhumation is only partly preserved.

  16. Validation of the RisingSun RS-651 Blood Pressure Monitor Based on Auscultation in Adults According to the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Jin; Guan, Xizhou; Liu, Yanyong; Xiang, Haiyan

    2016-12-01

    This study validated the RisingSun RS-651 blood pressure (BP) monitor based on auscultation in adults according to the American National Standards Institute/Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation/International Organization for Standardization (ANSI/AAMI/ISO) 81060-2:2013 standard. The RS-651 device was evaluated in a study of 97 participants. The same arm simultaneous method, as defined in the ANSI/AAMI/ISO standard, was used. The mean differences±standard deviation for criterion 1 were 0.8±2.3 mm Hg for systolic BP (SBP) and -0.1±2.9 mm Hg for diastolic BP (DBP). Analysis for criterion 2 resulted in values of 0.8±1.5 mm Hg for SBP and -0.1±2.1 mm Hg for DBP. All of the data fulfilled the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 standard requirements to pass the validation. The RisingSun RS-651 device can be recommended for both clinical and self/home use in adults according to the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 standard. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Thermally moderated hollow fiber sorbent modules in rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption mode for hydrogen purification

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.; Bessho, Naoki; Bhandari, Dhaval A.; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki; Koros, William J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe thermally moderated multi-layered pseudo-monolithic hollow fiber sorbents entities, which can be packed into compact modules to provide small-footprint, efficient H2 purification/CO2 removal systems for use in on-site steam methane reformer product gas separations. Dual-layer hollow fibers are created via dry-jet, wet-quench spinning with an inner "active" core of cellulose acetate (porous binder) and zeolite NaY (69 wt% zeolite NaY) and an external sheath layer of pure cellulose acetate. The co-spun sheath layer reduces the surface porosity of the fiber and was used as a smooth coating surface for a poly(vinyl-alcohol) post-treatment, which reduced the gas permeance through the fiber sorbent by at least 7 orders of magnitude, essentially creating an impermeable sheath layer. The interstitial volume between the individual fibers was filled with a thermally-moderating paraffin wax. CO2 breakthrough experiments on the hollow fiber sorbent modules with and without paraffin wax revealed that the "passively" cooled paraffin wax module had 12.5% longer breakthrough times than the "non-isothermal" module. The latent heat of fusion/melting of the wax offsets the released latent heat of sorption/desorption of the zeolites. One-hundred rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption cycles were performed on the "passively" cooled hollow fiber sorbents using 25 vol% CO2/75 vol% He (H2 surrogate) at 60 °C and 113 psia, resulting in a product purity of 99.2% and a product recovery of 88.1% thus achieving process conditions and product quality comparable to conventional pellet processes. Isothermal and non-isothermal dynamic modeling of the hollow fiber sorbent module and a traditional packed bed using gPROMS® indicated that the fiber sorbents have sharper fronts (232% sharper) and longer adsorbate breakthrough times (66% longer), further confirming the applicability of the new fiber sorbent approach for H2 purification. © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC

  18. Thermally moderated hollow fiber sorbent modules in rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption mode for hydrogen purification

    KAUST Repository

    Lively, Ryan P.

    2012-10-01

    We describe thermally moderated multi-layered pseudo-monolithic hollow fiber sorbents entities, which can be packed into compact modules to provide small-footprint, efficient H2 purification/CO2 removal systems for use in on-site steam methane reformer product gas separations. Dual-layer hollow fibers are created via dry-jet, wet-quench spinning with an inner "active" core of cellulose acetate (porous binder) and zeolite NaY (69 wt% zeolite NaY) and an external sheath layer of pure cellulose acetate. The co-spun sheath layer reduces the surface porosity of the fiber and was used as a smooth coating surface for a poly(vinyl-alcohol) post-treatment, which reduced the gas permeance through the fiber sorbent by at least 7 orders of magnitude, essentially creating an impermeable sheath layer. The interstitial volume between the individual fibers was filled with a thermally-moderating paraffin wax. CO2 breakthrough experiments on the hollow fiber sorbent modules with and without paraffin wax revealed that the "passively" cooled paraffin wax module had 12.5% longer breakthrough times than the "non-isothermal" module. The latent heat of fusion/melting of the wax offsets the released latent heat of sorption/desorption of the zeolites. One-hundred rapidly cycled pressure swing adsorption cycles were performed on the "passively" cooled hollow fiber sorbents using 25 vol% CO2/75 vol% He (H2 surrogate) at 60 °C and 113 psia, resulting in a product purity of 99.2% and a product recovery of 88.1% thus achieving process conditions and product quality comparable to conventional pellet processes. Isothermal and non-isothermal dynamic modeling of the hollow fiber sorbent module and a traditional packed bed using gPROMS® indicated that the fiber sorbents have sharper fronts (232% sharper) and longer adsorbate breakthrough times (66% longer), further confirming the applicability of the new fiber sorbent approach for H2 purification. © 2012, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC

  19. Sulfur transformation during rapid hydropyrolysis of coal under high pressure by using a continuous free fall pyrolyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.-C. Xu; M. Kumagai

    2003-02-01

    The behavior of sulfur transformation during rapid hydropyrolysis of coal was investigated using a pressurized, continuous free fall pyrolyzer under the conditions of temperature ranging from 923 to 1123 K and hydrogen pressure up to 5 MPa. The yields of sulfur converted to gas, tar and char were determined, together with the analyses of sulfur form distributions in coals and chars. The results showed that the decomposition of inorganic sulfur species was affected only by the temperature, while the increases in temperature and hydrogen pressure obviously enhanced the removal of organic sulfur from coal. The extent of organic sulfur removal was proportional to the coal conversion, depending on coal type. A significant retention of gaseous sulfur products by the organic matrix of the char was observed during hydropyrolysis of a Chinese coal above 1023 K, even under the pressurized hydrogen atmosphere. The kinetic analysis indicates that the rate of organic sulfur removal from coal was 0.2th-order with respect to the hydrogen pressure, and the activation energy for total sulfur removal and organic sulfur removal is 17 26 and 13 55 kJ/mol, respectively. The low activation energies suggest that the transformation and removal of sulfur from coal might be controlled by the diffusion and/or thermodynamic equilibrium during hydropyrolysis under the pressurized conditions. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. The dynamic pressure response to rapid dilatation of the resting urethra in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagi, P; Thind, P; Colstrup, H

    1993-01-01

    beta e-t/tau beta, where Pequ, P alpha and P beta are constants, and tau alpha and tau beta are time constants; this equation has previously been demonstrated to describe the pressure decay following dilatation. On the basis of a theoretical model the elastic and viscous constants for the urethral......The urethral pressure response to a sudden forced dilatation was studied at the bladder neck, in the high-pressure zone and in the distal urethra in ten healthy female volunteers. The pressure response was fitted with a double exponential function of the form Pt = Pequ + P alpha e-t/tau alpha + P...... a detailed assessment of static and dynamic urethral responses to dilatation which can be applied as an experimental simulation of urine ingression, and is therefore presumed to be of value in the evaluation of normal and pathological urethral sphincter function....

  1. Rapid Chemical Vapor Infiltration of Silicon Carbide Minicomposites at Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Kenneth; Poges, Shannon; Monteleone, Chris; Grady, Joseph; Bhatt, Ram; Suib, Steven L

    2018-02-07

    The chemical vapor infiltration technique is one of the most popular for the fabrication of the matrix portion of a ceramic matrix composite. This work focuses on tailoring an atmospheric pressure deposition of silicon carbide onto carbon fiber tows using the methyltrichlorosilane (CH 3 SiCl 3 ) and H 2 deposition system at atmospheric pressure to create minicomposites faster than low pressure systems. Adjustment of the flow rate of H 2 bubbled through CH 3 SiCl 3 will improve the uniformity of the deposition as well as infiltrate the substrate more completely as the flow rate is decreased. Low pressure depositions conducted at 50 Torr deposit SiC at a rate of approximately 200 nm*h -1 , while the atmospheric pressure system presented has a deposition rate ranging from 750 nm*h -1 to 3.88 μm*h -1 . The minicomposites fabricated in this study had approximate total porosities of 3 and 6% for 10 and 25 SCCM infiltrations, respectively.

  2. Ultra-rapid microwave variable pressure-induced histoprocessing : Description of a new tissue processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visinoni, F; Milios, J; Leong, ASY; Boon, ME; Kok, LP; Malcangi, F

    We describe a new method of ultra-rapid histoprocessing that reduces the processing times for needle and endoscopic biopsies to 30 min and that of other surgical biopsy tissue blocks of up to 4 mm thick to 120 min. The MicroMED U R M Histoprocessor, which combines microwave irradiation with precise

  3. Rapid redistribution and inhibition of renal sodium transporters during acute pressure natriuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y; Mircheff, A K; Hensley, C B

    1996-01-01

    and basolateral Na+ pumps to internal membranes. Arterial pressure was increased 50 mmHg by constricting various arteries. We also tested whether transporter internalization occurred when PT Na+ reabsorption was inhibited with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor benzolamide. Five minutes after initiating either...

  4. Microfossil measures of rapid sea-level rise: Timing of response of two microfossil groups to a sudden tidal-flooding experiment in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B.P.; Milker, Yvonne; Dura, T.; Wang, Kelin; Bridgeland, W.T.; Brophy, Laura S.; Ewald, M.; Khan, Nicole; Engelhart, S.E.; Nelson, Alan R.; Witter, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Comparisons of pre-earthquake and post-earthquake microfossils in tidal sequences are accurate means to measure coastal subsidence during past subduction earthquakes, but the amount of subsidence is uncertain, because the response times of fossil taxa to coseismic relative sea-level (RSL) rise are unknown. We measured the response of diatoms and foraminifera to restoration of a salt marsh in southern Oregon, USA. Tidal flooding following dike removal caused an RSL rise of ∼1 m, as might occur by coseismic subsidence during momentum magnitude (Mw) 8.1–8.8 earthquakes on this section of the Cascadia subduction zone. Less than two weeks after dike removal, diatoms colonized low marsh and tidal flats in large numbers, showing that they can record seismically induced subsidence soon after earthquakes. In contrast, low-marsh foraminifera took at least 11 months to appear in sizeable numbers. Where subsidence measured with diatoms and foraminifera differs, their different response times may provide an estimate of postseismic vertical deformation in the months following past megathrust earthquakes.

  5. Beam-loss induced pressure rise of Large Hadron Collider collimator materials irradiated with 158  GeV/u In^{49+} ions at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mahner

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available During heavy ion operation, large pressure rises, up to a few orders of magnitude, were observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL. The dynamic pressure rises were triggered by lost beam ions that impacted onto the vacuum chamber walls and desorbed about 10^{4} to 10^{7} molecules per ion. The deterioration of the dynamic vacuum conditions can enhance charge-exchange beam losses and can lead to beam instabilities or even to beam abortion triggered by vacuum interlocks. Consequently, a dedicated measurement of heavy-ion induced molecular desorption in the GeV/u energy range is important for Large Hadron Collider (LHC ion operation. In 2003, a desorption experiment was installed at the Super Proton Synchrotron to measure the beam-loss induced pressure rise of potential LHC collimator materials. Samples of bare graphite, sputter coated (Cu, TiZrV graphite, and 316 LN (low carbon with nitrogen stainless steel were irradiated under grazing angle with 158  GeV/u indium ions. After a description of the new experimental setup, the results of the pressure rise measurements are presented, and the derived desorption yields are compared with data from other experiments.

  6. Rising equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a financial rankings survey of the independent energy industry indicating that lenders and investors provided more than five billion dollars in capital for new, private power projects during the first six months of 1992. The topics of the article include rising equity requirements, corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions, project finance investors, revenue bonds, project finance lenders for new projects, project finance lenders for restructurings, and project finance advisors

  7. Rapid Atmospheric-Pressure-Plasma-Jet Processed Porous Materials for Energy Harvesting and Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ technology is a versatile technology that has been applied in many energy harvesting and storage devices. This feature article provides an overview of the advances in APPJ technology and its application to solar cells and batteries. The ultrafast APPJ sintering of nanoporous oxides and 3D reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with accompanying optical emission spectroscopy analyses are described in detail. The applications of these nanoporous materials to photoanodes and counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells are described. An ultrashort treatment (1 min on graphite felt electrodes of flow batteries also significantly improves the energy efficiency.

  8. RAPID PROCESSING OF ARCHIVAL TISSUE SAMPLES FOR PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS USING PRESSURE-CYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinuth N. Puttamallesh1,2

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Advent of mass spectrometry based proteomics has revolutionized our ability to study proteins from biological specimen in a high-throughput manner. Unlike cell line based studies, biomedical research involving tissue specimen is often challenging due to limited sample availability. In addition, investigation of clinically relevant research questions often requires enormous amount of time for sample collection prospectively. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE archived tissue samples are a rich source of tissue specimen for biomedical research. However, there are several challenges associated with analysing FFPE samples. Protein cross-linking and degradation of proteins particularly affects proteomic analysis. We demonstrate that barocycler that uses pressure-cycling technology enables efficient protein extraction and processing of small amounts of FFPE tissue samples for proteomic analysis. We identified 3,525 proteins from six 10µm esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC tissue sections. Barocycler allows efficient protein extraction and proteolytic digestion of proteins from FFPE tissue sections at par with conventional methods.

  9. The Rapid Formation of Localized Compaction Bands Under Hydrostatic Load Leading to Pore-pressure Transients in Compacting Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, D.; Leclere, H.; Bedford, J. D.; Behnsen, J.; Wheeler, J.

    2017-12-01

    Compaction of porous rocks can occur uniformly or within localized deformation bands. The formation of compaction bands and their effects on deformation behaviour are poorly understood. Porosity may be primary and compaction can occur with burial, or it can be produced by metamorphic reactions with a solid volume reduction, that can then undergo collapse. We report results from hydrostatic compaction experiments on porous bassanite (CaSO4.0.5H2O) aggregates. Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) is first dehydrated under low effective pressure, 4 MPa, to produce a bassanite aggregate with a porosity of 27%. Compaction is induced by increasing confining pressure at rates from 0.001 MPa/s to 0.02 MPa/s while the sample is maintained at a temperature of 115°C. At slow compaction rates, porosity collapse proceeds smoothly. At higher compaction rates, sudden increases in the pore-fluid pressure occur with a magnitude of 5 MPa. Microstructural investigations using X-ray microtomography and SEM observations show that randomly oriented localized compaction features occur in all samples, where the bulk porosity of 18% outside the band is reduced to 5% inside the band. Previous work on deformation bands has suggested that localized compactive features only form under an elevated differential stress and not under a hydrostatic stress state. The magnitude of the pore-pressure pulses can be explained by the formation of compaction bands. The results indicate that the compaction bands can form by rapid (unstable) propagation across the sample above a critical strain rate, or quasi-statically at low compaction rates without pore-fluid pressure bursts. The absence of pore-fluid pressure bursts at slow compaction rates can be explained by viscous deformation of the bassanite aggregate around the tip of a propagating compaction band, relaxing stress, and promoting stable propagation. Conversely, at higher compaction rates, viscous deformation cannot relax the stress sufficiently and unstable

  10. A Mixed-Oxide Assembly Design for Rapid Disposition of Weapons Plutonium in Pressurized Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Gustavo; Adams, Marvin L.

    2002-01-01

    We have created a new mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel assembly design for standard pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Design goals were to maximize the plutonium throughput while introducing the lowest perturbation possible to the control and safety systems of the reactor. Our assembly design, which we call MIX-33, offers some advantages for the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium; it increases the disposition rate by 8% while increasing the worth of control material, compared to a previous Westinghouse design. The MIX-33 design is based upon two ideas: the use of both uranium and plutonium fuel pins in the same assembly, and the addition of water holes in the assembly. The main result of this paper is that both of these ideas are effective at increasing Pu throughput and increasing the worth of control material. With this new design, according to our analyses, we can transition smoothly from a full low-enriched-uranium (LEU) core to a full MIX-33 core while meeting the operational and safety requirements of a standard PWR. Given an interruption of the MOX supply, we can transition smoothly back to full LEU while meeting safety margins and using standard LEU assemblies with uniform pinwise enrichment distribution. If the MOX supply is interrupted for only one cycle, the transition back to a full MIX-33 core is not as smooth; high peaking could cause power to be derated by a few percent for a few weeks at the beginning of one transition cycle

  11. Investigation of Health Risks and Their Prevention in the Rapid Climate Changes and the Rise of Pollution of the Atmosphere in the Mountain Region of the North Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babyakin, Alexander; Polozkov, Igor; Golitsyn, Georgy; Efimenko, Natalia; Zherlitsina, Liubov; Povolotskaya, Nina; Senik, Irina; Chalaya, Elena; Artamonova, Maria; Pogarski, Fedor

    2010-05-01

    to clarify the criteria for "pathogenicity" of various weather conditions and the factors of air pollution. These criteria were put in a new technology of the Medical Weather Forecast (MWF). In this technology it is proposed to use the integrated Weather Pathogenicity Index (WPI), which is calculated as a weighted average of biotropism indices of various MMM, which include: the dynamics and day to day variability of temperature, pressure and humidity, wind speed, weight content of oxygen and natural air ions in the surface atmosphere, cloudiness, atmospheric phenomena, geomagnetic activity, the ultraviolet index (by UVB solar radiation), the integrated illumination by the sun, the heat conditions of the human. For each of the MMM the five physiological grades of the effects of weather on human adaptation to weather of magnitude and dynamics of WPI are marked out: indifferent, weak, moderate, harsh and overly harsh, according to which the degree of "pathogenicity" of the weather is estimating. Pathogenicity is indicated by quantitative number of medical types of weather (I - a very good weather, II - good weather, III - adverse weather, and IV - a particularly adverse weather). According to the forms of the pressure relief on the sea level, 850 hPa, and 500 hPa, the nature of atmospheric stratification and the presence of atmospheric fronts in the medical types of weather the type of atmospheric circulation is evaluating (anticyclonic - "A", cyclonic - "B", frontal - "C"), which defines a subtype of weather and the possible nature of meteopathia (hypotensive, hypoxic, spastic, etc.). Innovations of the new technology are associated with the introduction of a methodology for the preparation of MWF the modified classifiers to determine the gradation of biotropism degree for various MMM, confirmed by the results of comprehensive empirical medical and climatic studies using dynamic and synoptic weather forecasting making by Hydrometeocenter of Russia and forecast of

  12. Pressure overload stimulated cardiac hypertrophy leads to a rapid decrease in the mRNA for creatine kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boheler, K.; Popovich, B.; Dillmann, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy (CH) leads to a decrease in creatine kinase (CK) enzymatic activity. To determine if the mRNA for CK also decreases with CH, they performed the following studies. Cardiac RNA was isolated from rats subjected to either abdominal aortic stenosis (AS) or sham surgery. Through Northern blot analysis, total cardiac RNA was quantitated with a CK specific 32 P-labelled cDNA clone. At 3 and 8 days post-constriction, the mRNA for CK decreases by 54.6 +/- 7% and 65.3 +/- 18% respectively, whereas the heart weight increases by 19% and 37% relative to controls. Further studies indicate that CK mRNA also decreases by 41.8% in hypothyroid rats (Tx) but decreases by a total of 68.1% in Tx rats subjected to 8 days of AS. Pressure overload stimulated CH leads to a rapid decrease in CK mRNA in normal and Tx rats. This CK mRNA decrease may account for the decreased efficiency of contraction seen in CH

  13. Effect of short-term rapid ventricular pacing followed by pacing interruption on arterial blood pressure in healthy pigs and pigs with tachycardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, P; Zyśko, D; Pasławska, U; Noszczyk-Nowak, A; Janiszewski, A; Gajek, J; Nicpoń, J; Kiczak, L; Bania, J; Zacharski, M; Tomaszek, A; Jankowska, E A; Ponikowski, P; Witkiewicz, W

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular tachycardia may lead to haemodynamic deterioration and, in the case of long term persistence, is associated with the development of tachycardiomyopathy. The effect of ventricular tachycardia on haemodynamics in individuals with tachycardiomyopathy, but being in sinus rhythm has not been studied. Rapid ventricular pacing is a model of ventricular tachycardia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rapid ventricular pacing on blood pressure in healthy animals and those with tachycardiomyopathy. A total of 66 animals were studied: 32 in the control group and 34 in the study group. The results of two groups of examinations were compared: the first performed in healthy animals (133 examinations) and the second performed in animals paced for at least one month (77 examinations). Blood pressure measurements were taken during chronic pacing--20 min after onset of general anaesthesia, in baseline conditions (20 min after pacing cessation or 20 min after onset of general anaesthesia in healthy animals) and immediately after short-term rapid pacing. In baseline conditions significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure was found in healthy animals than in those with tachycardiomyopathy. During an event of rapid ventricular pacing, a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was found in both groups of animals. In the group of chronically paced animals the blood pressure was lower just after restarting ventricular pacing than during chronic pacing. Cardiovascular adaptation to ventricular tachycardia develops with the length of its duration. Relapse of ventricular tachycardia leads to a blood pressure decrease more pronounced than during chronic ventricular pacing.

  14. U.S. Dental School Deans’ Perceptions of the Rising Cost of Dental Education and Borrowing Pressures on Dental Students: Report of Survey Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Dora Elías; Garrison, Gwen E; Feldman, Cecile A; Anderson, Eugene L; Cook, Bryan J; Valachovic, Richard W

    2015-06-01

    This report presents findings from a survey of U.S. dental school deans designed to capture their perceptions regarding the rising cost of dental education and its impact on borrowing by dental students to finance their education. The survey included questions about factors influencing the cost of dental education, concerns about dental student borrowing, and financial awareness resources for students. The survey was distributed to the deans of all 63 U.S. dental schools in January 2013; 42 deans responded, for a 67% response rate. The results indicate that, according to the responding deans, new clinical technologies, technology costs, and central university taxes are the main factors that contribute to the increasing cost of dental education. Coupled with reduced state appropriations at public dental schools and declines in private giving at all dental schools, dental school deans face a perplexing set of financial management challenges. Tuition and fees are a primary source of revenue for all dental schools; however, many deans do not have total control over the cost of attending their schools since tuition and fees are often tied to mandates and policies from the parent university and the state legislature. The findings of this study indicate that U.S. dental school deans are aware of and concerned about the impact of increases in tuition and fees on dental student debt and that they are using a variety of strategies to address the growth in dental student borrowing.

  15. The α-MSH analogue AP214 attenuates rise in pulmonary pressure and fall in ejection fraction in lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Jens; Jonassen, Thomas E N; Rehling, Michael; Tønnesen, Else; Sloth, Erik; Nielsen, Søren; Frøkiaer, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The effect of an α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) analogue (AP214) on experimentally endotoxin-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was studied, because α-MSH in rodent models has shown promise in attenuating inflammatory response markers and associated organ damage in SIRS. SIRS is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Consequently, new treatment modalities are still warranted to address the different aspects of the pathophysiological process. SIRS was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (Escherichia coli endotoxin) infusion in anaesthetized Danish Landrace pigs (20-25 kg). The pigs received an α-MSH analogue (AP214) or saline as a bolus at the initiation of the LPS infusion. The hemodynamic response was registered as well as echocardiographic indices of left ventricular function. The cardiovascular response was recorded together with echocardiographic indices of left ventricular function in control and in intervention animals. AP214 reduced the early peak in pulmonary pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance by approximately 33%. Furthermore, AP214 prevented the decline in left ventricular fractional shortening as observed in the control group. Mean change and standard deviation in fractional shortening (ΔFS) in control group: - 7·3 (4·7), AP214 (low dose): 0·9 (8·2) and AP214 (high dose) 4·1 (6·0), P < 0·05 for both intervention groups versus control. In the porcine model, the peak increase in pulmonary pressure was attenuated, and the LPS-induced decline in left ventricular function was prevented. © 2010 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2010 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  16. Rapid analysis of formic acid, acetic acid, and furfural in pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and ethanol in a bioethanol fermentation using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Katherine A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS offers advantages as a rapid analytical technique for the quantification of three biomass degradation products (acetic acid, formic acid and furfural within pretreated wheat straw hydrolysates and the analysis of ethanol during fermentation. The data we obtained using APCI-MS correlated significantly with high-performance liquid chromatography analysis whilst offering the analyst minimal sample preparation and faster sample throughput.

  17. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lowest at night and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low ... low blood pressure. Medications that can cause low blood pressure Some medications can cause low blood pressure, including: ...

  18. Rapid Analysis of Apolar Low Molecular Weight Constituents in Wood Using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography with Evaporative Light Scattering Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, F.W.; Haar, van de C.; Beek, van T.A.; Dorado, J.; Martinez-Inigo, M.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.

    2000-01-01

    A new high pressure liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light scattering detection was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of apolar, low molecular weight constituents in wood. The wood extractives were obtained by means of a 6 h Soxhlet extraction with acetone. The

  19. Study on closed pressure vessel test. Effect of heat rate, sample weight and vessel size on pressure rise due to thermal decomposition; Mippeigata atsuryoku yoki shiken ni kansuru kenkyu. Atsuryoku hassei kyodo ni oyobosu kanetsusokudo, shiryoryo oyobi youki saizu no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Kenji.; Akutsu, Yoshiaki.; Arai, Mitsuru.; Tamura, Masamitsu. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). School of Engineering

    1999-02-28

    We have attempted to devise a new closed pressure vessel test apparatus in order to evaluate the violence of thermal decomposition of self-reactive materials and have examined some influencing factors, such as heat rate, sample weight, filling factor (sample weight/vessel size) and vessel size on Pmax (maximum pressure rise) and dP/dt (rate of pressure rise) due to their thermal decomposition. As a result, the following decreasing orders of Pmax and dP/dt were shown. Pmax: ADCA>BPZ>AIBN>TCP dP/dt: AIBN>BPZ>ADCA>TCP Moreover, Pmax was not almost influenced by heat rate, while dP/dt increased with an increase in heat rate in the case of BPZ. Pmax and dP/dt increased with an increase in sample weight and the degree of increase depended on the kinds of materials. In addition, it was shown that Pmax and dP/dt increased with an increase in vessel size at a constant filling factor. (author)

  20. Rapid Characterization and Identification of Flavonoids in Radix Astragali by Ultra-High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Linear Ion Trap-Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Xu, Xiao-Jie; Xu, Wen; Huang, Juan; Zhu, Da-yuan; Qiu, Xiao-Hui

    2015-07-01

    A simple and effective method was established for separation and characterization of flavonoid constituents in Radix Astragali (RA) by combination of ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography with LTQ-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (u-HPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS(n)). For three major structural types of flavonoids, the proposed fragmentation pathways and major diagnostic fragment ions of isoflavones, pterocarpans and isoflavans were investigated to trace isoflavonoid derivatives in crude plant extracts. Based on the systematic identification strategy, 48 constituents were rapidly detected and characterized or tentatively identified, many of which were first reported in RA. The u-PHLC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS(n) platform was proved as an effective tool for rapid qualitative analysis of secondary metabolite productions from natural resources. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Modeling the Rapid Boil-Off of a Cryogenic Liquid When Injected into a Low Pressure Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Many launch vehicle cryogenic applications require the modeling of injecting a cryogenic liquid into a low pressure cavity. The difficulty of such analyses lies in accurately predicting the heat transfer coefficient between the cold liquid and a warm wall in a low pressure environment. The heat transfer coefficient and the behavior of the liquid is highly dependent on the mass flow rate into the cavity, the cavity wall temperature and the cavity volume. Testing was performed to correlate the modeling performed using Thermal Desktop and Sinda Fluint Thermal and Fluids Analysis Software. This presentation shall describe a methodology to model the cryogenic process using Sinda Fluint, a description of the cryogenic test set up, a description of the test procedure and how the model was correlated to match the test results.

  2. Exposure to high hydrostatic pressure rapidly selects for increased RpoS activity and general stress-resistance in Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlint, Dietrich; Rutten, Nele; Govers, Sander K; Michiels, Chris W; Aertsen, Abram

    2013-04-15

    Exposure to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is increasingly being used in food preservation as a non-thermal pasteurization process, and its further implementation necessitates a more thorough understanding of bacterial resistance development and intraspecies variability with regard to inactivation by HHP. In this report, we discovered that exposure to high hydrostatic pressure stress can rapidly select for strongly increased RpoS activity in a hypersensitive Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain (ATCC 43888), leading to a simultaneous increase in HHP and heat resistance. Moreover, the level of RpoS activity correlated well with the original hypersensitivity and the extent of acquired HHP resistance, and extremely HHP-resistant mutants of ATCC 43888 clearly incurred a number of additional RpoS-dependent phenotypes. These findings suggest that implementation of novel processing techniques in the food production chain can readily affect the physiology of food-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A flowing liquid test system for assessing the linearity and time-response of rapid fibre optic oxygen partial pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R; Hahn, C E W; Farmery, A D

    2012-08-15

    The development of a methodology for testing the time response, linearity and performance characteristics of ultra fast fibre optic oxygen sensors in the liquid phase is presented. Two standard medical paediatric oxygenators are arranged to provide two independent extracorporeal circuits. Flow from either circuit can be diverted over the sensor under test by means of a system of rapid cross-over solenoid valves exposing the sensor to an abrupt change in oxygen partial pressure, P O2. The system is also capable of testing the oxygen sensor responses to changes in temperature, carbon dioxide partial pressure P CO2 and pH in situ. Results are presented for a miniature fibre optic oxygen sensor constructed in-house with a response time ≈ 50 ms and a commercial fibre optic sensor (Ocean Optics Foxy), when tested in flowing saline and stored blood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid, dynamic segregation of core forming melts: Results from in-situ High Pressure- High Temperature X-ray Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, H. C.; Yu, T.; Wang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The timing and mechanisms of core formation in the Earth, as well as in Earth-forming planetesimals is a problem of significant importance in our understanding of the early evolution of terrestrial planets . W-Hf isotopic signatures in meteorites indicate that core formation in small pre-differentiated planetesimals was relatively rapid, and occurred over the span of a few million years. This time scale is difficult to achieve by percolative flow of the metallic phase through a silicate matrix in textural equilibrium. It has been suggested that during this active time in the early solar system, dynamic processes such as impacts may have caused significant deformation in the differentiating planetesimals, which could lead to much higher permeability of the core forming melts. Here, we have measured the change in permeability of core forming melts in a silicate matrix due to deformation. Mixtures of San Carlos olivine and FeS close to the equilibrium percolation threshold (~5 vol%FeS) were pre-synthesized to achieve an equilibrium microstructure, and then loaded into the rotational Drickamer apparatus at GSE-CARS, sector 13-BMD, at the Advanced Photon Source (Argonne National Laboratory). The samples were subsequently pressed to ~2GPa, and heated to 1100°C. Alternating cycles of rotation to collect X-ray tomography images, and twisting to deform the sample were conducted until the sample had been twisted by 1080°. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were performed on the resulting 3-dimensional x-ray tomographic images to evaluate the effect of shear deformation on permeability and migration velocity. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations were conducted, and show a marked increase in the permeability with increasing deformation, which would allow for much more rapid core formation in planetesimals.

  5. Rapid fabrication of pressure-driven open-channel microfluidic devices in omniphobic R(F) paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavan, Ana C; Martinez, Ramses V; Maxwell, E Jane; Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Nunes, Rui M D; Soh, Siowling; Whitesides, George M

    2013-08-07

    This paper describes the fabrication of pressure-driven, open-channel microfluidic systems with lateral dimensions of 45-300 microns carved in omniphobic paper using a craft-cutting tool. Vapor phase silanization with a fluorinated alkyltrichlorosilane renders paper omniphobic, but preserves its high gas permeability and mechanical properties. When sealed with tape, the carved channels form conduits capable of guiding liquid transport in the low-Reynolds number regime (i.e. laminar flow). These devices are compatible with complex fluids such as droplets of water in oil. The combination of omniphobic paper and a craft cutter enables the development of new types of valves and switches, such as "fold valves" and "porous switches," which provide new methods to control fluid flow.

  6. Multicomponent mixed dopant optimization for rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sioud, Salim

    2012-05-04

    RATIONALE To enhance the ionization efficiencies in atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry a dopant with favorable ionization energy such as chlorobenzene is typically used. These dopants are typically toxic and difficult to mix with water-soluble organic solvents. In order to achieve a more efficient and less toxic dopant, a multicomponent mixed dopant was explored. METHODS A multicomponent mixed dopant for non-targeted rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was developed and optimized using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry. Various single and multicomponent mixed dopants consisting of ethanol, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, anisole and toluene were evaluated. RESULTS Fourteen out of eighteen PAHs were successfully separated and detected at low pg/μL levels within 5 min with high mass accuracy ≤4 ppm. The optimal mixed multicomponent dopant consisted of ethanol/chlorobenzene/bromobenzene/anisole (98.975:0.1:0.9:0.025, v/v %) and it improved the limit of detection (LOD) by 2- to 10-fold for the tested PAHs compared to those obtained with pure chlorobenzene. CONCLUSIONS A novel multicomponent dopant that contains 99% ethanol and 1% mixture of chlorobenzene, bromobenzene and anisole was found to be an effective dopant mixture to ionize PAHs. The developed UPLC multicomponent dopant assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry offered a rapid non targeted screening method for detecting the PAHs at low pg/;μL levels within a 5 min run time with high mass accuracy a;circ4 ppm. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Comparative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and micro pressure chemical vapor deposition of phosphorus silicate glass layers after rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshkov, G.; Krastev, V.; Gogova, D.; Talik, E.; Adamies, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper the bonding state of Phosphorus Silicate Glass (PSG) layers obtained by two different technological approaches, i.e. in two types of reactors: Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and Micro Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPCVD) are investigated employing XPS and AES. The PSG layers are deposited at 380 0 C and 420 0 C in corresponding reactors. XPS and AES analyses show that Si2p peak recorded from PECVD layers are not as expected at their position characteristics of silicon dioxide but instead they are at the characteristic of elemental silicon. Plasma enhancement during deposition leads to less oxidized and more inhomogeneous layer. After rapid thermal annealing the Si2p peak is situated at position characteristic of silicon dioxide. (authors)

  8. Mechanical stability of a salt cavern submitted to rapid pressure variations: Application to the underground storage of natural gas, compressed air and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djizanne-Djakeun, Hippolyte

    2014-01-01

    Salt caverns used for the underground storage of large volumes of natural gas are in high demand given the ever-increasing energy needs. The storage of renewable energy is also envisaged in these salt caverns for example, storage of compressed air and hydrogen mass storage. In both cases, salt caverns are more solicited than before because they are subject to rapid injection and withdrawal rates. These new operating modes raise new mechanical problems, illustrated in particular by sloughing, and falling of overhanging blocks at cavern wall. Indeed, to the purely mechanical stress related to changes in gas pressure variations, repeated dozens of degrees Celsius of temperature variation are superimposed; causes in particular during withdrawal, additional tensile stresses whom may lead to fractures at cavern wall; whose evolution could be dangerous. The mechanical behavior of rock salt is known: it is elasto-viscoplastic, nonlinear and highly thermo sensitive. The existing rock salt constitutive laws and failures and damages criteria have been used to analyze the behavior of caverns under the effects of these new loading. The study deals with the thermo mechanics of rocks and helps to analyze the effects of these new operations modes on the structural stability of salt caverns. The approach was to firstly design and validate a thermodynamic model of the behavior of gas in the cavern. This model was used to analyze blowout in gas salt cavern. Then, with the thermo mechanical coupling, to analyze the effects of rapid withdrawal, rapid injection and daily cycles on the structural stability of caverns. At the experimental level, we sought the optimal conditions to the occurrence and the development of cracks on a pastille and a block of rock salt. The creep behavior of rock salt specimens in triaxial extension also was analyzed. (author)

  9. Tube temperature rise limits: Boiling considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderwater, R.G.

    1952-03-26

    A revision of tube power limits based on boiling considerations was presented earlier. The limits were given on a basis of tube power versus header pressure. However, for convenience of operation, the limits have been converted from tube power to permissible water temperature rise. The permissible {triangle}t`s water are given in this document.

  10. Rapid, High-Throughput, and Direct Molecular Beacon Delivery to Human Cancer Cells Using a Nanowire-Incorporated and Pneumatic Pressure-Driven Microdevice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Jung; Choi, Jong Seob; Bae, Sunwoong; Kwon, Donguk; Park, Inkyu; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2015-12-01

    Tracking and monitoring the intracellular behavior of mRNA is of paramount importance for understanding real-time gene expression in cell biology. To detect specific mRNA sequences, molecular beacons (MBs) have been widely employed as sensing probes. Although numerous strategies for MB delivery into the target cells have been reported, many issues such as the cytotoxicity of the carriers, dependence on the random probability of MB transfer, and critical cellular damage still need to be overcome. Herein, we have developed a nanowire-incorporated and pneumatic pressure-driven microdevice for rapid, high-throughput, and direct MB delivery to human breast cancer MCF-7 cells to monitor survivin mRNA expression. The proposed microdevice is composed of three layers: a pump-associated glass manifold layer, a monolithic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane, and a ZnO nanowire-patterned microchannel layer. The MB is immobilized on the ZnO nanowires by disulfide bonding, and the glass manifold and PDMS membrane serve as a microvalve, so that the cellular attachment and detachment on the MB-coated nanowire array can be manipulated. The combination of the nanowire-mediated MB delivery and the microvalve function enable the transfer of MB into the cells in a controllable way with high cell viability and to detect survivin mRNA expression quantitatively after docetaxel treatment. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid determination of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cardboard and paper intended for food contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Sander, Maren; Purcaro, Giorgia; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2013-10-15

    Packaging can represent a primary source of food contamination with mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), especially when recycled cardboard or mineral oil based printing inks are used. A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method, followed by on-line LC-GC analysis, has been optimized for rapid mineral oil determination in cardboard and paper samples. The proposed method involves extraction with hexane (2 cycles) at 60°C for 5 min, and allows for the processing of up to 6 samples in parallel with minimal sample manipulation and solvent consumption. It gave good repeatability (coefficient of variation lower than 5%) and practically quantitative extraction yield (less than 2% of the total contamination found in a third separate cycle). The method was applied to different cardboards and paper materials intended for food contact. Results obtained were similar to those obtained by applying classical solvent extraction with hexane/ethanol 1:1 (v/v) as described by Lorenzini et al. [20]. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  13. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali; Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle East...

  14. Can sea level rise cause large submarine landslides on continental slopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlaub, Morelia

    2014-05-01

    Submarine landslides are one of the volumetrically most important sediment transport processes at continental margins. Moreover, these landslides are a major geohazard as they can cause damaging tsunamis and destroy seabed infrastructure. Due to their inaccessibility our understanding of what causes these landslides is limited and based on hypotheses that are difficult to test. Some of the largest submarine landslides, such as the Storegga Slide off Norway, occurred during times of eustatic sea level rise. It has been suggested that this global sea level rise was implicated in triggering of the landslides by causing an increase in excess pore pressure in the subseafloor. However, in a homogeneous slope a change in the thickness of the overlying water mass is not expected to affect its stability, as only the hydrostatic pressure component will change, whereas pore pressures in excess of hydrostatic will remain unaltered. Whether sufficiently rapid sea level rise, aided by rather impermeable sediment and complex layering, could cause excess pore pressures that may destabilise a continental slope is more difficult to answer and has not yet been tested. I use Finite Element Modelling to explore and quantify the direct effect of changes in the thickness of the overlying water mass on the stability of a generic sediment column with different stratigraphic conditions and hydro-mechanical properties. The results show that the direct effect of sea level rise on continental slope stability is minimal. Nevertheless, sea level rise may foster other processes, such as lithospheric stress changes resulting in increased seismicity, that could potentially cause large submarine landslides on continental slopes.

  15. Rapid prototyping of solar-powered, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, sugar-cube size microplasma on hybrid, 3D chips for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples using a portable optical emission spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Karanassios, V.

    2012-06-01

    A solar-powered, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, self-igniting microplasma the size of a sugar-cube developed on a hybrid, 3d-chip is described. Rapid prototyping of the 3d-chip; some fundamental aspects and a brief characterization of its background spectral emission using a portable, fiber-optic spectrometer are discussed.

  16. The Rise of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo; Rahigh-Aghsan, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Iran is viewed by many as a rising power that poses an increasing threat to regional and even global security. This view is wrong for three reasons. Iran's hard and soft power is exaggerated by most accounts; it is too limited to allow the Iranians to dominate the Persian Gulf let alone the Middle...... East, and its brand of Shi‘ism has very limited appeal outside of Iran. Second, growing internal political and economic instability will seriously limit Iran's bid for regional dominance. Third, the failure to stop the Iranian nuclear program has led analysts to underestimate the ability of the other...... regional powers and the West to balance Iran and contain its influence, even if it acquires nuclear weapons. If these limitations on Iranian power are taken into account the rise seems destined to be a short one....

  17. Contemporary sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  18. Coal prices rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2001-01-01

    Coking and semi hard coking coal price agreements had been reached, but, strangely enough, the reaching of common ground on semi soft coking coal, ultra low volatile coal and thermal coal seemed some way off. More of this phenomenon later, but suffice to say that, traditionally, the semi soft and thermal coal prices have fallen into place as soon as the hard, or prime, coking coal prices have been determined. The rise and rise of the popularity of the ultra low volatile coals has seen demand for this type of coal grow almost exponentially. Perhaps one of the most interesting facets of the coking coal settlements announced to date is that the deals appear almost to have been preordained. The extraordinary thing is that the preordination has been at the prescience of the sellers. Traditionally, coking coal price fixing has been the prerogative of the Japanese Steel Mills (JSM) cartel (Nippon, NKK, Kawasaki, Kobe and Sumitomo) who presented a united front to a somewhat disorganised force of predominantly Australian and Canadian sellers. However, by the time JFY 2001 had come round, the rules of the game had changed

  19. Prognostic Value of Absolute versus Relative Rise of Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maternal outcome than a relative rise in the systolic/diastolic blood pressure from mid pregnancy, which did not reach this absolute level. We conclude that in the Nigerian obstetric population, the practice of diagnosing pregnancy hypertension on ...

  20. Rising Long-term Interest Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallett, Andrew Hughes

    Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates......, the first question posed in this assignment, and the scope for overshooting (the second question), and then make some illustrative predictions of future interest rates in the euro area. We find a wide range of effects from rising interest rates, mostly small and mostly negative, focused on investment...... till the emerging European recovery is on a firmer basis and capable of overcoming increases in the cost of borrowing and shrinking fiscal space. There is also an implication that worries about rising/overshooting interest rates often reflect the fact that inflation risks are unequally distributed...

  1. The rise of Chrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Tamary

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since Chrome’s initial release in 2008 it has grown in market share, and now controls roughly half of the desktop browsers market. In contrast with Internet Explorer, the previous dominant browser, this was not achieved by marketing practices such as bundling the browser with a pre-loaded operating system. This raises the question of how Chrome achieved this remarkable feat, while other browsers such as Firefox and Opera were left behind. We show that both the performance of Chrome and its conformance with relevant standards are typically better than those of the two main contending browsers, Internet Explorer and Firefox. In addition, based on a survey of the importance of 25 major features, Chrome product managers seem to have made somewhat better decisions in selecting where to put effort. Thus the rise of Chrome is consistent with technical superiority over the competition.

  2. Plume rise predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Anyone involved with diffusion calculations becomes well aware of the strong dependence of maximum ground concentrations on the effective stack height, h/sub e/. For most conditions chi/sub max/ is approximately proportional to h/sub e/ -2 , as has been recognized at least since 1936 (Bosanquet and Pearson). Making allowance for the gradual decrease in the ratio of vertical to lateral diffusion at increasing heights, the exponent is slightly larger, say chi/sub max/ approximately h/sub e/ - 2 . 3 . In inversion breakup fumigation, the exponent is somewhat smaller; very crudely, chi/sub max/ approximately h/sub e/ -1 . 5 . In any case, for an elevated emission the dependence of chi/sub max/ on h/sub e/ is substantial. It is postulated that a really clever ignorant theoretician can disguise his ignorance with dimensionless constants. For most sources the effective stack height is considerably larger than the actual source height, h/sub s/. For instance, for power plants with no downwash problems, h/sub e/ is more than twice h/sub s/ whenever the wind is less than 10 m/sec, which is most of the time. This is unfortunate for anyone who has to predict ground concentrations, for he is likely to have to calculate the plume rise, Δh. Especially when using h/sub e/ = h/sub s/ + Δh instead of h/sub s/ may reduce chi/sub max/ by a factor of anywhere from 4 to infinity. Factors to be considered in making plume rise predictions are discussed

  3. Market Economy under Rapid Globalization and Rising Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Konov, Joshua Ioji

    2012-01-01

    Market economy of enhancing business laws in contracting, bonding, insuring, legal corporate structures , e.g. will marginalize the economic agents and tools that make market competition unfair, empower small and medium businesses and investors, and boost business activities, fiscal strength, employment, and capital transmission. Keynesian capital infusion will extend its market effect in such higher security marketplace.

  4. HiRISE: The People's Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A. S.; Eliason, E.; Gulick, V. C.; Spinoza, Y.; Beyer, R. A.; HiRISE Team

    2010-12-01

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera, orbiting Mars since 2006 on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), has returned more than 17,000 large images with scales as small as 25 cm/pixel. From it’s beginning, the HiRISE team has followed “The People’s Camera” concept, with rapid release of useful images, explanations, and tools, and facilitating public image suggestions. The camera includes 14 CCDs, each read out into 2 data channels, so compressed images are returned from MRO as 28 long (up to 120,000 line) images that are 1024 pixels wide (or binned 2x2 to 512 pixels, etc.). This raw data is very difficult to use, especially for the public. At the HiRISE operations center the raw data are calibrated and processed into a series of B&W and color products, including browse images and JPEG2000-compressed images and tools to make it easy for everyone to explore these enormous images (see http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/). Automated pipelines do all of this processing, so we can keep up with the high data rate; images go directly to the format of the Planetary Data System (PDS). After students visually check each image product for errors, they are fully released just 1 month after receipt; captioned images (written by science team members) may be released sooner. These processed HiRISE images have been incorporated into tools such as Google Mars and World Wide Telescope for even greater accessibility. 51 Digital Terrain Models derived from HiRISE stereo pairs have been released, resulting in some spectacular flyover movies produced by members of the public and viewed up to 50,000 times according to YouTube. Public targeting began in 2007 via NASA Quest (http://marsoweb.nas.nasa.gov/HiRISE/quest/) and more than 200 images have been acquired, mostly by students and educators. At the beginning of 2010 we released HiWish (http://www.uahirise.org/hiwish/), opening HiRISE targeting to anyone in the world with Internet access, and already more

  5. Multicomponent mixed dopant optimization for rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sioud, Salim; Amad, Maan H.; Al-Talla, Zeyad

    2012-01-01

    with water-soluble organic solvents. In order to achieve a more efficient and less toxic dopant, a multicomponent mixed dopant was explored. METHODS A multicomponent mixed dopant for non-targeted rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  6. A Semi-Analytical Method for Rapid Estimation of Near-Well Saturation, Temperature, Pressure and Stress in Non-Isothermal CO2 Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForce, T.; Ennis-King, J.; Paterson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir cooling near the wellbore is expected when fluids are injected into a reservoir or aquifer in CO2 storage, enhanced oil or gas recovery, enhanced geothermal systems, and water injection for disposal. Ignoring thermal effects near the well can lead to under-prediction of changes in reservoir pressure and stress due to competition between increased pressure and contraction of the rock in the cooled near-well region. In this work a previously developed semi-analytical model for immiscible, nonisothermal fluid injection is generalised to include partitioning of components between two phases. Advection-dominated radial flow is assumed so that the coupled two-phase flow and thermal conservation laws can be solved analytically. The temperature and saturation profiles are used to find the increase in reservoir pressure, tangential, and radial stress near the wellbore in a semi-analytical, forward-coupled model. Saturation, temperature, pressure, and stress profiles are found for parameters representative of several CO2 storage demonstration projects around the world. General results on maximum injection rates vs depth for common reservoir parameters are also presented. Prior to drilling an injection well there is often little information about the properties that will determine the injection rate that can be achieved without exceeding fracture pressure, yet injection rate and pressure are key parameters in well design and placement decisions. Analytical solutions to simplified models such as these can quickly provide order of magnitude estimates for flow and stress near the well based on a range of likely parameters.

  7. Measurement, with steady pressure rise, of the permeability of a gas through a porous membrane; Mesure, en montee continue de pression, de la permeabilite d'un gaz a travers une membrane poreuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davion, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This study concerns a device for following the variations in the permeability of a gas across a porous membrane as a function of the average pressure, increasing steadily, which is applied to the membrane: P-bar; from these variations is deduced a value of an equivalent pore radius. A constant gas flow is introduced into an enclosure separated into two compartments by the membrane; the simultaneous variations of the pressure in the enclosure and of the pressure difference {delta} P between the two compartments are followed. After a transient period, {delta} P is given by an asymptotic expansion as a function of a dimensionless variable, w, whose expression includes several parameters (ratio of the compartment volumes, physical properties of the gas, pore radius, value of {delta} P in the steady state) and the variable pressure P. When w is large compared to unity, condition which gives an upper limit to the flow for a given membrane, the expansion is practically equal to its first term; the changes in {delta} P and in the permeability are then inversely proportional. The perturbing influences of various secondary effects (e. g. changes in the enclosure temperature) on the pore radius measurement have been estimated. (author) [French] Cette etude concerne un dispositif permettant de suivre les variations de permeabilite d'un gaz a travers une membrane poreuse en fonction de la pression moyenne, continument croissante, appliquee a cette membrane: P-bar; de ces variations se deduit la valeur d'un rayon de pore equivalent. Un debit de gaz constant est introduit dans une enceinte separee par la membrane en deux compartiments, et l'on suit les variations simultanees de la pression dans l'enceinte et de la difference de pression entre ces compartiments, {delta} P. A l'issue d'un stade transitoire, {delta}P est donne par un developpement asymptotique en fonction d'une variable sans dimensions, w, dont l'expression groupe plusieurs parametres (rapport des volumes des

  8. Rapid isolation of biomarkers for compound specific radiocarbon dating using high-performance liquid chromatography and flow injection analysis-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Smittenberg, R.H.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.

    2002-01-01

    Repeated semi-preparative normal-phase HPLC was performed to isolate selected biomarkers from sediment extracts for radiocarbon analysis. Flow injection analysis mass spectrometry was used for rapid analysis of collected fractions to evaluate the separation procedure, taking only 1 min per fraction.

  9. An investigation of transient pressures and plasma properties in a pinched plasma column. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, E. K.; York, T. M.

    1971-01-01

    The transient pinched plasma column generated in a linear Z-pinch was studied experimentally and analytically. The plasma column was investigated experimentally with several plasma diagnostics; they were: a rapid response pressure transducer, a magnetic field probe, a voltage probe, and discharge luminosity. Axial pressure profiles on the discharge chamber axis were used to identify three characteristic regions of plasma column behavior: (1) strong axial pressure asymmetry noted early in plasma column lifetime, (2) followed by plasma heating in which there is a rapid rise in static pressure, and (3) a slight decrease static pressure before plasma column breakup. Plasma column lifetime was approximately 5 microseconds. The axial pressure asymmetry was attributed to nonsimultaneous pinching of the imploding current sheet along the discharge chamber axis. The rapid heating could be attributed in part to viscous effects introduced by radial gradients in the axial streaming velocity.

  10. Updating Maryland's sea-level rise projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Donald F.; Atkinson, Larry P.; Boicourt, William C.; Boon, John D.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Dalrymple, Robert A.; Ezer, Tal; Horton, Benjamin P.; Johnson, Zoe P.; Kopp, Robert E.; Li, Ming; Moss, Richard H.; Parris, Adam; Sommerfield, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    With its 3,100 miles of tidal shoreline and low-lying rural and urban lands, “The Free State” is one of the most vulnerable to sea-level rise. Historically, Marylanders have long had to contend with rising water levels along its Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean and coastal bay shores. Shorelines eroded and low-relief lands and islands, some previously inhabited, were inundated. Prior to the 20th century, this was largely due to the slow sinking of the land since Earth’s crust is still adjusting to the melting of large masses of ice following the last glacial period. Over the 20th century, however, the rate of rise of the average level of tidal waters with respect to land, or relative sea-level rise, has increased, at least partially as a result of global warming. Moreover, the scientific evidence is compelling that Earth’s climate will continue to warm and its oceans will rise even more rapidly. Recognizing the scientific consensus around global climate change, the contribution of human activities to it, and the vulnerability of Maryland’s people, property, public investments, and natural resources, Governor Martin O’Malley established the Maryland Commission on Climate Change on April 20, 2007. The Commission produced a Plan of Action that included a comprehensive climate change impact assessment, a greenhouse gas reduction strategy, and strategies for reducing Maryland’s vulnerability to climate change. The Plan has led to landmark legislation to reduce the state’s greenhouse gas emissions and a variety of state policies designed to reduce energy consumption and promote adaptation to climate change.

  11. On Capillary Rise and Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of capillary rise and nucleation is presented. It is shown that both phenomena result from a balance between two competing energy factors: a volume energy and a surface energy. Such a comparison may help to introduce nucleation with a topic familiar to the students, capillary rise. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  12. The rise and fall of the ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, Paul [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Recent data from heavy ion collisions at RHIC show unexpectedly large near-angle correlations that broaden longitudinally with centrality. The amplitude of this ridge-like correlation rises rapidly with centrality, reaches a maximum, and then falls in the most central collisions. In this talk we explain how this behavior can be easily understood in a picture where final momentum-space correlations are driven by initial coordinate space density fluctuations. We propose {nu}{sub n}{sup 2}/{epsilon}{sub n,part}{sup 2} as a useful way to study these effects and explain what it tells us about the collision dynamics.

  13. Plume rise from multiple sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    A simple enhancement factor for plume rise from multiple sources is proposed and tested against plume-rise observations. For bent-over buoyant plumes, this results in the recommendation that multiple-source rise be calculated as [(N + S)/(1 + S)]/sup 1/3/ times the single-source rise, Δh 1 , where N is the number of sources and S = 6 (total width of source configuration/N/sup 1/3/ Δh 1 )/sup 3/2/. For calm conditions a crude but simple method is suggested for predicting the height of plume merger and subsequent behavior which is based on the geometry and velocity variations of a single buoyant plume. Finally, it is suggested that large clusters of buoyant sources might occasionally give rise to concentrated vortices either within the source configuration or just downwind of it

  14. Rapid Blood Pressure Lowering According to Recovery at Different Time Intervals after Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Pooled Analysis of the INTERACT Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Arima, Hisatomi; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Woodward, Mark; Heeley, Emma; Stapf, Christian; Lavados, Pablo M; Robinson, Thompson; Huang, Yining; Wang, Jiguang; Delcourt, Candice; Anderson, Craig S

    2015-01-01

    Early intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering has been shown to improve functional outcome in acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but the treatment effect is modest and without a clearly defined underlying explanatory mechanism. We aimed at more reliably quantifying the benefits of this treatment according to different time periods in the recovery of participants in the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT) studies. Pooled analysis of the pilot INTERACT1 (n = 404) and main INTERACT2 (n = 2,839) involving patients with spontaneous ICH (patient characteristic subgroups, with trends favoring those randomized early, and with higher SBP and milder neurological severity at baseline. Intensive BP lowering provides beneficial effects on physical functioning that manifests consistently through the early and later phases of recovery from ICH. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Relations between a novel, reliable, and rapid index of arterial compliance (PP-HDI) and well-established inidices of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in a sample of hypertensive elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamini, L; Finelli, M E; Bendini, C; Ferrari, E; Veschi, M; Neviani, F; Manni, B; Pelosi, A; Rioli, G; Neri, M

    2009-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for a long-lasting arterial wall-remodelling leading to stiffness. The rapid method measuring the pulse pressure (PP) by means of the tool of Hypertension Diagnostic Instruments (HDI) called PP-HDI, overcomes some of the problems arising with more-time consuming methods, like ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and give information about the elasticity of the arterial walls. We studied the relationship between the PP-HDI, the large artery compliance (LA-C) and small artery compliance (SA-C) and few well-established indices of arterial blood pressure (ABP) in a sample of 75 hypertensive subjects, aged 65 years and over. Significant correlations between LA-C and heart rate (HR), PP-ABPM and PP-HDI were found. SA-C relates with HR and systolic blood pressure (SBP) measured in lying and standing positions. Applying a stepwise regression analysis, we found that LA-C variance stems from PP-HDI and HR, while SA-C variance stems from SBP in lying position. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves for thresholds of PP showed that PP-HDI reached levels of sensitivity/specificity similar to PP-ABPM. In conclusion, surveillance of ABP through hemo-dynamic indices, in particular of SBP, is essential, nevertheless the advantage of this control is not known in an elderly population where the organ damage is already evident. PP needs necessarily an instrumental measurement. The PP-HDI result is similar in reliability with respect to PPABPM, but is more rapid and well applicable in an elderly population.

  16. Rapid isolation of biomarkers for compound specific radiocarbon dating using high-performance liquid chromatography and flow injection analysis-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smittenberg, Rienk H; Hopmans, Ellen C; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2002-11-29

    Repeated semi-preparative normal-phase HPLC was performed to isolate selected biomarkers from sediment extracts for radiocarbon analysis. Flow injection analysis-mass spectrometry was used for rapid analysis of collected fractions to evaluate the separation procedure, taking only 1 min per fraction. In this way 100-1000 microg of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers, sterol fractions and chlorophyll-derived phytol were isolated from typically 100 g of marine sediment, i.e., in sufficient quantities for radiocarbon analysis, without significant carbon isotopic fractionation or contamination.

  17. Rise of a cold plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Michio

    1977-06-01

    The rise of smoke from the stacks of two research reactors in normal operation was measured by photogrametric method. The temperature of effluent gas is less than 20 0 C higher than that of the ambient air (heat emission of the order 10 4 cal s -1 ), and the efflux velocity divided by the wind speed is between 0.5 and 2.8 in all 16 smoke runs. The field data obtained within downwind distance of 150m are compared with those by plume rise formulas presently available. Considering the shape of bending-over plume, the Briggs' formula for 'jet' gives a reasonable explanation of the observed plume rise. (auth.)

  18. Effect of budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler on exacerbations versus formoterol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The 6-month, randomized RISE (Revealing the Impact of Symbicort in reducing Exacerbations in COPD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gary T; Tashkin, Donald P; Skärby, Tor; Jorup, Carin; Sandin, Kristina; Greenwood, Michael; Pemberton, Kristine; Trudo, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Prevention of exacerbations is a primary goal for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) therapy. This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, multicenter study evaluated the effect of budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) versus formoterol dry powder inhaler (DPI) on reducing COPD exacerbations. 1219 patients aged ≥40 years with moderate-to-very-severe COPD (per lung function) and a history of ≥1 COPD exacerbation received budesonide/formoterol pMDI 320/9 μg twice daily (BID) during a 4-week run-in. Patients were then randomized 1:1 to receive budesonide/formoterol pMDI 320/9 μg BID (n = 606) or formoterol DPI 9 μg BID (n = 613) for 26 weeks. Exacerbations were identified using predefined criteria for symptom worsening and treatment with systemic corticosteroids and/or antibiotics and/or hospitalization. The primary endpoint was annual rate of exacerbations. Budesonide/formoterol pMDI resulted in a 24% reduction in annual rate of exacerbations (0.85 vs 1.12; rate ratio: 0.76 [95% CI: 0.62, 0.92]; P = 0.006), and a significant risk reduction for time to first exacerbation (hazard ratio: 0.78 [95% CI: 0.64, 0.96]; P = 0.016) versus formoterol DPI. The most commonly reported adverse events (AEs; ≥3%) in budesonide/formoterol and formoterol groups were COPD (4.5% vs 8.6%) and nasopharyngitis (5.0% vs 5.2%). Pneumonia AEs were reported in 0.5% and 1.0% of budesonide/formoterol-treated and formoterol-treated patients, respectively. Budesonide/formoterol pMDI is an effective treatment option for reducing exacerbation rates in COPD patients with moderate-to-very-severe airflow limitation and history of exacerbations. No increase in pneumonia was observed with budesonide/formoterol; safety data were consistent with its established profile. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid extraction of PCDD/Fs from soil and fly ash samples. Pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, P.; Fabrellas, B. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    The main reference extraction method in the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) is still the Soxhlet extraction. But it requires long extraction times (up to 24 hs), large volumes of hazardous organic solvents (100-300 ml) and its automation is limited. Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE) and Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) are two relatively new extraction techniques that reduce the time and the volume of solvent required for extraction. However, very different PFE extraction conditions are found for the same enviromental matrices in the literature. MAE is not a extraction technique very applied for the analysis of PCDD/Fs yet, although it is used for the determination of other organic compounds, such as PCBs and PAHs. In this study, PFE and MAE extraction conditions were optimized to determine PCDDs y PCDFs in fly ash and soil/sediment samples. Conventional Soxhlet extraction with toluene was used to compare the extraction efficiency of both techniques.

  20. Bangladesh’s dynamic coastal regions and sea-level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Brammer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical geography of Bangladesh’s coastal area is more diverse and dynamic than is generally recognised. Failure to recognise this has led to serious misconceptions about the potential impacts of a rising sea-level on Bangladesh with global warming. This situation has been aggravated by accounts giving incorrect information on current rates of coastal erosion and land subsidence. This paper describes physical conditions within individual physiographic regions in Bangladesh’s coastal area based on ground-surveyed information, and it reviews possible area-specific mitigation measures to counter predicted rates of sea-level rise in the 21st century. Two important conclusions are drawn: the adoption of appropriate measures based on knowledge of the physical geography of potentially-affected areas could significantly reduce the currently-predicted displacement of many millions of people; and the impacts of a slowly-rising sea-level are currently much less than those generated by rapidly increasing population pressure on Bangladesh’s available land and water resources and by exposure to existing environmental hazards, and the latter problems need priority attention.

  1. Differential pressures on building walls during tornados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, G.C.K.

    1975-01-01

    In the United States, containment structures and some auxiliary structures (control building, auxiliary building, spent fuel building, etc.) in nuclear power plants are required to be designed to withstand the effects of the design basis tornado. In addition to velocity pressures and missile impact a tornado also gives rise to a rapid change in atmospheric pressure, which can, in cases of closed or partially vented structures, produce direct differential pressure loading. In this paper a digital computer program is described which applies a tornado-induced, time-dependent atmospheric pressure change to a building and calculates the differential pressure histories across the interior and exterior walls of the building. Laws for quasi-steady, one-dimensional motion of an ideal compressible gas are used to calculate the pressures due to the flow of air through ports, doors and windows in the building. Numerical examples show that for each assumed atmospheric pressure change history a vent area to compartment volume ratio may be specified as the criterion for a building to be considered fully vented. (orig.) [de

  2. An evaluation of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for the rapid and simultaneous measurement of carbamate pesticides and organophorus pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Joo; So, Hun Young

    2000-01-01

    Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface (LC/APCI/MS) is evaluated for the simultaneous determination of carbamate pesticides and organophosphorus pesticides in a single chromatographic analysis. APCI mass spectra of those compounds were obtained to study their ionization characteristics. APCI provided abundant ions such as protonated molecules and characteristic fragment ions for carbamate pesticides and organophosphorus pesticides. To evaluate the feasibility of the LC/APCI/MS for a routine quantitative analysis, the linearity and repeatability of LC/APCI/MS were examined by measuring standard solution mixtures of five carbamate pesticides and four organophosphorus pesticides over the range of 1 to 100 μg/mL. The peak areas in chromatograms of characteristic ions for those compounds showed less than 3% of variation from run to tun. The standard calibration curves for the nine pesticides show good linearity in the concentration range. The detection limits of the LC/APCI/MS system for those compounds range from 0.006 to 0.2 ng

  3. An evaluation of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for the rapid and simultaneous measurement of carbamate pesticides and organophorus pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Joo; So, Hun Young [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Sceince, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface (LC/APCI/MS) is evaluated for the simultaneous determination of carbamate pesticides and organophosphorus pesticides in a single chromatographic analysis. APCI mass spectra of those compounds were obtained to study their ionization characteristics. APCI provided abundant ions such as protonated molecules and characteristic fragment ions for carbamate pesticides and organophosphorus pesticides. To evaluate the feasibility of the LC/APCI/MS for a routine quantitative analysis, the linearity and repeatability of LC/APCI/MS were examined by measuring standard solution mixtures of five carbamate pesticides and four organophosphorus pesticides over the range of 1 to 100 {mu}g/mL. The peak areas in chromatograms of characteristic ions for those compounds showed less than 3% of variation from run to tun. The standard calibration curves for the nine pesticides show good linearity in the concentration range. The detection limits of the LC/APCI/MS system for those compounds range from 0.006 to 0.2 ng.

  4. The Rise of Blog Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on the growth of blogs in popular culture, and the fact that they are becoming more widely accepted in the media industry. The rise and popularity of blogs--short for "Web logs"--are causing journalism educators to overhaul their teachings. In fact, blogging's influence varies from one university program to the next, just like…

  5. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  6. World medical schools: The sum also rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Perry G; Gururaja, Ramnarayan P

    2017-06-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of doctors, which is true in most countries and on most continents. To enumerate the number of medical schools in the world at two different times, showing the trends and relating this to population is a beginning. The number is actually going up and has done so for some time; this has increased the supply of physicians and broadened healthcare delivery. The number to count for geographic and regional information about the medical schools relates directly to the supply of doctors. Regions were chosen from WHO and Foundation for the Advancement of International Medical Education and Research data to illustrate geographic distributions, physicians per patient and kinetics. The number of medical schools has consistently been rising around the world. However, world order is reverting to disorder, considering wars, disease and beleaguered stand-offs. None. Eight countries contain 40% of medical schools; however, several locations are rising faster than the rest. Some regions are stable, but sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, South Asia and South America have increased the most in percentage recently, but not uniformly. Medical schools are related not only by geography, political boundaries and population but are concentrated in some regions. Graduate Medical Education positions appear to be short on a worldwide basis, as well as in some regions and countries. The number of medical schools is increasing worldwide and the identification of rapidly rising geographic areas is useful in exploring, planning and comparing regions. Controversy continues in a variety of locations, especially concerning Graduate Medical Education. In addition to funding, faculty candidates and accreditation, new schools are confronting a variety of choices in standards and quality, sizing and regional concerns.

  7. Rise, stagnation, and rise of Danish women's life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Rau, Roland; Jeune, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Health conditions change from year to year, with a general tendency in many countries for improvement. These conditions also change from one birth cohort to another: some generations suffer more adverse events in childhood, smoke more heavily, eat poorer diets, etc., than generations born earlier...... favor forecasts that hinge on cohort differences. We use a combination of age decomposition and exchange of survival probabilities between countries to study the remarkable recent history of female life expectancy in Denmark, a saga of rising, stagnating, and now again rising lifespans. The gap between...... female life expectancy in Denmark vs. Sweden grew to 3.5 y in the period 1975-2000. When we assumed that Danish women born 1915-1945 had the same survival probabilities as Swedish women, the gap remained small and roughly constant. Hence, the lower Danish life expectancy is caused by these cohorts...

  8. Drivers of Pontocaspian Biodiversity Rise and Demise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselingh, Frank; Flecker, Rachel; Wilke, Thomas; Leroy, Suzanne; Krijgsman, Wout; Stoica, Marius

    2015-04-01

    In the past two million years, the region of the Black Sea Basin, Caspian Basin and adjacent Anatolia and the Balkans were the stage of the evolution of a unique brackish water fauna, the so-called Pontocaspian fauna. The fauna is the result of assembly of genera with a Paratethyan origin and Anatolian origins during the Early Pleistocene. The rapid diversification of the Pontocaspian fauna is the result of the very dynamic nature of the lakes (the Caspian Sea is technically a lake) and seas in the region in the past two million years. In most times the various lake basins were isolated (like today), but in other episodes connections existed. Regional and global climate as well as the regional tectonic regimes were main drivers of lake basin evolution. Over the past 80 years a major biodiversity crisis is hitting the Pontocaspian faunas due to environmental degradation, pollution and invasive species. In the new EU-ETN PRIDE (Drivers of Pontocaspian Biodiversity Rise and Demise)we will be documenting the geological context of past diversifications and turnover events. We present examples of rapid turnover (biodiversity crises) in the Quaternary, assess driving forces and draw implications for the nature of the current human-mediated biodiversity crisis in the region.

  9. Mechanism for rapid sawtooth crashes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydemir, A.Y.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1986-09-01

    The sawtooth oscillations in the soft x-ray signals observed in tokamaks are associated with periodic changes in the central electron temperature, T/sub e/. Typically, a slow phase during which the central temperature slowly rises is followed by a fast drop in T/sub e/, associated with flattening of the central temperature. The time scale of the slow phase is determined by various transport processes such as ohmic heating. The resistive internal kink mode was invoked by Kadomtsev to explain the crash phase of the oscillations. Fast crash times observed in the large tokamaks are studied here, especially the fast crashes observed in JET. These sawtooth oscillations are characterized by the absence of any discrenible precursor oscillations, and a rapid collapse of the central temperature in about 100 microseconds. During the crash phase, the hot core region rapidly moves outward and is replaced by colder plasma. Then, this highly asymmetric state relaxes (in ∼100μsec) to a poloidally symmetric state in which a ring of hot plasma surrounds the colder core plasma, producing a hollow pressure profile

  10. Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Felix; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V.; Diaz, Ramon; Ibanez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000 Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MS E , enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater.

  11. Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Felix, E-mail: felix.hernandez@qfa.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Bijlsma, Lubertus, E-mail: bijlsma@guest.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Sancho, Juan V.; Diaz, Ramon; Ibanez, Maria [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2011-01-17

    This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000 Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MS{sup E}, enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater.

  12. The Application of the Real Options Method for the Evaluation of High-Rise Construction Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Aleksandr; Rostova, Olga; Dubgorn, Alissa

    2018-03-01

    The paper is devoted to the problem of evaluation of high-rise construction projects in a rapidly changing environment. The authors proposed an algorithm for constructing and embedding real options in high-rise construction projects, which makes it possible to increase the flexibility of managing multi-stage projects that have the ability to adapt to changing conditions of implementation.

  13. Is sea-level rising?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    correction in the estimation of trends obtained for tide gauge records. The altimeter data permits to prepare spatial maps of sea-level rise trends. We present a map prepared for the Indian Ocean (Figure 4) north of 10oS , which shows a fairly uniform... drawn information from research papers published by the author and report of the IPCC AR5 WG1 Chapter 13: Sea Level Changes, in which the author has served as a ‘Lead Author’. Figure1 is prepared using data from the University of Colorado. Nerem, R...

  14. Sea Level Rise Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, N.; Huang, T.; Boening, C.; Gill, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Research related to sea level rise crosses multiple disciplines from sea ice to land hydrology. The NASA Sea Level Change Portal (SLCP) is a one-stop source for current sea level change information and data, including interactive tools for accessing and viewing regional data, a virtual dashboard of sea level indicators, and ongoing updates through a suite of editorial products that include content articles, graphics, videos, and animations. The architecture behind the SLCP makes it possible to integrate web content and data relevant to sea level change that are archived across various data centers as well as new data generated by sea level change principal investigators. The Extensible Data Gateway Environment (EDGE) is incorporated into the SLCP architecture to provide a unified platform for web content and science data discovery. EDGE is a data integration platform designed to facilitate high-performance geospatial data discovery and access with the ability to support multi-metadata standard specifications. EDGE has the capability to retrieve data from one or more sources and package the resulting sets into a single response to the requestor. With this unified endpoint, the Data Analysis Tool that is available on the SLCP can retrieve dataset and granule level metadata as well as perform geospatial search on the data. This talk focuses on the architecture that makes it possible to seamlessly integrate and enable discovery of disparate data relevant to sea level rise.

  15. Building China’s soft power for a peaceful rise

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Worm, Verner

    2009-01-01

    With China’s rapid economic progress and steady increase in its international influence, China has gradually embarked on the soft power idea and has made developing its soft power as its national strategy. We argue that China’s soft power strategy is in accordance to Chinese Confucian culture and political value and fits well with its grand strategy of peaceful rise. Based on existing conceptualizations of soft power, we expanded the sources of soft power to six pillars: cul...

  16. Numerical simulation of superheated vapor bubble rising in stagnant liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkhaniani, N.; Ansari, M. R.

    2017-09-01

    In present study, the rising of superheated vapor bubble in saturated liquid is simulated using volume of fluid method in OpenFOAM cfd package. The surface tension between vapor-liquid phases is considered using continuous surface force method. In order to reduce spurious current near interface, Lafaurie smoothing filter is applied to improve curvature calculation. Phase change is considered using Tanasawa mass transfer model. The variation of saturation temperature in vapor bubble with local pressure is considered with simplified Clausius-Clapeyron relation. The couple velocity-pressure equation is solved using PISO algorithm. The numerical model is validated with: (1) isothermal bubble rising and (2) one-dimensional horizontal film condensation. Then, the shape and life time history of single superheated vapor bubble are investigated. The present numerical study shows vapor bubble in saturated liquid undergoes boiling and condensation. It indicates bubble life time is nearly linear proportional with bubble size and superheat temperature.

  17. Plume rise measurements at Turbigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anfossi, D

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of plume measurements obtained during that campaign by the ENEL ground-based Lidar. The five stacks of Turbigo Power Plant have different heights and emission parameters and their plumes usually combine, so a model for multiple sources was used to predict the plume rises. These predictions are compared with the observations. Measurements of sigma/sub v/ and sigma/sub z/ over the first 1000 m are compared with the curves derived from other observations in the Po Valley, using the no-lift balloon technique over the same range of downwind distance. Skewness and kurtosis distributions are shown, both along the vertical and the horizontal directions. In order to show the plume structure in more detail, we present two examples of Lidar-derived cross sections and the corresponding vertically and horizontally integrated concentration profiles.

  18. Superphenix set to rise again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorozynski, A.

    1993-01-01

    Superphenix, France's seemingly jinxed fast breeder reactor, which has not produced a single kilowatt of energy in more than 3 years, looks set to rise up next year like the mythical bird it is named after. The $5 billion reactor, the largest fast breeder in the world, has just been given the seal of approval by a public commission ordered by the government to look at the pros and cons of restarting. It still has hoops to jump through: a safety check and approval from the ministries of industries and environment. But the consortium of French, Italian, and German power utilities that run the plant are confident they can get it running by next summer. The Superphenix that rises out of the ashes will, however, be a different species of bird from the one planned 20 years ago. The consortium plans to turn the reactor into a debreeder, one that will incinerate more plutonium than it produces and so eat into Europe's plutonium stockpile. Calculations by Superphenix staff and the Atomic Energy Commission indicate that a plutonivorous fast breeder could incinerate 15 to 25 kilograms of plutonium while producing 1 billion kilowatt-hours of electricity-scarcely enough to make a dent in the tonnes of plutonium produced by Electricite de France's reactors each year. The Superphenix consortium is anxious to get the reactor back on line. The annual cost of upkeep and repair of the idle plant and salaries for its 700 staff may reach $140 million this year, 20% more than if the plant was running normally. If restarted, the existing core and a second one ready on the shelf will generate electricity worth $1.3 billion

  19. Rumination syndrome: when the lower oesophageal sphincter rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcerol, Guillaume; Dechelotte, Pierre; Ducrotte, Philippe; Leroi, Anne Marie

    2011-07-01

    Rumination syndrome is an uncommon condition characterised by the self-induced regurgitation from the stomach to the mouth of recently ingested meal that is chewed and reswallowed. Rumination is caused by a voluntary rise in intra-abdominal and intra-gastric pressure leading to the reflux of the gastric content into the oesophagus. However, the precise mechanisms preventing reflux at the gastro-oesophageal junction during the rise in intra-gastric pressure remains unknown. In 5 patients, rumination episodes were monitored using combined multiple intra-luminal impedance monitoring, high resolution manometry, and video-fluoroscopic recording. We showed that the gastro-oesophageal junction moved from the abdominal cavity into the thorax creating a "pseudo-hernia". This occurred at a range of 1.4 ± 0.3 s before the rise in intra-oesophageal pressure and the gastro-oesophageal reflux. This displacement of the gastro-oesophageal junction into thorax, rather than a lower oesophageal sphincter opening, explains the mechanism of voluntary regurgitations occurring during rumination syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Large Volcanic Rises on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1997-01-01

    Large volcanic rises on Venus have been interpreted as hotspots, or the surface manifestation of mantle upwelling, on the basis of their broad topographic rises, abundant volcanism, and large positive gravity anomalies. Hotspots offer an important opportunity to study the behavior of the lithosphere in response to mantle forces. In addition to the four previously known hotspots, Atla, Bell, Beta, and western Eistla Regiones, five new probable hotspots, Dione, central Eistla, eastern Eistla, Imdr, and Themis, have been identified in the Magellan radar, gravity and topography data. These nine regions exhibit a wider range of volcano-tectonic characteristics than previously recognized for venusian hotspots, and have been classified as rift-dominated (Atla, Beta), coronae-dominated (central and eastern Eistla, Themis), or volcano-dominated (Bell, Dione, western Eistla, Imdr). The apparent depths of compensation for these regions ranges from 65 to 260 km. New estimates of the elastic thickness, using the 90 deg and order spherical harmonic field, are 15-40 km at Bell Regio, and 25 km at western Eistla Regio. Phillips et al. find a value of 30 km at Atla Regio. Numerous models of lithospheric and mantle behavior have been proposed to interpret the gravity and topography signature of the hotspots, with most studies focusing on Atla or Beta Regiones. Convective models with Earth-like parameters result in estimates of the thickness of the thermal lithosphere of approximately 100 km. Models of stagnant lid convection or thermal thinning infer the thickness of the thermal lithosphere to be 300 km or more. Without additional constraints, any of the model fits are equally valid. The thinner thermal lithosphere estimates are most consistent with the volcanic and tectonic characteristics of the hotspots. Estimates of the thermal gradient based on estimates of the elastic thickness also support a relatively thin lithosphere (Phillips et al.). The advantage of larger estimates of

  1. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Guan, Dabo

    2015-07-09

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 10(9) m(3) (Gm(3)), or 22% of China's total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm(3) yr(-1) or 3.6 m(3) of water to produce a GJ (10(9) J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability.

  2. Comparing the effects of rise time and inspiratory cycling criteria on 6 different mechanical ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Joshua F; Russian, Christopher J; Gregg Marshall, S; Collins, Kevin P

    2013-03-01

    Inspiratory rise time and cycling criteria are important settings in pressure support ventilation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of minimum and maximum rise time and inspiratory cycling criteria settings on 6 new generation ventilators. Our hypothesis was there would be a difference in the exhaled tidal volume, inspiratory time, and peak flow among 6 different ventilators, based, on change in rise time and cycling criteria. The research utilized a breathing simulator and 4 different ventilator models. All mechanical ventilators were set to a spontaneous mode of ventilation with settings of pressure support 8 cm H2O and PEEP of 5 cm H2O. A minimum and maximum setting for rise time and cycling criteria were examined. Exhaled tidal volume, inspiratory time, and peak flow measurements were recorded for each simulation. Significant (P ventilator. Significant differences in exhaled tidal volume, inspiratory time, and peak flow were observed by adjusting rise time and cycling criteria. This research demonstrates that during pressure support ventilation strategy, adjustments in rise time and/or cycling criteria can produce changes in inspiratory parameters. Obviously, this finding has important implications for practitioners who utilize a similar pressure support strategy when conducting a ventilator wean. Additionally, this study outlines major differences among ventilator manufacturers when considering inspiratory rise time and cycling criteria.

  3. Rising prices squeeze gas marketer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-06-19

    Apollo Gas, a Toronto-based gas marketer, is considering options to enhance unit holder value, including sale of its 21,000 gas supply contracts, just weeks after it was forced out of the Alberta market by rising gas prices. Although the company had reported first quarter revenues of more than $15 million and earnings through that period of about $2.1 million, increases of 33 per cent and 38 per cent respectively over the same period in 1999, the company is resigned to the fact that such performance markers are not likely to be reached again in the foreseeable future, hence the decision to sell. About 95 per cent of Apollo's current transportation service volumes are matched to existing fixed-price supply contract which are due to expire in November 2000. After that, it is about 75 per cent matched for the balance of the term of its customer contracts (mostly five years). This means that the company is exposed to market prices that are likely to continue to increase. If this prediction holds true, Apollo would be forced to purchase the unhedged volumes of gas it needs to service its customers in the spot market at prices higher than prices the company is charging to its customers.

  4. Rising prices squeeze gas marketer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-01-01

    Apollo Gas, a Toronto-based gas marketer, is considering options to enhance unit holder value, including sale of its 21,000 gas supply contracts, just weeks after it was forced out of the Alberta market by rising gas prices. Although the company had reported first quarter revenues of more than $15 million and earnings through that period of about $2.1 million, increases of 33 per cent and 38 per cent respectively over the same period in 1999, the company is resigned to the fact that such performance markers are not likely to be reached again in the foreseeable future, hence the decision to sell. About 95 per cent of Apollo's current transportation service volumes are matched to existing fixed-price supply contract which are due to expire in November 2000. After that, it is about 75 per cent matched for the balance of the term of its customer contracts (mostly five years). This means that the company is exposed to market prices that are likely to continue to increase. If this prediction holds true, Apollo would be forced to purchase the unhedged volumes of gas it needs to service its customers in the spot market at prices higher than prices the company is charging to its customers

  5. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  6. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabandere, L.A. de; Borginon, H.A.; Pattyn, H.A.; Pollet, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  7. The paradox of negative pressure wound therapy--in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairinos, Nicolas; Solomons, Michael; Hudson, Donald A

    2010-01-01

    Negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has revolutionised wound care. Yet, it is still not understood how hypobaric tissue pressure accelerates wound healing. There is very little reported on the relevant physics of any substance subjected to suction in this manner. The common assumption is that applying suction to a substance is likely to result in a reduction of pressure in that substance. Although more than 250 research articles have been published on NPWT, there are little data verifying whether suction increases or decreases the pressure of the substance it is applied to. Clarifying this basic question of physics is the first step in understanding the mechanism of action of these dressings. In this study, pressure changes were recorded in soft plasticene and processed meat, using an intracranial tissue pressure microsensor. Circumferential, non-circumferential and cavity NPWT dressings were applied, and pressure changes within the underlying substance were recorded at different suction pressures. Pressures were also measured at 1cm, 2 cm and 3 cm from the NPWT placed in a cavity. In all three types of NPWT dressings, the underlying substance pressure was increased (hyperbaric) as suction pressure increased. Although there was a substantial pressure increase at 1cm, the rise in pressure at the 2-cm and 3-cm intervals was minimal. Substance pressure beneath all types of NPWT dressing is hyperbaric in inanimate substances. Higher suction pressures generate greater substance pressures; however, the increased pressure rapidly dissipates as the distance from the dressing is increased. The findings of this study on inanimate objects suggest that we may need to review our current perception of the physics underlying NPWT dressings. Further research of this type on living tissues is warranted. Copyright (c) 2009 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Risks of rapid decline renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Jing; Sheen; Wayne; HH; Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Progressive rising population of diabetes and related nephropathy, namely, diabetic kidney disease and associated end stage renal disease has become a major global public health issue. Results of observational studies indicate that most diabetic kidney disease progresses over decades; however, certain diabetes patients display a rapid decline in renal function, which may lead to renal failure within months. Although the definition of rapid renal function decline remained speculative, in general,it is defined by the decrease of estimated glomerular filtration rate(e GFR) in absolute rate of loss or percent change. Based on the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2012 clinical practice guidelines, a rapid decline in renal function is defined as a sustained declinein e GFR of > 5 m L/min per 1.73 m2 per year. It has been reported that potential factors contributing to a rapid decline in renal function include ethnic/genetic and demographic causes, smoking habits, increased glycated hemoglobin levels, obesity, albuminuria, anemia, low serum magnesium levels, high serum phosphate levels, vitamin D deficiency, elevated systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity values, retinopathy, and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. This article reviews current literatures in this area and provides insight on the early detection of diabetic subjects who are at risk of a rapid decline in renal function in order to develop a more aggressive approach to renal and cardiovascular protection.

  9. The rise of colliding beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1992-06-01

    It is a particular pleasure for me to have this opportunity to review for you the rise of colliding beams as the standard technology for high-energy-physics accelerators. My own career in science has been intimately tied up in the transition from the old fixed-target technique to colliding-beam work. I have led a kind of double life both as a machine builder and as an experimenter, taking part in building and using the first of the colliding-beam machines, the Princeton-Stanford Electron-Electron Collider, and building the most recent advance in the technology, the Stanford Linear Collider. The beginning was in 1958, and in the 34 years since there has been a succession of both electron and proton colliders that have increased the available center-of-mass energy for hard collisions by more than a factor of 1000. For the historians here, I regret to say that very little of this story can be found in the conventional literature. Standard operating procedure for the accelerator physics community has been publication in conference proceedings, which can be obtained with some difficulty, but even more of the critical papers are in internal laboratory reports that were circulated informally and that may not even have been preserved. In this presentation I shall review what happened based on my personal experiences and what literature is available. I can speak from considerable experience on the electron colliders, for that is the topic in which I was most intimately involved. On proton colliders my perspective is more than of an observer than of a participant, but I have dug into the literature and have been close to many of the participants

  10. An ultra-fast fiber optic pressure sensor for blast event measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Wang, Xingwei; Zou, Xiaotian; Fitek, John; Maffeo, Michael; Niezrecki, Christopher; Chen, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Soldiers who are exposed to explosions are at risk of suffering traumatic brain injury (TBI). Since the causal relationship between a blast and TBI is poorly understood, it is critical to have sensors that can accurately quantify the blast dynamics and resulting wave propagation through a helmet and skull that are imparted onto and inside the brain. To help quantify the cause of TBI, it is important to record transient pressure data during a blast event. However, very few sensors feature the capabilities of tracking the dynamic pressure transients due to the rapid change of the pressure during blast events, while not interfering with the physical material layers or wave propagation. In order to measure the pressure transients efficiently, a pressure sensor should have a high resonant frequency and a high spatial resolution. This paper describes an ultra-fast fiber optic pressure sensor based on the Fabry–Perot principle for the application of measuring the rapid pressure changes in a blast event. A shock tube experiment performed in US Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center has demonstrated that the resonant frequency of the sensor is 4.12 MHz, which is relatively close to the designed theoretical value of 4.113 MHz. Moreover, the experiment illustrated that the sensor has a rise time of 120 ns, which demonstrates that the sensor is capable of observing the dynamics of the pressure transient during a blast event. (paper)

  11. Statistics of EMIC Rising Tones Observed by the Van Allen Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsbee, K. M.; Kletzing, C.; Smith, C. W.; Santolik, O.

    2017-12-01

    We will present results from an ongoing statistical study of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave rising tones observed by the Van Allen Probes. Using data from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) fluxgate magnetometer, we have identified orbits by both Van Allen Probes with EMIC wave events from the start of the mission in fall 2012 through fall 2016. Orbits with EMIC wave events were further examined for evidence of rising tones. Most EMIC wave rising tones were found during H+ band EMIC wave events. In Fourier time-frequency power spectrograms of the fluxgate magnetometer data, H+ band rising tones generally took the form of triggered emission type events, where the discrete rising tone structures rapidly rise in frequency out of the main band of observed H+ EMIC waves. A smaller percentage of EMIC wave rising tone events were found in the He+ band, where rising tones may appear as discrete structures with a positive slope embedded within the main band of observed He+ EMIC waves, similar in appearance to whistler-mode chorus elements. Understanding the occurrence rate and properties of rising tone EMIC waves will provide observational context for theoretical studies indicating that EMIC waves exhibiting non-linear behavior, such as rising tones, may be more effective at scattering radiation belt electrons than ordinary EMIC waves.

  12. The rise of moral cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Joshua D

    2015-02-01

    The field of moral cognition has grown rapidly in recent years thanks in no small part to Cognition. Consistent with its interdisciplinary tradition, Cognition encouraged the growth of this field by supporting empirical research conducted by philosophers as well as research native to neighboring fields such as social psychology, evolutionary game theory, and behavioral economics. This research has been exceptionally diverse both in its content and methodology. I argue that this is because morality is unified at the functional level, but not at the cognitive level, much as vehicles are unified by shared function rather than shared mechanics. Research in moral cognition, then, has progressed by explaining the phenomena that we identify as "moral" (for high-level functional reasons) in terms of diverse cognitive components that are not specific to morality. In light of this, research on moral cognition may continue to flourish, not as the identification and characterization of distinctive moral processes, but as a testing ground for theories of high-level, integrative cognitive function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mathematical modeling of the Phoenix Rising pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a tightly controlled process in mammalian cells. It is important for embryogenesis, tissue homoeostasis, and cancer treatment. Apoptosis not only induces cell death, but also leads to the release of signals that promote rapid proliferation of surrounding cells through the Phoenix Rising (PR pathway. To quantitatively understand the kinetics of interactions of different molecules in this pathway, we developed a mathematical model to simulate the effects of various changes in the PR pathway on the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a key factor for promoting cell proliferation. These changes include activation of caspase 3 (C3, caspase 7 (C7, and nuclear factor κB (NFκB. In addition, we simulated the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2 inhibition and C3 knockout on the level of secreted PGE2. The model predictions on PGE2 in MEF and 4T1 cells at 48 hours after 10-Gray radiation were quantitatively consistent with the experimental data in the literature. Compared to C7, the model predicted that C3 activation was more critical for PGE2 production. The model also predicted that PGE2 production could be significantly reduced when COX2 expression was blocked via either NFκB inactivation or treatment of cells with exogenous COX2 inhibitors, which led to a decrease in the rate of conversion from arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 in the PR pathway. In conclusion, the mathematical model developed in this study yielded new insights into the process of tissue regrowth stimulated by signals from apoptotic cells. In future studies, the model can be used for experimental data analysis and assisting development of novel strategies/drugs for improving cancer treatment or normal tissue regeneration.

  14. Accidents Preventive Practice for High-Rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Kai Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand of high-rise projects continues to grow due to the reducing of usable land area in Klang Valley, Malaysia. The rapidly development of high-rise projects has leaded to the rise of fatalities and accidents. An accident that happened in a construction site can cause serious physical injury. The accidents such as people falling from height and struck by falling object were the most frequent accidents happened in Malaysian construction industry. The continuous growth of high-rise buildings indicates that there is a need of an effective safety and health management. Hence, this research aims to identify the causes of accidents and the ways to prevent accidents that occur at high-rise building construction site. Qualitative method was employed in this research. Interview surveying with safety officers who are involved in highrise building project in Kuala Lumpur were conducted in this research. Accidents were caused by man-made factors, environment factors or machinery factors. The accidents prevention methods were provide sufficient Personal Protective Equipment (PPE, have a good housekeeping, execute safety inspection, provide safety training and execute accidents investigation. In the meanwhile, interviewees have suggested the new prevention methods that were develop a proper site layout planning and de-merit and merit system among sub-contractors, suppliers and even employees regarding safety at workplace matters. This research helps in explaining the causes of accidents and identifying area where prevention action should be implemented, so that workers and top management will increase awareness in preventing site accidents.

  15. Regional approaches in high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconopisceva, O. G.; Proskurin, G. A.

    2018-03-01

    The evolutionary process of high-rise construction is in the article focus. The aim of the study was to create a retrospective matrix reflecting the tasks of the study such as: structuring the most iconic high-rise objects within historic boundaries. The study is based on contemporary experience of high-rise construction in different countries. The main directions and regional specifics in the field of high-rise construction as well as factors influencing the further evolution process are analyzed. The main changes in architectural stylistics, form-building, constructive solutions that focus on the principles of energy efficiency and bio positivity of "sustainable buildings", as well as the search for a new typology are noted. The most universal constructive methods and solutions that turned out to be particularly popular are generalized. The new typology of high-rises and individual approach to urban context are noted. The results of the study as a graphical scheme made it possible to represent the whole high-rise evolution. The new spatial forms of high-rises lead them to new role within the urban environments. Futuristic hyperscalable concepts take the autonomous urban space functions itself and demonstrate us how high-rises can replace multifunctional urban fabric, developing it inside their shells.

  16. The Rise of Mobile Technology on the Financial Sector in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Mupfiga; Tafadzwa Padare

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of technology has revolted the way that the financial industry operates and the increasing use of mobile gadgets has changed the banking system from the traditional brick and mortar building to a virtual system. The sudden rise in use and innovation of smart mobile phones, mobile personal computers, tablets and various other mobile electronic gadgets has resulted in the rise of mobile financial products. Rapid quickening innovative headways are making completely new business sug...

  17. Wage and Benefit Changes in Response to Rising Health Insurance Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Goldman; Neeraj Sood; Arleen Leibowitz

    2005-01-01

    Many companies have defined-contribution benefit plans requiring employees to pay the full cost (before taxes) of more generous health insurance choices. Research has shown that employee decisions are quite responsive to these arrangements. What is less clear is how the total compensation package changes when health insurance premiums rise. This paper examines employee compensation decisions during a three-year period when health insurance premiums were rising rapidly. The data come from a si...

  18. Prevention device for rapid reactor core shutdown in BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshi, Yuji; Karatsu, Hiroyuki.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To surely prevent rapid shutdown of a nuclear reactor upon partial load interruption due to rapid increase in the system frequency. Constitution: If a partial load interruption greater than the sum of the turbine by-pass valve capacity and the load setting bias portion is applied in a BWR type power plant, the amount of main steams issued from the reactor is decreased, the thermal input/output balance of the reactor is lost, the reactor pressure is increased, the void is collapsed, the neutron fluxes are increased and the reactor power rises to generate rapid reactor shutdown. In view of the above, the turbine speed signal is compared with a speed setting value in a recycling flowrate control device and the recycling pump is controlled to decrease the recycling flowrate in order to compensate the increase in the neutron fluxes accompanying the reactor power up. In this way, transient changes in the reactor core pressure and the neutron fluxes are kept within a setting point for the rapid reactor shutdown operation thereby enabling to continue the plant operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  19. Rapid assessment of assignments using plagiarism detection software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Whitney R; Abrego, Patricia C

    2011-01-01

    Faculty members most often use plagiarism detection software to detect portions of students' written work that have been copied and/or not attributed to their authors. The rise in plagiarism has led to a parallel rise in software products designed to detect plagiarism. Some of these products are configurable for rapid assessment and teaching, as well as for plagiarism detection.

  20. Flurbiprofen and intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieser, D K; Hodapp, E; Goldberg, I; Kass, M A; Becker, B

    1981-07-01

    Systemic or topical administration of corticosteroids may produce a rise in intraocular pressure (IOP). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAI drugs) are alternate therapy for ocular inflammatory disease. Flurbiprofen, a new NSAI drug, was tested in double-masked fashion to delineate its effect on IOP. Flurbiprofen did not alter IOP in known high corticosteroid responders nor did it block corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension.

  1. Rapid charging of nickel-cadmium accumulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruck, F

    1972-01-01

    Four types of charging of gas-tight Ni-Cd accumulators (a) normal; (b) accelerated; (c) rapid; and (d) ultra-rapid are described. For rapid charging, a built-in temperature sensor cuts off charging current at a prescribed point. In ultra-rapid charging, 50% charge can be attained in 3.5 min. and 25% charge within 50 sec. In the second phase of ultra-rapid charging, a surplus of oxygen is released at the positive electrode and a safety valve is provided for pressure reduction. Characteristic curves are given for various rates of charging and some data on discharge rates is also given.

  2. Rising tides, rising gates: The complex ecogeomorphic response of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise and human interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandi, Steven G.; Rodríguez, José F.; Saintilan, Neil; Riccardi, Gerardo; Saco, Patricia M.

    2018-04-01

    Coastal wetlands are vulnerable to submergence due to sea-level rise, as shown by predictions of up to 80% of global wetland loss by the end of the century. Coastal wetlands with mixed mangrove-saltmarsh vegetation are particularly vulnerable because sea-level rise can promote mangrove encroachment on saltmarsh, reducing overall wetland biodiversity. Here we use an ecogeomorphic framework that incorporates hydrodynamic effects, mangrove-saltmarsh dynamics, and soil accretion processes to assess the effects of control structures on wetland evolution. Migration and accretion patterns of mangrove and saltmarsh are heavily dependent on topography and control structures. We find that current management practices that incorporate a fixed gate for the control of mangrove encroachment are useful initially, but soon become ineffective due to sea-level rise. Raising the gate, to counteract the effects of sea level rise and promote suitable hydrodynamic conditions, excludes mangrove and maintains saltmarsh over the entire simulation period of 100 years

  3. Coastal sea level rise with warming above 2 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke P; Riva, Riccardo E M; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John C

    2016-11-22

    Two degrees of global warming above the preindustrial level is widely suggested as an appropriate threshold beyond which climate change risks become unacceptably high. This "2 °C" threshold is likely to be reached between 2040 and 2050 for both Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and 4.5. Resulting sea level rises will not be globally uniform, due to ocean dynamical processes and changes in gravity associated with water mass redistribution. Here we provide probabilistic sea level rise projections for the global coastline with warming above the 2 °C goal. By 2040, with a 2 °C warming under the RCP8.5 scenario, more than 90% of coastal areas will experience sea level rise exceeding the global estimate of 0.2 m, with up to 0.4 m expected along the Atlantic coast of North America and Norway. With a 5 °C rise by 2100, sea level will rise rapidly, reaching 0.9 m (median), and 80% of the coastline will exceed the global sea level rise at the 95th percentile upper limit of 1.8 m. Under RCP8.5, by 2100, New York may expect rises of 1.09 m, Guangzhou may expect rises of 0.91 m, and Lagos may expect rises of 0.90 m, with the 95th percentile upper limit of 2.24 m, 1.93 m, and 1.92 m, respectively. The coastal communities of rapidly expanding cities in the developing world, and vulnerable tropical coastal ecosystems, will have a very limited time after midcentury to adapt to sea level rises unprecedented since the dawn of the Bronze Age.

  4. Effects of strain rate and confining pressure on the deformation and failure of shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.M. (Schlumberger Cambridge Research (GB)); Sheppard, M.C. (Anadrill/Schlumberger (US)); Houwen, O.H. (Sedco Forex (FR))

    1991-06-01

    Previous work on shale mechanical properties has focused on the slow deformation rates appropriate to wellbore deformation. Deformation of shale under a drill bit occurs at a very high rate, and the failure properties of the rock under these conditions are crucial in determining bit performance and in extracting lithology and pore-pressure information from drilling parameters. Triaxial tests were performed on two nonswelling shales under a wide range of strain rates and confining and pore pressures. At low strain rates, when fluid is relatively free to move within the shale, shale deformation and failure are governed by effective stress or pressure (i.e., total confining pressure minus pore pressure), as is the case for ordinary rock. If the pore pressure in the shale is high, increasing the strain rate beyond about 0.1%/sec causes large increases in the strength and ductility of the shale. Total pressure begins to influence the strength. At high stain rates, the influence of effective pressure decreases, except when it is very low (i.e., when pore pressure is very high); ductility then rises rapidly. This behavior is opposite that expected in ordinary rocks. This paper briefly discusses the reasons for these phenomena and their impact on wellbore and drilling problems.

  5. Water hammer caused by rapid steam production in a severe accident in a light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasaka, Fujio; Adachi, Masaki; Murata, Hiroyuki; Aya, Izuo

    2007-01-01

    We conducted the experimental studies on the water hammer caused by striking of a water mass pushed up by a rapidly growing steam bubble, using a cylindrical model containment vessel of 0.4286 m in diameter. In the experiments, a rapid gas growth was simulated by injecting high-pressure steam into a water pool. It was clarified that coherency of the water mass movement and its water hammer caused by the condensable gas production considerably decreased in comparison with the case of the non-condensable gas production because the rising velocity of the water mass was suppressed due to the steam bubble condensation. On the basis of the data, experimental correlations for estimating the water hammer on the structures in the containment vessel were proposed. (author)

  6. Study of elastic and thermodynamic properties of uranium dioxide under high temperature and pressure with density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Mu; Wang Feng; Zheng Zhou; Liu Xiankun; Jiang Tao

    2013-01-01

    The elastic and thermodynamic properties of UO 2 under extreme physical condition are studied by using the density functional theory and quasi-harmonic Debye model. Results show that UO 2 is still stable ionic crystal under high temperatures, and pressures. Tetragonal shear constant is steady under high pressures and temperatures, while elastic constant C 44 is stable under high temperatures, but rises with pressure sharply. Bulk modulus, shear modulus and Young's modulus increase with pressure rapidly, but temperature would not cause evident debasement of the moduli, all of which indicate that UO 2 has excellent mechanical properties. Heat capacity of different pressures increases with temperature and is close to the Dulong-Petit limit near 1000 K. Debye temperature decreases with temperature, and increases with pressure. Under low pressure, thermal expansion coefficient raises with temperature rapidly, and then gets slow at higher pressure and temperature. Besides, the thermal expansion coefficient of UO 2 is much lower than that of other nuclear materials. (authors)

  7. Climate Adaptation and Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA supports the development and maintenance of water utility infrastructure across the country. Included in this effort is helping the nation’s water utilities anticipate, plan for, and adapt to risks from flooding, sea level rise, and storm surge.

  8. Rapid mask prototyping for microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, B G C; Honegger, T; Cordeiro, J; Lecarme, O; Thiry, T; Fuard, D; Berton, K; Picard, E; Zelsmann, M; Peyrade, D

    2016-03-01

    With the rise of microfluidics for the past decade, there has come an ever more pressing need for a low-cost and rapid prototyping technology, especially for research and education purposes. In this article, we report a rapid prototyping process of chromed masks for various microfluidic applications. The process takes place out of a clean room, uses a commercially available video-projector, and can be completed in less than half an hour. We quantify the ranges of fields of view and of resolutions accessible through this video-projection system and report the fabrication of critical microfluidic components (junctions, straight channels, and curved channels). To exemplify the process, three common devices are produced using this method: a droplet generation device, a gradient generation device, and a neuro-engineering oriented device. The neuro-engineering oriented device is a compartmentalized microfluidic chip, and therefore, required the production and the precise alignment of two different masks.

  9. Pressure Dome for High-Pressure Electrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Timothy; Schmitt, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    A high-strength, low-weight pressure vessel dome was designed specifically to house a high-pressure [2,000 psi (approx. = 13.8 MPa)] electrolyzer. In operation, the dome is filled with an inert gas pressurized to roughly 100 psi (approx. = 690 kPa) above the high, balanced pressure product oxygen and hydrogen gas streams. The inert gas acts to reduce the clamping load on electrolyzer stack tie bolts since the dome pressure acting axially inward helps offset the outward axial forces from the stack gas pressure. Likewise, radial and circumferential stresses on electrolyzer frames are minimized. Because the dome is operated at a higher pressure than the electrolyzer product gas, any external electrolyzer leak prevents oxygen or hydrogen from leaking into the dome. Instead the affected stack gas stream pressure rises detectably, thereby enabling a system shutdown. All electrical and fluid connections to the stack are made inside the pressure dome and require special plumbing and electrical dome interfaces for this to be accomplished. Further benefits of the dome are that it can act as a containment shield in the unlikely event of a catastrophic failure. Studies indicate that, for a given active area (and hence, cell ID), frame outside diameter must become ever larger to support stresses at higher operating pressures. This can lead to a large footprint and increased costs associated with thicker and/or larger diameter end-plates, tie-rods, and the frames themselves. One solution is to employ rings that fit snugly around the frame. This complicates stack assembly and is sometimes difficult to achieve in practice, as its success is strongly dependent on frame and ring tolerances, gas pressure, and operating temperature. A pressure dome permits an otherwise low-pressure stack to operate at higher pressures without growing the electrolyzer hardware. The pressure dome consists of two machined segments. An O-ring is placed in an O-ring groove in the flange of the bottom

  10. Interconnect rise time in superconducting integrating circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preis, D.; Shlager, K.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of resistive losses on the voltage rise time of an integrated-circuit interconnection is reported. A distribution-circuit model is used to present the interconnect. Numerous parametric curves are presented based on numerical evaluation of the exact analytical expression for the model's transient response. For the superconducting case in which the series resistance of the interconnect approaches zero, the step-response rise time is longer but signal strength increases significantly

  11. The numerical study of the compressible rising of nuclear fireball at low altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lin; Zheng Yi; Cheng Xianyou

    2010-01-01

    To study the evolution of nuclear fireball during the phase of compressible rising, the pressure and density were computed with numerical method. It can be concluded that the distribution of parameters of fireball changed during its rising the pressure in the upper part of fireball increased while the one of lower part decreased. the dilute area lied in the middle of fireball initially moved upward, on the other hand, the gradient of density in the upper and side part increased and is contrary to the changing of density beneath the fireball. The computational results of density agreed with experimental shadow graphs very well. (authors)

  12. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  13. An investigation of transient pressure and plasma properties in a pinched plasma column. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, E. K.; York, T. M.

    1971-01-01

    The transient pinched plasma column generated in a linear Z-pinch was studied experimentally and analytically. The plasma column was investigated experimentally with the following plasma diagnostics: a special rapid response pressure transducer, a magnetic field probe, a voltage probe and discharge luminosity. Axial pressure profiles on the discharge chamber axis were used to identify three characteristic regions of plasma column behavior; they were in temporal sequence: strong axial pressure asymmetry noted early in plasma column lifetime followed by plasma heating in which there is a rapid rise in static pressure and a slight decrease static pressure before plasma column breakup. Plasma column lifetime was approximately 5 microseconds. The axial pressure asymmetry was attributed to nonsimultaneous pinching of the imploding current sheet along the discharge chamber axis. The rapid heating is attributed in part to viscous effects introduced by radial gradients in the axial streaming velocity. Turbulent heating arising from discharge current excitation of the ion acoustic wave instability is also considered a possible heating mechanism.

  14. Rapidity-density patterns for events in a stochastic-field multiparticle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.C.

    1976-02-01

    Typical-event rapidity distributions expected at energies of a few TeV are calculated in a stochastic-field multiparticle production theory. Short range rapidity correlations with characteristics of a Van der Waals fluid give rise to ''domain'' patterns in rapidity density, which have the appearance of clusters separated by rapidity gaps

  15. Systolic Blood Pressure Accuracy Enhancement in the Electronic Palpation Method Using Pulse Waveform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sorvoja, H

    2001-01-01

    .... Systolic pressure errors were defined and correlations with other specific values, like pressure rise time, pulse wave velocity, systolic pressure, augmentation, arm circumference and body mass index were calculated...

  16. Socioecological Aspects of High-rise Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Michael; Ivanova, Zinaida

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the authors consider the socioecological problems that arise in the construction and operation of high-rise buildings. They study different points of view on high-rise construction and note that the approaches to this problem are very different. They also analyse projects of modern architects and which attempts are made to overcome negative impacts on nature and mankind. The article contains materials of sociological research, confirming the ambivalent attitude of urban population to high-rise buildings. In addition, one of the author's sociological survey reveals the level of environmental preparedness of the university students, studying in the field of "Construction of unique buildings and structures", raising the question of how future specialists are ready to take into account socioecological problems. Conclusion of the authors: the construction of high-rise buildings is associated with huge social and environmental risks, negative impact on the biosphere and human health. This requires deepened skills about sustainable design methods and environmental friendly construction technologies of future specialists. Professor M. Eichner presents in the article his case study project results on implementation of holistic eco-sustainable construction principles for mixed-use high-rise building in the metropolis of Cairo.

  17. Strategic advantages of high-rise construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaskova Natalya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods to assess the competitiveness of different types of real estate in the context of huge changes of new technological way of life don’t provide building solutions that would be correct from a strategic perspective. There are many challenges due to changes in the consumers’ behavior in the housing area. A multiplicity of life models, a variety of opportunities and priorities, traditions and new trends in construction should be assessed in terms of prospective benefits in the environment of the emerging new world order. At the same time, the mane discourse of high-rise construction mainly relates to its design features, technical innovations, and architectural accents. We need to clarify the criteria for economic evaluation of high-rise construction in order to provide decisions with clear and quantifiable contexts. The suggested approach to assessing the strategic advantage of high-rise construction and the prospects for capitalization of high-rise buildings poses new challenges for the economy to identify adequate quantitative assessment methods of the high-rise buildings economic efficiency, taking into account all stages of their life cycle.

  18. Socioecological Aspects of High-rise Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichner Michael

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors consider the socioecological problems that arise in the construction and operation of high-rise buildings. They study different points of view on high-rise construction and note that the approaches to this problem are very different. They also analyse projects of modern architects and which attempts are made to overcome negative impacts on nature and mankind. The article contains materials of sociological research, confirming the ambivalent attitude of urban population to high-rise buildings. In addition, one of the author’s sociological survey reveals the level of environmental preparedness of the university students, studying in the field of "Construction of unique buildings and structures", raising the question of how future specialists are ready to take into account socioecological problems. Conclusion of the authors: the construction of high-rise buildings is associated with huge social and environmental risks, negative impact on the biosphere and human health. This requires deepened skills about sustainable design methods and environmental friendly construction technologies of future specialists. Professor M. Eichner presents in the article his case study project results on implementation of holistic eco-sustainable construction principles for mixed-use high-rise building in the metropolis of Cairo.

  19. Strategic advantages of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaskova, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    Traditional methods to assess the competitiveness of different types of real estate in the context of huge changes of new technological way of life don't provide building solutions that would be correct from a strategic perspective. There are many challenges due to changes in the consumers' behavior in the housing area. A multiplicity of life models, a variety of opportunities and priorities, traditions and new trends in construction should be assessed in terms of prospective benefits in the environment of the emerging new world order. At the same time, the mane discourse of high-rise construction mainly relates to its design features, technical innovations, and architectural accents. We need to clarify the criteria for economic evaluation of high-rise construction in order to provide decisions with clear and quantifiable contexts. The suggested approach to assessing the strategic advantage of high-rise construction and the prospects for capitalization of high-rise buildings poses new challenges for the economy to identify adequate quantitative assessment methods of the high-rise buildings economic efficiency, taking into account all stages of their life cycle.

  20. Climate change, sea-level rise, and conservation: keeping island biodiversity afloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchamp, Franck; Hoffmann, Benjamin D; Russell, James C; Leclerc, Camille; Bellard, Céline

    2014-03-01

    Island conservation programs have been spectacularly successful over the past five decades, yet they generally do not account for impacts of climate change. Here, we argue that the full spectrum of climate change, especially sea-level rise and loss of suitable climatic conditions, should be rapidly integrated into island biodiversity research and management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  2. Reconciling projections of the Antarctic contribution to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tamsin; Holden, Philip; Edwards, Neil; Wernecke, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Two recent studies of the Antarctic contribution to sea level rise this century had best estimates that differed by an order of magnitude (around 10 cm and 1 m by 2100). The first, Ritz et al. (2015), used a model calibrated with satellite data, giving a 5% probability of exceeding 30cm by 2100 for sea level rise due to Antarctic instability. The second, DeConto and Pollard (2016), used a model evaluated with reconstructions of palaeo-sea level. They did not estimate probabilities, but using a simple assumption here about the distribution shape gives up to a 5% chance of Antarctic contribution exceeding 2.3 m this century with total sea level rise approaching 3 m. If robust, this would have very substantial implications for global adaptation to climate change. How are we to make sense of this apparent inconsistency? How much is down to the data - does the past tell us we will face widespread and rapid Antarctic ice losses in the future? How much is due to the mechanism of rapid ice loss ('cliff failure') proposed in the latter paper, or other parameterisation choices in these low resolution models (GRISLI and PISM, respectively)? How much is due to choices made in the ensemble design and calibration? How do these projections compare with high resolution, grounding line resolving models such as BISICLES? Could we reduce the huge uncertainties in the palaeo-study? Emulation provides a powerful tool for understanding these questions and reconciling the projections. By describing the three numerical ice sheet models with statistical models, we can re-analyse the ensembles and re-do the calibrations under a common statistical framework. This reduces uncertainty in the PISM study because it allows massive sampling of the parameter space, which reduces the sensitivity to reconstructed palaeo-sea level values and also narrows the probability intervals because the simple assumption about distribution shape above is no longer needed. We present reconciled probabilistic

  3. Frictional Performance and Temperature Rise of a Mining Nonasbestos Brake Material during Emergency Braking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiusheng Bao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By simulating emergency braking conditions of mine hoisters, tribological experiments of a mining nonasbestos brake material sliding on E355CC steel friction disc investigated a pad-on-disc friction tester. It is shown that, under combined influence of braking velocity and pressure, the lubricating film and micro-convex-apices on wear surface would have complex physicochemical reactions which make the instant friction coefficient rise gradually while the instant surface temperature rises first and then falls. With the antifriction effect from lubricating film and the desquamating of composite materials, the mean friction coefficient decreases first, then rises, and decreases again with the increasing of initial braking velocity. And with the existence of micro-convex-apices and variation from increment ratio of load and actual contacting area, it rises first and then falls with the increasing of braking pressure. However, the mean surface temperature rises obviously with the increasing of both initial braking velocity and braking pressure for growth of transformed kinetic energy. It is considered that the friction coefficient cannot be considered as a constant when designing brake devices for mine hoisters. And special attention should be paid to the serious influence of surface temperature on tribological performance of brake material during emergency braking.

  4. Comparison of occlusion break responses and vacuum rise times of phacoemulsification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif-Kashani, Pooria; Fanney, Douglas; Injev, Val

    2014-07-30

    Occlusion break surge during phacoemulsification cataract surgery can lead to potential surgical complications. The purpose of this study was to quantify occlusion break surge and vacuum rise time of current phacoemulsification systems used in cataract surgery. Occlusion break surge at vacuum pressures between 200 and 600 mmHg was assessed with the Infiniti® Vision System, the WhiteStar Signature® Phacoemulsification System, and the Centurion® Vision System using gravity-fed fluidics. Centurion Active FluidicsTM were also tested at multiple intraoperative pressure target settings. Vacuum rise time was evaluated for Infiniti, WhiteStar Signature, Centurion, and Stellaris® Vision Enhancement systems. Rise time to vacuum limits of 400 and 600 mmHg was assessed at flow rates of 30 and 60 cc/minute. Occlusion break surge was analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance. The Centurion system exhibited substantially less occlusion break surge than the other systems tested. Surge area with Centurion Active Fluidics was similar to gravity fluidics at an equivalent bottle height. At all Centurion Active Fluidics intraoperative pressure target settings tested, surge was smaller than with Infiniti and WhiteStar Signature. Infiniti had the fastest vacuum rise time and Stellaris had the slowest. No system tested reached the 600-mmHg vacuum limit. In this laboratory study, Centurion had the least occlusion break surge and similar vacuum rise times compared with the other systems tested. Reducing occlusion break surge may increase safety of phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

  5. Influence of the Gilbert damping constant on the flux rise time of write head fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl, Othmar; Schrefl, Thomas; Suess, Dieter; Schabes, Manfred E.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic recording at fast data rates requires write heads with rapid rise times of the magnetic flux during the write process. We present three-dimensional (3D) micromagnetic finite element calculations of an entire ring head including 3D coil geometry during the writing of magnetic bits in granular media. The simulations demonstrate how input current profiles translate into magnetization processes in the head and which in turn generate the write head field. The flux rise time significantly depends on the Gilbert damping constant of the head material. Low damping causes incoherent magnetization processes, leading to long rise times and low head fields. High damping leads to coherent reversal of the magnetization in the head. As a consequence, the gap region can be quickly saturated which causes high head fields with short rise times

  6. The 1988 coal outlook: steadily rising consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soras, C.G.; Stodden, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    Total coal use - domestic and foreign - will reach 910 million tons in 1988, an expansion of 1.3% from an estimated 898 million tons in 1987. The overall rise in consumption will add to inventory needs. Moreover, lower interest rates cut effective carrying costs and further encourage the holding of coal stocks by users. The results will be a gain in inventories of 3.5 tons by the end of 1988. As a result of all these factors, coal production is anticipated to rise by 11.6 million tons, or 1.2%, which projects firm markets in a time of relatively soft economic conditions in the USA. 2 tabs.

  7. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Osamu; Kumasaka, Katsuyuki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To remove the heat of reactor core using a great amount of moderators at the periphery of the reactor core as coolants. Constitution: Heat of a reactor core is removed by disposing a spontaneous recycling cooling device for cooling moderators in a moderator tank, without using additional power driven equipments. That is, a spontaneous recycling cooling device for cooling the moderators in the moderator tank is disposed. Further, the gap between the inner wall of a pressure tube guide pipe disposed through the vertical direction of a moderator tank and the outer wall of a pressure tube inserted through the guide pipe is made smaller than the rupture distortion caused by the thermal expansion upon overheating of the pressure tube and greater than the minimum gap required for heat shiels between the pressure tube and the pressure tube guide pipe during usual operation. In this way, even if such an accident as can not using a coolant cooling device comprising power driven equipment should occur in the pressure tube type reactor, the rise in the temperature of the reactor core can be retarded to obtain a margin with time. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  9. Hydrostatic pressure mimics gravitational pressure in characean cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staves, M. P.; Wayne, R.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrostatic pressure applied to one end of a horizontal Chara cell induces a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming, thus mimicking the effect of gravity. A positive hydrostatic pressure induces a more rapid streaming away from the applied pressure and a slower streaming toward the applied pressure. In contrast, a negative pressure induces a more rapid streaming toward and a slower streaming away from the applied pressure. Both the hydrostatic pressure-induced and gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming respond identically to cell ligation, UV microbeam irradiation, external Ca2+ concentrations, osmotic pressure, neutral red, TEA Cl-, and the Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine and LaCl3. In addition, hydrostatic pressure applied to the bottom of a vertically-oriented cell can abolish and even reverse the gravity-induced polarity of cytoplasmic streaming. These data indicate that both gravity and hydrostatic pressure act at the same point of the signal transduction chain leading to the induction of a polarity of cytoplasmic streaming and support the hypothesis that characean cells respond to gravity by sensing a gravity-induced pressure differential between the cell ends.

  10. The Rise of the Digital Public Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing shift to digital offerings among public libraries. Libraries increasingly are fulfilling roles as technology hubs for their communities, with high demand for technology and career development training resources. Ebooks and other digital materials are on the rise, while print is being scaled back. More libraries are turning to…

  11. Rise time spectroscopy in cadmium telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharager, Claude; Siffert, Paul; Carnet, Bernard; Le Meur, Roger.

    1980-11-01

    By a simultaneous analysis of rise time and pulse amplitude distributions of the signals issued from various cadmium telluride detectors, it is possible to obtain informations about surface and bulk trapping, field distribution within the detectors, as well as charge collection and transport properties. These investigations have been performed on both pure and chlorine doped and materials for various surfaces preparation conditions [fr

  12. How oxygen gave rise to eukaryotic sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hörandl, Elvira; Speijer, Dave

    2018-01-01

    9years ago. The large amount of ROS coming from a bacterial endosymbiont gave rise to DNA damage and vast increases in host genome mutation rates. Eukaryogenesis and chromosome evolution represent adaptations to oxidative stress. The host, an archaeon, most probably already had repair mechanisms

  13. Rising Political Consciousness: Transformational Learning in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Mazalan; Muhamad, Mazanah

    As part of a larger study (not discussed) ten educated Malaysian citizens were interviewed to find whether their rising political consciousness, over a ten year period (1988-1999), indicated that their transformation was influenced by their culture. The subjects were between 35-45 years old, married, with an average of four children. All were…

  14. Can income redistribution help changing rising inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this article compares the rise in inequality concerning net household incomes in a number of European countries and Canada, the USA and Australia. Two important factors are used to explain this worrying trend: a growing of unequal market incomes and/or a declining redistribution of income through

  15. Why does a spinning egg rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2018-03-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented concerning the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that an egg rises quickly while it is sliding and then more slowly when it starts rolling. The angular momentum of the egg projected in the XZ plane changed in the same direction as the friction torque, as expected, by rotating away from the vertical Z axis. The latter result does not explain the rise. However, an even larger effect arises from the Y component of the angular momentum vector. As the egg rises, the egg rotates about the Y axis, an effect that is closely analogous to rotation of the egg about the Z axis. Both effects can be described in terms of precession about the respective axes. Steady precession about the Z axis arises from the normal reaction force in the Z direction, while precession about the Y axis arises from the friction force in the Y direction. Precession about the Z axis ceases if the normal reaction force decreases to zero, and precession about the Y axis ceases if the friction force decreases to zero.

  16. Sea level rise : A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of sea level rise on Water Management, it is useful to understand the mechanisrns that determine the level of the sea. In this study, a literature survey is executed to analyze these mechanisms. Climate plays a centra! role in these mechanisms, Climate mainly changes

  17. The economic consequences of oil price rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescaroux, Francois

    2006-05-01

    The author discusses the possible consequences of oil barrel price rise. First, he discusses the main results of analysis's which have been performed for thirty years regarding the impact of oil price on economical activity. He proposes interpretations of these studies and of their conclusions, and tries to draw lessons regarding effects which can be expected from the recent evolutions of energy markets

  18. The Enigma of Mercury's Northern Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P. B.

    2018-05-01

    Various aspects of the "northern rise" make it hard to explain: Its composition and chronology don't stand out from its surroundings, it seems to have uplifted late, and it has a huge gravity anomaly. We'll discuss the possible formation mechanisms.

  19. [The rise and development of general dentistry in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongchen

    2016-02-01

    General dentistry is an important part of the dental medicine and general dentists and general dentistry form the basis of clinical dental medicine. China's general dentistry has a long history, which started as an independent specialist in the 1990s. At present, the Chinese general dental medicine has received more and more attention as an independent profession. General dental medical model has been rapidly developed in the general hospital department of dentistry, private practice and community dentistry institutions, dental specialist hospitals and so on. In this paper, we will review the rise and development of China's general dentistry, and report its theoretical characteristics, institutional framework, academic progress, member development report, and look forward to its development in the future.

  20. Rising statin use and effect on ischemic stroke outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haymore Joseph

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors have neuroprotective effects in experimental stroke models and are commonly prescribed in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine if patients taking statins before hospital admission for stroke had an improved clinical outcome. Methods This was an observational study of 436 patients admitted to the National Institutes of Health Suburban Hospital Stroke Program between July 2000 and December 2002. Self-reported risk factors for stroke were obtained on admission. Stroke severity was determined by the admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score. Good outcome was defined as a Rankin score Results There were 436 patients with a final diagnosis of ischemic stroke; statin data were available for 433 of them. A total of 95/433 (22% of patients were taking a statin when they were admitted, rising from 16% in 2000 to 26% in 2002. Fifty-one percent of patients taking statins had a good outcome compared to 38% of patients not taking statins (p = 0.03. After adjustment for confounding factors, statin pretreatment was associated with a 2.9 odds (95% CI: 1.2–6.7 of a good outcome at the time of hospital discharge. Conclusions The proportion of patients taking statins when they are admitted with stroke is rising rapidly. Statin pretreatment was significantly associated with an improved functional outcome at discharge. This finding could support the early initiation of statin therapy after stroke.

  1. Pressure Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They commonly ... wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which are ...

  2. Rapid Decline in Radio Flux Density of Nova Sco 2015 Followed By Rise at High Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, J.; Nelson, T.; Chomiuk, L.; Sokoloski, J.; Mukai, K.; Finzell, T.; Weston, J.; Rupen, M.; Mioduszewski, A.

    2015-03-01

    We are monitoring Nova Sco 2015 (PNV J17032620-3504140) at radio wavelengths with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We have observations from three epochs: 2015 Feb 14.5, 2015 Feb 18.5-19.5, and 2015 Feb 24.6-Mar 01.5.

  3. Populism : polder and prairie: The rapid rise and fall of Pim Fortuyn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucardie, Anthonie

    2004-01-01

    DUTCH POLITICS HAS A REPUTATION FOR DULLNESS AND STABILITY. But that was hardly the case in 2002, when Pim Fortuyn entered politics. His party came in second in that year's election, although it had not yet been formally founded and Fortuyn himself had been murdered a few days earlier. Yet it now

  4. The International Experience with Privatization: Its Rapid Rise, Partial Fall and Uncertain Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Nellis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From a triumphant high in the late 20th century, esteem for privatization has significantly declined, post-2000. Politicians and businesspeople alike now take a more balanced view of its effectiveness, recognizing that privatization must happen in a supportive institutional and policy framework if it is to live up to its potential. They have also come to share a better understanding of the sociopolitical consequences – especially with regard to public opinion – that privatization inevitably brings with it. This paper provides a comprehensive examination of this 21st century global shift in perception, with an emphasis on developing and emerging markets. Through a rich trove of case studies, it accounts for why privatization has slowed, analyzing current and past trends from a variety of sectors worldwide. It also offers a thorough analysis of privatization’s effects on economies, societies and the political process, while giving ample space to critics’ views. Although powerbrokers now tend to view privatization warily, there is good reason to believe that, due to the impact of the ongoing global economic crisis on government budgets, its day will come again. This paper, with its impressively detailed and wide-ranging grasp of the phenomenon, is essential reading for academics, policymakers and economists –the individuals who must grapple with privatization’s implications when that day arrives.

  5. Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.; Martinez, R.K.; Baca, E.T.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids

  6. Mangrove Sedimentation and Response to Relative Sea-Level Rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, C D; Rogers, K; McKee, K L; Lovelock, C E; Mendelssohn, I A; Saintilan, N

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions, related primarily to elevation and hydroperiod, influence mangrove distributions; this review considers how these distributions change over time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks, and tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas measurements made using surface elevation tables and marker horizons provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in a continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  7. Mangrove sedimentation and response to relative sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, CD; Rogers, K.; Mckee, Karen L.; Lovelock, CE; Mendelssohn, IA; Saintilan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions influence mangrove distributions, primarily related to elevation and hydroperiod; this review considers how these adjust through time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks; tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon, but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas Surface Elevation Table-Marker Horizon measurements (SET-MH) provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  8. The Impact of Rising Temperatures on Aircraft Takeoff Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R. M.; Thompson, T. R.

    2017-12-01

    Steadily rising mean and extreme temperatures as a result of climate change will likely impact the air transportation system over the coming decades. As air temperatures rise at constant pressure, air density declines, resulting in less lift generation by an aircraft wing at a given airspeed and potentially imposing a weight restriction on departing aircraft. This study presents a general model to project future weight restrictions across a fleet of aircraft with different takeoff weights operating at a variety of airports. We construct performance models for five common commercial aircraft and 19 major airports around the world and use projections of daily temperatures from the CMIP5 model suite under the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emissions scenarios to calculate required hourly weight restriction. We find that on average, 10-30% of annual flights departing at the time of daily maximum temperature may require some weight restriction below their maximum takeoff weights, with mean restrictions ranging from 0.5 to 4% of total aircraft payload and fuel capacity by mid- to late century. Both mid-sized and large aircraft are affected, and airports with short runways and high tempera- tures, or those at high elevations, will see the largest impacts. Our results suggest that weight restriction may impose a non-trivial cost on airlines and impact aviation operations around the world and that adaptation may be required in aircraft design, airline schedules, and/or runway lengths.

  9. Intracranial Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvedstrup, Jeppe; Radojicic, Aleksandra; Moudrous, Walid

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare a new method of noninvasive intracranial pressure (nICP) measurement with conventional lumbar puncture (LP) opening pressure. METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study, patients undergoing LP for diagnostic purposes underwent intracranial pressure measurements with HeadSen...

  10. Pressure Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Monfre, Jill M.

    2016-01-01

    Unrelieved pressure or friction of the skin, particularly over bony prominences, can lead to pressure ulcers, which affect up to one third of people in hospitals or community care, and one fifth of nursing home residents. Pressure ulcers are more likely in people with reduced mobility and poor skin condition, such as older people or those with vascular disease.

  11. Research on water hammer forces caused by rapid growth of bubbles at severe accidents of water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasaka, Fujio; Adachi, Masaki; Aya, Izuo

    2004-01-01

    At severe accidents of Water Cooled Reactors a great deal of gas is expected to be produced in a short time within the water of lower part of nuclear pressure vessel and containment vessel caused by hydrogen production with a metal water reaction and steam explosions with direct contact of melting core and water. Water hammer forces caused by rapid growth of bubbles shall work on the wall of containment vessel and affect its integrity. Coherency of water block movement is not clear, whether simultaneous or in the same direction. Water block behavior and water hammer forces caused by rapid growth of bubbles have been tested using a modified scale model and analyzed to obtain experimental correlated equation to estimate water block's rising distance and velocity from water hammer data. Numerical analysis using RELAP5-3D (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program) has been conducted to evaluate water hammer forces and makes clear its modifications needed. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Rapid Speed Modulation of a Rotary Total Artificial Heart Impeller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinheyer, Matthias; Timms, Daniel L; Tansley, Geoffrey D; Nestler, Frank; Greatrex, Nicholas A; Frazier, O Howard; Cohn, William E

    2016-09-01

    Unlike the earlier reciprocating volume displacement-type pumps, rotary blood pumps (RBPs) typically operate at a constant rotational speed and produce continuous outflow. When RBP technology is used in constructing a total artificial heart (TAH), the pressure waveform that the TAH produces is flat, without the rise and fall associated with a normal arterial pulse. Several studies have suggested that pulseless circulation may impair microcirculatory perfusion and the autoregulatory response and may contribute to adverse events such as gastrointestinal bleeding, arteriovenous malformations, and pump thrombosis. It may therefore be beneficial to attempt to reproduce pulsatile output, similar to that generated by the native heart, by rapidly modulating the speed of an RBP impeller. The choice of an appropriate speed profile and control strategy to generate physiologic waveforms while minimizing power consumption and blood trauma becomes a challenge. In this study, pump operation modes with six different speed profiles using the BiVACOR TAH were evaluated in vitro. These modes were compared with respect to: hemodynamic pulsatility, which was quantified as surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE); maximum rate of change of pressure (dP/dt); pulse power index; and motor power consumption as a function of pulse pressure. The results showed that the evaluated variables underwent different trends in response to changes in the speed profile shape. The findings indicated a possible trade-off between SHE levels and flow rate pulsatility related to the relative systolic duration in the speed profile. Furthermore, none of the evaluated measures was sufficient to fully characterize hemodynamic pulsatility. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Rise of oil prices and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document reprints the talk of the press conference given by D. de Villepin, French prime minister, on August 16, 2005 about the alarming rise of oil prices. In his talk, the prime minister explains the reasons of the crisis (increase of worldwide consumption, political tensions in the Middle East..) and presents the strategy and main trends of the French energy policy: re-launching of energy investments in petroleum refining capacities and in the nuclear domain (new generation of power plants), development of renewable energy sources and in particular biofuels, re-launching of the energy saving policy thanks to financial incentives and to the development of clean vehicles and mass transportation systems. In a second part, the prime minister presents his policy of retro-cession of petroleum tax profits to low income workers, and of charge abatement to professionals having an occupation strongly penalized by the rise of oil prices (truckers, farmers, fishermen, taxi drivers). (J.S.)

  14. High and rising health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Paul B

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. is spending a growing share of the GDP on health care, outpacing other industrialized countries. This synthesis examines why costs are higher in the U.S. and what is driving their growth. Key findings include: health care inefficiency, medical technology and health status (particularly obesity) are the primary drivers of rising U.S. health care costs. Health payer systems that reward inefficiencies and preempt competition have impeded productivity gains in the health care sector. The best evidence indicates medical technology accounts for one-half to two-thirds of spending growth. While medical malpractice insurance and defensive medicine contribute to health costs, they are not large enough factors to significantly contribute to a rise in spending. Research is consistent that demographics will not be a significant factor in driving spending despite the aging baby boomers.

  15. Compton suppression through rise-time analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Celiktas, C.

    2007-01-01

    We studied Compton suppression for 60 Co and 137 Cs radioisotopes using a signal selection criterion based on contrasting the fall time of the signals composing the photo peak with those composing the Compton continuum. The fall time criterion is employed by using the pulse shape analysis observing the change in the fall times of the gamma-ray pulses. This change is determined by measuring the changes in the rise times related to the fall time of the scintillator and the timing signals related to the fall time of the input signals. We showed that Compton continuum suppression is achieved best via the precise timing adjustment of an analog rise-time analyzer connected to a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer

  16. Microstructure of rapidly solidified materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H.

    1984-07-01

    The basic features of rapidly solidified microstructures are described and differences arising from alternative processing strategies are discussed. The possibility of achieving substantial undercooling prior to solidification in processes such as quench atomization and chill block melt spinning can give rise to striking microstructural transitions even when external heat extraction is nominally Newtonian. The increased opportunity in laser and electron beam surface melting for epitaxial growth on the parent solid at an accelerating rate, however, does not exclude the formation of nonequilibrium phases since the required undercooling can be locally attained at the solidification front which is itself advancing at a sufficiently high velocity. The effects of fluid flow indicated particularly in melt spinning and surface melting are additional to the transformational and heat flow considerations that form the present basis for interpretation of such microstructural effects.

  17. The rise of precarious employment in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, David; Biegert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Long considered the classic coordinated market economy featuring employment security and relatively little employment precarity, the German labor market has undergone profound changes in recent decades. We assess the evidence for a rise in precarious employment in Germany from 1984 to 2013. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) through the Luxembourg Income Study, we examine low-wage employment, working poverty, and temporary employment. We also analyze changes in the demogra...

  18. Rising sea levels and small island states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A review is given of the problems small island nations face with respect to sea level rise caused by global warming. Many small island nations are very vulnerable to sea level rise. Particularly at risk are coral reef atolls, which are generally quite small, lie within three metres of current sea levels, and have no land at higher elevations to relocate populations and economic activity. Volcanic islands in the Pacific have high ground, but it is largely rugged, high relief and soil-poor. The most vulnerable islands are those that consist entirely of atolls and reef islands, such as Kirabai, Maldives, Tokelau and Tuvalu. Small island states, which by themselves have little power or influence in world affairs, have banded together to form the Strategic Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). This alliance had grown to include 42 states by the time of the 1992 U.N. Earth Summit. Although the greenhouse effect is mainly caused by industrial nations, developing countries will suffer the most from it. Choices of response strategy will depend on environmental, economic and social factors. Most small island nations do not have the resources to fight sea level rise in the way that the Dutch have. Retreat can occur as a gradual process or as catastrophic abandonment. Prohibiting construction close to the water's edge is a good approach. Sea level histories for each island state should be compiled and updated, island geomorphology and settlement patterns should be surveyed to determine risk areas, storm regimes should be determined, and information on coastal impacts of sea level rise should be disseminated to the public

  19. Rugged calorimeter with a fast rise time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMurtry, W.M.; Dolce, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    An intrinsic 1-mil-thick gold foil calorimeter has been developed which rises to 95% of the energy deposited in less than 2 microseconds. This calorimeter is very rugged, and can withstand rough handling without damage. The time constant is long, in the millisecond range, because of its unique construction. Use of this calorimeter has produced 100% data recovery, and agreement with true deposition to less than 10%

  20. CHINA RISE SYNDROMES? DRAFTING NATIONAL SCHOOLS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IN ASIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yu Shih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise of China is now one of the primary issues in IR literature. However, this development promotes also changes in the structure of the discipline itself, as it fosters self-reflection in the rapid expansion of the Chinese IR school. Moreover, the quest for Chinese theory of IR provokes other Asian countries to conceptualize their place in the world, in order not to be intellectually submerged by the rising neighbour. This theorizing is enlightened by the national traditions of thinking about international politics, largely overseen in the West. This trend promotes genuine liberalization of the discipline. 

  1. The rise of neglected tropical diseases in the "new Texas"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a “new” Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as “blue marble health.” Summarized here are the major NTDs now affecting Texas. In addition to the vector-borne viral diseases highlighted above, there also is a high level of parasitic infections, including Chagas disease, trichomoniasis, and possibly leishmaniasis and toxocariasis, as well as typhus-group rickettsiosis, a vector-borne bacterial infection. I also highlight some of the key shifts in emerging and neglected disease patterns, partly due to an altered and evolving economic and ecological landscape in the new Texas, and provide some preliminary disease burden estimates for the major prevalent and incident NTDs. PMID:29346369

  2. The rise of neglected tropical diseases in the "new Texas".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a "new" Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as "blue marble health." Summarized here are the major NTDs now affecting Texas. In addition to the vector-borne viral diseases highlighted above, there also is a high level of parasitic infections, including Chagas disease, trichomoniasis, and possibly leishmaniasis and toxocariasis, as well as typhus-group rickettsiosis, a vector-borne bacterial infection. I also highlight some of the key shifts in emerging and neglected disease patterns, partly due to an altered and evolving economic and ecological landscape in the new Texas, and provide some preliminary disease burden estimates for the major prevalent and incident NTDs.

  3. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  4. Failure maps for internally pressurized Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tubes with circumferential temperature variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shewfelt, R.S.W.

    1986-01-01

    During some postulated loss-of-coolant accidents, the pressure tube temperature may rise before the internal pressure drops, causing the pressure tube to balloon. The temperature around the pressure tube circumference would likely be nonuniform, producing localized deformation that could possibly cause failure. The computer program, GRAD, was used to determine the circumferential temperature distribution required to cause an internally pressurized Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tube to fail before coming into full contact with its calandria tube. These results were used to construct failure maps. 7 refs

  5. The rise of artificial intelligence and the uncertain future for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krittanawong, C

    2018-02-01

    Physicians in everyday clinical practice are under pressure to innovate faster than ever because of the rapid, exponential growth in healthcare data. "Big data" refers to extremely large data sets that cannot be analyzed or interpreted using traditional data processing methods. In fact, big data itself is meaningless, but processing it offers the promise of unlocking novel insights and accelerating breakthroughs in medicine-which in turn has the potential to transform current clinical practice. Physicians can analyze big data, but at present it requires a large amount of time and sophisticated analytic tools such as supercomputers. However, the rise of artificial intelligence (AI) in the era of big data could assist physicians in shortening processing times and improving the quality of patient care in clinical practice. This editorial provides a glimpse at the potential uses of AI technology in clinical practice and considers the possibility of AI replacing physicians, perhaps altogether. Physicians diagnose diseases based on personal medical histories, individual biomarkers, simple scores (e.g., CURB-65, MELD), and their physical examinations of individual patients. In contrast, AI can diagnose diseases based on a complex algorithm using hundreds of biomarkers, imaging results from millions of patients, aggregated published clinical research from PubMed, and thousands of physician's notes from electronic health records (EHRs). While AI could assist physicians in many ways, it is unlikely to replace physicians in the foreseeable future. Let us look at the emerging uses of AI in medicine. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydraulic Control Method for Heating Systems of High-Rise Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, D.; Chernenkov, V.; Likhachev, I.

    2017-11-01

    The following article reflects the ideas of possibility to increase energy efficiency of heating systems in high-rise buildings. The article also includes the principle ways of high-rise building heating systems operation as well as traditional engineering decisions aimed at the elimination of the increased pressure effect in heaters. The main disadvantages of such decisions are also presented for the reader. Moreover, the article offers the way of operation for the above-mentioned systems together with the equipment that implements this operation. An economic impact from such energy-saving technology application has been also evaluated.

  7. Comparative Autoignition Trends in Butanol Isomers at Elevated Pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Weber, Bryan W.

    2013-03-21

    Autoignition experiments of stoichiometric mixtures of s-, t-, and i-butanol in air have been performed using a heated rapid compression machine (RCM). At compressed pressures of 15 and 30 bar and for compressed temperatures in the range 715-910 K, no evidence of a negative temperature coefficient region in terms of ignition delay response is found. The present experimental results are also compared with previously reported RCM data of n-butanol in air. The order of reactivity of the butanols is n-butanol > s-butanol ≈ i-butanol > t-butanol at the lower pressure but changes to n-butanol > t-butanol > s-butanol > i-butanol at higher pressure. In addition, t-butanol shows preignition heat release behavior, which is especially evident at higher pressures. To help identify the controlling chemistry leading to this preignition heat release, off-stoichiometric experiments are further performed at 30 bar compressed pressure, for t-butanol at φ = 0.5 and φ = 2.0 in air. For these experiments, higher fuel loading (i.e., φ = 2.0) causes greater preignition heat release (as indicated by greater pressure rise) than the stoichiometric or φ = 0.5 cases. Comparison of the experimental ignition delays with the simulated results using two literature kinetic mechanisms shows generally good agreement, and one mechanism is further used to explore and compare the fuel decomposition pathways of butanol isomers. Using this mechanism, the importance of peroxy chemistry in the autoignition of the butanol isomers is highlighted and discussed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Wind load effects on high rise buildings in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamani, Z.; Thang, K. C.; Haider, B.; Shariff, M.

    2018-04-01

    Wind is a randomly varying dynamic phenomenon composed of a multitude of eddies of varying sizes and rotational characteristics along a general stream of air moving relative to the ground. These eddies give wind its gustiness, creating fluctuation and results in a complex flow characteristics. The wind vector at any point can be regarded as the sum of mean wind vector and the fluctuation components. These components not only vary with height but also dependant on the approach terrain and topography. Prevailing wind exerts pressure onto the structural surfaces. The effects of wind pressure in the form of shear and bending moments are found to be a major problem in structural failure. This study aims to study the effects of wind load on a fifteen-storey high rise building using EN 1991-1-4 code and MS1553:2002. The simulation results showed that by increasing the wind speed, the storey resultant forces, namely storey shear and storey moment increases significantly. Furthermore, simulation results according to EN 1991-1-4 yield higher values compared to the simulation results according to MS1553:2002.

  9. Ultra(high)-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight-ion mobility-high definition mass spectrometry for the rapid identification and structural characterization of flavonoid glycosides from cauliflower waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gerard Bryan; Raes, Katleen; Coelus, Sofie; Struijs, Karin; Smagghe, Guy; Van Camp, John

    2014-01-03

    In this paper, a strategy for the detection and structural elucidation of flavonoid glycosides from a complex matrix in a single chromatographic run using U(H)PLC-ESI-IMS-HDMS/MS(E) is presented. This system operates using alternative low and high energy voltages that is able to perform the task of conventional MS/MS in a data-independent way without re-injection of the sample, which saves analytical time. Also, ion mobility separation (IMS) was employed as an additional separation technique for compounds that are co-eluting after U(H)PLC separation. First, the fragmentation of flavonoid standards were analyzed and criteria was set for structural elucidation of flavonoids in a plant extract. Based on retention times, UV spectra, exact mass, and MS fragment characteristics, such as abundances of daughter ions and the presence of radical ions ([Y0-H](-)), a total 19 flavonoid glycosides, of which 8 non-acylated and 11 acylated, were detected and structurally characterized in a cauliflower waste extract. Kaempferol and quercetin were the main aglycones detected while sinapic and ferulic acid were the main phenolic acids. C-glycosides were also found although their structure could not be elucidated. The proposed method can be used as a rapid screening test for flavonoid identification and for routine analysis of plant extracts, such as these derived from cauliflower waste. The study also confirms that agroindustrial wastes, such as cauliflower leaves, could be seen as a valuable source of different bioactive phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Computer code for the analysis of destructive pressure generation process during a fuel failure accident, PULSE-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishiro, Toshio

    1978-03-01

    The computer code PULSE-2 has been developed for the analysis of pressure pulse generation process when hot fuel particles come into contact with the coolant in a fuel rod failure accident. In the program, it is assumed that hot fuel fragments mix with the coolant instantly and homogeneously in the failure region. Then, the rapid vaporization of the coolant and transient pressure rise in failure region, and the movement of ejected coolant slugs are calculated. The effect of a fuel-particle size distribution is taken into consideration. Heat conduction in the fuel particles and heat transfer at fuel-coolant interface are calculated. Temperature, pressure and void fraction in the mixed region are calculated from the average enthalpy. With physical property subroutines for liquid sodium and water, the model is usable for both LMFBR and LWR conditions. (auth.)

  11. Pressure-Application Device for Testing Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A portable pressure-application device has been designed and built for use in testing and calibrating piezoelectric pressure transducers in the field. The device generates pressure pulses of known amplitude. A pressure pulse (in contradistinction to a steady pressure) is needed because in the presence of a steady pressure, the electrical output of a piezoelectric pressure transducer decays rapidly with time. The device includes a stainless- steel compressed-air-storage cylinder of 500 cu cm volume. A manual hand pump with check valves and a pressure gauge are located at one end of the cylinder. A three-way solenoid valve that controls the release of pressurized air is located at the other end of the cylinder. Power for the device is provided by a 3.7-V cordless-telephone battery. The valve is controlled by means of a pushbutton switch, which activates a 5 V to +/-15 V DC-to-DC converter that powers the solenoid. The outlet of the solenoid valve is connected to the pressure transducer to be tested. Before the solenoid is energized, the transducer to be tested is at atmospheric pressure. When the solenoid is actuated by the push button, pressurized air from inside the cylinder is applied to the transducer. Once the pushbutton is released, the cylinder pressure is removed from the transducer and the pressurized air applied to the transducer is vented, bringing the transducer back to atmospheric pressure. Before this device was used for actual calibration, its accuracy was checked with a NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) traceable calibrator and commercially calibrated pressure transducers. This work was done by Wanda Solano of Stennis Space Center and Greg Richardson of Lockheed Martin Corp.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Damage during Forging with Superimposed Hydrostatic Pressure by Active Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Hagen, T.; Roehr, S.; Sidhu, K. B.

    2007-01-01

    The effective reduction of energy consumption and a reasonable treatment of resources can be achieved by minimizing a component's weight using lightweight metals. In this context, aluminum alloys play a major role. Due to their material-sided restricted formability, the mentioned aluminum materials are difficult to form. The plasticity of a material is ascertained by its maximum forming limit. It is attained, when the deformation causes mechanical damage within the material. Damage of that sort is reached more rapidly, the greater the tensile strength rate in relation to total tension rate. A promising approach of handling these low ductile, high-strength aluminum alloys within a forming process, is forming with a synchronized superposition of comprehensive stress by active media such as by controlling oil pressure. The influence of superimposed hydrostatic pressure on the flow stress was analyzed as well as the formability for different procedures at different hydrostatic pressures and temperature levels. It was observed that flow stress is independent of superimposed hydrostatic pressure. Neither the superimposed pressure has an influence on the plastic deformation, nor does a pressure dependent material hardening due to increasing hydrostatic pressure take place. The formability increases with rising hydrostatic pressure. The relative gain at room temperature and increase of the superimposed pressure from 0 to 600 bar for tested materials was at least 140 % and max. 220 %. Therefore in this paper, based on these experimental observations, it is the intended to develop a numerical simulation in order to predict ductile damage that occurs in the bulk forging process with superimposed hydrostatic pressure based Lemaitre's damage model

  13. Dynamic pressure measures for long pipeline leak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likun Wang; Hongchao Wang; Min Xiong; Bin Xu; Dongjie Tan; Hengzhang Zhou [PetroChina Pipeline Company, Langfang (China). R and D Center

    2009-07-01

    Pipeline leak detection method based on dynamic pressure is studied. The feature of dynamic pressure which is generated by the leakage of pipeline is analyzed. The dynamic pressure method is compared with the static pressure method for the advantages and disadvantages in pipeline leak detection. The dynamic pressure signal is suitable for pipeline leak detection for quick-change of pipeline internal pressure. Field tests show that the dynamic pressure method detects pipeline leak rapidly and precisely. (author)

  14. The economic consequences of rising oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescaroux, F.

    2006-05-01

    In the context of rising crude oil prices observed in the last five years, this paper attempts to shed light on the possible consequences of a costlier barrel. We shall begin with a brief presentation of the main results of the analyses conducted in the last 30 years, concerning the impact of energy prices on economic activity. We shall then interpret these analyses and their conclusions, and try to draw a number of lessons about the anticipated effects of the recent trend in energy prices. (author)

  15. Sea level rise in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Proshutinsky, Andrey; Pavlov, Vladimir; Bourke, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000GL012760 About 60 tide-gauge stations in the Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian and Chukchi Seas have recorded the sea level change from the 1950s through 1990s. Over this 40-year period, most of these stations show a significant sea level rise (SLR). In light of global change, this SLR could be a manifestation of warming in the Artic coupled with a decrease of sea ice extent, warming of Atlantic waters, changes in...

  16. Consumerism and wellness: rising tide, falling cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaszewicz, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Annual employer-sponsored health plan cost increases have been slowing incrementally due to slowing health care utilization--a phenomenon very likely tied to the proliferation of health management activities, wellness programs and other consumerism strategies. This article describes the sharp rise in recent years of consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) and explains what developments must happen for genuine consumer-directed health care to realize its full potential. These developments include gathering transparent health care information, increasing consumer demand for that information and creating truly intuitive data solutions that allow consumers to easily access information in order to make better health care decisions.

  17. Diagnostics from three rising submillimeter bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ai-Hua; Li, Jian-Ping; Wang, Xin-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate three novel rising submillimeter (THz) bursts that occurred sequentially in Super Active Region NOAA 10486. The average rising rate of the flux density above 200 GHz is only 20 sfu GHz −1 (corresponding to spectral index α of 1.6) for the THz spectral components of the 2003 October 28 and November 4 bursts, but it attained values of 235 sfu GHz −1 (α = 4.8) in the 2003 November 2 burst. The steeply rising THz spectrum can be produced by a population of highly relativistic electrons with a low-energy cutoff of 1 MeV, but it only requires a low-energy cutoff of 30 keV for the two slowly rising THz bursts, via gyrosynchrotron (GS) radiation based on our numerical simulations of burst spectra in the magnetic dipole field case. The electron density variation is much larger in the THz source than in the microwave (MW) source. It is interesting that the THz source radius decreased by 20%–50% during the decay phase for the three events, but the MW source increased by 28% for the 2003 November 2 event. In the paper we will present a formula that can be used to calculate the energy released by ultrarelativistic electrons, taking the relativistic correction into account for the first time. We find that the energy released by energetic electrons in the THz source exceeds that in the MW source due to the strong GS radiation loss in the THz range, although the modeled THz source area is 3–4 orders smaller than the modeled MW source one. The total energies released by energetic electrons via the GS radiation in radio sources are estimated, respectively, to be 5.2 × 10 33 , 3.9 × 10 33 and 3.7 × 10 32 erg for the October 28, November 2 and 4 bursts, which are 131, 76 and 4 times as large as the thermal energies of 2.9 × 10 31 , 2.1 × 10 31 and 5.2 × 10 31 erg estimated from soft X-ray GOES observations. (paper)

  18. Hydrodynamics in a swarm of rising bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riboux, G.

    2007-04-01

    In many applications, bubbles are used to agitate a liquid in order to enhance mixing and transfer. This work is devoted to the study of the hydrodynamics in a stable bubble column. Experimentally, we have determined the properties of the velocity fluctuations inside and behind a homogeneous swarm of rising bubbles for different bubble sizes and gas volume fractions α: self-similarity in α 0,4 , spectrum in k -3 and integral length scale controlled by buoyancy. Numerically, we have reproduced these properties by means of large-scale simulations, the bubbles being modeled by volume-forces. This confirms that the dynamics is controlled by wake interactions. (author)

  19. The rising home birth trend in America

    OpenAIRE

    Nurlan Aliyev; Chastidy Roldan; Bulent Cakmak

    2015-01-01

    In recent years home birth rates are increased in the whole world, mainly in the United States (US). Between 2004-2012, non-hospital births increasing rate is 89% in the US. Home birth increased especially among the married, non-Hispanic, over 35 years of age, multipar and singleton pregnancies. However the high rate of cesarean birth did not increase in recent years in the US, now it has been stable at 32%. It is reported that the stability of the cesarean rate is related to rising rate of h...

  20. Nuclear costs: why do they keep rising?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power has performed badly in recent years as a new investment everywhere except Japan and Korea. This has mainly been for orthodox financial and economic reasons. Among the factors contributing to this loss of competitiveness, persistently rising real capital costs have been particularly important. While the nuclear industry has believed it could control and reduce capital costs, increasing regulatory stringency has made designs more complex and correspondingly more costly. These cost increasing factors have far outweighed traditional cost reducing factors (like learning). The only lasting way to meet increasing stringency in safety at acceptably low cost is likely to be the development of new and simpler reactor designs. (author)

  1. Low-rise shear wall failure modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, C.R.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Reed, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the data that are available concerning the structural response of low-rise shear walls is presented. This data will be used to address two failure modes associated with the shear wall structures. First, data concerning the seismic capacity of the shear walls with emphasis on excessive deformations that can cause equipment failure are examined. Second, data concerning the dynamic properties of shear walls (stiffness and damping) that are necessary to compute the seismic inputs to attached equipment are summarized. This case addresses the failure of equipment when the structure remains functional. 23 refs

  2. Organic matter content and particle size modifications in mangrove sediments as responses to sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J; Smoak, Joseph M; Waters, Mathew N; Sanders, Luciana M; Brandini, Nilva; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R

    2012-06-01

    Mangroves sediments contain large reservoirs of organic material (OM) as mangrove ecosystems produce large quantities and rapidly burial OM. Sediment accumulation rates of approximately 2.0 mm year(-1), based on (210)Pb(ex) dating, were estimated at the margin of two well-developed mangrove forest in southern Brazil. Regional data point to a relative sea level (RSL) rise of up to ∼4.0 mm year(-1). This RSL rise in turn, may directly influence the origin and quantity of organic matter (OM) deposited along mangrove sediments. Lithostratigraphic changes show that sand deposition is replacing the mud (<63 μm) fraction and OM content is decreasing in successively younger sediments. Sediment accumulation in coastal areas that are not keeping pace with sea level rise is potentially conducive to the observed shifts in particle size and OM content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Declining poverty, rising inequality | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-08

    Jul 8, 2011 ... In three decades of rapid economic growth, China has lifted hundreds of ... Regional disparities persist, and pockets of deep poverty remain, ... CASE STUDY: Nepal — A cleaner city and better health in Kathmandu ... Young China Scholars Poverty Research Network: A bridge linking China and Canada.

  4. Gas-rise velocities during kicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.B. (Sedco Forex (FR))

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports on experiments to examine gas migration rates in drilling muds that were performed in a 15-m-long, 200-mm-ID inclinable flow loop where air injection simulates gas entry during a kick. These tests were conducted using a xanthum gum (a common polymer used in drilling fluids) solution to simulate drilling muds as the liquid phase and air as the gas phase. This work represents a significant extension of existing correlations for gas/liquid flows in large pipe diameters with non- Newtonian fluids. Bubbles rise faster in drilling muds than in water despite the increased viscosity. This surprising result is caused by the change in the flow regime, with large slug-type bubbles forming at lower void fractions. The gas velocity is independent of void fraction, thus simplifying flow modeling. Results show that a gas influx will rise faster in a well than previously believed. This has major implications for kick simulation, with gas arriving at the surface earlier than would be expected and the gas outflow rate being higher than would have been predicted. A model of the two-phase gas flow in drilling mud, including the results of this work, has been incorporated into the joint Schlumberger Cambridge Research (SCR)/BP Intl. kick model.

  5. Rising synchrony controls western North American ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Bryan A.; van der Sleen, Peter; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Griffin, Daniel; Sydeman, William J.; Dunham, Jason B.; Rykaczewski, Ryan R.; Garcia-Reyes, Marisol; Safeeq, Mohammad; Arismendi, Ivan; Bograd, Steven J.

    2018-01-01

    Along the western margin of North America, the winter expression of the North Pacific High (NPH) strongly influences interannual variability in coastal upwelling, storm track position, precipitation, and river discharge. Coherence among these factors induces covariance among physical and biological processes across adjacent marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we show that over the past century the degree and spatial extent of this covariance (synchrony) has substantially increased, and is coincident with rising variance in the winter NPH. Furthermore, centuries‐long blue oak (Quercus douglasii) growth chronologies sensitive to the winter NPH provide robust evidence that modern levels of synchrony are among the highest observed in the context of the last 250 years. These trends may ultimately be linked to changing impacts of the El Niño Southern Oscillation on mid‐latitude ecosystems of North America. Such a rise in synchrony may destabilize ecosystems, expose populations to higher risks of extinction, and is thus a concern given the broad biological relevance of winter climate to biological systems.

  6. Rising incidence of Merkel cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Dorte; Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Dahlstrøm, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark, and to investi......Abstract Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive, skin cancer of obscure histogenesis, the incidence of which is rising. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment. Our aim was to evaluate the staging, investigation, treatment, and follow-up of MCC in eastern Denmark......, and to investigate the incidence. We suggest guidelines for treatment. First we reviewed the medical records of 51 patients diagnosed with MCC from 1995 until 2006 in eastern Denmark. The nation-wide incidence of MCC was extracted from the Danish Cancer Registry for the calculations for the period 1986-2003. We...... reviwed published papers about MCC based on a MEDLINE search. Fourteen of the 51 patients developed recurrence, and 37 (73%) died during the study period. Mean follow-up was 13 months (range 1-122). A total of 153 patients were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry, and showed that incidence rates had...

  7. Colliding Epidemics and the Rise of Cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina C. Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discovered more than 100 years ago as a human pathogen, the Cryptococcus neoformans–Cryptococcus gattii (C. neoformans–C. gattii complex has seen a large global resurgence in its association with clinical disease in the last 30 years. First isolated in fermenting peach juice, and identified as a human pathogen in 1894 in a patient with bone lesions, this environmental pathogen has now found niches in soil, trees, birds, and domestic pets. Cryptococcosis is well recognized as an opportunistic infection and was first noted to be associated with reticuloendothelial cancers in the 1950s. Since then, advances in transplant immunology, medical science and surgical techniques have led to increasing numbers of solid organ transplantations (SOT and hematological stem cell transplantations being performed, and the use of biological immunotherapeutics in increasingly high-risk and older individuals, have contributed to the further rise in cryptococcosis. Globally, however, the major driver for revivification of cryptococcosis is undoubtedly the HIV epidemic, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa where access to care and antiretroviral therapy remains limited and advanced immunodeficiency, poverty and malnutrition remains the norm. As a zoonotic disease, environmental outbreaks of both human and animal cryptococcosis have been reported, possibly driven by climate change. This is best exemplified by the resurgence of C. gattii infection in Vancouver Island, Canada, and the Pacific Northwest of the United States since 1999. Here we describe how the colliding epidemics of HIV, transplantation and immunologics, climate change and migration have contributed to the rise of cryptococcosis.

  8. Residential High-Rise Clusters as a Contemporary Planning Challenge in Manama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Wiedmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the different roots of current residential high-rise clusters emerging in new city districts along the coast of Bahrain’s capital city Manama, and the resulting urban planning and design challenges. Since the local real-estate markets were liberalized in Bahrain in 2003, the population grew rapidly to more than one million inhabitants. Consequently, the housing demand increased rapidly due to extensive immigration. Many residential developments were however constructed for the upper spectrum of the real-estate market, due to speculative tendencies causing a raise in land value. The emerging high-rise clusters are developed along the various waterfronts of Manama on newly reclaimed land. This paper explores the spatial consequences of the recent boom in construction boom and the various challenges for architects and urban planners to enhance urban qualities.

  9. Limits on the adaptability of coastal marshes to rising sea level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Matthew L.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Morris, James T.; Mudd, Simon M.; Temmerman, Stijn

    2010-01-01

    Assumptions of a static landscape inspire predictions that about half of the world's coastal wetlands will submerge during this century in response to sea-level acceleration. In contrast, we use simulations from five numerical models to quantify the conditions under which ecogeomorphic feedbacks allow coastal wetlands to adapt to projected changes in sea level. In contrast to previous sea-level assessments, we find that non-linear feedbacks among inundation, plant growth, organic matter accretion, and sediment deposition, allow marshes to survive conservative projections of sea-level rise where suspended sediment concentrations are greater than ~20 mg/L. Under scenarios of more rapid sea-level rise (e.g., those that include ice sheet melting), marshes will likely submerge near the end of the 21st century. Our results emphasize that in areas of rapid geomorphic change, predicting the response of ecosystems to climate change requires consideration of the ability of biological processes to modify their physical environment.

  10. Rising natural gas prices : impacts on U.S. industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, D.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of rising natural gas prices on the United States economy and domestic industries was examined in this PowerPoint presentation. Industry comments were solicited on the effects of natural gas prices on their business performance from 2000 to 2004 in order to collect data, and macroeconomic impacts were determined through the use of an inter-industry model. Results of the survey and subsequent model suggested that in 2000 and 2001, real gross domestic product (GDP) growth was depressed by 0.2 per cent because of higher natural gas prices. Between 2000 and 2004, the civilian workforce was lower by 489,000 jobs. It was determined that nitrogenous fertilizer manufacturing was the most gas intensive industry. The results indicated that higher natural gas prices were an additional burden on manufacturing industries, and that the economic performance of natural gas intensive industries was poor between 2000-2004. However, it was just as poor between 1997-2000, when gas prices were relatively low and stable. Natural gas intensive industries passed along price increases in their products to their downstream consumers. Despite job losses, wages in natural gas intensive industries were higher and grew faster than in the rest of the manufacturing industry in the 2000-2004 period. Although capital expenditures declined between 2000 to 2004, they declined more rapidly in the 1997-2000 period. There has been no evidence of a decline in international competitiveness of natural gas intensive industries. It was concluded that rising natural gas prices have had a significant impact on the growth of the economy and workforce. tabs., figs

  11. Gas and particle motions in a rapidly decompressed flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Blair; Zunino, Heather; Adrian, Ronald; Clarke, Amanda

    2017-11-01

    To understand the behavior of a rapidly decompressed particle bed in response to a shock, an experimental study is performed in a cylindrical (D = 4.1 cm) glass vertical shock tube of a densely packed (ρ = 61%) particle bed. The bed is comprised of spherical glass particles, ranging from D50 = 44-297 μm between experiments. High-speed pressure sensors are incorporated to capture shock speeds and strengths. High-speed video and particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are collected to examine vertical and radial velocities of both the particles and gas to elucidate features of the shock wave and resultant expansion wave in the lateral center of the tube, away from boundaries. In addition to optically analyzing the front velocity of the rising particle bed, interaction between the particle and gas phases are investigated as the flow accelerates and the particle front becomes more dilute. Particle and gas interactions are also considered in exploring mechanisms through which turbulence develops in the flow. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science and Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  12. The thermospheric effects of a rapid polar cap expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Idenden

    Full Text Available In a previous publication we used results from a coupled thermosphere-ionosphere-plasmasphere model to illustrate a new mechanism for the formation of a large-scale patch of ionisation arising from a rapid polar cap expansion. Here we describe the thermospheric response to that polar cap expansion, and to the ionospheric structure produced. The response is dominated by the energy and momentum input at the dayside throat during the expansion phase itself. These inputs give rise to a large-scale travelling atmospheric disturbance (TAD that propagates both antisunward across the polar cap and equatorward at speeds much greater than both the ion drifts and the neutral winds. We concentrate only on the initially poleward travelling disturbance. The disturbance is manifested in the neutral temperature and wind fields, the height of the pressure level surfaces and in the neutral density at fixed heights. The thermospheric effects caused by the ionospheric structure produced during the expansion are hard to discern due to the dominating effects of the TAD.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere · atmosphere interaction; modeling and forecasting; plasma convection.

  13. Design of a fast-rise slow-fall magnet modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambiase, R.F.

    1982-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is now in the process of expanding the capability of the AGS to include the acceleration of polarized protons. One of the requirements to accomplish this is to pulse twelve quadrupole magnets to rapidly cross depolarizing resonances. Having crossed the resonance, the field in the magnet must be maintained so as not to re-cross the resonance. The problem is addressed with two mirror image circuits, one to produce positive pulses, and the other negative. Each of these circuits are further divided into two sections, one to cause the rapid rise, and the other to maintain the slow fall

  14. Soil Structure Interaction Effect on High Rise and Low Rise Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Pathak; PAresh H. SHAH

    2000-01-01

    Effect of supporting soil on the response of structure has been analyzed in the present study. A low rise (G+ 5 storey) and a high rise (G+12 storey) building has been taken for the analysis. For both type of buildings, the response of building with and without consideration of soil structure interaction effect has been compared.Without interaction case is the case in which ends of the structure are assumed to be fixed while in interaction case, structure is assumed to be...

  15. Research on waterhammer caused by a rapid gas production in the severe accident of a light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasaka, Fujio; Adachi, Masaki; Shiozaki, Kohki; Aya, Izuo; Nariai, Hideki

    2004-01-01

    In the severe accident of an LWR (Light Water Reactor), it is supposed that a large quantity of gas is generated in a water pool of the containment vessel due to a water-metal reaction or a steam explosion. A rapid bubble growth, if the water mass is pushed up having a coherency in time and direction in its movement, would give a severe waterhammer to the structure. In this study, we conducted experiments using two cylindrical model containment vessels with 1.0 and 0.428 m diameters, and investigated the behavior of water mass pushed up by a growing bubble and the scale effect of this phenomenon. In addition, we also closely observed the heavier of a growing bubble. In these experiments, a rapid bubble growth was simulated by injecting high-pressure air into a water pool. It was observed that the water mass was pushed up without an air penetration until the water level reached a certain elevation. On the basis of all data, experimental correlations which gave a rise distance or velocity of the water mass with coherency were proposed and the waterhammer pressure which affected the structure was quantitatively evaluated. The applicability of the existing two-phase flow numerical analysis code, RELAP5-3D to the waterhammer phenomenon caused by a rapid gas production was also verified. (author)

  16. Using pressure square-like wave to measure the dynamic characteristics of piezoelectric pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, L-L; Tsung, T-T; Chen, L-C; Chang Ho; Jwo, C-S

    2005-01-01

    Piezoelectric pressure sensors are commonly used to measuring the dynamic characteristics in a hydraulic system. The dynamic measurements require a pressure sensor which has a high response rate. In this paper, we proposed use of a pressure square wave to excite the piezoelectric pressure sensor. Experimental frequencies are 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 kHz at 10, 15, 20 bar, respectively. Results show that the waveform of time-domain and frequencydomain response are quite different under above testing conditions. The higher the frequencies tested, the faster the pressure-rise speeds obtained. Similarly, the higher the testing pressure, the shorter the rise time attained

  17. Constraining the Antarctic contribution to interglacial sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, T.; Mckay, R. M.; Barrett, P. J.; Levy, R. H.; Golledge, N. R.; Deconto, R. M.; Horgan, H. J.; Dunbar, G. B.

    2015-12-01

    Observations, models and paleoclimate reconstructions suggest that Antarctica's marine-based ice sheets behave in an unstable manner with episodes of rapid retreat in response to warming climate. Understanding the processes involved in this "marine ice sheet instability" is key for improving estimates of Antarctic ice sheet contribution to future sea-level rise. Another motivating factor is that far-field sea-level reconstructions and ice sheet models imply global mean sea level (GMSL) was up to 20m and 10m higher, respectively, compared with present day, during the interglacials of the warm Pliocene (~4-3Ma) and Late Pleistocene (at ~400ka and 125ka). This was when atmospheric CO2 was between 280 and 400ppm and global average surface temperatures were 1- 3°C warmer, suggesting polar ice sheets are highly sensitive to relatively modest increases in climate forcing. Such magnitudes of GMSL rise not only require near complete melt of the Greenland Ice Sheet and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, but a substantial retreat of marine-based sectors of East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Recent geological drilling initiatives on the continental margin of Antarctica from both ship- (e.g. IODP; International Ocean Discovery Program) and ice-based (e.g. ANDRILL/Antarctic Geological Drilling) platforms have provided evidence supporting retreat of marine-based ice. However, without direct access through the ice sheet to archives preserved within sub-glacial sedimentary basins, the volume and extent of ice sheet retreat during past interglacials cannot be directly constrained. Sediment cores have been successfully recovered from beneath ice shelves by the ANDRILL Program and ice streams by the WISSARD (Whillans Ice Stream Sub-glacial Access Research Drilling) Project. Together with the potential of the new RAID (Rapid Access Ice Drill) initiative, these demonstrate the technological feasibility of accessing the subglacial bed and deeper sedimentary archives. In this talk I will outline the

  18. Sea level rise under the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleussner, C. F.; Nauels, A.; Rogelj, J.; Mengel, M.; Meinshausen, M.

    2017-12-01

    In order to assess future sea level rise and its impacts, we need to study climate change pathways combined with different scenarios of socioeconomic development. Here, we present Sea Level Rise (SLR) projections for the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) storylines and different year-2100 radiative Forcing Targets (FTs). Future SLR is estimated with a comprehensive SLR emulator that accounts for latest research on additional Antarctic rapid discharge dynamics from hydrofracturing and ice cliff instability. Across all baseline scenario realizations (no dedicated climate mitigation), we find 2100 median SLR relative to 1986-2005 of 102 cm (likely range: 77 to 135 cm) for SSP1, 118 cm (90 to 151 cm) for SSP2, 118 cm (91 to 149 cm) for SSP3, 107 cm (81 to 137 cm) for SSP4, and 144 cm (112 to 184 cm) for SSP5. The 2100 sea level responses for combined SSP-FT scenarios is dominated by the mitigation targets and yield median estimates of 68 cm (56 to 87 cm) for FT 2.6 Wm-2, 76 cm (61 to 107 cm) for FT 3.4 Wm-2, 90 cm (68 to 120 cm) for FT 4.5 Wm-2, and 105 cm (79 to 136 cm) for FT 6.0 Wm-2. Average 2081-2100 annual rates of SLR are 6 mm/yr and 19 mm/yr for the FT 2.6 Wm-2 and the baseline scenarios, respectively. Our model setup allows linking scenario-specific emission and socioeconomic indicators to projected SLR. For limiting median 2100 SSP SLR projections to below 80 cm, we find that 2050 cumulative CO2 emissions since pre-industrial should not exceed around 860 GtC, with the global coal phase-out nearly completed. For SSP mitigation scenarios, the median 2050 carbon price of 90 US$2005 tCO2-1 would correspond to a median 2100 SLR of around 80 cm. Our results confirm that rapid and early emission reductions are essential for limiting 2100 SLR.

  19. FIRE EVACUATION FROM HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korol'chenko Aleksandr Yakovlevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that no collapse of structures is likely in the event of a fire emergency in multistoried buildings, rather, other fire-related factors may endanger the lives of people inside high-rise buildings exposed to the fire emergency, including open fire, sparks, high ambient temperature, smoke and toxic combustion products, reduced concentration of oxygen, and combined influence of various factors. In case of fire, the temperature inside buildings reaches 1100 °С. It exceeds the temperature of the ambient air acceptable for humans by far (70 °С. The experiments demonstrate that combustion products contain hundreds of toxic chemical compounds. The most hazardous of them include carbon oxide, carbon dioxide, chloride and cyanic hydrogen, aldehydes and acrolein. The author provides the pattern of their influence on the human body. The smoke consists of unburned particles of carbon and aerosols. The size of particles fluctuates within 0.05-50 MMK. Smoke produces a physiological and psychological impact on human beings. It has been proven that dangerous fire factors emerge within the first five to ten minutes of the emergency situation. Evacuation is the principal method of safety assurance. However, the velocity of propagation of smoke and heat is so high that even if the fire prevention system is in operation, people may be blocked both on the floors that are exposed to the fire and those that escape its propagation. New evacuation and rescue methods are recommended by the author. Various ways and methods of use of life-saving facilities are also provided. Safe evacuation is feasible from buildings where the number of stories does not exceed 10- 12. During evacuation, high density human streams are formed inside buildings, therefore, the period of stay in a burning building is increased. The calculations have proven that a two-minute delay of evacuation converts into a safe evacuation of only 13-15% of people. Low reliability of

  20. Pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    Strain gauges pressure transducers types are presented. Models, characteristics and calibration procedures were also analysed. Initially, a theoretical study was accomplished to evaluate metallic alloys behavior on sensing elements manufacturing, and diaphragm was used as deflecting elements. Electrical models for potenciometric transducers were proposed at the beginning and subsequently comproved according our experiments. Concerning bridge transducers, existing models confirmed the conditions of linearity and sensitivity related to the electrical signal. All the work done was of help on the calibration field and pressure measurements employing unbounded strain gauge pressure transducers

  1. Exploring the unprecedented rise in Danish burglary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, David W.M.

    2012-01-01

    burglary increased so dramatically. This paper explores four sets of possible explanations for the increase, namely: Changes in public reporting, police recording and insurance practices; changes in population age, drug use and economic recession; increasing crime tourism; and impediments policing caused...... by the National Police Reform of 2007. While some or all of these factors may have contributed to the overall rise, none of them come close to explaining it on their own. This absence of evidence is especially interesting in light of widespread assumptions in the media and among some police about foreign burglary......-year period 2005-2010, plus data on long term crime trends (1990-2010) and other social indicators....

  2. Is the Kingdom of Bicycles Rising Again?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Christensen, Hilda

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on new types of cycling in postsocialist China, especially mountain and sports biking, and on the particular entanglements of gender and class brought with them. The shift in mobility and biking from the Mao era to the postsocialist China is analyzed in the contexts of cultural......-analytical notions of global assemblages and gendered interpellations. Based on Chinese newspaper materials and fieldwork in Beijing and Shanghai, the article examines the social and gendered implications of the new biking cultures. These new biking practices mainly interpellate new middle-class men...... and masculinities as part of an exclusive leisure culture. If the “Kingdom of the Bicycles” is going to rise again, there is a need for a broader scope that addresses access for all, including women and families, as smart bikers, as well as biking as a daily mode of transportation....

  3. AHP 21: Review: The Sun Rises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bender

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sun Rises is a model study contextualizing an oral narrative tradition in the social and ritual fabric of a remote community in northeast India. In many ways a companion volume to Himalayan Tribal Tales (Blackburn 2008, the text presents the first substantial translation of a key ritual text of the Apantani Valley dwellers in Arunachal Pradesh, located on the contested border between China (Tibet and India. The Apatani speak a Tibeto-Burman language, practice intensive rice agriculture in carefully terraced fields, and number about 35,000. Their clans populate several centuries-old villages. Until recently, they were separated from the lowlands of Assam and surrounded only by peoples practicing various forms of shifting agriculture. The valley dwellers have increasingly encountered modernization over the last few decades, including Indian and global popular culture, and Christianity. ...

  4. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Jeppesen, Søren; Hansen, Michael W.

    of African firm strategy and performance that takes into account the specificities of the African business environment and African firm capabilities. The paper starts by juxtaposing the widespread pessimistic view of African business with more recent, optimistic studies on African firms’ performance....... The latter suggests that profound improvements in African business performance are indeed under way: with the private sector playing a more important role as an engine of growth, with the rise of a capable African entrepreneurial class, and with the emergence of dynamic and competitive African enterprises...... in the literature, the authors suggest an analytical framework for understanding African business performance, underlining the interplay between contextual specificities, firm capabilities, and firm strategy....

  5. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  6. Doubling of coastal flooding frequency within decades due to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L.; Fletcher, Charles H.; Frazer, Neil; Erikson, Li; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2017-01-01

    Global climate change drives sea-level rise, increasing the frequency of coastal flooding. In most coastal regions, the amount of sea-level rise occurring over years to decades is significantly smaller than normal ocean-level fluctuations caused by tides, waves, and storm surge. However, even gradual sea-level rise can rapidly increase the frequency and severity of coastal flooding. So far, global-scale estimates of increased coastal flooding due to sea-level rise have not considered elevated water levels due to waves, and thus underestimate the potential impact. Here we use extreme value theory to combine sea-level projections with wave, tide, and storm surge models to estimate increases in coastal flooding on a continuous global scale. We find that regions with limited water-level variability, i.e., short-tailed flood-level distributions, located mainly in the Tropics, will experience the largest increases in flooding frequency. The 10 to 20 cm of sea-level rise expected no later than 2050 will more than double the frequency of extreme water-level events in the Tropics, impairing the developing economies of equatorial coastal cities and the habitability of low-lying Pacific island nations.

  7. Doubling of coastal flooding frequency within decades due to sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, Sean; Barnard, Patrick L; Fletcher, Charles H; Frazer, Neil; Erikson, Li; Storlazzi, Curt D

    2017-05-18

    Global climate change drives sea-level rise, increasing the frequency of coastal flooding. In most coastal regions, the amount of sea-level rise occurring over years to decades is significantly smaller than normal ocean-level fluctuations caused by tides, waves, and storm surge. However, even gradual sea-level rise can rapidly increase the frequency and severity of coastal flooding. So far, global-scale estimates of increased coastal flooding due to sea-level rise have not considered elevated water levels due to waves, and thus underestimate the potential impact. Here we use extreme value theory to combine sea-level projections with wave, tide, and storm surge models to estimate increases in coastal flooding on a continuous global scale. We find that regions with limited water-level variability, i.e., short-tailed flood-level distributions, located mainly in the Tropics, will experience the largest increases in flooding frequency. The 10 to 20 cm of sea-level rise expected no later than 2050 will more than double the frequency of extreme water-level events in the Tropics, impairing the developing economies of equatorial coastal cities and the habitability of low-lying Pacific island nations.

  8. Crustal structure of Shatsky Rise from joint refraction and reflection seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenaga, J.; Sager, W. W.

    2011-12-01

    Shatsky Rise in the western Pacific is one of a few gigantic oceanic plateaus in the world, with a surface area of ˜ 4.8 ± 105~km2 (about the same size as California). In contrast to other large oceanic plateaus formed during the Cretaceous Quite Period, Shatsky Rise formed during the frequent reversals of magnetic polarity, allowing its tectonic environment to be resolved in detail. It was formed at a rapidly spreading ridge-ridge-ridge triple junction, so the effect of lithospheric lid on magma migration is expected to be minimal, thereby facilitating the petrological interpretation of its seismic structure in terms of parental mantle processes. In the summer of 2010, a seismic refraction survey combined with multichannel seismic profiling was conducted across Shatsky Rise. Twenty eight ocean-bottom seismometers were deployed along two crossing perpendicular lines, and all of the instruments were recovered successfully, yielding a large volume of high-quality wide-angle refraction and reflection data, with the source-receiver distance often exceeding 200~km. In this contribution, we present the P-wave velocity structure of the Shatsky Rise crust, which is constructed by joint refraction and reflection travel time tomography, and also discuss its implications for the origin of Shatsky Rise.

  9. Analysis of Sea Level Rise in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, K. M.; Huang, T.; Quach, N. T.; Boening, C.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Sea Level Change Portal provides scientists and the general public with "one-stop" source for current sea level change information and data. Sea Level Rise research is a multidisciplinary research and in order to understand its causes, scientists must be able to access different measurements and to be able to compare them. The portal includes an interactive tool, called the Data Analysis Tool (DAT), for accessing, visualizing, and analyzing observations and models relevant to the study of Sea Level Rise. Using NEXUS, an open source, big data analytic technology developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the DAT is able provide user on-the-fly data analysis on all relevant parameters. DAT is composed of three major components: A dedicated instance of OnEarth (a WMTS service), NEXUS deep data analytic platform, and the JPL Common Mapping Client (CMC) for web browser based user interface (UI). Utilizing the global imagery, a user is capable of browsing the data in a visual manner and isolate areas of interest for further study. The interfaces "Analysis" tool provides tools for area or point selection, single and/or comparative dataset selection, and a range of options, algorithms, and plotting. This analysis component utilizes the Nexus cloud computing platform to provide on-demand processing of the data within the user-selected parameters and immediate display of the results. A RESTful web API is exposed for users comfortable with other interfaces and who may want to take advantage of the cloud computing capabilities. This talk discuss how DAT enables on-the-fly sea level research. The talk will introduce the DAT with an end-to-end tour of the tool with exploration and animating of available imagery, a demonstration of comparative analysis and plotting, and how to share and export data along with images for use in publications/presentations. The session will cover what kind of data is available, what kind of analysis is possible, and what are the outputs.

  10. Infrared and X-ray bursts from the rapid burster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparao, K.M.V.; Chitre, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Studies on sudden bursts from the cosmic X-ray sources are reported. The processes occuring from the rise in luminosity of an x-ray source to its collapse are described. Records of the x-ray burst from the globular cluster NGC 6624 and the 'Rapid Burster' are shown. The Infra-red bursts from the Rapid Burster are also explained. (A.K.)

  11. Numerical Modeling of the Hydrothermal System at East Pacific Rise 9°50'N Including Anhydrite Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolandaivelu, K. P.; Lowell, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    To better understand the effects of anhydrite precipitation on mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems, we conducted 2-D numerical simulations of two-phase hydrothermal circulation in a NaCl-H2O fluid at the East Pacific Rise 9°50'N. The simulations were constrained by key observational thermal data and seismicity that suggests the fluid flow is primarily along axis with recharge focused into a small zone near a 4th order discontinuity. The simulations considered an open-top square box with a fixed seafloor pressure of 25 MPa, and nominal seafloor temperature of 10 °C. The sides of the box were assumed to be impermeable and insulated. We considered two models: a homogeneous model with a permeability of 10-13 m2 and a heterogeneous model in which layer 2A extrusives were given a higher permeability. Both models had a fixed bottom temperature distribution and initial porosity of 0.1. Assuming that anhydrite precipitation resulted from the decrease in solubility with increasing temperature as downwelling fluid gets heated, we calculated the rate of porosity decrease and sealing times in each cell at certain time snapshots in the simulations. The results showed that sealing would occur most rapidly in limited regions near the base of the high-temperature plumes, where complete sealing could occur on decadal time scales. Though more detailed analysis is needed, it appeared that the areas of rapid sealing would likely have negligible impact on the overall circulation pattern and hydrothermal vent temperatures. The simulations also indicated that sealing due to anhydrite precipitation would occur more slowly at the margins of the ascending plumes. The sealing times in the deep recharge zone determined in these simulations were considerably greater than estimated from 1D analytical calculations, suggesting that with a 2D model, focused recharge at the EPR 9°50'N site may occur, at least on a decadal time scale.

  12. Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for: Teens Dealing With Bullying Emotional Intelligence Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Coping With Stressful Situations Prom Pressure What Stresses You Out About School? Virginity: A Very Personal Decision Stress & Coping Center ...

  13. Rising cyclin-CDK levels order cell cycle events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Oikonomou

    Full Text Available Diverse mitotic events can be triggered in the correct order and time by a single cyclin-CDK. A single regulator could confer order and timing on multiple events if later events require higher cyclin-CDK than earlier events, so that gradually rising cyclin-CDK levels can sequentially trigger responsive events: the "quantitative model" of ordering.This 'quantitative model' makes predictions for the effect of locking cyclin at fixed levels for a protracted period: at low cyclin levels, early events should occur rapidly, while late events should be slow, defective, or highly variable (depending on threshold mechanism. We titrated the budding yeast mitotic cyclin Clb2 within its endogenous expression range to a stable, fixed level and measured time to occurrence of three mitotic events: growth depolarization, spindle formation, and spindle elongation, as a function of fixed Clb2 level. These events require increasingly more Clb2 according to their normal order of occurrence. Events occur efficiently and with low variability at fixed Clb2 levels similar to those observed when the events normally occur. A second prediction of the model is that increasing the rate of cyclin accumulation should globally advance timing of all events. Moderate (<2-fold overexpression of Clb2 accelerates all events of mitosis, resulting in consistently rapid sequential cell cycles. However, this moderate overexpression also causes a significant frequency of premature mitoses leading to inviability, suggesting that Clb2 expression level is optimized to balance the fitness costs of variability and catastrophe.We conclude that mitotic events are regulated by discrete cyclin-CDK thresholds. These thresholds are sequentially triggered as cyclin increases, yielding reliable order and timing. In many biological processes a graded input must be translated into discrete outputs. In such systems, expression of the central regulator is likely to be tuned to an optimum level, as we

  14. Using environmental heterogeneity to plan for sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Elizabeth A; Nibbelink, Nathan P

    2017-12-01

    Environmental heterogeneity is increasingly being used to select conservation areas that will provide for future biodiversity under a variety of climate scenarios. This approach, termed conserving nature's stage (CNS), assumes environmental features respond to climate change more slowly than biological communities, but will CNS be effective if the stage were to change as rapidly as the climate? We tested the effectiveness of using CNS to select sites in salt marshes for conservation in coastal Georgia (U.S.A.), where environmental features will change rapidly as sea level rises. We calculated species diversity based on distributions of 7 bird species with a variety of niches in Georgia salt marshes. Environmental heterogeneity was assessed across six landscape gradients (e.g., elevation, salinity, and patch area). We used 2 approaches to select sites with high environmental heterogeneity: site complementarity (environmental diversity [ED]) and local environmental heterogeneity (environmental richness [ER]). Sites selected based on ER predicted present-day species diversity better than randomly selected sites (up to an 8.1% improvement), were resilient to areal loss from SLR (1.0% average areal loss by 2050 compared with 0.9% loss of randomly selected sites), and provided habitat to a threatened species (0.63 average occupancy compared with 0.6 average occupancy of randomly selected sites). Sites selected based on ED predicted species diversity no better or worse than random and were not resilient to SLR (2.9% average areal loss by 2050). Despite the discrepancy between the 2 approaches, CNS is a viable strategy for conservation site selection in salt marshes because the ER approach was successful. It has potential for application in other coastal areas where SLR will affect environmental features, but its performance may depend on the magnitude of geological changes caused by SLR. Our results indicate that conservation planners that had heretofore excluded low

  15. Rate of PSA rise predicts metastatic versus local recurrence after definitive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, C.I.; Strawderman, M.H.; Lin, X.; Kish, K.E.; McLaughlin, P.W.; Lichter, A.S.; Sandler, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: A rising PSA following treatment for adenocarcinoma of the prostate indicates eventual clinical failure, but the rate of rise can be quite different from patient to patient, as can the pattern of clinical failure. We sought to determine whether the rate of PSA rise could differentiate future local vs. metastatic failure. Materials and Methods: PSA values from our series of 671 patients treated between 1987 and 1994 with 3-D conformal radiotherapy for localized adenocarcinoma were analyzed. Patients who had a pre-treatment PSA and >4 post-treatment PSA values available, had received no hormonal therapy, and had information detailing clinical outcome were used in this analysis. First site of failure was determined by abnormal DRE or biopsy, abnormal bone scan or radiographic evidence of metastasis as directed by clinical symptoms or follow-up clinical exam. Each patient's PSA pattern was defined by the function PSA(t)=C 1 e - a 1 (t) + C 2 e a 2 (t) where -a 1 relates to the rate of decline and a 2 to the rate of rise, if any. Univariate analysis was used to determine the correlation between initial PSA or rising PSA and clinical failure. Adjacent category logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the rate of rise and pattern of clinical failure. Results: 671 patients were reviewed; 401 patients met the requirements and 2667 PSA values were analyzed. We confirmed the finding of others that pre-treatment PSA is a prognostic indicator: patients presenting with PSA 3-20ng/ml had a relative risk of 9 (p=0.03) and PSA>20ng/ml had a RR of 26 (p=0.002) for clinical failure when compared to presenting PSA 2 >1.5/year predicted metastatic as opposed to local failure when compared to PSA rise with a 2 between 0.5-1.5/yr or 1.5 log(ng/ml)/year vs. 0.5-1.5 log(ng/ml)/yr or <0.5 log(ng/ml)/yr. Conclusions: The rate of rise of PSA following definitive radiotherapy can predict clinical failure patterns, with a rapidly rising PSA indicating metastatic as opposed to

  16. Does public insurance provide better financial protection against rising health care costs for families of children with special health care needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Dick, Andrew W; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2008-10-01

    Health care costs grew rapidly since 2001, generating substantial economic pressures on families, especially those with children with special health care needs (CSHCN). To examine how the growth of health care costs affected financial burden for families of CSHCN between 2001 and 2004 and to determine the extent to which health insurance coverage protected families of CSHCN against financial burden. In 2001-2004, 5196 families of CSHCN were surveyed by the national Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). The main outcome was financial burden, defined as the proportion of family income spent on out-of-pocket (OOP) health care expenditures for all family members, including OOP costs and premiums. Family insurance coverage was classified as: (1) all members publicly insured, (2) all members privately insured, (3) all members uninsured, (4) partial coverage, and (5) a mix of public and private with no uninsured periods. An upward trend in financial burden for families of CSHCN occurred and was associated with growth of economy-wide health care costs. A multivariate analysis indicated that, given the economy-wide increase in medical costs between 2001 and 2004, a family with CSHCN was at increased risk in 2004 for having financial burden exceeding 10% of family income [odds ratio (OR) = 1.39; P financial burden exceeding 20% of family income. Over 15% of families with public insurance had financial burden exceeding 10% of family income compared with 20% of families with private insurance (P financial burden of >10% or 20% of family income than privately-insured families. Rising health care costs increased financial burden on families of CSHCN in 2001-2004. Public insurance coverage provided better financial protection than private insurance against the rapidly rising health care costs for families of CSHCN.

  17. WHn under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleski-Ejgierd, Patryk; Ashcroft, N W; Labet, Vanessa; Hoffmann, Roald; Strobel, Timothy A

    2012-01-01

    An initial observation of the formation of WH under pressure from W gaskets surrounding hydrogen in diamond anvil cells led to a theoretical study of tungsten hydride phases. At P = 1 atm no stoichiometry is found to be stable with respect to separation into the elements, but as the pressure is raised WH n (n = 1-6, 8) stoichiometries are metastable or stable. WH and WH 4 are calculated to be stable at P > 15 GPa, WH 2 becomes stable at P > 100 GPa and WH 6 at P > 150 GPa. In agreement with experiment, the structure computed for WH is anti-NiAs. WH 2 shares with WH a hexagonal arrangement of tungsten atoms, with hydrogen atoms occupying octahedral and tetrahedral holes. For WH 4 the W atoms are in a distorted fcc arrangement. As the number of hydrogens rises, the coordination of W by H increases correspondingly, leading to a twelve-coordinated W in WH 6 . In WH 8 H 2 units also develop. All of the hydrides considered should be metallic at high pressure, though the Fermi levels of WH 4 and WH 6 lie in a deep pseudogap. Prodded by these theoretical studies, experiments were then undertaken to seek phases other than WH, exploring a variety of experimental conditions that would favor further reaction. Though a better preparation and characterization of WH resulted, no higher hydrides have as yet been found. (paper)

  18. Pattern of Blood Pressure in Adolescents | Mijinyawa | Sahel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple linear regression analysis identified body mass index, height and socioeconomic status as independent predictors of rise in SBP. These variables, as well as age similarly predicted rise in diastolic blood pressure. Going by the definition of hypertension of equal greater than the 95th percentile for the individual's sex ...

  19. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  20. Why is energy use rising in the freight sector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    Trends in transportation sector energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed with an emphasis on three freight modes -- rail, truck, and marine. A recent set of energy use projections is presented and freight mode energy characteristics are discussed. Transportation sector energy use, which nearly doubled between 1960 and 1985, is projected to grow more slowly during the period 1985 endash 2010. Most of the growth is projected to come from non-personal modes (freight and commercial air). Trends in freight mode energy intensities are discussed and a variety of factors behind these trends are analyzed. Rail and marine modes improved their energy intensities during sudden fuel price rises of the 1970s. Though there is room for further technological improvement, long power plant life cycles preclude rapid penetration of new technologies. Thus, energy intensities in these modes are more likely to improve through operational changes. Because of relatively stable fuel prices, the energy share of truck operating expenses is likely to remain low. Coupled with increasing labor costs, this portends only modest improvements in truck energy efficiency over the next two decades

  1. Influence of rising commodity prices on energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppo, I.J.

    2009-04-01

    During the past few years we have first witnessed a rapid increase in the prices of commodities and then later, as a consequence of the economic downturn, an even more drastic drop. Simultaneously with the commodity price increase, an increase in the investment costs of power plants was experienced. The rise in material costs was often stated as one of the reasons for this increase. In this study the relationship between commodity costs and energy prices is studied. A bottom-up approach is used for estimating what kind of an impact increased commodity prices alone could be expected to have on the investment costs on the one hand, and how increased energy prices may affect commodity production costs on the other. The results indicate that although the commodity production costs usually have a fairly large energy component, even high increases in commodity prices, and therefore raw material costs of power plant investments, can not explain the recently experienced hikes in power plant investment costs; a doubling of the costs of the main raw material flows could explain an investment cost increase of some 5-10%, depending on the power plant type. This would seem to indicate that other contributing factors, such as bottlenecks in the production of power plant components, may play an important role in the recent investment cost increase

  2. Can salt marshes survive sea level rise ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambroni, N.; Seminara, G.

    2008-12-01

    Stability of salt marshes is a very delicate issue depending on the subtle interplay among hydrodynamics, morphodynamics and ecology. In fact, the elevation of the marsh platform depends essentially on three effects: i) the production of soil associated with sediments resuspended by tidal currents and wind waves in the adjacent tidal flats, advected to the marsh and settling therein; ii) production of organic sediments by the salt marsh vegetation; iii) soil 'loss' driven by sea level rise and subsidence. In order to gain insight into the mechanics of the process, we consider a schematic configuration consisting of a salt marsh located at the landward end of a tidal channel connected at the upstream end with a tidal sea, under different scenarios of sea level rise. We extend the simple 1D model for the morphodynamic evolution of a tidal channel formulated by Lanzoni and Seminara (2002, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 107, C1) allowing for sediment resuspension in the channel and vegetation growth in the marsh using the depth dependent model of biomass productivity of Spartina proposed by Morris et al. (2002, Ecology, 83, pp. 2869 - 2877). We first focus on the case of a tide dominated salt marsh neglecting wind driven sediment resuspension in the shoal. Results show that the production of biomass plays a crucial role on salt marsh stability and, provided productivity is high enough, it may turn out to be sufficient to counteract the effects of sea level rise even in the absence of significant supply of mineral sediments. The additional effect of wind resuspension is then introduced. Note that the wind action is twofold: on one hand, it generates wind waves the amplitude of which is strongly dependent on shoal depth and wind fetch; on the other hand, it generates currents driven by the surface setup induced by the shear stress acting on the free surface. Here, each contribution is analysed separately. Results show that the values of bottom stress induced by

  3. Population pressures: threat to democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The desire for political freedom and representative government is spreading throughout the world. The stability of democratic bodies is dependent on wise leaders, foreign aid, and slowing population growth. Rapid population growth strains political institutions and increases pressure on services. A Population Crisis Committee study found that only a few democratic countries with serious demographic pressures remained stable. The most stable countries were ones with lower levels of population pressure. Most of the 31 unstable countries were in Africa and in a band stretching from the Middle East to South Asia, and almost all had serious demographic pressures. Only 5 stable countries had high or very high demographic pressures. Since countries in the world are interdependent, population pressures have adverse consequences everywhere. Population pressures in the developing world are considered enhanced by the rapid growth of cities. Both the developed and the developing world face the problems of clogged highways, loss of wilderness, polluted lakes and streams, and stifling smog and acid rain conditions. The sociopolitical implications of demographic changes vary from country to country, but rapid growth and maldistribution of population strains existing political, social, and economic structures and relations between nations. Urban areas are the arena for clashes of cultures, competition for scarce housing and jobs, the breakdown of traditional family and social structures, and juxtapositions of extreme wealth next to extreme poverty. The growth of independent nation states since the 1940s has not allowed much time for development of effective political institutions. There are many obstacles to national unity and popular political participation. The potential for political instability is correlated with a number of factors: large youth populations in overcrowded cities with too high expectations and limited opportunities, diverse and intense ethnic and religious

  4. Rapid improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  5. Temporal variation of accumulation rates on a natural salt marsh in the 20th century determined by 137Cs chronologies – the impact of sea level rise and increased inundation frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Svinth, Steffen; Pejrup, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Salt marshes are potentially threatened by sea level rise if sediment supply is unable to balance the rising sea. A rapid sea level rise is one of the pronounced effects of global warming and global sea level is at present rising at an elevated rate of about 3.4 mm y-1 on average. This increasing...... in sediment deposition is significant and gives reason for concern as it may be the first sign of a sedimentation deficiency which could be threatening this and other salt marshes in the case of a rapidly rising sea level. Our work demonstrates that the assumption of a constant relationship between salt marsh...... with salt marsh accretion is most probably not valid in the present case study and it may well be that this is also the case for many other salt marshes, especially if sea level continues to rise rapidly as indicated by some climate change scenarios....

  6. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  7. Sea level rise and the geoid: factor analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Hongzhi; Sadovski, Alexey; Jeffress, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Sea levels are rising around the world, and this is a particular concern along most of the coasts of the United States. A 1989 EPA report shows that sea levels rose 5-6 inches more than the global average along the Mid-Atlantic and Gulf Coasts in the last century. The main reason for this is coastal land subsidence. This sea level rise is considered more as relative sea level rise than global sea level rise. Thus, instead of studying sea level rise globally, this paper describes a statistical...

  8. Partitions for high-rise construction using phosphogypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhin, Sergey; Kukina, Olga; Abramenko, Anatoly

    2018-03-01

    Gypsum blocks are usually used to make partitions in highrise construction. Reducing the cost of materials used in high-rise construction is an urgent task of modern material science. Phosphogypsum dihydrate, which has binding properties, is one of the large-tonnage waste. The authors have proved that, after years of storage in heaps, water-soluble phosphates, fluorides and other additives included in the structure of fresh phosphogypsum dissolved in water due to weathering (humidification-drying, freezing-thawing in a water-saturated state), and the calcium hydro-and dihydrogen phosphates ingressed in the lattice underwent complete hydrolysis and disintegration, thereby changing the physicochemical properties of phosphogypsum. The data obtained by the authors on the absence of water-soluble compounds of phosphorus, fluorine in stale phosphogypsum indicate its ecological purity and the possibility of application in housing construction. Having analyzed the data of modern methods of differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy, the authors predicted and proved by the energy of dehydration of phosphogypsum dihydrate, lime, sandy loam, the possibility of obtaining non-flammable materials with sufficient strength for wall materials. Understanding the processes occurring in water films (the thickness of the water film, the pressure, the temperature and the pH of the aqueous extract of the mixture, the drying of the materials produced), made it possible to develop a technology for obtaining wall products from lime-sandy phosphogypsum material using typical silicate brick production equipment and vibropresses for key-cog blocks production.

  9. OPEC Middle East plans for rising world demand amid uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, I.A.H.

    1996-01-01

    The Middle Eastern members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries must plan for huge increases in oil production capacity yet wonder whether markets for the new output will develop as expected. With worldwide oil consumption rising and non-OPEC output likely to reach its resource limits soon, OPEC member countries face major gains in demand for their crude oil. To meet the demand growth, those with untapped resources will have to invest heavily in production capacity. Most OPEC members with such resources are in the Middle East. But financing the capacity investments remains a challenge. Some OPEC members have opened up to foreign equity participation in production projects, and others may eventually do so as financial pressures grow. That means additions to the opportunities now available to international companies in the Middle East. Uncertainties, however, hamper planning and worry OPEC. Chief among them are taxation and environmental policies of consuming-nation governments. This paper reviews these concerns and provides data on production, pricing, capital investment histories and revenues

  10. China’s rising hydropower demand challenges water sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P. W.; Guan, Dabo

    2015-01-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 109 m3 (Gm3), or 22% of China’s total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm3 yr−1 or 3.6 m3 of water to produce a GJ (109 J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability. PMID:26158871

  11. Gas demand to rise in the Usa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Could US consumption of natural gas rise by as much as 13 quadrillion Btu (quads) over the next 20 years? A new study conducted for the American Gas Foundation by Washington Policy and Analysis says it's certainly a possibility if appropriate policies are implemented. 'Fueling the Future: Natural Gas and New Technologies for a Cleaner 21. Century', confirms what natural gas industry professionals have long suspected: changes in US energy policy that favor increased use of natural gas could improve air quality, conserve energy and reduce reliance on imported oil from politically unstable countries. Consequently, the study forecasts that the environmental, economic and efficiency advantages of natural gas-combined with advances in gas-related technologies and the introduction of new end-use technologies - could help push. US gas consumption into the 35-quad range over the next two decades. Currently, American gas demand is close to 22 quads a year. The study tracks two scenarios: a 'current projection', which shows gas demand reaching nearly 30 quads by 2020, and an 'accelerated projection', which foresees demand topping 35 quads by then based on the adoption of national policies encouraging greater use of natural gas. (authors)

  12. The Rise of Islamic Feminism in Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haya al-Mughni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the emergence of Islamic Feminism in Kuwait, based on the writings and personal accounts of leading Islamist women activists.  It begins with an analysis of the socio-political factors that led to the creation of Islamic groups in the 1980s. It then outlines the role of women in the growth of the Islamic movement and shows how the contradictions between women’s contributions to the Islamic cause and the secondary role they play within the Islamic organizations controlled by men were conducive to the rise of Islamic feminism in the 1990s. The paper also demonstrates how the involvement of islamist women in the struggle for suffrage forging a coalition with liberal women activists had played a decisive role in changing the position of islamist groups towards the enfranchisement of women. The last two sections of the paper look at the participation of islamist women activists in the re-definition of the dichotomy between the public and private spheres and at their involvement in the process of interpretation of Islamic sources, known as Ijtihâd. The paper concludes that the engagement of islamist women activists in the discourse of women’s rights can be powerful agent of change towards a more egalitarian society.

  13. The rise and fall of refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chretien, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper described the rise and fall of refineries in Montreal. Well before Calgary, Montreal was the hub of activity for oil refineries because Montreal was the principle consuming market for petroleum products in Canada. The location was good, particularly since the soil was clay which helped prevent soil infiltration of petroleum. The first refinery in Montreal was constructed in 1916 by Esso, followed by Texaco in 1921 and Gulf in 1931. Initially oil was shipped by boat to the Port of Montreal from Saudi Arabia. Later, the petroleum came mostly from Venezuela. At the beginning of the 1980s many refineries were closed because they became obsolete and upgrading them would have been too costly. Only 3 refineries remain in Quebec, of which 2 are in Montreal. They are owned by Shell and PetroCanada. The third refinery in Quebec is in St-Romuald and is owned by UltraMar. One of the major contributing factors to the decline of the refining industry in Montreal was the decision in 1984 by former Prime Minister Trudeau to force Canadian provinces to purchase their petroleum from Alberta. This caused the petrochemical industry to locate in Sarnia in Ontario, leaving the Montreal refining centre to become obsolete. 3 figs

  14. Rapid response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrick G; Edelson, Dana P; Churpek, Matthew M

    2018-07-01

    Rapid response systems are commonly employed by hospitals to identify and respond to deteriorating patients outside of the intensive care unit. Controversy exists about the benefits of rapid response systems. We aimed to review the current state of the rapid response literature, including evolving aspects of afferent (risk detection) and efferent (intervention) arms, outcome measurement, process improvement, and implementation. Articles written in English and published in PubMed. Rapid response systems are heterogeneous, with important differences among afferent and efferent arms. Clinically meaningful outcomes may include unexpected mortality, in-hospital cardiac arrest, length of stay, cost, and processes of care at end of life. Both positive and negative interventional studies have been published, although the two largest randomized trials involving rapid response systems - the Medical Early Response and Intervention Trial (MERIT) and the Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients (EPOCH) trial - did not find a mortality benefit with these systems, albeit with important limitations. Advances in monitoring technologies, risk assessment strategies, and behavioral ergonomics may offer opportunities for improvement. Rapid responses may improve some meaningful outcomes, although these findings remain controversial. These systems may also improve care for patients at the end of life. Rapid response systems are expected to continue evolving with novel developments in monitoring technologies, risk prediction informatics, and work in human factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiography of pressure ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstroem, P.S.; Ekberg, O.; Lasson, A.

    1988-01-01

    In patients with longstanding and/or deep pressure ulcers radiology is usually consulted. Survey radiography and sinography in 14 patients with pressure ulcers (6 over the tuber ischii and 8 over the femoral trochanter) were evaluated. Osteomyelitic involvement of adjacent bone was revealed in 9 patients on survey radiography. However, it was usually impossible to assess whether or not bony involvement represents healed or active osteomyelitis. Sinography did not contribute to the assessment of whether or not adjacent cortical bone was involved. However, when a fistulation to an adjacent joint was revealed this contributed substantially to the preoperative planning of resection. We therefore recommend that survey radiography and sinography should be included in the evaluation of these patients but that the results from such examinations are critically evaluated. Joint involvement should be taken seriously as progression of septic arthritis usually occurs rapidly. (orig.)

  16. Shapes and rising velocities of single bubbles rising through an inner subchannel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Akio; Nakahara, Yusuke; Adachi, Yoshihiro; Hosokawa, Shigeo

    2003-01-01

    Shapes and velocities of single air bubbles rising through stagnant and flowing waters in an inner subchannel are measured by making use of fluorocarbon tubes. It is confirmed that (1) bubble shapes and motions in the subchannel are by far different from those in simple geometry, and they depend on the ratio λ of the bubble diameter to the subchannel hydraulic diameter, (2) when λ > 0.9, a part of a bubble intrudes into neighboring subchannels, and thereby a kind of void drift takes place even with a single bubble, (3) the terminal velocity V T of a small bubble (λ T for cell-Taylor bubbles (λ > 0.9) is presented, and (5) the rising velocity V B in laminar an turbulent flow conditions are well evaluated by substituting the proposed V T models and the ratio of the maximum liquid velocity to the mean liquid velocity into the Nicklin correlation. (author)

  17. Rapid pile load tests in the geotechnical centrifuge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holscher, P.; Van Tol, A.F.; Huy, N.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Centrifiige experiments were carried out to gain insight into the factors that affect the mobilized resistance during rapid load testing on piles in sand. The influence of generated pore water pressure during rapid load tests is shidied, and its effect on the commonly used unloadmg point method to

  18. Rapid die manufacturing using direct laser metal deposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pereira, MFVT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the work undertaken at the CSIR on the issue of rapid die manufacturing through the application and evaluation of a rapid prototyping technique and coating technologies applied to die components of a high pressure casting die...

  19. LOFT fuel rod pressure measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billeter, T.R.

    1979-01-01

    Pressure sensors selected for measuring fuel rod pressure within the LOFT reactor exhibited stable, repeatable operating characteristics during calibrations at temperatures up to 800 0 F and pressures to 2500 psig. All sensors have a nominal sensitivity of .5 millivolts per psi, decreasing monotonically with temperature. Output signal increases linearly with increasing pressure up to 2000 psig. For imposed slow and rapid temperature variations and for pressure applied during these tests, the sensor indicates a pressure at variance with the actual value by up to 15% of reading. However, the imposed temperature rates of change often exceeded the value of -10 0 F/sec. specified for LOFT. The series of tests in an autoclave permit creation of an environment most closely resembling sensor operating conditions within LOFT. For multiple blowdowns and for longtime durations the sensor continued to provide pressure-related output signals. For temperature rates up to -87 0 F/sec, the indicated pressure measurement error remained less than 13% of reading. Adverse effects caused by heating the 1/16 inch O.D. signal cable to 800 0 F contributed only insignificantly to the noted pressure measurement error

  20. rapid assessment of protected area pressures and threats in nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH

    Consequently, much of tropical biodiversity is unlikely to survive without .... conservation of biodiversity was highest in KLNP followed by CRNP and CBNP. GGNP ..... Myers N., Mittermeier R. A., Mittermeier C. G., da. Fonseca G. A. B. and Kent J., 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorties. Nature 403: 853 – 858.

  1. The influence of different auto-ignition modes on the behavior of pressure waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Han; Yao, Anren; Yao, Chunde

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Modes of pressure oscillations in knocking, HCCI and super knock are recognized. • Three representative auto-ignition modes in engines are proposed. • A new method of “Energy Injected” is brought into understanding pressure wave. • Simulation results revealed the decisive factors for these three auto-ignition modes. • Different modes lead to different pressure wave behaviors damaging engines. - Abstract: For internal combustion engines, the knock of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition engines, the conventional knock of gasoline engines and the super knock are all caused by the auto-ignition of unburned mixture which leads to the oscillation burning, but their Maximal Pressure Oscillation Amplitude (MPOA) and Maximum Pressure Rising Rate (MPRR) are totally different. In order to explore the reason, we propose three typical auto-ignition modes and then bring up the method of “Energy Injected” (EI) which is based on the experiment measured heat release rate. Through changing the heat source term in the energy equation for different auto-ignition modes, we conducted a series of numerical simulations for these three modes. After that, the following pressure oscillations can be compared and analyzed. The numerical simulation results show that different combustion pressure waves with different oscillation characteristics come from different auto-ignition modes, thus the macroscopic MPRR and MPOA are totally different. Furthermore, the method of “EI” based on the experiment measured heat release rate can accurately and rapidly help to research the formation and propagation of pressure waves in the engine combustion chamber.

  2. Aggregation, content farms and huffinization: the rise of low-pay and no-pay journalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, P.

    2012-01-01

    The business model of gathering, producing and distributing news is changing rapidly. Producing content is not enough; moderation and curation by "news workers" is at least as important. There is a growing pressure on news organizations to produce more inexpensive content for digital platforms,

  3. The Rise of Big Data in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessele, Kristen L

    2018-05-01

    To describe big data and data science in the context of oncology nursing care. Peer-reviewed and lay publications. The rapid expansion of real-world evidence from sources such as the electronic health record, genomic sequencing, administrative claims and other data sources has outstripped the ability of clinicians and researchers to manually review and analyze it. To promote high-quality, high-value cancer care, big data platforms must be constructed from standardized data sources to support extraction of meaningful, comparable insights. Nurses must advocate for the use of standardized vocabularies and common data elements that represent terms and concepts that are meaningful to patient care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents by a rapid prototyping process chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knitter, R.; Bauer, W.; Goehring, D.; Hausselt, J.

    2001-01-01

    Manufacturing of new ceramic components may be improved significantly by the use of rapid prototyping processes especially in the development of miniaturized or micropatterned components. Most known generative ceramic molding processes do not provide a sufficient resolution for the fabrication of microstructured components. In contrast to this, a rapid prototyping process chain that for example, combines micro-stereolithography and low-pressure injection molding, allows the rapid manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents from functional models to preliminary or small-lot series. (orig.)

  5. Economic vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern U.S. Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Brock, John C.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico coast of the United States has been identified as highly vulnerable to sea-level rise, based on a combination of physical and societal factors. Vulnerability of human populations and infrastructure to projected increases in sea level is a critical area of uncertainty for communities in the extremely low-lying and flat northern gulf coastal zone. A rapidly growing population along some parts of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline is further increasing the potential societal and economic impacts of projected sea-level rise in the region, where observed relative rise rates range from 0.75 to 9.95 mm per year on the Gulf coasts of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. A 1-m elevation threshold was chosen as an inclusive designation of the coastal zone vulnerable to relative sea-level rise, because of uncertainty associated with sea-level rise projections. This study applies a Coastal Economic Vulnerability Index (CEVI) to the northern Gulf of Mexico region, which includes both physical and economic factors that contribute to societal risk of impacts from rising sea level. The economic variables incorporated in the CEVI include human population, urban land cover, economic value of key types of infrastructure, and residential and commercial building values. The variables are standardized and combined to produce a quantitative index value for each 1-km coastal segment, highlighting areas where human populations and the built environment are most at risk. This information can be used by coastal managers as they allocate limited resources for ecosystem restoration, beach nourishment, and coastal-protection infrastructure. The study indicates a large amount of variability in index values along the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline, and highlights areas where long-term planning to enhance resiliency is particularly needed.

  6. Rising utilization of inpatient pediatric asthma pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Sunitha V; Rodean, Jonathan; Bekmezian, Arpi; Hall, Matt; Shah, Samir S; Mahant, Sanjay; Parikh, Kavita; Morse, Rustin; Puls, Henry; Cabana, Michael D

    2018-02-01

    Clinical pathways are detailed care plans that operationalize evidence-based guidelines into an accessible format for health providers. Their goal is to link evidence to practice to optimize patient outcomes and delivery efficiency. It is unknown to what extent inpatient pediatric asthma pathways are being utilized nationally. (1) Describe inpatient pediatric asthma pathway design and implementation across a large hospital network. (2) Compare characteristics of hospitals with and without pathways. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional, survey study of hospitals in the Pediatric Research in Inpatient Settings Network (75% children's hospitals, 25% community hospitals). Our survey determined if each hospital used a pathway and pathway characteristics (e.g. pathway elements, implementation methods). Hospitals with and without pathways were compared using Chi-square tests (categorical variables) and Student's t-tests (continuous variables). Surveys were distributed to 3-5 potential participants from each hospital and 302 (74%) participants responded, representing 86% (106/123) of surveyed hospitals. From 2005-2015, the proportion of hospitals utilizing inpatient asthma pathways increased from 27% to 86%. We found variation in pathway elements, implementation strategies, electronic medical record integration, and compliance monitoring across hospitals. Hospitals with pathways had larger inpatient pediatric programs [mean 12.1 versus 6.1 full-time equivalents, p = 0.04] and were more commonly free-standing children's hospitals (52% versus 23%, p = 0.05). From 2005-2015, there was a dramatic rise in implementation of inpatient pediatric asthma pathways. We found variation in many aspects of pathway design and implementation. Future studies should determine optimal implementation strategies to better support hospital-level efforts in improving pediatric asthma care and outcomes.

  7. The rise and fall of gluten!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Imran; Branchi, Federica; Sanders, David S

    2015-08-01

    Mankind has existed for 2·5 million years but only in the last 10,000 years have we been exposed to wheat. Wheat was first cultivated in the Fertile Crescent (South Western Asia) with a farming expansion that lasted from about 9000BC to 4000BC. Thus it could be considered that wheat (and gluten) is a novel introduction to man's diet! Prior to 1939 the rationing system had already been devised. This led to an imperative to try to increase agricultural production. Thus it was agreed in 1941 that there was a need to establish a Nutrition Society. The very roots of the society were geared towards necessarily increasing the production of wheat. This goal was achieved and by the end of the 20th century, global wheat output had expanded 5-fold. Perhaps as a result the epidemiology of coeliac disease (CD) or gluten sensitive enteropathy has changed. CD is a state of heightened immunological responsiveness to ingested gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. CD now affects 1 % or more of all adults, for which the treatment is a strict lifelong gluten-free diet. However, there is a growing body of evidence to show that a far greater proportion of individuals without coeliac disease are taking a gluten-free diet of their own volition. This clinical entity has been termed non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), although the condition is fraught with complexities due to overlap with other gluten-based constituents that can also trigger similar clinical symptoms. This review will explore the relationship between gluten, the rising prevalence of modern coeliac disease, and the new entity of NCGS along with its associated uncertainties.

  8. Modeling Scala Media as a Pressure Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Eric; Olofsson, A.˚Ke

    2011-11-01

    The clinical condition known as endolymphatic hydrops is the swelling of scala media and may result in loss in hearing sensitivity consistent with other forms of low-frequency biasing. Because outer hair cells (OHCs) are displacement-sensitive and hearing levels tend to be preserved despite large changes in blood pressure and CSF pressure, it seems unlikely that the OHC respond passively to changes in static pressures in the chambers. This suggests the operation of a major feedback control loop which jointly regulates homeostasis and hearing sensitivity. Therefore the internal forces affecting the cochlear signal processing amplifier cannot be just motile responses. A complete account of the cochlear amplifier must include static pressures. To this end we have added a third, pressure vessel to our 1-D 140-segment, wave-digital filter active model of cochlear mechanics, incorporating the usual nonlinear forward transduction. In each segment the instantaneous pressure is the sum of acoustic pressure and global static pressure. The object of the model is to maintain stable OHC operating point despite any global rise in pressure in the third chamber. Such accumulated pressure is allowed to dissipate exponentially. In this first 3-chamber implementation we explore the possibility that acoustic pressures are rectified. The behavior of the model is critically dependent upon scaling factors and time-constants, yet by initial assumption, the pressure tends to accumulate in proportion to sound level. We further explore setting of the control parameters so that the accumulated pressure either stays within limits or may rise without bound.

  9. The Rise of the Financial Planning Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cull

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The financial planning industry in Australia has experienced significant reform in the lastdecade. This reform has not only made a considerable impact on financial planners but also onother groups such as the accounting profession, regulators, the financial services industry,educators and consumers. Although consumer protection was at the heart of this reform, it hasalso prompted the industry and other groups to consider financial planning as a profession.This paper begins with a definition of financial planning, followed by a discussion of thehistorical origins of financial planning. Several examples are used to illustrate how the industryhas developed and changed over time considering the impact of social, cultural, institutional,political and economic factors. Particular attention is given to the role of the accountingprofession and government regulation in Australia. The paper concludes with a discussion of theprofessionalisation of financial planning in light of the increased pressure for changes inremuneration practice in the industry.

  10. Water movement in glass bead porous media: 1. Experiments of capillary rise and hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, T. X.; Biggar, J. W.; Nielsen, D. R.

    1994-12-01

    Experimental observations of capillary rise and hysteresis of water or ethanol in glass beads are presented to improve our understanding of those physical processes in porous media. The results provide evidence that capillary rise into porous media cannot be fully explained by a model of cylinders. They further demonstrate that the "Ink bottle" model does not provide an adequate explanation of hysteresis. Glass beads serving as a model for ideal soil are enclosed in a rectangular glass chamber model. A TV camera associated with a microscope was used to record the processes of capillary rise and drainage. It is clearly shown during capillary rise that the fluid exhibits a "jump" behavior at the neck of the pores in an initially dry profile or at the bottom of the water film in an initially wet profile. Under an initially dry condition, the jump initiates at the particle with smallest diameter. The jump process continues to higher elevations until at equilibrium the surface tensile force is balanced by the hydrostatic force. The wetting front at that time is readily observed as flat and saturated. Under an initially wet condition, capillary rise occurs as a water film thickening process associated with the jump process. Trapped air behind the wetting front renders the wetting front irregular and unsaturated. The capillary rise into an initially wet porous medium can be higher than that into an initially dry profile. During the drying process, large surface areas associated with the gas-liquid interface develop, allowing the porous medium to retain more water than during the wetting process at the same pressure. That mechanism explains better the hysteresis phenomenon in porous media in contrast to other mechanisms that now prevail.

  11. Dynamic Pressure Gradient Model of Axial Piston Pump and Parameters Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Jian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The unsteady pressure gradient can cause flow noise in prepressure rising of piston pump, and the fluid shock comes up due to the large pressure difference of the piston chamber and discharge port in valve plate. The flow fluctuation control is the optimization objective in previous study, which cannot ensure the steady pressure gradient. Our study is to stabilize the pressure gradient in prepressure rising and control the pressure of piston chamber approaching to the pressure in discharge port after prepressure rising. The models for nonoil shock and dynamic pressure of piston chamber in prepressure rising are established. The parameters of prepressure rising angle, cross angle, wrap angle of V-groove, vertex angle of V-groove, and opening angle of V-groove were optimized, based on which the pressure of the piston chamber approached the pressure in discharge port after prepressure rising, and the pressure gradient is more steady compared to the original parameters. The max pressure gradient decreased by 70.8% and the flow fluctuation declined by 21.4%, which showed the effectivness of optimization.

  12. Methods and problems in assessing the impacts of accelerated sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Dennis, Karen C.; Volonte, Claudio R.; Leatherman, Stephen P.

    1992-06-01

    Accelerated sea-level rise is one of the more certain responses to global warming and presents a major challenge to mankind. However, it is important to note that sea-level rise is only manifest over long timescales (decades to centuries). Coastal scientists are increasingly being called upon to assess the physical, economic and societal impacts of sea-level rise and hence investigate appropriate response strategies. Such assessments are difficult in many developing countries due to a lack of physical, demographic and economic data. In particular, there is a lack of appropriate topographic information for the first (physical) phase of the analysis. To overcome these difficulties we have developed a new rapid and low-cost reconnaissance technique: ``aerial videotape-assisted vulnerability analysis'' (AVA). It involves: 1) videotaping the coastline from a small airplane; 2) limited ground-truth measurements; and 3) archive research. Combining the video record with the ground-truth information characterizes the coastal topography and, with an appropriate land loss model, estimates of the physical impact for different sea-level rise scenarios can be made. However, such land loss estimates raise other important questions such as the appropriate seaward limit of the beach profile. Response options also raise questions such as the long-term costs of seawalls. Therefore, realistic low and high estiimates were developed. To illustrate the method selected results from Senegal, Uruguay and Venezuela are presented.

  13. Effects of Sea Level Rise on Groundwater Flow Paths in a Coastal Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, S. K.; Clark, J. F.; Bennett, M. W.; Richardson, E.; Stute, M.

    2008-05-01

    Changes in groundwater flow in the Floridan aquifer system, South Florida, from the rise in sea level at the end of the last glacial period may be indicative of changes coastal aquifers will experience with continued sea level rise. As sea level rises, the hydraulic head near the coast increases. Coastal aquifers can therefore experience decreased groundwater gradients (increased residence times) and seawater intrusion. Stable isotopes of water, dissolved noble gas temperatures, radiocarbon and He concentrations were analyzed in water collected from 68 wells in the Floridan aquifer system throughout South Florida. Near the recharge area, geochemical data along groundwater flow paths in the Upper Floridan aquifer show a transition from recently recharged groundwater to glacial-aged water. Down gradient from this transition, little variation is apparent in the stable isotopes and noble gas recharge temperatures, indicating that most of the Upper Floridan aquifer contains groundwater recharged during the last glacial period. The rapid 120-meter rise in sea level marking the end of the last glacial period increased the hydraulic head in the Floridan aquifer system near the coast, slowing the flow of groundwater from the recharge area to the ocean and trapping glacial-aged groundwater. The raised sea level also flooded half of the Florida platform and caused seawater to intrude into the Lower Floridan. This circulation of seawater in the Lower Floridan continues today as our data indicate that the groundwater is similar to modern seawater with a freshwater component entering vertically from the recharge area to the Upper Floridan.

  14. Calculation of high-rise construction limitations for non-resident housing fund in megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliashenko Oksana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to topical issues of urban planning in terms of high-rise construction of a non-resident housing stock in relation to megacities. We consider this issue taking into account the limitations of natural, communal and social resources. The problem is especially acute for the overwhelming majority of the state capitals, as well as cities with historical heritage that are of great interest due to the rapid development of tourism and the high mobility of the population in the world. The growth of the population of many states capitals led to the use of high-rise buildings as a non-resident housing stock. However, there are a number of restrictions on the high-rise construction of non-resident housing stock in megacities. The authors formalize the problem of determining the optimal ratio of the volume of urban buildings belonging to the high-rise buildings types and intended for non-residents to a common housing fund. We conduct economic calculations to determine the quantitative indicators. It can be used as the basis for administrative measures aimed at limiting the people flow arriving with the intention of temporarily deploying in megacities.

  15. The Rise of Mobile Technology on the Financial Sector in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Mupfiga

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of technology has revolted the way that the financial industry operates and the increasing use of mobile gadgets has changed the banking system from the traditional brick and mortar building to a virtual system. The sudden rise in use and innovation of smart mobile phones, mobile personal computers, tablets and various other mobile electronic gadgets has resulted in the rise of mobile financial products. Rapid quickening innovative headways are making completely new business suggestions, for example, crowd financing, shared loaning, advanced monetary forms, versatile managing an account, online speculation and new instalment frameworks. Zimbabwe's mobile technology use is currently on the rise too as mobile service providers like Econet are enabling the connection between consumers and financial related products. Despite the fact that innovation without a doubt brings benefits, prominent specialized disappointments in the money related part lately are disturbing and several negative factors are to some extent affecting production. Drawbacks like cybercrime, resistance to change, and compatibility of mobile gadgets are affecting the information technology environment. This paper highlights the rise of mobile technology in the financial sector in Zimbabwe.

  16. Calculation of high-rise construction limitations for non-resident housing fund in megacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliashenko, Oksana; Krasnov, Sergey; Sergeev, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    The paper is devoted to topical issues of urban planning in terms of high-rise construction of a non-resident housing stock in relation to megacities. We consider this issue taking into account the limitations of natural, communal and social resources. The problem is especially acute for the overwhelming majority of the state capitals, as well as cities with historical heritage that are of great interest due to the rapid development of tourism and the high mobility of the population in the world. The growth of the population of many states capitals led to the use of high-rise buildings as a non-resident housing stock. However, there are a number of restrictions on the high-rise construction of non-resident housing stock in megacities. The authors formalize the problem of determining the optimal ratio of the volume of urban buildings belonging to the high-rise buildings types and intended for non-residents to a common housing fund. We conduct economic calculations to determine the quantitative indicators. It can be used as the basis for administrative measures aimed at limiting the people flow arriving with the intention of temporarily deploying in megacities.

  17. Tearing mode saturation with finite pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    With finite pressure, the saturation of the current-driven tearing mode is obtained in three-dimensional nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations for Tokamak plasmas. To effectively focus on the tearing modes, the perturbed pressure effects are excluded while the finite equilibrium pressure effects are retained. With this model, the linear growth rates of the tearing modes are found to be very insensitive to the equilibrium pressure increase. The nonlinear aspects of the tearing modes, however, are found to be very sensitive to the pressure increase in that the saturation level of the nonlinear harmonics of the tearing modes increases monotonically with the pressure rise. The increased level is associated with enhanced tearing island sizes or increased stochastic magnetic field region. (author)

  18. Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Justin C.; SunRISE Team

    2018-06-01

    The Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) is a NASA Heliophysics Explorer Mission of Opportunity currently in Phase A. SunRISE is a constellation of spacecraft flying in a 10-km diameter formation and operating as the first imaging radio interferometer in space. The purpose of SunRISE is to reveal critical aspects of solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration at coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and transport into space by making the first spatially resolved observations of coherent Type II and III radio bursts produced by electrons accelerated at CMEs or released from flares. SunRISE will focus on solar Decametric-Hectometric (DH, 0.1 space before major SEP events, but cannot be seen on Earth due to ionospheric absorption. This talk will describe SunRISE objectives and implementation. Presented on behalf of the entire SunRISE team.

  19. Rise and Shock: Optimal Defibrillator Placement in a High-rise Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Timothy C Y

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCA) in high-rise buildings experience lower survival and longer delays until paramedic arrival. Use of publicly accessible automated external defibrillators (AED) can improve survival, but "vertical" placement has not been studied. We aim to determine whether elevator-based or lobby-based AED placement results in shorter vertical distance travelled ("response distance") to OHCAs in a high-rise building. We developed a model of a single-elevator, n-floor high-rise building. We calculated and compared the average distance from AED to floor of arrest for the two AED locations. We modeled OHCA occurrences using floor-specific Poisson processes, the risk of OHCA on the ground floor (λ 1 ) and the risk on any above-ground floor (λ). The elevator was modeled with an override function enabling direct travel to the target floor. The elevator location upon override was modeled as a discrete uniform random variable. Calculations used the laws of probability. Elevator-based AED placement had shorter average response distance if the number of floors (n) in the building exceeded three quarters of the ratio of ground-floor OHCA risk to above-ground floor risk (λ 1 /λ) plus one half (n ≥ 3λ 1 /4λ + 0.5). Otherwise, a lobby-based AED had shorter average response distance. If OHCA risk on each floor was equal, an elevator-based AED had shorter average response distance. Elevator-based AEDs travel less vertical distance to OHCAs in tall buildings or those with uniform vertical risk, while lobby-based AEDs travel less vertical distance in buildings with substantial lobby, underground, and nearby street-level traffic and OHCA risk.

  20. Does a Rise in Income Inequality Lead to Rises in Transportation Inequality and Mobility Practice Inequality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Purwanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and economic inequalities have sharpened in the late 20th century. During this period, Europe has witnessed a rising unemployment rate, a declining wages for the least qualified workers, a slowing of income growth, and an increasing gap between the richest and the poorest. Based on the hypothesis of the relation between socio-economic condition and mobility behaviour, it is necessary to ask how these socio-economic inequalities manifest themselves in transportation: does a rise in income inequality lead to a rise in transportation inequality and mobility practice inequality? This question is particularly relevant today as some European countries are facing high socio-economic inequalities following the financial crisis that started in 2008. Using results from transport, car ownership and mobility surveys as well as household surveys from the Paris (Île-de-France region between eighties and late nineties, this paper tries to answer this question. The results show how inequalities in transportation and mobility practice have decreased during the period in spite of an increase in income inequalities. We find that the evolution of socio-economic inequality, most specifically income inequality was simply one of the determining factors of the evolution of inequalities in transportation and mobility practice. In fact, the most important role in that evolution is not played by the evolution of income inequality but by the evolution of elasticity between transportation and income. Reducing the effects of this elasticity should be the main target of transport policies to diminish inequality in transportation and mobility practice.

  1. Rise and Fall of Tios-Tieion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Erman; Yıldırım, Şahin

    2017-10-01

    The existence or endurance of the city is determined by social, economic, cultural, and technological factors. Therefore, transportation connections become physical signifiers of the relation between two spaces. Nevertheless, the potential for change in transportation is more dynamic when compared to other factors. Change in the infrastructure and systems of transportation become evident at the urban scale more rapidly. In addition to leading to the formation of new cities or to socio-cultural and economic development in the already-existent cities, this dynamic structure may also cause the decrease in economic power, and even the desertion of settlements. Furthermore, it functions as a leading, even determining, parameter in the formation of space, thereby in economic and social development. The fact that, throughout history, centres of communication and commerce were established at intersection, stopping and lodging points of transportation links and/or their development into residential areas attests to this interaction. In the commercial centres and life of the city, the effects of regional transportation networks and technologies surface relatively. By means of the analytical method, this study focuses on how, within the history of settlements, population increases due to the choice of location based on transportation and strategic significance, and how urban functions vary accordingly. As such, the interaction between urban development and transportation links for the Ancient City of Tios will be analysed, and the signifiers for urban development will be designated.

  2. Progressive Collapse of High-Rise Buildings from Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pershakov Valerii

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considers ensuring the stability of structures of high-rise buildings against progressive collapse due to fire, proposed measures to ensure the stability of high-rise buildings due to progressive collapse. The analysis of large fires in high-rise buildings with progressive collapse and review of the literature on the issue of progressive collapse. The analysis of the Ukrainian normative documents on progressive collapse resistance.

  3. Rising damp in building walls: the wall base ventilation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, A.S.; Delgado, J.M.P.Q.; Freitas, V.P. de [Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Laboratorio de Fisica das Construcoes (LFC), Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Porto (Portugal)

    2012-12-15

    This work intends to validate a new system for treating rising damp in historic buildings walls. The results of laboratory experiments show that an efficient way of treating rising damp is by ventilating the wall base, using the HUMIVENT technique. The analytical model presented describes very well the observed features of rising damp in walls, verified by laboratory tests, who contributed for a simple sizing of the wall base ventilation system that will be implemented in historic buildings. (orig.)

  4. Projecting Future Sea Level Rise for Water Resources Planning in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.; Kao, K.; Chung, F.

    2008-12-01

    Sea level rise is one of the major concerns for the management of California's water resources. Higher water levels and salinity intrusion into the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta could affect water supplies, water quality, levee stability, and aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna species and their habitat. Over the 20th century, sea levels near San Francisco Bay increased by over 0.6ft. Some tidal gauge and satellite data indicate that rates of sea level rise are accelerating. Sea levels are expected to continue to rise due to increasing air temperatures causing thermal expansion of the ocean and melting of land-based ice such as ice on Greenland and in southeastern Alaska. For water planners, two related questions are raised on the uncertainty of future sea levels. First, what is the expected sea level at a specific point in time in the future, e.g., what is the expected sea level in 2050? Second, what is the expected point of time in the future when sea levels will exceed a certain height, e.g., what is the expected range of time when the sea level rises by one foot? To address these two types of questions, two factors are considered: (1) long term sea level rise trend, and (2) local extreme sea level fluctuations. A two-step approach will be used to develop sea level rise projection guidelines for decision making that takes both of these factors into account. The first step is developing global sea level rise probability distributions for the long term trends. The second step will extend the approach to take into account the effects of local astronomical tides, changes in atmospheric pressure, wind stress, floods, and the El Niño/Southern Oscillation. In this paper, the development of the first step approach is presented. To project the long term sea level rise trend, one option is to extend the current rate of sea level rise into the future. However, since recent data indicate rates of sea level rise are accelerating, methods for estimating sea level rise

  5. Global warming and sea level rise. Chikyu Ondanka to kaimen josho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, N [Ibaraki University, Ibaraki (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1993-10-15

    This paper describes the following matters on the problems of global warming and sea level rise. The first evaluation report published by the inter-government panel on climate change (IPCC) in 1990 estimates that, if emission of greenhouse effect gas keeps increasing at the present rate, the air temperature and the average sea level would rise by 3[degree]C and 65 centimeters, respectively by 2100. Global warming would not only result in rise of the sea level, but also accompany changes in strengths and routes of tropical low pressure areas, and precipitation patterns. Downstream areas of large rivers and island countries on coral reefs may have a risk of getting submerged. Countries having coasts developed to high densities (Japan, for example) would be subjected to a high potential effect. An 'East Hemisphere International Conference on Sea Level Rising Problem' was held in Japan in August 1993 as part of the works to prepare the second evaluation report of the IPCC (publication scheduled for 1995). The conference was attended by 24 countries, and 43 study results were reported. 4 figs.

  6. The Chinese experience of rapid modernization: sociocultural changes, psychological consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong eSun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena.

  7. The Chinese Experience of Rapid Modernization: Sociocultural Changes, Psychological Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiahong; Ryder, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena. PMID:27092093

  8. The social values at risk from sea-level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Sonia; Barnett, Jon; Fincher, Ruth; Hurlimann, Anna; Mortreux, Colette; Waters, Elissa

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the risks of sea-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from sea-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from sea-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values from within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the ‘lived values’ of coastal places that are most at risk from sea-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five types: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from sea-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of sea-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to sea-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to sea-level rise or sea-level rise policies

  9. The social values at risk from sea-level rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.graham@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Barnett, Jon, E-mail: jbarn@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Fincher, Ruth, E-mail: r.fincher@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Hurlimann, Anna, E-mail: anna.hurlimann@unimelb.edu.au [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, The University of Melbourne, Architecture and Planning Building, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Mortreux, Colette, E-mail: colettem@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Waters, Elissa, E-mail: elissa.waters@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Resource Management and Geography, The University of Melbourne, 221 Bouverie St., Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    Analysis of the risks of sea-level rise favours conventionally measured metrics such as the area of land that may be subsumed, the numbers of properties at risk, and the capital values of assets at risk. Despite this, it is clear that there exist many less material but no less important values at risk from sea-level rise. This paper re-theorises these multifarious social values at risk from sea-level rise, by explaining their diverse nature, and grounding them in the everyday practices of people living in coastal places. It is informed by a review and analysis of research on social values from within the fields of social impact assessment, human geography, psychology, decision analysis, and climate change adaptation. From this we propose that it is the ‘lived values’ of coastal places that are most at risk from sea-level rise. We then offer a framework that groups these lived values into five types: those that are physiological in nature, and those that relate to issues of security, belonging, esteem, and self-actualisation. This framework of lived values at risk from sea-level rise can guide empirical research investigating the social impacts of sea-level rise, as well as the impacts of actions to adapt to sea-level rise. It also offers a basis for identifying the distribution of related social outcomes across populations exposed to sea-level rise or sea-level rise policies.

  10. Organizing vertical layout environments: a forward-looking development strategy for high-rise building projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magay, A. A.; Bulgakova, E. A.; Zabelina, S. A.

    2018-03-01

    The article highlights issues surrounding development of high rise buildings. With the rapid increase of the global population there has been a trend for people to migrate into megacities and has caused the expansion of big city territories. This trend, coupled with the desire for a comfortable living environment, has resulted in numerous problems plaguing the megacity. This article proposes that a viable solution to the problems facing megacities is to create vertical layout environments. Potential options for creating vertical layout environments are set out below including the construction of buildings with atriums. Further, the article puts forth suggested spatial organization of the environment as well as optimal landscaping of high-rise buildings and constructions for the creation of vertical layout environments. Finally, the persuasive reasons for the adoption of vertical layout environments is that it will decrease the amount of developed urban areas, decrease traffic and increase environmental sustainability.

  11. A Cultural Diffusion Model for the Rise and Fall of Programming Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Sergi; Solé, Ricard V

    2015-07-01

    Our interaction with complex computing machines is mediated by programming languages (PLs), which constitute one of the major innovations in the evolution of technology. PLs allow flexible, scalable, and fast use of hardware and are largely responsible for shaping the history of information technology since the rise of computers in the 1950s. The rapid growth and impact of computers were followed closely by the development of PLs. As occurs with natural, human languages, PLs have emerged and gone extinct. There has been always a diversity of coexisting PLs that compete somewhat while occupying special niches. Here we show that the statistical patterns of language adoption, rise, and fall can be accounted for by a simple model in which a set of programmers can use several PLs, decide to use existing PLs used by other programmers, or decide not to use them. Our results highlight the influence of strong communities of practice in the diffusion of PL innovations.

  12. Current-day matters of administration and law in the field of high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voskresenskaya, Elena; Snetkov, Vitaly; Tebryaev, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The article touches upon main reasons for high-rise construction: increase in energy consumption and limited availability of site in the big cities of Russia. Increase in energy consumption is related with construction, transportation and applying of ventilation and air conditioning systems. Nowadays, there are developed a lot of design and engineer solutions, that include autonomous systems as well as passive methods with low energy consumption rate, which are interrelated with local climate conditions. Certain architectural solutions contribute to energy consumption decrease: building orientation with respect to the cardinal directions, taking into account the prevailing cold wind directions, maximum glazing of the southern facades and minimum glazing of the northern ones, what plays a big role in hard climate conditions. Limited availability of site for construction in the big cities resulted in rapid development of the high-rise construction, which today prevails in terms of quantitative indicators of civil engineering.

  13. Vertical cities - the new form of high-rise construction evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akristiniy, Vera A.; Boriskina, Yulia I.

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the basic principles of the vertical cities formation for the creation of a comfortable urban environment in conditions of rapid population growth and limited territories. As urban growth increases, there is a need for new concepts and approaches to urban space planning through the massive introduction of high-rise construction. The authors analyzed and systematized the list of high-tech solutions for arrangement the space of vertical cities, which are an integral part of the creation of the methodology for forming a high-rise buildings. Their concept differs in scale, presence of the big areas of public spaces, tendencies to self-sufficiency and sustainability, opportunity to offer the new unique comfortable environment to the population living in them.

  14. The rise of novelty in ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeloff, Volker C; Williams, John W; Bateman, Brooke L; Burke, Kevin D; Carter, Sarah K; Childress, Evan S; Cromwell, Kara J; Gratton, Claudio; Hasley, Andrew O; Kraemer, Benjamin M; Latzka, Alexander W; Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Meine, Curt D; Munoz, Samuel E; Neeson, Thomas M; Pidgeon, Anna M; Rissman, Adena R; Rivera, Ricardo J; Szymanski, Laura M; Usinowicz, Jacob

    2015-12-01

    Rapid and ongoing change creates novelty in ecosystems everywhere, both when comparing contemporary systems to their historical baselines, and predicted future systems to the present. However, the level of novelty varies greatly among places. Here we propose a formal and quantifiable definition of abiotic and biotic novelty in ecosystems, map abiotic novelty globally, and discuss the implications of novelty for the science of ecology and for biodiversity conservation. We define novelty as the degree of dissimilarity of a system, measured in one or more dimensions relative to a reference baseline, usually defined as either the present or a time window in the past. In this conceptualization, novelty varies in degree, it is multidimensional, can be measured, and requires a temporal and spatial reference. This definition moves beyond prior categorical definitions of novel ecosystems, and does not include human agency, self-perpetuation, or irreversibility as criteria. Our global assessment of novelty was based on abiotic factors (temperature, precipitation, and nitrogen deposition) plus human population, and shows that there are already large areas with high novelty today relative to the early 20th century, and that there will even be more such areas by 2050. Interestingly, the places that are most novel are often not the places where absolute changes are largest; highlighting that novelty is inherently different from change. For the ecological sciences, highly novel ecosystems present new opportunities to test ecological theories, but also challenge the predictive ability of ecological models and their validation. For biodiversity conservation, increasing novelty presents some opportunities, but largely challenges. Conservation action is necessary along the entire continuum of novelty, by redoubling efforts to protect areas where novelty is low, identifying conservation opportunities where novelty is high, developing flexible yet strong regulations and policies, and

  15. Rapid world modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Charles; Jensen, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and developed systems capable of large-scale, three-dimensional mapping of unstructured environments in near real time. This mapping technique is called rapid world modeling and has proven invaluable when used by prototype systems consisting of sensory detection devices mounted on mobile platforms. These systems can be deployed into previously unmapped environments and transmit real-time 3-D visual images to operators located remotely. This paper covers a brief history of the rapid world modeling system, its implementation on mobile platforms, and the current state of the technology. Applications to the nuclear power industry are discussed. (author)

  16. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on relativistic multiparticle processes in the central rapidity region at asymptotically high energies, a new experimental study of charged K→3π decays, pre-Cherenkov radiation as a phenomenon of 'light barrier', stable S=-2 H dibaryon found in Dubna, calculation of Green functions and gluon top in some unambiguous gauges, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment and the manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

  17. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  18. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on invisible Z-boson width and restrictions on next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, cosmic test of honeycomb drift chambers, fission of 209 Bi, 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 237 Np in a spallation neutron field, rapid screening of spontaneous and radiation-induced structural changes at the vestigial gene of Drosophila melanogaster by polymerase chain reaction, gamma-ray multiplicities in sub-barrier fission of 226 Th and the decay constants of the scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the quark models with quasilocal interaction

  19. Auscultatory versus oscillometric measurement of blood pressure in octogenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Jens-Ulrik; Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang; Matzen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement.......Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement....

  20. Electrochemical cell and electrode designs for high-temperature/high-pressure kinetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.

    1987-05-01

    Many corrosion processes of interest to the nuclear power industry occur in high-temperature/high-pressure aqueous systems. The investigation of the kinetics of the appropriate electrode reactions is a serious experimental challenge, partially because of the high temperatures and pressures and partially because many of these reactions are very rapid, requiring fast relaxation measurements. An electrochemical measuring system is described which is suitable for measurements of the kinetics of fast electrode reactions at temperatures extending to at least 300 0 C and pressures to at least 10 MPa (100 atmospheres). The system includes solution preparation and handling equipment, the electrochemical cell, and several electrode designs. One of the new designs is a coaxial working electrode-counter electrode assembly; this electrode can be used with very fast-rising pulses, and it provides a well defined, repeatedly-polishable working surface. Low-impedance reference electrodes are also described, based on electrode concepts responding to the pH or the redox potential of the test solution. Additionally, a novel, long-life primary reference electrode design is reported, based on a modification of the external, pressure-balanced Ag/AgCl reference electrode

  1. Electrochemical cell and electrode designs for high-temperature/high-pressure kinetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Z.; Yonco, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Many corrosion processes of interest to the nuclear power industry occur in high-temperature/high-pressure aqueous systems. The investigation of the kinetics of the appropriate electrode reactions is a serious experimental challenge, partially because of the high temperatures and pressures and partially because many of these reactions are very rapid, requiring fast relaxation measurements. An electrochemical measuring system is described which is suitable for measurements of the kinetics of fast electrode reactions at temperatures extending to at least 300 0 C and pressures to at least 10 MPa (100 atmospheres). The system includes solution preparation and handling equipment, the electrochemical cell, and several electrode designs. One of the new designs is a coaxial working electrode-counter electrode assembly; this electrode can be used with very fast-rising pulses, and it provides a well defined, repeatedly-polishable working surface. Low-impedance reference electrodes are also described, based on electrode concepts responding to the pH or the redox potential of the test solution. Additionally, a novel, long-life primary reference electrode design is reported, based on a modification of the external, pressure-balanced Ag/AgCl reference electrode

  2. Partitions for high-rise construction using phosphogypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotukhin Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum blocks are usually used to make partitions in highrise construction. Reducing the cost of materials used in high-rise construction is an urgent task of modern material science. Phosphogypsum dihydrate, which has binding properties, is one of the large-tonnage waste. The authors have proved that, after years of storage in heaps, water-soluble phosphates, fluorides and other additives included in the structure of fresh phosphogypsum dissolved in water due to weathering (humidification-drying, freezing-thawing in a water-saturated state, and the calcium hydro-and dihydrogen phosphates ingressed in the lattice underwent complete hydrolysis and disintegration, thereby changing the physicochemical properties of phosphogypsum. The data obtained by the authors on the absence of water-soluble compounds of phosphorus, fluorine in stale phosphogypsum indicate its ecological purity and the possibility of application in housing construction. Having analyzed the data of modern methods of differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy, the authors predicted and proved by the energy of dehydration of phosphogypsum dihydrate, lime, sandy loam, the possibility of obtaining non-flammable materials with sufficient strength for wall materials. Understanding the processes occurring in water films (the thickness of the water film, the pressure, the temperature and the pH of the aqueous extract of the mixture, the drying of the materials produced, made it possible to develop a technology for obtaining wall products from lime-sandy phosphogypsum material using typical silicate brick production equipment and vibropresses for key-cog blocks production.

  3. Magma chamber interaction giving rise to asymmetric oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwer, D.; Ghil, M.; Calais, E.

    2017-12-01

    Geodetic time series at four volcanoes (Okmok, Akutan, Shishaldin, and Réunion) are processed using Multi-channel Singular Spectrum Analysis (M-SSA) and reveal sawtooth-shaped oscillations ; the latter are characterized by short intervals of fast inflations followed by longer intervals of slower deflations. At Okmok and Akutan, the oscillations are first damped and then accentuated. At Okmok, the increase in amplitude of the oscillations is followed by an eruption. We first show that the dynamics of these four volcanoes bears similarities with that of a simple nonlinear, dissipative oscillator, indicating that the inflation-deflation episodes are relaxation oscillations. These observations imply that ab initio dynamical models of magma chambers should possess an asymmetric oscillatory regime. Next, based on the work of Whitehead and Helfrich [1991], we show that a model of two magma chambers — connected by a cylindrical conduit in which the magma viscosity depends on temperature — gives rise to asymmetric overpressure oscillations in the magma reservoirs. These oscillations lead to surface deformations that are consistent with those observed at the four volcanoes in this study. This relaxation oscillation regime occurs only when the vertical temperature gradient in the host rock between the two magma chambers is large enough and when the magma flux entering the volcanic system is sufficiently high. The magma being supplied by a deeper source region, the input flux depends on the pressure difference between the source and the deepest reservoir. When this difference is not sufficiently high, the magma flux exponentially decreases, leading to damped oscillations as observed at Akutan and Okmok. The combination of observational and modeling results clearly supports the role of relaxation oscillations in the dynamics of volcanic systems.

  4. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  5. Low-Cost Rotating Experimentation in Compressor Aerodynamics Using Rapid Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Michaud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid evolution of additive manufacturing, 3D printed parts are no longer limited to display purposes but can also be used in structural applications. The objective of this paper is to show that 3D prototyping can be used to produce low-cost rotating turbomachinery rigs capable of carrying out detailed flow measurements that can be used, among other things, for computational fluid dynamics (CFD code validation. A fully instrumented polymer two-stage axial-mixed flow compressor test rig was designed and fabricated with stereolithography (SLA technology by a team of undergraduate students as part of a senior-year design course. Experiments were subsequently performed on this rig to obtain both the overall pressure rise characteristics of the compressor and the stagnation pressure distributions downstream of the blade rows for comparison with CFD simulations. In doing so, this work provides a first-of-a-kind assessment of the use of polymer additive technology for low-cost rotating turbomachinery experimentation with detailed measurements.

  6. Simulation on spread of fire smoke in the elevator shaft for a high-rise building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchun Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spread of fire smoke in the elevator shaft of a high-rise building is influenced by many driving facts. We simulate smoke spreading in the elevator shaft, stair room, and pre-chamber with and without different supplied pressurized air. The simulation shows that smoke moves very fast in the elevator shaft. When a 12 floor high-rise building is in fire, smoke can fill up the elevator shaft in less than 1.5 min after a fire started, temperature in the elevator shaft can be higher than 187°C in 5 min, and the concentration of CO can also reach a high level. The elevator shaft has a very low visibility in less than about 100 s.

  7. Particle identification with the OPAL jet chamber in the region of the relativistic rise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuker, H; Fischer, H M; Hauschild, M; Hartmann, H; Wuensch, B; Boerner, H; Burckhart, H J; Dittmar, M; Hammarstroem, R; Heuer, R D

    1987-10-15

    An important goal of the OPAL jet chamber is particle identification at high momenta by exploiting the relativistic rise of the energy loss. Extensive tests have been performed with the full scale prototype of the OPAL jet chamber to measure the energy loss in an argon-methane-isobutane mixture as function of momentum and particle species. The measurements were done under various operating conditions in order to optimise the operationg point, to investigate sources of systematic errors, to monitor the stability of the energy loss measurement and to develop calibration procedures. The particle separation capability in the region of relativistic rise has been studied at gas pressures of 3 and 4 bar. The adopted operation point represents a reasonable compromise between the requirements for particle identification and tracking accuracy.

  8. Late Post-glacial Sea Level Rise and Its Effects On Human Activity In Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, S. J.

    Three rapid post-glacial sea-level rises flooded coastlines with large continental shelves. The last of these, shortly before the interglacial optimum c.7,500BP, not only changed coastal Neolithic societies, but may also have stimulated maritime skills. Two Asian examples explore these aspects. First, during the Mid-Holocene, the Arabian Gulf transgressed as far inland as Ur probably laying down Woolley's famous Ur Flood silt layer between 7,000-5,500 BP. Stratigraphy and dating suggests the phase of rapid sea level rise immediately preceded the start of the 'Ubaid pottery period. Red-slipped Uruk pottery and copper items then appear from about 6,000BP, but above Woolley's silt layer. The Sumerian King Lists also record a major upheaval and dynastic change after 'the Flood'. Second, the final flooding of the Sunda shelf in Southeast Asia was followed by a maritime extension of human occupation from Northern Melanesia south into the Solomon Islands 6,000 years ago. Simultaneously, further west on the north coast of New Guinea, new archaeological assemblages ap- pear beneath a silt layer left by a pro-grading 6,000 year-old inland sea. The presence of arboriculture items such as betel nuts and the contemporary arrival of dogs and pigs in the same region suggests intrusion from Southeast Asia. This supports Solheim's suggestion that rapid sea-level rise on the eastern edge of the Sunda Shelf stimulated maritime skills and invention in Southeast Asia. This may have provided the initial stimulus to the first maritime expansion that was later to colonise the whole Pacific.

  9. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  10. Detecting anthropogenic footprints in sea level rise: the role of complex colored noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Marcos, Marta; Müller, Alfred; Zorita, Eduardo; Jensen, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    While there is scientific consensus that global mean sea level (MSL) is rising since the late 19th century, it remains unclear how much of this rise is due to natural variability or anthropogenic forcing. Uncovering the anthropogenic contribution requires profound knowledge about the persistence of natural MSL variations. This is challenging, since observational time series represent the superposition of various processes with different spectral properties. Here we statistically estimate the upper bounds of naturally forced centennial MSL trends on the basis of two separate components: a slowly varying volumetric (mass and density changes) and a more rapidly changing atmospheric component. Resting on a combination of spectral analyses of tide gauge records, ocean reanalysis data and numerical Monte-Carlo experiments, we find that in records where transient atmospheric processes dominate, the persistence of natural volumetric changes is underestimated. If each component is assessed separately, natural centennial trends are locally up to ~0.5 mm/yr larger than in case of an integrated assessment. This implies that external trends in MSL rise related to anthropogenic forcing might be generally overestimated. By applying our approach to the outputs of a centennial ocean reanalysis (SODA), we estimate maximum natural trends in the order of 1 mm/yr for the global average. This value is larger than previous estimates, but consistent with recent paleo evidence from periods in which the anthropogenic contribution was absent. Comparing our estimate to the observed 20th century MSL rise of 1.7 mm/yr suggests a minimum external contribution of at least 0.7 mm/yr. We conclude that an accurate detection of anthropogenic footprints in MSL rise requires a more careful assessment of the persistence of intrinsic natural variability.

  11. Coastal Marsh Longevity, Ecological Succession, and Organic Carbon Dynamics During Early Holocene Sea-Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, L.; Schreiner, K. M.; Rosenheim, B. E.; Tornqvist, T. E.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal marsh environments perform essential ecosystem services, including nutrient filtering, soil organic matter storage, and storm surge abatement, yet much is still unknown about their formation and fate under periods of sea-level change. During the early Holocene (7-10 ka), rapid sea-level rise in coastal Louisiana was one of the primary controls over marsh development and longevity. Here, we investigate plant community composition and succession and soil organic matter storage in early Holocene coastal marshes in Louisiana using bulk elemental ratios, lignin phenol biomarkers and stable isotopes from peat layers. Sediment cores were collected in southeastern Louisiana and contain a record of an early Holocene transgressive sea-level sequence 16-25 m below present sea-level. The sedimentary record consists of an immature paleosol overlain by basal peat that accumulated in an estuarine marsh, overlain by marine lagoonal muds. A re-established marsh peat is present 1-4 m above the initial transition to marine conditions, indicating a sequence of marsh development, sea-level rise and onset of marine conditions, and then further marsh development as the rate of relative sea-level rise decelerated. Plant community composition in coastal marshes was determined through cupric oxide oxidation and lignin-phenol and non-lignin-phenol biomarker abundances. The degradation state of soil organic matter and the specific source of stabilized organic matter within the sedimentary peats were determined through lignin-phenol biomarker ratios. Organic matter sources ranged from terrestrial to marine over the course of sea-level rise, and different sites showed different amounts of marine organic matter influence and different levels of terrestrial organic matter degradation. These results have important implications for reconstructing the response of coastal marshes and their plant communities to accelerated rates of sea-level rise projected through 2100.

  12. Evaluation of sea level rise in Bohai Bay and associated responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Xiu LIU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tide gauge data from 1950 to 2015 are used to analyze sea level change, tidal change, return levels, and design tide levels under rising sea level scenarios in Bohai Bay. Results show the following: 1 Since 1950 sea levels in Bohai Bay show a significant rising trend of 3.3 mm per year. The speed has been particularly rapid in 1980–2015 at a rate of 4.7 mm per year. 2 Astronomical tides showed a clear long-term trend in 1950–2015. The amplitude and phase lag of the M2 tide constituent decreased at a rate of 0.21 cm per year and 0.11° per year, respectively and the phase lag of K1 decreased at a rate of 0.09° per year, whereas there was little change in its amplitude. The mean high and low tides increased at a rate of 0.08 and 0.52 cm per year, respectively, whereas the mean tidal range decreased at a rate of 0.44 cm per year. Results from numerical experiments show that local sea level rise plays an important role in the tidal dynamics change in Bohai Bay. 3 It is considered that the sea level return periods will decrease owing to the influence of sea level rise and land subsidence, therefore design tide level will change in relation to sea level rise. Therefore, the ability of seawalls to withstand water will diminish, and storm surge disasters will become more serious in the future.

  13. Estimating Areas of Vulnerability: Sea Level Rise and Storm Surge Hazards in the National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, M.; Beavers, R. L.; Slayton, I. A.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Colorado Boulder in collaboration with the National Park Service has undertaken the task of compiling sea level change and storm surge data for 105 coastal parks. The aim of our research is to highlight areas of the park system that are at increased risk of rapid inundation as well as periodic flooding due to sea level rise and storms. This research will assist park managers and planners in adapting to climate change. The National Park Service incorporates climate change data into many of their planning documents and is willing to implement innovative coastal adaptation strategies. Events such as Hurricane Sandy highlight how impacts of coastal hazards will continue to challenge management of natural and cultural resources and infrastructure along our coastlines. This poster will discuss the current status of this project. We discuss the impacts of Hurricane Sandy as well as the latest sea level rise and storm surge modeling being employed in this project. In addition to evaluating various drivers of relative sea-level change, we discuss how park planners and managers also need to consider projected storm surge values added to sea-level rise magnitudes, which could further complicate the management of coastal lands. Storm surges occurring at coastal parks will continue to change the land and seascapes of these areas, with the potential to completely submerge them. The likelihood of increased storm intensity added to increasing rates of sea-level rise make predicting the reach of future storm surges essential for planning and adaptation purposes. The National Park Service plays a leading role in developing innovative strategies for coastal parks to adapt to sea-level rise and storm surge, whilst coastal storms are opportunities to apply highly focused responses.

  14. Hydrovolcanic features on Mars: Preliminary observations from the first Mars year of HiRISE imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Dundas, C.M.; Martinez-Alonso, S.; McEwen, A.S.; Milazzo, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    We provide an overview of features indicative of the interaction between water and lava and/or magma on Mars as seen by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera during the Primary Science Phase of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission. The ability to confidently resolve meter-scale features from orbit has been extremely useful in the study of the most pristine examples. In particular, HiRISE has allowed the documentation of previously undescribed features associated with phreatovolcanic cones (formed by the interaction of lava and groundwater) on rapidly emplaced flood lavas. These include "moats" and "wakes" that indicate that the lava crust was thin and mobile, respectively [Jaeger, W.L., Keszthelyi, L.P., McEwen, A.S., Dundas, C.M., Russel, P.S., 2007. Science 317, 1709-1711]. HiRISE has also discovered entablature-style jointing in lavas that is indicative of water-cooling [Milazzo, M.P., Keszthelyi, L.P., Jaeger, W.L., Rosiek, M., Mattson, S., Verba, C., Beyer, R.A., Geissler, P.E., McEwen, A.S., and the HiRISE Team, 2009. Geology 37, 171-174]. Other observations strongly support the idea of extensive volcanic mudflows (lahars). Evidence for other forms of hydrovolcanism, including glaciovolcanic interactions, is more equivocal. This is largely because most older and high-latitude terrains have been extensively modified, masking any earlier 1-10 m scale features. Much like terrestrial fieldwork, the prerequisite for making full use of HiRISE's capabilities is finding good outcrops.

  15. Factors associated with high-rise evacuation: qualitative results from the World Trade Center Evacuation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Robyn R M; Qureshi, Kristine A; Rubin, Marcie S; Raveis, Victoria H

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fact that most high-rise structures (i.e., >75 feet high, or eight to ten stories) are constructed with extensive and redundant fire safety features, current fire safety procedures typically only involve limited evacuation during minor to moderate fire emergencies. Therefore, full-scale evacuation of high-rise buildings is highly unusual and consequently, little is known about how readily and rapidly high-rise structures can be evacuated fully. Factors that either facilitate or inhibit the evacuation process remain under-studied. This paper presents results from the qualitative phase of the World Trade Center Evacuation Study, a three-year, five-phase study designed to improve our understanding of the individual, organizational, and environmental factors that helped or hindered evacuation from the World Trade Center (WTC) Towers 1 and 2, on 11 September 2001. Qualitative data from semi-structured, in-depth interviews and focus groups involving WTC evacuees were collected and analyzed. On the individual level, factors that affected evacuation included perception of risk (formed largely by sensory cues), preparedness training, degree of familiarity with the building, physical condition, health status, and footwear. Individual behavior also was affected by group behavior and leadership. At the organizational level, evacuation was affected by worksite preparedness planning, including the training and education of building occupants, and risk communication. The environmental conditions affecting evacuation included smoke, flames, debris, general condition and degree of crowdedness on staircases, and communication infrastructure systems (e.g., public address, landline, cellular and fire warden's telephones). Various factors at the individual, organizational, and environmental levels were identified that affected evacuation. Interventions that address the barriers to evacuation may improve the full-scale evacuation of other high-rise buildings under extreme

  16. Classification of High-Rise Residential Building Facilities: A Descriptive Survey on 170 Housing Scheme in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Wahab Siti Rashidah Hanum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-rise residential building is a type of housing that has multi-dwelling units built on the same land. This type of housing has become popular each year in urban area due to the increasing cost of land. There are several common facilities provided in high-rise residential building. For example playground, swimming pool, gymnasium, 24 hours security system such as CCTV, access card and so on. Thus, maintenance works of the common facilities must be well organised. The purpose of this paper is to identify the classification of facilities provided at high rise residential building. The survey was done on 170 high-rise residential schemes by using stratified random sampling technique. The scope of this research is within Klang Valley area. This area is rapidly developed with high-rise residential building. The objective of this survey is to list down all the facilities provided in each sample of the schemes. The result, there are nine classification of facilities provided for high-rise residential building.

  17. Planning of Low-rise Urban Housing Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, O.

    In many countries industrialization of house building has led to the building of large, monotonous housing areas with high-rise construction. In Denmark, however, smaller, varied housing areas with low-rise construction and urban features have become predominant. This report contains guidelines...... for the planning of such housing areas....

  18. The Rise of Conservatism since World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Dan T.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the rise of the conservatism movement in the United States since World War II. States that laissez-faire capitalism and the rise of communism contributed to the popularity of conservatism in the United States. Focuses on the role of U.S. Presidents, such as Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan. (CMK)

  19. The rise and fall of V4334 Sagittarii (Sakurai's object)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duerbeck, HW; Liller, W; Sterken, C; Benetti, S; van Genderen, AM; Arts, J; Kurk, JD; Janson, M; Voskes, T; Brogt, E; Arentoft, T; Dijkstra, R

    CCD UBVRi photometry of the final helium flash object V4334 Sgr (Sakurai's object) carried out during 1997-1999 is presented, and the light curve from its prediscovery rise to the dust obscuration phase is constructed. The optical light curve can be divided into four sections, the rise to maximum,

  20. Mechanism of rising cross sections in hadron-hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershtejn, S.S.; Logunov, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of sea constituents with each other and valence quarks, occurring in high-energy hadron collisions, is shown to explain the experimentally observed law for the rise of total cross sections, as well as the energy value at which this rise starts and the difference in these energy values for πN, KN and NN(N-barN) reactions

  1. Fast rise times and the physical mechanism of deep earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, H.; Williams, Q.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic global survey of the rise times and stress drops of deep and intermediate earthquakes is reported. When the rise times are scaled to the seismic moment release of the events, their average is nearly twice as fast for events deeper than about 450 km as for shallower events.

  2. The New Woman in "The Sun Also Rises"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoping

    2010-01-01

    Hemingway is a famous American writer and a spokesman of the Lost Generation. His life attitude of the characters in the novels influenced the whole world. His first masterpiece "The Sun Also Rises" contributes a lot to the rise of feminism and make the world began to be familiar with a term: The New Woman through the portrayal of Brett.…

  3. Gasoline Prices and Their Relationship to Rising Motorcycle Fatalities, 1990–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Jim P.; Hilsenrath, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among young adults. Although automobile fatalities have declined in recent years, motorcycle fatalities are rapidly increasing. The purpose of our research was to quantify the relationship between changing fuel prices and motorcycle fatalities. Our findings suggest that people increasingly rely on motorcycles to reduce their fuel costs in response to rising gasoline prices. We estimate that use of motorcycles and scooters instead of 4-wheeled vehicles results in over 1500 additional motorcycle fatalities annually for each dollar increase in gas prices. Motorcycle safety should receive more attention as a leading public health issue. PMID:19696374

  4. Disposal of Kitchen Waste from High Rise Apartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ori, Kirki; Bharti, Ajay; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-09-01

    The high rise building has numbers of floor and rooms having variety of users or tenants for residential purposes. The huge quantities of heterogenous mixtures of domestic food waste are generated from every floor of the high rise residential buildings. Disposal of wet and biodegradable domestic kitchen waste from high rise buildings are more expensive in regards of collection and vertical transportation. This work is intended to address the technique to dispose of the wet organic food waste from the high rise buildings or multistory building at generation point with the advantage of gravity and vermicomposting technique. This innovative effort for collection and disposal of wet organic solid waste from high rise apartment is more economical and hygienic in comparison with present system of disposal.

  5. The advisability of high-rise construction in the city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergievskaya, Natalia; Pokrovskaya, Tatyana; Vorontsova, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    In this article there discusses the question of advisability high-rise construction, the reasons for its use, both positive and negative sides of it. On the one hand, a number of authors believe that it is difficult to avoid high-rise construction due to the limited areas in very large cities. On the other hand, a number of other authors draw attention to the problems associated with high-rise construction. The author of the article analyses examples of high-rise construction in several countries (UAE, Dubai "Burj Khalifa"; Japan "Tokyo Sky Tree"; United States of America, "Willis Tower"; Russia "Federation Tower") and proves the advisability of high-rise construction in the city.

  6. Sea level rise and the geoid: factor analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sadovski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sea levels are rising around the world, and this is a particular concern along most of the coasts of the United States. A 1989 EPA report shows that sea levels rose 5-6 inches more than the global average along the Mid-Atlantic and Gulf Coasts in the last century. The main reason for this is coastal land subsidence. This sea level rise is considered more as relative sea level rise than global sea level rise. Thus, instead of studying sea level rise globally, this paper describes a statistical approach by using factor analysis of regional sea level rates of change. Unlike physical models and semi-empirical models that attempt to approach how much and how fast sea levels are changing, this methodology allows for a discussion of the factor(s that statistically affects sea level rates of change, and seeks patterns to explain spatial correlations.

  7. The rise of sea level. To understand and to anticipate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    By proposing and briefly commenting graphs and drawings, this publication propose brief presentations of the main issues related to sea level rise: global warming and climate disturbance, description of the phenomenon of sea level rise (difference between sea ice and ground ice, melting of glaciers), increase of sea level rise during the twentieth century, territories at risk (examples of Greenland, Tuvalu, Shanghai), acceleration of ice melting during the twenty first century with many coastal areas at risk, already noticed and possible future impacts in France (glaciers runoff, threatened coasts, example of the Xynthia tempest), how to be united and to anticipate (a threat for millions of people, adaptation to sea level rise, limitation of global warming to limit sea level rise)

  8. The Climate Science Special Report: Rising Seas and Changing Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    GMSL has risen by about 16-21 cm since 1900. Ocean heat content has increased at all depths since the 1960s, and global mean sea-surface temperature increased 0.7°C/century between 1900 to 2016. Human activity contributed substantially to generating a rate of GMSL rise since 1900 faster than during any preceding century in at least 2800 years. A new set of six sea-level rise scenarios, spanning a range from 30 cm to 250 cm of 21st century GMSL rise, were developed for the CSSR. The lower scenario is based on linearly extrapolating the past two decades' rate of rise. The upper scenario is informed by literature estimates of maximum physically plausible values, observations indicating the onset of marine ice sheet instability in parts of West Antarctica, and modeling of ice-cliff and ice-shelf instability mechanisms. The new scenarios include localized projections along US coastlines. There is significant variability around the US, with rates of rise likely greater than GMSL rise in the US Northeast and the western Gulf of Mexico. Under scenarios involving extreme Antarctic contributions, regional rise would be greater than GMSL rise along almost all US coastlines. Historical sea-level rise has already driven a 5- to 10-fold increase in minor tidal flooding in several US coastal cities since the 1960s. Under the CSSR's Intermediate sea-level rise scenario (1.0 m of GMSL rise in 2100) , a majority of NOAA tide gauge locations will by 2040 experience the historical 5-year coastal flood about 5 times per year. Ocean changes are not limited to rising sea levels. Ocean pH is decreasing at a rate that may be unparalleled in the last 66 million years. Along coastlines, ocean acidification can be enhanced by changes in the upwelling (particularly along the US Pacific Coast); by episodic, climate change-enhanced increases in freshwater input (particularly along the US Atlantic Coast); and by the enhancement of biological respiration by nutrient runoff. Climate models project

  9. The rise of metal radionuclides in medical imaging: copper-64, zirconium-89 and yttrium-86.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikotun, Oluwatayo F; Lapi, Suzanne E

    2011-04-01

    Positron emission tomography, with its high sensitivity and resolution, is growing rapidly as an imaging technology for the diagnosis of many disease states. The success of this modality is reliant on instrumentation and the development of effective and novel targeted probes. Initially, research in this area was focused on what we will define in this article as 'standard' PET isotopes (carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18), but the short half-lives of these isotopes limit radiopharmaceutical development to those that probe rapid biological processes. To overcome these limitations, there has been a rise in nonstandard isotope probe development in recent years. This review focuses on the biological probes and processes that have been examined, in additiom to the preclinical and clinical findings with nonstandard radiometals: copper-64, zirconium-89, and yttrium-86.

  10. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for microfluidics K. LAND, S. HUGO, M MBANJWA, L FOURIE CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidics refers to the manipulation of very small volumes of fluid.... Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  11. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  12. Rapid MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, R.R.; Buxton, R.B.; Brady, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods typically require several minutes to produce an image, but the periods of respiration, cardiac motion and peristalsis are on the order of seconds or less. The need to reduce motion artifact, as well as the need to reduce imaging time for patient comfort and efficiency, have provided a strong impetus for the development of rapid imaging methods. For abdominal imaging, motion artifacts due to respiration can be significantly reduced by collecting the entire image during one breath hold. For other applications, such as following the kinetics of administered contrast agents, rapid imaging is essential to achieve adequate time resolution. A shorter imaging time entails a cost in image signal/noise (S/N), but improvements in recent years in magnet homogeneity, gradient and radiofrequency coil design have led to steady improvements in S/N and consequently in image quality. For many chemical applications the available S/N is greater than needed, and a trade-off of lower S/N for a shorter imaging time is acceptable. In this chapter, the authors consider the underlying principles of rapid imaging as well as clinical applications of these methods. The bulk of this review concentrates on short TR imaging, but methods that provide for a more modest decrease in imaging time as well as or those that dramatically shorten the imaging time to tens of milliseconds are also discussed

  13. Ultra-modified rapid sequence induction with transnasal humidified rapid insufflation ventilatory exchange: Challenging convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan Sakharam Kulkarni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During positive pressure ventilation, gastric inflation and subsequent pulmonary aspiration can occur. Rapid sequence induction (RSI technique is an age-old formula to prevent this. We adopted a novel approach of RSI for patients with high risk of aspiration and evaluated it further in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgeries. We believe that, in patients with risk of gastric insufflation and pulmonary aspiration, transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange can be useful in facilitating pre- and apnoeic oxygenation till tracheal isolation is achieved.

  14. Effect of hepatic venous sphincter contraction on transmission of central venous pressure to lobar and portal pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautt, W W; Legare, D J; Greenway, C V

    1987-11-01

    In dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital, central vena caval pressure (CVP), portal venous pressure (PVP), and intrahepatic lobar venous pressure (proximal to the hepatic venous sphincters) were measured. The objective was to determine some characteristics of the intrahepatic vascular resistance sites (proximal and distal to the hepatic venous sphincters) including testing predictions made using a recent mathematical model of distensible hepatic venous resistance. The stimulus used was a brief rise in CVP produced by transient occlusion of the thoracic vena cava in control state and when vascular resistance was elevated by infusions of norepinephrine or histamine, or by nerve stimulation. The percent transmission of the downstream pressure rise to upstream sites past areas of vascular resistance was elevated. Even small increments in CVP are partially transmitted upstream. The data are incompatible with the vascular waterfall phenomenon which predicts that venous pressure increments are not transmitted upstream until a critical pressure is overcome and then further increments would be 100% transmitted. The hepatic sphincters show the following characteristics. First, small rises in CVP are transmitted less than large elevations; as the CVP rises, the sphincters passively distend and allow a greater percent transmission upstream, thus a large rise in CVP is more fully transmitted than a small rise in CVP. Second, the amount of pressure transmission upstream is determined by the vascular resistance across which the pressure is transmitted. As nerves, norepinephrine, or histamine cause the hepatic sphincters to contract, the percent transmission becomes less and the distensibility of the sphincters is reduced. Similar characteristics are shown for the "presinusoidal" vascular resistance and the hepatic venous sphincter resistance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Fission gas pressure build-up and fast-breeder economy; Accumulation de la pression des gaz de fission et economie des reacteurs surgenerateurs a neutrons rapides; Nakoplenie davleniya gazov produktov deleniya i ehkonomika reaktorov-razmnozhitelej na bystrykh nejtronakh; Aumento de la presion de los gases de fision y economia de los reactores reproductores rapidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, P [Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1962-03-15

    Fuel-cycle costs and doubling time of fast-breeder reactors are strongly affected by the fuel-burn-up obtainable. Use of oxide or carbide fuel offers the possibility of reaching a burn-up of 100 000 MWd/t. In fuel-clad elements, a limiting factor is the fission-gas-pressure build-up. At the high burn-up considered, an appreciable fraction of the fission gases gets into the pores and thus contributes to the pressure on the can. Starting from the known fission-product yields and decay chains, gas production and pressure build-up have been calculated. Three physical models have been employed in calculating the pressure acting upon the can : the gas is contained either in interconnected pores, in separate pores, or in a central hole. The pressure-dependence upon free volume (fuel density) and temperature will be discussed. Cans made of high-strength materials as Ineonel-X and molybdenum could stand the fission-gas pressure at operating temperatures. Unfortunately, these materials have higher absorption cross-sections than stainless steel. Results of a multi-group calculation are given, showing the effect of using these can materials and of decreasing the fuel density on critical mass and breeding ratio in small and medium-size breeders. (author) [French] Le cout du cycle de combustible et la periode de doublement des reacteurs surgenerateurs a neutrons rapides dependent etroitement du taux de combustion. En utilisant pour combustible un oxyde ou un carbure, on peut atteindre un taux de combustion de 100 000 MW j/t. Avec des combustibles gaines, l'accumulation de la pression des gaz de fission est un facteur limitatif. Pour le fort taux de combustion envisage, une fraction non negligeable des gaz de fission penetre dans les interstices et contribue ainsi a la pression sur la gaine. A partir des rendements en produits de fission et des chaines de desintegration connus, l'auteur a calcule la production de gaz et l'accumulation de pression. Pour calculer la pression

  16. Large Topographic Rises on Venus: Implications for Mantle Upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofan, Ellen R.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Bindschandler, Duane L.; Senske, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Topographic rises on Venus have been identified that are interpreted to be the surface manifestation of mantle upwellings. These features are classified into groups based on their dominant morphology. Atla and Beta Regiones are classified as rift-dominated, Dione, western Eistla, Bell, and Imdr Regiones as volcano-dominated, and Themis, eastern Eistla, and central Eistla Regiones as corona-dominated. At several topographic rises, geologic indicators were identified that may provide evidence of uplifted topography (e.g., volcanic flow features trending upslope). We assessed the minimum contribution of volcanic construction to the topography of each rise, which in general represents less than 5% of the volume of the rise, similar to the volumes of edifices at terrestrial hotspot swells. The total melt volume at each rise is approximated to be 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 6) cu km. The variations in morphology, topography, and gravity signatures at topographic rises are not interpreted to indicate variations in stage of evolution of a mantle upwelling. Instead, the morphologic variations between the three classes of topographic rises are interpreted to indicate the varying influences of lithospheric structure, plume characteristics, and regional tectonic environment. Within each class, variations in topography, gravity, and amount of volcanism may be indicative of differing stages of evolution. The similarity between swell and volcanic volumes for terrestrial and Venusian hotspots implies comparable time-integrated plume strengths for individual upwellings on the two planets.

  17. High-pressure oxidation of ethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Hamid; G. Jacobsen, Jon; Rasmussen, Christian T.

    2017-01-01

    Ethane oxidation at intermediate temperatures and high pressures has been investigated in both a laminar flow reactor and a rapid compression machine (RCM). The flow-reactor measurements at 600–900 K and 20–100 bar showed an onset temperature for oxidation of ethane between 700 and 825 K, depending...... on pressure, stoichiometry, and residence time. Measured ignition delay times in the RCM at pressures of 10–80 bar and temperatures of 900–1025 K decreased with increasing pressure and/or temperature. A detailed chemical kinetic model was developed with particular attention to the peroxide chemistry. Rate...

  18. The Rise and Fall of Star Formation Histories of Blue Galaxies at Redshifts 0.2 < z < 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Camilla; Kassin, Susan A.; Weiner, Benjamin; Charlot, Stephane; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    Popular cosmological scenarios predict that galaxies form hierarchically from the merger of many progenitor, each with their own unique star formation history (SFH). We use the approach recently developed by Pacifici et al. to constrain the SFHs of 4517 blue (presumably star-forming) galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range O.2 galaxies rise and fall in a roughly symmetric bell-shaped manner, while those of low-mass galaxies rise progressively in time, consistent with the typically stronger activity of star formation in low-mass compared to high-mass galaxies. For galaxies of all masses, the star formation activity rises more rapidly at high than at low redshift. These findings imply that the standard approximation of exponentially declining SFHs wIdely used to interpret observed galaxy spectral energy distributions is not appropriate to constrain the physical parameters of star-forming galaxies at intermediate redshifts.

  19. The dynamics of the rise and fall of empires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Güngör

    2016-05-01

    The rise of empires can be elucidated by treating them as living organisms, and the celebrated Verhulst or Lotka-Volterra dynamics can be used to understand the growth mechanisms of empires. The fast growth can be expressed by an exponential function as in the case of Macedonian empire of the Alexander the Great whereas a sigmoidal growth can be expressed by power-law equation as in the case of Roman and Ottoman empires. The superpowers Russia and the USA follow somehow different mechanisms, Russia displays two different exponential growth behaviors whereas the USA follows two different power-law behaviors. They did not disturb and mobilize their social capacity much during the course of their rise. The decline and the collapse of an empire occur through a kind of fragmentation process, and the consequently formed small states become rather free in their behavior. The lands of the new states formed exhibit a hierarchical pattern, and the number of the states having an area smaller than the largest one can be given either by an exponential or power-law function. The exponential distribution pattern occurs when the states are quite free in their pursuits, but the power-law behavior occurs when they are under the pressure of an empire or a strong state in the region. The geological and geographical conditions also affect whether there occurs exponential or power-law behavior. The new unions formed such as the European Union and the Shanghai Cooperation increase the power-law exponent implying that they increase the stress in the international affairs. The viscoelastic behavior of the empires can be found from the scattering diagrams, and the storage (G‧)and loss modulus (G‧‧), and the associated work-like and heat-like terms can be determined in the sense of thermodynamics. The G‧ of Ottomans was larger than that of Romans implying that they confronted severe resistance during their expansion. The G‧ of Russia is also larger than that of the USA; in fact the

  20. The RiSE climbing robot: body and leg design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, A.; Goldman, D. I.; Full, R. J.; Buehler, M.

    2006-05-01

    The RiSE robot is a biologically inspired, six legged climbing robot, designed for general mobility in scansorial (vertical walls, horizontal ledges, ground level) environments. It exhibits ground reaction forces that are similar to animal climbers and does not rely on suction, magnets or other surface-dependent specializations to achieve adhesion and shear force. We describe RiSE's body and leg design as well as its electromechanical, communications and computational infrastructure. We review design iterations that enable RiSE to climb 90° carpeted, cork covered and (a growing range of) stucco surfaces in the quasi-static regime.

  1. Anthropogenic forcing dominates sea level rise since 1850

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2009-01-01

    The rate of sea level rise and its causes are topics of active debate. Here we use a delayed response statistical model to attribute the past 1000 years of sea level variability to various natural (volcanic and solar radiative) and anthropogenic (greenhouse gases and aerosols) forcings. We show...... that until 1800 the main drivers of sea level change are volcanic and solar radiative forcings. For the past 200 years sea level rise is mostly associated with anthropogenic factors. Only 4 ± 1.5 cm (25% of total sea level rise) during the 20th century is attributed to natural forcings, the remaining 14 ± 1...

  2. Leasing instruments of high-rise construction financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, Olga; Ivleva, Elena; Sukhacheva, Viktoria; Rumyantseva, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The leasing sector of the business economics is expanding. Leasing instruments for high-rise construction financing allow to determine the best business behaviour in the leasing economy sector, not only in the sphere of transactions with equipment and vehicles. Investments in high-rise construction have a multiplicative effect. It initiates an active search and leasing instruments use in the economic behaviour of construction organizations. The study of the high-rise construction sector in the structure of the leasing market participants significantly expands the leasing system framework. The scheme of internal and external leasing process factors influence on the result formation in the leasing sector of economy is offered.

  3. COMPARISON OF ROCURONIUM BROMIDE AND SUCCINYLCHOLINE CHLORIDE FOR USE DURING RAPID SEQUENCE INTUBATION IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch. Penchalaiah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : The goal of rapid sequence intubation is to secure the patients airway smoothly and quickly, minimizing the chances of regurgitation and aspiration of gastric contents. Traditionally succinylcholine chloride has been the neuromuscular blocking drug of choi ce for use in rapid sequence intubation because of its rapid onset of action and profound relaxation. Succinylcholine chloride remains unsurpassed in providing ideal intubating conditions. However the use of succinylcholine chloride is associated with many side effects like muscle pain, bradycardia, hyperkalaemia and rise in intragastric and intraocular pressure. Rocuronium bromide is the only drug currently available which has the rapidity of onset of action like succinylcholine chloride. Hence the present study was undertaken to compare rocuronium bromide with succinylcholine chloride for use during rapid sequence intubation in adult patients. METHODOLOGY : The study population consisted of 90 patients aged between 18 - 60 years posted for various elective su rgeries requiring general anaesthesia . S tudy population was randomly divided into 3 groups with 30 patients in each sub group. 1. Group I : Intubated with 1 mg kg - 1 of succinylcholine chloride (n=30 . 2. Grou p II : Intubated with rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg kg - 1 (n=30 . 3. Group III : Intubated with rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg kg - 1 (n=30 . Intubating conditions were assessed at 60 seconds based on the scale adopted by Toni Magorian et al. 1993. The haemodynamic para meters in the present study were compared using p - value obtained from student t - test . RESULTS : It was noted that succinylcholine chloride 1 mg kg - 1 body weight produced excellent intubating conditions in all patients. Rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg kg - 1 body we ight produced excellent intubating conditions in 53.33% of patients but produced good to excellent intubating conditions in 96.67% of patients. Rocuronium bromide 0.9 mg kg - 1

  4. Sensing line effects on PWR-based differential pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.P.; Neff, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    An incorrrect configuration of the fluid-filled pressure sensing lines connecting differential pressure transducers to the pressure taps in a pressurized water reactor system can cause errors in the measurement and, during rapid pressure transients, could cause the transducer to fail. Testing was performed in both static and dynamic modes to experimentally determine the effects of sensing lines of various lengths, diameters, and materials. Testing was performed at ambient temperature with absolute line pressures at about 17 MPa using water as the pressure transmission fluid

  5. Mantle hydration along outer-rise faults inferred from serpentinite permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Kohei; Katayama, Ikuo; Hirauchi, Ken-Ichi; Michibayashi, Katsuyoshi

    2017-10-24

    Recent geophysical surveys indicate that hydration (serpentinization) of oceanic mantle is related to outer-rise faulting prior to subduction. The serpentinization of oceanic mantle influences the generation of intermediate-depth earthquakes and subduction water flux, thereby promoting arc volcanism. Since the chemical reactions that produce serpentinite are geologically rapid at low temperatures, the flux of water delivery to the reaction front appears to control the lateral extent of serpentinization. In this study, we measured the permeability of low-temperature serpentinites composed of lizardite and chrysotile, and calculated the lateral extent of serpentinization along an outer-rise fault based on Darcy's law. The experimental results indicate that serpentinization extends to a region several hundred meters wide in the direction normal to the outer-rise fault in the uppermost oceanic mantle. We calculated the global water flux carried by serpentinized oceanic mantle ranging from 1.7 × 10 11 to 2.4 × 10 12  kg/year, which is comparable or even higher than the water flux of hydrated oceanic crust.

  6. The rise of algae in Cryogenian oceans and the emergence of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocks, Jochen J; Jarrett, Amber J M; Sirantoine, Eva; Hallmann, Christian; Hoshino, Yosuke; Liyanage, Tharika

    2017-08-31

    The transition from dominant bacterial to eukaryotic marine primary productivity was one of the most profound ecological revolutions in the Earth's history, reorganizing the distribution of carbon and nutrients in the water column and increasing energy flow to higher trophic levels. But the causes and geological timing of this transition, as well as possible links with rising atmospheric oxygen levels and the evolution of animals, remain obscure. Here we present a molecular fossil record of eukaryotic steroids demonstrating that bacteria were the only notable primary producers in the oceans before the Cryogenian period (720-635 million years ago). Increasing steroid diversity and abundance marks the rapid rise of marine planktonic algae (Archaeplastida) in the narrow time interval between the Sturtian and Marinoan 'snowball Earth' glaciations, 659-645 million years ago. We propose that the incumbency of cyanobacteria was broken by a surge of nutrients supplied by the Sturtian deglaciation. The 'Rise of Algae' created food webs with more efficient nutrient and energy transfers, driving ecosystems towards larger and increasingly complex organisms. This effect is recorded by the concomitant appearance of biomarkers for sponges and predatory rhizarians, and the subsequent radiation of eumetazoans in the Ediacaran period.

  7. The assessment of waters ecological state of the Crimea coastal near high-rise construction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrova, Natalya; Ivanenko, Tatyana; Mannanov, Emran

    2018-03-01

    The relevance of our study is determined by the significant level of coastal sea waters pollution by sewage near high-rise construction zones, which determines the violation of the sanitary and hygienic of sea waters `characteristics and limits the possibilities for organizing recreational activities. The purpose of this study is to identify the ecological state of the marine aquatic area by the example of the Western Crimea near high-rise construction zones. The studies confirmed that the recreational and coastal area wastewater is intensely mixed with seawater, as a result, the pollution in the coastal strip of the sea in the area of deep water discharges sharply decrease. This happens because of water rapid rise to the surface and under the influence of the continuous movement of sea water huge masses with deep-water discharge, fresh wastewater is actively mixed with sea water. However, with no doubt, it is inadmissible to discharge sewage into the sea directly from the shore, but only at the estimated distance from the coast. The materials of the article can be useful for the management bodies and organizations involved in monitoring the quality of the coastal zone of the sea, teachers and students of higher educational institutions when assessing the ecological situation of the territories.

  8. The rise of algae in Cryogenian oceans and the emergence of animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocks, Jochen J.; Jarrett, Amber J. M.; Sirantoine, Eva; Hallmann, Christian; Hoshino, Yosuke; Liyanage, Tharika

    2017-08-01

    The transition from dominant bacterial to eukaryotic marine primary productivity was one of the most profound ecological revolutions in the Earth’s history, reorganizing the distribution of carbon and nutrients in the water column and increasing energy flow to higher trophic levels. But the causes and geological timing of this transition, as well as possible links with rising atmospheric oxygen levels and the evolution of animals, remain obscure. Here we present a molecular fossil record of eukaryotic steroids demonstrating that bacteria were the only notable primary producers in the oceans before the Cryogenian period (720-635 million years ago). Increasing steroid diversity and abundance marks the rapid rise of marine planktonic algae (Archaeplastida) in the narrow time interval between the Sturtian and Marinoan ‘snowball Earth’ glaciations, 659-645 million years ago. We propose that the incumbency of cyanobacteria was broken by a surge of nutrients supplied by the Sturtian deglaciation. The ‘Rise of Algae’ created food webs with more efficient nutrient and energy transfers, driving ecosystems towards larger and increasingly complex organisms. This effect is recorded by the concomitant appearance of biomarkers for sponges and predatory rhizarians, and the subsequent radiation of eumetazoans in the Ediacaran period.

  9. Risk of tuberculosis in high-rise and high density dwellings: An exploratory spatial analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Poh-Chin; Low, Chien-Tat; Tse, Wing-Sze Cindy; Tsui, Chun-Kan; Lee, Herman; Hui, Pak-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that socioeconomic and environmental factors have direct/indirect influences on TB. This research focuses on TB prevalence of Hong Kong in relation to its compact urban development comprising of high-rise and high-density residential dwellings caused by rapid population growth and limited land resources. It has been postulated that occupants living on higher levels of a building would benefit from better ventilation and direct sunlight and thus less likely to contract infectious respiratory diseases. On the contrary, those on lower floors amid the dense clusters of high-rises are more susceptible to TB infection because of poorer air quality from street-level pollution and lesser exposure to direct sunlight. However, there have not been published studies to support these claims. As TB continues to threaten public health in Hong Kong, this study seeks to understand the effects of housing development on TB occurrences in an urban setting. -- Highlights: ► We examined association between TB prevalence and floor levels using sky view factor. ► TB is more prevalent on lower floors and relationship manifested in taller buildings. ► Floor level and building height jointly affect sky view factors at diseased locations. ► GIS framework is effective in associating disease prevalence in an urban setting. -- Research on TB prevalence of Hong Kong and its compact urban development with public health implications for Asian cities in pursuit of high-rise urban living

  10. Rise and Fall of one of World's largest deltas; the Mekong delta in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minderhoud, P. S. J.; Eslami Arab, S.; Pham, H. V.; Erkens, G.; van der Vegt, M.; Oude Essink, G.; Stouthamer, E.; Hoekstra, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Mekong delta is the third's largest delta in the world. It is home to almost 20 million people and an important region for the food security in South East Asia. As most deltas, the Mekong delta is the dynamic result of a balance of sediment supply, sea level rise and subsidence, hosting a system of fresh and salt water dynamics. Ongoing urbanization, industrialization and intensification of agricultural practices in the delta, during the past decades, resulted in growing domestic, agricultural and industrial demands, and have led to a dramatic increase of fresh water use. Since the year 2000, the amount of fresh groundwater extracted from the subsurface increased by 500%. This accelerated delta subsidence as the groundwater system compacts, with current sinking rates exceeding global sea level rise up to an order of magnitude. These high sinking rates have greatly altered the sediment budget of the delta and, with over 50% of the Mekong delta surface elevated less than 1 meter above sea level, greatly increase vulnerability to flooding and storm surges and ultimately, permanent inundation. Furthermore, as the increasingly larger extractions rapidly reduce the fresh groundwater reserves, groundwater salinization subsequently increases. On top of that, dry season low-flows by the Mekong river cause record salt water intrusion in the delta's estuarine system, creating major problems for rice irrigation. We present the work of three years research by the Dutch-Vietnamese `Rise and Fall' project on land subsidence and salinization in both groundwater and surface water in the Vietnamese Mekong delta.

  11. The rise of angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras: Insights from Ranunculaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Li; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Ortiz, Rosa Del C; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Kun-Li; Yu, Sheng-Xiang; Xing, Yao-Wu; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2016-06-02

    The rise of angiosperms has been regarded as a trigger for the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the timeframe of the rise angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras (ADHFs) is lacking. Here, we used the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) as a proxy to provide insights into the rise of ADHFs. An integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, ancestral state inferring, and diversification analytical methods was used to infer the early evolutionary history of Ranunculaceae. We found that Ranunculaceae became differentiated in forests between about 108-90 Ma. Diversification rates markedly elevated during the Campanian, mainly resulted from the rapid divergence of the non-forest lineages, but did not change across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Our data for Ranunculaceae indicate that forest-dwelling ADHFs may have appeared almost simultaneously with angiosperm-dominated forests during the mid-Cretaceous, whereas non-forest ADHFs arose later, by the end of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Furthermore, ADHFs were relatively unaffected by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction.

  12. Rapid shelf-wide cooling response of a stratified coastal ocean to hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seroka, Greg; Miles, Travis; Xu, Yi; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2017-06-01

    Large uncertainty in the predicted intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) persists compared to the steadily improving skill in the predicted TC tracks. This intensity uncertainty has its most significant implications in the coastal zone, where TC impacts to populated shorelines are greatest. Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid ahead-of-eye-center cooling of a stratified coastal ocean can have a significant impact on hurricane intensity forecasts. Using observation-validated, high-resolution ocean modeling, the stratified coastal ocean cooling processes observed in two U.S. Mid-Atlantic hurricanes were investigated: Hurricane Irene (2011)-with an inshore Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) track during the late summer stratified coastal ocean season-and Tropical Storm Barry (2007)-with an offshore track during early summer. For both storms, the critical ahead-of-eye-center depth-averaged force balance across the entire MAB shelf included an onshore wind stress balanced by an offshore pressure gradient. This resulted in onshore surface currents opposing offshore bottom currents that enhanced surface to bottom current shear and turbulent mixing across the thermocline, resulting in the rapid cooling of the surface layer ahead-of-eye-center. Because the same baroclinic and mixing processes occurred for two storms on opposite ends of the track and seasonal stratification envelope, the response appears robust. It will be critical to forecast these processes and their implications for a wide range of future storms using realistic 3-D coupled atmosphere-ocean models to lower the uncertainty in predictions of TC intensities and impacts and enable coastal populations to better respond to increasing rapid intensification threats in an era of rising sea levels.

  13. Rapid shelf‐wide cooling response of a stratified coastal ocean to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Travis; Xu, Yi; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Large uncertainty in the predicted intensity of tropical cyclones (TCs) persists compared to the steadily improving skill in the predicted TC tracks. This intensity uncertainty has its most significant implications in the coastal zone, where TC impacts to populated shorelines are greatest. Recent studies have demonstrated that rapid ahead‐of‐eye‐center cooling of a stratified coastal ocean can have a significant impact on hurricane intensity forecasts. Using observation‐validated, high‐resolution ocean modeling, the stratified coastal ocean cooling processes observed in two U.S. Mid‐Atlantic hurricanes were investigated: Hurricane Irene (2011)—with an inshore Mid‐Atlantic Bight (MAB) track during the late summer stratified coastal ocean season—and Tropical Storm Barry (2007)—with an offshore track during early summer. For both storms, the critical ahead‐of‐eye‐center depth‐averaged force balance across the entire MAB shelf included an onshore wind stress balanced by an offshore pressure gradient. This resulted in onshore surface currents opposing offshore bottom currents that enhanced surface to bottom current shear and turbulent mixing across the thermocline, resulting in the rapid cooling of the surface layer ahead‐of‐eye‐center. Because the same baroclinic and mixing processes occurred for two storms on opposite ends of the track and seasonal stratification envelope, the response appears robust. It will be critical to forecast these processes and their implications for a wide range of future storms using realistic 3‐D coupled atmosphere‐ocean models to lower the uncertainty in predictions of TC intensities and impacts and enable coastal populations to better respond to increasing rapid intensification threats in an era of rising sea levels. PMID:28944132

  14. Rapid instrumental detection and quantification of counterfeit pharmaceutical tablet formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Ogwu, John; Lawson, Graham; Tanna, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    From therapeutic to lifestyle medicines, the counterfeiting of medicines has been on the rise in recent times. Estimates indicate that about 10% of medicines worldwide are counterfeits with much higher figures in developing countries. Currently, identifying counterfeit medicines at the point of care is a challenge leaving many patients at risk. This study considered the potential use of Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) in rapid quantitative analy...

  15. The rise of the Himalaya enforced the diversification of SE Asian ferns by altering the monsoon regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of high mountain chains is widely seen as one of the factors driving rapid diversification of land plants and the formation of biodiversity hotspots. Supporting evidence was reported for the impact of the rapid rise of the Andean mountains but this hypothesis has so far been less explored for the impact of the “roof of the world”. The formation of the Himalaya, and especially the rise of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau in the recent 20 million years, altered the monsoon regimes that dominate the current climates of South East Asia. Here, we infer the hypothesis that the rise of Himalaya had a strong impact on the plant diversity in the biodiversity hotspot of the Southwest Chinese Mountains. Results Our analyses of the diversification pattern of the derived fern genus Lepisorus recovered evidence for changes in plant diversity that correlated with the strengthening of South East Asian monsoon. Southwest China or Southwest China and Japan was recovered as the putative area of origin of Lepisorus and enhancing monsoon regime were found to shape the early diversification of the genus as well as subsequent radiations during the late Miocene and Pliocene. Conclusions We report new evidence for a coincidence of plant diversification and changes of the climate caused by the uplift of the Himalaya. These results are discussed in the context of the impact of incomplete taxon sampling, uncertainty of divergence time estimates, and limitations of current methods used to assess diversification rates.

  16. The rise of the Himalaya enforced the diversification of SE Asian ferns by altering the monsoon regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Schneider, Harald; Zhang, Xian-Chun; Xiang, Qiao-Ping

    2012-11-09

    The rise of high mountain chains is widely seen as one of the factors driving rapid diversification of land plants and the formation of biodiversity hotspots. Supporting evidence was reported for the impact of the rapid rise of the Andean mountains but this hypothesis has so far been less explored for the impact of the "roof of the world". The formation of the Himalaya, and especially the rise of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in the recent 20 million years, altered the monsoon regimes that dominate the current climates of South East Asia. Here, we infer the hypothesis that the rise of Himalaya had a strong impact on the plant diversity in the biodiversity hotspot of the Southwest Chinese Mountains. Our analyses of the diversification pattern of the derived fern genus Lepisorus recovered evidence for changes in plant diversity that correlated with the strengthening of South East Asian monsoon. Southwest China or Southwest China and Japan was recovered as the putative area of origin of Lepisorus and enhancing monsoon regime were found to shape the early diversification of the genus as well as subsequent radiations during the late Miocene and Pliocene. We report new evidence for a coincidence of plant diversification and changes of the climate caused by the uplift of the Himalaya. These results are discussed in the context of the impact of incomplete taxon sampling, uncertainty of divergence time estimates, and limitations of current methods used to assess diversification rates.

  17. Nitrogen evolution during rapid hydropyrolysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, W.-C.; Kumagai, M. [Institute of Research and Innovation, Kashiwa (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    The behavior of nitrogen evolution during rapid hydropyrolysis of coal has been investigated at temperatures ranging from 923 to 1123 K and hydrogen pressure up to 5 MPa using a continuous free fall pyrolyzer. Three coals have been tested in this study. The dominant nitrogen gaseous species is ammonia, together with a little amount of HCN because most of HCN is converted to NH{sub 3} through secondary reactions. The results show that the evolution of nitrogen in coal is caused mainly by devolatilization at temperatures below 973 K, while the evolution of volatile nitrogen in char is accelerated with increasing temperature and hydrogen pressure. The mineral matter in coal act as catalysts to promote the evolution of volatile nitrogen in char to N{sub 2} apparently at high temperatures of 1123 K, as found during pyrolysis of coal by Ohtsuka et al. A pseudo-first-order kinetic model was applied to the evolution of nitrogen in coal during rapid hydropyrolysis. The model shows the activation energy for the nitrogen evolution from coal is 36.6 58.6 kJ/mol while the rate of the nitrogen evolution depends on hydrogen pressure in the order of 0.16 0.24. 41 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Linking the rise of atmospheric oxygen to growth in the continental phosphorus inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Grant M.; Lyons, Timothy W.; Mitchell, Ross N.; Hasterok, Derrick; Gard, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    The concentration of atmospheric oxygen (pO2) is thought to have increased throughout Earth history, punctuated by rapid increases ca. 2.4 and 0.8 billion years ago near the beginning and end of the Proterozoic Eon. As photosynthesis is the largest source of free O2, the reigning paradigm of rising O2 levels centres around biologic metabolism. Here we show that the phosphorus content of igneous rocks correlates, in a first-order sense, with secular increases in O2 through time, suggesting that rising O2 levels are affected by long-term mantle cooling and its effect on the continental phosphorus inventory. Because phosphorus is the limiting nutrient for primary productivity, its availability has fundamental control over the efficiency of oxygenic photosynthesis, pointing to a previously unrecognized role of the solid Earth in biologic and atmospheric evolution. Furthermore, as many bio-essential elements are effectively incompatible in the mantle, this relationship has implications for any terrestrial planet. All planets will cool, and those with efficient plate tectonic convection will cool more rapidly. We are left concluding that the speed of such cooling may affect pattern of biological evolution on any habitable planet.

  19. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  20. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... local chapter Join our online community Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a brain disorder ... Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus occurs when excess cerebrospinal fluid ...

  1. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a pressure sore required? play_arrow How long is the typical healing time for a pressure ... arrow Why do some pressure sores take so long to heal? play_arrow Can a pressure sore ...

  2. Biogeochemical Modeling of the Second Rise of Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. L.; Catling, D.; Claire, M.; Zahnle, K.

    2014-03-01

    The rise of atmospheric oxygen set the tempo for the evolution of complex life on Earth. Oxygen levels are thought to have increased in two broad steps: one step occurred in the Archean ~ 2.45 Ga (the Great Oxidation Event or GOE), and another step occured in the Neoproterozoic ~750-580 Ma (the Neoprotoerozoic Oxygenation Event or NOE). During the NOE, oxygen levels increased from ~1-10% of the present atmospheric level (PAL) (Holland, 2006), to ~15% PAL in the late Neoproterozoic, to ~100% PAL later in the Phanerozoic. Complex life requires O2, so this transition allowed complex life to evolve. We seek to understand what caused the NOE. To explore causes for the NOE, we build upon the biogeochemical model of Claire et al. (2006), which calculates the redox evolution of the atmosphere, ocean, biosphere, and crust in the Archean through to the early Proterozoic. In this model, the balance between oxygenconsuming and oyxgen-producing fluxes evolves over time such that at ~2.4 Ga, the rapidly acting sources of oxygen outweigh the rapidly-acting sinks. Or, in other words, at ~2.4 Ga, the flux of oxygen from organic carbon burial exceeds the sinks of oxygen from reaction with reduced volcanic and metamoprphic gases. The model is able to drive oxygen levels to 1-10% PAL in the Proterozoic; however, the evolving redox fluxes in the model cannot explain how oxygen levels pushed above 1-10% in the late Proterozoic. The authors suggest that perhaps another buffer, such as sulfur, is needed to describe Proterozoic and Phanerozoic redox evolution. Geologic proxies show that in the Proterozoic, up to 10% of the deep ocean may have been sulfidic. With this ocean chemistry, the global sulfur cycle would have worked differently than it does today. Because the sulfur and oxygen cycles interact, the oxygen concentration could have permanently changed due to an evolving sulfur cycle (in combination with evolving redox fluxes associated with other parts of the oxygen cycle and carbon

  3. Korsakoff syndrome from retrochiasmatic suprasellar lesions: rapid reversal after relief of cerebral compression in 4 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastano, Luis E; Hollon, Todd C; Barkan, Ariel L; Sullivan, Stephen E

    2018-06-01

    Korsakoff syndrome is a chronic memory disorder caused by a severe deficiency of thiamine that is most commonly observed in alcoholics. However, some have proposed that focal structural lesions disrupting memory circuits-in particular, the mammillary bodies, the mammillothalamic tract, and the anterior thalamus-can give rise to this amnestic syndrome. Here, the authors present 4 patients with reversible Korsakoff syndromes caused by suprasellar retrochiasmatic lesions compressing the mammillary bodies and adjacent caudal hypothalamic structures. Three of the patients were found to have large pituitary macroadenomas in their workup for memory deficiency and cognitive decline with minimal visual symptoms. These tumors extended superiorly into the suprasellar region in a retrochiasmatic position and caused significant mass effect in the bilateral mammillary bodies in the base of the brain. These 3 patients had complete and rapid resolution of amnestic problems shortly after initiation of treatment, consisting of resection in 1 case of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma or cabergoline therapy in 2 cases of prolactinoma. The fourth patient presented with bizarre and hostile behavior along with significant memory deficits and was found to have a large cystic craniopharyngioma filling the third ventricle and compressing the midline diencephalic structures. This patient underwent cyst fenestration and tumor debulking, with a rapid improvement in his mental status. The rapid and dramatic memory improvement observed in all of these cases is probably due to a reduction in the pressure imposed by the lesions on structures contiguous to the third ventricle, rather than a direct destructive effect of the tumor, and highlights the essential role of the caudal diencephalic structures-mainly the mammillary bodies-in memory function. In summary, large pituitary lesions with suprasellar retrochiasmatic extension and third ventricular craniopharyngiomas can cause severe Korsakoff

  4. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on decays of excited strange mesons in the extended NJL model, production of heavy evaporation residues in the reactions induced by an extracted 48 Ca beam on a 208 Pb target, scaling behaviour of tensor analyzing power (A yy ) in the inelastic scattering or relativistic deuterons,two-photon collisions at very low Q 2 from LEP2: forthcoming results, high magnetic field uniformity superconducting magnet for a movable polarized target, multichannel time-to-digital converter for drift detector and wavelet-analysis: application to Gaussian signals

  5. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on the measurement of charge radii for Ti nuclei, spectroscopy of 13 Be, concentrations of hadrons and quark-gluon plasma in mixed phase, experimental results on one-spin pion asymmetry in the d↑ + A → π±(90 0 ) + X process, new results on cumulative pion and proton production in p-D collisions, investigation of charge exchange reactions, the study of the tensor analyzing power in cumulative particle production on a deuteron beam and an evidence for the excited states of the S = -2 stable light dibaryon. 32 figs., 6 tabs

  6. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate reports on analytic QCD running coupling with finite IR behaviour and universal α bar s (0) value, quark condensate in the interacting pion- nucleon medium at finite temperature and baryon number density, γ-π 0 discrimination with a shower maximum detector using neural networks for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC, off-specular neutron reflection from magnetic media with nondiagonal reflectivity matrices and molecular cytogenetics of radiation-induced gene mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. 21 fig., 1 tab

  7. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on additional conditions on eigenvectors in solving inverse problem for two-dimensional Schroedinger equation, on an absolute calibration of deuteron beam polarization at LHE, determination of the vector component of the polarization of the JINR synchrophasotron deuteron beam, wavelet-analysis: criterion of reliable signal selection, on asymptotics in inclusive production of antinuclei and nuclear fragments, use of neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor for atmospheric monitoring and impulse method for temperature measurement of silicon detectors

  8. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate reports on Monte Carlo simulation of silicon detectors for the ALICE experiment at LHC, a study of single tagged multihadronic γγ* events at an average Q 2 of 90 GeV 2 , epithermal neutron activation analysis of moss, lichen and pine needles in atmospheric deposition monitoring, the theory of neutrino oscillation, coupled quadrupole and monopole vibrations of large amplitude and test of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule using parametrization of the measured lepton-proton asymmetry. 21 figs., 18 tabs

  9. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  10. Analysis of coastal protection under rising flood risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Lickley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure located along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts is exposed to rising risk of flooding from sea level rise, increasing storm surge, and subsidence. In these circumstances coastal management commonly based on 100-year flood maps assuming current climatology is no longer adequate. A dynamic programming cost–benefit analysis is applied to the adaptation decision, illustrated by application to an energy facility in Galveston Bay. Projections of several global climate models provide inputs to estimates of the change in hurricane and storm surge activity as well as the increase in sea level. The projected rise in physical flood risk is combined with estimates of flood damage and protection costs in an analysis of the multi-period nature of adaptation choice. The result is a planning method, using dynamic programming, which is appropriate for investment and abandonment decisions under rising coastal risk.

  11. Application of tuned mass dampers in high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplyshev, Vyacheslav; Mylnik, Alexey; Pushkareva, Maria; Agakhanov, Murad; Burova, Olga

    2018-03-01

    The article considers the use of tuned mass dampers in high-rise construction for significant acceleration and amplitude of vibrations of the upper floors under dynamic wind influences. The susceptibility of people to accelerations in high-rise buildings and possible means of reducing wind-induced fluctuations in buildings are analyzed. The statistics of application of tuned mass dampers in high-rise construction all over the world is presented. The goal of the study is to identify an economically attractive solution that allows the fullest use of the potential of building structures in high-rise construction, abandoning the need to build massive frames leading to over-consumption of materials.

  12. Can False Advertising Give Rise to Antitrust Liability? (2)

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Cole

    2014-01-01

    With the Retractable Technologies case, is the theory that false advertising can give rise to violations of the Sherman Act, while rarely invoked, gaining traction? Christopher A. Cole (Crowell & Moring)

  13. Can False Advertising Give Rise to Antitrust Liability?

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Cole

    2014-01-01

    With the Retractable Technologies case, is the theory that false advertising can give rise to violations of the Sherman Act, while rarely invoked, gaining traction? Christopher A. Cole (Crowell & Moring)

  14. African Gifts of the Spirit: Pentecostalism & the Rise of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Gifts of the Spirit: Pentecostalism & the Rise of a Zimbabwean Transnational Religious Movement by David Maxwell (Ohio: Ohio University Press, 2006) – XI + 250 pp., ISBN 13:978-0-8124-1738-6, Paperback.

  15. Special considerations for testing rising rotating stem MOVs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffa, A.

    1992-01-01

    Rising stem gate and globe valves have one plane of motion: linear. The stem is either pushed or pulled into position. For rising and rotating stems however, there are two planes of motion: linear and rotational. The stem is twisted in addition to being pushed or pulled into position. Typical motor operated valve (MOV) sizing equations account only for the linear requirements of the valve to open or close. Theoretical calculations performed for a two-dimensional system predict that in the running load region, rotational torque requirements far exceed the linear requirements. To validate the theoretical model, torque testing of rising rotating stem valves was preformed, using Liberty Technologies Valve Operation Test and Evaluation System (VOTES). Theoretical and empirical data have produced a new perspective for operational requirements and a guideline for testing rising rotating stem valves

  16. The Rise of Pan-Islamism in Britain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shepard, Scott

    2006-01-01

    .... This thesis explains what is fueling the rise of pan-Islamism in Britain. For many Muslims, their religious identity is stronger than their British identity because they are alienated from the rest of society...

  17. Rising public debt profile in Nigeria: risks and sustainablity issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rising public debt profile in Nigeria: risks and sustainablity issues. ... and state governments has echoed new concerns for policy stakeholders in Nigeria. ... the share of concessional loan in external debt stock and develop Public-Private ...

  18. Experimentation and Prediction of Temperature Rise in Turning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimentation and Prediction of Temperature Rise in Turning Process using Response Surface Methodology. ... Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  19. The Global Economic Crisis and the Africa Rising Narrative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth back on the global agenda, with lowering oil prices and the rising of fracking .... workforce is informalised labour (Bieler et al 2008), while in the rural areas .... community gardens, and socially-owned renewable energy projects, which.

  20. Page | 131 RISING CASES OF RAPE OFFENCES IN NIGERIA: NEW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Key words: Rape, Rising Cases, New Measures, Penetration, Criminal Justice System, Tripod. 1. Introduction ... International Law and Jurisprudence, Faculty of Law, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. .... 10 Sexual Offences Act 2003 of the UK.

  1. Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disparities Taking Her Breath Away: The Rise of COPD in Women Disparities in Lung Health Series More ... the U.S. live with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Millions more ...

  2. Anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D.; Sprittles, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in a porous medium discovered experimentally more than a decade ago is described. The developed theory is based on considering the principal modes of motion of the menisci that collectively form the wetting

  3. Mixotrophic organisms become more heterotrophic with rising temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilken, S.; Huisman, J.; Naus-Wiezer, S.; van Donk, E.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic theory of ecology predicts that temperature affects heterotrophic processes more strongly than autotrophic processes. We hypothesized that this differential temperature response may shift mixotrophic organisms towards more heterotrophic nutrition with rising temperature. The hypothesis

  4. Development of the bubble rise model in RELAP-UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.

    1977-11-01

    Several improvements have been made to the 'bubble rise calculation' in the code RELAP-UK, which models the separation of the steam and water phases within specified volumes of the coolant circuit. The bubble rise velocity and the bubble density gradient parameter are no longer necessarily user-defined constants, as the code can calculate their values at each time step according to the local fluid conditions. In particular, the calculation of the bubble rise velocity is consistent with the RELAP-UK drift flux correlation. It is now possible to represent a vertical column by a stack of vertically-adjacent bubble-rise volumes. Any mixture level existing within the column can freely pass between the volumes in the stack. The facilities are demonstrated in this paper by a simple computational example. (author)

  5. Historical Cavern Floor Rise for All SPR Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Dylan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) contains the largest supply is the largest stockpile of government-owned emergency crude oil in the world. The oil is stored in multiple salt caverns spread over four sites in Louisiana and Texas. Cavern infrastructure near the bottom of the cavern can be damaged from vertical floor movement. This report presents a comprehensive history of floor movements in each cavern. Most of the cavern floor rise rates ranged from 0.5-3.5 ft/yr, however, there were several caverns with much higher rise rates. BH103, BM106, and BH105 had the three highest rise rates. Information from this report will be used to better predict future vertical floor movements and optimally place cavern infrastructure. The reasons for floor rise are not entirely understood and should be investigated.

  6. Prenatal influences on brain dopamine and their relevance to the rising incidence of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previc, Fred H

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of autism has risen 10-fold since the early 1980s, with most of this rise not explainable by changing diagnostic criteria. The rise in autism is paradoxical in that autism is considered to be one of the most genetically determined of the major neurodevelopmental disorders and should accordingly either be stable or even declining. Because a variety of epigenetic influences, particularly those occurring during the prenatal period, can override or masquerade as genetic influences, these should be considered as prime contributors to the recent increase of autism. Prenatal influences on dopamine activity are especially well-documented, including the effects of maternal psychosocial stress, maternal fever, maternal genetic and hormonal status, use of certain medications, urban birth, and fetal hypoxia. All of these factors have been implicated in the genesis of autism, which is characterized by a "hyperdopaminergic" state based on evidence from monkey and human behavioral studies, pharmacological studies in humans, and a left-hemispheric predominance of both dopamine and autistic-like symptoms. Chronically high maternal levels of dopamine caused by the pressures of increasingly urbanized societies and by changing maternal demographics such as increased workforce participation, educational achievement level, and age at first birth, may be especially significant epigenetic contributors to the recent autism rise.

  7. Cause and countermeasure for heat up of HTTR core support plate at power rise tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Nozomu; Takada, Eiji; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Tachibana, Yukio; Kawasaki, Kozo; Saikusa, Akio; Kojima, Takao; Iyoku, Tatuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2002-01-01

    HTTR has carried out many kinds of tests as power rise tests in which reactor power rises step by step after attained the first criticality. In the tests, temperature of a core support plate reached higher than expected at each power level, the temperature was expected to be higher than the maximum working temperature at 100% power level. Therefore, tests under the high temperature test operation mode, in which the core flow rate was different, were carried out to predict the temperature at 100% power precisely, and investigate the cause of the temperature rise. From the investigation, it was clear that the cause was gap flow in the core support structure. Furthermore, it was estimated that the temperature of the core support plate rose locally due to change in gap width between the core support plate and a seal plate due to change in core pressure drop. The maximum working temperature of the core support plate was revised. The integrity of core support plate under the revised maximum working temperature condition was confirmed by stress analyses. (author)

  8. Dynamic Temperature Rise Mechanism and Some Controlling Factors of Wet Clutch Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction transmission model of wet clutch is established to analyze the friction transmission mechanism of its engagement. The model is developed by applying both the average flow model and the elastic contact model between the friction disk and separator plate. The key components during wet clutch engagement are the separator plate, friction disk, and lubricant. The one-dimension transient models of heat transfer in radial direction for the three components are built on the basis of the heat transfer theory and the conservation law of energy. The friction transmission model and transient heat transfer models are coupled and solved by using the Runge-Kutta numerical method, and the radial temperature distribution and their detailed parametric study for the three components are conducted separately. The simulation results show that the radial temperature for the three components rises with the increase of radius in engagement. The changes in engagement pressure, lubricant viscosity, friction lining permeability, combined surface roughness RMS, equivalent elasticity modulus, difference between dynamic and static friction coefficients, and lubricant flow have important influence on the temperature rise characteristics. The proposed models can get better understanding of the dynamic temperature rise characteristics of wet clutch engagement.

  9. Pressure on Yukos growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.

    2006-01-01

    The fate of the Russian oil concern Yukos seems to be sealed. The former rising star of the Russian energy firmament seems to be dying under the pressure of local state administration. Tax arrears, the fact that the owner Mikhail Khodorkovsky was jailed and the company placed under forced administration reflects the conflict between business and political interests in Russia. And the conflict also has an impact on Slovakia. In the portfolio of Yukos Finance, the Dutch subsidiary of Yukos, are assets that are very attractive for Russian oil concerns. One of them is the Slovak operator of the Druzba pipeline, Transpetrol. Yukos Finance owns 49% of the company's shares. Last year, the company signed a contract with the Russian oil company Russneft on the sale of the stake for 103 mil. USD. According to a contract signed in 2002 that stipulated the conditions under which the Slovak state sold the Transpetrol shares to Yukos for the next 5 years such a step has to be approved by the Ministry of Economy. The Dutch company can also sell the shares without such an approval but then it has to pay a penalty fine. In such a case Slovakia would get 50% of the original amount, i.e. 37 mil. USD. (author)

  10. Pressure recovery in a diffuser for gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Masatoshi; Takashima, Yoichi; Mikami, Hisashi

    1977-01-01

    The pressure recovery of supersonic flow at very low density was studied in a vane-island type diffuser for gas centrifuge. A tester of diffuser with a rapidly rotating cylinder was used in experiments. Wall static pressures were measured at many points in the diffuser to observe the static pressure distribution. The change of pressure distribution with back pressure and the effect of flow rate were investigated. Pressure distribution showed that the pressure recovery occurred in the converging section. The pressure ratio increased linearly with the back pressure in this experimental range and the effect of flow rate was not observed. A numerical analysis of the pressure recovery in the channel section of the diffuser was made by applying the finite difference method to the slender-channel equations. The pressure distribution obtained in experiments could be explained as a result of supersonic compression with reverse flow. (auth.)

  11. Adapting to Rising Sea Level: A Florida Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Randall W.

    2009-07-01

    Global climate change and concomitant rising sea level will have a profound impact on Florida's coastal and marine systems. Sea-level rise will increase erosion of beaches, cause saltwater intrusion into water supplies, inundate coastal marshes and other important habitats, and make coastal property more vulnerable to erosion and flooding. Yet most coastal areas are currently managed under the premise that sea-level rise is not significant and the shorelines are static or can be fixed in place by engineering structures. The new reality of sea-level rise and extreme weather due to climate change requires a new style of planning and management to protect resources and reduce risk to humans. Scientists must: (1) assess existing coastal vulnerability to address short term management issues and (2) model future landscape change and develop sustainable plans to address long term planning and management issues. Furthermore, this information must be effectively transferred to planners, managers, and elected officials to ensure their decisions are based upon the best available information. While there is still some uncertainty regarding the details of rising sea level and climate change, development decisions are being made today which commit public and private investment in real estate and associated infrastructure. With a design life of 30 yrs to 75 yrs or more, many of these investments are on a collision course with rising sea level and the resulting impacts will be significant. In the near term, the utilization of engineering structures may be required, but these are not sustainable and must ultimately yield to "managed withdrawal" programs if higher sea-level elevations or rates of rise are forthcoming. As an initial step towards successful adaptation, coastal management and planning documents (i.e., comprehensive plans) must be revised to include reference to climate change and rising sea-level.

  12. The Increase of Intra-Abdominal Pressure Can Affect Intraocular Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Ece

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aims to explore the usage of intraocular pressure measurements as the early indicator of the increase in intra-abdominal pressure. Methods. In this prospective study, 40 patients undergoing elective surgery were included. Patients were divided into four groups of 10 patients. The control group (Group C was not subjected to laparoscopic intervention. Laparoscopic surgery was, respectively, performed with an intra-abdominal pressure of 9, 12, and 15 mmHg in Groups L (low, M (medium, and H (high pressure. Intraocular pressure was measured binocularly in each patient at three different times (before, during, and end of surgery using a contact tonometer. Results. Patients’ gender, age, body mass index (BMI, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA class, and operative times were not different among the groups. No complications occurred with either the surgery or measurement of intraocular pressure. Intubation was associated with a severe rise in IOP (P<0.05. An increase in intraocular pressure was seen in groups M and H (P<0.05. Conclusion. Intraocular pressure was increased in the groups with an intra-abdominal pressure of 12 mmHg or more. Measuring the intraocular pressure might be a useful method to estimate the intra-abdominal pressure. This trial is registered with NCT02319213.

  13. Thresholds of sea-level rise rate and sea-level rise acceleration rate in a vulnerable coastal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Biber, Patrick; Bethel, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Feedbacks among inundation, sediment trapping, and vegetation productivity help maintain coastal wetlands facing sea-level rise (SLR). However, when the SLR rate exceeds a threshold, coastal wetlands can collapse. Understanding the threshold helps address key challenges in ecology-nonlinear response of ecosystems to environmental change, promotes communication between ecologists and resource managers, and facilitates decision-making in climate change policies. We studied the threshold of SLR rate and developed a new threshold of SLR acceleration rate on sustainability of coastal wetlands as SLR is likely to accelerate due to enhanced anthropogenic forces. Deriving these two thresholds depends on the temporal scale, the interaction of SLR with other environmental factors, and landscape metrics, which have not been fully accounted for before this study. We chose a representative marine-dominated estuary in the northern Gulf of Mexico, Grand Bay in Mississippi, to test the concept of SLR thresholds. We developed a mechanistic model to simulate wetland change and then derived the SLR thresholds for Grand Bay. The model results show that the threshold of SLR rate in Grand Bay is 11.9 mm/year for 2050, and it drops to 8.4 mm/year for 2100 using total wetland area as a landscape metric. The corresponding SLR acceleration rate thresholds are 3.02 × 10 -4  m/year 2 and 9.62 × 10 -5  m/year 2 for 2050 and 2100, respectively. The newly developed SLR acceleration rate threshold can help quantify the temporal lag before the rapid decline in wetland area becomes evident after the SLR rate threshold is exceeded, and cumulative SLR a wetland can adapt to under the SLR acceleration scenarios. Based on the thresholds, SLR that will adversely impact the coastal wetlands in Grand Bay by 2100 will fall within the likely range of SLR under a high warming scenario (RCP8.5), highlighting the need to avoid RCP8.5 to preserve these marshes.

  14. Trend analysis of modern high-rise construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radushinsky, Dmitry; Gubankov, Andrey; Mottaeva, Asiiat

    2018-03-01

    The article reviews the main trends of modern high-rise construction considered a number of architectural, engineering and technological, economic and image factors that have influenced the intensification of construction of high-rise buildings in the 21st century. The key factors of modern high-rise construction are identified, which are associated with an attractive image component for businessmen and politicians, with the ability to translate current views on architecture and innovations in construction technologies and the lobbying of relevant structures, as well as the opportunity to serve as an effective driver in the development of a complex of national economy sectors with the achievement of a multiplicative effect. The estimation of the priority nature of participation of foreign architectural bureaus in the design of super-high buildings in Russia at the present stage is given. The issue of economic expediency of construction of high-rise buildings, including those with only a residential function, has been investigated. The connection between the construction of skyscrapers as an important component of the image of cities in the marketing of places and territories, the connection of the availability of a high-rise center, the City, with the possibilities of attracting a "creative class" and the features of creating a large working space for specialists on the basis of territorial proximity and density of high-rise buildings.

  15. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques

  16. High pressure injection of dimethyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glensvig, M.; Sorenson, S.C.; Abata, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to achieve a better understanding of the fundamental spray behavior of DME (Dimenthyl Ether) using a standard diesel pump with pintle and hole nozzles. Fundamental spray behavior was characterized by determining fuel spray penetration and angle, atomization and evaporation. The influences of opening pressure, nozzle geometry and ambient pressure above and below the critical pressure of the fuel on the spray behavior were investigated. The influence of opening pressures on the spray characteristics for the hole nozzle was investigated. The results showed that for opening pressures of 120 bar and 180 bar the spray has a similar appearance. For the higher opening pressure (200 bar and 240 bar), the initial spray breaks up very rapidly giving a high initial spray angle. The opening pressure had little influence on spray penetration. The spray angle later in the injection increased as the opening pressure was decreased. Above the critical pressure, the spray from the hole nozzle had a more irregular shape. Penetration decreased and the spray angle increased above the critical pressure. Three pintle nozzles with different geometries and opening pressures were tested. The appearance of the three sprays were very similar. The sprays seemed to be more sharply pointed as the nozzle hole angle decreased. The nozzle with the 4 deg. hole nozzle angle and an opening pressure of 280 bar had the highest penetration and highest initial spray angle. The pintle nozzle with the 12 deg. hole nozzle angle and opening pressure of approx. 450 bar was tested above the critical ambient pressure. Penetration was very similar for injection above and below the critical ambient pressure, while the spray angle decreased for the spray above the critical ambient pressure. (au)

  17. Implications of sea-level rise in a modern carbonate ramp setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokier, Stephen W.; Court, Wesley M.; Onuma, Takumi; Paul, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    This study addresses a gap in our understanding of the effects of sea-level rise on the sedimentary systems and morphological development of recent and ancient carbonate ramp settings. Many ancient carbonate sequences are interpreted as having been deposited in carbonate ramp settings. These settings are poorly-represented in the Recent. The study documents the present-day transgressive flooding of the Abu Dhabi coastline at the southern shoreline of the Arabian/Persian Gulf, a carbonate ramp depositional system that is widely employed as a Recent analogue for numerous ancient carbonate systems. Fourteen years of field-based observations are integrated with historical and recent high-resolution satellite imagery in order to document and assess the onset of flooding. Predicted rates of transgression (i.e. landward movement of the shoreline) of 2.5 m yr- 1 (± 0.2 m yr- 1) based on global sea-level rise alone were far exceeded by the flooding rate calculated from the back-stepping of coastal features (10-29 m yr- 1). This discrepancy results from the dynamic nature of the flooding with increased water depth exposing the coastline to increased erosion and, thereby, enhancing back-stepping. A non-accretionary transgressive shoreline trajectory results from relatively rapid sea-level rise coupled with a low-angle ramp geometry and a paucity of sediments. The flooding is represented by the landward migration of facies belts, a range of erosive features and the onset of bioturbation. Employing Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Church et al., 2013) predictions for 21st century sea-level rise, and allowing for the post-flooding lag time that is typical for the start-up of carbonate factories, it is calculated that the coastline will continue to retrograde for the foreseeable future. Total passive flooding (without considering feedback in the modification of the shoreline) by the year 2100 is calculated to likely be between 340 and 571 m with a flooding rate of 3

  18. Evaluation of temperature rise in a tissue mimicking material during HIFU exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruvada, S; Liu, Y; Herman, B A; Harris, G R

    2011-01-01

    In pre-clinical testing it is essential to characterize clinical high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) devices using tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs) with well known characteristics, including temperature rise and cavitation properties. The purpose of this study was to monitor cavitation behavior and correlate its effect with temperature rise in a HIFU TMM containing an embedded thermocouple. A 75-μm fine wire thermocouple was embedded in a hydrogel-based TMM previously developed for HIFU. HIFU at 1.1 and 3.3 MHz was focused at the thermocouple junction. Focal pressures from 1-11 MPa were applied and the temperature profiles were recorded. Three hydrophones were used to monitor cavitation activity during sonication. A hydrophone confocal with the HIFU transducer and a cylindrical hydrophone lateral to the HIFU beam were used as passive cavitation detectors for spectral analysis of signals, and a needle hydrophone placed beyond the HIFU focus was used to record changes in the pressure amplitude due to blockage by bubbles at or near the focus. B-mode imaging scans were employed to visualize bubble presence during sonication. In a separate measurement, schlieren imaging was used to monitor the change in field distribution behind the TMM. All hydrophone methods correlated well with cavitation in the TMM.

  19. Evaluation of temperature rise in a tissue mimicking material during HIFU exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruvada, S; Liu, Y; Herman, B A; Harris, G R, E-mail: subha.maruvada@fda.hhs.gov [Food and Drug Administration, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg., Silver Spring, MD 20993 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    In pre-clinical testing it is essential to characterize clinical high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) devices using tissue-mimicking materials (TMMs) with well known characteristics, including temperature rise and cavitation properties. The purpose of this study was to monitor cavitation behavior and correlate its effect with temperature rise in a HIFU TMM containing an embedded thermocouple. A 75-{mu}m fine wire thermocouple was embedded in a hydrogel-based TMM previously developed for HIFU. HIFU at 1.1 and 3.3 MHz was focused at the thermocouple junction. Focal pressures from 1-11 MPa were applied and the temperature profiles were recorded. Three hydrophones were used to monitor cavitation activity during sonication. A hydrophone confocal with the HIFU transducer and a cylindrical hydrophone lateral to the HIFU beam were used as passive cavitation detectors for spectral analysis of signals, and a needle hydrophone placed beyond the HIFU focus was used to record changes in the pressure amplitude due to blockage by bubbles at or near the focus. B-mode imaging scans were employed to visualize bubble presence during sonication. In a separate measurement, schlieren imaging was used to monitor the change in field distribution behind the TMM. All hydrophone methods correlated well with cavitation in the TMM.

  20. A model for capillary rise in micro-tube restrained by a sticky layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Anqi; Xu, Yun; Liu, Yikun; Cai, Bo; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Fengjiao

    2018-06-01

    Fluid transport in a microscopic capillary under the effects of a sticky layer was theoretically investigated. A model based on the classical Lucas-Washburn (LW) model is proposed for the meniscus rise with the sticky layer present. The sticky layer consists of two parts: a fixed (located at the wall) and a movable part (located on the inside of the capillary), affecting the micro-capillary flow in different ways. Within our model, the movable layer is defined by the capillary radius and pressure gradient. From the model it follows that the fixed sticky layer leads to a decrease of capillary radius, while the movable sticky layer increases flow resistance. The movable layer thickness varies with the pressure gradient, which in turn varies with the rising of the meniscus. The results of our theoretical calculation also prove that the capillary radius has a greater effect on the meniscus height, rather than the additional resistance caused by the movable layer. Moreover, the fixed sticky layer, which affects the capillary radius, has a greater influence than the movable sticky layer. We conclude that the sticky layer causes a lower imbibition height than the LW model predicts.

  1. Homing endonuclease genes: the rise and fall and rise again of a selfish element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Austin; Koufopanou, Vassiliki

    2004-12-01

    Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) are selfish genetic elements that spread by first cleaving chromosomes that do not contain them and then getting copied across to the broken chromosome as a byproduct of the repair process. The success of this strategy will depend on the opportunities for homing--in other words, the frequency with which HEG(+) and HEG(-) chromosomes come into contact--which varies widely among host taxa. HEGs are also unusual in that the selection pressure for endonuclease function disappears if they become fixed in a population, which makes them susceptible to degeneration and imposes a need for regular horizontal transmission between species. HEGs will be selected to reduce the harm done to the host organism, and this is expected to influence the evolution of their sequence specificity and maturase functions. HEGs may also be domesticated by their hosts, and are currently being put to human uses.

  2. An Enterprise Model of Rising Ship Costs: Loss of Learning Due to Time between Ships and Labor Force Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Summerville, Jessica R.; Cullis, Bethia L.; Druker, Eric R.; Rutledge, Gabriel B.; Braxton, Peter J.; Coleman, Richard L.

    2007-01-01

    Proceedings Paper (for Acquisition Research Program) Since the end of the Cold War, the perceived need for Navy ships has dropped, and so the shipbuilding budget has dropped. Seemingly coincidental with this budgetary pressure, and perversely aggravating the problem, ship costs began to rise steeply. We will set aside that ships have grown in weight by about three percent per year since World War II and that ever-more weapon systems are being put into them, and confine ourselves to discu...

  3. Thermogravimetric measurements of liquid vapor pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Yunhong; Gregson, Christopher M.; Parker, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rapid determination of vapor pressure by TGA. ► Demonstration of limitations of currently available approaches in literature. ► New model for vapor pressure assessment of small size samples in TGA. ► New model accounts for vapor diffusion and sample geometry and measures vapor pressure normally within 10%. - Abstract: A method was developed using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the vapor pressure of volatile liquids. This is achieved by measuring the rate of evaporation (mass loss) of a pure liquid contained within a cylindrical pan. The influence of factors like sample geometry and vapor diffusion on evaporation rate are discussed. The measurement can be performed across a wide range of temperature yielding reasonable results up to 10 kPa. This approach may be useful as a rapid and automatable method for measuring the volatility of flavor and fragrance raw materials.

  4. Rapid viscosity measurements of powdered thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, H. L.; Burks, H. D.; Dalal, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive method of obtaining processing-related data on powdered thermosetting resins has been investigated. The method involved viscosity measurements obtained with a small specimen (less than 100 mg) parallel plate plastometer. A data acquisition and reduction system was developed which provided a value of viscosity and strain rate about 12-13 second intervals during a test. The effects of specimen compaction pressure and reduction of adhesion between specimen and parallel plates were examined. The plastometer was used to measure some processing-related viscosity changes of an addition polyimide resin, including changes caused by pre-test heat treatment, test temperature, and strain rate.

  5. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  6. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, DUBNA, contains eight separate records on symmetry in modern physics (dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of academician V.A.Fock), the double φ-meson production investigation on the Serpukhov accelerator, two-leptonic η-meson decays and SUSY without R parity, charge form factors and alpha-cluster internal structure of 12 C, increasing of muon-track reconstruction efficiency in ME1/1 Dubna prototype for the CMS/LHC, study of photon-structure function F 2 γ in the reaction e + e - → e + e - + hadrons at LEP2, jets reconstruction possibility in pAu and AuAu interactions at STAR RHIC and high-vacuum nondispersable gas absorber

  7. Rapid thermal pulse annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.G.; Koehn, B.W.; Chaplin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of recovery processes have been investigated for cases of heating a sample to successively higher temperatures by means of isochronal annealing or by using a rapid pulse annealing. A recovery spectra shows the same features independent of which annealing procedure is used. In order to determine which technique provides the best resolution, a study was made of how two independent first-order processes are separated for different heating rates and time increments of the annealing pulses. It is shown that the pulse anneal method offers definite advantages over isochronal annealing when annealing for short time increments. Experimental data by means of the pulse anneal techniques are given for the various substages of stage I of aluminium. (author)

  8. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on the identification of events with a secondary vertex in the experiment EXCHARM, the zero degree calorimeter for CERN WA-98 experiment, a new approach to increase the resource of installation elements for super-high energy physics, a method of the in-flight production of exotic systems in the charge-exchange reactions, the neutron activation analysis for monitoring northern terrestrial ecosystems, a search for 28 O and study of the neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron closure N=20, a search for new neutron-rich nuclei with a 70A MeV 48 Ca beam. 33 figs., 4 tabs

  9. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on quasi-classical description of one-nucleon transfer reactions with heavy ions, elastic and inelastic scattering in the high energy approximation, experimental study of fission and evaporation cross sections for 6 He + 209 Bi reaction, d ↑ + 12 C → p + X at Θ p = 0 o in the region of high internal momenta in the deuteron, the Nuclotron internal targets, actively screened superconducting magnets, using of polarized target in backward elastic dp scattering, application of transputers in the data acquisition system of the INESS-ALPHA spectrometer, narrow dibaryon resonances with isotopic spin I=2. 93 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs

  10. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on Lorentz transformations with superluminal velocities, photo chromic effect in HTSC films, the investigation of hypernuclei in the Nuclotron accelerator, a new hadron jets finding algorithm in the four-dimensional velocity space, investigations of neutral particle production by relativistic nuclei on the LHE 90-channel γ-spectrometer (results and perspectives), coherent meson production in the dp → 3 HeX reaction, the relativistic projectile nuclei fragmentation and A-dependence of nucleon Fermi-momenta, energy spectra of γ-quanta from d-propane interactions at momentum P d = 1.25 GeV/c per nucleon. 86 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  11. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on measurements of the total cross section difference Δσ L (np) at 1.59, 1.79, and 2.20 GeV, to the estimation of angular distributions of double charged spectator fragments in nucleus-nucleus interactions at superhigh energies, simulation dE/dx analysis results for silicon inner tracking system of ALICE set-up at LHC accelerator, high-multiplicity processes, triggering of high-multiplicity events using calorimetry, ORBIT-3.0 - a computer code for simulation and correction of the closed orbit and first turn in synchrotrons and determination of memory performance

  12. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on yields of the rare-earth neutron-deficient isotopes in the reactions of Mo isotopes with 40 Ca ions, observations of slow components of solitonic-type wave structure excited by e-beam in massive copper sample, development and investigation of low-mass multilayer drift chambers (MDC-2) for inner part of the HADES spectrometer, temperature measurement of the uranium sample irradiated with secondary neutrons, edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, the influence of the dielectric frame, an object-oriented framework for the hadronic Monte-Carlo event generators and uranium-238 as a source for electronuclear power production. 32 figs., 3 tabs

  13. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on collective energy dissipation and fluctuations in elastoplastic systems, diagnostics system of the circulating beam of the NUCLOTRON based on microchannel plates, time-of-flight detector for WA98 CERN experiment, fractal structure formation on the surfaces of solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion treatment, production of nuclei in 32,34,36 S-induced reactions in the energy range 6-75 MeV/A, rare-earth elements in soil and pine needle from northern terrestrial ecosystems, 'thermal' multifragmentation in p + Au collisions at relativistic energies, search for effects of the OZI rule violation in φ and ω mesons production in polarized deuteron beam interaction with polarized proton target (project DPHE3) and fast detector for triggering on charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

  14. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on observation of transversal handedness in the diffractive production of pion triples, a possible experiment on the research of dibaryon states, Cherenkov beam counter system of the CERES/NA45 spectrometer for investigation with 160 GeV/n. lead ions, a profile-based gaseous detector with capacitive pad readout as the prototype of the shower maximum detector for the end-cap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment, what DELPHI can get with an upgraded position for the very small angle tagger, estimation of the radiation environment and the shielding aspect for the point 2 area of the LHC and the orthopositronium decay puzzle

  15. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  16. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on investigation of the tensor analyzing power A yy in the reaction A(d polarized, p)X at large transverse momenta of proton, double-differential ionization cross section calculations for fast collisions of ions and atoms, a study of the two-photon interactions tagged at an average 2 > of 90 GeV 2 , cluster and single-particle distributions in nucleus-nucleus interactions, the Coulomb interaction of charged pions in CC-and CTa-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c, influence of nitrogen and oxygen gas admixtures on the response of the DELPHI HCAL and MUS detectors and an automation of physics research on base of open standards

  17. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on effects arising from charged particles overcoming of the light velocity barrier, deformable templates for circle recognition, scintillation detectors for precise time measurements, atomic form factors and incoherent scattering functions of atoms and ions with the number of electrons N ≤ 10, experimental set-up ANOMALON for measurement of relativistic nuclear fragmentation cross sections, superconducting dipole magnet for ALICE dimuon arm spectrometer, analysis of transverse mass dependence of Bose-Einstein correlation radii using the DELPHI data, low-energy theorem in softly broken supersymmetry and study of the characteristics of particles in reactions π - , p, d, He, C + C with the total disintegration on carbon nucleus

  18. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on test of a threshold aerogel Cherenkov counter on cosmic particles, first results of study of transversal dimension of region of cumulative particles production in d + C and d + Cu reactions for energy 2 GeV/nucleon, the evidence of σ[0 + (0 ++ 0)] meson at a mass of M π + π - = 750 ± 5 MeV/c 2 observed in π + π - combinations from the reaction np → npπ + π - at an incident momentum of P n (5.20 ± 0.16 GeV/c, inclusive spectra of protons and π - mesons emitted in 4 HeC and 12 CC interactions with total disintegration of nuclei, heavy quark-antiquark pair production by double pomeron exchange in pp and AA collisions on the CMS and global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

  19. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  20. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...