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Sample records for rapid preliminary diagnosis

  1. Imprint cytology on microcalcifications excised by Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy: A rapid preliminary diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drouveli Theodora

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate imprint cytology in the context of specimens with microcalcifications derived from Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy (VABB. Patients and methods A total of 93 women with microcalcifications BI-RADS 3 and 4 underwent VABB and imprint samples were examined. VABB was performed on Fischer's table using 11-gauge Mammotome vacuum probes. A mammogram of the cores after the procedure confirmed the excision of microcalcifications. For the application of imprint cytology, the cores with microcalcifications confirmed by mammogram were gently rolled against glass microscope slides and thus imprint smears were made. For rapid preliminary diagnosis Diff-Quick stain, modified Papanicolaou stain and May Grunwald Giemsa were used. Afterwards, the core was dipped into a CytoRich Red Collection fluid for a few seconds in order to obtain samples with the use of the specimen wash. After the completion of cytological procedures, the core was prepared for routine histological study. The pathologist was blind to the preliminary cytological results. The cytological and pathological diagnoses were comparatively evaluated. Results According to the pathological examination, 73 lesions were benign, 15 lesions were carcinomas (12 ductal carcinomas in situ, 3 invasive ductal carcinomas, and 5 lesions were precursor: 3 cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH and 2 cases of lobular neoplasia (LN. The observed sensitivity and specificity of the cytological imprints for cancer were 100% (one-sided, 97.5% CI: 78.2%–100%. Only one case of ADH could be detected by imprint cytology. Neither of the two LN cases was detected by the imprints. The imprints were uninformative in 11 out of 93 cases (11.8%. There was no uninformative case among women with malignancy. Conclusion Imprint cytology provides a rapid, accurate preliminary diagnosis in a few minutes. This method might contribute to the diagnosis of early breast cancer and possibly attenuates

  2. Adoption of rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of malaria, a preliminary analysis of the Global Fund program data, 2005 to 2010.

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    Jinkou Zhao

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria, in 2006 and 2010, recommend parasitological confirmation of malaria before commencing treatment. Although microscopy has been the mainstay of malaria diagnostics, the magnitude of diagnostic scale up required to follow the Guidelines suggests that rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs will be a large component. This study analyzes the adoption of rapid diagnostic testing in malaria programs supported by the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund, the leading international funder of malaria control globally.We analyzed, for the period 2005 to 2010, Global Fund programmatic data for 81 countries on the quantity of RDTs planned; actual quantities of RDTs and artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs procured in 2009 and 2010; RDT-related activities including RDTs distributed, RDTs used, total diagnostic tests including RDTs and microscopy performed, health facilities equipped with RDTs; personnel trained to perform rapid diagnostic malaria test; and grant budgets allocated to malaria diagnosis. In 2010, diagnosis accounted for 5.2% of malaria grant budget. From 2005 to 2010, the procurement plans include148 million RDTs through 96 malaria grants in 81 countries. Around 115 million parasitological tests, including RDTs, had reportedly been performed from 2005 to 2010. Over this period, 123,132 health facilities were equipped with RDTs and 137,140 health personnel had been trained to perform RDT examinations. In 2009 and 2010, 41 million RDTs and 136 million ACTs were purchased. The ratio of procured RDTs to ACTs was 0.26 in 2009 and 0.34 in 2010.Global Fund financing has enabled 81 malaria-endemic countries to adopt WHO guidelines by investing in RDTs for malaria diagnosis, thereby helping improve case management of acute febrile illness in children. However, roll-out of parasitological diagnosis lags behind the roll-out of ACT-based treatment, and will

  3. Rapid diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections.

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    Otero-Guerra, Luis; Fernández-Blázquez, Ana; Vazquez, Fernando

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are responsible for an enormous burden of morbidity and mortality. Worldwide, millions of cases of STIs, such as syphilis, chlamydia, or gonorrhoea occur every year, and there is now an increase in antimicrobial resistance in pathogens, such as gonococcus. Delay in diagnosis is one of the factors that justifies the difficulty in controlling these infections. Rapid diagnostic tests allow the introduction of aetiological treatment at the first visit, and also leads to treating symptomatic and asymptomatic patients more effectively, as well as to interrupt the epidemiological transmission chain without delay. The World Health Organisation includes these tests in its global strategy against STIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid Diagnosis of Rhabdomyolysis with Point-of-Care Ultrasound.

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    Nassar, Alicia; Talbot, Richard; Grant, Ashley; Derr, Charlotte

    2016-11-01

    It is important to rapidly diagnosis and treat rhabdomyolysis in order to decrease morbidity and mortality. To date there are no reports in the emergency medicine literature on the use of point-of-care ultrasound in the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. This unique case describes how ultrasound was used in the emergency department (ED) to quickly diagnose and treat rhabdomyolysis prior to confirmation with an elevated serum creatine kinase. When coupled with a high index of suspicion, ultrasound can be one of the most portable, readily available, low cost, and minimally invasive techniques for making a rapid diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis in the ED.

  5. Rapid Diagnosis of Rhabdomyolysis with Point-of-Care Ultrasound

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    Alicia Nassar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is important to rapidly diagnosis and treat rhabdomyolysis in order to decrease morbidity and mortality. To date there are no reports in the emergency medicine literature on the use of point-of-care ultrasound in the diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. This unique case describes how ultrasound was used in the emergency department (ED to quickly diagnose and treat rhabdomyolysis prior to confirmation with an elevated serum creatine kinase. When coupled with a high index of suspicion, ultrasound can be one of the most portable, readily available, low cost, and minimally invasive techniques for making a rapid diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis in the ED.

  6. Partial status epilepticus - rapid genetic diagnosis of Alpers' disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCoy, Bláthnaid

    2011-11-01

    We describe four children with a devastating encephalopathy characterised by refractory focal seizures and variable liver dysfunction. We describe their electroencephalographic, radiologic, genetic and pathologic findings. The correct diagnosis was established by rapid gene sequencing. POLG1 based Alpers\\' disease should be considered in any child presenting with partial status epilepticus.

  7. Leucocyte esterase in the rapid diagnosis of paediatric septic arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, E G

    2013-02-01

    Septic arthritis may affect any age group but is more common in the paediatric population. Infection is generally bacterial in nature. Prompt diagnosis is crucial, as delayed treatment is associated with lifelong joint dysfunction. A clinical history and application of Kocher\\'s criteria may indicate that there is a septic arthritis. However, definitive diagnosis is made on culture of septic synovial fluid. The culture process can take over 24h for the initial culture to yield bacterial colonies. Leucocyte esterase is released by leucocytes at the site of an infection. We hypothesise that leucocyte esterase can be utilized in the rapid diagnosis of septic arthritis and shorten the time to decisive treatment whilst simultaneously decreasing unnecessary treatment of non-septic joints.

  8. Rapid diagnosis of aneuploidy using segmental duplication quantitative fluorescent PCR.

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    Xiangdong Kong

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was use a simple and rapid procedure, called segmental duplication quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (SD-QF-PCR, for the prenatal diagnosis of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies. This method is based on the co-amplification of segmental duplications located on two different chromosomes using a single pair of fluorescent primers. The PCR products of different sizes were subsequently analyzed through capillary electrophoresis, and the aneuploidies were determined based on the relative dosage between the two chromosomes. Each primer set, containing five pairs of primers, was designed to simultaneously detect aneuploidies located on chromosomes 21, 18, 13, X and Y in a single reaction. We applied these two primer sets to DNA samples isolated from individuals with trisomy 21 (n = 36; trisomy 18 (n = 6; trisomy 13 (n = 4; 45, X (n = 5; 47, XXX (n = 3; 48, XXYY (n = 2; and unaffected controls (n = 40. We evaluated the performance of this method using the karyotyping results. A correct and unambiguous diagnosis with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, was achieved for clinical samples examined. Thus, the present study demonstrates that SD-QF-PCR is a robust, rapid and sensitive method for the diagnosis of common aneuploidies, and these analyses can be performed in less than 4 hours for a single sample, providing a competitive alternative for routine use.

  9. Rapid Molecular Microbiologic Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection

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    Cazanave, Charles; Greenwood-Quaintance, Kerryl E.; Hanssen, Arlen D.; Karau, Melissa J.; Schmidt, Suzannah M.; Gomez Urena, Eric O.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Osmon, Douglas R.; Lough, Lindsay E.; Pritt, Bobbi S.; Steckelberg, James M.

    2013-01-01

    We previously showed that culture of samples obtained by prosthesis vortexing and sonication was more sensitive than tissue culture for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) diagnosis. Despite improved sensitivity, culture-negative cases remained; furthermore, culture has a long turnaround time. We designed a genus-/group-specific rapid PCR assay panel targeting PJI bacteria and applied it to samples obtained by vortexing and sonicating explanted hip and knee prostheses, and we compared the results to those with sonicate fluid and periprosthetic tissue culture obtained at revision or resection arthroplasty. We studied 434 subjects with knee (n = 272) or hip (n = 162) prostheses; using a standardized definition, 144 had PJI. Sensitivities of tissue culture, of sonicate fluid culture, and of PCR were 70.1, 72.9, and 77.1%, respectively. Specificities were 97.9, 98.3, and 97.9%, respectively. Sonicate fluid PCR was more sensitive than tissue culture (P = 0.04). PCR of prosthesis sonication samples is more sensitive than tissue culture for the microbiologic diagnosis of prosthetic hip and knee infection and provides same-day PJI diagnosis with definition of microbiology. The high assay specificity suggests that typical PJI bacteria may not cause aseptic implant failure. PMID:23658273

  10. Rapid screening test for porphyria diagnosis using fluorescence spectroscopy

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    Lang, A.; Stepp, H.; Homann, C.; Hennig, G.; Brittenham, G. M.; Vogeser, M.

    2015-07-01

    Porphyrias are rare genetic metabolic disorders, which result from deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the enzyme defect, different types of porphyrins and heme precursors accumulate for the different porphyria diseases in erythrocytes, liver, blood plasma, urine and stool. Patients with acute hepatic porphyrias can suffer from acute neuropathic attacks, which can lead to death when undiagnosed, but show only unspecific clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Therefore, in addition to chromatographic methods, a rapid screening test is required to allow for immediate identification and treatment of these patients. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were conducted on blood plasma and phantom material, mimicking the composition of blood plasma of porphyria patients. Hydrochloric acid was used to differentiate the occurring porphyrins (uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III) spectroscopically despite their initially overlapping excitation spectra. Plasma phantom mixtures were measured using dual wavelength excitation and the corresponding concentrations of uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III were determined. Additionally, three plasma samples of porphyria patients were examined and traces of coproporphyrin-III and uroporphyrin-III were identified. This study may therefore help to establish a rapid screening test method with spectroscopic differentiation of the occurring porphyrins, which consequently allows for the distinction of different porphyrias. This may be a valuable tool for clinical porphyria diagnosis and rapid or immediate treatment.

  11. Computer-Aided Diagnosis Based on Convolutional Neural Network System for Colorectal Polyp Classification: Preliminary Experience.

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    Komeda, Yoriaki; Handa, Hisashi; Watanabe, Tomohiro; Nomura, Takanobu; Kitahashi, Misaki; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Okamoto, Ayana; Minami, Tomohiro; Kono, Masashi; Arizumi, Tadaaki; Takenaka, Mamoru; Hagiwara, Satoru; Matsui, Shigenaga; Nishida, Naoshi; Kashida, Hiroshi; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2017-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is becoming a next-generation tool for the diagnosis of human disease. CAD for colon polyps has been suggested as a particularly useful tool for trainee colonoscopists, as the use of a CAD system avoids the complications associated with endoscopic resections. In addition to conventional CAD, a convolutional neural network (CNN) system utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) has been developing rapidly over the past 5 years. We attempted to generate a unique CNN-CAD system with an AI function that studied endoscopic images extracted from movies obtained with colonoscopes used in routine examinations. Here, we report our preliminary results of this novel CNN-CAD system for the diagnosis of colon polyps. A total of 1,200 images from cases of colonoscopy performed between January 2010 and December 2016 at Kindai University Hospital were used. These images were extracted from the video of actual endoscopic examinations. Additional video images from 10 cases of unlearned processes were retrospectively assessed in a pilot study. They were simply diagnosed as either an adenomatous or nonadenomatous polyp. The number of images used by AI to learn to distinguish adenomatous from nonadenomatous was 1,200:600. These images were extracted from the videos of actual endoscopic examinations. The size of each image was adjusted to 256 × 256 pixels. A 10-hold cross-validation was carried out. The accuracy of the 10-hold cross-validation is 0.751, where the accuracy is the ratio of the number of correct answers over the number of all the answers produced by the CNN. The decisions by the CNN were correct in 7 of 10 cases. A CNN-CAD system using routine colonoscopy might be useful for the rapid diagnosis of colorectal polyp classification. Further prospective studies in an in vivo setting are required to confirm the effectiveness of a CNN-CAD system in routine colonoscopy. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Diagnosis of acute mononucleosis in emergency: comparison of rapid tests

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    Federica Scaggiante

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a gammaherpesvirus that causes a number of clinical syndromes, including acute mononucleosis.Acute infection with EBV can vary widely with regard to the severity and presentation of illness, ranging from an asymptomatic infection to a serious, life-threatening version of mononucleosis with associated liver damage and splenomegaly. Additionally, other acute viral syndromes, including those caused by hepatitis viruses and cytomegalovirus (CMV, can lead to similar clinical syndromes. The variety of symptoms and the overlap with other viral infections underscore the importance of laboratory testing in the diagnosis of acute EBV-related disease.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of an agglutination test for the detection of heterophile antibodies (Monotest and two EBV-specific rapid immunochromatographic tests (VCA-IgM and VCA-IgG/EBNA-IgG. Heterophile antibody determination is resulted to have not a real diagnostic utility for the low sensibility and specificity of the test. In our experience the only use of VCA-IgG/EBNA-IgG test is sufficient to discriminate between an acute mononucleosis and a past infection.

  13. Bedside Echocardiography for Rapid Diagnosis of Malignant Cardiac Tamponade

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    Alaina Brinley

    2017-01-01

    , size of the effusion is less important than the rate of the fluid accumulation.6 For example, cancer patients may come in with large but chronic malignant pericardial effusions and be completely asymptomatic while young, healthy patients with only a small amount of hemopericardium may be on the brink of complete cardiovascular collapse. Utilizing bedside echocardiography allows for prompt diagnosis of a potentially rapidly fatal condition.

  14. Rapid Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis Using a Microarray

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    Ren-Jy Ben

    2008-06-01

    Conclusion: The microarray method provides a more accurate and rapid diagnostic tool for bacterial meningitis compared to traditional culture methods. Clinical application of this new technique may reduce the potential risk of delay in treatment.

  15. Comparative analysis of two rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims at comparing the diagnostic efficiencies of two commercially available kits for detecting Plasmodium falciparum infection in urine and blood of febrile patients for malaria diagnosis. This was an observational study in which matched blood and urine from symptomatic patients were tested for malaria using two ...

  16. Rapid white blood cell detection for peritonitis diagnosis

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    Wu, Tsung-Feng; Mei, Zhe; Chiu, Yu-Jui; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2013-03-01

    A point-of-care and home-care lab-on-a-chip (LoC) system that integrates a microfluidic spiral device as a concentrator with an optical-coding device as a cell enumerator is demonstrated. The LoC system enumerates white blood cells from dialysis effluent of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. The preliminary results show that the white blood cell counts from our system agree well with the results from commercial flow cytometers. The LoC system can potentially bring significant benefits to end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients that are on peritoneal dialysis (PD).

  17. Does Diagnosis of Hypertension Prevent Stroke? A Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The present study was designed to determine the relative frequency of previously diagnosed and undiagnosed hypertension in first stroke in order to evaluate if previous diagnosis of hypertension can prevent stroke. Patients and Methods: One hundred and twenty nine first stroke patients presenting at the ...

  18. Rapid prenatal diagnosis of cytogenetic abnormalities by array CGH analysis

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    Array CGH analysis has been shown to be highly accurate for rapid detection of chromosomal aneuploidies and submicroscopic deletions or duplications on fetal DNA samples in a clinical prenatal diagnostic setting. The objective of this study is to present our "post-validation phase" experience with ...

  19. The central odontogenic fibroma: How difficult can be making a preliminary diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pippi, Roberto; Santoro, Marcello; Patini, Romeo

    2016-01-01

    Central odontogenic fibroma (COF) is a rare benign odontogenic tumor derived from the dental ectomesenchymal tissues. A 16-year-old Caucasian female patient was referred by her dentist for a radiolucent asymptomatic area associated with the crown of the impacted lower right third molar. A preliminary diagnosis of a follicular cyst was supposed. The lesion was surgically removed under general anesthesia together with the impacted tooth. The microscopic diagnosis of the excised tissue revealed ...

  20. Nosocomial Candidiasis: Antifungal Stewardship and the Importance of Rapid Diagnosis.

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    Pfaller, Michael A; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Candidemia and other forms of candidiasis are associated with considerable excess mortality and costs. Despite the addition of several new antifungal agents with improved spectrum and potency, the frequency of Candida infection and associated mortality have not decreased in the past two decades. The lack of rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests has led to considerable overuse of antifungal agents resulting in increased costs, selection pressure for resistance, unnecessary drug toxicity, and adverse drug interactions. Both the lack of timely diagnostic tests and emergence of antifungal resistance pose considerable problems for antifungal stewardship. Whereas antifungal stewardship with a focus on nosocomial candidiasis should be able to improve the administration of antifungal therapy in terms of drug selection, proper dose and duration, source control and de-escalation therapy, an important parameter, timeliness of antifungal therapy, remains a victim of slow and insensitive diagnostic tests. Fortunately, new proteomic and molecular diagnostic tools are improving the time to species identification and detection. In this review we will describe the potential impact that rapid diagnostic testing and antifungal stewardship can have on the management of nosocomial candidiasis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Ebola Preparedness: Diagnosis Improvement Using Rapid Approaches for Proficiency Testing.

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    Lau, Katherine A; Theis, Torsten; Gray, Joanna; Rawlinson, William D

    2017-03-01

    The unprecedented 2015 Ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa was declared a public health emergency, making diagnosis and quality of testing a global issue. The accuracy of laboratory diagnostic capacity for EBOV was assessed in 2014 to 2016 using a proficiency testing (PT) strategy developed by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs (RCPAQAP) in Biosecurity. Following a literature search, EBOV-specific gene targets were ranked according to the frequency of their use in published methods. The most commonly used gene regions (nucleoprotein [NP], glycoprotein [GP], and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase [L]) were selected for the design of in vitro RNA transcripts to be included in the simulated EBOV specimens used for EBOV detection with PCR-based assays. Specimens were tested for stability and found to be stable on long-term storage (1 year) at -80°C and on shorter-term storage in lyophilized form (1 week at ambient temperature and a subsequent week at -80°C). These specimens were used in three EBOV PTs offered from April 2014 to March 2016. In the first and third PTs, all laboratories (3/3 and 9/9, respectively) correctly identified specimens containing EBOV RNA transcripts, while in the second PT, all but one laboratory (5/6) correctly confirmed the presence of EBOV. The EBOV PT panel was useful for ensuring the competency of laboratories in detecting EBOV in the absence of readily available clinical samples. The simulated EBOV specimen was safe, stable, and reliable and can be used in lyophilized form for future EBOV PT programs, allowing simplicity of transport. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Rapid species diagnosis for invasive candidiasis using mass spectrometry.

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    Carine Marinach-Patrice

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF-MS allows the identification of most bacteria and an increasing number of fungi. The potential for the highest clinical benefit of such methods would be in severe acute infections that require prompt treatment adapted to the infecting species. Our objective was to determine whether yeasts could be identified directly from a positive blood culture, avoiding the 1-3 days subculture step currently required before any therapeutic adjustments can be made. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using human blood spiked with Candida albicans to simulate blood cultures, we optimized protocols to obtain MALDI TOF-MS fingerprints where signals from blood proteins are reduced. Simulated cultures elaborated using a set of 12 strains belonging to 6 different species were then tested. Quantifiable spectral differences in the 5000-7400 Da mass range allowed to discriminate between these species and to build a reference database. The validation of the method and the statistical approach to spectral analysis were conducted using individual simulated blood cultures of 36 additional strains (six for each species. Correct identification of the species of these strains was obtained. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Direct MALDI TOF-MS analysis of aliquots from positive blood cultures allowed rapid and accurate identification of the main Candida species, thus obviating the need for sub-culturing on specific media. Subsequent to this proof-of-principle demonstration, the method can be extended to other clinically relevant yeast species, and applied to an adequate number of clinical samples in order to establish its potential to improve antimicrobial management of patients with fungemia.

  3. Methods of rapid diagnosis for the etiology of meningitis in adults

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    Bahr, Nathan C; Boulware, David R

    2014-01-01

    Infectious meningitis may be due to bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal or viral agents. Diagnosis of meningitis must take into account numerous items of patient history and symptomatology along with regional epidemiology and basic cerebrospinal fluid testing (protein, etc.) to allow the clinician to stratify the likelihood of etiology possibilities and rationally select additional diagnostic tests. Culture is the mainstay for diagnosis in many cases, but technology is evolving to provide more rapid, reliable diagnosis. The cryptococcal antigen lateral flow assay (Immuno-Mycologics) has revolutionized diagnosis of cryptococcosis and automated nucleic acid amplification assays hold promise for improving diagnosis of bacterial and mycobacterial meningitis. This review will focus on a holistic approach to diagnosis of meningitis as well as recent technological advances. PMID:25402579

  4. Usefulness of Leukocyte Esterase Test Versus Rapid Strep Test for Diagnosis of Acute Strep Pharyngitis

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    Kumara V. Nibhanipudi MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A study to compare the usage of throat swab testing for leukocyte esterase on a test strip(urine dip stick-multi stick to rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of Group A Beta hemolytic streptococci in cases of acute pharyngitis in children. Hypothesis: The testing of throat swab for leukocyte esterase on test strip currently used for urine testing may be used to detect throat infection and might be as useful as rapid strep. Methods: All patients who come with a complaint of sore throat and fever were examined clinically for erythema of pharynx, tonsils and also for any exudates. Informed consent was obtained from the parents and assent from the subjects. 3 swabs were taken from pharyngo-tonsillar region, testing for culture, rapid strep & Leukocyte Esterase. Results: Total number is 100. Cultures 9(+; for rapid strep== 84(- and16 (+; For LE== 80(- and 20(+ Statistics: From data configuration Rapid Strep versus LE test don’t seem to be a random (independent assignment but extremely aligned. The Statistical results show rapid and LE show very agreeable results. Calculated Value of Chi Squared Exceeds Tabulated under 1 Degree Of Freedom (P<.0.0001 reject Null Hypothesis and Conclude Alternative Conclusions: Leukocyte esterase on throat swab is as useful as rapid strep test for rapid diagnosis of strep pharyngitis on test strip currently used for urine dip stick causing acute pharyngitis in children.

  5. Development and Evaluation of a Rapid and Sensitive EBOV-RPA Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingjuan; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Xuesong; Ren, Hang; Liu, Wei; Lu, Huijun; Zhang, Wenyi; Liu, Shiwei; Chang, Guohui; Tian, Shuguang; Wang, Lihua; Huang, Liuyu; Liu, Chao; Yang, Ruifu; Chen, Zeliang

    2016-06-01

    Confirming Ebola virus disease (EVD), a deadly infectious disease, requires real-time RT-PCR, which takes up to a few hours to yield results. Therefore, a rapid diagnostic assay is imperative for EVD diagnosis. A rapid nucleic acid test based on recombinase polymerase amplification (EBOV-RPA) was developed to specifically detect the 2014 outbreak strains. The EBOV-RPA assay was evaluated by testing samples from suspected EVD patients in parallel with RT-PCR. An EBOV-RPA, which could be completed in 20 min, was successfully developed. Of 271 patients who tested positive for Ebola virus by RT-PCR, 264 (sensitivity: 97%, 95% CI: 95.5-99.3%) were positive by EBOV-RPA; 101 of 104 patients (specificity: 97%, 95% CI: 93.9-100%) who tested negative by RT-PCR were also negative by EBOV-RPA. The sensitivity values for samples with a Ct value of RPA had significantly high Ct values. Results of external quality assessment samples with EBOV-RPA were 100%, consistent with those of RT-PCR. The EBOV-RPA assay showed 97% sensitivity and 97% specificity for all EVD samples tested, making it a rapid and sensitive test for EVD diagnosis.

  6. Evaluation of a simple and rapid dipstick assay for the diagnosis of typhoid fever in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasem, M. Hussein; Smits, Henk L.; Goris, Marga G. A.; Dolmans, Wil M. V.

    2002-01-01

    To support the clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever in Indonesia, where most hospitals and health centres have no facilities for culture, a rapid dipstick assay for the detection of Salmonella typhi-specific IgM antibodies was evaluated on serum samples from 127 patients clinically suspected of

  7. RAPID3 scores and hand outcome measurements in RA patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qorolli, Merita; Hundozi-Hysenaj, Hajrije; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rehxepi, Blerta; Grazio, Simeon

    2017-06-01

    The Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID3) is a patient-reported disease activity measure used to assess physical function, pain, and global health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without formal joint counts. Since hand involvement and its decreased function are hallmarks of RA, the aim of our study was to investigate the performance of RAPID3 scores with regard to hand function and to confirm previous findings that the RAPID3 score as a disease activity measure is strongly correlated with the DAS28 score. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with RA (85% female), aged 18-75 years, were included in the study and were recruited during their outpatient visit. Apart from demographic and clinical data, the obtained parameters of interest included RAPID3 scores and assessments of the function of the hand, namely, the signal of functional impairment (SOFI)-hand, grip strength, and pulp-to-palm distance, as well the Health Assessment Questionnaire- Disability Index (HAQ-DI) and DAS28 scores. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Student's t test and linear regression were used in the statistical analysis of the results. The significance was set to p < 0.05. A positive correlation was found between RAPID3 scores and HAQ-DI scores, SOFI-hand scores, and pulp-to-palm distance, and negative correlation was observed between RAPID3 scores and grip strength. The order regarding the strength of correlations between RAPID3 scores and other variables (from the strongest to the weakest) was as follows: HAQ-DI, grip strength, SOFI-hand and pulp-to-palm distance. The hand assessment variables had stronger correlations with RAPID3 scores than with DAS28 scores. Our preliminary study showed that RAPID3 scores were strongly correlated with measurements of the functional ability of the hand, demonstrating that RAPID3 can be used as a measure of disease activity in clinical practice and to characterize hand function. Further studies are needed to confirm this result.

  8. Comparison of Xpert Flu rapid nucleic acid testing with rapid antigen testing for the diagnosis of influenza A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaio, Michael A; Sahoo, Malaya K; Waggoner, Jesse; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2012-12-01

    Influenza infections are associated with thousands of hospital admissions and deaths each year. Rapid detection of influenza is important for prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and appropriate patient triage. In this study the Cepheid Xpert Flu assay was compared with two rapid antigen tests, BinaxNOW Influenza A & B and BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B, as well as direct fluorescent antibody testing for the rapid detection of influenza A and B. Using real-time, hydrolysis probe-based, reverse transcriptase PCR as the reference method, influenza A sensitivity was 97.3% for Xpert Flu, 95.9% for direct fluorescent antibody testing, 62.2% for BinaxNOW, and 71.6% for BD Directigen. Influenza B sensitivity was 100% for Xpert Flu and direct fluorescent antibody testing, 54.5% for BinaxNOW, and 48.5% for BD Directigen. Specificity for influenza A was 100% for Xpert Flu, BinaxNOW, and BD Directigen, and 99.2% for direct fluorescent antibody testing. All methods demonstrated 100% specificity for influenza B. These findings support the use of the Xpert Flu assay in settings requiring urgent diagnosis of influenza A and B. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Acceptability of rapid HIV diagnosis technology among primary healthcare practitioners in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí, C; Fernàndez-López, L; Mascort, J; Carrillo, R; Aguado, C; Montoliu, A; Puigdengolas, X; De La Poza, M; Rifà, B; Casabona, J

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the acceptability of rapid HIV testing among general practitioners (GP) and aimed to identify perceived barriers and needs in order to implement rapid testing in primary care settings. An anonymous questionnaire was distributed online to all members of the two largest Spanish scientific medical societies for family and community medicine. The study took place between 15 June 2012 and 31 October 2010. Completed questionnaires were returned by 1308 participants. The majority (90.8%) of respondents were GP. Among all respondents, 70.4% were aware of the existence of rapid tests for the diagnosis of HIV but they did not know how to use them. Nearly 80% of participants would be willing to offer rapid HIV testing in their practices and 74.7% would be confident of the result obtained by these tests. The barriers most commonly identified by respondents were a lack of time and a need for training, both in the use of rapid tests (44.3% and 56.4%, respectively) and required pre- and post-test counselling (59.2% and 34.5%, respectively). This study reveals a high level of acceptance and willingness on the part of GPs to offer rapid HIV testing in their practices. Nevertheless, the implementation of rapid HIV testing in primary care will not be possible without moving from comprehensive pre-test counselling towards brief pre-test information and improving training in the use of rapid tests.

  10. The use of real-time polymerase chain reaction for rapid diagnosis of skeletal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Fraser, Thomas G; Bauer, Thomas W; Joyce, Michael J; Hall, Gerri S; Tuohy, Marion J; Procop, Gary W

    2006-07-01

    We identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction on a specimen from an osteolytic lesion of a femoral condyle, in which the frozen section demonstrated granulomas. The process was much more rapid than is possible with culture. The rapid detection of M tuberculosis and the concomitant exclusion of granulomatous disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria or systemic fungi are necessary to appropriately treat skeletal tuberculosis. The detection and identification of M tuberculosis by culture may require several weeks using traditional methods. The real-time polymerase chain reaction method used has been shown to be rapid and reliable, and is able to detect and differentiate both tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria. Real-time polymerase chain reaction may become a diagnostic standard for the evaluation of clinical specimens for the presence of mycobacteria; this case demonstrates the potential utility of this assay for the rapid diagnosis of skeletal tuberculosis.

  11. Polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Machado

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available In this preliminary report the results of PCR for detection of DNA sequences (65 KDa antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in CSF samples from 20 patients are registered. In 10 patients there were clinical and laboratory findings suggesting the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (test group. In the other 10 patients, clinical and laboratory findings suggested meningitis or meningo-encephalitis from other etiologies (control group. In 7 patients from the test group antigenic DNA sequences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were found in CSF by PCR; positive results were not registered in the control group.

  12. Surface plasmon resonance based biosensor: A new platform for rapid diagnosis of livestock diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR based biosensors are the most advanced and developed optical label-free biosensor technique used for powerful detection with vast applications in environmental protection, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, drug screening, food safety, and security as well in livestock sector. The livestock sector which contributes the largest economy of India, harbors many bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases impacting a great loss to the production and productive potential which is a major concern in both small and large ruminants. Hence, an accurate, sensitive, and rapid diagnosis is required for prevention of these above-mentioned diseases. SPR based biosensor assay may fulfill the above characteristics which lead to a greater platform for rapid diagnosis of different livestock diseases. Hence, this review may give a detail idea about the principle, recent development of SPR based biosensor techniques and its application in livestock sector.

  13. Compilation of a preliminary checklist for the differential diagnosis of neurogenic stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska Lundie

    2014-06-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe and highlight the characteristics of NS in order to compile a preliminary checklist for accurate diagnosis and intervention. Method: An explorative, applied mixed method, multiple case study research design was followed. Purposive sampling was used to select four participants. A comprehensive assessment battery was compiled for data collection. Results: The results revealed a distinct pattern of core stuttering behaviours in NS, although discrepancies existed regarding stuttering severity and frequency. It was also found that DS and NS can co-occur. The case history and the core stuttering pattern are important considerations during differential diagnosis, as these are the only consistent characteristics in people with NS. Conclusion: It is unlikely that all the symptoms of NS are present in an individual. The researchers scrutinised the findings of this study and the findings of previous literature to compile a potentially workable checklist.

  14. Patho-TB test for the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Alavi-Naini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Despite recent technologic improvements in identifying mycobacterium tuberculosis, we are still facing problems in rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis. The objective of this study is to determine the diagnostic value of a new rapid screening test (Patho-TB™ for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
    • METHODS: Between September 2006 to August 2007, 178 patients were enrolled in the study who were finally classified into two groups; a group of documented pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 67 and a group of non-tuberculous pulmonary infection (n = 111. Patho-TB™ test, Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture were done on all specimens.
    • RESULTS: Of all, 43 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were sputum smear positive for acid fast bacilli and the rest were smear negative. Mean age of the patients was 59.8 ± 16.1 years and 44% of them were men. The results of Patho- TB™ test were positive in 40 of smear positive and 20 of smear negative tuberculous patients and 33 cases of nontuberculous control group. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of Patho- TB™ test were estimated 89.5%, 70.2%, 64.5%, 91.7% and 77.5%, respectively.
    • CONCLUSIONS: According to the present study it would be suggested that Patho-TB™ test could be a rapid and inexpensive method for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, given by its high sensitivity and negative predictive value. Concerning the high number of false positive results, using a confirmatory diagnostic procedure is mandatory.
    • KEYWORDS: Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Rapid Diagnosis, Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Antigens, Iran

  15. A Portable Kit for Rapid Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases under Field Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-14

    INFECTIONS SHIGELLA TYPHOID FEVER STREPTOCOCCUS An example of a public health application for rapid diagnosis using the COAG test is provided by studies...than in infections in Fig. Principles of gel diffusion (GD) and of counter- monkeys with human parasites (BID%%IAL et al. 1973, immunoelectrophoresis...the cerebrospinal fluid and immunofluorescence tests for detection of malaria te ai preient ith croup inal fuidan antibodies in Aotus monkeys

  16. [Rapid prenatal genetic diagnosis of a fetus with a high risk for Morquio A syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi-bin; Ai, Yang; Zhao, Yan; Tang, Jia; Jiang, Wei-ying; Du, Min-lian; Ma, Hua-mei; Zhong, Yan-fang

    2012-04-01

    To provide rapid and accurate prenatal genetic diagnosis for a fetus with high risk of Morquio A syndrome. Based on ascertained etiology of the proband and genotypes of the parents, particular mutations of the GALNS gene were screened at 10th gestational week with amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS), denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), and direct DNA sequencing. DHPLC screening has identified abnormal double peaks in the PCR products of exons 1 and 10, whilst only a single peak was detected in normal controls. Amplification of ARMS specific primers derived a specific product for the fetus's gene, whilst no similar product was detected in normal controls. Sequencing of PCR products confirmed that exons 1 and 10 of the GALNS gene from the fetus contained a heterozygous paternal c.106-111 del (p.L36-L37 del) deletion and a heterozygous maternal c.1097 T>C (p.L366P) missense mutation, which resulted in a compound heterozygote status. The fetus was diagnosed with Morquio A syndrome and a genotype similar to the proband. Termination of the pregnancy was recommended. Combined ARMS, DHPLC and DNA sequencing are effective for rapid and accurate prenatal diagnosis for fetus with a high risk for Morquio A syndrome. Such methods are particularly suitable for early diagnosis when pathogenesis is clear. Furthermore, combined ARMS and DHPLC are suitable for rapid processing of large numbers of samples for the identification of new mutations.

  17. Preliminary Analysis of Rapid Condensation Experiment with MARS-KS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jae Ho; Jun, Hwang Yong; Jeong, Hae Yong [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In the present study, the rapid condensation experiment performed in MANOTEA facility is analyzed with the MARS-KS code. It is known that there exists some limitation with a system code to predict this kind of a very active condensation due to direct mixing of cold injection flow and steam. Through the analysis we investigated the applicability of MARS-KS code for the design of various passive safety systems in the future. The configuration of the experimental facility MANOTEA, which has been constructed at the University of Maryland - United States Naval Academy, is described and the modeling approach using the MARS-KS code is also provided. The preliminary result shows that the MARS-KS predicts the general trend of pressure and temperature in the condensing part correctly. However, it is also found that there exist some limitations in the simulation such as an unexpected pressure peak or a sudden temperature change.

  18. Comparative evaluation of two rapid field tests for malaria diagnosis: Partec Rapid Malaria Test® and Binax Now® Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, Bernard; Acquah, Samuel Ek; Ibrahim, Lukeman; May, Juergen; Brattig, Norbert; Tannich, Egbert; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Huenger, Frank

    2011-05-23

    About 90% of all malaria deaths in sub-Saharan Africa occur in children under five years. Fast and reliable diagnosis of malaria requires confirmation of the presence of malaria parasites in the blood of patients with fever or history suggestive of malaria; hence a prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to effective disease management. Confirmation of malaria infection requires the availability of a rapid, sensitive, and specific testing at an affordable cost. We compared two recent methods (the novel Partec Rapid Malaria Test® (PT) and the Binax Now® Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (BN RDT) with the conventional Giemsa stain microscopy (GM) for the diagnosis of malaria among children in a clinical laboratory of a hospital in a rural endemic area of Ghana. Blood samples were collected from 263 children admitted with fever or a history of fever to the pediatric clinic of the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital. The three different test methods PT, BN RDT and GM were performed independently by well trained and competent laboratory staff to assess the presence of malaria parasites. Results were analyzed and compared using GM as the reference standard. In 107 (40.7%) of 263 study participants, Plasmodium sp. was detected by GM. PT and BN RDT showed positive results in 111 (42.2%) and 114 (43.4%), respectively. Compared to GM reference standard, the sensitivities of the PT and BN RDT were 100% (95% CI: 96.6-100) and 97.2% (95% CI: 92.0-99.4), respectively, specificities were 97.4% (95% CI: 93.6-99.3) and 93.6% (95% CI: 88.5-96.9), respectively. There was a strong agreement (kappa) between the applied test methods (GM vs PT: 0.97; p < 0.001 and GM vs BN RDT: 0.90; p < 0.001). The average turnaround time per tests was 17 minutes. In this study two rapid malaria tests, PT and BN RDT, demonstrated a good quality of their performance compared to conventional GM. Both methods require little training, have short turnaround times, are applicable as well as affordable and

  19. [Accuracy of three methods for the rapid diagnosis of oral candidiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, X; Zhao, C; Yan, Z M; Hua, H

    2016-10-09

    Objective: To explore a simple, rapid and efficient method for the diagnosis of oral candidiasis in clinical practice. Methods: Totally 124 consecutive patients with suspected oral candidiasis were enrolled from Department of Oral Medicine, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, China. Exfoliated cells of oral mucosa and saliva or concentrated oral rinse) obtained from all participants were tested by three rapid smear methods(10% KOH smear, gram-stained smear, Congo red stained smear). The diagnostic efficacy(sensitivity, specificity, Youden's index, likelihood ratio, consistency, predictive value and area under curve(AUC) of each of the above mentioned three methods was assessed by comparing the results with the gold standard(combination of clinical diagnosis, laboratory diagnosis and expert opinion). Results: Gram-stained smear of saliva(or concentrated oral rinse) demonstrated highest sensitivity(82.3%). Test of 10%KOH smear of exfoliated cells showed highest specificity(93.5%). Congo red stained smear of saliva(or concentrated oral rinse) displayed highest diagnostic efficacy(79.0% sensitivity, 80.6% specificity, 0.60 Youden's index, 4.08 positive likelihood ratio, 0.26 negative likelihood ratio, 80% consistency, 80.3% positive predictive value, 79.4% negative predictive value and 0.80 AUC). Conclusions: Test of Congo red stained smear of saliva(or concentrated oral rinse) could be used as a point-of-care tool for the rapid diagnosis of oral candidiasis in clinical practice. Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-DDD-16008118.

  20. Single-balloon enteroscopy following videocapsule endoscopy for diagnosis of small bowel tumors: preliminary experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifan, A; Singeap, A M; Cojocariu, C; Sfarti, C; Tarcoveanu, E; Georgescu, S

    2010-01-01

    Small bowel tumors (SBTs), either benign or malignant, are rare, accounting for 3-6% of all digestive neoplasms. Videocapsule endoscopy (VCE) and double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) have revolutionized the diagnosis and management of patients with small bowel diseases, including SBTs. A novel method using the single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) has recently been developed. The aim of present study was to present our preliminary experience with SBE in patients with suspected SBTs on VCE examination. Patients in whom VCE showed one or more lesions suggesting SBTs underwent SBE. Three patients (2 males, 1 female; mean age 52 +/- 11 years) underwent SBE, and then surgery. There were two gastrointestinal stromal tumors and one adenocarcinoma. Clinically, all patients had iron-deficiency anemia and abdominal pain, and one patient had episodes of nausea/ vomiting. SBE was well tolerated without adverse events. SBE is a safe procedure and overcomes the limitations of VCE. Both procedures are complimentary in patients with suspected SBTs. VCE should be used first for initial diagnosis, followed by SBE for histopathological confrmation of the diagnosis and, if necessary, endoscopic therapy.

  1. Rapid immunohistochemical diagnosis of tobacco mosaic virus disease by microwave-assisted plant sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellnig, Günther; Möstl, Stefan; Zechmann, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    Immunoelectron microscopy is a powerful method to diagnose viral diseases and to study the distribution of the viral agent within plant cells and tissues. Nevertheless, current protocols for the immunological detection of viral diseases with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in plants take between 3 and 6 days and are therefore not suited for rapid diagnosis of virus diseases in plants. In this study, we describe a method that allows rapid cytohistochemical detection of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in leaves of tobacco plants. With the help of microwave irradiation, sample preparation of the leaves was reduced to 90 min. After sample sectioning, virus particles were stained on the sections by immunogold labelling of the viral coat protein, which took 100 min. After investigation with the TEM, a clear visualization of TMV in tobacco cells was achieved altogether in about half a day. Comparison of gold particle density by image analysis revealed that samples prepared with the help of microwave irradiation yielded significantly higher gold particle density as samples prepared conventionally at room temperature. This study clearly demonstrates that microwave-assisted plant sample preparation in combination with cytohistochemical localization of viral coat protein is well suited for rapid diagnosis of plant virus diseases in altogether about half a day by TEM. PMID:23580761

  2. 3D printed auto-mixing chip enables rapid smartphone diagnosis of anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevniak, Kimberly; Campbell, Matthew; Myers, Timothy; Hodges, Abby; He, Mei

    2016-09-01

    Clinical diagnosis requiring central facilities and site visits can be burdensome for patients in resource-limited or rural areas. Therefore, development of a low-cost test that utilizes smartphone data collection and transmission would beneficially enable disease self-management and point-of-care (POC) diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce a low-cost i POC 3D diagnostic strategy which integrates 3D design and printing of microfluidic POC device with smartphone-based disease diagnosis in one process as a stand-alone system, offering strong adaptability for establishing diagnostic capacity in resource-limited areas and low-income countries. We employ smartphone output (AutoCAD 360 app) and readout (color-scale analytical app written in-house) functionalities for rapid 3D printing of microfluidic auto-mixers and colorimetric detection of blood hemoglobin levels. The auto-mixing of reagents with blood via capillary force has been demonstrated in 1 second without the requirement of external pumps. We employed this i POC 3D system for point-of-care diagnosis of anemia using a training set of patients (n anemia  = 16 and n healthy  = 6), which showed consistent measurements of blood hemoglobin levels (a.u.c. = 0.97) and comparable diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, compared with standard clinical hematology analyzer. Capable of 3D fabrication flexibility and smartphone compatibility, this work presents a novel diagnostic strategy for advancing personalized medicine and mobile healthcare.

  3. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for rapid diagnosis and differentiation of parapoxvirus and orthopoxvirus infections in camels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalafalla, A.I.; Buettner, M.; Rziha, H.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid identification and differentiation of camel pox (CMP) and camel contagious ecthyma (CCE) were achieved by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers that distinguish Orthopoxvirus (OPV) and Parapovirus (PPV). Forty scab specimens collected from sick camels and sheep were treated by 3 different DNA extraction procedures and examined by PCR. The sensitivity of the PCR was compared with that of electron microscopy and virus isolation in cell culture. Procedure 1, in which viral DNA was extracted directly from scab specimens followed by PCR, proved to be superior and more sensitive. Procedure 2 enables a fast specific diagnosis of PPV and OPV infections directly from scab materials without the need for DNA extraction. These assays provide a rapid and feasible alternative to electron microscopy and virus isolation. (author)

  4. Rapid polymerase chain reaction diagnosis of white-nose syndrome in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Gargas, Andrea; Meteyer, Carol Uphoff; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M; Green, D Earl; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie; Thomas, Nancy J; Blehert, David S

    2010-03-01

    A newly developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to rapidly and specifically detect Geomyces destructans on the wings of infected bats from small quantities (1-2 mg) of tissue is described in the current study (methods for culturing and isolating G. destructans from bat skin are also described). The lower limits of detection for PCR were 5 fg of purified fungal DNA or 100 conidia per 2 mg of wing tissue. By using histology as the standard, the PCR had a diagnostic specificity of 100% and a diagnostic sensitivity of 96%, whereas the diagnostic sensitivity of culture techniques was only 54%. The accuracy and fast turnaround time of PCR provides field biologists with valuable information on infection status more rapidly than traditional methods, and the small amount of tissue required for the test would allow diagnosis of white-nose syndrome in live animals.

  5. Rapid polymerase chain reaction diagnosis of white-nose syndrome in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, J.M.; Gargas, A.; Meteyer, C.U.; Berlowski-Zier, B. M.; Green, D.E.; Shearn-Bochsler, V.; Thomas, N.J.; Blehert, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    A newly developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to rapidly and specifically detect Geomyces destructans on the wings of infected bats from small quantities (1-2 mg) of tissue is described in the current study (methods for culturing and isolating G. destructans from bat skin are also described). The lower limits of detection for PCR were 5 fg of purified fungal DNA or 100 conidia per 2 mg of wing tissue. By using histology as the standard, the PCR had a diagnostic specificity of 100% and a diagnostic sensitivity of 96%, whereas the diagnostic sensitivity of culture techniques was only 54%. The accuracy and fast turnaround time of PCR provides field biologists with valuable information on infection status more rapidly than traditional methods, and the small amount of tissue required for the test would allow diagnosis of white-nose syndrome in live animals.

  6. Rapid diagnosis of equine influenza by highly sensitive silver amplification immunochromatography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Takashi; Nemoto, Manabu; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumura, Tomio; Fu, Tao Qi Huang; Fernandez, Charlene Judith; Gildea, Sarah; Cullinane, Ann

    2017-06-16

    Equine influenza (EI) is a respiratory disease caused by equine influenza A virus (EIV, H3N8) infection. Rapid diagnosis is essential to limit the disease spread. We previously reported that some rapid antigen detection (RAD) tests are fit for diagnosing EI although their sensitivity is not optimal. Here, we evaluated the performance of the newly developed RAD test using silver amplification immunochromatography (Quick Chaser Auto Flu A, B: QCA) to diagnose EI. The detection limits of QCA for EIVs were five-fold lower than the conventional RAD tests. The duration of virus antigen detection in the infected horses was longer than the conventional RAD tests. We conclude that QCA could be a valuable diagnostic method for EI.

  7. Galactomannan and Real-Time PCR in the diagnosis of invasive Aspergillosis: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pedrotti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is notoriously difficult. The standard culture-based methods have shown considerable limitations in performance. For this reason, non-culture methods have been increasingly employed for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis, and, among them, the methods based on Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In this study we assess the contribution in lowering diagnosis errors provided by the RT-PCR method when run alongside other methods. We analyzed 23 biological samples, 14 serum samples, and 9 bronchoalveolar lavage samples (BAL from 10 immunocompromised patients who were selected according to EORTC/MSG criteria (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group. On the serum sample we searched the galactomannan (GM (Platelia Aspergillus® and the fungal genome (MycAssayTMAspergillus; the BAL samples were subjected also to the culture tests. In 11 serum samples the results showed concordance between GM and RT–PCR tests, while in 3 samples we report discordance: 2 results were GM positive and RT-PCR negative, and 1 results GM negative and RT-PCR indeterminate. In 5 BAL samples the results showed concordance between the two methods, while 4 were GM positive and RT-PCR negative. The data, although still preliminary, suggest an increased accuracy in the diagnosis of suspected invasive aspergillosis when employing both RT-PCR and GM tests given that the RT-PCR test eliminates the false positive results of the GM test. The PCR methods require, however, further applications of this type of diagnostic because of the severe limit given by the lack of standardization.

  8. Review of diagnosis and classification of leukemias that occurred in A-bomb survivors (preliminary report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, T; Tomonaga, M; Ichimaru, M; Kamata, N; Kuramoto, A

    1984-11-01

    According to the current knowledge of diagnosis and classification, a review of 157 patients who had developed leukemia before June 30, 1967 was made. The incidence of acute leukemia decreased slightly among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima; however, the incidence of acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) increased. The number of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was unchanged. The frequency of CML implied that A-bombing damaged stem cells. Among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, although the number of acute non-lymphatic leukemia decreased, the number of ALL was unchanged. Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) was diagnosed in 7 A-bomb survivors, confirming that Nagasaki is an endemic area for ATL. These preliminary results seem to be of importance in elucidating the mechanism of leukemia developing among A-bomb survivors. (Namekawa, K.).

  9. Review of diagnosis and classification of leukemias that occurred in A-bomb survivors (preliminary report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Ichimaru, Michito; Kamata, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi.

    1984-01-01

    According to the current knowledge of diagnosis and classification, a review of 157 patients who had developed leukemia before June 30, 1967 was made. The total number of acute leukemia slightly decreased among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima; however, the number of acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) increased. The number of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was unchanged. The frequency of CML implied that A-bombing damaged stem cells in a high incidence. Among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, although the number of acute non-lymphatic leukemia decreased, the number of ALL was unchanged. Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) was diagnosed in 7 A-bomb survivors, confirming that Nagasaki is an endemic area for ATL. These preliminary results seem to be of importance in elucidating the mechanism of leukemia developiong among A-bomb survivors. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Rayleigh to Compton ratio scatter tomography applied to breast cancer diagnosis: A preliminary computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniassi, M.; Conceição, A.L.C.; Poletti, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, a tomographic technique based on Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C) was studied using computational simulation in order to assess its application to breast cancer diagnosis. In this preliminary study, some parameters that affect the image quality were evaluated, such as: (i) energy beam, (ii) size and glandularity of the breast, and (iii) statistical count noise. The results showed that the R/C contrast increases with increasing photon energy and decreases with increasing glandularity of the sample. The statistical noise showed to be a significant parameter, although the quality of the obtained images was acceptable for a considerable range of noise level. The preliminary results suggest that the R/C tomographic technique has a potential of being applied as a complementary tool in the breast cancer diagnostic. - Highlights: ► A tomographic technique based on Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio is proposed in order to study breast tissues. ► The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio technique is compared with conventional transmission technique. ► The influence of experimental parameters (energy, sample, detection system) is studied

  11. Rapid diagnosis of diarrhea caused by Shigella sonnei using dipsticks; comparison of rectal swabs, direct stool and stool culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Duran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated a dipstick test for rapid detection of Shigella sonnei on bacterial colonies, directly on stools and from rectal swabs because in actual field situations, most pathologic specimens for diagnosis correspond to stool samples or rectal swabs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The test is based on the detection of S. sonnei lipopolysaccharide (LPS O-side chains using phase I-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles, and displayed on a one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 5 ng/ml of LPS was detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in 6 minutes. This is the optimal time for lecture to avoid errors of interpretation. In distilled water and in reconstituted stools, an unequivocal positive reaction was obtained with 4 x 10(6 CFU/ml of S. sonnei. The specificity was 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and different unrelated strains. When tested on 342 rectal swabs in Chile, specificity (281/295 was 95.3% (95% CI: 92.9% - 97.7% and sensitivity (47/47 was 100%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 95.5 % of cases (328/342 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 77% (95% CI: 65% - 86.5% and 100% respectively. When tested on 219 stools in Chile, Vietnam, India and France, specificity (190/198 was 96% (95% CI 92%-98% and sensitivity (21/21 was 100%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 96.3 % of cases (211/219 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 72.4% (95% CI 56.1%-88.6% and 100 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: This one-step dipstick test performed well for diagnosis of S. sonnei both on stools and on rectal swabs. These data confirm a preliminary study done in Chile.

  12. Development of a fluorescence-based sensor for rapid diagnosis of cyanide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Randy; Oda, Robert P; Bhandari, Raj K; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-02-04

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent β-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture "apparatus", consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits.

  13. Diagnosis of breast cancer using elastic-scattering spectroscopy: preliminary clinical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigio, Irving J.; Brown, Stephen G.; Briggs, Gavin M.; Kelley, Christine; Lakhani, Sunil; Pickard, David; Ripley, Paul M.; Rose, Ian; Saunders, Christobel

    2000-04-01

    We report on the first stages of a clinical study designed to test elastic-scattering spectroscopy, medicated by fiberoptic probes, for three specific clinical applications in breast-tissue diagnosis: (1) a transdermal-needle (interstitial) measurement for instant diagnosis with minimal invasiveness similar to fine-needle aspiration but with sensitivity to a larger tissue volume, (2) a hand-held diagnostic probe for use in assessing tumor/resection margins during open surgery, and (3) use of the same probe for real-time assessment of the `sentinel' node during surgery to determine the presence or absence of tumor (metastatic). Preliminary results from in vivo measurements on 31 women are encouraging. Optical spectra were measured on 72 histology sites in breast tissue, and 54 histology sites in sentinel nodes. Two different artificial intelligence methods of spectral classification were studied. Artificial neural networks yielded sensitivities of 69% and 58%, and specificities of 85% and 93%, for breast tissue and sentinel nodes, respectively. Hierarchical cluster analysis yielded sensitivities of 67% and 91%, and specificities of 79% and 77%, for breast tissue and sentinel nodes, respectively. These values are expected to improve as the data sets continue to grow and more sophisticated data preprocessing is employed. The study will enroll up to 400 patients over the next two years.

  14. Food allergy diagnosis in patients with elimination diet history. Preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsy Maureen Navarrete-Rodríguez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food allergy diagnosis is performed by a double blind placebo controlled challenge; however, in a lot of patients, it is only based on clinical history, skin prick tests, or parents’ perception. There is a high frequency of elimination diets without an adequate approach. Objective: To analyze the results of diagnostic tests in a group of children with elimination diet-based on suspected food allergy and verify such studies with double blind placebo-controlled test challenge. Material and method: An observational, analytical and prospective study was done in a group of patients with elimination diet for suspected food allergy. We performed prick test, Prick-to-Prick test and patch test and the positive ones were verified by double-blind placebo-controlled challenge. Results: Fourty-three patients were included within a total of 1,935 tests. Both approach for immediate and late sensitivity had not statistically significant relationship between a positive test and the elimination of food. Until now, we had 4 (8% positive challenges out of 50. Conclusion: The frequency of allergy proved by double-blind placebo-controlled test in 50 challenges was of 8% (4/50, thus, in the preliminary report we found a high frequency of elimination diets without adequate support. It is very important that food allergy diagnosis is accurate and based on an appropriate approach; since the implementation of an elimination diet in pediatric population can have a negative influence on their growth and development.

  15. Rapid diagnosis of sepsis with TaqMan-Based multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Feng; Shi, Xin-Ping; Chen, Yun; Jin, Ye; Zhang, Bing

    2018-02-01

    The survival rate of septic patients mainly depends on a rapid and reliable diagnosis. A rapid, broad range, specific and sensitive quantitative diagnostic test is the urgent need. Thus, we developed a TaqMan-Based Multiplex real-time PCR assays to identify bloodstream pathogens within a few hours. Primers and TaqMan probes were designed to be complementary to conserved regions in the 16S rDNA gene of different kinds of bacteria. To evaluate accurately, sensitively, and specifically, the known bacteria samples (Standard strains, whole blood samples) are determined by TaqMan-Based Multiplex real-time PCR. In addition, 30 blood samples taken from patients with clinical symptoms of sepsis were tested by TaqMan-Based Multiplex real-time PCR and blood culture. The mean frequency of positive for Multiplex real-time PCR was 96% at a concentration of 100 CFU/mL, and it was 100% at a concentration greater than 1000 CFU/mL. All the known blood samples and Standard strains were detected positively by TaqMan-Based Multiplex PCR, no PCR products were detected when DNAs from other bacterium were used in the multiplex assay. Among the 30 patients with clinical symptoms of sepsis, 18 patients were confirmed positive by Multiplex real-time PCR and seven patients were confirmed positive by blood culture. TaqMan-Based Multiplex real-time PCR assay with highly sensitivity, specificity and broad detection range, is a rapid and accurate method in the detection of bacterial pathogens of sepsis and should have a promising usage in the diagnosis of sepsis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Prospective evaluation of three rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosis of human leptospirosis.

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    Marga G A Goris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of leptospirosis by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT or by culture is confined to specialized laboratories. Although ELISA techniques are more common, they still require laboratory facilities. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs can be used for easy point-of-care diagnosis. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the RDTs LeptoTek Dri Dot, LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and Leptocheck-WB, prospectively. METHODOLOGY: During 2001 to 2012, one or two of the RDTs at the same time have been applied prior to routine diagnostics (MAT, ELISA and culture on serum specimens from participants sent in for leptospirosis diagnosis. The case definition was based on MAT, ELISA and culture results. Participants not fulfilling the case definition were considered not to have leptospirosis. The diagnostic accuracy was determined based on the 1(st submitted sample and paired samples, either in an overall analysis or stratified according to days post onset of illness. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity for the LeptoTek Dri Dot was 75% respectively 96%, for the LeptoTek Lateral Flow 78% respectively 95%, and for the Leptocheck-WB 78% respectively 98%. Based on the 1(st submitted sample the sensitivity was low (51% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 69% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 55% for Leptocheck-WB, but substantially increased when the results of paired samples were combined, although accompanied by a lower specificity (82% respectively 91% for LeptoTek Dri Dot, 86% respectively 84% for LeptoTek Lateral Flow, and 80% respectively 93% for Leptocheck-WB. CONCLUSIONS: All three tests present antibody tests contributing to the diagnosis of leptospirosis, thus supporting clinical suspicion and contributing to awareness. Since the overall sensitivity of the tested RDTs did not exceed 80%, one should be cautious to rely only on an RDT result, and confirmation by reference tests is strongly recommended.

  17. Rapid differential diagnosis of diabetes insipidus in a 7-month-old infant: The copeptin approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergier, J; Fromonot, J; Alvares De Azevedo Macedo, A; Godefroy, A; Marquant, E; Guieu, R; Tsimaratos, M; Reynaud, R

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus is characterized by hypoosmotic polyuria related to deficiency of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) secretion (central diabetes insipidus, CDI) or renal insensitivity to AVP (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, NDI). The water deprivation test with assessment of AVP activity is currently the gold standard for differential diagnosis in patients presenting polyuria-polydipsia syndrome. Nevertheless, it can be dangerous without proper surveillance and its interpretation may be challenging. Other markers have been suggested. Direct quantification of circulating AVP is not sufficient for diagnosis: vasopressin is unstable, analysis is complex. AVP comes from prohormone preprovasopressin with concomitant release of copeptin (C-terminal moiety) in the equimolar ratio. Copeptin is stable in vitro, with easy and rapid measurement (polyuria in adults, but its value has not been demonstrated in infants yet. A 7-month-old infant presented polyuria-polydipsia syndrome with poor weight gain. Laboratory tests pointed out hypernatremia (170mmol/L) and blood hyperosmolarity (330mOsm/L) with inappropriate urinary hypoosmolarity (168mOsm/L). Plasmatic copeptin measurement was found at a very high level, 303pmol/L (1-14pmol/L). DdAVP administration did not improve the polyuria, confirming the final diagnosis of NDI. Hyperhydration with a hypoosmolar diet normalized the hydration status and circulating levels of copeptin within 1 week. Copeptin, a stable peptide reflecting AVP secretion, could be a safer and faster biomarker for etiological diagnosis of polyuria-polydipsia syndrome in children. Before regularization of hydration status, a single baseline measurement may be enough to discriminate NDI from other etiologies without the water deprivation test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Flávio da Silva; Oliveira, Danielle Bruna Leal de; Crema, Daniela; Pinez, Célia Miranda Nunes; Colmanetti, Thaís Cristina; Thomazelli, Luciano Matsumia; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Vieira, Sandra Elisabeth; Martinez, Marina Baquerizo; Botosso, Viviane Fongaro; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue ® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA) as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue ® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90%) were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue ® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue ® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. This study demonstrated that the QuickVue ® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio da Silva Mesquita

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Results: From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90% were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics.

  20. Rapid diagnosis of schistosomiasis in Yemen using a simple questionnaire and urine reagent strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, H K; Hasab, A A; El-Nimr, N A; Al-Shibani, L A; Al-Waleedi, A A

    2014-05-01

    Schistosomiasis ranks second to malaria in terms of socioeconomic and public health importance in Yemen. This study assessed the validity of a morbidity questionnaire and urine reagent strips as a rapid tool for screening schoolchildren for urinary schistosomiasis as compared with the presence of eggs in urine as the gold-standard parasitological diagnosis. The study examined urine samples and interviewed 696 children (mean age 12.5 years) attending a primary-preparatory school in south Yemen. Urinary schistosomiasis was confirmed in 126 (18.1%) children. Diagnostic performance was poor for 2 items in the morbidity questionnaire (self-reported history of previous infection and self-reported history of antischistosomal treatment). However, self-reported dysuria, self-reported haematuria in the questionnaire and microhaematuria by reagent strips (alone or with macrohaematuria) revealed good diagnostic performance. The results indicated that reagent strips are a valid method for detection of microhaematuria for identifying individuals and communities infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

  1. Diagnosis of rinderpest in Tanzania by a rapid chromatographic strip-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambura, P N; Moshy, D W; Mbise, A N; Mollel, G O; Taylor, W P; Anderson, J; Bruning, A

    2000-06-01

    A simple chromatographic strip-test based on Clearview technology, is under development as a pen-side test for the detection of rinderpest antigen in eye swabs taken from cattle in the field. An outbreak of rinderpest occurred in the northern zone of Tanzania from late February to June 1997. The affected cattle exhibited very mild clinical signs, which made clinical diagnosis difficult. One hundred and seven eye swabs were collected from cattle suspected of infection with rinderpest. These were tested in the field using a prototype of the pen-side test and 13 (12.15%) of the samples were found to be positive for the presence of rinderpest antigen. These were confirmed by ICE. The positive cases were predominantly found in the Ngorongoro district. This demonstrates the usefulness of such a simple, rapid pen-side diagnostic assay, particularly when clinically 'mild' strains of rinderpest are present.

  2. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of acute cholecystitis with /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA cholescintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissmann, H.S.; Frank, M.S.; Bernstein, L.H.; Freeman, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    Technetium-99m dimethyl acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) cholescintigraphy was performed on 90 patients with suspected acute cholecytitis. Visualization of the gallbladder established patency of the cystic duct and excluded the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis in 50 of 52 patients. Nonvisualization of the gallbladder with visualization of the common bile duct was diagnostic of acute cholecystitis in 38 patients, all subsequently proven at surgery. The observed accuracy of this procedure is 98% and specificity is 100%. The false negative rate is 5% and false positive rate is zero. Technetium-99m-HILDA has many advantages which make it the procedure of choice in evaluating a patient for suspected acute cholecystitis. It is a rapid, simple, safe examination which provides functional as well as anatomic information about the hepatobiliary system in individuals with a serum bilirubin level up to 8 mg/100 ml

  3. Rapid-prenatal diagnosis through fluorescence in situ hybridization for preventing aneuploidy related birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzdar, Ashish; Chowdhry, Mohit; Makroo, R N; Mishra, Manoj; Srivastava, Priyanka; Tyagi, Richa; Bhadauria, Preeti; Kaul, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Women with high-risk pregnancies are offered prenatal diagnosis through amniocentesis for cytogenetic analysis of fetal cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the rapid fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for detecting numerical aberrations of chromosomes 13, 21, 18, X and Y in high-risk pregnancies in an Indian scenario. A total of 163 samples were received for a FISH and/or a full karyotype for prenatal diagnosis from high-risk pregnancies. In 116 samples both conventional culture techniques for getting karyotype through G-banding techniques were applied in conjunction to FISH test using the AneuVysion kit (Abbott Molecular, Inc.), following standard recommended protocol to compare the both the techniques in our setup. Out of 116 patients, we got 96 normal for the five major chromosome abnormality and seven patients were found to be abnormal (04 trisomy 21, 02 monosomy X, and 01 trisomy 13) and all the FISH results correlated with conventional cytogenetics. To summarize the results of total 163 patients for the major chromosomal abnormalities analyzed by both/or cytogenetics and FISH there were 140 (86%) normal, 9 (6%) cases were abnormal and another 4 (2.5%) cases were suspicious mosaic and 10 (6%) cases of culture failure. The diagnostic detection rate with FISH in 116 patients was 97.5%. There were no false-positive and false-negative autosomal or sex chromosomal results, within our established criteria for reporting FISH signals. Rapid FISH is a reliable and prompt method for detecting numerical chromosomal aberrations and has now been implemented as a routine diagnostic procedure for detection of fetal aneuploidy in India.

  4. Noninvasive optoacoustic system for rapid diagnosis and management of circulatory shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Kinsky, Michael; Petrov, Yuriy; Petrov, Andrey; Henkel, S. N.; Seeton, Roger; Esenaliev, Rinat O.; Prough, Donald S.

    2013-03-01

    Circulatory shock can lead to death or severe complications, if not promptly diagnosed and effectively treated. Typically, diagnosis and management of circulatory shock are guided by blood pressure and heart rate. However, these variables have poor specificity, sensitivity, and predictive value. Early goal-directed therapy in septic shock patients, using central venous catheterization (CVC), reduced mortality from 46.5% to 30%. However, CVC is invasive and complication-prone. We proposed to use an optoacoustic technique for noninvasive, rapid assessment of peripheral and central venous oxygenation. In this work we used a medical grade optoacoustic system for noninvasive, ultrasound image-guided measurement of central and peripheral venous oxygenation. Venous oxygenation during shock declines more rapidly in the periphery than centrally. Ultrasound imaging of the axillary [peripheral] and internal jugular vein [central] was performed using the Vivid e (GE Healthcare). We built an optoacoustic interface incorporating an optoacoustic transducer and a standard ultrasound imaging probe. Central and peripheral venous oxygenations were measured continuously in healthy volunteers. To simulate shock-induced changes in central and peripheral oxygenation, we induced peripheral vasoconstriction in the upper extremity by using a cooling blanket. Central and peripheral venous oxygenations were measured before (baseline) and after cooling and after rewarming. During the entire experiment, central venous oxygenation was relatively stable, while peripheral venous oxygenation decreased by 5-10% due to cooling and recovered after rewarming. The obtained data indicate that noninvasive, optoacoustic measurements of central and peripheral venous oxygenation may be used for diagnosis and management of circulatory shock with high sensitivity and specificity.

  5. Nested PCR Assay for Eight Pathogens: A Rapid Tool for Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagchandani, Sharda P; Kubade, Sushant; Nikhare, Priyanka P; Manke, Sonali; Chandak, Nitin H; Kabra, Dinesh; Baheti, Neeraj N; Agrawal, Vijay S; Sarda, Pankaj; Mahajan, Parikshit; Ganjre, Ashish; Purohit, Hemant J; Singh, Lokendra; Taori, Girdhar M; Daginawala, Hatim F; Kashyap, Rajpal S

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a dreadful infectious disease with a high mortality and morbidity if remained undiagnosed. Traditional diagnostic methods for bacterial meningitis pose a challenge in accurate identification of pathogen, making prognosis difficult. The present study is therefore aimed to design and evaluate a specific and sensitive nested 16S rDNA genus-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using clinical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for rapid diagnosis of eight pathogens causing the disease. The present work was dedicated to development of an in-house genus specific 16S rDNA nested PCR covering pathogens of eight genera responsible for causing bacterial meningitis using newly designed as well as literature based primers for respective genus. A total 150 suspected meningitis CSF obtained from the patients admitted to Central India Institute of Medical Sciences (CIIMS), India during the period from August 2011 to May 2014, were used to evaluate clinical sensitivity and clinical specificity of optimized PCR assays. The analytical sensitivity and specificity of our newly designed genus-specific 16S rDNA PCR were found to be ≥92%. With such a high sensitivity and specificity, our in-house nested PCR was able to give 100% sensitivity in clinically confirmed positive cases and 100% specificity in clinically confirmed negative cases indicating its applicability in clinical diagnosis. Our in-house nested PCR system therefore can diagnose the accurate pathogen causing bacterial meningitis and therefore be useful in selecting a specific treatment line to minimize morbidity. Results are obtained within 24 h and high sensitivity makes this nested PCR assay a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool compared to traditional culture-based methods.

  6. [Preliminary investigation on the pathogeny, diagnosis and treatment of chondromalacia patella].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Q B; Wu, Z H; Wang, Y P; Lin, J; Qiu, G X

    2001-04-01

    This paper presents the preliminary investigation on chondromalacia patella at our department in recent years. A random cluster sampling survey covering 2743 normal persons was carried out. The prevalence rate is 36.2%. It was found that, applying transmission electron microscope and immunohistochemical methods on to cartilage tissues of the abnormal region, articular cartilage necrosis was in direct proportion with the abnormal pressure, while the restoration capability of local chondrocytes was in inverse proportion with pathological changes and the pressure. The chondromalacia patella was produced by repeated abnormal stress acting on the cartilage. The stress derived from the uncongruency and the decreasing in the contact area of patellofemoral joint when the subluxation or tilt of patellae was caused by the abnormal anatomical and biomechanical relationship. The initial lesion was at the matrix of cartilage, the collagen network was disrupted, then proteoglycan was lost. The microenvironment of chondrocytes was changed with degradation of matrix. So the chondrocytes became degenerative and necrosis from superficial to deep layer, then feed back the matrix again. Finally, the total cartilage layer might disappear, and the bone under cartilage might proliferate. At late stage, the cartilage was completely destroyed and had no self-restorative ability. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are necessary. It is highly suggested axis radiograph of the knee with the tibiae tuberositas localization are helpful to early diagnosis. Furthermore, JKY-Muscle Rehabilitation Instrument is invented for non-operative therapy. It enhances muscle power by selective training of the vastus medialis muscle using electrical stimulator to relieve pain and correct subluxation of patella with 90% efficiency (63% of excellent-effective rate). In late stage, patellofemoral replacement is recommended. The excellent-effective rate is 86.3%.

  7. Rapid and accurate intraoperative pathological diagnosis by artificial intelligence with deep learning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Song, Yanlin; Xia, Fan; Zhu, Chenjing; Zhang, Yingying; Song, Wenpeng; Xu, Jianguo; Ma, Xuelei

    2017-09-01

    Frozen section is widely used for intraoperative pathological diagnosis (IOPD), which is essential for intraoperative decision making. However, frozen section suffers from some drawbacks, such as time consuming and high misdiagnosis rate. Recently, artificial intelligence (AI) with deep learning technology has shown bright future in medicine. We hypothesize that AI with deep learning technology could help IOPD, with a computer trained by a dataset of intraoperative lesion images. Evidences supporting our hypothesis included the successful use of AI with deep learning technology in diagnosing skin cancer, and the developed method of deep-learning algorithm. Large size of the training dataset is critical to increase the diagnostic accuracy. The performance of the trained machine could be tested by new images before clinical use. Real-time diagnosis, easy to use and potential high accuracy were the advantages of AI for IOPD. In sum, AI with deep learning technology is a promising method to help rapid and accurate IOPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis

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    Abhishek Mewara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical features of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK are non-specific and closely resemble bacterial, viral and fungal keratitis. Materials and Methods: We compared loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP with microscopy, non-nutrient agar (NNA culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR in clinical suspects of AK. Results: Of 52 clinical samples (42 AK suspects and 10 proven bacterial, viral or fungal keratitis, 3 were positive by direct microscopy (sensitivity 60%, confidence interval [CI]: 17%–92.7%, and 5 by NNA culture, 18S rDNA PCR and LAMP (sensitivity 100%, CI: 46.3%–100%. The limit of detection of Acanthamoeba DNA was 1 pg/μl by both LAMP and PCR. Conclusion: PCR and LAMP assays targeting 18S rDNA gene were found particularly suitable for a rapid and accurate diagnosis of AK. LAMP assay takes 2–3 h lesser than PCR, and thus offers a rapid, highly sensitive and specific, simple and affordable diagnostic modality for patients suspected of AK, especially in resource limited settings

  9. Application of a PCR method for the diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Agnoletti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative enteritis or “quail disease” is an acute clostridial infection of young birds reported in many avian species, chicken and turkey included. Clostridium colinum is the causative agent of ulcerative enteritis and because of the difficulties bound to the isolation and identification of this bacterium by means of classic bacteriological techniques, its detection appears very hard and the prevalence of this disease could be underestimated. To investigate the diffusion of C. colinum in enteric disease of birds, a recently developed PCR protocol was applied to 42 cultural broths previously inoculated with organs and intestinal samples collected from diseased subjects. PCR-positive broths were cultivated to attempt the isolation of C. colinum. Samples collected from positive birds were subjected to histological examinations. 4 birds (3 broilers chickens and 1 pigeon resulted PCR-positive and, in one case, C. colinum was isolated. Gross and histological lesions of positive birds were compatible with those described in other ulcerative enteritis outbreaks. These preliminary results demonstrates that C. colinum is sporadically implicated in enteric diseases of broiler chickens (14.2%. In addition, the PCR assay proved to be an useful and reliable instrument to support the diagnosis of ulcerative enteritis and to facilitate the isolation of C. colinum.

  10. Evaluation of a new rapid lateral flow chromatography test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaklikkaya, N.; Dinc, U.; Dabanca, Pinar A.; Aydin, F.; Erturk, M.; Akdogan, Remzi A.; Ozgur, O.; Uzun, Dogan Y.; Gungor, E.; Arslan, M.; Cobanoglu, U.

    2006-01-01

    The rapid, simple and non-invasive diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is important in implementing chemotherapy in appropriate manner, and in assessing persistent H. pylori infection after eradication therapy. The Immuno Card STAT HpSA kit (Meridian Bioscience, Europe) is a lateral flow chromatography test which utilizes a monoclonal anti-H. pylori antibody. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of the ImmunoCard STAT HpSA test before and after eradication therapy on patients referred to undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Sixty-five consecutive patients who were referred to undergo upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at the Department of Gastroenterology, Karadeniz Technical University Medical School, Turkey between February and August 2005 were included in this study. The ImmunoCard STAT HpSA was compared with 4 invasive tests (histology, gram staining, rapid urease test, and culture). The reference method was defined as positive when 2 of the 4 invasive tests were positive. A negative H. pylori status was considered when all 4 tests present concordant negative results. Overall, the ImmunoCard STAT HpSA test had 77.8% sensitivity, 79.3% specificity, 82.4% positive predictive value (PPV) and 74.2% negative predictive value (NPV) in all patients. With regard to pre-treatment values, the sensitivity was 70.6%, specificity 70.6%, PPV 100% and NPV 100% while on post-treatment group the sensitivity was 84.2%, specificity 64.7%, PPV 72.7% and NPV 78.6%. Our results indicate that the ImmunoCard STAT HpSA test is a rapid, simple, and helpful procedure not only to determine H. pylori infection but also to assess the success of eradication therapy. (author)

  11. Impact of the rapid antigen detection test in diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngotonsillitis in a pediatric emergency room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Débora Morais; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Hsin, Shieh Huei; Machado, Beatriz Marcondes; de Paulis, Milena; Lotufo, João Paulo B; Martinez, Marina Baquerizo; Grisi, Sandra Josefina E

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of the routine use of rapid antigen detection test in the diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngotonsillitis in children. This is a prospective and observational study, with a protocol compliance design established at the Emergency Unit of the University Hospital of Universidade de São Paulo for the care of children and adolescents diagnosed with acute pharyngitis. 650 children and adolescents were enrolled. Based on clinical findings, antibiotics would be prescribed for 389 patients (59.8%); using the rapid antigen detection test, they were prescribed for 286 patients (44.0%). Among the 261 children who would not have received antibiotics based on the clinical evaluation, 111 (42.5%) had positive rapid antigen detection test. The diagnosis based only on clinical evaluation showed 61.1% sensitivity, 47.7% specificity, 44.9% positive predictive value, and 57.5% negative predictive value. The clinical diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis had low sensitivity and specificity. The routine use of rapid antigen detection test led to the reduction of antibiotic use and the identification of a risk group for complications of streptococcal infection, since 42.5% positive rapid antigen detection test patients would not have received antibiotics based only on clinical diagnosis.

  12. Development of a prototype lateral flow immunoassay (LFI for the rapid diagnosis of melioidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L Houghton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. Isolation of B. pseudomallei from clinical samples is the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of melioidosis; results can take 3-7 days to produce. Alternatively, antibody-based tests have low specificity due to a high percentage of seropositive individuals in endemic areas. There is a clear need to develop a rapid point-of-care antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of melioidosis. Previously, we employed In vivo Microbial Antigen Discovery (InMAD to identify potential B. pseudomallei diagnostic biomarkers. The B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS and numerous protein antigens were identified as potential candidates. Here, we describe the development of a diagnostic immunoassay based on the detection of CPS. Following production of a CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb, an antigen-capture immunoassay was developed to determine the concentration of CPS within a panel of melioidosis patient serum and urine samples. The same mAb was used to produce a prototype Active Melioidosis Detect Lateral Flow Immunoassay (AMD LFI; the limit of detection of the LFI for CPS is comparable to the antigen-capture immunoassay (∼0.2 ng/ml. The analytical reactivity (inclusivity of the AMD LFI was 98.7% (76/77 when tested against a large panel of B. pseudomallei isolates. Analytical specificity (cross-reactivity testing determined that 97.2% of B. pseudomallei near neighbor species (35/36 were not reactive. The non-reactive B. pseudomallei strain and the reactive near neighbor strain can be explained through genetic sequence analysis. Importantly, we show the AMD LFI is capable of detecting CPS in a variety of patient samples. The LFI is currently being evaluated in Thailand and Australia; the focus is to optimize and validate testing procedures on melioidosis patient samples prior to initiation of a large, multisite pre-clinical evaluation.

  13. Cloning and Expression of Leptospira LipL32 Antigen as a Candidate for Rapid Diagnosis

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    Nooshin Sohrabi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Leptospirosis as an important emerging infectious zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Given the low sensitivity and long duration of its culture, the diagnosis of leptospirosis is mainly based on serological methods. The microscopic agglutination test (MAT is considered as the reference method. Because of the complexity of the MAT, there is an urgent need for the development of new reliable and rapid screening tests for leptospirosis. Major leptospiral outer membrane proteins (OMPs, present only in pathologic strains, could be regarded as a good candidate for diagnostic studies. Here we report the cloning and expression of LipL32, as a prominent immunogenic protein, in a prokaryotic system. Materials and Methods: After the amplification of LipL32 gene, it was cloned into the pQE30 vector. The insertion of LipL32 gene into the vector was screened and confirmed with restriction analysis and sequencing. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli M15 strain, and the expressed protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. This recombinant protein with 6× His-tagged sequence was purified using Ni-NTA affinity column chromatography. Results: The results revealed that the selected gene was successfully cloned in pQE30 vector and recombinant protein (rLipL32 of approximately ~32 kDa was produced, purified and confirmed by western blotting. Conclusion: This recombinant protein could be potentially used for the development of serodiagnosis tests for the diagnosis of leptospirosis in humans and animals.

  14. Rapid and discriminatory diagnosis of scrapie and BSE in retro-pharyngeal lymph nodes of sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Zijderveld Fred G

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis based on prion detection in lymph nodes of sheep and goats can improve active surveillance for scrapie and, if it were circulating, for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE. With sizes that allow repetitive testing and a location that is easily accessible at slaughter, retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN are considered suitable organs for testing. Western blotting (WB of brain homogenates is, in principle, a technique well suited to both detect and discriminate between scrapie and BSE. In this report, WB is developed for rapid diagnosis in RLN and to study biochemical characteristics of PrPres. Results Optimal PrPres detection in RLN by WB was achieved by proper tissue processing, antibody choice and inclusion of a step for PrPresconcentration. The analyses were performed on three different sheep sources. Firstly, in a study with preclinical scrapie cases, WB of RLN from infected sheep of VRQ/VRQ genotype – VRQ represents, respectively, polymorphic PrP amino acids 136, 154, and 171 – allowed a diagnosis 14 mo earlier compared to WB of brain stem. Secondly, samples collected from sheep with confirmed scrapie in the course of passive and active surveillance programmes in the period 2002–2003 yielded positive results depending on genotype: all sheep with genotypes ARH/VRQ, VRQ/VRQ, and ARQ/VRQ scored positive for PrPres, but ARQ/ARQ and ARR/VRQ were not all positive. Thirdly, in an experimental BSE study, detection of PrPres in all 11 ARQ/ARQ sheep, including 7 preclinical cases, was possible. In all instances, WB and IHC were almost as sensitive. Moreover, BSE infection could be discriminated from scrapie infection by faster electrophoretic migration of the PrPres bands. Using dual antibody staining with selected monoclonal antibodies like 12B2 and L42, these differences in migration could be employed for an unequivocal differentiation between BSE and scrapie. With respect to glycosylation of PrPres, BSE cases

  15. Diagnosis and laparoscopic management of a rare endometriosis-related peritoneal mass with rapid growth in early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Donato, Nadine; Facchini, Chiara; Leggieri, Concetta; Caprara, Giacomo; Seracchioli, Renato

    2015-08-01

    Herein is described the diagnosis, clinical management and laparoscopic removal of a rapid growing retro-uterine mass in a pregnant woman. After laparoscopic removal of the pelvic mass, diagnosis of peritoneal endometriotic cyst was made on histology. The patient was asymptomatic and no history of endometriosis was reported. The laparoscopic management of the peritoneal mass was safe and effective and to our knowledge this is the first case report describing a decidualized endometriotic lesion in the absence of a pre-pregnancy endometriosis diagnosis. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Simplified immunoassay for rapid Dengue serotype diagnosis, revealing insensitivity to non-specific binding interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C.C.L. Loureiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Proof of concept of an immunoassay, which is easy to implement, for rapid Dengue virus (DENV serotype diagnosis, in the early infection stage, is reported. The four-layer assay is immobilized onto a thin gold film and relies on a low cost, disposable polymer biochip for optical surface plasmon resonance sensing and detection. The protocol comprises Neutravidin-Biotin mediated monoclonal antibody (MAB attachment as the functionalized sensing element. Formation of the MAB-DENV complex results in a pronounced thickness change that is optically recorded in real time, employing a microfluidic set-up. Virus presence is confirmed by atomic force microscopy from the same sample. Serum samples were collected from a patient in acute febrile state. Simultaneous serological analysis by means of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, independently, confirmed presence of DENV2 and DENV3. The protocol proved applicable in presence of strong non-specific binding interference that originates from, and is caused by, various blood, serum and other body fluid constituents. False positive indications for both, negative serum and blood control samples were not observed. The achievable limit of detection was estimated to be 2×104 particles/ml. Eventually, the method can be modified towards detection of other viruses by using the same protocol. Keywords: Immuno-assay, Dengue virus detection, Non-specific binding

  17. Comparison of amrad ICT test with microscopic examination for rapid diagnosis of malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, F.; Amin-ul-Haq; Jamal, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of an alternate and easy technique to diagnose malaria. Design: A prospective study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of pathology, DHQ Hospital, Timergara District, Dir, North-west Frontier Province of Pakistan, from 19th September to 5th October 2000. Subjects and Methods: Smear positive 50 patients (27 males and 23 females, age ranging 2 years to 70 years) were included. Thick and thin smears were stained with Giemsa's stain and examined by the principal author. The ICT malaria test was performed according to the instruction sheet of the manufacturer. Results: on microscopy there were 29 cases of Plasmodium falciparum (P.f) and 21 of Plasmodiium vivax (P.v.). On ICT malaria P.f/P.v, there were 29 samples positive for P. Falciparum and 17 for P. vivax. These results demonstrated that the ICT malaria P.f/P.v test had sensitivity of 100% for P. falciparum and 81% for P. vivax and specificity of 100% for both, when compared to traditional blood films for the detection of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Conclusion: The ICT malaria P.f/P.v test is an effective tool for the rapid diagnosis of malaria and may be used as a first line diagnostic tool. (author)

  18. Validity of rapid estimation of erythrocyte volume in the diagnosis of polycytemia vera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, S.; Roedbro, P.

    1989-01-01

    In the diagnosis of polycytemia vera, estimation of erythrocyte volume (EV) from plasma volume (PV) and venous hematocrit (Hct/sub v/) is usually thought unadvisable, because the ratio of whole body hematocrit to venous hematocrit (f ratio) is higher in patients with splenomegaly than in normal subjects, and varies considerably between individuals. We determined the mean f ratio in 232 consecutive patients suspected of polycytemia vera (anti f=0.967; SD 0.048) and used it with each patient's PV and Hct/sub v/ to calculate an estimated normalised EV/sub n/. With measured EV as a reference value, EV/sub n/ was investigated as a diagnostic test. By means of two cut off levels the EV/sub n/ values could be divided into EV/sub n/ elevated, EV/sub n/ not elevated (both with high predictive values), and an EV/sub n/ borderline group. The size of the borderline EV/sub n/ group ranged from 5% to 46% depending on position of the cut off levels, i.e. with the efficiency demanded from the diagnostic test. EV can safely and rapidly be estimated from PV and Hct/sub v/, if anti f is determined from the relevant population, and if the results in an easily definable borderline range of EV/sub n/ values are supplemented by direct EV determination.

  19. A Preliminary Study of the Suitability of Archival Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood Smears for Diagnosis of CML Using FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Charwudzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. FISH is a molecular cytogenetic technique enabling rapid detection of genetic abnormalities. Facilities that can run fresh/wet samples for molecular diagnosis and monitoring of neoplastic disorders are not readily available in Ghana and other neighbouring countries. This study aims to demonstrate that interphase FISH can successfully be applied to archival methanol-fixed bone marrow and peripheral blood smear slides transported to a more equipped facility for molecular diagnosis of CML. Methods. Interphase FISH was performed on 22 archival methanol-fixed marrow (BM and 3 peripheral blood (PB smear slides obtained at diagnosis. The BM smears included 20 CML and 2 CMML cases diagnosed by morphology; the 3 PB smears were from 3 of the CML patients at the time of diagnosis. Six cases had known BCR-ABL fusion results at diagnosis by RQ-PCR. Full blood count reports at diagnosis were also retrieved. Result. 19 (95% of the CML marrow smears demonstrated the BCR-ABL translocation. There was a significant correlation between the BCR-ABL transcript detected at diagnosis by RQ-PCR and that retrospectively detected by FISH from the aged BM smears at diagnosis (r=0.870; P=0.035. Conclusion. Archival methanol-fixed marrow and peripheral blood smears can be used to detect the BCR-ABL transcript for CML diagnosis.

  20. Comparative evaluation of two rapid Salmonella-IgM tests and blood culture in the diagnosis of enteric fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, K J; Oberoi, J K; Goel, N; Wattal, C

    2015-01-01

    Enteric fever is a major public health problem in developing countries like India. An early and accurate diagnosis is necessary for a prompt and effective treatment. We have evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of two Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests (Typhidot-IgM and Enteroscreen-IgM) as compared to blood culture in rapid and early diagnosis of enteric fever. A total of 2,699 patients' serum samples were tested by Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests and blood culture. Patients were divided into two groups. Test group - patients with enteric fever and blood culture positives for Salmonella Typhi; and three types of Controls, i.e. patients with non-enteric fever illnesses, normal healthy controls and patients positive for S. Paratyphi- A. In addition to this we have also evaluated the significance of positive Salmonella-IgM tests among blood culture-negative cases. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the Typhidot-IgM test and Enteroscreen-IgM test considering blood culture as gold standard were 97.29% and 88.13%, 97.40% and 87.83%, 98.18% and 92.03%, 96.15% and 82.27%, respectively. Typhidot-IgM test was found to be significantly more sensitive and specific as compared to Enteroscreen-IgM. Among blood culture-negative patients, Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests detected 72.25% additional cases of enteric fever. Although the Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests are meant to diagnose S. Typhi only, but these tests detect S. Paratyphi- A also. Thirty-eight patients who were blood culture-positive for S. Paratyphi- A were also positive by Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests. Rapid Salmonella-IgM tests offer an advantage of increased sensitivity, rapidity, early diagnosis and simplicity over blood culture.

  1. A standard screening test for the early and rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekaran S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE : To perform dark field microscopy (DFM for detection of Leptospira and to validate the results using Leptospira IgM antibody SERION ELISA test. METHODS : After differential centrifugation of Ruys, DFM was done to demonstrate Leptospira in the blood and SERION ELISA was done for Leptospira IgM antibody in single or paired serum samples. One hundred and eleven cases (39 adults and 72 children of suspected leptospirosis were included in the study. RESULTS : Anicteric cases accounted for 66.7% (26/39 of adults and complications involving brain, liver, kidney and eyes were seen in 33.3% (13/39. In children, 90.3% (65/72 were anicteric and involvement of brain and liver was seen in 9.7% (7/72 cases. On testing 60 single samples of blood from 23 adults and 37 children, DFM exhibited greater sensitivity of 93.3% (56/60 than that of SERION ELISA for Leptospira IgM antibody (33.3%, 20/60. It was observed that the positivity of DFM decreased from 100% (15/15 to 90.9% (10/11 with increase in the duration of infection for more than one week. ELISA for Leptospira IgM, done on 51 paired blood samples, was positive in 64.7% (33/51 cases when both (first and second samples were tested while in 45.1% (23/51 cases was positive with first sample alone. 58.8%(30/51 cases were positive by testing second sample. DFM results on paired blood samples showed persistence of Leptospira in 92.9% of cases. CONCLUSION : This study shows the validation of DFM results by SERION ELISA for Leptospira IgM antibody, based on which we recommend that DFM can serve as a standard screening test for early and rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis.

  2. Evaluation of PCR electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry for rapid molecular diagnosis of bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreten, Vincent; Endimiani, Andrea; Thomann, Andreas; Wipf, Juliette R K; Rossano, Alexandra; Bodmer, Michèle; Raemy, Andreas; Sannes-Lowery, Kristin A; Ecker, David J; Sampath, Rangarajan; Bonomo, Robert A; Washington, Cicely

    2013-06-01

    Bovine mastitis, an inflammatory disease of the mammary gland, is one of the most costly diseases affecting the dairy industry. The treatment and prevention of this disease is linked heavily to the use of antibiotics in agriculture and early detection of the primary pathogen is essential to control the disease. Milk samples (n=67) from cows suffering from mastitis were analyzed for the presence of pathogens using PCR electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) and were compared with standard culture diagnostic methods. Concurrent identification of the primary mastitis pathogens was obtained for 64% of the tested milk samples, whereas divergent results were obtained for 27% of the samples. The PCR/ESI-MS failed to identify some of the primary pathogens in 18% of the samples, but identified other pathogens as well as microorganisms in samples that were negative by culture. The PCR/ESI-MS identified bacteria to the species level as well as yeasts and molds in samples that contained a mixed bacterial culture (9%). The sensitivity of the PCR/ESI-MS for the most common pathogens ranged from 57.1 to 100% and the specificity ranged from 69.8 to 100% using culture as gold standard. The PCR/ESI-MS also revealed the presence of the methicillin-resistant gene mecA in 16.2% of the milk samples, which correlated with the simultaneous detection of staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus. We demonstrated that PCR/ESI-MS, a more rapid diagnostic platform compared with bacterial culture, has the significant potential to serve as an important screening method in the diagnosis of bovine clinical mastitis and has the capacity to be used in infection control programs for both subclinical and clinical disease. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Label-free bimodal waveguide immunosensor for rapid diagnosis of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Jesús; González-Guerrero, Ana Belén; Domínguez, Carlos; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-11-15

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is an acute bacterial infection of ascitic fluid; it has a high incidence in cirrhotic patients and it is associated with high mortality. In such a situation, early diagnosis and treatment is crucial for the survival of the patient. However, bacterial analysis in ascitic fluid is currently based on culture methods, which are time-consuming and laborious. We report here the application of a photonic interferometer biosensor based on a bimodal waveguide (BiMW) for the rapid and label-free detection of bacteria directly in ascitic fluid. The device consists of a straight waveguide in which two modes of the same polarization interfere while interacting with the external medium through their evanescent fields. A bimolecular event occurring on the sensor area of the device (e.g. capturing bacteria) will differently affect each light mode, inducing a variation in the phase of the light exiting at the output of the waveguide. In this work, we demonstrate the quantitative detection of Bacillus cereus in buffer medium and Escherichia coli in undiluted ascitic fluid from cirrhotic patients. In the case of Bacillus cereus detection, the device was able to specifically detect bacteria at relevant concentrations in 12.5min and in the case of Escherichia coli detection, the analysis time was 25min. Extrapolation of the data demonstrated that the detection limits of the biosensor could reach few bacteria per milliliter. Based on the results obtained, we consider that the BiMW biosensor is positioned as a promising new clinical tool for user-friendly, cost-effective and real-time microbiological analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the rapid diagnosis of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T, Sathish Kumar; A, Navaneeth Krishnan; J, Joseph Sahaya Rajan; M, Makesh; K P, Jithendran; S V, Alavandi; K K, Vijayan

    2018-05-01

    The emerging microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), the causative agent of hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis, has been widely reported in shrimp-farming countries. EHP infection can be detected by light microscopy observation of spores (1.7 × 1 μm) in stained hepatopancreas (HP) tissue smears, HP tissue sections, and fecal samples. EHP can also be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene or the spore wall protein gene (SWP). In this study, a rapid, sensitive, specific, and closed tube visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) protocol combined with FTA cards was developed for the diagnosis of EHP. LAMP primers were designed based on the SSU rRNA gene of EHP. The target sequence of EHP was amplified at constant temperature of 65 °C for 45 min and amplified LAMP products were visually detected in a closed tube system by using SYBR™ green I dye. Detection limit of this LAMP protocol was ten copies. Field and clinical applicability of this assay was evaluated using 162 field samples including 106 HP tissue samples and 56 fecal samples collected from shrimp farms. Out of 162 samples, EHP could be detected in 62 samples (47 HP samples and 15 fecal samples). When compared with SWP-PCR as the gold standard, this EHP LAMP assay had 95.31% sensitivity, 98.98% specificity, and a kappa value of 0.948. This simple, closed tube, clinically evaluated visual LAMP assay has great potential for diagnosing EHP at the farm level, particularly under low-resource circumstances.

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker supported diagnosis of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and rapid dementias: a longitudinal multicentre study over 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Juan, Pascual; Gawinecka, Joanna; Green, Alison; Ladogana, Anna; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel; Mitrova, Eva; Sklaviadis, Theodor; Kulczycki, Jerzy; Slivarichova, Dana; Saiz, Albert; Calero, Miguel; Knight, Richard; Aguzzi, Adriano; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Peoc’h, Katell; Schelzke, Gabi; Karch, Andre; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Zerr, Inga

    2012-01-01

    To date, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, particularly protein 14-3-3 testing, presents an important approach in the identification of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease cases. However, one special point of criticism of 14-3-3 testing is the specificity in the differential diagnosis of rapid dementia. The constant observation of increased cerebrospinal fluid referrals in the national surveillance centres over the last years raises the concern of declining specificity due to higher number of cerebrospinal fluid tests performed in various neurological conditions. Within the framework of a European Community supported longitudinal multicentre study (‘cerebrospinal fluid markers’) we analysed the spectrum of rapid progressive dementia diagnoses, their potential influence on 14-3-3 specificity as well as results of other dementia markers (tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β1–42) and evaluated the specificity of 14-3-3 in Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease diagnosis for the years 1998–2008. A total of 29 022 cerebrospinal fluid samples were analysed for 14-3-3 protein and other cerebrospinal fluid dementia markers in patients with rapid dementia and suspected Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in the participating centres. In 10 731 patients a definite diagnosis could be obtained. Protein 14-3-3 specificity was analysed for Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease with respect to increasing cerebrospinal fluid tests per year and spectrum of differential diagnosis. Ring trials were performed to ensure the comparability between centres during the reported time period. Protein 14-3-3 test specificity remained high and stable in the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease during the observed time period across centres (total specificity 92%; when compared with patients with definite diagnoses only: specificity 90%). However, test specificity varied with respect to differential diagnosis. A high 14-3-3 specificity was obtained in differentiation to other neurodegenerative diseases (95–97%) and non

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker supported diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and rapid dementias: a longitudinal multicentre study over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeck, Katharina; Sanchez-Juan, Pascual; Gawinecka, Joanna; Green, Alison; Ladogana, Anna; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Sanchez-Valle, Raquel; Mitrova, Eva; Sklaviadis, Theodor; Kulczycki, Jerzy; Slivarichova, Dana; Saiz, Albert; Calero, Miguel; Knight, Richard; Aguzzi, Adriano; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Peoc'h, Katell; Schelzke, Gabi; Karch, Andre; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Zerr, Inga

    2012-10-01

    To date, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, particularly protein 14-3-3 testing, presents an important approach in the identification of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases. However, one special point of criticism of 14-3-3 testing is the specificity in the differential diagnosis of rapid dementia. The constant observation of increased cerebrospinal fluid referrals in the national surveillance centres over the last years raises the concern of declining specificity due to higher number of cerebrospinal fluid tests performed in various neurological conditions. Within the framework of a European Community supported longitudinal multicentre study ('cerebrospinal fluid markers') we analysed the spectrum of rapid progressive dementia diagnoses, their potential influence on 14-3-3 specificity as well as results of other dementia markers (tau, phosphorylated tau and amyloid-β(1-42)) and evaluated the specificity of 14-3-3 in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease diagnosis for the years 1998-2008. A total of 29 022 cerebrospinal fluid samples were analysed for 14-3-3 protein and other cerebrospinal fluid dementia markers in patients with rapid dementia and suspected Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the participating centres. In 10 731 patients a definite diagnosis could be obtained. Protein 14-3-3 specificity was analysed for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with respect to increasing cerebrospinal fluid tests per year and spectrum of differential diagnosis. Ring trials were performed to ensure the comparability between centres during the reported time period. Protein 14-3-3 test specificity remained high and stable in the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease during the observed time period across centres (total specificity 92%; when compared with patients with definite diagnoses only: specificity 90%). However, test specificity varied with respect to differential diagnosis. A high 14-3-3 specificity was obtained in differentiation to other neurodegenerative diseases (95-97%) and non

  7. Evaluating different approaches to non-destructive nitrogen status diagnosis of rice using portable RapidSCAN active canopy sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junjun; Miao, Yuxin; Shi, Wei; Li, Jingxin; Yuan, Fei

    2017-10-26

    RapidSCAN is a new portable active crop canopy sensor with three wavebands in red, red-edge, and near infrared spectral regions. The objective of this study was to determine the potential and practical approaches of using this sensor for non-destructive diagnosis of rice nitrogen (N) status. Sixteen plot experiments and ten on-farm experiments were conducted from 2014 to 2016 in Jiansanjiang Experiment Station of the China Agricultural University and Qixing Farm in Northeast China. Two mechanistic and three semi-empirical approaches using the sensor's default vegetation indices, normalized difference vegetation index and normalized difference red edge, were evaluated in comparison with the top performing vegetation indices selected from 51 tested indices. The results indicated that the most practical and stable method of using the RapidSCAN sensor for rice N status diagnosis is to calculate N sufficiency index with the default vegetation indices and then to estimate N nutrition index non-destructively (R 2  = 0.50-0.59). This semi-empirical approach achieved a diagnosis accuracy rate of 59-76%. The findings of this study will facilitate the application of the RapidSCAN active sensor for rice N status diagnosis across growth stages, cultivars and site-years, and thus contributing to precision N management for sustainable intensification of agriculture.

  8. Generalities on the dynamic behaviour of rapid reactors. Preliminary studies on Rapsodie; Generalites sur le comportement dynamique des piles rapides. Etudes preliminaires de rapsodie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campan, J L; Chaumont, J P; Clauzon, P P; Ghesquiere, G; Leduc, J; Schmitt, A P; Zaleski, C P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The study of the dynamic behaviour of fast reactors may be divided into three section: 1. Stability studies around equilibrium power only the linear case was examining. S. Transient studies in the case of usual reactor operation (shut down, scram, etc.) with thermal shocks evaluation, for instance. 3. Explosion studies, for the maximum credible accidents. This report presents the status of the studies performed at the 'Physics Research Department' at Cadarache. Methods used are detailed and illustrated with the results obtained on a preliminary metallic core of the Rapsodie Reactor. (authors) [French] Le comportement dynamique des piles rapides, se presente tout naturellement sous trois aspects: 1. Etude de stabilite autour d'un regime d'equilibre (nous nous sommes bornes ici au cas lineaire). 2. Etude de regimes transitoires lors des operations normales de pile (arret, arret d'urgence, etc.) avec evaluation des chocs thermiques par exemple. 3. Etude des regimes transitoires de caractere explosif lors des accidents les plus graves possibles. Ce rapport presente l'etat des etudes a la date du 20 decembre 1961 a la Section d'Etudes de Piles Rapides a CADARACHE. Les methodes employees ont ete detaillees et illustrees a partir des resultats obtenus sur une premiere version 'combustible metallique' de Rapsodie. (auteurs)

  9. Rapid antigen detection test for respiratory syncytial virus diagnosis as a diagnostic tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio da Silva Mesquita

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, USA as a screening tool for respiratory syncytial virus in children with acute respiratory disease in comparison with the indirect immunofluorescence assay as gold standard. In Brazil, rapid antigen detection tests for respiratory syncytial virus are not routinely utilized as a diagnostic tool, except for the diagnosis of dengue and influenza. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed 486 nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from children under age 5 with acute respiratory infection, between December 2013 and August 2014, the samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay and QuickVue® RSV Test kit. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Results: From 313 positive samples by immunofluorescence assays, 282 (90% were also positive by the rapid antigen detection test, two were positive only by rapid antigen detection test, 33 were positive only by immunofluorescence assays, and 171 were positive by both methods. The 35 samples with discordant results were analyzed by real time PCR; the two samples positive only by rapid antigen detection test and the five positive only by immunofluorescence assays were also positive by real time PCR. There was no relation between the negativity by QuickVue® RSV Test and viral load or specific strain. The QuickVue® RSV Test showed sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 98.8%, predictive positive value of 99.3%, and negative predictive value of 94.6%, with accuracy of 93.2% and agreement κ index of 0.85 in comparison to immunofluorescence assay. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the QuickVue® RSV Test Kit can be effective in early detection of Respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirate and is reliable for use as a diagnostic tool in pediatrics. Resumo: Objetivo: Avaliar o teste QuickVue® RSV Test Kit (QUIDEL Corp, CA, EUA para o diagn

  10. Usefulness of gram staining of blood collected from total parenteral nutrition catheter for rapid diagnosis of catheter-related sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonens, F; el Alami, S; Van Gossum, A; Struelens, M J; Serruys, E

    1994-01-01

    The accuracy of Gram staining of blood drawn from catheters used to administer total parenteral nutrition was compared with paired quantitative blood cultures for the diagnosis of catheter-related sepsis. Gram staining was positive in 11 of 18 episodes of catheter-related sepsis documented by quantitative culture (sensitivity, 61%) but in none of the 5 episodes of fever unrelated to catheter infection. Thus, this procedure enabled the rapid presumptive diagnosis and guidance of antimicrobial therapy for total parenteral nutrition catheter sepsis, with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 42%. PMID:7521359

  11. Self-diagnosis of malaria by travelers and expatriates: assessment of malaria rapid diagnostic tests available on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltha, Jessica; Gillet, Philippe; Heutmekers, Marloes; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Van Gompel, Alfons; Jacobs, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In the past malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for self-diagnosis by travelers were considered suboptimal due to poor performance. Nowadays RDTs for self-diagnosis are marketed and available through the internet. The present study assessed RDT products marketed for self-diagnosis for diagnostic accuracy and quality of labeling, content and instructions for use (IFU). Diagnostic accuracy of eight RDT products was assessed with a panel of stored whole blood samples comprising the four Plasmodium species (n = 90) as well as Plasmodium negative samples (n = 10). IFUs were assessed for quality of description of procedure and interpretation and for lay-out and readability level. Errors in packaging and content were recorded. Two products gave false-positive test lines in 70% and 80% of Plasmodium negative samples, precluding their use. Of the remaining products, 4/6 had good to excellent sensitivity for the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum (98.2%-100.0%) and Plasmodium vivax (93.3%-100.0%). Sensitivity for Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae diagnosis was poor (6.7%-80.0%). All but one product yielded false-positive test lines after reading beyond the recommended reading time. Problems with labeling (not specifying target antigens (n = 3), and content (desiccant with no humidity indicator (n = 6)) were observed. IFUs had major shortcomings in description of test procedure and interpretation, poor readability and lay-out and user-unfriendly typography. Strategic issues (e.g. the need for repeat testing and reasons for false-negative tests) were not addressed in any of the IFUs. Diagnostic accuracy of RDTs for self-diagnosis was variable, with only 4/8 RDT products being reliable for the diagnosis of P. falciparum and P. vivax, and none for P. ovale and P. malariae. RDTs for self-diagnosis need improvements in IFUs (content and user-friendliness), labeling and content before they can be considered for self-diagnosis by the traveler.

  12. New strategy for rapid diagnosis and characterization of fungal infections: the example of corneal scrapings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Goldschmidt

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The prognosis of people infected with Fungi especially immunocompromised depends on rapid and accurate diagnosis to capitalize on time administration of specific treatments. However, cultures produce false negative results and nucleic-acid amplification techniques require complex post-amplification procedures to differentiate relevant fungal types. The objective of this work was to develop a new diagnostic strategy based on real-time polymerase-chain reaction high-resolution melting analysis (PCR-HRM that a detects yeasts and filamentous Fungi, b differentiates yeasts from filamentous Fungi, and c discriminates among relevant species of yeasts. METHODS: PCR-HRM detection limits and specificity were assessed with a isolated strains; b human blood samples experimentally infected with Fungi; c blood experimentally infected with other infectious agents; d corneal scrapings from patients with suspected fungal keratitis (culture positive and negative and e scrapings from patients with suspected bacterial, viral or Acanthamoeba infections. The DNAs were extracted and mixed with primers diluted in the MeltDoctor® HRM Master Mix in 2 tubes, the first for yeasts, containing the forward primer CandUn (5'CATGCCTGTTTGAGCGTC and the reverse primer FungUn (5'TCCTCCGCTT ATTGATATGCT and the second for filamentous Fungi, containing the forward primer FilamUn (5'TGCCTGTCCGAGCGTCAT and FungUn. Molecular probes were not necessary. The yields of DNA extraction and the PCR inhibitors were systematically monitored. RESULTS: PCR-HRM detected 0.1 Colony Forming Units (CFU/µl of yeasts and filamentous Fungi, differentiated filamentous Fungi from yeasts and discriminated among relevant species of yeasts. PCR-HRM performances were higher than haemoculture and sensitivity and specificity was 100% for culture positive samples, detecting and characterizing Fungi in 7 out 10 culture negative suspected fungal keratitis. CONCLUSIONS: PCR-HRM appears as a new, sensitive

  13. A Fluorescent Tile DNA Diagnocode System for In Situ Rapid and Selective Diagnosis of Cytosolic RNA Cancer Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Soo; Shin, Seung Won; Jang, Min Su; Shin, Woojung; Yang, Kisuk; Min, Junhong; Cho, Seung-Woo; Oh, Byung-Keun; Bae, Jong Wook; Jung, Sunghwan; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Accurate cancer diagnosis often requires extraction and purification of genetic materials from cells, and sophisticated instrumentations that follow. Otherwise in order to directly treat the diagnostic materials to cells, multiple steps to optimize dose concentration and treatment time are necessary due to diversity in cellular behaviors. These processes may offer high precision but hinder fast analysis of cancer, especially in clinical situations that need rapid detection and characterization of cancer. Here we present a novel fluorescent tile DNA nanostructure delivered to cancer cytosol by employing nanoparticle technology. Its structural anisotropicity offers easy manipulation for multifunctionalities, enabling the novel DNA nanostructure to detect intracellular cancer RNA markers with high specificity within 30 minutes post treatment, while the nanoparticle property bypasses the requirement of treatment optimization, effectively reducing the complexity of applying the system for cancer diagnosis. Altogether, the system offers a precise and rapid detection of cancer, suggesting the future use in the clinical fields. PMID:26678430

  14. Shell Vial culture Assay for the rapid diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and Dengue-2 viral encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrinath S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Encephalitis caused by flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and West Nile virus (WNV is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in many endemic countries. Dengue-2 (Den-2 virus is a recent addition to the list of encephalitogenic viruses, after its Central Nervous System (CNS invasion capability has been established. There is a wide array of laboratory tools that have helped us not only in the diagnosis of these conditions but also in understanding their pathogenesis and pathology. However, there are no reports of Shell Vial Culture (SVC, a centrifuge enhanced tissue culture assay that has revolutionized viral culturing in terms of rapidity and sensitivity being optimized for these flaviviral encephalitic conditions. The present study is an attempt to standardize and evaluate the usefulness of SVC for the laboratory diagnosis of JE, WN and Den-2 encephalitis cases and to compare it with Indirect Immunofluorescence (IIF technique that detects cell associated virus antigen. Analysis of the various clinical parameters with respect to viral etiology has also been carried out. Results Pediatric patients constituted the major group involved in the study (92%. Etiological diagnosis of viral encephalitis could be established in twenty nine (58% patients. JE encephalitis was the commonest with 19 (39% cases being positive followed by, WN (9 cases-18% and Den-2 (one case. IIF test could detect antigens of JE, WN and Den-2 viruses in 16(32%, 7(14% and 1 case respectively. Shell vial culture assay picked up all cases that were positive by IIF test. In addition, SVC assay could detect 3 and 2 more cases of JE and WN encephalitis respectively, that were negative by the IIF test. Conclusion Shell vial culture is a rapid and efficient tool for the etiological diagnosis of JE, WN and Den-2 encephalitis cases. Early, prompt collection, transport and processing of the CSF samples, would make SVC a better method for the

  15. Has introduction of rapid drug susceptibility testing at diagnosis impacted treatment outcomes among previously treated tuberculosis patients in Gujarat, India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paresh Dave

    Full Text Available Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP in India recommends that all previously-treated TB (PT patients are offered drug susceptibility testing (DST at diagnosis, using rapid diagnostics and screened out for rifampicin resistance before being treated with standardized, eight-month, retreatment regimen. This is intended to improve the early diagnosis of rifampicin resistance and its appropriate management and improve the treatment outcomes among the rest of the patients. In this state-wide study from Gujarat, India, we assess proportion of PT patients underwent rapid DST at diagnosis and the impact of this intervention on their treatment outcomes.This is a retrospective cohort study involving review of electronic patient-records maintained routinely under RNTCP. All PT patients registered for treatment in Gujarat during January-June 2013 were included. Information on DST and treatment outcomes were extracted from 'presumptive DR-TB patient register' and TB treatment register respectively. We performed a multivariate analysis to assess if getting tested is independently associated with unfavourable outcomes (death, loss-to-follow-up, failure, transfer out.Of 5,829 PT patients, 5306(91% were tested for drug susceptibility with rapid diagnostics. Overall, 71% (4,113 TB patients were successfully treated - 72% among tested versus 60% among non-tested. Patients who did not get tested at diagnosis had a 34% higher risk of unsuccessful outcomes as compared to those who got tested (aRR - 1.34; 95% CI 1.20-1.50 after adjusting for age, sex, HIV status and type of TB. Unfavourable outcomes (particularly failure and switched to category IV were higher among INH-resistant patients (39% as compared to INH-sensitive (29%.Offering DST at diagnosis improved the treatment outcomes among PT patients. However, even among tested, treatment outcomes remained suboptimal and were related to INH resistance and high loss-to-follow-up. These need to be addressed

  16. [Evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Cotonou (Bénin)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogouyèmi-Hounto, A; Agbayahoun-Chokki, F; Sissinto Savi de Tove, Y; Biokou Bankole, B; Adinsi de Souza, V; Assogba, M; Kinde-Gazard, D; Massougbodji, A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of the ImmunoComb® Toxo IgG and ImmunoComb® Toxo IgMassays (rapid diagnostic test) in the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Cotonou. We interviewed 266 pregnant women, who first answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti T. gondii antibodies with the ImmunoComb toxo assays and with the ARCHITECT CIMA method. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated to determine the performance of the rapid test. The seroprevalences of IgG against T. gondii by CIMA technique and rapid test were respectively 48.9% and 48.5%. The prevalence increased with age. Performances for IgG were: sensitivity 97%, specificity 100%, PPV 100%, NPV = 97.10%. For IgM, Sensitivity: 33.3% Specificity: 100%, PPV 100%, NPV = 99.2%. Seroprevalence obtained shows that about half of the study population is not immune against T. gondii and requires regular serological monitoring until delivery. According to these results, and given the needs of toxoplasmosis diagnosis on the field characterized by an important decrease of immunized women, this test may be recommended in the laboratory diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in peripheral levels of the health pyramid.

  17. Rapid Preliminary Design of Interplanetary Trajectories Using the Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary design of interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed, and in some cases the final destination. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen that defines the trajectory. There are often many thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the mission design problem as a hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on notional high-thrust chemical and low-thrust electric propulsion missions. In the low-thrust case, the hybrid optimal control problem is augmented to include systems design optimization.

  18. Rapid diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia: cell culture and soft computing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, Massimo; Bush, Andrew; Montemurro, Francesca; Pioggia, Giovanni; Piras, Martina; Tartarisco, Gennaro; Di Cicco, Maria; Chinellato, Iolanda; Cangiotti, Angela M; Boner, Attilio L

    2013-04-01

    Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) sometimes requires repeated nasal brushing to exclude secondary ciliary alterations. Our aim was to evaluate whether the use of a new method of nasal epithelial cell culture can speed PCD diagnosis in doubtful cases and to identify which are the most informative parameters by means of a multilayer artificial neural network (ANN). A cross-sectional study was performed in patients with suspected PCD. All patients underwent nasal brushing for ciliary motion analysis, ultrastructural assessment and evaluation of ciliary function after ciliogenesis in culture by ANN. 151 subjects were studied. A diagnostic suspension cell culture was obtained in 117 nasal brushings. A diagnosis of PCD was made in 36 subjects (29 of whom were children). In nine out of the 36 patients the diagnosis was made only after a second brushing, because of equivocal results of both tests at first examination. In each of these subjects diagnosis of PCD was confirmed by cell culture results. Cell culture in suspension evaluated by means of ANN allows the separation of PCD from secondary ciliary dyskinesia patients after only 5 days of culture and allows diagnosis to be reached in doubtful cases, thus avoiding the necessity of a second sample.

  19. Development of a prototype for dissolved CO2 rapid measurement and preliminary tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Guo, Jinjia; Zhang, Zhihao; Luo, Zhao; Qin, Chuan; Zheng, Ronger

    2017-10-01

    The measurements of dissolved CO2 in seawater is of great significance for the study of global carbon cycle. At present, the commercial sensors used for dissolved CO2 measurements are mostly equipped with permeable membranes for the purpose of gas-liquid separation, with the advantages of easy operation, low cost, etc.. However, most of these devices measure CO2 after reaching gas equilibrium, so it takes a few minutes to respond, which limited its applications in rapid measurements. In this paper, a set of prototype was developed for the rapid measurements of dissolved CO2. The system was built basing the direct absorption TDLAS. To detect the CO2 absorption line located at 4991.26 cm-1 , a fiber-coupled DFB laser operating at 2004 nm was selected as the light source. A Herriott type multi-pass cavity with an effective optical path length of 10 m and an inner volume of 90 mL was used for absorption measurements. A detection limit of 26 μatm can be obtained with this compact cavity. To realize the rapid measurements of dissolved CO2, a degasser with high degassing rate was necessary. A hollow fiber membrane with a large permeable area used in this paper can achieve degassing rate up to 2.88 kPa/min. Benefitted from the high degassing rate of the degasser and high sensitivity of the compact TDLAS system, a rapid measurement of dissolved CO2 in water can be achieved within 1s time, and the response time of the prototype when the dissolved CO2 concentration changed abruptly in actual measurement was 15 s. To evaluate the performance of the prototype, comparison measurements were carried out with a commercial mass spectrometer. The dissolved CO2 in both seawater and tap-water was measured, and the experimental results showed good consistent trends with R2 of 0.973 and 0.931. The experimental results proved the feasibility of dissolved CO2 rapid measurement. In the near future, more system evaluation experiments will be carried out and the system will be further

  20. A new method of CT scanning for the diagnosis of mandibular fractures; A preliminary report: diagnosis of condyle fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukagoshi, Taku; Satoh, Kaneshige; Onizuka, Takuya (Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-08-01

    The condylar neck of the mandible is one of the most common fracture sites in the facial skeleton. Such a fracture is routinely diagnosed by A-P, lateral oblique, and Towne projection roentgenography or orthopantomography. Despite the combination of these films, fracture of the neck of the mandible is still difficult to diagnose definitely. Therefore, a new CT scanning method was developed for diagnosing fractures of the neck of the condylar mandible. The CT axis is projected along the length of the mandible, extending from the condyle to the symphysis. This projection visualizes both the condyle and the mandibular symphysis in the same plane. The patient is placed in a supine position with the head fully extended. The base line, a line extending from the midpoint of the glenoid fossa to the menton, is determined with a lateral facial cephalogram. CT scanning with a 5 mm window is performed in parallel with and 2 cm anterior to and 2 cm posterior to the base line. When CT scanning was performed in a healthy volunteer, the condition of the condyle and the condylar neck of the mandible was clearly shown, and the view extended from the condyle to the symphysis. For automobile accident patients in whom fracture of the neck of the mandible was associated with fracture of the symphysis, two fractures were found in the same plane. A newly developed CT scanning technique is useful in the diagnosis of fractures of the condylar neck of the mandible and in the identification of fractures at other mandibular sites. It also allows scanning of patients in a supine position, which may aid in managing patients with multiple traumas. (N.K.).

  1. [The significance of pedigree genetic screening and rapid immunological parameters in the diagnosis of primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Wang, Y N; Wang, J S; Wu, L; Wei, N; Fu, L; Gao, Z; Chen, J H; Pei, R J; Wang, Z

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the significance of pedigree genetic screening and rapid immunological parameters in the diagnosis of primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Four cases of primary HLH patients with PRF1, UNC13D and SH2D1A gene mutations were conducted pedigree investigation, including family genetic screening and detections of immunological parameters (NK cell activity, CD107a degranulation and expression of HLH related defective protein), to evaluate the significance of these different indicators in the diagnosis of primary HLH and explore their correlations. The DNA mutations of the four families included missense mutation c.T172C (p.S58P) and non- frameshift deletions c.1083_1094del (p.361_365del), missense mutation c.C1349T (p.T450M) and frameshift mutation c.1090_1091delCT (p.T364fsX93) in PRF1 gene, missense mutation c.G2588A (p.G863D) in UNC13D gene and hemizygous mutation c.32T>G (p.I11S) in SH2D1A gene. The patients and their family members presented decreased NK cell activities. Individuals who carried mutations of PRF1 gene and SH2D1A gene showed low expression of perforin (PRF1) and signaling lymphocytic activation molecule associated protein (SAP). And the patient with UNC13D gene mutation and his family member with identical mutation showed significant reducing cytotoxic degranulation function (expression of CD107a). Pedigree genetic screening and rapid detection of immunological parameters might play an important role in the diagnosis of primary HLH, and both of them had good consistency. As an efficient detection means, the rapid immunological detection indicators would provide reliable basis for the early diagnosis of the primary HLH.

  2. Tomosynthesis: A new radiologic technique for rapid diagnosis of scaphoid fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, N; Murphy, L; Lyons, F; Jones, J; MacMahon, P; Cashman, J

    2016-12-21

    Scaphoid fractures constitute 71% of all carpal bone fractures. 1 Early diagnosis and treatment has significant bearing on fracture union rates and better clinical outcomes. While displaced fractures can be readily seen on plain radiograph, undisplaced fractures can require advanced imaging modalities to confirm that diagnosis. Advanced imaging such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computerised tomography (CT) and bone scintigraphy are routinely used for the diagnosis of scaphoid fractures but require significant radiation exposure, increased cost and can be difficult to access. 2 Tomosynthesis is an emerging imaging modality which uses conventional x-ray systems to produce cross-sectional images. There has yet to be extensive research carried out investigating the diagnostic value of tomosynthesis in scaphoid fractures. The aim of this study is to optimise patient positioning for the diagnosis of scaphoid fractures in a cadaveric model and compare the diagnostic yield of tomography to conventional CT. Using four cadaveric specimens, three limb positions were examined in unfractured and fractured scaphoids to determine the optimal limb positions required for visualisation of the scaphoid. As a result of this study, the optimal position for visualisation of the scaphoid and diagnosis of scaphoid fractures has been determined. The results demonstrate that tomosynthesis is as effective as CT scanning in identifying scaphoid fractures in both sensitivity and specificity. By comparison to CT, tomosynthesis is cheaper, has lower radiation exposure, requires fewer hospital resources and can be performed quickly. Tomosynthesis is a valid diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of scaphoid fractures. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improved sensitivity of nucleic acid amplification for rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Lundgren, Bettina; Tabak, Fehmi

    2004-01-01

    Early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is essential for a positive outcome; but present microbiological diagnostic techniques are insensitive, slow, or laborious. We evaluated the standard BDProbeTec ET strand displacement amplification method (the standard ProbeTec method) for the detec......Early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is essential for a positive outcome; but present microbiological diagnostic techniques are insensitive, slow, or laborious. We evaluated the standard BDProbeTec ET strand displacement amplification method (the standard ProbeTec method...

  4. Rapid tissue regeneration induced by intracellular ATP delivery-A preliminary mechanistic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshini Sarojini

    Full Text Available We have reported a new phenomenon in acute wound healing following the use of intracellular ATP delivery-extremely rapid tissue regeneration, which starts less than 24 h after surgery, and is accompanied by massive macrophage trafficking, in situ proliferation, and direct collagen production. This unusual process bypasses the formation of the traditional provisional extracellular matrix and significantly shortens the wound healing process. Although macrophages/monocytes are known to play a critical role in the initiation and progression of wound healing, their in situ proliferation and direct collagen production in wound healing have never been reported previously. We have explored these two very specific pathways during wound healing, while excluding confounding factors in the in vivo environment by analyzing wound samples and performing in vitro studies. The use of immunohistochemical studies enabled the detection of in situ macrophage proliferation in ATP-vesicle treated wounds. Primary human macrophages and Raw 264.7 cells were used for an in vitro study involving treatment with ATP vesicles, free Mg-ATP alone, lipid vesicles alone, Regranex, or culture medium. Collagen type 1α 1, MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were determined by ELISA of the culture supernatant. The intracellular collagen type 1α1 localization was determined with immunocytochemistry. ATP-vesicle treated wounds showed high immunoreactivity towards BrdU and PCNA antigens, indicating in situ proliferation. Most of the cultured macrophages treated with ATP-vesicles maintained their classic phenotype and expressed high levels of collagen type 1α1 for a longer duration than was observed with cells treated with Regranex. These studies provide the first clear evidence of in situ macrophage proliferation and direct collagen production during wound healing. These findings provide part of the explanation for the extremely rapid tissue regeneration, and this treatment may hold

  5. Rapid detection of human infections with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose and positron emission tomography: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kison, P.V.; Russo, J.E.; Zasadny, K.R.; Braun, D.K.; Wahl, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) for rapid detection of human infections. Eleven patients who were known or suspected to be harboring various infections were studied with FDG-PET. Dynamic scans over the putative infection sites were performed immediately after FDG (370 MBq) injection through 60 min, and static images including multiple projection images were then obtained. FDG uptake was assessed visually into four grades (0, normal; 1, probably normal; 2, probably abnormal; 3, definitely abnormal). For the semiquantitative index of FDG uptake in infections, the standardized uptake value of FDG normalized to the predicted lean body mass (SUV-lean, SUL) was determined from the images obtained at 50-60 min after FDG injection. PET results were compared with final clinical diagnoses. Eleven lesions in eight patients, which were interpreted as grade 2 or 3 by FDG-PET, were all concordant with active infectious foci. The SUL values of infections ranged from 0.97 to 6.69. In two patients, FDG-PET correctly showed no active infection. In one patient, it was difficult to detect infectious foci by FDG-PET due to substantial normal background uptake of FDG. In total, FDG-PET correctly diagnosed the presence or absence of active infection in 10 of 11 patients. Fusion images of PET with computed tomography showed the most intense FDG uptake to be within an abscess wall. In conclusion, FDG-PET appears to be a promising modality for rapid imaging of active human infections. More extensive clinical evaluation is warranted to determine the accuracy of this method. (orig.)

  6. Immunoassay for Capsular Antigen of Bacillus anthracis Enables Rapid Diagnosis in a Rabbit Model of Inhalational Anthrax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcellene A Gates-Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available Inhalational anthrax is a serious biothreat. Effective antibiotic treatment of inhalational anthrax requires early diagnosis; the further the disease has progressed, the less the likelihood for cure. Current means for diagnosis such as blood culture require several days to a result and require advanced laboratory infrastructure. An alternative approach to diagnosis is detection of a Bacillus anthracis antigen that is shed into blood and can be detected by rapid immunoassay. The goal of the study was to evaluate detection of poly-γ-D-glutamic acid (PGA, the capsular antigen of B. anthracis, as a biomarker surrogate for blood culture in a rabbit model of inhalational anthrax. The mean time to a positive blood culture was 26 ± 5.7 h (mean ± standard deviation, whereas the mean time to a positive ELISA was 22 ± 4.2 h; P = 0.005 in comparison with blood culture. A lateral flow immunoassay was constructed for detection of PGA in plasma at concentrations of less than 1 ng PGA/ml. Use of the lateral flow immunoassay for detection of PGA in the rabbit model found that antigen was detected somewhat earlier than the earliest time point at which the blood culture became positive. The low cost, ease of use, and rapid time to result of the lateral flow immunoassay format make an immunoassay for PGA a viable surrogate for blood culture for detection of infection in individuals who have a likelihood of exposure to B. anthracis.

  7. Rapid pre-operative diagnosis of ileal hernia through the foramen of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Radiology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. Y-P Lo, MD. Corresponding author: Y-H Liao (D14887@mail.cmuh.org.tw). Internal hernias through the foramen of Winslow are extremely rare. Prompt diagnosis and early surgical reduction are vital to prevent bowel gangrene and avoid ...

  8. Rapid Diagnosis of Histoplasma capsulatum Endocarditis Using the AccuProbe on an Excised Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemaly, Roy F.; Tomford, J. Walton; Hall, Gerri S.; Sholtis, Mary; Chua, Jimmy D.; Procop, Gary W.

    2001-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is an infrequent but serious cause of endocarditis. The definitive diagnosis requires culture, which may require a long incubation. We demonstrated the ability of the Histoplasma capsulatum AccuProbe to accurately identify this organism when applied directly on an excised valve that contained abundant yeast forms consistent with H. capsulatum. PMID:11427583

  9. The "RAPID" cognitive-behavioral therapy program for inattentive children: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of the current study were to ascertain feasibility and acceptability of directly delivering a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention for inattentive children in a school setting, to examine the reliability of the RATE-CQuestionnaires that accompany the program, and to determine whether they can be used to measure outcome. Eighty-eight parents/carers, their children (age 8-11), and teachers at mainstream primary schools in London participated by completing the RATE-C Questionnaires; 48 participated in the group treatment following which the Questionnaires were readministered together with a semistructured interview. The intervention had a completion rate of 92%. Postgroup interviews supported the acceptability of a direct intervention with young children. Reliability of the RATE-C Total scores was excellent for parent/carer, child, and teacher ratings; postintervention parent/carer ratings indicated significant improvement on scales of attention, emotion, and conduct with medium to large effect. The results support the reliability of the RATE-C Scales, and feasibility and acceptability of the RAPID intervention.

  10. Fatigue Life Prediction in Rapid Die Casting - Preliminary Work in View of Current Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuan Huat Ng; Grote, Karl-Heinrich; Baehr, Ruediger

    2007-01-01

    Numerical simulation technique as a prediction tool is slowly adopted in metal casting industry for predicting design modelling solidification analysis. The reasons for this activity is found in the need to further enhance the geometrical design and mechanical properties of the tool design and the correct prediction methodology to fulfil industrial needs. The present state of numerical simulation capabilities in rapid die casting technologies is reviewed and the failure mode mechanisms of thermal fatigue, aimed at developing a numerical simulation with a systematic design guidance for predicting the thermal cyclic loading analysis and improvement is presented along with several other methods. The economic benefits of a numerical simulation technique in die casting are limited to tool life time, mechanical properties and design guidance. The extensive computer capabilities of a numerical simulation with a systematic design guidance methodology are exploited to provide a solution for flexible design, mechanical properties and mould life time. Related research carried out worldwide by different organisations and academic institutions are discussed

  11. Rapid detection of Avian Influenza Virus - Towards point of care diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhumpa, Raghuram

    barcode and fluorescent beads were also developed for rapid detection and identification of the AIV. In both methods, the detection involved sandwiching of the target AIV between monoclonal antibodies for nucleoproteins and for matrix proteins. In the fluorescent DNA barcode-based immunoassay, fluorophore...

  12. Improved sensitivity of nucleic acid amplification for rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Lundgren, Bettina; Tabak, Fehmi

    2004-01-01

    was adjusted from the recommended value of 3,400 to 1,000, the sensitivity of the modified procedure increased to 84.7%, with unchanged specificity. Results were obtained in 3 to 4 h. The new pretreatment procedure with the ProbeTec assay described here provides a rapid, simple, and sensitive tool...

  13. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for rapid diagnosis of postoperative endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhac, Adriane; Durand, Harmonie; Boisset, Sandrine; Maubon, Danièle; Berger, Francois; Maurin, Max; Chiquet, Christophe; Bidart, Marie

    2017-01-30

    This study describes an innovative strategy for rapid detection and identification of bacteria causing endophthalmitis, combining the use of an automated blood culture system with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry methodology. Using this protocol, we could identify 96% of 45 bacterial strains isolated from vitreous samples collected in acute post-operative endophthalmitis patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid molecular detection of rifampicin resistance facilitates early diagnosis and treatment of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis: case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philly O'Riordan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a major public health concern since diagnosis is often delayed, increasing the risk of spread to the community and health care workers. Treatment is prolonged, and the total cost of treating a single case is high. Diagnosis has traditionally relied upon clinical suspicion, based on risk factors and culture with sensitivity testing, a process that can take weeks or months. Rapid diagnostic molecular techniques have the potential to shorten the time to commencing appropriate therapy, but have not been put to the test under field conditions.This retrospective case-control study aimed to identify risk factors for MDR-TB, and analyse the impact of testing for rifampicin resistance using RNA polymerase B (rpoB mutations as a surrogate for MDR-TB. Forty two MDR-TB cases and 84 fully sensitive TB controls were matched by date of diagnosis; and factors including demographics, clinical presentation, microbiology findings, management and outcome were analysed using their medical records. Conventionally recognised risk factors for MDR-TB were absent in almost half (43% of the cases, and 15% of cases were asymptomatic. A significant number of MDR-TB cases were identified in new entrants to the country. Using rpoB mutation testing, the time to diagnosis of MDR-TB was dramatically shortened by a median of 6 weeks, allowing patients to be commenced on appropriate therapy a median of 51days earlier than those diagnosed by conventional culture and sensitivity testing.MDR-TB is frequently an unexpected finding, may be asymptomatic, and is particularly prevalent among TB infected new entrants to the country. Molecular resistance testing of all acid fast bacilli positive specimens has the potential to rapidly identify MDR-TB patients and commence them on appropriate therapy significantly earlier than by conventional methods.

  15. Saving Private Ryan: The Indian Scenario (Rapid Diagnosis of Malaria at Regimental Aid Post)

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhale, S

    2004-01-01

    Immunochromatography test (ICT) (Paracheck Pf) for diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection was compared with the conventional smear examination method. A total of 350 specimens of blood from cases of fever were investigated (falciparum malaria 220, vivax malaria 100, controls 30). Paracheck Pf ICT was found to have enormous advantages over smear examination due to its high degree of sensitivity, specificity, speed and ease of performance. Paracheck Pf ICT test kits are stable at roo...

  16. [Main principles of rapid diagnosis and intensive care in emergency states: their realization in expert systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zislin, B D; Bazhenov, A M; Belkin, A A; Bazylev, S V; Badaev, F I; Trifonov, Iu O

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 543 case histories over 1980-1990 in the town of Yekaterinburg and analysis of published data permitted the authors to single out the signs characterizing the most frequent syndromes requiring urgent intensive care. By either diagnostic value, these signs are distributed into main, accessory, and ruling out. An expert system has been created, making use of the productive-Freimont's approach to representing information on the basis of blurred multiplicities and ambiguous logics. The diagnosis was made by stages: first the main signs were analyzed, determining the severity of patient's status, then (after first aid was rendered) accessory and ruling out signs, which help make the diagnosis more precise. The system was tried in 231 patients, 102 of these with acute respiratory failure, 63 with acute hemodynamic insufficiency, and 66 with acute cerebral insufficiency. Primary diagnosis of the underlying syndrome was correct in 87-89% of cases, of the concomitant syndrome in 92-97%. Repeated evaluations (in 1-3 and 24 h) taking account of the time course of the symptoms and of the results of unsophisticated instrumental examinations increased the share of correct diagnoses to 92-96%.

  17. Preimplantation genetic haplotyping a new application for diagnosis of translocation carrier's embryos- preliminary observations of two robertsonian translocation carrier families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamash, Jana; Rienstein, Shlomit; Wolf-Reznik, Haike; Pras, Elon; Dekel, Michal; Litmanovitch, Talia; Brengauz, Masha; Goldman, Boleslav; Yonath, Hagith; Dor, Jehoshua; Levron, Jacob; Aviram-Goldring, Ayala

    2011-01-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (PGD-FISH) is currently the most common reproductive solution for translocation carriers. However, this technique usually does not differentiate between embryos carrying the balanced form of the translocation and those carrying the homologous normal chromosomes. We developed a new application of preimplantation genetic haplotyping (PGH) that can identify and distinguish between all forms of the translocation status in cleavage stage embryos prior to implantation. Polymorphic markers were used to identify and differentiate between the alleles that carry the translocation and those that are the normal homologous chromosomes. Embryos from two families of robertsonian translocation carriers were successfully analyzed using polymorphic markers haplotyping. Our preliminary results indicate that the PGH is capable of distinguishing between normal, balanced and unbalanced translocation carrier embryos. This method will improve PGD and will enable translocation carriers to avoid transmission of the translocation and the associated medical complications to offspring.

  18. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, A R [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, S J [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Hall, C J [Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington, WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Rogers, K D [Department of Materials and Medical Sciences, Cranfield University, Swindon, SN6 8LA (United Kingdom); Glatter, O [Department of Chemistry, University of Graz (Austria); Wess, T [School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3NB, Wales (United Kingdom); Ellis, I O [Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-07

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique.

  19. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Round, A R; Wilkinson, S J; Hall, C J; Rogers, K D; Glatter, O; Wess, T; Ellis, I O

    2005-01-01

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique

  20. Vertebral physitis: a radiographic diagnosis to be separated from discospondylitis: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, M.M.; O'Callaghan, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study was initiated to investigate the incidence, radiographic appearance and progression of vertebral physitis, a condition the authors propose as a separate radiographic diagnosis from discospondylitis. From 30 dogs with an initial radiographic diagnosis of discospondylitis, six dogs (five less than two years old) had radiographic signs believed to represent vertebral physitis. Bone lysis initially confined to the caudal physeal zone of affected vertebrae and sparing the vertebral endplates characterized the vertebral physitis lesions. Subsequent collapse of the caudoventral vertebral body and reactive spondylosis arising only from the caudal vertebral margins followed as the lesions progressed. By contrast, discospondylitis lesions originated as symmetric lysis of the vertebral endplates with reactive sclerosis in both vertebral bodies, and subsequent symmetric spondylosis. As a result of the differing radiographic patterns demonstrated by the physitis and discospondylitis lesions the author's also propose an alternative pathogenesis from that which is generally accepted for discospondylitis

  1. A preliminary study of breast cancer diagnosis using laboratory based small angle x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, A. R.; Wilkinson, S. J.; Hall, C. J.; Rogers, K. D.; Glatter, O.; Wess, T.; Ellis, I. O.

    2005-09-01

    Breast tissue collected from tumour samples and normal tissue from bi-lateral mastectomy procedures were examined using small angle x-ray scattering. Previous work has indicated that breast tissue disease diagnosis could be performed using small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) from a synchrotron radiation source. The technique would be more useful to health services if it could be made to work using a conventional x-ray source. Consistent and reliable differences in x-ray scatter distributions were observed between samples from normal and tumour tissue samples using the laboratory based 'SAXSess' system. Albeit from a small number of samples, a sensitivity of 100% was obtained. This result encourages us to pursue the implementation of SAXS as a laboratory based diagnosis technique.

  2. Case based reasoning applied to medical diagnosis using multi-class classifier: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viveros-Melo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Case-based reasoning (CBR is a process used for computer processing that tries to mimic the behavior of a human expert in making decisions regarding a subject and learn from the experience of past cases. CBR has demonstrated to be appropriate for working with unstructured domains data or difficult knowledge acquisition situations, such as medical diagnosis, where it is possible to identify diseases such as: cancer diagnosis, epilepsy prediction and appendicitis diagnosis. Some of the trends that may be developed for CBR in the health science are oriented to reduce the number of features in highly dimensional data. An important contribution may be the estimation of probabilities of belonging to each class for new cases. In this paper, in order to adequately represent the database and to avoid the inconveniences caused by the high dimensionality, noise and redundancy, a number of algorithms are used in the preprocessing stage for performing both variable selection and dimension reduction procedures. Also, a comparison of the performance of some representative multi-class classifiers is carried out to identify the most effective one to include within a CBR scheme. Particularly, four classification techniques and two reduction techniques are employed to make a comparative study of multiclass classifiers on CBR

  3. LAMP assay for rapid diagnosis of cow DNA in goat milk and meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, R; Sengar, G S; Singh, U; Kumar, S; Raja, T V; Alex, R; Alyethodi, R R; Prakash, B

    2017-01-01

    Animal species detection is one of the crucial steps for consumer's food analysis. In the present study we developed an in-house built loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of adulterated cow DNA in goat milk/meat samples. The cow milk/tissue DNA in goat milk/meat samples were identified in the developed LAMP assay by either naked eye visualizing with SYBR Green I dyes or by detecting the typical ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis. This test can detect up to minimum 5% level of cow components admixed in goat milk/meat samples and can be completed within 1 h 40 min starting from DNA extraction from milk/meat samples and can be performed in a water bath. Developed LAMP methodology is simple; rapid and sensitive techniques that can detect adulterant like cow components in goat milk/meat are more accurate than other existing DNA based technologies.

  4. Real-time in vivo diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma with rapid fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kan; Zheng, Wei; Lim, Chwee Ming; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    We assess the clinical utility of a unique simultaneous fingerprint (FP) (i.e., 800-1800 cm−1) and high-wavenumber (HW) (i.e., 2800-3600 cm−1) fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of laryngeal cancer at endoscopy. A total of 2124 high-quality in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra (normal = 1321; cancer = 581) were acquired from 101 tissue sites (normal = 71; cancer = 30) of 60 patients (normal = 44; cancer = 16) undergoing routine endoscopic examination. FP/HW Raman spectra differ significantly between normal and cancerous laryngeal tissue that could be attributed to changes of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and the bound water content in the larynx. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis and leave-one tissue site-out, cross-validation were employed on the in vivo FP/HW tissue Raman spectra acquired, yielding a diagnostic accuracy of 91.1% (sensitivity: 93.3% (28/30); specificity: 90.1% (64/71)) for laryngeal cancer identification, which is superior to using either FP (accuracy: 86.1%; sensitivity: 86.7% (26/30); specificity: 85.9% (61/71)) or HW (accuracy: 84.2%; sensitivity: 76.7% (23/30); specificity: 87.3% (62/71)) Raman technique alone. Further receiver operating characteristic analysis reconfirms the best performance of the simultaneous FP/HW Raman technique for laryngeal cancer diagnosis. We demonstrate for the first time that the simultaneous FP/HW Raman spectroscopy technique can be used for improving real-time in vivo diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma during endoscopic examination. PMID:27699131

  5. Widal agglutination titre: a rapid serological diagnosis of typhoid fever in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftab, R.; Khurshid, R.

    2009-01-01

    To study the reliability of a single Widal test and to find out the diagnostic significance of 'O' and 'H' agglutinin titre in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Community-based case-control study conducted from Jan 2001 to June 2007. The blood samples were collected from the medical and out door department of Sir Ganga Ram Hospitals, Lahore. The diagnostic value of an acute phase single Widal agglutination test for suspected typhoid fever was evaluated in 733 consecutive patients with fever lasting 6 or more days. In 733 patients with fever 84 (11.45%) were positive for Widal test. A noteworthy rise 1/320 of H and/or O agglutinin titre was observed in 86 (11.3%) of patients with typhoid fever. In the absence of vaccination an elevated level of H and/or O agglutinin titre of 1: 320 is of diagnostic value for typhoid fever especially in our setting where a single sample of serum is relied on for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. (author)

  6. Widal agglutination titre: a rapid serological diagnosis of typhoid fever in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aftab, R [Fatima Jinnah Medical College Lahore, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Pathology; Khurshid, R [Fatima Jinnah Medical College Lahore, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Biochemistry

    2009-01-15

    To study the reliability of a single Widal test and to find out the diagnostic significance of 'O' and 'H' agglutinin titre in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Community-based case-control study conducted from Jan 2001 to June 2007. The blood samples were collected from the medical and out door department of Sir Ganga Ram Hospitals, Lahore. The diagnostic value of an acute phase single Widal agglutination test for suspected typhoid fever was evaluated in 733 consecutive patients with fever lasting 6 or more days. In 733 patients with fever 84 (11.45%) were positive for Widal test. A noteworthy rise 1/320 of H and/or O agglutinin titre was observed in 86 (11.3%) of patients with typhoid fever. In the absence of vaccination an elevated level of H and/or O agglutinin titre of 1: 320 is of diagnostic value for typhoid fever especially in our setting where a single sample of serum is relied on for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. (author)

  7. Application Values of T-SPOT.TB in Clinical Rapid Diagnosis of Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Ou, Qinfang; Zheng, Jian

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the application value of tuberculosis-specific enzyme-linked immunospot assay (T-SPOT.TB) in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Fifty one patients with tuberculosis (TB) admitted to Wuxi No.5 People's Hospital, Wuxi, China from June 2015 to June 2017 were selected as the TB group, and 40 patients without tuberculosis admitted in the same period were randomly selected as the non-TB group. Patients in the two groups received T-SPOT.TB, TB antibody (TB-Ab) test and mycobacterium TB deoxyribonucleic acid (TB-DNA) test, and the results were compared. Comparisons of the sensitivity of the three methods showed that the sensitivity of T-SPOT.TB was the highest, followed by TB-DNA from sputum samples, and that of TB-Ab was the lowest. The specificity of TB-Ab was the highest, followed by T-SPOT.TB, and that of TB-DNA from sputum samples was the lowest. In the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the area under curve (AUC) of T-SPOT.TB (0.896) was the highest, followed by TB-DNA from sputum samples (0.772), and that of sputum smears (0.698) was the lowest. T-SPOT.TB can quickly and accurately determine the presence of tuberculosis infection, and it is a non-invasive examination, which can further assist in the diagnosis and guide the treatment.

  8. Development of Graphical Solution for Computer-Assisted Fault Diagnosis: Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Han Bean; Yun, Seung Man; Han, Jong Chul

    2009-01-01

    We have developed software for converting the volumetric voxel data obtained from X-ray computed tomography(CT) into computer-aided design(CAD) data. The developed software can used for non-destructive testing and evaluation, reverse engineering, and rapid prototyping, etc. The main algorithms employed in the software are image reconstruction, volume rendering, segmentation, and mesh data generation. The feasibility of the developed software is demonstrated with the CT data of human maxilla and mandible bones

  9. The preliminary application of magnetic resonance arthrography in the diagnosis of acetabular labrale tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Wen; Zhang Xuezhe; Wang Wu; Yue Debo; Wang Weiguo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the application value of MR arthrography (MRA) in the diagnosis of acetabular lab ral tears. Methods: Fifteen patients with a high degree of suspected acetabular lab ral tears received fluoroscope-guided injection of the contrast media into the hip joint (hip arthrography) and fat-saturated spin-echo T 1 -weighted images were obtained in the coronal, sagittal, oblique-axial and radial planes. Hip arthroscopy was performed on 12 of them. Results: Lab ral tears which were diagnosed in 11 patients by hip MRA were confirmed at hip arthroscopy. One patient showed no MRA indication of lab ral tear, also showed normal on arthroscopy. Tear in the anterior-superior quadrant 10 cases of 12 joints (12/13), posterior-superior quadrant 1 case of a joint (1/13). In 11 patients who underwent arthroscopy, hip MRA diagnosed 3 (3/13) joints labrale tears in coronal planes, 10 (10/13) joints in sagittal planes and 13 (13/13) labrale tears in axial-oblique and radial planes. In 15 patients with 20 hip joints, 5 cases 6 joints (6/20) with normal acetabular sublabral sulcus were performed. Conclusions: MR arthrography of hip is a reliable method in the diagnosis of acetabular labrale tears. Scanning method should be included fat-saturated spin-echo T 1 -weighted images in sagittal and oblique-axial planes or sagittal plus radial planes. The diagnosis of torn posterior-inferior quadrant should pay attention to the existence of a normal variation. (authors)

  10. The Clinical Value of Prenatal 3D Ultrasonic Diagnosis on Fetus Hemivertebra Deformity- A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yanting; Xiang, Guishuang; Liang, Xiaoqiu; Tong, Xiaoqian

    2018-02-01

    The present study is planned to discuss the clinical value of prenatal 3D ultra-sonic diagnosis on fetus hemivertebra deformity through the retrospective analysis of clinical data of fetus hemivertebra deformity. Selected 9 fetus hemivertebra deformity cases, which have been admitted to our hospital during the period from January, 2010 to January, 2016 as study samples, and analyzed their 2D and 3D ultrasonic examination data. 4 cases of the fetus hemivertebra deformity occurred at lumbar vertebra, 3 cases at thoracic vertebra, and 2 cases at thoracolumbar vertebra. There were scoliosis and opened spine bifida (OSB). In 7 cases, there was absence of ribs in fetus. The 2D ultrasonic image showed that: The echo at the center of fetus vertebral arch lesion was blurred or lost. The coronal section showed the deformity of the spine. There was obvious loss of the ossification center. From the cross section, we could see that the vertebral body of the fetus was shrinking and the edges were relatively blurred. The 3D ultrasonic image showed that: the echo at the ossification center of the fetus vertebra was relatively blurred, or even lost. The image also indicated scoliosis deformity of the spine. The vertebral body lesion could be accurately located. 9 cases of fetus hemivertebra deformity have been detected through examination. Labor inductions have been carried out after getting the permission from the family members. The X-ray examination of the fetus after labor induction showed that the diagnosis was correct. Prenatal ultra-sonic examination holds strong potential for the diagnosis of fetus hemivertebra deformity quite early and deserves further clinical evaluation with large sample size.

  11. Discriminant analysis to predict the clinical diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiharu Murata

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: In general, the selection of features has clinical plausibility, and the practical advantage of utilizing only clinical attributes, infecting germs and routine lab results (blood cell counts and serum immunoglobulins. The performance of the model as a diagnostic tool was acceptable. The study’s main limitations are a limited sample size and a lack of cross validation. This is only the first step in the construction of a machine learning system, with a wider approach that includes a larger database and different methodologies, to assist the clinical diagnosis of primary immunodeficiencies.

  12. Rapid aneuploidy diagnosis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and array comparative genomic hybridization in pregnancy with major congenital malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: Prenatal diagnosis of major congenital malformations should alert one to the possibility of chromosomal abnormalities. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and aCGH have the advantage of rapid aneuploidy diagnosis of common aneuploidies in cases with major congenital malformations.

  13. Rapid Flow Cytometry-Based Test for the Diagnosis of Lipopolysaccharide Responsive Beige-Like Anchor (LRBA Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gámez-Díaz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like-anchor-protein (LRBA deficiency currently relies on gene sequencing approaches that do not support a timely diagnosis and clinical management. We developed a rapid and sensitive test for clinical implementation based on the detection of LRBA protein by flow cytometry in peripheral blood cells after stimulation. LRBA protein was assessed in a prospective cohort of 54 healthy donors and 57 patients suspected of LRBA deficiency. Receiver operating characteristics analysis suggested an LRBA:MFI ratio cutoff point of 2.6 to identify LRBA-deficient patients by FACS with 94% sensitivity and 80% specificity and to discriminate them from patients with a similar clinical picture but other disease-causing mutations. This easy flow cytometry-based assay allows a fast screening of patients with suspicion of LRBA deficiency reducing therefore the number of patients requiring LRBA sequencing and accelerating the treatment implementation. Detection of biallelic mutations in LRBA is however required for a definitive diagnosis.

  14. Rapid Flow Cytometry-Based Test for the Diagnosis of Lipopolysaccharide Responsive Beige-Like Anchor (LRBA) Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez-Díaz, Laura; Sigmund, Elena C; Reiser, Veronika; Vach, Werner; Jung, Sophie; Grimbacher, Bodo

    2018-01-01

    The diagnosis of lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like-anchor-protein (LRBA) deficiency currently relies on gene sequencing approaches that do not support a timely diagnosis and clinical management. We developed a rapid and sensitive test for clinical implementation based on the detection of LRBA protein by flow cytometry in peripheral blood cells after stimulation. LRBA protein was assessed in a prospective cohort of 54 healthy donors and 57 patients suspected of LRBA deficiency. Receiver operating characteristics analysis suggested an LRBA:MFI ratio cutoff point of 2.6 to identify LRBA-deficient patients by FACS with 94% sensitivity and 80% specificity and to discriminate them from patients with a similar clinical picture but other disease-causing mutations. This easy flow cytometry-based assay allows a fast screening of patients with suspicion of LRBA deficiency reducing therefore the number of patients requiring LRBA sequencing and accelerating the treatment implementation. Detection of biallelic mutations in LRBA is however required for a definitive diagnosis.

  15. Rapid Diagnosis of 83 Patients with Niemann Pick Type C Disease and Related Cholesterol Transport Disorders by Cholestantriol Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Reunert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Niemann Pick type C (NP-C is a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by an impairment of intracellular lipid transport. Due to the heterogeneous clinical phenotype and the lack of a reliable blood test, diagnosis and therapy are often delayed for years. In the cell, accumulating cholesterol leads to increased formation of oxysterols that can be used as a powerful screening parameter for NP-C. In a large scale study, we evaluated the oxysterol cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (c-triol as potential biomarker for a rapid diagnosis of NP-C. Using GC/MS, c-triol has been analyzed in 1902 plasma samples of patients with the suspicion for NP-C. Diagnosis in patients with elevated oxysterols was confirmed by genetic analysis. 71 new NP-C patients (69 NP-C1 and two NP-C2 and 12 Niemann Pick type A/B patients were identified. 24 new mutations in NPC1, one new mutation in NPC2 and three new mutations in the SMPD1 gene were found. Cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol was elevated in Niemann Pick type C1, type C2, type A/B and in CESD disease. No other study has ever identified so many NP-C patients, proving that c-triol is a rapid and reliable biomarker to detect patients with NP-C disease and related cholesterol transport disorders. It should replace the filipin test as the first-line diagnostic assay.

  16. [Real-time PCR in rapid diagnosis of Aeromonas hydrophila necrotizing soft tissue infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Izumi, Yoko; Ushita, Misuzu; Niinou, Norio; Koshizaki, Masayuki; Yamamori, Yuji; Kaneko, Sakae; Fukushima, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    We report a case of rapidly progressive necrotizing soft tissue infection and sepsis followed by a patient's death. We suspected Vibrio vulnificus infection because the patient's underlying disease was cirrhosis and the course extremely rapid. No microbe had been detected at death. We extracted DNA from a blood culture bottle. SYBR green I real-time PCR was conducted but could not detect V. vulnificus vvh in the DNA sample. Aeromonas hydrophila was cultured and identified in blood and necrotized tissue samples. Real-time PCR was conducted to detect A. hydrophila ahh1, AHCYTOEN and aerA in the DNA sample extracted from the blood culture bottle and an isolated necrotized tissue strain, but only ahh1 was positive. High-mortality in necrotizing soft tissue infections makes it is crucial to quickly detect V. vulnificus and A. hydrophila. We found real-time PCR for vvh, ahh1, AHCYTOEN, and aerA useful in detecting V. vulnificus and A. hydrophila in necrotizing soft tissue infections.

  17. A Preliminary Trial on the Use of Barium Chloride for Pregnancy Diagnosis in Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndu, A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine was collected twice daily (once in the morning and once in the afternoon for 5 days from 80 Yorkshire x Landrace crossbred gilts/sows made up of 40 non-pregnant and 40 pregnant pigs in an investigation to determine the possibility of using 1 % barium chloride solution for pregnancy diagnosis in pigs based on a previous report that addition of a few drops of 1 % barium chloride solution to bovine urine caused a white precipitate with non-pregnant but not with pregnant cows. The pregnant pigs were in various stages of gestation. Urine reaction to 1 % barium chloride was highly (P <0.01 dependent on the pregnancy status of the sows, the test being 100 % and 81 % effective in identifying non-pregnant and pregnant sows respectively. The sensitivity of the test in the gravid sows was significantly (P <0.05 influenced by and tended to increa-se with the stage of gestation, with 59 % of the sows in their first stage of gestation (<38 days post-coitum being correctly diagnosed as pregnant, and 95-100 % of those in their latter stages of gestation being so correctly diagnosed. Parity and time of day of performance of the test had no effect on urine reaction. It was concluded that the test was at least 95 % accurate when used as from about 39 days after breeding for pregnancy diagnosis in sows.

  18. Occupational health and safety in the Moroccan construction sites: preliminary diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarik, Bakeli; Adil, Hafidi Alaoui

    2018-05-01

    Managing occupational health and safety on Moroccan construction sector represents the first step for projects' success. In fact, by avoiding accidents, all the related direct and indirect costs and delays can be prevented. That leads to an important question always asked by any project manager: what are the factors responsible for accidents? How can they be avoided? Through this research, the aim is to go through these questions, to contribute in occupational health and safety principles understanding, to identify construction accidentology and risk management opportunities and to approach the case of Moroccan construction sites by an accurate diagnosis. The approach is to make researchers, managers, stakeholders and deciders aware about the criticality of construction sites health and safety situation. And, to do the first step for a scientific research project in relation with health and safety in the Moroccan construction sector. For this, the paper will study the related state of art namely about construction sites accidents causation, and will focus on Reason's `Swiss cheese' model and its utilization for Moroccan construction sites health and safety diagnosis. The research will end with an estimation of an accidents fatality rate in the Moroccan construction sector and a benchmarking with the international rates. Finally, conclusions will be presented about the necessity of Occupational Health and Safety Management System (OHSMS) implementation, which shall cover all risk levels, and insure, at the same time, that the necessary defenses against accidents are on place.

  19. Preliminary analysis of the very early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (VEDOSS) EUSTAR multicentre study: evidence for puffy fingers as a pivotal sign for suspicion of systemic sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minier, T.; Guiducci, S.; Bellando-Randone, S.; Bruni, C.; Lepri, G.; Czirjak, L.; Distler, O.; Walker, U.A.; Fransen, J.; Allanore, Y.; Denton, C.; Cutolo, M.; Tyndall, A.; Muller-Ladner, U.; Matucci-Cerinic, M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The EULAR (European League Against Rheumatism) Scleroderma Trials and Research Group (EUSTAR) has identified preliminary criteria for very early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Our aim was to assess the prevalence of each proposed diagnostic item in a large observational patient

  20. ANCA-GBM dot-blot : Evaluation of an assay in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Damoiseaux, Jan; Roozendaal, Caroline; Limburg, Pieter C; Stegeman, Coen A; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen

    Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is characterized by rapid and progressive loss of renal function and the presence of crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN). Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is mandatory to prevent death and/or renal failure. We have evaluated an ANCA-GBM dot-blot

  1. A multiplex RT-PCR assay for the rapid and differential diagnosis of classical swine fever and other pestivirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Arce, Heidy; Pérez, Lester J; Frías, Maria T; Rosell, Rosa; Tarradas, Joan; Núñez, José I; Ganges, Llilianne

    2009-11-18

    Classical swine fever is a highly contagious viral disease causing severe economic losses in pig production almost worldwide. All pestivirus species can infect pigs, therefore accurate and rapid pestivirus detection and differentiation is of great importance to assure control measures in swine farming. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a novel multiplex, highly sensitive and specific RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection and rapid differentiation between CSFV and other pestivirus infections in swine. The universal and differential detection was based on primers designed to amplify a fragment of the 5' non-coding genome region for the detection of pestiviruses and a fragment of the NS5B gene for the detection of classical swine fever virus. The assay proved to be specific when different pestivirus strains from swine and ruminants were evaluated. The analytical sensitivity was estimated to be as little as 0.89TCID(50). The assay analysis of 30 tissue homogenate samples from naturally infected and non-CSF infected animals and 40 standard serum samples evaluated as part of two European Inter-laboratory Comparison Tests conducted by the European Community Reference Laboratory, Hanover, Germany proved that the multiplex RT-PCR method provides a rapid, highly sensitive, and cost-effective laboratory diagnosis for classical swine fever and other pestivirus infections in swine.

  2. A rapid screening with direct sequencing from blood samples for the diagnosis of Leigh syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Shimbo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large numbers of genes are responsible for Leigh syndrome (LS, making genetic confirmation of LS difficult. We screened our patients with LS using a limited set of 21 primers encompassing the frequently reported gene for the respiratory chain complexes I (ND1–ND6, and ND4L, IV(SURF1, and V(ATP6 and the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α-subunit. Of 18 LS patients, we identified mutations in 11 patients, including 7 in mDNA (two with ATP6, 4 in nuclear (three with SURF1. Overall, we identified mutations in 61% of LS patients (11/18 individuals in this cohort. Sanger sequencing with our limited set of primers allowed us a rapid genetic confirmation of more than half of the LS patients and it appears to be efficient as a primary genetic screening in this cohort.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of malaria microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests versus presumptive diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batwala, Vincent; Magnussen, Pascal; Hansen, Kristian Schultz

    2011-01-01

    .9) than in low transmission setting (US$1.78). At a willingness to pay of US$2.8, RDT remained cost effective up to a threshold value of the cost of treatment of US$4.7. CONCLUSION: RDT was cost effective in both low and high transmission settings. With a global campaign to reduce the costs of AL and RDT......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Current Uganda National Malaria treatment guidelines recommend parasitological confirmation either by microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT) before treatment with artemether-lumefantrine (AL). However, the cost-effectiveness of these strategies has not been assessed...... departments were enrolled from March 2010 to February 2011. Of these, a random sample of 1,627 was selected to measure additional socio-economic characteristics. Costing was performed following the standard step-down cost allocation and the ingredients approach. Effectiveness was measured as the number...

  4. Rapid Diagnosis of IHN Virus Infection in Salmon and Steelhead Trout, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, JoAnn Ching

    1984-12-01

    The main objective for this study was the development of a rapid diagnostic method for IHN virus in fish tissue samples. The rationale for developing new techniques for diagnosing IHNV infection was that present methods were time consuming and dependent on virus neutralization by specific antisera, a reagent that was not readily available or reliable. Fish pathologists required a rapid detection method which was sensitive enough to detect virus strain differences so that they could provide data for effective management decisions in controlling the spread of IHNV. Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) role in efforts in fish diseases and more generically the protection, mitigation, and enhancement of Columbia River salmon and steelhead populations, is mandated by Congress through the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Regional Act), Pub. L. 96-501. Section 4 (h) of the Regional Act directs the Northwest Power Planning Council to develop a Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA's Administrator is authorized in Section 4 (h) (10) (A) to ''use funds and the authorities available to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries''. The fund is to be used to implement measures that are consistent with the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program. The research detailed in this final report is consistent with these objectives. This final report has been prepared as part of BPA's policy to encourage the preservation and dissemination of research results by publication in scientific journals.

  5. Preliminary assessment and diagnosis of congenital discrete subaortic stenosis by using electron beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yuan; Dai Ruping; Cao Cheng; Jing Baolian

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of EBCT in diagnosing the congenital discrete subaortic stenosis. Methods: Data of four patients with congenital discrete subaortic stenosis diagnosed by EBCT were retrospectively analyzed and further compared with that of surgery and histopathologic examination. Results: Contrast enhanced EBCT scanning clearly demonstrated both a direct non-opacified sign in subvalvular regions in all four patients' left ventricle and associated cardiovascular anomalies. Movie mode scanning showed the movement of aortic valve and 'discrete membrane', and revealed distinct topography of subaortic outflow tracts as well. Conclusion: EBCT is highly valuable in the diagnosis of congenital discrete subaortic stenosis and associated anomalies by clearly demonstrating the subaortic outflow tract topography and complicated cardiovascular malformations. EBCT could be a complementary examination to cardioangiography, and could replace the cineangiography in the follow-up after operation

  6. Preliminary Diagnosis About the Appeal's Suppression in the Brazilian New Code of Civil Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Souza Merigueti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of sluggishness in the judicial system reveals an attack to justice. In this purpose, this article aims to analyze the appeal's suppression in the brazilian new Code of Civil Procedure, as a way able to reach the scope of giving celerity to the jurisdictional protection in Brazil. At the diagnosis proposed, it will be presented possible legal consequences arising from the limitation of the "Agravo de Instrumento" and from the abolition of both "Agravo Retido" and "Embargos Infringentes" in the procedural diploma newly sanctioned. Unfolding this analysis, it is worth highlighting the contemporary movement to perform constitutional values and guarantees in procedural legislation, including the reasonable duration of the proceeding. This paper was produced by analyzing concepts and in consultation to national and foreing books, from authors of recognized contribution to the field, as well as through the study of the new procedural law, why it is therefore a literature review and a qualitative analysis.

  7. [Rapid first-tier genetic diagnosis in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ács, Orsolya Dóra; Péterfia, Bálint; Hollósi, Péter; Haltrich, Irén; Sallai, Ágnes; Luczay, Andrea; Buiting, Karin; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Török, Dóra; Szabó, András; Fekete, György

    2018-01-01

    According to the international literature, DNA methylation analysis of the promoter region of SNRPN locus is the most efficient way to start genetic investigation in patients with suspected Prader-Willi syndrome. Our aim was to develop a simple, reliable first-tier diagnosis to confirm Prader-Willi syndrome, therefore to compare our self-designed simple, cost-efficient high-resolution melting analysis and the most commonly used methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to confirm Prader-Willi syndrome. We studied 17 clinically suspected Prader-Willi syndrome children and their DNA samples. With self-designed primers, bisulfite-sensitive polymerase chain reaction, high-resolution melting analysis and, as a control, methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification were performed. Prader-Willi syndrome was genetically confirmed in 6 out of 17 clinically suspected Prader-Willi syndrome patients. The results of high-resolution melting analysis and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification were equivalent in each case. Using our self-designed primers and altered bisulfite-specific PCR conditions, high-resolution melting analysis appears to be a simple, fast, reliable and effective method for primarily proving or excluding clinically suspected Prade-Willi syndrome cases. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(2): 64-69.

  8. Elastosonography in the diagnosis of the nodular breast lesions: preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuseppetti, Gian Marco; Di Cioccio, Barbara; Baldassarre, Silvia; Martegani, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of elastography in characterising nodular breast lesions. Materials and methods. A total of 82 patients who received mammographic, ultrasonographic and elastographic evaluation in a single session at two Italian centres (Dept of Radiology, Az. Ospedali Riuniti, Ancona, and Ospedale Valduce, Corno, Italy) between January and August 2004 according to identical protocols exhibited 91 nodules that were subjected to cytological/histological examination. Lesions were classified and scored and the sensitivity of elastography calculated. Results. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 79% and 89%, respectively. However, sensitivity was 86% and 65% and specificity 100% and 62% for lesions 2 cm in diameter, respectively. Despite the small sample and the fact that it does not include the full range of cell types, tumour cell composition seemed to affect accuracy. Conclusions. Elastography is easy and rapid to perform. Larger studies are needed to establish semiological patterns; despite the small patient sample, these data provide an interesting contribution [it

  9. A simple kit for rapid field diagnosis of potato virus Y by latex serological test

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    Aarne Kurppa

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple kit for rapid detection of potato virus Y by latex serological test was developed. The test is carried out on a white cardboard sheet and the results can be read by naked eye in two minutes. A test card of 10 x 6 cm holds latex sensitized antibodies, buffers and other necessary ingredients as dry blue colored formulate on the ringed areas of the card. A test card includes space for six tests and positive and negative controls. The kit also includes disposable plastic sticks for mixing the samples with test reagents and a hand press with disposable plastic tips. For testing, dried reagents are dissolved in drops of sample and mixed. After gentle rotation, samples containing virus appear clearly granulated while samples from healthy plants remain unagglutinated. The testing of undiluted extracts of evenly developed tuber sprouts resulted in over 91 % identity with the results obtained with ELISA that was used as a control method. Testing of diluted leaf extracts reached the same reliability but undiluted leaf extracts from glasshouse grown potatoes were not well suitable as test samples because of their dark green color. No such problems occurred with field grown material and a complete identity with the ELISA readings was true when the samples included secondarily infected potato plants. No reaction to other potato viruses than PVY was obtained by the test kit.

  10. Preliminary study of Alzheimer's Disease diagnosis based on brain electrical signals using wireless EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, N.; Akbar, Y.; Khotimah, S. N.; Haryanto, F.; Arif, I.; Taruno, W. P.

    2016-03-01

    This research aims to study brain's electrical signals recorded using EEG as a basis for the diagnosis of patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The subjects consisted of patients with AD, and normal subjects are used as the control. Brain signals are recorded for 3 minutes in a relaxed condition and with eyes closed. The data is processed using power spectral analysis, brain mapping and chaos test to observe the level of complexity of EEG's data. The results show a shift in the power spectral in the low frequency band (delta and theta) in AD patients. The increase of delta and theta occurs in lobus frontal area and lobus parietal respectively. However, there is a decrease of alpha activity in AD patients where in the case of normal subjects with relaxed condition, brain alpha wave dominates the posterior area. This is confirmed by the results of brain mapping. While the results of chaos analysis show that the average value of MMLE is lower in AD patients than in normal subjects. The level of chaos associated with neural complexity in AD patients with lower neural complexity is due to neuronal damage caused by the beta amyloid plaques and tau protein in neurons.

  11. QBC® for the diagnosis of human and canine american visceral leishmaniasis: preliminary data

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    Liarte Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available "Quantitative Buffy Coat" (QBC® is a direct and fast fluorescent method used for the identification of blood parasites. Since Leishmania chagasi circulates in blood, we decided to test it in American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. Bone marrow (BM and peripheral blood (PB of 49 persons and PB of 31 dogs were analyzed. QBC® was positive in BM of 11/11 patients with AVL and in 1/6 patients with other diseases. Amastigotes were identified in PB of 18/22 patients with AVL and in none without AVL. The test was positive in 30 out of the 31 seropositive dogs and in 28/28 dogs with Leishmania identified in other tissues. QBC® is a promising method for diagnosis of human AVL, and possibly for the exam of PB of patients with AVL/AIDS, for the control of the cure and for the identification of asymptomatic carriers. Because it is fast and easy to collect and execute, QBC® should be evaluated for programs of reservoir control.

  12. 13N-NH3 PET in the diagnosis of astrocytomas: preliminary result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangsong; He Zuoxiang; Tang Anwu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of diagnosing the astrocytoma with 13N-NH3 PET imaging. Methods 13N-NH3 and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging were performed in seven cases of astrocytomas including 3 anteoperative astrocytomas, 2 recurrent astrocytomas, 2 brain injury or necrosis after the operation and radiotherapy. The radioactivity ratios of the tumor and normal white matter (T/WM) were calculated. Results: The tumor lesions in 3 anteoperative astrocytomas and 2 recurrent astrocytomas all uptake 13N-NH3. The average T/WM on 13N-NH3 images was 1.82±0.21, and T/WM on 13N-NH3 and 18F-FDG images were 1.98 and 0.97 for one case with grade 1 astrocytoma. 13N-NH3 and 18F-FDG PET imaging both showed decreased uptake in 2 brain injury or necrosis after the operation and radiotherapy of astrocytomas. Conclusions: 13N-NH3 was uptaken in astrocytomas. 13N-NH3 can be useful in the diagnosis of astrocytoma, and potentially improve diagnostic accuracy of astrocytoma, especially in low-grade astrocytoma. (authors)

  13. 13N-NH3 PET in the diagnosis of astrocytomas: preliminary result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangsong; He Zuoxiang; Tang Anwu

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of diagnosing the astrocytoma with 13N-NH3 PET imaging. Methods: 13N-NH3 and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging were performed in seven cases of astrocytomas including 3 anteoperative astrocytomas, 2 recurrent astrocytomas, 2 brain injury or necrosis after the operation and radiotherapy. The radioactivity ratios of the tumor and normal white matter (T/WM) were calculated. Results: The tumor lesions in 3 anteoperative astrocytomas and 2 recurrent astrocytomas all uptake 13N-NH3 .The average T/WM on 13N-NH3 images was 1.82±0.21, and T/WM on 13N-NH3 and 18F-FDG images were 1.98 and 0.97 for one case with grade 1 astrocytoma. 13N-NH3 and 18F-FDG PET imaging both showed decreased uptake in 2 brain injury or necrosis after the operation and radiotherapy of astrocytomas. Conclusions: 13N-NH3 was uptaken in astrocytomas. 13N-NH3 can be useful in the diagnosis of astrocytoma, and potentially improve diagnostic accuracy of astrocytoma, especially in low-grade astrocytoma. (authors)

  14. Dipstick for rapid diagnosis of Shigella flexneri 2a in stool.

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    Faridabano Nato

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, an acute bloody diarrhoea, is a major public health burden in developing countries. In the absence of prompt and appropriate treatment, the infection is often fatal, particularly in young malnourished children. Here, we describe a new diagnostic test for rapid detection, in stool, at the bedside of patients, of Shigella flexneri 2a, the most predominant agent of the endemic form of the disease.The test is based on the detection of S.flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide (LPS using serotype 2a-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles and displayed on one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 20 ng/ml of LPS is detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in under 15 minutes. The threshold of detection corresponds to a concentration of 5x10(7 CFU/ml of S. flexneri 2a, which provides an unequivocal positive reaction in three minutes in distilled water and reconstituted stools. The specificity is 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and unrelated strains, in culture. When tested in Vietnam, on clinical samples, the specificity and sensitivity were 99.2 and 91.5%, respectively. A decrease of the sensitivity during the evaluation on stool samples was observed after five weeks at room temperature and was due to moistening of the dipsticks caused by the humidity of the air during the fifth week of the evaluation. This drawback is now overcome by improving the packaging and providing dipsticks individually wrapped in waterproof bags.This simple dipstick-bases test represents a powerful tool for case management and epidemiological surveys.

  15. Vesico-ureteral reflux: diagnosis and staging with voiding color doppler US Preliminary experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, Renato; Arena, Carmela; Pennisi, Francesco; Di Benedetto, Vincenzo; Politi, Guido; Di Benedetto, Aurelio

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of a new US examination: 'voiding color Doppler US ' in the early diagnosis and staging of vesico-ureteral reflux (VUR). The contrast agent US was SH U 508A (Levovist, Schering, Berlin), which produces a chromatic accentuation of the signals picked up by the color Doppler US. Eighteen patients (10 females, eight males) were recruited for the study. In two patients a second examination was performed for follow-up after a VUR conservative therapy. All patients were taken under examination for the evaluation of possible VUR. In all patients the voiding color Doppler US was followed by voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) and the data obtained were compared. Materials and methods: A total of 18 patients aged between 3 months and 10 years, were recruited for the study. The results of the examination were the following: urinary tract infections, follow-up of VUR after conservative or surgical therapy, miscellaneous indications. Voiding color Doppler US was performed, followed by a VCUG. The voiding color Doppler US consists in the trans-catheter introduction of a contrast agent SHU 508 A (Levovist, Schering, Ag. Berlin) into the bladder and a subsequent test with the color Doppler US to show or exclude the presence of reflux into the ureters and/or into the pyelo-caliceal cavity of the kidneys. After the introduction of the contrast agent US the ultrasound scanning of the bladder, the ureters and the pyelo-caliceal cavity was performed to examine the reflux degree. The ultrasonographic investigations were perfomed with AU 590 asyncronus US (Esaote Biomedica, Genova) with a 3.5 MHz convex probe. Results: After the trans-catheter introduction of the contrast agent US, vesico-ureteral reflux occured in 13 patients (77.2%). The reflux degree was also measured by means of ultrasound and was later confirmed by VCUG. The mean times of each examination were as follows: initial US, 10 min; catheterization, 8 min; voiding

  16. [Preliminary application of video head impulse test in the diagnosis of vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanmei; Chen, Siqi; Zhong, Zhen; Chen, Li; Wu, Yuanding; Zhao, Guiping; Liu, Yuhe

    2015-06-01

    To investigate clinical application of head impulse test with video recording eye movements in the diagnosis of vertigo. The video head impulse test(vHIT) was used to measure the eye saccades and velocity gain in 95 patients with vertigo which were divided into two groups, peripheral vertigo (47 cases) and central vertigo(48 cases); the characteristics of eye saccades and velocity gain of six semicircular canals in different patients with vertigo were analyzed, and were compared between the two groups. The vHIT result in patients with peripheral vertigo: in 22 patients (23 affected ears) with Meniere's disease, 21 ears were abnormal (91. 3%); the vHIT results in 4 patients with vestibular schwannoma, 2 patients with vestibular neuritis, 5 patients with delayed endolymphatic hydrops, 6 patients with sudden hearing loss accompanied vertigo, and 8 patients with vestibular dysfunction, were abnormal with correct saccades and/or lower velocity gain of vHIT. The abnormal vHIT results were also found in 35 of 48 patients (72. 9%) with central vertigo, which including posterior cerebral circulation ischemia(7 patients), cerebral infarction/stroke(6 patients), and dizziness with vertigo(17 patients) and others(18 patients). Abnormal rate of vHIT in patients with peripheral vertigo was 95. 7% (45/47), which was significantly higher than that (72. 9%) in patients with central vertigo. It is easy to perform the vHIT which without adverse reactions. We can record high-frequency characteristics of vestibular-ocular reflex among six semicircular canals through vHIT. The vHIT results which show the function of vestibular ocular reflex in different diseases with vertigo, can help discriminate peripheral vertigo from central vertigo, and it is a practical assessment method for vertigo.

  17. The preliminary study of 18F-FDG brain PET in diagnosis of alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yunchuan; Zhang Xinqing; Li Depeng; Shang Jianwen; Su Yusheng; Zhang Linying; Peng Cheng; Pan Zhongyun

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the imaging characteristics and diagnostic criteria of 18 F-FDG brain PET in diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: The sutdy included 12 normal subjects, 12 patients with AD and 11 patients with non-AD dementia. 40 min after intravenous administration of 18 F-FDG, brain scan was performed using Siemens ECAT47 scanner. The transaxial, coronal and sagittal images were then reconstructed by computer. At the same time, semiquantitative analysis was also applied to help evaluation using the ratio of mean radioactivity of cerebral lobe to cerebellum (R cl/cb ). Results: In normal subjects PET scan showed clear images of cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum with symmetrical distribution of radioactivity. PET images from Alzheimer's disease patients were classified into 3 patterns: bilateral parietal hypometabolism in 5 cases, bilateral temporo-parietal hypometabolism in 4 cases and unilateral temporo-parietal hypometabolism in 3 cases. The R cl/cb of AD patients in parietal and temporal lobe was significantly decreased than normal subjects (P cl/cb was also reflecting thedementia degree. Compared with MRI imaging , 12 patients with AD had cerebral hypometabolism but only 10 had hippocampus atrophy. 10 patients with non-AD dementia had local structural foci seen in MRI, including old hemorrhage, infarction and encephalomalacia, but these lesions were not found in AD. Conclusions: Based on excluding cerebral structural lesions which are better detected by MRI, bilateral or unilateral parietal or temporo-parietal hypometabolism found in FDG PET can be considered indicative of Alzheimer's disease. Semiquantitative analysis of the images yielded can help to evaluate the dementia degree

  18. Establishment of a 10-Plex Quantitative Fluorescent-PCR Assay for rapid diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidies.

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    Xingmei Xie

    Full Text Available Sex chromosome aneuploidies occur commonly in the general population, with an incidence of 1 in 400 newborns. However, no tests specifically targeting sex chromosomes have been carried out in prenatal diagnosis or newborn screening, resulting in late recognition of these diseases. In this study, a rapid diagnostic method for sex chromosome aneuploidies was established using Quantitative Fluorescent-PCR (QF-PCR. Ten markers were included in one multiplex QF-PCR assay, including two sex determination genes (AMXY and SRY, five X-linked short tandem repeats (STRs; DXS1053, DXS981, DXS6809, DXS1187, and DXS8377, one X/Y-common STR (X22, and two autosomal STRs (D13S305 and D21S11. Retrospective tests of 70 cases with known cytogenetic results indicated that the 10-plex QF-PCR assay could well determine sex chromosome copy numbers by both allelic peak numbers and a sex chromosome dosage calculation with the autosomal STRs as internal controls. Prospective comparison with cytogenetic karyotyping on 534 cases confirmed that the 10-plex QF-PCR assay could be well employed for sex chromosome aneuploidy diagnosis in at least the Chinese Han population. This is the first QF-PCR test for the diagnosis of sex chromosome aneuploidies in the Chinese population. This test is superior to previous designs by including up to 8 sex-linked markers covering different parts of sex chromosomes as well as employing internal controls for copy number dosage calculation in a single PCR reaction. Due to simple technique and data analysis, as well as easy implementation within routine clinical services, this method is of great clinical application value and could be widely applied.

  19. Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment.

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    Niyom Lue

    Full Text Available There continues to be a significant clinical need for rapid and reliable intraoperative margin assessment during cancer surgery. Here we describe a portable, quantitative, optical fiber probe-based, spectroscopic tissue scanner designed for intraoperative diagnostic imaging of surgical margins, which we tested in a proof of concept study in human tissue for breast cancer diagnosis. The tissue scanner combines both diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy (IFS, and has hyperspectral imaging capability, acquiring full DRS and IFS spectra for each scanned image pixel. Modeling of the DRS and IFS spectra yields quantitative parameters that reflect the metabolic, biochemical and morphological state of tissue, which are translated into disease diagnosis. The tissue scanner has high spatial resolution (0.25 mm over a wide field of view (10 cm × 10 cm, and both high spectral resolution (2 nm and high spectral contrast, readily distinguishing tissues with widely varying optical properties (bone, skeletal muscle, fat and connective tissue. Tissue-simulating phantom experiments confirm that the tissue scanner can quantitatively measure spectral parameters, such as hemoglobin concentration, in a physiologically relevant range with a high degree of accuracy (<5% error. Finally, studies using human breast tissues showed that the tissue scanner can detect small foci of breast cancer in a background of normal breast tissue. This tissue scanner is simpler in design, images a larger field of view at higher resolution and provides a more physically meaningful tissue diagnosis than other spectroscopic imaging systems currently reported in literatures. We believe this spectroscopic tissue scanner can provide real-time, comprehensive diagnostic imaging of surgical margins in excised tissues, overcoming the sampling limitation in current histopathology margin assessment. As such it is a significant step in the development of a

  20. Combined videofluoroscopy and manometry in the diagnosis of oropharyngeal dysphagia: examination technique and preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappabianca, S; Reginelli, A; Monaco, L; Del Vecchio, L; Di Martino, N; Grassi, R

    2008-09-01

    Dysphagia is a symptom of different pathological conditions characterised by alteration of the swallowing mechanism, which may manifest at different levels. We report our experience in the evaluation of the swallowing mechanism with combined videofluoroscopy and manometric recordings. For the combined study, we used a Dyno Compact computerised system (Menfis Biomedical s.r.l., Bologna, Italy) equipped with: (1) graphics card for the management of ultrasonographic or radiological images; (2) A.VI.U.S. dedicated software package, which enables digital-quality recording (PAL/NTSC, composite video or S-Video) of the videofluoroscopy study in AVI format with 320 x 240 resolution and 25 Hz acquisition frequency. The delay introduced by the process of image digitalisation is in the order of 200 ms, so for analysis purposes, the images can be considered synchronised with the manometric recordings. The videomanometry study was performed with the administration of contrast material either in bolus form or diluted. Data were collected on a specifically designed grid for the evaluation of 46 videofluoroscopic items, of which 34 are derived from the laterolateral view (seven in the oral preparatory phase, 15 in the oral transport phase and 12 in the pharyngeal phase) and 12 in the anteroposterior view (six in the oral preparatory phase and six in the oropharyngeal phase). A positive finding for the individual parameters is expressed in a binary fashion. Manometric evaluation was based on 11 items divided into four major and seven minor criteria. Dynamic videofluoroscopy swallow study combined with concurrent manometry enabled the simultaneous recording of anatomical alterations and the functional data of oropharyngeal pressure, thus providing a picture of the anatomical, biomechanical and physiological conditions of swallowing and the manner of bolus propulsion and transit. An early and effective diagnosis of oropharyngeal dysphagia means being able to effectively implement

  1. 13N-NH3 PET dynamic imaging in the diagnosis of hypopituitarism: preliminary result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangsong; He Zuoxiang; Tang Anwu; Qiao Suixian

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of diagnosing hypopituitarism with 13N-NH3 PET dynamic imaging. Methods: Eight volunteers (2 male, 6 female, age from 23 to 53 years old) for control and 7 patients (6 female, 20-42 years old, 1 male, 21 year old) were enrolled in this study. 13N-NH3 PET dynamic imaging was performed under 3-D acquisition on the ECAT HR+ PET scanner (Siemens/CTI) with 5-minute transmission scan. The emission protocol was a 20-minute dynamic scan (10s x 12, 30s x 6, 900s x 1) triggered simultaneously with a bolus injection of 444 to 592 MBq of 13N-NH3. The radioactivity - time curves of pituitary and internal carotid artery were generated by setting regions of interest (ROIs) on the transaxial planes of the frames of 13N-NH3 PET sequences. The first-pass uptake rate of 13N-NH3 (R) and standard uptake, rate (SUV) in pituitary on the last frame were calculated. Results: In control studies, the radioactivity in pituitary demonstrated within 10 seconds after the internal carotid artery showed up, and the pituitary highly uptake 13N-NH3, the size of pituitary was (1.07±0.17) cm x (1.09±0.15) cm x (1.14 ± 0.17) cm, SUV was 3.84 ± 1.75, R was 0.75 ± 0.13. In hypopituitarism studies, the radioactivity in pituitary showed up slowly, the pituitary did not show up in two cases with serious hypopituitarism, the size of pituitary was (0.82±0.07) cm x (0.81±0.05) cm x(0.91±0.07) cm, SUV was 1.25±0.08, R was 0.35±0.09. Conclusion: 13N-NH3 PET dynamic imaging is valuable in the diagnosis of hypopituitarism. (authors)

  2. Multiplex PCR for rapid diagnosis and differentiation of pox and pox-like diseases in dromedary Camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafalla, Abdelmalik I; Al-Busada, Khalid A; El-Sabagh, Ibrahim M

    2015-07-07

    Pox and pox-like diseases of camels are a group of exanthematous skin conditions that have become increasingly important economically. Three distinct viruses may cause them: camelpox virus (CMLV), camel parapox virus (CPPV) and camelus dromedary papilloma virus (CdPV). These diseases are often difficult to differentiate based on clinical presentation in disease outbreaks. Molecular methods such as PCR targeting species-specific genes have been developed and used to identify these diseases, but not simultaneously in a single tube. Recently, multiplex PCR has gained reputation as a convenient diagnostic method with cost-and timesaving benefits. In the present communication, we describe the development, optimization and validation of a multiplex PCR assay able to detect simultaneously the genome of the three viruses in one single test allowing for rapid and efficient molecular diagnosis. The assay was developed based on the evaluation and combination of published and new primer sets and was validated with viral genomic DNA extracted from known virus strains (n = 14) and DNA extracted from homogenized clinical skin specimens (n = 86). The assay detects correctly the target pathogens by amplification of targeted genes, even in case of co-infection. The method showed high sensitivity, and the specificity was confirmed by PCR-product sequencing. This assay provide rapid, sensitive and specific method for identifying three important viruses in specimens collected from dromedary camels with varying clinical presentations.

  3. BACs-on-Beads Technology: A Reliable Test for Rapid Detection of Aneuploidies and Microdeletions in Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra García-Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of fetal aneuploidies is usually estimated based on high resolution ultrasound combined with biochemical determination of criterion in maternal blood, with invasive procedures offered to the population at risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a new rapid aneuploidy screening test on amniotic fluid (AF or chorionic villus (CV samples based on BACs-on-Beads (BoBs technology and to compare the results with classical karyotyping by Giemsa banding (G-banding of cultured cells in metaphase as the gold standard technique. The prenatal-BoBs kit was used to study aneuploidies involving chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y as well as nine microdeletion syndromes in 321 AF and 43 CV samples. G-banding of metaphase cultured cells was performed concomitantly for all prenatal samples. A microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH was also carried out in a subset of samples. Prenatal-BoBs results were widely confirmed by classical karyotyping. Only six karyotype findings were not identified by Prenatal-BoBs, all of them due to the known limitations of the technique. In summary, the BACs-on-Beads technology was an accurate, robust, and efficient method for the rapid diagnosis of common aneuploidies and microdeletion syndromes in prenatal samples.

  4. Bead-based competitive fluorescence immunoassay for sensitive and rapid diagnosis of cyanotoxin risk in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hye-Weon; Jang, Am; Kim, Lan Hee; Kim, Sung-Jo; Kim, In S

    2011-09-15

    Due to the increased occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms and their toxins in drinking water sources, effective management based on a sensitive and rapid analytical method is in high demand for security of safe water sources and environmental human health. Here, a competitive fluorescence immunoassay of microcystin-LR (MCYST-LR) is developed in an attempt to improve the sensitivity, analysis time, and ease-of-manipulation of analysis. To serve this aim, a bead-based suspension assay was introduced based on two major sensing elements: an antibody-conjugated quantum dot (QD) detection probe and an antigen-immobilized magnetic bead (MB) competitor. The assay was composed of three steps: the competitive immunological reaction of QD detection probes against analytes and MB competitors, magnetic separation and washing, and the optical signal generation of QDs. The fluorescence intensity was found to be inversely proportional to the MCYST-LR concentration. Under optimized conditions, the proposed assay performed well for the identification and quantitative analysis of MCYST-LR (within 30 min in the range of 0.42-25 μg/L, with a limit of detection of 0.03 μg/L). It is thus expected that this enhanced assay can contribute both to the sensitive and rapid diagnosis of cyanotoxin risk in drinking water and effective management procedures.

  5. Prospective study to evaluate the number and the location of biopsies in rapid urease test for diagnosis of Helicobacter Pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Abou Rached

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori can cause a wide variety of illnesses such as peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma. The diagnosis and eradication of H. pylori are crucial. The diagnosis of H. pylori is usually based on the rapid urease test (RUT and gastric antral biopsy for histology. The aim of this study is to evaluate the numbers of needed biopsies and their location (antrum/fundus to obtain optimal result for the diagnosis of H. pylori. Three hundred fifty consecutive patients were recruited, 210 fulfill the inclusion criteria and had nine gastric biopsies for the detection of H. pylori infection: two antral for the first RUT (RUT1, one antral and one fundic for the second (RUT2, one antral for the third (RUT3 and two antral with two fundic for histology (HES, Giemsa, PAS. The reading of the 3 types of RUT was performed at 1 hour, 3 hours and 24 hours and biopsies were read by two experienced pathologists not informed about the result of RUT. Results of RUT were considered positive if H. pylori was found on histology of at least one biopsy. The RUT1 at 1h, 3h and 24h has a sensitivity of 72%, 82% and 89% and a specificity of 100%, 99% and 87% respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV was 100%, 99% and 85% respectively and the negative predictive value (NPV of 81%, 87% and 90%. The RUT2 at 1h, 3h and 24h, respectively, had a sensitivity of 86%, 87% and 91% and a specificity of 99%, 97% and 90%. The PPV was 99%, 96% and 88% and NPV of 89%, 90%, 94%. The RUT3 at 1h, 3h and 24h, respectively, had a sensitivity of 70%, 74% and 84% and a specificity of 99%, 99% and 94%. The PPV was 99%, 99% and 92% and NPV of 79%, 81% and 87%. The best sensitivity and specificity were obtained for RUT1 read at 3h, for RUT2 read 1h and 3h, and the RUT3 read at 24h.This study demonstrates that the best sensitivity and specificity of rapid test for urease is obtained when fundic plus antral biopsy

  6. Preliminary diagnosis, the basis for the construction of a Program Solid Waste Management at the University of San Buenaventura, Cartagena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios Montes, Karina Andrea; Echeverri Jaramillo, Gustavo Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    Solid waste can generate negative impacts on environment and human being, because of inadequate management. Universities should consider handling the stages of generation, collection and disposal, including its assessment. We performed a cross-sectional study, which was made a preliminary diagnosis on the management of solid waste, including perception, knowledge and recommendations given by the community of the university, to support a solid waste program at the institution. An instrument was applied to a probability sample. The population was formed by students (84%), teachers (8.8%), and administrative staff (7.1%). The results indicate that 59.9% knows management about SW, and only 29.8% recycled. The mass media with 49.8% is the main channel to hear these. 72.1% of people recycle in a conscious way because they feel committed with the environment. Paper/cardboard (23.5%) and plastic (22.6%) are the most recycled material. 42.1% of people recommend environmental education activities, 40.1% labeling of containers, and the responsibility of its management should include the entire university community, being the student teachers (82.8%) and administrative staff (57,6%) the pioneers in leading this process.

  7. Development of a rapid loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for diagnosis and assessment of cure of Leishmania infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sandeep; Singh, Ruchi; Sharma, Vanila; Bumb, Ram Avtar; Negi, Narendra Singh; Ramesh, V; Salotra, Poonam

    2017-03-23

    Leishmaniasis is a spectrum of diseases with great relevance to public health. Conventional diagnostic methods are time consuming, needing trained personnel. A robust, rapid and cost effective diagnostic test is warranted for on-time diagnosis and field application. We have developed a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with primers (n = 6) based on Leishmania donovani kDNA for detection of Leishmania infection, using a closed tube to prevent cross-contamination. The assay was used to detect Leishmania infection in biological samples obtained from patients of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The assay was positive for L. donovani, L. tropica and L. major parasites, with the highest sensitivity towards L. donovani (1 fg DNA). The high sensitivity of the assay for detection of L. donovani was reflected in its ability to detect parasite DNA within 30 min of amplification time with a threshold detection limit of ≥25 copies per reaction. The assay detected parasite in 64 of 66 VL blood samples (sensitivity, 96.9%; 95% CI: 89.6-99.2%), 15 of 15 VL bone marrow aspirate samples (sensitivity, 100%; 95% CI:79.6-100%), 65 of 67 PKDL tissue biopsy samples (sensitivity, 97%; 95% CI:89.7-99.2%). The assay was evaluated in a few cases of CL wherein it was found positive in 8 of 10 tissue biopsies (sensitivity, 80%; 95% CI: 49-94.3%). The assay was negative in all control blood (n = 76) and tissue biopsy (n = 24) samples (specificity, 100%; 95% CI: 96.3-100%). Further, the assay was evaluated for its utility in assessment of cure in treated VL and PKDL patients. The assay detected parasite DNA in 2 of 20VL blood samples and 2 of 21 PKDL tissue samples. Out of 4 cases that were positive for parasite DNA at post treatment stage, 2 patients (1VL and 1 PKDL) returned with relapse. The study demonstrated a Leishmania genus specific closed tube LAMP assay for reliable and rapid

  8. Point of care strategy for rapid diagnosis of novel A/H1N1 influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Nougairede

    Full Text Available Within months of the emergence of the novel A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (nA/H1N1v, systematic screening for the surveillance of the pandemic was abandoned in France and in some other countries. At the end of June 2009, we implemented, for the public hospitals of Marseille, a Point Of Care (POC strategy for rapid diagnosis of the novel A/H1N1 influenza virus, in order to maintain local surveillance and to evaluate locally the kinetics of the pandemic.Two POC laboratories, located in strategic places, were organized to receive and test samples 24 h/24. POC strategy consisted of receiving and processing naso-pharyngeal specimens in preparation for the rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT and real-time RT-PCR assay (rtRT-PCR. This strategy had the theoretical capacity of processing up to 36 samples per 24 h. When the flow of samples was too high, the rtRT-PCR test was abandoned in the POC laboratories and transferred to the core virology laboratory. Confirmatory diagnosis was performed in the core virology laboratory twice a day using two distinct rtRT-PCR techniques that detect either influenza A virus or nA/N1N1v. Over a period of three months, 1974 samples were received in the POC laboratories, of which 111 were positive for nA/H1N1v. Specificity and sensitivity of RIDT were 100%, and 57.7% respectively. Positive results obtained using RIDT were transmitted to clinical practitioners in less than 2 hours. POC processed rtRT-PCR results were available within 7 hours, and rtRT-PCR confirmation within 24 hours.The POC strategy is of benefit, in all cases (with or without rtRT-PCR assay, because it provides continuous reception/processing of samples and reduction of the time to provide consolidated results to the clinical practitioners. We believe that implementation of the POC strategy for the largest number of suspect cases may improve the quality of patient care and our knowledge of the epidemiology of the pandemic.

  9. Evaluation of a rapid dipstick (Crystal VC for the diagnosis of cholera in Zanzibar and a comparison with previous studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Ley

    Full Text Available The gold standard for the diagnosis of cholera is stool culture, but this requires laboratory facilities and takes at least 24 hours. A rapid diagnostic test (RDT that can be used by minimally trained staff at treatment centers could potentially improve the reporting and management of cholera outbreaks.We evaluated the Crystal VC™ RDT under field conditions in Zanzibar in 2009. Patients presenting to treatment centers with watery diarrhea provided a stool sample for rapid diagnostic testing. Results were compared to stool culture performed in a reference laboratory. We assessed the overall performance of the RDT and evaluated whether previous intake of antibiotics, intravenous fluids, location of testing, and skill level of the technician affected the RDT results.We included stool samples from 624 patients. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivity of the RDT was 93.1% (95%CI: 88.7 to 96.2%, specificity was 49.2% (95%CI: 44.3 to 54.1%, the positive predictive value was 47.0% (95%CI: 42.1 to 52.0% and the negative predictive value was 93.6% (95%CI: 89.6 to 96.5%. The overall false positivity rate was 50.8% (213/419; fieldworkers frequently misread very faint test lines as positive.The observed sensitivity of the Crystal VC RDT evaluated was similar compared to earlier versions, while specificity was poorer. The current version of the RDT could potentially be used as a screening tool in the field. Because of the high proportion of false positive results when field workers test stool specimens, positive results will need to be confirmed with stool culture.

  10. Are rapid diagnostic tests more accurate in diagnosis of plasmodium falciparum malaria compared to microscopy at rural health centres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnussen Pascal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt, accurate diagnosis and treatment with artemisinin combination therapy remains vital to current malaria control. Blood film microscopy the current standard test for diagnosis of malaria has several limitations that necessitate field evaluation of alternative diagnostic methods especially in low income countries of sub-Saharan Africa where malaria is endemic. Methods The accuracy of axillary temperature, health centre (HC microscopy, expert microscopy and a HRP2-based rapid diagnostic test (Paracheck was compared in predicting malaria infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR as the gold standard. Three hundred patients with a clinical suspicion of malaria based on fever and or history of fever from a low and high transmission setting in Uganda were consecutively enrolled and provided blood samples for all tests. Accuracy of each test was calculated overall with 95% confidence interval and then adjusted for age-groups and level of transmission intensity using a stratified analysis. The endpoints were: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV. This study is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00565071. Results Of the 300 patients, 88(29.3% had fever, 56(18.7% were positive by HC microscopy, 47(15.7% by expert microscopy, 110(36.7% by Paracheck and 89(29.7% by PCR. The overall sensitivity >90% was only shown by Paracheck 91.0% [95%CI: 83.1-96.0]. The sensitivity of expert microscopy was 46%, similar to HC microscopy. The superior sensitivity of Paracheck compared to microscopy was maintained when data was stratified for transmission intensity and age. The overall specificity rates were: Paracheck 86.3% [95%CI: 80.9-90.6], HC microscopy 93.4% [95%CI: 89.1-96.3] and expert microscopy 97.2% [95%CI: 93.9-98.9]. The NPV >90% was shown by Paracheck 95.8% [95%CI: 91.9-98.2]. The overall PPV was Conclusion The HRP2-based RDT has shown superior sensitivity compared to

  11. Rapid and point-of-care tests for the diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Charlotte A; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Pai, Nitika Pant; Kelly, Helen; Coltart, Cordelia; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2017-12-01

    Trichomonasvaginalis (TV) is a highly prevalent parasitic infection worldwide. It is associated with many adverse reproductive health outcomes. Many infections are asymptomatic and syndromic management leads to underdetection of TV. Traditional methods of TV detection such as wet preparation are insensitive. New rapid, point-of-care (POC) tests can enhance the diagnosis of trichomoniasis. The authors reviewed the literature and discuss older POC tests for TV detection, as well as the OSOM lateral flow test, the AmpliVue test, the Solana test and the GeneXpert test as well as the limitations of wet preparation and culture for detection of TV. The OSOM test is easy to perform, compared with other POC tests, and is Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-waived, equipment-free, has sensitivities of 83%-86% compared with nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and can be performed in 15 min. The AmpliVue and the Solana tests are not CLIA waived and require small pieces of equipment. They are molecular amplified assays and can be completed in TV test for women and men is a moderately complex test, requires a small platform and can be performed in women and one is available for detection of TV in men. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Lyme disease with facial nerve palsy: rapid diagnosis using a nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Y; Takahashi, H; Kishiyama, K; Sato, Y; Nakao, M; Miyamoto, K; Iizuka, H

    1998-02-01

    A 64-year-old woman with Lyme disease and manifesting facial nerve palsy had been bitten by a tick on the left frontal scalp 4 weeks previously. Erythema migrans appeared on the left forehead, accompanied by left facial paralysis. Nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (nested PCR-RFLP) was performed on DNA extracted from a skin biopsy of the erythema on the left forehead. Borrelia flagellin gene DNA was detected and its RFLP pattern indicated that the organism was B. garinii, Five weeks later, B. garinii was isolated by conventional culture from the erythematous skin lesion, but not from the cerebrospinal fluid. After treatment with ceftriaxone intravenously for 10 days and oral administration of minocycline for 7 days, both the erythema and facial nerve palsy improved significantly. Nested PCR and culture taken after the lesion subsided, using skin samples obtained from a site adjacent to the original biopsy, were both negative. We suggest that nested PCR-RFLP analysis might be useful for the rapid diagnosis of Lyme disease and for evaluating therapy.

  13. Accuracy of a dual path platform (DPP assay for the rapid point-of-care diagnosis of human leptospirosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Nabity

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of leptospirosis by the gold standard serologic assay, the microscopic agglutination test (MAT, requires paired sera and is not widely available. We developed a rapid assay using immunodominant Leptospira immunoglobulin-like (Lig proteins in a Dual Path Platform (DPP. This study aimed to evaluate the assay's diagnostic performance in the setting of urban transmission.We determined test sensitivity using 446 acute and convalescent sera from MAT-confirmed case-patients with severe or mild leptospirosis in Brazil. We assessed test specificity using 677 sera from the following groups: healthy residents of a Brazilian slum with endemic transmission, febrile outpatients from the same slum, healthy blood donors, and patients with dengue, hepatitis A, and syphilis. Three operators independently interpreted visual results without knowing specimen status.The overall sensitivity for paired sera was 100% and 73% for severe and mild disease, respectively. In the acute phase, the assay achieved a sensitivity of 85% and 64% for severe and mild leptospirosis, respectively. Within seven days of illness onset, the assay achieved a sensitivity of 77% for severe disease and 60% for mild leptospirosis. Sensitivity of the DPP assay was similar to that for IgM-ELISA and increased with both duration of symptoms (chi-square regression P = 0.002 and agglutinating titer (Spearman ρ = 0.24, P<0.001. Specificity was ≥93% for dengue, hepatitis A, syphilis, febrile outpatients, and blood donors, while it was 86% for healthy slum residents. Inter-operator agreement ranged from very good to excellent (kappa: 0.82-0.94 and test-to-test reproducibility was also high (kappa: 0.89.The DPP assay performed acceptably well for diagnosis of severe acute clinical leptospirosis and can be easily implemented in hospitals and health posts where leptospirosis is a major public health problem. However, test accuracy may need improvement for mild disease and early stage

  14. Screening and rapid molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis in prisons in Russia and Eastern Europe: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Winetsky

    Full Text Available Prisons of the former Soviet Union (FSU have high rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and are thought to drive general population tuberculosis (TB epidemics. Effective prison case detection, though employing more expensive technologies, may reduce long-term treatment costs and slow MDR-TB transmission.We developed a dynamic transmission model of TB and drug resistance matched to the epidemiology and costs in FSU prisons. We evaluated eight strategies for TB screening and diagnosis involving, alone or in combination, self-referral, symptom screening, mass miniature radiography (MMR, and sputum PCR with probes for rifampin resistance (Xpert MTB/RIF. Over a 10-y horizon, we projected costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, and TB and MDR-TB prevalence. Using sputum PCR as an annual primary screening tool among the general prison population most effectively reduced overall TB prevalence (from 2.78% to 2.31% and MDR-TB prevalence (from 0.74% to 0.63%, and cost US$543/QALY for additional QALYs gained compared to MMR screening with sputum PCR reserved for rapid detection of MDR-TB. Adding sputum PCR to the currently used strategy of annual MMR screening was cost-saving over 10 y compared to MMR screening alone, but produced only a modest reduction in MDR-TB prevalence (from 0.74% to 0.69% and had minimal effect on overall TB prevalence (from 2.78% to 2.74%. Strategies based on symptom screening alone were less effective and more expensive than MMR-based strategies. Study limitations included scarce primary TB time-series data in FSU prisons and uncertainties regarding screening test characteristics.In prisons of the FSU, annual screening of the general inmate population with sputum PCR most effectively reduces TB and MDR-TB prevalence, doing so cost-effectively. If this approach is not feasible, the current strategy of annual MMR is both more effective and less expensive than strategies using self-referral or symptom screening alone

  15. Rapid diagnosis of pyrazinamide-resistant multidrug-resistant tuberculosis using a molecular-based diagnostic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, S O; van der Laan, T; Mulder, A; van Ingen, J; Rigouts, L; Dekhuijzen, P N R; Boeree, M J; van Soolingen, D

    2014-10-01

    There is an urgent need for rapid and accurate diagnosis of pyrazinamide-resistant multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). No diagnostic algorithm has been validated in this population. We hypothesized that pncA sequencing added to rpoB mutation analysis can accurately identify patients with pyrazinamide-resistant MDR-TB. We identified from the Dutch national database (2007-11) patients with a positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture containing a mutation in the rpoB gene. In these cases, we prospectively sequenced the pncA gene. Results from the rpoB and pncA mutation analysis (pncA added to rpoB) were compared with phenotypic susceptibility testing results to rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide (reference standard) using the Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube 960 system. We included 83 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates containing rpoB mutations in the primary analysis. Rifampicin resistance was seen in 72 isolates (87%), isoniazid resistance in 73 isolates (88%) and MDR-TB in 65 isolates (78%). Phenotypic reference testing identified pyrazinamide-resistant MDR-TB in 31 isolates (48%). Sensitivity of pncA sequencing added to rpoB mutation analysis for detecting pyrazinamide-resistant MDR-TB was 96.8%, the specificity was 94.2%, the positive predictive value was 90.9%, the negative predictive value was 98.0%, the positive likelihood was 16.8 and the negative likelihood was 0.03. In conclusion, pyrazinamide-resistant MDR-TB can be accurately detected using pncA sequencing added to rpoB mutation analysis. We propose to include pncA sequencing in every isolate with an rpoB mutation, allowing for stratification of MDR-TB treatment according to pyrazinamide susceptibility. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  16. Rapid diagnosis of multidrug resistance in cancer by electrochemical sensor based on carbon nanotubes-drug supramolecular nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Jiang, Hui; Sun, Feifei; Wang, Huangping; Zhao, Juan; Chen, Baoan; Wang, Xuemei

    2011-03-15

    The multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer is a major chemotherapy obstacle, rendering many currently available chemotherapeutic drugs ineffective. The aim of this study was to explore the new strategy to early diagnose the MDR by electrochemical sensor based on carbon nanotubes-drug supramolecular interaction. The carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrodes (CNTs/GCE) were directly immersed into the cells suspension of the sensitive leukemia cells K562 and/or its MDR cells K562/A02 to detect the response of the electrochemical probe of daunorubicin (DNR) residues after incubated with cells for 1h. The fresh evidence from the electrochemical studies based on CNTs/GCE demonstrated that the homogeneous, label-free strategy could directly measure the function of cell membrane transporters in MDR cancer cells, identify the cell phenotype (sensitive or MDR). When the different ratios of the sensitive leukemia cells K562 and its MDR ones K562/A02 were applied as a model of MDR levels to simulate the MDR occurrence in cancer, the cathodic peak current showed good linear response to the fraction of MDR with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. Therefore, the MDR fraction can be easily predicted based on the calibration curve of the cathodic peak current versus the fraction of MDR. These results indicated that the sensing strategy could provide a powerful tool for assessment of MDR in cancer. The new electrochemical sensor based on carbon nanotubes-drug supramolecular nanocomposites could represent promising approach in the rapid diagnosis of MDR in cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary Results of a Multicentre Study of the UBC Rapid Test for Detection of Urinary Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Thorsten H; Arndt, Christian; Stephan, Carsten; Hallmann, Steffen; Lux, Oliver; Otto, Thomas; Ruttloff, Jürgen; Gerullis, Holger

    2015-05-01

    UBC Rapid is a test detecting fragments of cytokeratins 8 and 18 in urine. These are cytokeratins frequently overexpressed in tumor cells. We present the first results of a multi-centre study using UBC Rapid in patients with bladder cancer and healthy controls. Clinical urine samples from 92 patients with tumors of the urinary bladder (45 low-grade and 47 high-grade tumors) and from 33 healthy controls were used. Urine samples were analyzed by the UBC Rapid point-of-care (POC) system and evaluated both visually and quantitatively using a concile Omega 100 POC reader. For visual evaluation, different thresholds of band intensity for considering a test as positive were applied. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated by contingency analyses. We found that pathological concentrations by UBC Rapid are detectable in urine of patients with bladder cancer. The calculated diagnostic sensitivity of UBC Rapid in urine was 68.1% for high-grade, but only 46.2% for low-grade tumors. The specificity was 90.9%. The area under the curve (AUC) after receiver-operated curve (ROC) analysis was 0.733. Pathological levels of UBC Rapid in urine are higher in patients with bladder cancer in comparison to the control group (pbladder cancer and controls. Further studies with a greater number of patients will show how valuable these results are. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostic value of a new myocardial perfusion agent, teboroxime (SO 30,217), utilizing a rapid planar imaging protocol: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendel, R.C.; McSherry, B.; Karimeddini, M.; Leppo, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled agents have advantages over thallium-201 in terms of photon statistics, cost and clinical availability. They have been suggested as an alternative to thallium for myocardial perfusion imaging. Teboroxime is a new boronic acid adduct of technetium dioxime (BATO) compound that demonstrates favorable characteristics in preliminary studies. With use of a novel (seated) patient positioning technique and a rapid dynamic acquisition protocol, 30 patients underwent planar imaging with teboroxoime while at rest and after maximal treadmill exercise. Postexercise scans were completed in an average time (mean +/- SD) of 4.4 +/- 1.6 min, with 4.8 +/- 1.5 min for the views at rest. These results were compared with coronary arteriography or thallium scintigraphy after treadmill exercise, or both. Diagnostic agreement (abnormal versus normal) was present in 28 of the 30 patients (p less than 0.001). Regarding physiologic assessment as compared with thallium scintigraphy, the finding of infarction and ischemia was concordant in 89% and 86% of patients, respectively. This report describes the initial use of teboroxime with a rapid dynamic planar imaging technique, resulting in a high correlation with exercise thallium scintigraphy. Delayed postexercise images obtained 5 to 10 min after exercise demonstrated rapid disappearance of exercise-induced defects noted on the initial (0 to 5 min) postexercise views. The rapid differential washout with teboroxime has not been previously described and the possible clinical significance is discussed

  19. Using modeling, satellite images and existing global datasets for rapid preliminary assessments of renewable energy resources: The case of Mali

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Rasmussen, K.; Badger, Jake

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing and meteorolo...... that at the current price of about 70 US$/barrel for fossil fuels, renewable energy resources are becoming economically as well as environmentally attractive options.......This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing...... a competitive option. Solar energy resources are shown to be abundant in all of Mali, though the highest values are found in the south. The temporal variation is relatively limited. Bio-energy resources are also concentrated in the south, but there are small pockets of high vegetation productivity...

  20. Rapid prenatal diagnosis using targeted exome sequencing: a cohort study to assess feasibility and potential impact on prenatal counseling and pregnancy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Natalie; Best, Sunayna; Hayward, Jane; Faravelli, Francesca; Mansour, Sahar; Kivuva, Emma; Tapon, Dagmar; Male, Alison; DeVile, Catherine; Chitty, Lyn S

    2018-03-29

    PurposeUnexpected fetal abnormalities occur in 2-5% of pregnancies. While traditional cytogenetic and microarray approaches achieve diagnosis in around 40% of cases, lack of diagnosis in others impedes parental counseling, informed decision making, and pregnancy management. Postnatally exome sequencing yields high diagnostic rates, but relies on careful phenotyping to interpret genotype results. Here we used a multidisciplinary approach to explore the utility of rapid fetal exome sequencing for prenatal diagnosis using skeletal dysplasias as an exemplar.MethodsParents in pregnancies undergoing invasive testing because of sonographic fetal abnormalities, where multidisciplinary review considered skeletal dysplasia a likely etiology, were consented for exome trio sequencing (both parents and fetus). Variant interpretation focused on a virtual panel of 240 genes known to cause skeletal dysplasias.ResultsDefinitive molecular diagnosis was made in 13/16 (81%) cases. In some cases, fetal ultrasound findings alone were of sufficient severity for parents to opt for termination. In others, molecular diagnosis informed accurate prediction of outcome, improved parental counseling, and enabled parents to terminate or continue the pregnancy with certainty.ConclusionTrio sequencing with expert multidisciplinary review for case selection and data interpretation yields timely, high diagnostic rates in fetuses presenting with unexpected skeletal abnormalities. This improves parental counseling and pregnancy management.Genetics in Medicine advance online publication, 29 March 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2018.30.

  1. MALDI-TOF MS performance compared to direct examination, culture, and 16S rDNA PCR for the rapid diagnosis of bone and joint infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, E; Coiffier, G; Arvieux, C; Brillet, E; Guggenbuhl, P; Jolivet-Gougeon, A

    2016-05-01

    The rapid identification of bacterial species involved in bone and joint infections (BJI) is an important element to optimize the diagnosis and care of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the rapid diagnosis of bone infections, directly on synovial fluid (SF) or on crushed osteoarticular samples (CS). From January to October 2013, we prospectively analyzed 111 osteoarticular samples (bone and joint samples, BJS) from 78 patients in care at the University Hospital of Rennes, France. The diagnosis procedure leading to the sample collection was linked to a suspicion of infection, inflammatory disease, arthritis, or for any bone or joint abnormalities. Standard bacteriological diagnosis and molecular biology analysis [16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing] were conducted. In addition, analysis by MALDI-TOF MS was performed directly on the osteoarticular samples, as soon as the amount allowed. Culture, which remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of BJI, has the highest sensitivity (85.9 %) and remains necessary to test antimicrobial susceptibility. The 16S rDNA PCR results were positive in the group with positive BJI (28.6 %) and negative in the group without infection. Direct examination remains insensitive (31.7 %) but more effective than MALDI-TOF MS directly on the sample (6.3 %). The specificity was 100 % in all cases, except for culture (74.5 %). Bacterial culture remains the gold standard, especially enrichment in blood bottles. Direct analysis of bone samples with MALDI-TOF MS is not useful, possibly due to the low inoculum of BJS.

  2. Using modeling, satellite images and existing global datasets for rapid preliminary assessments of renewable energy resources: The case of Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Badger, Jake; Larsen, Soeren; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Nielsen, Thomas Theis; Hansen, Lars Boye; Stisen, Simon; Mariko, Adama; Togola, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to the preliminary, low-cost, national-scale mapping of wind energy, solar energy and certain categories of bio-energy resources in developing countries, using Mali as an example. The methods applied make extensive use of satellite remote sensing and meteorological mesoscale modeling. The paper presents first results from applying the methodology in Mali and discusses the appropriateness of the results obtained. It is shown that northern Mali has considerable wind energy potential, while average wind speeds in the southern part are too low to make wind power a competitive option. Solar energy resources are shown to be abundant in all of Mali, though the highest values are found in the south. The temporal variation is relatively limited. Bio-energy resources are also concentrated in the south, but there are small pockets of high vegetation productivity in the irrigated areas of the Niger inland delta that might be interesting from a renewable energy resource perspective. Finally, the paper discusses the role that renewable energy resources might play in the energy systems of Mali, given the spatio-temporal distribution of renewable energy resources. It is argued that at the current price of about 70 US$/barrel for fossil fuels, renewable energy resources are becoming economically as well as environmentally attractive options. (author)

  3. Development of a Rapid Immunodiagnostic Test for Pork Components in Raw Beef and Chicken Meats: a Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Depamede

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid immunodiagnostic test that provides visual evidence of the presence of pork components in raw beef and chicken meats was developed. Colloidal gold was prepared and conjugated with anti-Swine IgG polyclonal antibody. Immunochromatographic test strips were produced, and then were used to test laboratory adulterated raw meat samples. The samples consisted adulteration meat, immunodiagnostic, pork, rapid test of pork-in-beef, or pork-in-chicken at 1/0; 1/100; 1/1,000; 1/5,000; 1/10,000 (w/w adulteration levels that were extracted in phosphate-buffered saline. Raw beef and chicken meats without pork were included as controls. Analysis was completed in 10 min. Detection limit was 1/5,000 (w/w, although 1/10,000 was also observed. This immunodiagnostic tests can be conveniently applied to detect low levels of pork components in raw beef and chicken meat products. For the commercial purposes, further studies need to be carried out.

  4. Development of a rapid agglutination latex test for diagnosis of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection in developing world: defining the biomarker, antibody and method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia B Rocha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC/EHEC are human intestinal pathogens responsible for diarrhea in both developing and industrialized countries. In research laboratories, EPEC and EHEC are defined on the basis of their pathogenic features; nevertheless, their identification in routine laboratories is expensive and laborious. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to develop a rapid and simple assay for EPEC/EHEC detection. Accordingly, the EPEC/EHEC-secreted proteins EspA and EspB were chosen as target antigens.First, we investigated the ideal conditions for EspA/EspB production/secretion by ELISA in a collection of EPEC/EHEC strains after cultivating bacterial isolates in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM or DMEM containing 1% tryptone or HEp-2 cells-preconditioned DMEM, employing either anti-EspA/anti-EspB polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies developed and characterized herein. Subsequently, a rapid agglutination latex test (RALT was developed and tested with the same collection of bacterial isolates.EspB was defined as a biomarker and its corresponding monoclonal antibody as the tool for EPEC/EHEC diagnosis; the production of EspB was better in DMEM medium. RALT assay has the sensitivity and specificity required for high-impact diagnosis of neglected diseases in the developing world.RALT assay described herein can be considered an alternative assay for diarrhea diagnosis in low-income countries since it achieved 97% sensitivity, 98% specificity and 97% efficiency.

  5. Karyotyping or rapid aneuploidy detection in prenatal diagnosis? The different views of users and providers of prenatal care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boormans, E. M. A.; Birnie, E.; Bilardo, C. M.; Oepkes, D.; Bonsel, G. J.; van Lith, J. M. M.

    2009-01-01

    Developments in prenatal diagnosis raise the question which test strategy should be implemented. However, preferences of women and caregivers are underexposed. This study investigates what kind of prenatal test pregnant women and caregivers prefer and if differences between the groups exist, using

  6. Could combined sleep and pain evaluation be useful in the diagnosis of disorders of consciousness (DOC)? Preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Irene; Naro, Antonino; Pisani, Laura Rosa; Leo, Antonino; Muscarà, Nunzio; De Salvo, Simona; Silvestri, Rosalia; Bramanti, Placido; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of Disorders of Consciousness (DOC) is still challenging. Indeed, ~ 40% of patients in vegetative state (VS) are misdiagnosed, suggesting the need of more appropriate diagnostic tools. Emerging data are showing that EEG, including sleep structure evaluation and multimodal evoked potential recording could be helpful in DOC diagnosis. Moreover, pain perception evaluation could further increase diagnosis accuracy in such individuals. Fourteen individuals with DOC, due to severe brain injury, were enrolled and admitted to the Intensive Neurorehabilitation Unit of the Research Institute. All patients were evaluated by means of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised, a 24(hh)-polysomnography and a Laser Evoked Potential (LEP) paradigm. Clinically-defined patients in Minimally Consciousness State showed a more preserved sleep structure, physiologic hypnic figures and preserved REM/NREM sleep distribution than subjects in VS. LEP showed increased latencies and reduced amplitudes and were also detectable in patients with more structured sleep. The data support previous findings concerning the importance of sleep study in DOC diagnosis, with more specific neurophysiological paradigms. Interestingly, the findings shed some light on the possible correlations among global brain connectivity, sleep structure and pain perception, which are related to the activity of the wide thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical networks underlying consciousness.

  7. Individualized choice in prenatal diagnosis : the impact of karyotyping and standalone rapid aneuploidy detection on quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boormans, E. M. A.; Birnie, E.; Oepkes, D.; Boekkooi, P. F.; Bonsel, G. J.; van Lith, J. M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the reasons and perceptions of women who are offered a choice between karyotyping and standalone rapid aneuploidy detection (RAD) and to compare the impact of both tests on anxiety and health-related quality of life Methods In this prospective comparative study, women undergoing

  8. Wilson's disease: Rapid diagnosis and differentiation of heterozygous and homozygous carriers with 64CuCl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesch, H.; Przuntek, H.; Feist, D.; Wuerzburg Univ.; Heidelberg Univ.

    1980-01-01

    In the modified radiocopper test, a constant amount of copper and not of radioactivity is injected, a difference being made between males and females. The rate of incorporation of 64 Cu into caeruloplasmin and urinary excretion of nuclides is measured. It is a method with low radiation exposure, providing a definite diagnosis after 30 hours. This was demonstrated in 27 homozygous patients, 30 parents and 33 siblings, and 25 controls: a clear-cut diagnosis was made in all untreated homozygous patients. In five of eight patients treated with D-penicillamine for several years, the values were in the range of heterozygotes, so that the test makes treatment control possible. The recognition of heterozygous carriers is interfered with by contraceptives and infections. The results in control subjects were all widely outside the range for patients with Wilson's disease. (orig.) [de

  9. Evaluation of four rapid tests for diagnosis and differentiation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in Guinea-Conakry, West Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaillet, Pascale; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Zachariah, Rony; Duclos, Nanfack; Moctar, Diallo; Beelaert, Greet; Fransen, Katrien

    2010-01-01

    With both HIV-1 and HV-2 prevalent in Guinea-Conakry, accurate diagnosis and differentiation is crucial for treatment purposes. Thus, four rapid HIV tests were evaluated for their HIV-1 and HIV-2 diagnostic and discriminative capacity for use in Guinea-Conakry. These included SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc.), Genie II HIV1/HIV2 (Bio-Rad), First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 (PMC Medical) and Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 (Core Diagnostics). Results were compared with gold standard tes...

  10. Comparative study of efficacy, rapidity of detection, and cost-effectiveness of potassium hydroxide, calcofluor white, and Chicago sky blue stains in the diagnosis of dermatophytoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, R; Prashanth, Hosakere Veerappa; Ragunatha, Shivanna; Kapoor, Meenakshi; Anitha, T K; Krishnamurthy, Veena

    2016-04-01

    The diagnosis of superficial mycosis such as dermatophytosis is often done clinically. However, in difficult cases, a rapid test with high sensitivity and specificity helps in the immediate confirmation and administration of treatment. The efficacy, rapidity of detection, and cost-effectiveness of KOH preparation, calcofluor white (CW) stain, and Chicago sky blue (CSB) stain in the identification of fungal elements were assessed in patients with dermatophytoses attending the dermatology clinic of a tertiary care hospital. All three tests were performed on each sample collected from 73 patients according to standard procedure. The slides were examined after 5 and 30 minutes in × 10 and × 40 magnifications. The sensitivity and specificity of CW and CSB at 5 and 30 minutes were calculated using KOH preparation as the standard test. CSB stain showed highest positivity (94.5%) within 5 minutes when compared to KOH (75.3%) and CW (83.5%). After 30 minutes, positivity increased in KOH (84.9%) and CW stains (89%), but it remained the same in CSB stain. Both CW and CSB stains when compared to 10% KOH are equally sensitive (100%), but CW was more specific (72.7%), particularly at 30 minutes. When cost of performing tests on 100 specimens is considered, KOH, CW, and CSB stains cost Rs 5, 100, and 15, respectively. CSB stain is a better stain for rapid diagnosis of dermatophytoses because of ease of performance, rapidity of detection, better appreciation of morphology of fungal elements, and cost effectiveness. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Preliminary diagnosis on rational use of electrical energy in a slaughterhouse broilers; Diagnostico preliminar sobre uso racional de energia eletrica em um abatedouro de frangos de corte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Leda Gobbo de Freitas; Rossi, Luiz Antonio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Construcoes Rurais e Ambiencia], Emails: leda.bueno@agr.unicamp.br, rossi@agr.unicamp.br; Mederos, Barbara Janet Teruel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Tecnologia de Processos], Email: barbarat@agr.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    In slaughterhouses, operations developed since the 'ante-mortem' until to the storage of the product, are heavily dependent on electric energy and responsible for the final product quality. The study of the size related to the consumption of electrical energy and the associated cost of this energy in the stages of the slaughter, are important not only for the entrepreneur but also for the final consumer. This way, aiming at to accomplish a preliminary diagnosis in relation to the use of the electric power, was measured values of the main electric parameters of the transformers slaughterhouse to know preliminary the use of this energy inside of the establishment. Later, in the continuation of this work, detailed and complemented studies will be accomplished in the several processes aiming at to diagnose, to analyze and to propose solutions to lead to the rational use of the electric power, without interfering, or to maintain, the quality of the final product in the lines of production of the poultry slaughterhouse, including the storage process that uses of chambers of cooling and freezing. (author)

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rapid diagnostic test, microscopy and syndromic approach in the diagnosis of malaria in Nigeria: implications for scaling-up deployment of ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwujekwe Obinna E

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis and treatment of malaria is often based on syndromic presentation (presumptive treatment and microscopic examination of blood films. Treatment based on syndromic approach has been found to be costly, and contributes to the development of drug resistance, while microscopic diagnosis of malaria is time-consuming and labour-intensive. Also, there is lack of trained microscopists and reliable equipment especially in rural areas of Nigeria. However, although rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs have improved the ease of appropriate diagnosis of malaria diagnosis, the cost-effectiveness of RDTs in case management of malaria has not been evaluated in Nigeria. The study hence compares the cost-effectiveness of RDT versus syndromic diagnosis and microscopy. Methods A total of 638 patients with fever, clinically diagnosed as malaria (presumptive malaria by health workers, were selected for examination with both RDT and microscopy. Patients positive on RDT received artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and febrile patients negative on RDT received an antibiotic treatment. Using a decision tree model for a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 patients, the diagnostic alternatives considered were presumptive treatment (base strategy, RDT and microscopy. Costs were based on a consumer and provider perspective while the outcome measure was deaths averted. Information on costs and malaria epidemiology were locally generated, and along with available data on effectiveness of diagnostic tests, adherence level to drugs for treatment, and drug efficacy levels, cost-effectiveness estimates were computed using TreeAge programme. Results were reported based on costs and effects per strategy, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results The cost-effectiveness analysis at 43.1% prevalence level showed an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER of 221 per deaths averted between RDT and presumptive treatment, while microscopy is dominated

  13. Bactec™ blood culture bottles allied to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry: rapid etiologic diagnosis of bacterial endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Tatiana; Oliveira, Luiza Manhezi de Freitas; Ferreira, Bruno Fortaleza de Aquino; Kato, Juliana Mika; Rossi, Flavia; Correa, Karoline de Lemes Giuntini; Pimentel, Sergio Luis Gianotti; Yamamoto, Joyce Hisae; Almeida Junior, João Nóbrega

    2017-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been used for direct identification of pathogens from blood-inoculated blood culture bottles (BCBs). We showed that MALDI-TOF MS is an useful technique for rapid identification of the causative agents of endophthalmitis from vitreous humor-inoculated BCBs with a simple protocol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Preliminary morphological and morphometric study of rat cerebellum following sodium arsenite exposure during rapid brain growth (RBG) period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhar, Pushpa; Mohari, Nivedita; Mehra, Raj D.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of arsenic exposure during rapid brain growth (RBG) period were studied in rat brains with emphasis on the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. The RBG period in rats extends from postnatal day 4 (PND 4) to postnatal day 10 (PND 10) and is reported to be highly vulnerable to environmental insults. Mother reared Wistar rat pups were administered intraperitoneal injections (i.p.) of sodium arsenite (aqueous solution) in doses of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg body weight (bw) to groups II, III and IV (n = 6 animals/group) from PND 4 to 10 (sub acute). Control animals (group I) received distilled water by the same route. On PND 11, the animals were perfusion fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (PB) with pH 7.4. The cerebellum obtained from these animals was post-fixed and processed for paraffin embedding. Besides studying the morphological characteristics of Purkinje cells in cresyl violet (CV) stained paraffin sections (10 μm), morphometric analysis of Purkinje cells was carried out using Image Analysis System (Image Proplus software version 4.5) attached to Nikon Microphot-FX microscope. The results showed that on PND 11, the Purkinje cells were arranged in multiple layers extending from Purkinje cell layer (PL) to outer part of granule cell layer (GL) in experimental animals (contrary to monolayer arrangement within PL in control animals). Also, delayed maturation (well defined apical cytoplasmic cones and intense basal basophilia) was evident in Purkinje cells of experimental animals on PND 11. The mean Purkinje cell nuclear area was significantly increased in the arsenic treated animals compared to the control animals. The observations of the present study (faulty migration, delayed maturation and alteration in nuclear area measurements of Purkinje cells subsequent to arsenic exposure) thus provided the morphological evidence of structural alterations subsequent to arsenite induced developmental neurotoxicity which could be presumed to be

  15. Feasibility of a Miniature Esophageal Heat Exchange Device for Rapid Therapeutic Cooling in Newborns: Preliminary Investigations in a Piglet Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingley, John; Okano, Satomi; Planas, Silvia; Chakkarapani, Elavazhagan

    2018-03-01

    feasible and effective in achieving rapid cooling in newborns. Subsequent maintenance at this temperature required continued circulation of warm water. Esophageal histopathology needs further evaluation after 72 hours servo-control cooling with a narrower range of water temperatures in a larger group of animals.

  16. Lateral Flow Rapid Test for Accurate and Early Diagnosis of Scrub Typhus: A Febrile Illness of Historically Military Importance in the Pacific Rim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chien-Chung; Zhangm, Zhiwen; Weissenberger, Giulia; Chen, Hua-Wei; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2017-03-01

    Scrub typhus (ST) is an infection caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. Historically, ST was ranked as the second most important arthropod-borne medical problem only behind malaria during World War II and the Vietnam War. The disease occurs mainly in Southeast Asia and has been shown to emerge and reemerge in new areas, implying the increased risk for U.S. military and civilian personnel deployed to these regions. ST can effectively be treated by doxycycline provided the diagnosis is made early, before the development of severe complications. Scrub Typhus Detect is a lateral flow rapid test based on a mixture of recombinant 56-kDa antigens with broad reactivity. The performance of this prototype product was evaluated against indirect immunofluorescence assay, the serological gold standard. Using 249 prospectively collected samples from Thailand, the sensitivity and specificity for IgM was found to be 100% and 92%, respectively, suggesting a high potential of this product for clinical use. This product will provide a user friendly, rapid, and accurate diagnosis of ST for clinicians to provide timely and accurate treatments of deployed personnel. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  17. Deep learning-based features of breast MRI for prediction of occult invasive disease following a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ: preliminary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe; Harowicz, Michael; Zhang, Jun; Saha, Ashirbani; Grimm, Lars J.; Hwang, Shelley; Mazurowski, Maciej A.

    2018-02-01

    Approximately 25% of patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) diagnosed from core needle biopsy are subsequently upstaged to invasive cancer at surgical excision. Identifying patients with occult invasive disease is important as it changes treatment and precludes enrollment in active surveillance for DCIS. In this study, we investigated upstaging of DCIS to invasive disease using deep features. While deep neural networks require large amounts of training data, the available data to predict DCIS upstaging is sparse and thus directly training a neural network is unlikely to be successful. In this work, a pre-trained neural network is used as a feature extractor and a support vector machine (SVM) is trained on the extracted features. We used the dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRIs of patients at our institution from January 1, 2000, through March 23, 2014 who underwent MRI following a diagnosis of DCIS. Among the 131 DCIS patients, there were 35 patients who were upstaged to invasive cancer. Area under the ROC curve within the 10-fold cross-validation scheme was used for validation of our predictive model. The use of deep features was able to achieve an AUC of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.56-0.78) to predict occult invasive disease. This preliminary work demonstrates the promise of deep features to predict surgical upstaging following a diagnosis of DCIS.

  18. IN-VIVO DIAGNOSIS OF CHEMICALLY INDUCED MELANOMA IN AN ANIMAL MODEL USING UV-VISIBLE AND NIR ELASTIC SCATTERING SPECTROSCOPY: PRELIMINARY TESTING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. A' AMAR; R. LEY; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    Elastic light scattering spectroscopy (ESS) has the potential to provide spectra that contain both morphological and chromophore information from tissue. We report on a preliminary study of this technique, with the hope of developing a method for diagnosis of highly-pigmented skin lesions, commonly associated with skin cancer. Four opossums were treated with dimethylbenz(a)anthracene to induce both malignant melanoma and benign pigmented lesions. Skin lesions were examined in vivo using both UV-visible and near infrared (NIR) ESS, with wavelength ranges of 330-900 nm and 900-1700 nm, respectively. Both portable systems used identical fiber-optic probe geometry throughout all of the measurements. The core diameters for illuminating and collecting fibers were 400 and 200 {micro}m, respectively, with center-to-center separation of 350 {micro}m. The probe was placed in optical contact with the tissue under investigation. Biopsies from lesions were analyzed by two standard histopathological procedures. Taking into account only the biopsied lesions, UV-visible ESS showed distinct spectral correlation for 11/13 lesions. The NIR-ESS correlated well with 12/13 lesions correctly. The results of these experiments showed that UV-visible and NIR-ESS have the potential to classify benign and malignant skin lesions, with encouraging agreement to that provided by standard histopathological examination. These initial results show potential for ESS based diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions, but further trials are required in order to substantiate the technique.

  19. Comparison of a Clinical Prediction Rule and a LAM Antigen-Detection Assay for the Rapid Diagnosis of TBM in a High HIV Prevalence Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vinod B.; Singh, Ravesh; Connolly, Cathy; Kasprowicz, Victoria; Zumla, Allimudin; Ndungu, Thumbi; Dheda, Keertan

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objective The diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in resource poor TB endemic environments is challenging. The accuracy of current tools for the rapid diagnosis of TBM is suboptimal. We sought to develop a clinical-prediction rule for the diagnosis of TBM in a high HIV prevalence setting, and to compare performance outcomes to conventional diagnostic modalities and a novel lipoarabinomannan (LAM) antigen detection test (Clearview-TB®) using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methods Patients with suspected TBM were classified as definite-TBM (CSF culture or PCR positive), probable-TBM and non-TBM. Results Of the 150 patients, 84% were HIV-infected (median [IQR] CD4 count = 132 [54; 241] cells/µl). There were 39, 55 and 54 patients in the definite, probable and non-TBM groups, respectively. The LAM sensitivity and specificity (95%CI) was 31% (17;48) and 94% (85;99), respectively (cut-point ≥0.18). By contrast, smear-microscopy was 100% specific but detected none of the definite-TBM cases. LAM positivity was associated with HIV co-infection and low CD4 T cell count (CD4200 cells/µl; p = 0.03). The sensitivity and specificity in those with a CD4<100 cells/µl was 50% (27;73) and 95% (74;99), respectively. A clinical-prediction rule ≥6 derived from multivariate analysis had a sensitivity and specificity (95%CI) of 47% (31;64) and 98% (90;100), respectively. When LAM was combined with the clinical-prediction-rule, the sensitivity increased significantly (p<0.001) to 63% (47;68) and specificity remained high at 93% (82;98). Conclusions Despite its modest sensitivity the LAM ELISA is an accurate rapid rule-in test for TBM that has incremental value over smear-microscopy. The rule-in value of LAM can be further increased by combination with a clinical-prediction rule, thus enhancing the rapid diagnosis of TBM in HIV-infected persons with advanced immunosuppression. PMID:21203513

  20. Leishmania OligoC-TesT as a simple, rapid, and standardized tool for molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Diego; Boggild, Andrea K; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Laurent, Thierry; Valencia, Cristian; Pacheco, Rosa; Miranda-Verástegui, César; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Leclipteux, Thierry; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Büscher, Philippe; Arévalo, Jorge

    2009-08-01

    Molecular methods such as PCR have become attractive tools for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), both for their high sensitivity and for their specificity. However, their practical use in routine diagnosis is limited due to the infrastructural requirements and the lack of any standardization. Recently, a simplified and standardized PCR format for molecular detection of Leishmania was developed. The Leishmania OligoC-TesT is based on simple and rapid detection using a dipstick with PCR-amplified Leishmania DNA. In this study, we estimated the diagnostic accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for 61 specimens from 44 CL-suspected patients presenting at the leishmaniasis clinic of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Peru. On the basis of parasitological detection and the leishmanin skin test (LST), patients were classified as (i) confirmed CL cases, (ii) LST-positive cases, and (iii) LST-negative cases. The sensitivities of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI), 60.5% to 84.1%) for lesion aspirates and 92% (95% CI, 81.2% to 96.9%) for scrapings. A significantly higher sensitivity was observed with a conventional PCR targeting the kinetoplast DNA on the aspirates (94%) (P = 0.001), while there was no significant difference in sensitivity for the lesion scrapings (88%) (P = 0.317). In addition, the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was evaluated for 13 CL-suspected patients in two different peripheral health centers in the central jungle of Peru. Our findings clearly indicate the high accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for lesion scrapings for simple and rapid molecular diagnosis of CL in Peru.

  1. Leishmania OligoC-TesT as a Simple, Rapid, and Standardized Tool for Molecular Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Peru▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Diego; Boggild, Andrea K.; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Laurent, Thierry; Valencia, Cristian; Pacheco, Rosa; Miranda-Verástegui, César; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Leclipteux, Thierry; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Büscher, Philippe; Arévalo, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Molecular methods such as PCR have become attractive tools for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), both for their high sensitivity and for their specificity. However, their practical use in routine diagnosis is limited due to the infrastructural requirements and the lack of any standardization. Recently, a simplified and standardized PCR format for molecular detection of Leishmania was developed. The Leishmania OligoC-TesT is based on simple and rapid detection using a dipstick with PCR-amplified Leishmania DNA. In this study, we estimated the diagnostic accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for 61 specimens from 44 CL-suspected patients presenting at the leishmaniasis clinic of the Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Peru. On the basis of parasitological detection and the leishmanin skin test (LST), patients were classified as (i) confirmed CL cases, (ii) LST-positive cases, and (iii) LST-negative cases. The sensitivities of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was 74% (95% confidence interval (CI), 60.5% to 84.1%) for lesion aspirates and 92% (95% CI, 81.2% to 96.9%) for scrapings. A significantly higher sensitivity was observed with a conventional PCR targeting the kinetoplast DNA on the aspirates (94%) (P = 0.001), while there was no significant difference in sensitivity for the lesion scrapings (88%) (P = 0.317). In addition, the Leishmania OligoC-TesT was evaluated for 13 CL-suspected patients in two different peripheral health centers in the central jungle of Peru. Our findings clearly indicate the high accuracy of the Leishmania OligoC-TesT for lesion scrapings for simple and rapid molecular diagnosis of CL in Peru. PMID:19553579

  2. Evaluation of a rapid antigen detection test in the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis in children and its impact on antibiotic prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltezou, Helen C; Tsagris, Vasilios; Antoniadou, Anastasia; Galani, Labrini; Douros, Constantinos; Katsarolis, Ioannis; Maragos, Antonios; Raftopoulos, Vasilios; Biskini, Panagiota; Kanellakopoulou, Kyriaki; Fretzayas, Andreas; Papadimitriou, Theodoros; Nicolaidou, Polyxeni; Giamarellou, Helen

    2008-12-01

    To study the performance of the Becton-Dickinson Link 2 Strep A Rapid Test, a rapid antigen detection test (RADT) for diagnosing streptococcal pharyngitis in children presenting to private offices and to the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic of a university hospital, in relation to clinical criteria (fever, tender anterior cervical lymph nodes, tonsillar exudate and absence of cough), and its impact on antibiotic prescription. Children were enrolled in Group A (enrolment by private-practice paediatricians; diagnosis by clinical picture only), Group B (enrolment by private-practice paediatricians; diagnosis by RADT and culture) or Group C (enrolment by hospital-affiliated paediatricians in the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic; diagnosis by RADT and culture). During a 2 year period, 820 children were enrolled [369 (45%) in Group A, 270 (33%) in Group B and 181 (22%) in Group C]. Streptococcal pharyngitis was diagnosed by RADT and culture in 146 (32.4%) of the 451 tested children. The sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of the RADT were 83.1%, 93.3%, 82.4% and 93.6%, respectively. A stepwise increase in the sensitivity of the RADT was noted among children with one, two, three or four clinical criteria (60.9% to 95.8%). Paediatricians without access to laboratory tests were more likely to prescribe antibiotics compared with paediatricians with access to tests (72.2% versus 28.2%, P antibiotics more frequently compared with hospital-affiliated paediatricians (55.7% versus 19.9%, P antibiotic administration. Such a strategy has an important impact on limiting throat culture testing and is associated with reduced antibiotic prescription.

  3. Microcatheter Shaping for Intracranial Aneurysm Coiling Using the 3-Dimensional Printing Rapid Prototyping Technology: Preliminary Result in the First 10 Consecutive Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Katsunari; Higaki, Ayuho; Kaneko, Naoki; Mashiko, Toshihiro; Nemoto, Shigeru; Watanabe, Eiju

    2015-07-01

    An optimal microcatheter is necessary for successful coiling of an intracranial aneurysm. The optimal shape may be predetermined before the endovascular surgery via the use of a 3-dimensional (3D) printing rapid prototyping technology. We report a preliminary series of intracranial aneurysms treated with a microcatheter shape determined by the patient's anatomy and configuration of the aneurysm, which was fabricated with a 3D printer aneurysm model. A solid aneurysm model was fabricated with a 3D printer based on the data acquired from the 3D rotational angiogram. A hollow aneurysm model with an identical vessel and aneurysm lumen to the actual anatomy was constructed with use of the solid model as a mold. With use of the solid model, a microcatheter shaping mandrel was formed to identically line the 3D curvature of the parent vessel and the long axis of the aneurysm. With use of the mandrel, a test microcatheter was shaped and validated for the accuracy with the hollow model. All the planning processes were undertaken at least 1 day before treatment. The preshaped mandrel was then applied in the endovascular procedure. Ten consecutive intracranial aneurysms were coiled with the pre-planned shape of the microcatheter and evaluated for the clinical and anatomical outcomes and microcatheter accuracy and stability. All of pre-planned microcatheters matched the vessel and aneurysm anatomy. Seven required no microguidewire assistance in catheterizing the aneurysm whereas 3 required guiding of a microguidewire. All of the microcatheters accurately aligned the long axis of the aneurysm. The pre-planned microcatheter shapes demonstrated stability in all except in 1 large aneurysm case. When a 3D printing rapid type prototyping technology is used, a patient-specific and optimal microcatheter shape may be determined preoperatively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the microscopic observational drug susceptibility assay for rapid and efficient diagnosis of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R P Lazarus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Tuberculosis (TB is endemic in India and the burden of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is high. Early detection of MDR-TB is of primary importance in controlling the spread of TB. The microscopic observational drug susceptibility (MODS assay has been described as a cost-effective and rapid method by which mycobacterial culture and the drug susceptibility test (DST can be done at the same time. Materials and Methods: A total of 302 consecutive sputum samples that were received in an accredited mycobacteriology laboratory for conventional culture and DST were evaluated by the MODS assay. Results: In comparison with conventional culture on Lowenstein Jensen (LJ media, the MODS assay showed a sensitivity of 94.12% and a specificity of 89.39% and its concordance with the DST by the proportion method on LJ media to isoniazid and rifampicin was 90.8% and 91.5%, respectively. The turnaround time for results by MODS was 9 days compared to 21 days by culture on LJ media and an additional 42 days for DST by the 1% proportion method. The cost of performing a single MODS assay was Rs. 250/-, compared to Rs. 950/- for culture and 1st line DST on LJ. Conclusion: MODS was found to be a sensitive and rapid alternative method for performing culture and DST to identify MDR-TB in resource poor settings.

  5. Nutritional Status of Breast Cancer Survivors 1 Year after Diagnosis: A Preliminary Analysis from the Malaysian Breast Cancer Survivorship Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Hazreen Abd; Keow, Low Phei; Islam, Tania; Su, Tin Tin; Cantwell, Marie; Taib, Nur Aishah

    2018-04-01

    Lifestyle factors, such as diet, body weight, and physical activity, are linked to better survival after breast cancer (BC) diagnosis. A high percentage of the Malaysian population is overweight or obese. In addition, studies have shown a disparity in survival among Malaysian women compared with other higher-income countries. The Malaysian Breast Cancer Survivorship Cohort (MyBCC) study aims to study lifestyle factors that affect survival in BC survivors. These are the preliminary findings on the nutritional status of Malaysian BC survivors. Our aim was to evaluate the nutritional status of BC survivors at 1 year after diagnosis. This was a cross-sectional study of 194 participants from the MyBCC study, recruited within 1 year of their diagnosis. Participants completed a 3-day food diary. Malaysian women (aged 18 years and older) who were newly diagnosed with primary BC, managed at the University Malaya Medical Center, and able to converse either in Malay, English, or Mandarin were included. Dietary intake and prevalence of overweight or obesity among participants 1 year after diagnosis were measured. Student's t test and analysis of variance or its equivalent nonparametric test were used for association in continuous variables. About 66% (n=129) of participants were overweight or obese and >45% (n=86) had high body fat percentage 1 year after diagnosis. The participants' diets were low in fiber (median=8.7 g/day; interquartile range=7.2 g/day) and calcium (median=458 mg/day; interquartile range=252 mg/day). Ethnicity and educational attainment contributed to the differences in dietary intake among participants. Higher saturated fat and lower fiber intake were observed among Malay participants compared with other ethnic groups. Overweight and obesity were highly prevalent among BC survivors and suboptimal dietary intake was observed. Provision of an individualized medical nutrition therapy by a qualified dietitian is crucial as part of comprehensive BC survivorship

  6. A rapid molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis by colorimetric malachite green-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with an FTA card as a direct sampling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Cáceres, Abraham G; Guerrero-Quincho, Silvia; Tineo-Villafuerte, Edwin; Rodriquez-Delfin, Luis; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Katakura, Ken; Gomez, Eduardo A; Guevara, Angel G; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains one of the world's most neglected diseases, and early detection of the infectious agent, especially in developing countries, will require a simple and rapid test. In this study, we established a quick, one-step, single-tube, highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Leishmania DNA from tissue materials spotted on an FTA card. An FTA-LAMP with pre-added malachite green was performed at 64°C for 60min using a heating block and/or water bath and DNA amplification was detected immediately after incubation. The LAMP assay had high detection sensitivity down to a level of 0.01 parasites per μl. The field- and clinic-applicability of the colorimetric FTA-LAMP assay was demonstrated with 122 clinical samples collected from patients suspected of having cutaneous leishmaniasis in Peru, from which 71 positives were detected. The LAMP assay in combination with an FTA card described here is rapid and sensitive, as well as simple to perform, and has great potential usefulness for diagnosis and surveillance of leishmaniasis in endemic areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Orthorexia nervosa: a preliminary study with a proposal for diagnosis and an attempt to measure the dimension of the phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donini, L M; Marsili, D; Graziani, M P; Imbriale, M; Cannella, C

    2004-06-01

    To propose a diagnostic proceeding and to try to verify the prevalence of orthorexia nervosa (ON), an eating disorder defined as "a maniacal obsession for healthy foods". 404 subjects were enrolled. Diagnosis of ON was based on both the presence of a disorder with obsessive-compulsive personality features and an exaggerated healthy eating behaviour pattern. Of the 404 subjects examined, 28 were found to suffer from ON (prevalence of 6.9%). The analysis of the physiological characteristics, the social-cultural and the psychological behaviour that characterises subjects suffering from ON shows a higher prevalence in men and in those with a lower level of education. The orthorexic subjects attribute characteristics that show their specific "feelings" towards food ("dangerous" to describe a conserved product, "artificial" for industrially produced products, "healthy" for biological produce) and demonstrate a strong or uncontrollable desire to eat when feeling nervous, excited, happy or guilty.

  8. Photoacoustic imaging for differential diagnosis of benign polyps versus malignant polyps of the gallbladder: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Hee Dong; Lee, Jae Young; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jin Young; Kang, Mee Joo [Div. of Hepatobiliary-Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jin Ho; Kang, Jeeun [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    To investigate the feasibility of ex vivo multispectral photoacoustic (PA) imaging in differentiating cholesterol versus neoplastic polyps, and benign versus malignant polyps, of the gallbladder. A total of 38 surgically confirmed gallbladder polyps (24 cholesterol polyps, 4 adenomas, and 10 adenocarcinomas) from 38 patients were prospectively included in this study. The surgical specimens were set on a gel pad immersed in a saline-filled container. The PA intensities of polyps were then measured, using two separate wavelength intervals (421–647 nm and 692–917 nm). Mann-Whitney U test was performed for the comparison of normalized PA intensities between the cholesterol and neoplastic polyps, and between the benign and malignant polyps. Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted for the comparison of normalized PA intensities among the cholesterol polyps, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas. A significant difference was observed in the normalized PA intensities between the cholesterol and neoplastic polyps at 459 nm (median, 1.00 vs. 0.73; p = 0.032). Comparing the benign and malignant polyps, there were significant differences in the normalized PA intensities at 765 nm (median, 0.67 vs. 0.78; p = 0.013), 787 nm (median, 0.65 vs. 0.77; p = 0.034), and 853 nm (median, 0.59 vs. 0.85; p = 0.028). The comparison of the normalized PA intensities among cholesterol polyps, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas demonstrated marginally significant differences at 765 nm (median, 0.67 vs. 0.66 vs. 0.78, respectively; p = 0.049). These preliminary results indicate that benign versus malignant gallbladder polyps might exhibit different spectral patterns on multispectral PA imaging.

  9. Photoacoustic imaging for differential diagnosis of benign polyps versus malignant polyps of the gallbladder: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Hee Dong; Lee, Jae Young; Han, Joon Koo; Jang, Jin Young; Kang, Mee Joo; Chang, Jin Ho; Kang, Jeeun

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of ex vivo multispectral photoacoustic (PA) imaging in differentiating cholesterol versus neoplastic polyps, and benign versus malignant polyps, of the gallbladder. A total of 38 surgically confirmed gallbladder polyps (24 cholesterol polyps, 4 adenomas, and 10 adenocarcinomas) from 38 patients were prospectively included in this study. The surgical specimens were set on a gel pad immersed in a saline-filled container. The PA intensities of polyps were then measured, using two separate wavelength intervals (421–647 nm and 692–917 nm). Mann-Whitney U test was performed for the comparison of normalized PA intensities between the cholesterol and neoplastic polyps, and between the benign and malignant polyps. Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted for the comparison of normalized PA intensities among the cholesterol polyps, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas. A significant difference was observed in the normalized PA intensities between the cholesterol and neoplastic polyps at 459 nm (median, 1.00 vs. 0.73; p = 0.032). Comparing the benign and malignant polyps, there were significant differences in the normalized PA intensities at 765 nm (median, 0.67 vs. 0.78; p = 0.013), 787 nm (median, 0.65 vs. 0.77; p = 0.034), and 853 nm (median, 0.59 vs. 0.85; p = 0.028). The comparison of the normalized PA intensities among cholesterol polyps, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas demonstrated marginally significant differences at 765 nm (median, 0.67 vs. 0.66 vs. 0.78, respectively; p = 0.049). These preliminary results indicate that benign versus malignant gallbladder polyps might exhibit different spectral patterns on multispectral PA imaging

  10. Clinical evaluation of β-tubulin real-time PCR for rapid diagnosis of dermatophytosis, a comparison with mycological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Marjan; Mirhendi, Hossein; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kharazi, Mahboobeh; Ghasemi, Zeinab; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza; Makimura, Koichi

    2017-10-01

    Following our previous report on evaluation of the beta tubulin real-time PCR for detection of dermatophytosis, this study aimed to compare the real-time PCR assay with conventional methods for the clinical assessment of its diagnostic performance. Samples from a total of 853 patients with suspected dermatophyte lesions were subjected to direct examination (all samples), culture (499 samples) and real-time PCR (all samples). Fungal DNA was extracted directly from clinical samples using a conical steel bullet, followed by purification with a commercial kit and subjected to the Taq-Man probe-based real-time PCR. The study showed that among the 499 specimens for which all three methods were used, 156 (31.2%), 128 (25.6%) and 205 (41.0%) were found to be positive by direct microscopy, culture and real-time PCR respectively. Real-time PCR significantly increased the detection rate of dermatophytes compared with microscopy (288 vs 229) with 87% concordance between the two methods. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the real-time PCR was 87.5%, 85%, 66.5% and 95.2% respectively. Although real-time PCR performed better on skin than on nail samples, it should not yet fully replace conventional diagnosis. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Rapid diagnosis of drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin and ethambutol using genotype MTBDRsl assay: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are urgent needs for rapid and accurate drug susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis. GenoType MTBDRsl is a new molecular kit designed for rapid identification of the resistance to the second-line antituberculosis drugs with a single strip. In recent years, it has been evaluated in many settings, but with varied results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the latest data on the diagnostic accuracy of GenoType MTBDRsl in detecting drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin and ethambutol, in comparison with the phenotypic drug susceptibility test. METHODS: This systematic review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guideline. The search terms of "MTBDRsl" and "tuberculosis" were used on PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. QUADAS-2 was used to assess the quality of included studies. Data were analyzed by Meta-Disc 1.4. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR, negative likelihood ratio (NLR, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI for each study. From these calculations, forest plots and summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC curves were produced. RESULTS: Patient selection bias as well as flow and timing bias were observed in most studies. The summarized sensitivity (95% CI was 0.874(0.845-0.899, 0.826(0.777-0.869, 0.820(0.772-0.862, 0.444(0.396-0.492, and 0.679(0.652-0.706 for fluoroquinolones, amikacin, capreomycin, kanamycin, and ethambutol, respectively. The specificity (95% CI was 0.971(0.961-0.980, 0.995(0.987-0.998, 0.973(0.963-0.981, 0.993(0.985-0.997, and 0.799(0.773-0.823, respectively. The AUC (standard error were 0.9754(0.0203, 0.9300(0.0598, 0.9885(0.0038, 0.9689(0.0359, and 0.6846(0.0550, respectively. CONCLUSION: Genotype MTBDRsl showed good accuracy for detecting drug resistance to fluoroquinolones, amikacin and capreomycin, but it may not be an

  12. Rapid diagnosis of avian influenza virus in wild birds: Use of a portable rRT-PCR and freeze-dried reagents in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Hill, N.J.; Schultz, A.K.; Iverson, S.A.; Cardona, C.J.; Boyce, W.M.; Dudley, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Wild birds have been implicated in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of the H5N1 subtype, prompting surveillance along migratory flyways. Sampling of wild birds for avian influenza virus (AIV) is often conducted in remote regions, but results are often delayed because of the need to transport samples to a laboratory equipped for molecular testing. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is a molecular technique that offers one of the most accurate and sensitive methods for diagnosis of AIV. The previously strict lab protocols needed for rRT-PCR are now being adapted for the field. Development of freeze-dried (lyophilized) reagents that do not require cold chain, with sensitivity at the level of wet reagents has brought on-site remote testing to a practical goal. Here we present a method for the rapid diagnosis of AIV in wild birds using an rRT-PCR unit (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device or RAPID, Idaho Technologies, Salt Lake City, UT) that employs lyophilized reagents (Influenza A Target 1 Taqman; ASAY-ASY-0109, Idaho Technologies). The reagents contain all of the necessary components for testing at appropriate concentrations in a single tube: primers, probes, enzymes, buffers and internal positive controls, eliminating errors associated with improper storage or handling of wet reagents. The portable unit performs a screen for Influenza A by targeting the matrix gene and yields results in 2-3 hours. Genetic subtyping is also possible with H5 and H7 primer sets that target the hemagglutinin gene. The system is suitable for use on cloacal and oropharyngeal samples collected from wild birds, as demonstrated here on the migratory shorebird species, the western sandpiper (Calidrus mauri) captured in Northern California. Animal handling followed protocols approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of the U.S. Geological Survey Western Ecological Research Center and permits of the U.S. Geological Survey

  13. Accuracy of a rapid 10-minute carbon-14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiahung, Kao [Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Shyhjen, Wang [Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Chungyuan, Hsu [Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Wanyu, Lin [Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Chihkua, Huang [Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Gastroenterology; Granhum, Chen [Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Gastroenterology

    1993-08-01

    Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Helicobacter pylori (HP), an organism which is associated with peptic ulcer disease. To detect gastric urease, we examined 184 patients (144 males, 40 females; mean age: 49.8[+-]15.6 years) with suspected peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given orally 5 [mu]Ci of carbon-14 labelled urea. For each patient only one breath sample was collected in hyamine at 10 min. The amount of [sup 14]C collected at 10 min was expressed as follows: (DPM/mmol CO[sub 2] collected)/(DPM administered)x100xbody weight (kg). The presence of HP colonization was determined by examination of multiple endoscopic prepyloric antral biopsy specimens subjected to culture or a rapid urease test. For the purpose of this study, HP-positive patients were defined as those with characteristic bacteria as indicated by a positive result of either the culture or the rapid urease test; HP-negative patients were defined as those with negative findings on both the culture and the rapid urease test. Of the 184 cases, 99 (53.8%) were positive for HP infection, and 85 (46.2%), negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid 10 min [sup 14]C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of HP-associated peptic ulcer disease were evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve with a variable cut-off value from 1.5 to 4.5. When a cut-off value of 1.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity, 83.5%; when a cut-off value of 4.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 54.5% and the specificity, 97.6%. (orig.)

  14. Accuracy of a rapid 10-minute carbon-14 urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao Chiahung; Wang Shyhjen; Hsu Chungyuan; Lin Wanyu; Huang Chihkua; Chen Granhum

    1993-01-01

    Urease in the human gastric mucosa is a marker for infection with Helicobacter pylori (HP), an organism which is associated with peptic ulcer disease. To detect gastric urease, we examined 184 patients (144 males, 40 females; mean age: 49.8±15.6 years) with suspected peptic ulcer disease. Fasting patients were given orally 5 μCi of carbon-14 labelled urea. For each patient only one breath sample was collected in hyamine at 10 min. The amount of 14 C collected at 10 min was expressed as follows: [(DPM/mmol CO 2 collected)/(DPM administered)]x100xbody weight (kg). The presence of HP colonization was determined by examination of multiple endoscopic prepyloric antral biopsy specimens subjected to culture or a rapid urease test. For the purpose of this study, HP-positive patients were defined as those with characteristic bacteria as indicated by a positive result of either the culture or the rapid urease test; HP-negative patients were defined as those with negative findings on both the culture and the rapid urease test. Of the 184 cases, 99 (53.8%) were positive for HP infection, and 85 (46.2%), negative. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid 10 min 14 C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of HP-associated peptic ulcer disease were evaluated by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve with a variable cut-off value from 1.5 to 4.5. When a cut-off value of 1.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity, 83.5%; when a cut-off value of 4.5 was selected, the sensitivity was 54.5% and the specificity, 97.6%. (orig.)

  15. Rapid intra-operative diagnosis of kidney cancer by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy of tissue smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucetaite, Milda; Velicka, Martynas; Urboniene, Vidita; Ceponkus, Justinas; Bandzeviciute, Rimante; Jankevicius, Feliksas; Zelvys, Arunas; Sablinskas, Valdas; Steiner, Gerald

    2018-01-09

    Herein, a technique to analyze air-dried kidney tissue impression smears by means of attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy is presented. Spectral tumor markers-absorption bands of glycogen-are identified in the ATR-IR spectra of the kidney tissue smear samples. Thin kidney tissue cryo-sections currently used for IR spectroscopic analysis lack such spectral markers as the sample preparation causes irreversible molecular changes in the tissue. In particular, freeze-thaw cycle results in degradation of the glycogen and reduction or complete dissolution of its content. Supervised spectral classification was applied to the recorded spectra of the smears and the test spectra were classified with a high accuracy of 92% for normal tissue and 94% for tumor tissue, respectively. For further development, we propose that combination of the method with optical fiber ATR probes could potentially be used for rapid real-time intra-operative tissue analysis without interfering with either the established protocols of pathological examination or the ordinary workflow of operating surgeon. Such approach could ensure easier transition of the method to clinical applications where it may complement the results of gold standard histopathology examination and aid in more precise resection of kidney tumors. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Allergy Diagnosis in Children and Adults: Performance of a New Point-of-Care Device, ImmunoCAP Rapid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlin, Gunilla; Moreno, Carmen; Petersson, Carl Johan; Lilja, Gunnar; Toledano, Félix Lorente; García, Antonio Nieto; Nordvall, Lennart; Palmqvist, Mona; Rak, Sabina; Ahlstedt, Staffan; Borres, Magnus P

    2009-07-01

    : Allergy is a serious problem affecting approximately 1 of 4 individuals. The symptoms with and without allergy etiology are often difficult to distinguish from each other without using an IgE antibody test. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of a new point-of-care (POC) test for IgE antibodies to relevant allergens in Europe. : IgE antibodies from children and adults with allergies recruited from allergy clinics in Sweden and Spain were analyzed for 10 allergens, suitable for the age groups, using the new POC test and ImmunoCAP laboratory test. The IgE antibody level best discriminating between positive and negative results (the cutoff point) for the different allergens of the POC test and the efficacy of the POC and the ImmunoCAP laboratory tests for diagnosing allergy compared with that of clinical diagnosis were investigated. : The estimated cutoffs for the different allergens in the POC test ranged from 0.70 to 2.56 kUA/L. Taking into account all positive allergen results in a given patient, the POC test could identify 95% of the patients with allergies. Seventy-eight percent of the allergen-specific physicians' diagnoses were identified and 97% of the negative ones. Most allergens exhibited good performance, identifying about 80% of clinically relevant cases. However, dog, mugwort, and wall pellitory would benefit from improvement. : The POC test will be a valuable adjunct in the identification or exclusion of patients with allergies and their most likely offending allergens, both in specialist and general care settings.

  17. A preliminary comparative report of quantitative buffy coat and modified quantitative buffy coat with peripheral blood smear in malaria diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochareka, Manali; Sarkar, Sougat; Dasgupta, Debjani; Aigal, Umesh

    2012-10-01

    The quantitative buffy coat (QBC) technique is a method of diagnosing malarial parasites based on micro-centrifugation, fluorescence, and density gradient of infected red blood cells. The aim of the present study was to modify the QBC technique in order to reduce the cost per test of malaria diagnosis. This was achieved by introducing some modifications to routine QBC wherein REMI centrifuge (cost Rs 19000/-) and ultra-violet microscope (Rs 115000) were used instead of parafuge (Rs 108000) and paralens (Rs 293625/-). With the above modification, the cost per test for laboratories dealing with high patient load was reduced by 13%, whereas for smaller laboratories with low patient load, the cost per test was reduced by 48%. This is a significant difference in cost. The results of the modified QBC method were compared with the current diagnostic methods: peripheral blood smear (PBS) and routine QBC. Blood samples collected from 96 patients were subjected to the above tests. Considering PBS as the gold standard, routine QBC showed 91% sensitivity and 96% specificity for Plasmodium vivax- and 91% sensitivity and 94% specificity for Plasmodium falciparum-infected patients. It was seen that the modified QBC technique had 91% sensitivity and 98% specificity for P. vivax and 91% sensitivity and 96% specificity for P. falciparum. It was concluded that modification of the QBC technique renders it cheaper without compromising the specificity and sensitivity of the method.

  18. Preliminary study of Alzheimer's Disease diagnosis based on brain electrical signals using wireless EEG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handayani, N; Akbar, Y; Khotimah, S N; Haryanto, F; Arif, I; Taruno, W P

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to study brain's electrical signals recorded using EEG as a basis for the diagnosis of patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The subjects consisted of patients with AD, and normal subjects are used as the control. Brain signals are recorded for 3 minutes in a relaxed condition and with eyes closed. The data is processed using power spectral analysis, brain mapping and chaos test to observe the level of complexity of EEG's data. The results show a shift in the power spectral in the low frequency band (delta and theta) in AD patients. The increase of delta and theta occurs in lobus frontal area and lobus parietal respectively. However, there is a decrease of alpha activity in AD patients where in the case of normal subjects with relaxed condition, brain alpha wave dominates the posterior area. This is confirmed by the results of brain mapping. While the results of chaos analysis show that the average value of MMLE is lower in AD patients than in normal subjects. The level of chaos associated with neural complexity in AD patients with lower neural complexity is due to neuronal damage caused by the beta amyloid plaques and tau protein in neurons. (paper)

  19. The emerging role of multidetector row CT angiography in the diagnosis of cervical arterial dissection: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elijovich, Lucas; Kazmi, Khuram; Gauvrit, Jean Y.; Law, Meng

    2006-01-01

    Cervical artery dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke, particularly in young patients. The diagnosis can be made with invasive catheter angiography or non-invasive imaging, either with MRI in conjunction with MR angiography (MRA) or CT angiography (CTA). Both modalities have been shown to have a high specificity and sensitivity. New developments such as multi-slice CTA (MSCTA) are emerging as an alternative methods for imaging the cervical and intracranial arteries. However, the contribution of modern MSCTA to carotid artery dissection has not been reported. We present a retrospective series of seven patients in whom both MSCTA and cervical axial T1 MRI and MRA were performed in the acute to subacute setting of internal carotid artery dissection. Carotid artery dissection was identified in all seven patients by MSCTA. The combination of MRI and MRA identified dissection in five of the seven patients. Additionally, a pseudoaneurysm was identified by MSCTA that was missed by MRI and MRA. Our findings confirm that MSCTA is a complementary technique in comparison to cervical axial T1 MRI and cervical MRA for diagnosing carotid artery dissection, and at times may provide additional information that can impact patient management. (orig.)

  20. The preliminary results of the diagnosis of pituitary diseases using 13N-NH3 PET dynamic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangsong; Chen Hongmei; Yang Huazhang; Tang Anwu; Qiao Suixian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To preliminarily evaluate the value of 13 N-NH 3 PET dynamic imaging for the diagnosis of pituitary diseases. Methods: The 13 N-NH 3 PET dynamic imaging was performed on 2 patients with pituitary microadenoma and one patient with hypopituitarism, the diagnoses were confirmed by MRI, levels of relative endocrine hormones in blood and clinical presentations. Results: In 2 patients with pituitary microadenoma, the pituitaries were seen in 20 and 30 s after the internal carotid was seen in the dynamic PET images, the upper margins of pituitaries were convex, the heights were 1.75 cm and 1.62 cm, the standard uptake values (SUVs) of pituitaries were 3.96 and 3.28, and the radioactivity ratio of pituitary to thalamus were 1.58 and 1.27. In the patient with hypopituitarism, the pituitary was seen at 3 min after the image of the internal carotid, the image of pituitary was smaller than the normal ones (0.82 cm x 0.83 cm x 1.03 cm), the SUV of pituitary was 1.48, and the radioactivity ratio of pituitary to thalamus was 0.64. Conclusion: The 13 N-NH 3 PET dynamic imaging is useful in diagnosing pituitary microadenoma and hypopituitarism

  1. MRI for the diagnosis of recurrent middle ear cholesteatoma in children - can we optimize the technique? Preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffray, Anne; Guesmi, Myriam; Nebbia, Jean Francois; Leloutre, Beatrice; Bailleux, Sonanda; Maschi, Claude [Fondation Lenval, Nice (France)

    2013-04-15

    Recurrent cholesteatoma after surgical excision occurs frequently in children. Until recently, a surgical second look was mandatory and considered as standard reference. MRI including a delayed T1 sequence after gadolinium injection and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has proved its efficiency but has been evaluated mainly in adults. Our purpose was to evaluate the accuracy of DWI to diagnose recurrence of cholesteatoma in children. We evaluated prospectively with MRI 20 ears in 18 children who had had surgery for cholesteatoma. We compared DWI and delayed T1-weighted images following gadolinium administration with intraoperative or follow-up findings. We calculated the sensitivity and specificity of each sequence for the diagnosis of recurrent cholesteatoma. Sensitivity to diagnose recurrent cholesteatoma was 87% for both DWI and delayed post-gadolinium sequences, specificity was 71% and 83%, respectively. Adding both sequences, the sensitivity was 87%, the specificity 100%. There was one false negative probably due to small size recurrence. In our series, DWI was reliable to diagnose recurrent cholesteatoma in children and allows avoiding surgery when negative. However, because small recurrences less than 5 mm may be missed, follow-up must be prolonged (5 years). (orig.)

  2. Design, development and evaluation of rK28-based point-of-care tests for improving rapid diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowmya Pattabhi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is diagnosed by microscopic confirmation of the parasite in bone marrow, spleen or lymph node aspirates. These procedures are unsuitable for rapid diagnosis of VL in field settings. The development of rK39-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDT revolutionized diagnosis of VL by offering high sensitivity and specificity in detecting disease in the Indian subcontinent; however, these tests have been less reliable in the African subcontinent (sensitivity range of 75-85%, specificity of 70-92%. We have addressed limitations of the rK39 with a new synthetic polyprotein, rK28, followed by development and evaluation of two new rK28-based RDT prototype platforms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Evaluation of 62 VL-confirmed sera from Sudan provided sensitivities of 96.8% and 93.6% (95% CI = K28: 88.83-99.61%; K39: 84.30-98.21% and specificities of 96.2% and 92.4% (95% CI = K28: 90.53-98.95%; K39: 85.54-96.65% for rK28 and rK39, respectively. Of greater interest was the observation that individual VL sera with low rK39 reactivity often had much higher rK28 reactivity. This characteristic of the fusion protein was exploited in the development of rK28 rapid tests, which may prove to be crucial in detecting VL among patients with low rK39 antibody levels. Evaluation of two prototype lateral flow-based rK28 rapid tests on 53 VL patients in Sudan and 73 VL patients in Bangladesh provided promisingly high sensitivities (95.9% [95% CI = 88.46-99.1 in Sudan and 98.1% [95% CI = 89.93-99.95%] in Bangladesh compared to the rK39 RDT (sensitivities of 86.3% [95% CI = 76.25-93.23%] in Sudan and 88.7% [95% CI = 76.97-95.73%] in Bangladesh. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study compares the diagnostic accuracy of rK39 and rK28 in detecting active VL cases and our findings indicate that rK28 polyprotein has great potential as a serodiagnostic tool. A new rK28-based RDT will prove to be a valuable asset in

  3. Performance of rapid diagnostic test, blood-film microscopy and PCR for the diagnosis of malaria infection among febrile children from Korogwe District, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahende, Coline; Ngasala, Billy; Lusingu, John

    2016-01-01

    with fever and/or history of fever in the previous 48 h attending outpatient clinics. Blood samples were collected for identification of Plasmodium falciparum infection using histidine-rich-protein-2 (HRP-2)-based malaria RDT, light microscopy and conventional PCR. Results: A total of 867 febrile patients......Background: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and light microscopy are still recommended for diagnosis to guide the clinical management of malaria despite difficult challenges in rural settings. The performance of these tests may be affected by several factors, including malaria prevalence and intensity...... of transmission. The study evaluated the diagnostic performance of malaria RDT, light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in detecting malaria infections among febrile children at outpatient clinic in Korogwe District, northeastern Tanzania. Methods: The study enrolled children aged 2-59 months...

  4. Results of a multinational study suggest the need for rapid diagnosis and early antiviral treatment at the onset of herpetic meningoencephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, Hakan; Cag, Yasemin; Ozturk-Engin, Derya

    2015-01-01

    survived, with sequelae. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.05), Glasgow Coma Scale score (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.93), and symptomatic periods of 2 to 7 days (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.79) and >7 days (OR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.72 to 8.15) until the commencement...... of treatment predicted unfavorable outcomes. The outcome in HME patients is related to a combination of therapeutic and host factors. This study suggests that rapid diagnosis and early administration of antiviral treatment in HME patients are keys to a favorable outcome....

  5. Analytical Validation of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test for Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert W.; Boisen, Matthew L.; Millett, Molly M.; Nelson, Diana S.; Oottamasathien, Darin; Hartnett, Jessica N.; Jones, Abigal B.; Goba, Augustine; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohamed; Bornholdt, Zachary A.; Fusco, Marnie L.; Abelson, Dafna M.; Oda, Shunichiro; Brown, Bethany L.; Pham, Ha; Rowland, Megan M.; Agans, Krystle N.; Geisbert, Joan B.; Heinrich, Megan L.; Kulakosky, Peter C.; Shaffer, Jeffrey G.; Schieffelin, John S.; Kargbo, Brima; Gbetuwa, Momoh; Gevao, Sahr M.; Wilson, Russell B.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Pitts, Kelly R.; Khan, Sheik Humarr; Grant, Donald S.; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Branco, Luis M.; Garry, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe viral illness caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). The 2013–2016 EVD outbreak in West Africa is the largest recorded, with >11 000 deaths. Development of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test (ReEBOV RDT) was expedited to provide a point-of-care test for suspected EVD cases. Methods. Recombinant EBOV viral protein 40 antigen was used to derive polyclonal antibodies for RDT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay development. ReEBOV RDT limits of detection (LOD), specificity, and interference were analytically validated on the basis of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance. Results. The ReEBOV RDT specificity estimate was 95% for donor serum panels and 97% for donor whole-blood specimens. The RDT demonstrated sensitivity to 3 species of Ebolavirus (Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, and Bundibugyo ebolavirus) associated with human disease, with no cross-reactivity by pathogens associated with non-EBOV febrile illness, including malaria parasites. Interference testing exhibited no reactivity by medications in common use. The LOD for antigen was 4.7 ng/test in serum and 9.4 ng/test in whole blood. Quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction testing of nonhuman primate samples determined the range to be equivalent to 3.0 × 105–9.0 × 108 genomes/mL. Conclusions. The analytical validation presented here contributed to the ReEBOV RDT being the first antigen-based assay to receive FDA and World Health Organization emergency use authorization for this EVD outbreak, in February 2015. PMID:27587634

  6. Dipstick test for rapid diagnosis of Shigella dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and its potential use on stool samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Taneja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We describe a test for rapid detection of S. dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and in stools, at the bedside of patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The test is based on the detection of S. dysenteriae 1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS using serotype 1-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles and displayed on a one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 15 ng/ml of LPS was detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in 10 minutes. In distilled water and in reconstituted stools, an unequivocal positive reaction was obtained with 1.6×10⁶ CFU/ml and 4.9×10⁶ CFU/ml of S. dysenteriae 1, respectively. Optimal conditions to read the test have been determined to limit the risk of ambiguous results due to appearance of a faint yellow test band in some negative samples. The specificity was 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and unrelated strains in culture. When tested on 328 clinical samples in India, Vietnam, Senegal and France by laboratory technicians and in Democratic Republic of Congo by a field technician, the specificity (312/316 was 98.7% (95% CI:96.6-99.6% and the sensitivity (11/12 was 91.7% (95% CI:59.8-99.6%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 98.4 % of cases (323/328 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 73.3% (95% CI:44.8-91.1% and 99.7% (95% CI:98-100%. CONCLUSION: The initial findings presented here for a simple dipstick-based test to diagnose S. dysenteriae 1 demonstrates its promising potential to become a powerful tool for case management and epidemiological surveys.

  7. Analytical Validation of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test for Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Robert W; Boisen, Matthew L; Millett, Molly M; Nelson, Diana S; Oottamasathien, Darin; Hartnett, Jessica N; Jones, Abigal B; Goba, Augustine; Momoh, Mambu; Fullah, Mohamed; Bornholdt, Zachary A; Fusco, Marnie L; Abelson, Dafna M; Oda, Shunichiro; Brown, Bethany L; Pham, Ha; Rowland, Megan M; Agans, Krystle N; Geisbert, Joan B; Heinrich, Megan L; Kulakosky, Peter C; Shaffer, Jeffrey G; Schieffelin, John S; Kargbo, Brima; Gbetuwa, Momoh; Gevao, Sahr M; Wilson, Russell B; Saphire, Erica Ollmann; Pitts, Kelly R; Khan, Sheik Humarr; Grant, Donald S; Geisbert, Thomas W; Branco, Luis M; Garry, Robert F

    2016-10-15

     Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe viral illness caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). The 2013-2016 EVD outbreak in West Africa is the largest recorded, with >11 000 deaths. Development of the ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test (ReEBOV RDT) was expedited to provide a point-of-care test for suspected EVD cases.  Recombinant EBOV viral protein 40 antigen was used to derive polyclonal antibodies for RDT and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay development. ReEBOV RDT limits of detection (LOD), specificity, and interference were analytically validated on the basis of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance.  The ReEBOV RDT specificity estimate was 95% for donor serum panels and 97% for donor whole-blood specimens. The RDT demonstrated sensitivity to 3 species of Ebolavirus (Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, and Bundibugyo ebolavirus) associated with human disease, with no cross-reactivity by pathogens associated with non-EBOV febrile illness, including malaria parasites. Interference testing exhibited no reactivity by medications in common use. The LOD for antigen was 4.7 ng/test in serum and 9.4 ng/test in whole blood. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing of nonhuman primate samples determined the range to be equivalent to 3.0 × 10 5 -9.0 × 10 8 genomes/mL.  The analytical validation presented here contributed to the ReEBOV RDT being the first antigen-based assay to receive FDA and World Health Organization emergency use authorization for this EVD outbreak, in February 2015. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Tandem mass spectrometry-based newborn screening strategy could be used to facilitate rapid and sensitive lung cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang T

    2016-04-01

    /MS analysis could be finished in several minutes, implying that it was a proper measure complementary to the traditional serum protein biomarker quantitation strategy for cancerous disease diagnosis and screening purposes. Keywords: lung cancer, mass spectrometry, newborn screening tests

  9. Rapid tests and urine sampling techniques for the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children under five years: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Penny; Westwood, Marie; Watt, Ian; Cooper, Julie; Kleijnen, Jos

    2005-04-05

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common sources of infection in children under five. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is important to reduce the risk of renal scarring. Rapid, cost-effective, methods of UTI diagnosis are required as an alternative to culture. We conducted a systematic review to determine the diagnostic accuracy of rapid tests for detecting UTI in children under five years of age. The evidence supports the use of dipstick positive for both leukocyte esterase and nitrite (pooled LR+ = 28.2, 95% CI: 17.3, 46.0) or microscopy positive for both pyuria and bacteriuria (pooled LR+ = 37.0, 95% CI: 11.0, 125.9) to rule in UTI. Similarly dipstick negative for both LE and nitrite (Pooled LR- = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.16, 0.26) or microscopy negative for both pyuria and bacteriuria (Pooled LR- = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.23) can be used to rule out UTI. A test for glucose showed promise in potty-trained children. However, all studies were over 30 years old. Further evaluation of this test may be useful. Dipstick negative for both LE and nitrite or microscopic analysis negative for both pyuria and bacteriuria of a clean voided urine, bag, or nappy/pad specimen may reasonably be used to rule out UTI. These patients can then reasonably be excluded from further investigation, without the need for confirmatory culture. Similarly, combinations of positive tests could be used to rule in UTI, and trigger further investigation.

  10. Early diagnosis of congenital vascular malformation as a condition to rapid prevention of complications – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Jaguś

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Klippel–Trénaunay syndrome is a rare congenital condition characterised by a triad of symptoms: capillary-lymphatic-venous malformations, varicose veins and venous malformations as well as soft tissue and skeletal hypertrophy of the affected limb. In this article, we present a case of a 5-year-old boy with extensive vascular malformations of the lower limbs and the buttock region. In this case, manifestation of all three symptoms was gradual. At the age of 4 years, the patient was admitted to the Department of Imaging Diagnostics for further diagnosis, where the triad characteristic for Klippel–Trénaunay syndrome and popliteal vein agenesis were diagnosed. Currently, a multidisciplinary team takes care of the boy in the Children’s Memorial Health Institute. Early and accurate diagnosis allows for rapid prevention of complications associated with Klippel–Trénaunay syndrome and enables patient-tailored treatment.

  11. Diagnostic Value of Leukocyte Esterase Test Strip Reagents for Rapid Clinical Diagnosis of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Patients Admitted to Hospital Emergency Departments in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemian, Amir Masoud; Ahmadi, Koorosh; Zamani Moghaddam, Hamid; Zakeri, Hosein; Davoodi Navakh, Seyed Akbar; Sharifi, Mohammad Davood; Bahrami, Abdollah

    2015-10-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a common and important clinical problem and is life-threatening in decompensated liver disease. Ascites fluid test by leukocyte esterase test strip has been recently proposed as an effective and rapid method to diagnose SBP in patients with cirrhosis. This study aimed to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of leukocyte esterase test strip in the diagnosis of SBP. The population of this research was all patients with cirrhosis and ascites admitted to the emergency room at Imam Reza (AS) hospital, Mashhad. A written consent was taken for inclusion in the study. 50 mL ascites sample was taken from all patients for use in a urine test strip (LER) (Urine Test Strips Convergys®Urine Matrix 11). The patient's ascites samples were evaluated for cell counting. Positive dipstick test for LER in this study considered as grade 3 +. The values of WBC > 500 cell/mm(3) or PMN > 250 cell/mm(3) considered as positive result of the gold standard method for the diagnosis of SBP. In this study, 100 patients with ascites due to cirrhosis, with an average age of 38.9 ± 6.54 years were evaluated. Twenty cases had positive results, of whom 17 cases were also detected based on the standard diagnostic criteria and other three cases were healthy individuals. Thus, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of the method were 95%, 96.3%, 85%, 97.5% and 95%, respectively. The use of leukocyte esterase urine dipstick test can be a quick and easy method in early diagnosis of SBP to start the treatment until preparation of SBP-cell count results.

  12. Rapid diagnosis of Theileria annulata by recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow strip (LF-RPA) in epidemic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fangyuan; Liu, Junlong; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Luo, Jianxun; Guan, Guiquan; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-15

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of Theileria annulata infection contributes to the formulation of strategies to eradicate this parasite. A simple and efficient diagnostic tool, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with a lateral flow (LF) strip, was used in detection of Theileria and compared to other methods that require expensive instruments and skilled personnel. Herein, we established and optimized an LF-RPA method to detect the cytochrome b gene of T. annulata mitochondrial DNA from experimentally infected and field-collected blood samples. This method has many unparalleled characteristics, including that it is rapid (clear detection in 5min at constant temperature), sensitive (the limitation of detection is at least 2pg genomic DNA), and specific (no cross-reaction with other piroplasms that infect cattle). The LF-RPA assay was evaluated via testing 17 field blood samples and comparing the results of that of a PCR, showing 100% agreement, which demonstrates the ability of the LF-RPA assay to detect T. annulata infections in small number of samples (n=17). Taken together, the results indicate that this method could be used as an ideal diagnostic tool for detecting T. annulata in endemic regions with limited to fewer and local resources and could also be a potential technique for the surveillance and control of blood protozoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical utilisation of a rapid low-pass whole genome sequencing technique for the diagnosis of aneuploidy in human embryos prior to implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dagan; Kaur, Kulvinder; Grifo, Jamie; Glassner, Michael; Taylor, Jenny C; Fragouli, Elpida; Munne, Santiago

    2014-08-01

    The majority of human embryos created using in vitro fertilisation (IVF) techniques are aneuploid. Comprehensive chromosome screening methods, applicable to single cells biopsied from preimplantation embryos, allow reliable identification and transfer of euploid embryos. Recently, randomised trials using such methods have indicated that aneuploidy screening improves IVF success rates. However, the high cost of testing has restricted the availability of this potentially beneficial strategy. This study aimed to harness next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, with the intention of lowering the costs of preimplantation aneuploidy screening. Embryo biopsy, whole genome amplification and semiconductor sequencing. A rapid (cost only two-thirds that of the most widely used method for embryo aneuploidy detection. Validation involved blinded analysis of 54 cells from cell lines or biopsies from human embryos. Sensitivity and specificity were 100%. The method was applied clinically, assisting in the selection of euploid embryos in two IVF cycles, producing healthy children in both cases. The NGS approach was also able to reveal specified mutations in the nuclear or mitochondrial genomes in parallel with chromosome assessment. Interestingly, elevated mitochondrial DNA content was associated with aneuploidy (pcost diagnosis of aneuploidy in cells from human preimplantation embryos and is rapid enough to allow testing without embryo cryopreservation. The method described also has the potential to shed light on other aspects of embryo genetics of relevance to health and viability. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Preliminary enquiry into the availability, price and quality of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in the private health sector of six malaria-endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, A; Djalle, D; Faye, B; Gamboa, D; Luchavez, J; Mationg, M L; Mwangoka, G; Oyibo, W; Bennett, J; Incardona, S; Lee, E

    2012-02-01

    This enquiry aimed to provide a snap-shot of availability, price and quality of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in private health facilities at selected sites in six malaria-endemic countries in Africa, South East Asia and South America. In each study site, data collectors surveyed private healthcare facilities which were selected based on accessibility from their home institution. Using a questionnaire, information was recorded about the facility itself and the malaria RDT(s) available. Where possible, a small number of RDTs were procured and quality control tested using a standardized procedure. Of the 324 private healthcare facilities visited, 35 outlets (mainly private clinics and hospitals) were found to supply 10 different types of RDTs products. RDT prices across the six countries ranged from US$1.00 to $16.81. Five of the 14 malaria RDTs collected failed quality control testing. In the private outlets sampled, the availability of RDTs was limited. Some of the RDTs whose quality we tested demonstrated inadequate sensitivity. This presents a number of risks. Given the more widespread distribution of antimalarials currently planned for private sector facilities, parasite-based diagnosis in this sector will be essential to adhere to the WHO guidelines for effective case management of malaria. Considerable regulation and quality control are also necessary to assure the availability of accurate and reliable RDTs, as well as adequate case management and provider adherence to RDT results. Public sector engagement is likely to be essential in this process. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Pathways to multidrug-resistant tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment initiation: a qualitative comparison of patients' experiences in the era of rapid molecular diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Pren; van Niekerk, Margaret; du Toit, Elizabeth; Beyers, Nulda; Leon, Natalie

    2015-10-28

    substantial delays. Avoidable health system delays resulted from providers not testing for TB at initial health contact, non-adherence to testing algorithms, results not being available and failure to promptly recall patients with positive results. Whilst the introduction of rapid tests such as Xpert® MTB/RIF can expedite MDR-TB diagnosis and treatment initiation, the full benefits are unlikely to be realised without reducing delays in health-seeking and addressing the structural barriers present in the health-care system.

  16. Rapid assessment of agents of biological terrorism: defining the differential diagnosis of inhalational anthrax using electronic communication in a practice-based research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temte, Jonathan L; Anderson, Anna Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Early detection of bioterrorism requires assessment of diagnoses assigned to cases of rare diseases with which clinicians have little experience. In this study, we evaluated the process of defining the differential diagnosis for inhalational anthrax using electronic communication within a practice-based research network (PBRN) and compared the results with those obtained from a nationwide random sample of family physicians with a mailed instrument. We distributed survey instruments by e-mail to 55 physician members of the Wisconsin Research Network (WReN), a regional PBRN. The instruments consisted of 3 case vignettes randomly drawn from a set describing 11 patients with inhalational anthrax, 2 with influenza A, and 1 with Legionella pneumonia. Physicians provided their most likely nonanthrax diagnosis, along with their responses to 4 yes-or-no management questions for each case. Physicians who had not responded at 1 week received a second e-mail with the survey instrument. The comparison group consisted of the nationwide sample of physicians who completed mailed survey instruments. Primary outcome measures were response rate, median response time, and frequencies of diagnostic categories assigned to cases of inhalational anthrax. The PBRN response rate compared favorably with that of the national sample (47.3% vs 37.0%; P = not significant). The median response time for the PBRN was significantly shorter than that for the national sample (2 vs 28 days; P < .001). No significant differences were found between the PBRN and the Midwest subset of the national sample in the frequencies of major diagnostic categories or in case management. Electronic means of creating differential diagnoses for rare infectious diseases of national significance is feasible within PBRNs. Information is much more rapidly acquired and is consistent with that obtained by conventional methods.

  17. Rapid, actionable diagnosis of urban epidemic leptospirosis using a pathogenic Leptospira lipL32-based real-time PCR assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina N Riediger

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available With a conservatively estimated 1 million cases of leptospirosis worldwide and a 5-10% fatality rate, the rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis leading to effective clinical and public health decision making is of high importance, and yet remains a challenge.Based on parallel, population-based studies in two leptospirosis-endemic regions in Brazil, a real-time PCR assay which detects lipL32, a gene specifically present in pathogenic Leptospira, was assessed for the diagnostic effectiveness and accuracy. Patients identified by active hospital-based surveillance in Salvador and Curitiba during large urban leptospirosis epidemics were tested. Real-time PCR reactions were performed with DNA-extracted samples obtained from 127 confirmed and 23 unconfirmed cases suspected of leptospirosis, 122 patients with an acute febrile illness other than leptospirosis, and 60 healthy blood donors.The PCR assay had a limit of detection of 280 Leptospira genomic equivalents/mL. Sensitivity for confirmed cases was 61% for whole blood and 29% for serum samples. Sensitivity was higher (86% for samples collected within the first 6 days after onset of illness compared to those collected after 7 days (34%. The real-time PCR assay was able to detect leptospiral DNA in blood from 56% of serological non-confirmed cases. The overall specificity of the assay was 99%.These findings indicate that real-time PCR may be a reliable tool for early diagnosis of leptospirosis, which is decisive for clinical management of severe and life-threatening cases and for public health decision making.

  18. Rapid, actionable diagnosis of urban epidemic leptospirosis using a pathogenic Leptospira lipL32-based real-time PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riediger, Irina N; Stoddard, Robyn A; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Nakatani, Sueli M; Moreira, Suzana D R; Skraba, Irene; Biondo, Alexander W; Reis, Mitermayer G; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Vinetz, Joseph M; Ko, Albert I; Wunder, Elsio A

    2017-09-01

    With a conservatively estimated 1 million cases of leptospirosis worldwide and a 5-10% fatality rate, the rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis leading to effective clinical and public health decision making is of high importance, and yet remains a challenge. Based on parallel, population-based studies in two leptospirosis-endemic regions in Brazil, a real-time PCR assay which detects lipL32, a gene specifically present in pathogenic Leptospira, was assessed for the diagnostic effectiveness and accuracy. Patients identified by active hospital-based surveillance in Salvador and Curitiba during large urban leptospirosis epidemics were tested. Real-time PCR reactions were performed with DNA-extracted samples obtained from 127 confirmed and 23 unconfirmed cases suspected of leptospirosis, 122 patients with an acute febrile illness other than leptospirosis, and 60 healthy blood donors. The PCR assay had a limit of detection of 280 Leptospira genomic equivalents/mL. Sensitivity for confirmed cases was 61% for whole blood and 29% for serum samples. Sensitivity was higher (86%) for samples collected within the first 6 days after onset of illness compared to those collected after 7 days (34%). The real-time PCR assay was able to detect leptospiral DNA in blood from 56% of serological non-confirmed cases. The overall specificity of the assay was 99%. These findings indicate that real-time PCR may be a reliable tool for early diagnosis of leptospirosis, which is decisive for clinical management of severe and life-threatening cases and for public health decision making.

  19. A rapid NGS strategy for comprehensive molecular diagnosis of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome in patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Ma, Dehua; Zou, Wei; Ding, Yibing; Zhu, Chengchu; Min, Haiyan; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Wei; Chen, Baofu; Ye, Minhua; Cai, Minghui; Pan, Yanqing; Cao, Lei; Wan, Yueming; Jin, Yu; Gao, Qian; Yi, Long

    2016-05-27

    Primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) or pulmonary cysts is one of the manifestations of Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome (BHDS) that is caused by heterozygous mutations in FLCN gene. Most of the mutations are SNVs and small indels, and there are also approximately 10 % large intragenic deletions and duplications of the mutations. These molecular findings are generally obtained by disparate methods including Sanger sequencing and Multiple Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification in the clinical laboratory. In addition, as a genetically heterogeneous disorder, PSP may be caused by mutations in multiple genes include FBN1, COL3A1, CBS, SERPINA1 and TSC1/TSC2 genes. For differential diagnosis, these genes should also be screened which makes the diagnostic procedure more time-consuming and labor-intensive. Forty PSP patients were divided into 2 groups. Nineteen patients with different pathogenic mutations of FLCN previously identified by conventional Sanger sequencing and MLPA were included in test group, 21 random PSP patients without any genetic screening were included in blinded sample group. 7 PSP genes including FLCN, FBN1, COL3A1, CBS, SERPINA1 and TSC1/TSC2 were designed and enriched by Haloplex system, sequenced on a Miseq platform and analyzed in the 40 patients to evaluate the performance of the targeted-NGS method. We demonstrated that the full spectrum of genes associated with pneumothorax including FLCN gene mutations can be identified simultaneously in multiplexed sequence data. Noteworthy, by our in-house copy number analysis of the sequence data, we could not only detect intragenic deletions, but also determine approximate deletion junctions simultaneously. NGS based Haloplex target enrichment technology is proved to be a rapid and cost-effective screening strategy for the comprehensive molecular diagnosis of BHDS in PSP patients, as it can replace Sanger sequencing and MLPA by simultaneously detecting exonic and intronic SNVs, small indels, large intragenic

  20. Test characteristics of two rapid antigen detection tests (SD FK50 and SD FK60 for the diagnosis of malaria in returned travellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Esbroeck Marjan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two malaria rapid diagnostic tests were evaluated in a travel clinic setting: the SD FK50 Malaria Ag Plasmodium falciparum test (a two-band test and the SD FK60 Malaria Ag P. falciparum/Pan test (a three-band test. Methods A panel of stored whole blood samples (n = 452 and n = 614 for FK50 and FK60, respectively from returned travellers was used. The reference method was microscopy with PCR in case of discordant results. Results For both tests, overall sensitivity for the detection of P. falciparum was 93.5%, reaching 97.6% and 100% at parasite densities above 100 and 1,000/μl respectively. Overall sensitivities for Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae for the FK60 test were 87.5%, 76.3% and 45.2%, but they reached 92.6% and 90.5% for P. vivax and P. ovale at parasite densities above 500/μl. Specificities were above 95% for all species and both tests when corrected by PCR, with visible histidine-rich protein-2 lines for P. malariae (n = 3 and P. vivax and P. ovale (1 sample each. Line intensities were reproducible and correlated to parasite densities. The FK60 tests provided clues to estimate parasite densities for P. falciparum below or above 1,000/μl. Conclusion Both the FK50 and FK60 performed well for the diagnosis of P. falciparum in the present setting, and the FK60 for the diagnosis of P. vivax and P. ovale at parasite densities > 500/μl. The potential use of the FK60 as a semi-quantitative estimation of parasite density needs to be further explored.

  1. Importance of a Rapid and Accurate Diagnosis in Strongyloides Stercoralis and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 Co-infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Olga; Berini, Carolina A; Waldbaum, Carlos; Avagnina, Alejandra; Juarez, María; Repetto, Silvia; Sorda, Juan; Biglione, Mirna

    2017-01-01

    Strongyloides (S.) stercoralis and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 (HTLV-1) share some endemic regions such as Japan, Jamaica, and South America and are mostly diagnosed elsewhere in immigrants from endemic areas. This co-infection has not been documented in Argentina although both pathogens are endemic in the Northwest. We present a case of S. stercoralis and HTLV-1 co-infection with an initial presentation due to gastrointestinal symptoms which presented neither eosinophilia nor the presence of larvae in stool samples in a non-endemic area for these infections. A young Peruvian woman living in Buenos Aires attended several emergency rooms and finally ended up admitted in a gastroenterology ward due to incoercible vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. Gastrointestinal symptoms started 3 months before she returned to Argentina from a trip to Peru. She presented malnutrition and abdominal distension parameters. HIV-1 and other immunodeficiencies were discarded. The serial coproparasitological test was negative. Computed tomography showed diffuse thickening of duodenal and jejunal walls. At the beginning, vasculitis was suspected and corticosteroid therapy was initiated. The patient worsened rapidly. Skin, new enteral biopsies, and a new set of coproparasitological samples revealed S. stercoralis . Then, HTLV-1 was suspected and infection was confirmed. Ivermectin and albendazole were administrated, until the stool sample remained negative for 2 weeks. Larvae were not observed in fresh stool, Ritchie method, and agar culture 1 week post-treatment. Although she required initial support with parenteral nutrition due to oral intolerance she slowly progressed favorably. It has been highly recommended to include a rapid and sensitive PCR strategy in the algorithm to confirm Strongyloides infection, which has demonstrated to improve early diagnosis in patients at-risk of disseminated strongyloidiasis.

  2. Importance of a Rapid and Accurate Diagnosis in Strongyloides Stercoralis and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 Co-infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Quintero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides (S. stercoralis and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 (HTLV-1 share some endemic regions such as Japan, Jamaica, and South America and are mostly diagnosed elsewhere in immigrants from endemic areas. This co-infection has not been documented in Argentina although both pathogens are endemic in the Northwest. We present a case of S. stercoralis and HTLV-1 co-infection with an initial presentation due to gastrointestinal symptoms which presented neither eosinophilia nor the presence of larvae in stool samples in a non-endemic area for these infections. A young Peruvian woman living in Buenos Aires attended several emergency rooms and finally ended up admitted in a gastroenterology ward due to incoercible vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. Gastrointestinal symptoms started 3 months before she returned to Argentina from a trip to Peru. She presented malnutrition and abdominal distension parameters. HIV-1 and other immunodeficiencies were discarded. The serial coproparasitological test was negative. Computed tomography showed diffuse thickening of duodenal and jejunal walls. At the beginning, vasculitis was suspected and corticosteroid therapy was initiated. The patient worsened rapidly. Skin, new enteral biopsies, and a new set of coproparasitological samples revealed S. stercoralis. Then, HTLV-1 was suspected and infection was confirmed. Ivermectin and albendazole were administrated, until the stool sample remained negative for 2 weeks. Larvae were not observed in fresh stool, Ritchie method, and agar culture 1 week post-treatment. Although she required initial support with parenteral nutrition due to oral intolerance she slowly progressed favorably. It has been highly recommended to include a rapid and sensitive PCR strategy in the algorithm to confirm Strongyloides infection, which has demonstrated to improve early diagnosis in patients at-risk of disseminated strongyloidiasis.

  3. The former Lyon-Perrache gas works (France). Diagnosis and preliminary treatment in view of the re-use of a site in an urban zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suais, M.F.; Wafelman, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Lyon-Perrache gas works, built in 1834, presented the whole complexity of an industrial centre which was at the peak of technology. With 12 gas holders, there were as many underground structures, which very probably in were closed as they were when the plant was definitively stopped in 1954. During preliminary explorations on the site, the presence of hydrocarbons was detected in the ground, and the first tar containing vat was brought to light. BRGM and the ''Pollution Service'' Company helped EDF-GDF in this first operational phase. Two types of simultaneous actions were conducted: - Searching for information characterizing the site condition, -Application of actions for the treatment of waste matters in acceptable technical and economical conditions. They were conducted in three distinct steps. The first sept revealed the existence of 7 tanks, which were still susceptible to contain tar and to be at the origin of underground contamination. The second step was marked by the opening of tanks and by the technico-economical analysis of the principal solutions for removing the refuse they contained (rubbish, water, tar). In parallel, the diagnosis about the condition of the sub-soil and of the water table has shown distinct signs of pollution of soil and water by organic compounds (notably hydrocarbons and derivatives). Soil was specially affected at the place of former stockings of incineration residues (bitumen) and straight below the benzol removing unit. The third step, presently in progress, is aiming at a better definition of underground quality around two singular points, in order to define and test the best adapted treatment method. The aims of the future step shall be to reclaim a level of general quality compatible with the future utilization of soil and sub-soil. (author). 4 figs., 5 photos

  4. Antigen persistence of rapid diagnostic tests in pregnant women in Nanoro, Burkina Faso, and the implications for the diagnosis of malaria in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattenberg, Johanna H; Tahita, Christian M; Versteeg, Inge A J; Tinto, Halidou; Traoré-Coulibaly, Maminata; Schallig, Henk D F H; Mens, Petra F

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate persistence of several Plasmodium antigens in pregnant women after treatment and compare diagnostics during treatment follow-up. Thirty-two pregnant women (N = 32) with confirmed malaria infection by a histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and microscopy were followed for 28 days after artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). A Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH)-based RDT and two ELISAs based on the detection of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) and haeme detoxification protein (HDP) were compared with each other and to RT-PCR at each visit. The mean visit number (95% confidence interval) on which the HRP2-based RDT was still positive after treatment was 3.4 (2.7-4.1) visits with some patients still positive at day 28. This is significantly later than the pLDH-based RDT [0.84 (0.55-1.1)], microscopy (median 1, range 1-3), DHFR-TS-ELISA [1.7 (1.1-2.3)] and RT-PCR (median 2, range 1-5) (P pregnant women and can generate problems when using this test during intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp). DHFR-TS is less persistent than HRP2, making it a potentially interesting target for diagnosis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Self-diagnosis of malaria by travellers: a cohort study on the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests provided by a Swiss travel clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthod, Delphine; Rochat, Jacynthe; Voumard, Rachel; Rochat, Laurence; Genton, Blaise; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2017-10-28

    The WHO recommends that all suspect malaria cases be tested before receiving treatment. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) for malaria can be performed reliably by community health workers with no formal medical background and thus, RDTs could also be provided to travellers for self-diagnosis during visits to endemic regions. RDTs were proposed during pre-travel consultations to pre-defined categories of travellers. A training run on their own blood was performed and, if carried out correctly, the traveller was given a written procedure on how to perform the test and act on its result. The travellers were then proposed to buy a malaria RDT kit and were interviewed upon their return. From February 2012 to February 2017, 744 travellers were proposed RDTs and 692 performed the training run (one could not complete it due to a hand tremor). Among the 691 subjects included, 69% travelled to moderate- or low-risk areas of malaria, 18% to high-risk areas and 13% to mixed-risk areas. The two most frequent categories of travellers to whom RDTs were proposed were long-term travellers (69%) and those travelling to remote areas (57%). 543 travellers (79%) were interviewed upon return. During their trip, 17% (91/543) had a medical problem with fever and 12% (65/543) without fever. Among 91 febrile patients, 57% (52/91) performed an RDT, 22% (20/91) consulted immediately without using the test, and 21% (19/91) did neither. Four RDTs (4/52; 8%) were positive: 2 in low-risk and 2 in high-risk areas (0.7% attack rate of self-documented malaria). Two travellers could not perform the test correctly and attended a facility or took standby emergency treatment. Four travellers with negative results repeated the test after 24 h; all were still negative. Carrying RDTs made travellers feel more secure, especially when travelling with children. 1/6 travellers experienced fever and 4/5 of those reacted appropriately: more than half used RDTs and a quarter consulted immediately. Four travellers

  6. Willingness to pay for rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria in southeast Nigeria: ex post and ex ante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uguru Nkoli P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The introduction of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs has improved the diagnosis and treatment of malaria. However, any successful control of malaria will depend on socio-economic factors that influence its management in the community. Willingness to pay (WTP is important because consumer responses to prices will influence utilization of services and revenues collected. Also the consumer's attitude can influence monetary valuation with respect to different conditions ex post and ex ante. Methods WTP for RDT for Malaria was assessed by the contingent valuation method using a bidding game approach in rural and urban communities in southeast Nigeria. The ex post WTP was assessed at the health centers on 618 patients immediately following diagnosis of malaria with RDT and the ex ante WTP was assessed by household interviews on 1020 householders with a prior history of malaria. Results For the ex ante WTP, 51% of the respondents in urban and 24.7% in rural areas were willing to pay for RDT. The mean WTP (235.49 naira in urban is higher than WTP (182.05 Naira in rural areas. For the ex post WTP, 89 and 90.7% of the respondents in urban and rural areas respectively were WTP. The mean WTP (372.30 naira in urban is also higher than (296.28 naira in rural areas. For the ex post scenario, the lower two Social Economic Status (SES quartiles were more willing to pay and the mean WTP is higher than the higher two SES while in the ex ante scenario, the higher two SES quartiles were more WTP and with a higher WTP than the lower two SES quartile. Ex ante and ex post WTP were directly dependent on costs. Conclusion The ex post WTP is higher than the ex ante WTP and both are greater than the current cost of RDTs. Urban dwellers were more willing to pay than the rural dwellers. The mean WTP should be considered when designing suitable financial strategies for making RDTs available to communities.

  7. Performance evaluation of automated urine microscopy as a rapid, non-invasive approach for the diagnosis of non-gonococcal urethritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Marcus J; Nori, Achyuta V; Patel, Sheel; Laing, Ken; Ajayi, Margarita; Copas, Andrew J; Butcher, Philip D; Hay, Phillip; Sadiq, Syed Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Gram-stained urethral smear (GSUS), the standard point-of-care test for non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is operator dependent and poorly specific. The performance of rapid automated urine flow cytometry (AUFC) of first void urine (FVU) white cell counts (UWCC) for predicting Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis urethral infections was assessed and its application to asymptomatic infection was evaluated. Methods Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, determining FVU-UWCC threshold for predicting M. genitalium or C. trachomatis infection was performed on 208 ‘training’ samples from symptomatic patients and subsequently validated using 228 additional FVUs obtained from prospective unselected patients. Results An optimal diagnostic threshold of >29 UWC/µL gave sensitivities and specificities for either infection of 81.5% (95% CI 65.1% to 91.6%) and 85.8% (79.5% to 90.4%), respectively, compared with 86.8% (71.1% to 95%) and 64.7% (56.9% to 71.7%), respectively, for GSUS, using the training set samples. FVU-UWCC demonstrated sensitivities and specificities of 69.2% (95% CI 48.1% to 84.9%) and 92% (87.2% to 95.2%), respectively, when using validation samples. In asymptomatic patients where GSUS was not used, AUFC would have enabled more infections to be detected compared with clinical considerations only (71.4% vs 28.6%; p=0.03). The correlation between UWCC and bacterial load was stronger for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis (τ=0.426, p≤0.001 vs τ=0.295, p=0.022, respectively). Conclusions AUFC offers improved specificity over microscopy for predicting C. trachomatis or M. genitalium infection. Universal AUFC may enable non-invasive diagnosis of asymptomatic NGU at the PoC. The degree of urethral inflammation exhibits a stronger association with pathogen load for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis. PMID:25614466

  8. A Novel Contrast Stain for the Rapid Diagnosis of Pityriasis Versicolor: A Comparison of Chicago Sky Blue 6B Stain, Potassium Hydroxide Mount and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Nikita; Poojary, Shital Amin

    2015-01-01

    The mycological study of pityriasis versicolor is usually done by potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount and culture. However, KOH mount lacks a color contrast and requires a trained eye to interpret, while culture is difficult to perform, time consuming and has low sensitivity. Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB) is a new contrast stain that highlights the fungal hyphae and spores, blue against a purplish background. This study was done to compare the utility of a novel contrast stain (CSB stain) with KOH mount and culture. Skin scrapings from the lesions of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of P. versicolor were subjected to (1) KOH mount and CSB stain for direct microscopic examination and (2) culture using Sabouraud's dextrose agar. The statistical analysis of CSB stain and culture was done using KOH mount as the reference method, as it is the most commonly performed and practical diagnostic test available for P. versicolor. An interrater reliability analysis using the Cohen's Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency (agreement) among the different modalities. Direct microscopy with CSB stain, KOH mount and mycological culture showed positive results in 98 (98%), 92 (92%) and 56 (56%) patients, respectively. Using KOH mount as the reference method, CSB stain had a sensitivity of 100% which was significantly higher than culture (60.9%). Statistically significant fair agreement was found between CSB stain and KOH mount (94% with κ=0.38, P < 0.001). Negligible agreement was found between CSB stain and culture (66%, κ=0.199, P = 0.001) as well as between KOH mount and culture (64%, κ=0.051, P = 0.107). CSB staining of skin scrapings is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. Due to the distinct contrast provided by CSB, it is easy to perform, rapid and qualitatively superior to KOH mount.

  9. A novel contrast stain for the rapid diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor: A comparison of Chicago Sky Blue 6B stain, potassium hydroxide mount and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Lodha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mycological study of pityriasis versicolor is usually done by potassium hydroxide (KOH mount and culture. However, KOH mount lacks a color contrast and requires a trained eye to interpret, while culture is difficult to perform, time consuming and has low sensitivity. Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB is a new contrast stain that highlights the fungal hyphae and spores, blue against a purplish background. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to compare the utility of a novel contrast stain (CSB stain with KOH mount and culture. Materials and Methods: Skin scrapings from the lesions of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of P. versicolor were subjected to (1 KOH mount and CSB stain for direct microscopic examination and (2 culture using Sabouraud′s dextrose agar. The statistical analysis of CSB stain and culture was done using KOH mount as the reference method, as it is the most commonly performed and practical diagnostic test available for P. versicolor. An interrater reliability analysis using the Cohen′s Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency (agreement among the different modalities. Observations and Results: Direct microscopy with CSB stain, KOH mount and mycological culture showed positive results in 98 (98%, 92 (92% and 56 (56% patients, respectively. Using KOH mount as the reference method, CSB stain had a sensitivity of 100% which was significantly higher than culture (60.9%. Statistically significant fair agreement was found between CSB stain and KOH mount (94% with κ=0.38, P < 0.001. Negligible agreement was found between CSB stain and culture (66%, κ=0.199, P = 0.001 as well as between KOH mount and culture (64%, κ=0.051, P = 0.107. Conclusion: CSB staining of skin scrapings is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. Due to the distinct contrast provided by CSB, it is easy to perform, rapid and qualitatively superior to KOH mount.

  10. Adoption of rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of malaria, a preliminary analysis of the global fund program data, 2005 to 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Zhao (Jinkou); M. Lama (Marcel); E.L. Korenromp (Eline); P. Aylward (Patrick); E. Shargie (Estifanos); S. Filler (Scott); R. Komatsu (Ryuichi); R. Atun (Rifat)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The World Health Organization Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria, in 2006 and 2010, recommend parasitological confirmation of malaria before commencing treatment. Although microscopy has been the mainstay of malaria diagnostics, the magnitude of diagnostic scale up

  11. Evaluation of four rapid tests for diagnosis and differentiation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in Guinea-Conakry, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillet, Pascale; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Zachariah, Rony; Duclos, Nanfack; Moctar, Diallo; Beelaert, Greet; Fransen, Katrien

    2010-09-01

    With both HIV-1 and HV-2 prevalent in Guinea-Conakry, accurate diagnosis and differentiation is crucial for treatment purposes. Thus, four rapid HIV tests were evaluated for their HIV-1 and HIV-2 diagnostic and discriminative capacity for use in Guinea-Conakry. These included SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc.), Genie II HIV1/HIV2 (Bio-Rad), First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 (PMC Medical) and Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 (Core Diagnostics). Results were compared with gold standard tests (INNO-LIA HIV-I/II Score) and NEW LAV BLOT II (Bio-Rad). Four hundred and forty three sequential stored HIV-positive serum samples, of known HIV-type, were evaluated. Genie II HIV1/HIV2, Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 and SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 had 100% sensitivity (95% CI, 98.9-100%) while for First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 this was 99.5% (95% CI, 98.2%-99.9%). In terms of discriminatory capacity, Genie II HIV1/HIV2 identified 382/ 384(99.5%) HIV-1 samples, 49/ 52(95%) HIV-2 and 7/7(100%) HIV-positive untypable samples. Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 identified 99% HIV-1, 67% HIV-2 and all HIV-positive untypable samples. First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 identified 94% HIV-1, 64% HIV-2 and 57% HIV-positive untypable samples. SD-Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 was the worst overall performer identifying 65% HIV-1, 69% HIV-2 and all HIV-positive untypable samples. The use of SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (the current standard in Guinea-Conakry) as a discriminatory HIV test is poor and may be best replaced by Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2. Copyright 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Performance evaluation of automated urine microscopy as a rapid, non-invasive approach for the diagnosis of non-gonococcal urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Marcus J; Nori, Achyuta V; Patel, Sheel; Laing, Ken; Ajayi, Margarita; Copas, Andrew J; Butcher, Philip D; Hay, Phillip; Sadiq, Syed Tariq

    2015-05-01

    Gram-stained urethral smear (GSUS), the standard point-of-care test for non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) is operator dependent and poorly specific. The performance of rapid automated urine flow cytometry (AUFC) of first void urine (FVU) white cell counts (UWCC) for predicting Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis urethral infections was assessed and its application to asymptomatic infection was evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, determining FVU-UWCC threshold for predicting M. genitalium or C. trachomatis infection was performed on 208 'training' samples from symptomatic patients and subsequently validated using 228 additional FVUs obtained from prospective unselected patients. An optimal diagnostic threshold of >29 UWC/µL gave sensitivities and specificities for either infection of 81.5% (95% CI 65.1% to 91.6%) and 85.8% (79.5% to 90.4%), respectively, compared with 86.8% (71.1% to 95%) and 64.7% (56.9% to 71.7%), respectively, for GSUS, using the training set samples. FVU-UWCC demonstrated sensitivities and specificities of 69.2% (95% CI 48.1% to 84.9%) and 92% (87.2% to 95.2%), respectively, when using validation samples. In asymptomatic patients where GSUS was not used, AUFC would have enabled more infections to be detected compared with clinical considerations only (71.4% vs 28.6%; p=0.03). The correlation between UWCC and bacterial load was stronger for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis (τ=0.426, p≤0.001 vs τ=0.295, p=0.022, respectively). AUFC offers improved specificity over microscopy for predicting C. trachomatis or M. genitalium infection. Universal AUFC may enable non-invasive diagnosis of asymptomatic NGU at the PoC. The degree of urethral inflammation exhibits a stronger association with pathogen load for M. genitalium compared with C. trachomatis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. A field evaluation of the Hardy TB MODS Kit™ for the rapid phenotypic diagnosis of tuberculosis and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Martin

    Full Text Available Even though the WHO-endorsed, non-commercial MODS assay offers rapid, reliable TB liquid culture and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST at lower cost than any other diagnostic, uptake has been patchy. In part this reflects misperceptions about in-house assay quality assurance, but user convenience of one-stop procurement is also important. A commercial MODS kit was developed by Hardy Diagnostics (Santa Maria, CA, USA with PATH (Seattle, WA, USA to facilitate procurement, simplify procedures through readymade media, and enhance safety with a sealing silicone plate lid. Here we report the results from a large-scale field evaluation of the MODS kit in a government service laboratory.2446 sputum samples were cultured in parallel in Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ, conventional MODS and in the MODS kit. MODS kit DST was compared with conventional MODS (direct DST and proportion method (indirect DST. 778 samples (31.8% were Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture-positive. Compared to conventional MODS the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values (95% confidence intervals of the MODS Kit were 99.3% (98.3-99.8%, 98.3% (97.5-98.8%, 95.8% (94.0-97.1%, and 99.7% (99.3-99.9%. Median (interquartile ranges time to culture-positivity (and rifampicin and isoniazid DST was 10 (9-13 days for conventional MODS and 8.5 (7-11 for MODS Kit (p<0.01. Direct rifampicin and isoniazid DST in MODS kit was almost universally concordant with conventional MODS (97.9% agreement, 665/679 evaluable samples and reference indirect DST (97.9% agreement, 687/702 evaluable samples.MODS kit delivers performance indistinguishable from conventional MODS and offers a convenient, affordable alternative with enhanced safety from the sealing silicone lid. The availability in the marketplace of this platform, which conforms to European standards (CE-marked, readily repurposed for second-line DST in the near future, provides a fresh opportunity for improving equity of

  14. Gram-stain plus MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for a rapid diagnosis of urinary tract infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Burillo

    Full Text Available Microbiological confirmation of a urinary tract infection (UTI takes 24-48 h. In the meantime, patients are usually given empirical antibiotics, sometimes inappropriately. We assessed the feasibility of sequentially performing a Gram stain and MALDI-TOF MS mass spectrometry (MS on urine samples to anticipate clinically useful information. In May-June 2012, we randomly selected 1000 urine samples from patients with suspected UTI. All were Gram stained and those yielding bacteria of a single morphotype were processed for MALDI-TOF MS. Our sequential algorithm was correlated with the standard semiquantitative urine culture result as follows: Match, the information provided was anticipative of culture result; Minor error, the information provided was partially anticipative of culture result; Major error, the information provided was incorrect, potentially leading to inappropriate changes in antimicrobial therapy. A positive culture was obtained in 242/1000 samples. The Gram stain revealed a single morphotype in 207 samples, which were subjected to MALDI-TOF MS. The diagnostic performance of the Gram stain was: sensitivity (Se 81.3%, specificity (Sp 93.2%, positive predictive value (PPV 81.3%, negative predictive value (NPV 93.2%, positive likelihood ratio (+LR 11.91, negative likelihood ratio (-LR 0.20 and accuracy 90.0% while that of MALDI-TOF MS was: Se 79.2%, Sp 73.5, +LR 2.99, -LR 0.28 and accuracy 78.3%. The use of both techniques provided information anticipative of the culture result in 82.7% of cases, information with minor errors in 13.4% and information with major errors in 3.9%. Results were available within 1 h. Our serial algorithm provided information that was consistent or showed minor errors for 96.1% of urine samples from patients with suspected UTI. The clinical impacts of this rapid UTI diagnosis strategy need to be assessed through indicators of adequacy of treatment such as a reduced time to appropriate empirical treatment or

  15. A comparison of gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy and indium-111 labelled leukocyte imaging for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKillop, J.H.; Cuthbert, G.F.; Gray, H.W.; McKay, Iain; Sturrock, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary experience in comparing Gallium-67 imaging in patients with a painful prosthetic joint to the findings on Indium-111 labelled leukocyte imaging is reported. In the small series of patients so far studied, no clear advantage has emerged for either Gallium-67 or Indium-111 leukocyte imaging in terms of sensitivity or specificity for joint prosthesis infection. Should a larger group confirm the preliminary findings, Gallium-67 imaging may be preferable to Indium-111 leukocyte imaging in the patient with the painful joint prosthesis, in view of the greater simplicity of the former technique

  16. Clients of sex workers in Switzerland: it makes sense to counsel and propose rapid test for HIV on the street, a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diserens, Esther-Amélie; Bodenmann, Patrick; N'Garambe, Chantal; Ansermet-Pagot, Anne; Vannotti, Marco; Masserey, Eric; Cavassini, Matthias

    2010-03-19

    Clients of street sex workers may be at higher risk for HIV infection than the general population. Furthermore, there is a lack of knowledge regarding HIV testing of clients of sex workers in developed countries. This pilot study assessed the feasibility and acceptance of rapid HIV testing by the clients of street-based sex workers in Lausanne, Switzerland. For 5 evenings, clients in cars were stopped by trained field staff for face-to-face interviews focusing on sex-related HIV risk behaviors and HIV testing history. The clients were then offered a free anonymous rapid HIV test in a bus parked nearby. Rapid HIV testing and counselling were performed by experienced nurse practitioners. Clients with reactive tests were offered confirmatory testing, medical evaluation, and care in our HIV clinic. We intercepted 144 men, 112 (77.8%) agreed to be interviewed. Among them, 50 (46.6%) had never been tested for HIV. A total of 31 (27.7%) rapid HIV tests were performed, 16 (51.6%) in clients who had not previously been tested. None were reactive. Initially, 19 (16.9%) additional clients agreed to HIV testing but later declined due to the 40-minute queue for testing. This pilot study showed that rapid HIV testing in the red light district of Lausanne was feasible, and that the clients of sex workers accepted testing at an unexpectedly high rate. This setting seems particularly appropriate for targeted HIV screening, since more than 40% of the clients had not previously been tested for HIV even though they engaged in sex-related HIV risk behaviour.

  17. Effectiveness of transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange versus traditional preoxygenation followed by apnoeic oxygenation in delaying desaturation during apnoea: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Rajan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Transnasal humidified rapid-insufflation ventilatory exchange (THRIVE during apnoea has shown to delay desaturation. The primary objective was to compare time to desaturate to 200 mmHg even at 12 min of apnoea with a significant rise in PaCO2along with fall in pH after 6 min. Conclusion: During apnoeic periods time to desaturate to <90% was significantly prolonged with use of THRIVE.

  18. Preliminary studies leading to a conceptual design of a 1000 MWe fast neutron reactor; Etudes preliminaires conduisant a un concept de reacteur a neutrons rapides de 1000 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendryes, G.; Zaleski, C.P. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    This report presents the results of studies which seemed important to undertake in connexion with the development of fast neutron reactors. - It points out the advantage of high internal breeding ratios ({approx}1, 1) which are necessary in order to get a small change in time both in power distribution and reactivity (less: than 0.005 {delta}k/k in 18 months). - It shows how to achieve this goal, when simultaneously power distribution flattening is obtained. These results in a higher mean specific power (which is an economic gain) and therefore in a smaller doubling time (about 10 years). - It attempts to find criteria concerning the specific power that should be used in future reactor designs -It presents a conceptional design of a 1000 MWe fast neutron reactor, for the realisation of which no technological impossibility appears. - It shows that the dynamic behaviour seems satisfactory despite a positive total isothermal sodium coefficient. - It tries to predict the development of fast reactors within the future total nuclear program. It does not appear that fissile materials supply problems should in France slow down the development of fast neutron reactors, which will be essentially tied up to its economical ability to produce cheap electric power. (authors) [French] Ce rapport presente les etudes qu'il nous a paru important d'aborder dans le cadre du developpement des reacteurs a neutrons rapides. - Il met en evidence l'interet des taux de regeneration internes eleves ({approx}1, 1) pour obtenir une bonne evolution dans le temps de la distribution de puissance et de la reactivite (moins de 0,005 {delta}k/k pour 18 mois). - Il montre la possibilite d'y parvenir tout en applatissant la distribution des fissions, ce qui se traduit par une puissance specifique moyenne plus elevee (gain economique), et donc un temps de doublement plus faible de l'ordte de 10 ans - Il tente de definir un optimum de la puissance specifique valable pour les

  19. Preliminary studies leading to a conceptual design of a 1000 MWe fast neutron reactor; Etudes preliminaires conduisant a un concept de reacteur a neutrons rapides de 1000 MWe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendryes, G; Zaleski, C P [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    This report presents the results of studies which seemed important to undertake in connexion with the development of fast neutron reactors. - It points out the advantage of high internal breeding ratios ({approx}1, 1) which are necessary in order to get a small change in time both in power distribution and reactivity (less: than 0.005 {delta}k/k in 18 months). - It shows how to achieve this goal, when simultaneously power distribution flattening is obtained. These results in a higher mean specific power (which is an economic gain) and therefore in a smaller doubling time (about 10 years). - It attempts to find criteria concerning the specific power that should be used in future reactor designs -It presents a conceptional design of a 1000 MWe fast neutron reactor, for the realisation of which no technological impossibility appears. - It shows that the dynamic behaviour seems satisfactory despite a positive total isothermal sodium coefficient. - It tries to predict the development of fast reactors within the future total nuclear program. It does not appear that fissile materials supply problems should in France slow down the development of fast neutron reactors, which will be essentially tied up to its economical ability to produce cheap electric power. (authors) [French] Ce rapport presente les etudes qu'il nous a paru important d'aborder dans le cadre du developpement des reacteurs a neutrons rapides. - Il met en evidence l'interet des taux de regeneration internes eleves ({approx}1, 1) pour obtenir une bonne evolution dans le temps de la distribution de puissance et de la reactivite (moins de 0,005 {delta}k/k pour 18 mois). - Il montre la possibilite d'y parvenir tout en applatissant la distribution des fissions, ce qui se traduit par une puissance specifique moyenne plus elevee (gain economique), et donc un temps de doublement plus faible de l'ordte de 10 ans - Il tente de definir un optimum de la puissance specifique valable pour les projets de reacteurs futurs

  20. A rapid molecular diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis bycolorimetric malachite green-loop-mediated isothermal amplification(LAMP) combined with an FTA card as a direct sampling tool

    OpenAIRE

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O.; Cáceres, Abraham G.; Guerrero-Quincho, Silvia; Tineo-Villafuerte, Edwin; Rodriquez-Delfin, Luis; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Uezato, Hiroshi; Katakura, Ken; Gomez, Eduardo A.; Guevara, Angel G.; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis remains one of the world's most neglected diseases, and early detection of the infectious agent, especially in developing countries, will require a simple and rapid test. In this study, we established a quick, one-step, single-tube, highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Leishmania DNA from tissue materials spotted on an FTA card. An FTA-LAMP with pre-added malachite green was performed at 64 degrees C for 60 mm using a heatin...

  1. The identification of fall history using maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensors in healthy, recreationally active elderly females: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ty B; Thiele, Ryan M; Williams, Katherine B; Adams, Bailey M; Akehi, Kazuma; Smith, Douglas B; Thompson, Brennan J

    2015-08-01

    Maximal and rapid torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles play an important role in fall prevention and other balance-related performances; however, few studies have investigated the ability of these variables at identifying fall-history status in healthy, recreationally active elderly adults. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles to differentiate between healthy, recreationally active elderly females with (fallers) and without (non-fallers) a history a falls. Six elderly female fallers (mean ± SD: age = 73 ± 7 year; mass = 68 ± 16 kg; height = 160 ± 5 cm) and nine elderly female non-fallers (age = 71 ± 7 year; mass = 66 ± 16 kg; height = 157 ± 6 cm) performed two isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the hip extensor muscles. Peak torque (PT) and absolute and relative rate of torque development (RTD) at the early (0-50 ms) and late (100-200 ms) phases of muscle contraction were examined during each MVC. Absolute and relative RTD at 0-50 ms were greater (P = 0.039 and 0.011, respectively) in the non-fallers compared to the fallers. However, no group-related differences (P = 0.160-0.573) were observed for PT nor absolute and relative RTD at 100-200 ms. Early rapid strength production of the hip extensor muscles may be a sensitive and effective measure for discriminating between elderly females of different fall histories. These findings may provide important insight regarding implications for the assessment of fall risk and in the development of proper training programs aimed at minimizing the occurrence of falls and other balance-related injuries in the elderly.

  2. Proposal of a simple screening method for a rapid preliminary evaluation of ''heavy metals'' mobility in soils of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Valentina; Chiusolo, Francesca; Cremisini, Carlo [ENEA - Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment, Rome (Italy). Section PROTCHIM

    2010-09-15

    Risks associated to ''heavy metals'' (HM) soil contamination depend not only on their total content but, mostly, on their mobility. Many extraction procedures have been developed to evaluate HM mobility in contaminated soils, but they are generally time consuming (especially the sequential extraction procedures (SEPs)) and consequently applicable on a limited number of samples. For this reason, a simple screening method, applicable even ''in field'', has been proposed in order to obtain a rapid evaluation of HM mobility in polluted soils, mainly focused on the fraction associated to Fe and Mn oxide/hydroxides. A buffer solution of trisodium citrate and hydroxylamine hydrochloride was used as extractant for a single-step leaching test. The choice of this buffered solution was strictly related to the possibility of directly determining, via titration with dithizone (DZ), the content of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd, which are among the most representative contaminants in highly mineralised soils. Moreover, the extraction solution is similar, aside from for the pH value, which is the one used in the BCR SEP second step. The analysis of bivalents ions through DZ titration was exploited in order to further simplify and quicken the whole procedure. The proposed method generically measures, in few minutes, the concentration of total extractable ''heavy metals'' expressed as molL{sup -1} without distinguishing between elements. The proposed screening method has been developed and applied on soil samples collected from rural, urban and mining areas, representing different situation of soil contamination. Results were compared with data obtained from the BCR procedure. The screening method demonstrated to be a reliable tool for a rapid evaluation of metals mobility. Therefore, it could be very useful, even ''in field'', both to guide the sampling activity on site and to monitor the efficacy of the subsequent

  3. Direct analysis of formate in human plasma, serum and whole blood by in-line coupling of microdialysis to capillary electrophoresis for rapid diagnosis of methanol poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Kubáň, P. (Pavel); Boček, P. (Petr)

    2013-01-01

    A microdialytic device was in-line coupled to capillary electrophoresis for direct injection of blood samples. Its performance was demonstrated on rapid analysis of formic acid in various blood samples including serum samples of a patient diagnosed with acute methanol poisoning.

  4. Initialization, Prediction and Diagnosis of the Rapid Intensification of Tropical Cyclones using the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator, ACCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    structure on the evolving storm behaviour. 13 7. Large scale influences on Rapid Intensification and Extratropical Transition: RI and ET...assimilation techniques to better initialize and validate TC structures (including the intense inner core and storm asymmetries) consistent with the large...Without vortex specification, initial conditions usually contain a weak and misplaced circulation. Based on estimates of central pressure and storm size

  5. Linear-after-the-exponential polymerase chain reaction and allied technologies. Real-time detection strategies for rapid, reliable diagnosis from single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Kenneth E; Wangh, Lawrence J

    2007-01-01

    Accurate detection of gene sequences in single cells is the ultimate challenge to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) sensitivity. Unfortunately, commonly used conventional and real-time PCR techniques are often too unreliable at that level to provide the accuracy needed for clinical diagnosis. Here we provide details of linear-after-the-exponential-PCR (LATE-PCR), a method similar to asymmetric PCR in the use of primers at different concentrations, but with novel design criteria to ensure high efficiency and specificity. Compared with conventional PCR, LATE-PCR increases the signal strength and allele discrimination capability of oligonucleotide probes such as molecular beacons and reduces variability among replicate samples. The analysis of real-time kinetics of LATE-PCR signals provides a means for improving the accuracy of single cell genetic diagnosis.

  6. Rapid kit-based (68)Ga-labelling and PET imaging with THP-Tyr(3)-octreotate: a preliminary comparison with DOTA-Tyr(3)-octreotate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Michelle T; Cullinane, Carleen; Waldeck, Kelly; Roselt, Peter; Hicks, Rodney J; Blower, Philip J

    2015-12-01

    Ge/(68)Ga generators provide an inexpensive source of a PET isotope to hospitals without cyclotron facilities. The development of new (68)Ga-based molecular imaging agents and subsequent clinical translation would be greatly facilitated by simplification of radiochemical syntheses. We report the properties of a tris(hydroxypyridinone) conjugate of the SSTR2-targeted peptide, Tyr(3)-octreotate (TATE), and compare the (68)Ga-labelling and biodistribution of [(68)Ga(THP-TATE)] with the clinical radiopharmaceutical [(68)Ga(DOTATATE)]. A tris(hydroxypyridinone) with a pendant isothiocyanate group was conjugated to the primary amine terminus of H2N-PEG2-Lys(iv-Dde)(5)-TATE, and the resulting conjugate was deprotected to provide THP-TATE. THP-TATE was radiolabelled with (68)Ga(3+) from a (68)Ge/(68)Ga generator. In vitro uptake was assessed in SSTR2-positive 427-7 cells and SSTR2-negative 427 (parental) cells. Biodistribution of [(68)Ga(THP-TATE)] was compared with that of [(68)Ga(DOTATATE)] in Balb/c nude mice bearing SSTR2-positive AR42J tumours. PET scans were obtained 1 h post-injection, after which animals were euthanised and tissues/organs harvested and counted. [(68)Ga(THP-TATE)] was radiolabelled and formulated rapidly in negative cells, and receptor binding and internalisation were specific. Animals administered [(68)Ga(THP-TATE)] demonstrated comparable SSTR2-positive tumour activity (11.5 ± 0.6 %ID g(-1)) compared to animals administered [(68)Ga(DOTATATE)] (14.4 ± 0.8 %ID g(-1)). Co-administration of unconjugated Tyr(3)-octreotate effectively blocked tumour accumulation of [(68)Ga(THP-TATE)] (2.7 ± 0.6 %ID g(-1)). Blood clearance of [(68)Ga(THP-TATE)] was rapid and excretion was predominantly renal, although compared to [(68)Ga(DOTATATE)], [(68)Ga(THP-TATE)] exhibited comparatively longer kidney retention. Radiochemical synthesis of [(68)Ga(THP-TATE)] is significantly faster, proceeds under milder conditions, and requires less manipulation

  7. Detection of Circulating Mucorales DNA in Critically Ill Burn Patients: Preliminary Report of a Screening Strategy for Early Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Matthieu; Gits-Muselli, Maud; Boutin, Louis; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Maurel, Véronique; Soussi, Sabri; Benyamina, Mourad; Ferry, Axelle; Chaussard, Maïté; Hamane, Samia; Denis, Blandine; Touratier, Sophie; Guigue, Nicolas; Fréalle, Emilie; Jeanne, Mathieu; Shaal, Jean-Vivien; Soler, Charles; Mimoun, Maurice; Chaouat, Marc; Lafaurie, Matthieu; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Bretagne, Stéphane; Alanio, Alexandre

    2016-11-15

     Invasive wound mucormycosis (IWM) is associated with an extremely poor outcome among critically ill burn patients. We describe the detection of circulating Mucorales DNA (cmDNA) for the early diagnosis of IWM in those patients and report the potential value of detecting cmDNA for treatment guidance.  Severely ill burn patients admitted to our tertiary referral center between October 2013 and February 2016 were included. Retrospective plasma samples were tested for the presence of cmDNA by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Patients were then prospectively screened twice a week, and liposomal amphotericin-B therapy initiated based on a positive qPCR. The primary endpoint was the time between cmDNA detection and standard diagnosis. Secondary endpoints were the time from cmDNA detection and treatment initiation and mortality.  Seventy-seven patients (418 samples) were included. The average age was 46 (28-60) years, abbreviated burn severity index was 8 (7-10), and simplified acute physiology score was 33 (23-46). The total body surface area was 33% (22%-52%). cmDNA was detected 11 (4.5-15) days before standard diagnosis. The in-hospital mortality was 62% for patients with IWM and 24% for those without (P = .03). The mortality due to IWM was 80% during period A and 33% during period B (P = .46).  This study suggests that the detection of cmDNA allows earlier diagnosis of IWM in severely ill burn patients and earlier initiation of treatment. Further studies are needed to confirm the impact of earlier treatment initiation on patient outcome. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Preliminary handling studies in large size fast piles; Etudes preliminaires de manutention dans les reacteurs a neutrons rapides de grande taille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, J; Marmonier, P [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    This report examines the various fuel handling systems which presently seem feasible for a fast power reactor. It tries to point out the advantages and / or the the disadvantages and the fabrication problems for each solution involved and makes, a tentative to evaluate the time required for a fuel loading and / or unloading operation. One has investigated the influence of the maximum allowable irradiation, the number of of shut-downs, the power distribution shape within the core on the storage capacity needed, the load factor expected and the average irradiation obtained. (authors) [French] On a examine dans ce rapport les differents systemes de manutention, qui semblent actuellement realisables pour un reacteur a neutrons rapides de puissance, en essayant de faire ressortir les avantages, les inconvenients et les difficultes de realisation de chaque systeme, et de chiffer les temps de manutention auxquels ils conduisent. On a aussi regarde l'influence des variations du taux d'irradiation maximal,de la cadence des arrets ou de la forme du flux dans le coeur du reacteur, sur la capacite du stockage, le taux de disponibilite et le taux d'irradiation moyen. (auteurs)

  9. Preliminary handling studies in large size fast piles; Etudes preliminaires de manutention dans les reacteurs a neutrons rapides de grande taille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, J.; Marmonier, P. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    This report examines the various fuel handling systems which presently seem feasible for a fast power reactor. It tries to point out the advantages and / or the the disadvantages and the fabrication problems for each solution involved and makes, a tentative to evaluate the time required for a fuel loading and / or unloading operation. One has investigated the influence of the maximum allowable irradiation, the number of of shut-downs, the power distribution shape within the core on the storage capacity needed, the load factor expected and the average irradiation obtained. (authors) [French] On a examine dans ce rapport les differents systemes de manutention, qui semblent actuellement realisables pour un reacteur a neutrons rapides de puissance, en essayant de faire ressortir les avantages, les inconvenients et les difficultes de realisation de chaque systeme, et de chiffer les temps de manutention auxquels ils conduisent. On a aussi regarde l'influence des variations du taux d'irradiation maximal,de la cadence des arrets ou de la forme du flux dans le coeur du reacteur, sur la capacite du stockage, le taux de disponibilite et le taux d'irradiation moyen. (auteurs)

  10. Dynamic gadolinium-enhanced subtraction MR imaging - a simple technique for the early diagnosis of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebag, G.; Ducou Le Pointe, H.; Klein, I.; Maiza, D.; Mazda, K.; Bensahel, H.; Hassan, M.

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether the simple technique of dynamic gadolinium-enhanced subtraction MR imaging, which is available on standard MR units, can detect ischemia of the femoral head in children with early Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCP). Bone perfusion of eight hips in four patients (mean age 7.5 years) was studied using dynamic gadolinium-enhanced substraction MR imaging at the onset of proven LCP (with initial negative plain films). Enhancement of subtracted images was compared with that on standard MR images and with bone scintigraphy findings. Subtraction MR imaging depicted ischemia as a widespread absence of enhancement and was in good agreement with bone scintigraphy. The subtraction technique improved the sensitivity and the specificity of MR imaging in two children. Furthermore, subtraction MR imaging allowed recognition of the pattern of early reperfusion. Our preliminary results indicate that dynamic gadolinium-enhanced subtraction MRI is a simple and promising means of early recognition of ischemia in LCP. (orig.)

  11. Field Evaluation of Capillary Blood Samples as a Collection Specimen for the Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Infection During an Outbreak Emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Thomas; Palyi, Bernadett; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Jonckheere, Sylvie; de Clerck, Hilde; Bore, Joseph Akoi; Gabriel, Martin; Stoecker, Kilian; Eickmann, Markus; van Herp, Michel; Formenty, Pierre; Di Caro, Antonino; Becker, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    Reliable reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based diagnosis of Ebola virus infection currently requires a blood sample obtained by intravenous puncture. During the current Ebola outbreak in Guinea, we evaluated the usability of capillary blood samples collected from fingersticks of patients suspected of having Ebola virus disease (EVD) for field diagnostics during an outbreak emergency. A total of 120 venous and capillary blood samples were collected from 53 patients admitted to the Ebola Treatment Centre in Guéckédou, Guinea, between July and August 2014. All sample specimens were analyzed by RT-PCR using the RealStar Filovirus Screen RT-PCR Kit 1.0 from altona Diagnostics (Germany). We compared samples obtained by venipuncture and those obtained by capillary blood sampling absorbed onto swab devices. The resulting sensitivity and specificity of tests performed with capillary blood samples were 86.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9%-95.6%; 33/38 patients) and 100% (95% CI, 84.6%-100%; 22/22 patients), respectively. Our data suggest that capillary blood samples could serve as an alternative to venous blood samples for the diagnosis of EVD in resource-limited settings during a crisis. This can be of particular advantage in cases when venipuncture is difficult to perform-for example, with newborns and infants or when adult patients reject venipuncture for cultural or religious reasons. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  12. Devising an endoluminal bimodal probe which combines autofluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy with high resolution MRI for early stage colorectal cancer diagnosis: technique, feasibility and preliminary in-vivo (rabbit) results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramgolam, A.; Sablong, R.; Bou-Saïd, B.; Bouvard, S.; Saint-Jalmes, H.; Beuf, O.

    2011-07-01

    Conventional white light endoscopy (WLE) is the most widespread technique used today for colorectal cancer diagnosis and is considered as the gold standard when coupled to biopsy and histology. However for early stage colorectal cancer diagnosis, which is very often characterised by flat adenomas, the use of WLE is quite difficult due to subtle or quasiinvisible morphological changes of the colonic lining. Figures worldwide point out that diagnosing colorectal cancer in its early stages would significantly reduce the death toll all while increasing the 5-year survival rate. Several techniques are currently being investigated in the scope of providing new tools that would allow such a diagnostic or assist actual techniques in so doing. We hereby present a novel technique where High spatial Resolution MRI (HR-MRI) is coupled to optical spectroscopy (autofluorescence and reflectance) in a bimodal endoluminal probe to extract morphological data and biochemical information respectively. The design and conception of the endoluminal probe along with the preliminary results obtained with an organic phantom and in-vivo (rabbit) are presented and discussed.

  13. Usefulness of perfusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging with signal-intensity curves analysis in the differential diagnosis of sellar and parasellar tumors: Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladowska, Joanna, E-mail: asia.bladowska@gmail.com [Department of General Radiology, Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 213, 50-556 Wroclaw (Poland); Zimny, Anna, E-mail: abernac@wp.pl [Department of General Radiology, Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 213, 50-556 Wroclaw (Poland); Guziński, Maciej, E-mail: guziol@wp.pl [Department of General Radiology, Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 213, 50-556 Wroclaw (Poland); Hałoń, Agnieszka, E-mail: ahalon2@gmail.com [Department of Pathomorphology and Oncological Cytology, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 213, 50-556 Wroclaw (Poland); Tabakow, Paweł, E-mail: p.tabakov@wp.pl [Department of Neurosurgery, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 213, 50-556 Wroclaw (Poland); Czyż, Marcin, E-mail: mt.czyz@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 213, 50-556 Wroclaw (Poland); Czapiga, Bogdan, E-mail: bogdanczapiga@op.pl [Department of Neurosurgery, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 213, 50-556 Wroclaw (Poland); Jarmundowicz, Włodzimierz, E-mail: jarmund@wp.pl [Department of Neurosurgery, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 213, 50-556 Wroclaw (Poland); Sąsiadek, Marek J., E-mail: marek.sasiadek@am.wroc.pl [Department of General Radiology, Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 213, 50-556 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The most common pituitary tumors are adenomas, which however may be mimicked by other tumors that can show a very similar appearance in plain MRI. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of perfusion weighted MR imaging (PWI), including signal-intensity curves analysis in the differential diagnosis of sellar/parasellar tumors. Methods: Forty-one patients with sellar/parasellar tumors (23 macroadenomas, 10 meningiomas, 5 craniopharyngiomas, 1 intrasellar hemangioblastoma, 1 intrasellar prostate cancer metastasis, 1 suprasellar glioma), underwent plain MRI followed by PWI using a 1.5T unit. In each tumor, the mean and maximum values of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), as well as the relative peak height (rPH) and the relative percentage of signal intensity recovery (rPSR) were calculated. Results: The high perfusion tumors were: macroadenomas, meningiomas, squamous-papillary type of craniopharyngiomas, hemangioblastoma, glioma and metastasis. The low perfusion neoplasms included adamantinomatous type of craniopharyngiomas. By comparing adenomas and meningiomas, we found statistically significant differences in the mean and maximum rCBV values (p = 0.026 and p = 0.019, respectively), but not in rPH and rPSR. The maximum rCBV values >7.14 and the mean rCBV values >5.74 with the typical perfusion curve were very suggestive of the diagnosis of meningioma. There were differences between adenomas and other high perfusion tumors in rPH and rPSR values. Conclusions: PWI can provide additional information helpful in differential diagnosis of sellar/parasellar tumors. In our opinion PWI, as an easy to perform and fast technique should be incorporated into the MR protocol of all intracranial neoplasms including sellar/parasellar tumors.

  14. Usefulness of perfusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging with signal-intensity curves analysis in the differential diagnosis of sellar and parasellar tumors: Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bladowska, Joanna; Zimny, Anna; Guziński, Maciej; Hałoń, Agnieszka; Tabakow, Paweł; Czyż, Marcin; Czapiga, Bogdan; Jarmundowicz, Włodzimierz; Sąsiadek, Marek J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The most common pituitary tumors are adenomas, which however may be mimicked by other tumors that can show a very similar appearance in plain MRI. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of perfusion weighted MR imaging (PWI), including signal-intensity curves analysis in the differential diagnosis of sellar/parasellar tumors. Methods: Forty-one patients with sellar/parasellar tumors (23 macroadenomas, 10 meningiomas, 5 craniopharyngiomas, 1 intrasellar hemangioblastoma, 1 intrasellar prostate cancer metastasis, 1 suprasellar glioma), underwent plain MRI followed by PWI using a 1.5T unit. In each tumor, the mean and maximum values of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), as well as the relative peak height (rPH) and the relative percentage of signal intensity recovery (rPSR) were calculated. Results: The high perfusion tumors were: macroadenomas, meningiomas, squamous-papillary type of craniopharyngiomas, hemangioblastoma, glioma and metastasis. The low perfusion neoplasms included adamantinomatous type of craniopharyngiomas. By comparing adenomas and meningiomas, we found statistically significant differences in the mean and maximum rCBV values (p = 0.026 and p = 0.019, respectively), but not in rPH and rPSR. The maximum rCBV values >7.14 and the mean rCBV values >5.74 with the typical perfusion curve were very suggestive of the diagnosis of meningioma. There were differences between adenomas and other high perfusion tumors in rPH and rPSR values. Conclusions: PWI can provide additional information helpful in differential diagnosis of sellar/parasellar tumors. In our opinion PWI, as an easy to perform and fast technique should be incorporated into the MR protocol of all intracranial neoplasms including sellar/parasellar tumors

  15. The comparison between the prostatic specific antigen and the bone scan in the diagnosis of metastases in operating patients of prostatic cancer. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, R.; Cano P, R.; Mendoza P, G.; Pow S, M.

    1993-01-01

    To compare the value of prostatic specific antigen (PSA) with bone scan results, a study was conducted enrolling 25 prostatic adenocarcinoma patients, fulfilling the following criteria for inclusion: a) histological confirmation of diagnosis b) radical prostatectomy at least three months before bone scan as curative therapy c) at least one month between bone scan and PSA measurement. Fourteen cases were within normal ranges on both techniques. Eleven had metastases on bone scans, with PSA in normal range in five of them. The Spearman's ranks coefficient was rs=0,92, with alfa=0,01, accepting that both tecniques are comparable. (Authors). 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  16. Exclusion and diagnosis of pulmonary embolism by a rapid ELISA D-dimer test and noninvasive imaging techniques within the context of a clinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, J J; Pattynama, P M

    2000-01-01

    A negative rapid ELISA D-dimer test alone in out-patients with a low to moderate clinical probability (CP) on pulmonary embolism (PE) is predicted to safely exclude pulmonary embolism. The combination of a negative rapid ELISA D-dimer test and a low to moderate CP on PE followed by compression ultrasonography (CUS) for the detection of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is safe and cost-effective as it reduces the need for noninvasive imaging techniques to about 50% to 60% of outpatients with suspected PE. A high probability ventilation-perfusion (VP) scan or a positive spiral CT consistent with PE and the detection of DVT by CUS are currently considered to be clear indications for anticoagulant treatment. Subsequent pulmonary angiography (PA) is the gold standard diagnostic strategy to exclude or diagnose PE in suspected outpatients with a negative CUS, a positive rapid ELISA D-dimer test, and a nondiagnostic VP scan or negative spiral CT to prevent overtreatment with anticoagulants. However, the willingness of clinicians and the availability of resources to perform PA is restricted, a fact that has provided an impetus for clinical investigators to search for alternative noninvasive strategies to exclude or detect venous thromboembolism (VTE). Serial CUS testing for the detection of DVT in patients with a low to moderate CP on PE and a nondiagnostic VP scan or negative spiral CT is predicted to be safe and will reduce the need for PA to less than 10% or even less than 5%. This noninvasive serial CUS strategy restricts the need for invasive PA to a minor group of patients (spiral CT and a high CP on PE. Prospective evaluations are warranted to implement and to validate the advantages and the disadvantages of the various combinations of noninvasive strategies and to compare serial CUS testing versus PA in randomized clinical management studies of outpatients with suspected pulmonary embolism.

  17. Pathology in a tube step 2: simple rapid fabrication of curved circular cross section millifluidic channels for biopsy preparation/3D imaging towards pancreatic cancer detection and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ronnie; Burfeind, Chris W.; Lim, Saniel D.; Patle, Shubham; Seibel, Eric J.

    2018-02-01

    3D pathology is intrinsically dependent on 3D microscopy, or the whole tissue imaging of patient tissue biopsies (TBs). Consequently, unsectioned needle specimens must be processed whole: a procedure which cannot necessarily be accomplished through manual methods, or by retasking automated pathology machines. Thus "millifluidic" devices (for millimeter-scale biopsies) are an ideal solution for tissue handling/preparation. TBs are large, messy and a solid-liquid mixture; they vary in material, geometry and structure based on the organ biopsied, the clinician skill and the needle type used. As a result, traditional microfluidic devices are insufficient to handle such mm-sized samples and their associated fabrication techniques are impractical and costly with respect to time/efficiency. Our research group has devised a simple, rapid fabrication process for millifluidic devices using jointed skeletal molds composed of machined, reusable metal rods, segmented rods and stranded wire as structural cores; these cores are surrounded by Teflon outer housing. We can therefore produce curving, circular-cross-section (CCCS) millifluidic channels in rapid fashion that cannot normally be achieved by microfabrication, micro-/CNC-machining, or 3D printing. The approach has several advantages. CLINICAL: round channels interface coring needles. PROCESSING: CCCS channels permit multi-layer device designs for additional (processing, monitoring, testing) stages. REUSABILITY: for a biopsy/needle diameter, molding (interchangeable) components may be produced one-time then reused for other designs. RAPID: structural cores can be quickly removed due to Teflon®'s ultra-low friction; housing may be released with ethanol; PDMS volumes cure faster since metal skeleton molds conduct additional heat from within the curing elastomer.

  18. Comparison of 3D and 2D FSE T2-weighted MRI in the diagnosis of deep pelvic endometriosis: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazot, M.; Stivalet, A.; Daraï, E.; Coudray, C.; Thomassin-Naggara, I.; Poncelet, E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate image quality and diagnostic accuracy of two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the evaluation of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Materials and methods: One hundred and ten consecutive patients with suspicion of endometriosis were recruited at two institutions over a 5-month period. Twenty-three women underwent surgery, 18 had DIE at histology. Two readers independently evaluated 3D and 2D MRI for image quality and diagnosis of DIE. Descriptive analysis, chi-square test for categorical or nominal variables, McNemar test for comparison between 3D and 2D T2-weighted MRI, and weighted “statistics” for intra- and interobserver agreement were used for statistical analysis. Results: Both readers found that 3D yielded significantly lower image quality than 2D MRI (p < 0.0001). Acquisition time for 3D was significantly shorter than 2D MRI (p < 0.01). 3D offered similar accuracy to diagnose DIE compared to 2D MRI. For all locations of endometriosis, a high or variable intra-observer agreement was observed for reader 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusions: Despite a lower overall image quality, 3D provides significant time saving and similar accuracy than multiplanar 2D MRI in the diagnosis of specific DIE locations.

  19. Combination of Salivary Gland Ultrasonography and Virtual Touch Quantification for Diagnosis of Sjögren’s Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoqi Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 136 subjects (51 SS patients, 35 sicca syndrome patients without SS, and 50 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The mean SWV value for salivary glands of SS patients was statistically higher than that of controls (2.81 ± 0.66 m/s versus 1.85 ± 0.28 m/s for parotid glands and 2.29 ± 0.34 m/s versus 1.82 ± 0.25 m/s for submandibular glands, resp.. Combining SWV values of parotid and submandibular glands gives a sensitivity of 88.2% (95% CI: 76.1–95.6% and specificity of 96.0% (95% CI: 86.3–99.5% at the cutoff point of 2.19 m/s, with an AUROC of 0.954 (95% CI: 0.893–0.986. In addition, combining SGUS score and SWV value yields a sensitivity of 98.0% (95% CI: 89.6–100%, specificity of 90.0% (95% CI: 78.2–96.7%, and AUROC of 0.962 (95% CI: 0.904–0.990. Classification tree considering the sequential use of SGUS score and SWV value achieved 92.1% accuracy for diagnosis of SS. Similarly, the ROC curve of combined SGUS scores and SWV values yields an AUROC of 0.954 (95% CI: 0.885–0.987, sensitivity of 97.1% (95% CI: 85.1–99.9%, and specificity of 92.2% (95% CI: 81.1–97.8% for separating sicca syndrome patients (without SS from SS patients. Combining SGUS and VTQ provides a promising tool for diagnosis of SS.

  20. Development of a rapid HRM qPCR for the diagnosis of the four most prevalent Plasmodium lineages in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoener, E R; Hunter, S; Howe, L

    2017-07-01

    Although wildlife rehabilitation and translocations are important tools in wildlife conservation in New Zealand, disease screening of birds has not been standardized. Additionally, the results of the screening programmes are often difficult to interpret due to missing disease data in resident or translocating avian populations. Molecular methods have become the most widespread method for diagnosing avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) infections. However, these methods can be time-consuming, expensive and are less specific in diagnosing mixed infections. Thus, this study developed a new real-time PCR (qPCR) method that was able to detect and specifically identify infections of the three most common lineages of avian malaria in New Zealand (Plasmodium (Novyella) sp. SYAT05, Plasmodium elongatum GRW6 and Plasmodium spp. LINN1) as well as a less common, pathogenic Plasmodium relictum GRW4 lineage. The assay was also able to discern combinations of these parasites in the same sample and had a detection limit of five parasites per microlitre. Due to concerns relating to the presence of the potentially highly pathogenic P. relictum GRW4 lineage in avian populations, an additional confirmatory high resolution (HRM) qPCR was developed to distinguish between commonly identified P. elongatum GRW6 from P. relictum GRW4. The new qPCR assays were tested using tissue samples containing Plasmodium schizonts from three naturally infected dead birds resulting in the identified infection of P. elongatum GRW6. Thus, these rapid qPCR assays have shown to be cost-effective and rapid screening tools for the detection of Plasmodium infection in New Zealand native birds.

  1. Assessment and comparative analysis of a rapid diagnostic test (Tubex® for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among hospitalized children in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoo Aikande

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Typhoid fever remains a significant health problem in many developing countries. A rapid test with a performance comparable to that of blood culture would be highly useful. A rapid diagnostic test for typhoid fever, Tubex®, is commercially available that uses particle separation to detect immunoglobulin M directed towards Salmonella Typhi O9 lipopolysaccharide in sera. Methods We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the Tubex test among Tanzanian children hospitalized with febrile illness using blood culture as gold standard. Evaluation was done considering blood culture confirmed S. Typhi with non-typhi salmonella (NTS and non - salmonella isolates as controls as well as with non-salmonella isolates only. Results Of 139 samples tested with Tubex, 33 were positive for S. Typhi in blood culture, 49 were culture-confirmed NTS infections, and 57 were other non-salmonella infections. Thirteen hemolyzed samples were excluded. Using all non - S. Typhi isolates as controls, we showed a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 89%. When the analysis was repeated excluding NTS from the pool of controls we showed a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 97%. There was no significant difference in the test performance using the two different control groups (p > 0.05. Conclusion This first evaluation of the Tubex test in an African setting showed a similar performance to those seen in some Asian settings. Comparison with the earlier results of a Widal test using the same samples showed no significant difference (p > 0.05 for any of the performance indicators, irrespective of the applied control group.

  2. An accurate and affordable test for the rapid diagnosis of sickle cell disease could revolutionize the outlook for affected children born in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas N

    2015-09-23

    Each year, at least 280,000 children are born with sickle cell disease (SCD) in resource-limited settings. For cost, logistic and political reasons, the availability of SCD testing is limited in such settings and consequently 50-90 % of affected children die undiagnosed before their fifth birthday. The recent development of a point of care method for the diagnosis of SCD - the Sickle SCAN™ device - could afford such children the prompt access to appropriate services that has transformed the outlook for affected children in resource-rich areas. In research published in BMC Medicine, Kanter and colleagues describe a small but carefully conducted study involving 208 children and adults, in which they found that by using Sickle SCAN™ it was possible to diagnose the common forms of SCD with 99 % sensitivity and 99 % specificity, in under 5 minutes. If repeatable both in newborn babies and under real-life conditions, and if marketed at an affordable price, Sickle SCAN™ could revolutionize the survival prospects for children born with SCD in resource-limited areas.Please see related article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-015-0473-6.

  3. Evaluation of Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility (MODS) and the string test for rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Meredith H; Reimer-McAtee, Melissa J; Gilman, Robert H; Lozano, Daniel; Saravia, Ruth; Pajuelo, Monica; Bern, Caryn; Castro, Rosario; Espinoza, Magaly; Vallejo, Maya; Solano, Marco; Challapa, Roxana; Torrico, Faustino

    2015-06-06

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection and the leading cause of death in HIV-positive people worldwide. Diagnosing TB is difficult, and is more challenging in resource-scarce settings where culture-based diagnostic methods rely on poorly sensitive smear microscopy by Ziehl-Neelsen stain (ZN). We performed a cross-sectional study examining the diagnostic utility of Microscopic Observation Drug Susceptibility liquid culture (MODS) versus traditional Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZN) and Lowenstein Jensen culture (LJ) of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) in HIV-infected patients in Bolivia. For sputum scarce individuals we assessed the value of the string test and induced sputum for TB diagnosis. The presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in the sputum of 107 HIV-positive patients was evaluated by ZN, LJ, and MODS. Gastric secretion samples obtained by the string test were evaluated by MODS in 102 patients. The TB-HIV co-infection rate of HIV patients with respiratory symptoms by sputum sample was 45 % (48/107); 46/48 (96 %) were positive by MODS, 38/48 (79 %) by LJ, and 30/48 (63 %) by ZN. The rate of MDRTB was 9 % (4/48). Median time to positive culture was 10 days by MODS versus 34 days by LJ (p Bolivia.

  4. Clinical screening of paraquat in plasma samples using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection: Towards rapid diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of acute paraquat poisoning in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Anh Phuong; Nguyen, Thi Ngan; Do, Thi Trang; Doan, Thu Ha; Ha, Tran Hung; Ta, Thi Thao; Nguyen, Hung Long; Hauser, Peter C; Nguyen, Thi Anh Huong; Mai, Thanh Duc

    2017-08-15

    The employment of a purpose-made capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C 4 D) as a simple and cost-effective solution for clinical screening of paraquat in plasma samples for early-stage diagnosis of acute herbicide poisoning is reported. Paraquat was determined using an electrolyte composed of 10mM histidine adjusted to pH 4 with acetic acid. A detection limit of 0.5mg/L was achieved. Good agreement between results from CE-C 4 D and the confirmation method (HPLC-UV) was obtained, with relative errors for the two pairs of data better than 20% for 31 samples taken from paraquat-intoxicated patients. The results were used by medical doctors for identification and prognosis of acute paraquat poisoning cases. The objective of the work is the deployment of the developed approach in rural areas in Vietnam as a low-cost solution to reduce the mortality rate due to accidental or suicidal ingestion of paraquat. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Comparasion of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, immuno-electron microscopy (IEM and enzyme immunoassay (EIA for the rapid diagnosis of rotavirus infection in children

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    H. G. Pereira

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Detection of rotavirus RNA by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE proved to be a highly sensitive and rapid diagnostic test. A comparison of this assay with immuno-electron microscopy (IEM and enzyme immunoassay (EIA in 245 faeces from children with gastroenteritis revealed complete agreement between the three assays in 238 (97.14% samples. Among 75 samples positive in at least one of the three assays, negative results were observed in 5 (6.48% by PAGE, in 6 (6.76% by EIA and in none by IEM. Silver staining greatly increased the sensitivity of the PAGE assay. We conclude that although IEM remains the most sensitive and rapid rotavirus diagnostic assay, the PAGE technique has many advantages in its favour, including the non-requirement of expensive equipment, the use of only chemically defined reagents and the capacity to distinguish virus subgroup and variants and to detect non-crossreactive rotaviruses which are missed in serological assays.A evidenciação da presença de ácido ribonucleico (ARN viral por eletroforese em gel de policrilamida (EGPA foi comprovada como um método altamente sensível e rápido para o diagnóstico de infecções por rotavirus. Uma comparação desta prova com a imunomicroscopia eletrônica (IEM e com o ensaio imunoenzimático (EIE no exame de 245 fezes de crianças com gastroenterite revelou completa concordancia entre os três ensaios em 238 (97.14% amostras. Entre 75 amostras positivas pelo menos em um dos três ensaios, resultados negativos foram observados em 5 (6.48% por EGPA, em 6 (6.76% por EIE e em nenhum por IEM. Coloração pela prata aumentou consideravelmente a sensibilidade do ensaio por EGPA. Concluímos que embora a IEM ainda seja a prova mais sensível e rápida para o diagnóstico de infecções por rotavirus, o ensaio por EGPA tem muitas vantagens em seu favor, sendo as principais as de não necessitar equipamentos caros, de empregar exclusivamente reagentes quimicamente definidos, de

  6. Virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules with coexistent chronic autoimmune Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ruijun; Li, Fenghua; Wang, Yan; Ying, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification could provide quantitative measurements to estimate tissue stiffness noninvasively. • Severity of Hashimoto's thyroiditis could affect stiffness of extra-nodular thyroid tissue significantly. • Shear wave velocity of malignant nodules significantly higher than that of benign nodules. • Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse imaging is useful in differential diagnosis between malignant/benign thyroid nodules with HT. - Abstract: Objectives: This study aimed at detecting whether Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification (VTQ) could be applied to differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid nodules with chronic autoimmune Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Methods: Convenient ultrasound and Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification were performed in 118 patients with 140 thyroid nodules with histology results. The HT group consisted of 46 patients with 58 nodules. The non-HT group consisted of 72 patients with 82 nodules. Results: The stiffness of extra-nodular thyroid tissue could be significantly affected by the severity of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. The shear wave velocity of thyroid benign nodules and malignant nodules did not significantly differ in the HT group as compared with the non-HT group (benign nodules: 2.13 ± 0.32 m/s vs 1.98 ± 0.48 m/s, P = 0.122; malignant nodules: 3.32 ± 0.77 m/s vs 3.30 ± 0.74 m/s, P = 0.894). In two groups, the shear wave velocity of malignant nodules is significantly higher than that of benign nodules (HT group: 3.32 ± 0.77 m/s vs 2.13 ± 0.32 m/s; non-HT group: 3.30 ± 0.74 m/s vs 1.98 ± 0.48 m/s, P < 0.001). The best cutoff point for shear wave velocity between malignant and benign thyroid nodules was 2.75 m/s. Conclusions: Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification technology could be performed in the differential diagnosis between malignant thyroid nodules and benign thyroid nodules independently from the coexistence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis

  7. Virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules with coexistent chronic autoimmune Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Ruijun, E-mail: jine_nina@hotmail.com [Department of Ultrasound, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No.1630 Dongfang Road, Shanghai 200127 (China); Li, Fenghua, E-mail: prfenghuali@126.com [Department of Ultrasound, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No.1630 Dongfang Road, Shanghai 200127 (China); Wang, Yan [Department of Ultrasound, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No.1630 Dongfang Road, Shanghai 200127 (China); Ying, Zhiqiang, E-mail: yingzhiqiang@126.com [Departmen of Surgery, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No.1630 Dongfang Road, Shanghai 200127 (China); Zhang, Yun, E-mail: profzhangyun@126.com [Departmen of Surgery, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No.1630 Dongfang Road, Shanghai 200127 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification could provide quantitative measurements to estimate tissue stiffness noninvasively. • Severity of Hashimoto's thyroiditis could affect stiffness of extra-nodular thyroid tissue significantly. • Shear wave velocity of malignant nodules significantly higher than that of benign nodules. • Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse imaging is useful in differential diagnosis between malignant/benign thyroid nodules with HT. - Abstract: Objectives: This study aimed at detecting whether Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification (VTQ) could be applied to differentiate between benign and malignant thyroid nodules with chronic autoimmune Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Methods: Convenient ultrasound and Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification were performed in 118 patients with 140 thyroid nodules with histology results. The HT group consisted of 46 patients with 58 nodules. The non-HT group consisted of 72 patients with 82 nodules. Results: The stiffness of extra-nodular thyroid tissue could be significantly affected by the severity of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. The shear wave velocity of thyroid benign nodules and malignant nodules did not significantly differ in the HT group as compared with the non-HT group (benign nodules: 2.13 ± 0.32 m/s vs 1.98 ± 0.48 m/s, P = 0.122; malignant nodules: 3.32 ± 0.77 m/s vs 3.30 ± 0.74 m/s, P = 0.894). In two groups, the shear wave velocity of malignant nodules is significantly higher than that of benign nodules (HT group: 3.32 ± 0.77 m/s vs 2.13 ± 0.32 m/s; non-HT group: 3.30 ± 0.74 m/s vs 1.98 ± 0.48 m/s, P < 0.001). The best cutoff point for shear wave velocity between malignant and benign thyroid nodules was 2.75 m/s. Conclusions: Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification technology could be performed in the differential diagnosis between malignant thyroid nodules and benign thyroid nodules independently from the coexistence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis.

  8. Simultaneous and rapid differential diagnosis of Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum based on a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

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    R Mirnejad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this investigation was to simultaneously detect and differentiate Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in female patients suffering from genital complications by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Materials and Methods : Genital swabs were taken from 210 patients. They were transported to the laboratory in phosphate-buffered saline. For PCR, samples were analysed with genus-specific MyUu-R and MyUu-F primers. This primer set, which was originally designed in our laboratory, amplified a 465 bp fragment (M. genitalium and a 559 bp fragment (U. urealyticum. Samples containing a band of the expected sizes for the Mycoplasma strains were subjected to digestion with a restriction endonuclease enzyme of TaqI and Cac8I. Results: Of the 210 samples, a total of 100 (47.6% samples were found to be positive for Mycoplasmas (seven M. genitalium isolates, 3.3%; and 89 U. urealyticum isolates, 42.4%, and coinfections with both species were detected in four samples (1.9%. The PCR-RFLP results showed that M. genitalium and U. urealyticum are different by enzyme patterns. Conclusion: PCR-RFLP offers a rapid and easily applicable protocol to simultaneous detection and differentiation of M. genitalium and U. urealyticum from clinical samples when specific primers and restriction enzymes are used.

  9. Preliminary clinical application of dopamine transporter imaging with technetium-99m TRODAT-1 and SPECT on the early and differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Wang Zizheng; Liu Zengli; Tang Jun; Wu Jinchang; Luo Weifeng

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the degeneration of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Essential Tremor (ET) by using the cocaine derivative 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 SPECT and correlate the findings to the clinical severities (Hoehn and Yahr scale, H/Y). 28 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, 10 patients with Essential Tremor and 19 healthy volunteers were investigated. The acquisition were performed 3 h postinjection of 99m Tc-TRODAT-1, ROIs were drawn over the images of striatum and cerebellum, and ratios of striatum to cerebellar (ST/CB) were calculated. Ratios differed significantly between PD and controls, but ratios did not show significant difference between ET patients and controls. A significant correlation did not exist between ratios and clinical severities. Hemiparkinson's patients revealed significantly diminished 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 binding not only clinically affected but unaffected side. Our findings indicated that 99m Tc-TRODAT-1 SPECT is not only a reliable method to discriminate between PD and controls but also a useful tool for differential diagnosis in clinically unclear cases such as ET resembling PD

  10. Rapid diagnosis of virulent Pasteurella multocida isolated from farm animals with clinical manifestation of pneumonia respiratory infection using 16S rDNA and KMT1 gene

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    Gamal Mohamedin Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize intra-isolates variation between clinical isolates of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida isolated from sheep, cattle and buffalo at molecular level to check the distribution of pneumonia and hemorrhagic septicemia in some regions of Fayoum, Egypt. Methods: These isolates were obtained from various locations in the Fayoum Governorate, Egypt and they were identified by amplifying 16S rDNA and KMT1 genes using their DNA as a template in PCR reaction. Results: The results demonstrated that the five selective isolates of P. multocida had similar size of PCR products that generated one band of 16S rDNA having 1 471 bp and KMT1 gene having 460 bp. The phylogenetic tree and similarity of the five selective isolates of P. multocida which were collected from GenBank database were calculated and analyzed for the nucleotide sequence of 16S rDNA and KMT1 genes. The sequencing result of 16S rRNA gene product (1 471 bp for the five selective isolates of P. multocida showed that the isolates of sheep (FUP2 shared 94.08%, 88.10% homology with the buffalo isolate (FUP8 and cattle isolate (FUP9 respectively, whereas, the buffalo isolate (FUP5 shared 98.18% and 94.40% homology with the cattle isolates (FUP12 and FUP9. Conclusions: The results indicated the relationships of P. multocida isolated from buffalo and cattle rather than the close relationships between P. multocida isolated from cattle and sheep. Diagnosis of P. multocida by 16S rDNA and KMT1 gene sequences was important to determine the antigen that is responsible for protective cover within the same group of animals and to help for the production of new vaccines for the control of microbial infection for domestic animals.

  11. DNA Methylation at the Neonatal State and at the Time of Diagnosis: Preliminary Support for an Association with the Estrogen Receptor 1, Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid B Receptor 1, and Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein in Female Adolescent Patients with OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Judith Becker; Hansen, Christine Søholm; Starnawska, Anna; Mattheisen, Manuel; Børglum, Anders Dupont; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Hollegaard, Mads

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder. Non-genetic factors and their interaction with genes have attracted increasing attention. Epigenetics is regarded an important interface between environmental signals and activation/repression of genomic responses. Epigenetic mechanisms have not previously been examined in OCD in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to examine the DNA methylation profile of selected genes in blood spots from neonates later diagnosed with OCD and in the same children/adolescents at the time of diagnosis compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Furthermore, we wanted to characterize the association of the differential methylation profiles with the severity of OCD and treatment outcome. Dried and new blood spot samples were obtained from 21 female children/adolescents with verified OCD and 12 female controls. The differential methylation was analyzed using a linear model and the correlation with the severity of OCD and treatment outcome was analyzed using the Pearson correlation. We evaluated selected Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip probes within and up to 100,000 bp up- and downstream of 14 genes previously associated with OCD (SLC1A1, SLC25A12, GABBR1, GAD1, DLGAP1, MOG, BDNF, OLIG2, NTRK2 and 3, ESR1, SL6A4, TPH2, and COMT). The study found no significantly differential methylation. However, preliminary support for a difference was found for the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) B receptor 1 (cg10234998, cg17099072) in blood samples at birth and for the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) (cg10939667), the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) (cg16650906), and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (cg14080521) in blood samples at the time of diagnosis. Preliminary support for an association was observed between the methylation profiles of GABBR1 and MOG and baseline severity, treatment effect, and responder status; and between the methylation profile of ESR1 and baseline

  12. Cost-Effectiveness and Validity Assessment of Cyscope Microscope, Quantitative Buffy Coat Microscope, and Rapid Diagnostic Kit for Malaria Diagnosis among Clinic Attendees in Ibadan, Nigeria

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    Abiodun Ogunniyi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Unavailability of accurate, rapid, reliable, and cost-effective malaria diagnostic instruments constitutes major a challenge to malaria elimination. We validated alternative malaria diagnostic instruments and assessed their comparative cost-effectiveness. Method. Using a cross-sectional study design, 502 patients with malaria symptoms at selected health facilities in Ibadan between January and April 2014 were recruited consecutively. We examined malaria parasites using Cyscope®, QBC, and CareStart™ and results were compared to light microscopy (LM. Validity was determined by assessing sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV. Costs per hour of use for instruments and turnaround time were determined. Result. Sensitivity of the instruments was 76.0% (CareStart, 95.0% (Cyscope, and 98.1% (QBC. Specificity was 96.0% (CareStart, 87.3% (Cyscope, and 85.5% (QBC. PPV were 65.2%, 67.5%, and 84.7%, while NPV were 93.6%, 98.6%, and 99.4% for CareStart, Cyscope, and QBC with Kappa values of 0.75 (CI = 0.68–0.82 for CareStart, 0.72 (CI = 0.65–0.78 for Cyscope, and 0.71 (CI = 0.64–0.77 for QBC. Average cost per hour of use was the lowest ($2.04 with the Cyscope. Turnaround time was the fastest with Cyscope (5 minutes. Conclusion. Cyscope fluorescent microscope had the shortest turnaround time and is the most cost-effective of all the malaria diagnostic instruments evaluated.

  13. Rapid diagnosis of retina and optic nerve abnormalities in canine patients with and without cataracts using chromatic pupil light reflex testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdanic, Sinisa D; Kecova, Helga; Lazic, Tatjana

    2013-09-01

    To develop fast and reliable testing routines for diagnosing retina and optic nerve diseases in canine cataract patients based on chromatic properties of the pupillary light reflex response. Seventy-seven canine patients with a history of cataract and decreased vision (43 patients with cataracts and no evidence of retina or optic nerve disease, 21 patients with cataracts and retinal degeneration [RD], 13 patients with cataracts and retinal detachment [RDT]), 11 canine patients with optic neuritis (ON) and 23 healthy dogs were examined using chromatic pupillary light reflex (cPLR) analysis with red and blue light and electroretinography. Electroretinography analysis showed statistically significant deficits in a- and b-wave amplitudes in dogs with cataracts and RD, or cataracts and RDT, when compared to dogs with cataracts without evidence of retinal abnormalities. Evaluation of b-wave amplitudes showed that presence of 78.5-μV (or lower) amplitudes had high sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 87.2-100%) and high specificity of 96.7% (95% CI: 88.4-100%) in RD and RDT. Evaluation of cPLR responses using red light showed that presence of the pupil end constriction diameter of 5.5 mm (or higher) had moderately high sensitivity of 76.5% (95% CI: 50.1-93.2%) and high specificity of 100% (95% CI: 91.2-100%) in detecting RD and RDT. Optic neuritis patients had absent cPLR responses, regardless of the visual status. Chromatic evaluation of the pupillary light reflex is a rapid and accurate test for diagnosing retina and optic nerve diseases in canine patients. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  14. Risk factors for fractures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (preliminary results of the multicenter program «Osteoporosis in rheumatoid arthritis: Diagnosis, risk factors, fractures, treatment»

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    Marina Mikhailovna Podvorotova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, bone fractures occur 1.5-2 times more frequently than in the population. They often lead to reduced quality of life, to disability and death in the patients. It should be noted that risk factors (RFs for fractures have not been studied on a sufficient sample in Russia; there are no recommendations on the prevention of fractures in this category of patients. Objective: to compare groups of RA patients with and without a history of fractures to further identify possible RFs for fractures. Subjects and methods. The trial included 254 patients aged 18 to 85 years, diagnosed with RA, from the database of the multicenter program «Osteoporosis in rheumatoid arthritis: Diagnosis, risk factors, fractures, treatment», who had been followed up in 2010 to 2011. The patients were divided into two groups: 1 101 (39.8% patients with a history of low-trauma fractures and 2 153 (60.2% patients without a history of fractures. In Group 1, the patients were older than in Group 2 (mean age 59.8 and 56.1 years, respectively. Menopause was recorded in 88.1 and 77.8% of cases, respectively. The groups differed in the duration of RA an average of 15.5 and 11.5 years, respectively Results. The fractures in the history were associated with the use of glucocorticoids (GC, their higher cumulative dose and use duration. In Group 1 patients, the bone mineral density (BMD was lower in all study skeleton portions and more frequently corresponded to osteoporosis. RA complications, such as amyloidosis and osteonecrosis, were more common in the patients with a history of fractures. Conclusion. In RA patients, the most likely RFs of fractures are age, the long-term intake of large-dose GC, low BMD, the severe course of RA, and the presence of its complications.

  15. Preliminary study for differential diagnosis of intracranial tumors using in vivo quantitative proton MR spectroscopy with correction for T2 relaxation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isobe, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Akutsu, Hiroyoshi; Shiigai, Masanari; Shibata, Yasushi; Takada, Kenta; Masumoto, Tomohiko; Anno, Izumi; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The intent of this study was to differentiate intracranial tumors using the metabolite concentrations obtained by quantification with correction for T2 relaxation time, and to analyze whether the spectrum peak was generated by the existence of metabolites in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Methods: All proton MRS studies were performed on a clinical 1.5T MR system. 7 normal volunteers and 57 patients (gliomas, metastases, meningiomas, acoustic neuromas, and pituitary adenomas) underwent single voxel proton MRS with different echo times (TE: 68, 136, 272 ms) for T2 correction of signal derived from metabolites and tissue water. With tissue water employed as an internal reference, the concentrations of metabolite (i.e. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), total creatine (t-Cr) and choline-containing compounds (Cho)) were calculated. Moreover, proton MRS data of previously published typical literatures were critically reviewed and compared with our data. Results: Extramedullary tumors were characterized by absence of NAA compared with intramedullary tumors. High-grade glioma differed from low-grade glioma by lower t-Cr concentrations. Metastasis differed from cystic glioblastoma by higher Cho concentrations, lower t-Cr concentrations, an absence of NAA, and a prominent Lipids peak. Based on these results and review of previous reports, we suggest a clinical pathway for the differentiation of intracranial tumors. Conclusion: The metabolite concentrations obtained by quantification with correction for T2 relaxation time, and to analyze whether the spectrum peak was generated by the existence of metabolites in proton MRS is useful for the diagnosis of the intracranial tumors

  16. The Clinical usefulness of 99mTc HMPAO Leukocyte/99mTc phytate bone marrow scintigraphy for diagnosis of prosthetic knee infection: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyung Pyo; Park, Ji Sun; Lee, Ah Young; Choi, Su Jung; Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun

    2012-01-01

    The preferred radionuclide imaging procedure for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection is combined radiolabeled leukocyte/ 99mT c sulfur colloid bone marrow scintigraphy, which has an accuracy of over 90%. Unfortunately, sulfur colloid is no longer available in South Korea. in this study, we evaluated the usefulness of 99mT c phytate, a substitute for 99mT c sulfur colloid, when combined with radiolabeled leukocyte scintigraphy in suspected prosthetic knee infections. Eleven patients (nine women, two men; mean age 72±6 years) with painful knee prostheses and a suspicion of infection underwent both 99mT c phytate bone marrow scintigraphy (BMS). The combined images were interpreted as positive for infection when radioactivity in the LS at the sits of clinical interest clearly exceeded that of the BMS (discordant); they were interpreted as negative when the increased activity in the LS was consistent with an increased activity in the BMS(concordant). The final diagnosis was made with microbiological or intraoperative findings and a clinical follow up of at least 12 months. Five of eleven patients were diagnosed as having an infected prosthesis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of the combined LS/BMS were 100%, 83%, 83%, 100% and 91%, respectively. We find that combined 99mT c HMPAO LS/ 99mT c phytate BMS shows comparable diagnostic performance to other studies utilizing sulfur colloid. Combined 99mT c HMPAO LS/ 99mT c phytate BMS is therefore expected to be an acceptable alternative to combined radiolabeled LS/ 99ms ulfur colloid BMS for diagnosing prosthetic knee infections

  17. Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Diagnosis of Local Recurrences of Prostate Cancer after Radical Prostatectomy: Preliminary Evaluation on Twenty-Seven Cases

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    Salvatore Francesco Carbone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI in patients affected by prostatic fossa (PF relapse after radical prostatectomy (RP for prostatic carcinoma (PC. Methods. Twenty-seven patients showing a nodular lesion in the PF at T2-weighted MR imaging after RP, with diagnosis of PC relapse established by biopsy or PSA determinations, were investigated by DWI. Two readers evaluated the DWI results in consensus and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC of the nodules, separately; a mean value was obtained (ADCm. Results. Relapses did not significantly differ in size in respect of postsurgical benign nodules. The DWI qualitative evaluation showed sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, ppv, and npv values, respectively, of 83.3%, 88.9%, 85.2%, 93.7%, and 72.7% (100%, 87.5%, 95.6%, 93.7%, and 100%, for nodules >6 mm. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for ADC evaluation between the two readers was 0.852 (95% CI 0.661–0.935; P=0.0001. The ADCm values for relapses and benign nodules were, respectively, 0.98±0.21×10−3 mm2/sec and 1.24±0.32×10−3 mm2/sec (P=0.006. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, ppv and npv of ADCm were, respectively, 77.8%, 88.9%, 81.8%, 93.3%, and 66.7% (93.3%, 87.5%, 85.4%, 93.3%, and 87.5% for nodules >6 mm. Conclusions. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is a promising tool in the management of a hyperintense nodule detected by T2-weighted sequences. This might have a relevant importance in contouring radiotherapy treatment volumes.

  18. Examining appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria: availability and use of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy in public and private health facilities in south east Nigeria

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    Uzochukwu Benjamin SC

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT have been widely advocated by government and the international community as cost-effective tools for diagnosis and treatment of malaria. ACTs are now the first line treatment drug for malaria in Nigeria and RDTs have been introduced by the government to bridge the existing gaps in proper diagnosis. However, it is not known how readily available these RDTs and ACTs are in public and private health facilities and whether health workers are actually using them. Hence, this study investigated the levels of availability and use of RDTs and ACTs in these facilities. Methods The study was undertaken in Enugu state, southeast Nigeria in March 2009. Data was collected from heads of 74 public and private health facilities on the availability and use of RDTs and ACTs. Also, the availability of RDTs and the types of ACTs that were available in the facilities were documented. Results Only 31.1% of the health facilities used RDTs to diagnose malaria. The majority used the syndromic approach. However, 61.1% of healthcare providers were aware of RDTs. RDTs were available in 53.3% of the facilities. Public health facilities and health facilities in the urban areas were using RDTs more and these were mainly bought from pharmacy shops and supplied by NGOs. The main reasons given for non use are unreliability of RDTs, supply issues, costs, preference for other methods of diagnosis and providers' ignorance. ACTs were the drug of choice for most public health facilities and the drugs were readily available in these facilities. Conclusion Although many providers were knowledgeable about RDTs, not many facilities used it. ACTS were readily available and used in public but not private health facilities. However, the reported use of ACTs with limited proper diagnosis implies that there could be high incidence of inappropriate case management of malaria which can also increase

  19. Informed decision-making before changing to RDT: a comparison of microscopy, rapid diagnostic test and molecular techniques for the diagnosis and identification of malaria parasites in Kassala, eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mamoun M M; Nour, Bakri Y M; Sedig, Mohamed F; De Bes, Laura; Babikir, Adil M; Mohamedani, Ahmed A; Mens, Petra F

    2010-12-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are promoted for the diagnosis of malaria in many countries. The question arises whether laboratories where the current method of diagnosis is microscopy should also switch to RDT. This problem was studied in Kassala, Sudan where the issue of switching to RDT is under discussion. Two hundred and three blood samples were collected from febrile patients suspected of having malaria. These were subsequently analysed with microscopy, RDT (SD Bioline P.f/P.v) and PCR for the detection and identification of Plasmodium parasites. Malaria parasites were detected in 36 blood samples when examined microscopically, 54 (26.6%) samples were found positive for malaria parasites by RDT, and 44 samples were positive by PCR. Further analysis showed that the RDT used in our study resulted in a relatively high number of false positive samples. When microscopy was compared with PCR, an agreement of 96.1% and k = 0.88 (sensitivity 85.7% and specificity 100%) was found. However, when RDT was compared with PCR, an agreement of only 81.2 and k = 0.48 (sensitivity 69% and specificity 84%) was found. PCR has proven to be one of the most specific and sensitive diagnostic methods, particularly for malaria cases with low parasitaemia. However, this technique has limitations in its routine use under resource-limited conditions, such as our study location. At present, based on these results, microscopy remains the best option for routine diagnosis of malaria in Kassala, eastern Sudan. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Preliminary analysis of numerical chromosome abnormalities in reciprocal and Robertsonian translocation preimplantation genetic diagnosis cases with 24-chromosomal analysis with an aCGH/SNP microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanxin; Xu, Yanwen; Wang, Jing; Miao, Benyu; Zeng, Yanhong; Ding, Chenhui; Gao, Jun; Zhou, Canquan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an interchromosomal effect (ICE) occurred in embryos obtained from reciprocal translocation (rcp) and Robertsonian translocation (RT) carriers who were following a preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) with whole chromosome screening with an aCGH and SNP microarray. We also analyzed the chromosomal numerical abnormalities in embryos with aneuploidy in parental chromosomes that were not involved with a translocation and balanced in involved parental translocation chromosomes. This retrospective study included 832 embryos obtained from rcp carriers and 382 embryos from RT carriers that were biopsied in 139 PGD cycles. The control group involved embryos obtained from age-matched patient karyotypes who were undergoing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) with non-translocation, and 579 embryos were analyzed in the control group. A single blastomere at the cleavage stage or trophectoderm from a blastocyst was biopsied, and 24-chromosomal analysis with an aCGH/SNP microarray was conducted using the PGD/PGS protocols. Statistical analyses were implemented on the incidences of cumulative aneuploidy rates between the translocation carriers and the control group. Reliable results were obtained from 138 couples, among whom only one patient was a balanced rcp or RT translocation carrier, undergoing PGD testing in our center from January 2012 to June 2014. For day 3 embryos, the aneuploidy rates were 50.7% for rcp carriers and 49.1% for RT carriers, compared with the control group, with 44.8% at a maternal age < 36 years. When the maternal age was ≥ 36 years, the aneuploidy rates were increased to 61.1% for rcp carriers, 56.7% for RT carriers, and 60.3% for the control group. There were no significant differences. In day 5 embryos, the aneuploidy rates were 24.5% for rcp carriers and 34.9% for RT carriers, compared with the control group with 53.6% at a maternal age < 36 years. When the maternal age was ≥ 36

  1. What Is the Role of Paired Rapid Plasma Reagin Testing (Simultaneous Testing of Acute and Convalescent Samples) in the Diagnosis of Repeat Syphilis and the Follow-up of Syphilis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R; Osbak, Kara Krista; Van Esbroek, Marjan; Lynen, Lutgarde; Crucitti, Tania

    2018-01-01

    Repeat syphilis is playing an increasing role in syphilis transmission in several populations. The assessment of repeat syphilis and response to treatment depends on accurately measuring intraindividual changes in non-treponemal tests. For a 0- to 6-month delta rapid plasma reagin (RPR) to be determined by routine individual RPR testing, samples are tested 6 months apart with differences in reagent batches, environmental conditions, and observers all leading to measurement errors. We hypothesized that conducting paired RPR testing (simultaneous testing of acute and convalescent samples) would enable a more accurate determination of delta RPR compared with individual testing. A total of 120 study participants with a new diagnosis of syphilis were followed up at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months, with RPR testing performed via individual testing at each study visit and at any suspected repeat syphilis. Rapid plasma reagin paired testing was performed on samples from 0 and 6 months and at any suspected repeat syphilis. The quantitative agreement ±1 dilution among paired and individual testing was 97.2%. There was no difference in the proportion with serofast status at 6 months: 21 (19.4%) and 19 (17.6%) according to paired and individual testing, respectively (P = 0.726). There was no statistically significant difference between 0- and 6-month delta RPR as determined by paired and individual testing in predicting seroresponse at 12 months (86.1% and 91.6% agreement with 12-month serofast/nonserofast classification, respectively; P = 0.262). In our setting, individual testing performed equally well compared with paired testing. Follow-up of syphilis will remain onerous for the patient and the health care provider until new tests that can more accurately assess the response to therapy and repeat syphilis/treatment failure are developed.

  2. Enhancing TB case detection: experience in offering upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing to pediatric presumptive TB and DR TB cases for early rapid diagnosis of drug sensitive and drug resistant TB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Raizada

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in children is challenging due to difficulties in obtaining good quality sputum specimens as well as the paucibacillary nature of disease. Globally a large proportion of pediatric tuberculosis (TB cases are diagnosed based only on clinical findings. Xpert MTB/RIF, a highly sensitive and specific rapid tool, offers a promising solution in addressing these challenges. This study presents the results from pediatric groups taking part in a large demonstration study wherein Xpert MTB/RIF testing replaced smear microscopy for all presumptive PTB cases in public health facilities across India.The study covered a population of 8.8 million across 18 programmatic sub-district level tuberculosis units (TU, with one Xpert MTB/RIF platform established at each study TU. Pediatric presumptive PTB cases (both TB and Drug Resistant TB (DR-TB accessing any public health facilities in study area were prospectively enrolled and tested on Xpert MTB/RIF following a standardized diagnostic algorithm.4,600 pediatric presumptive pulmonary TB cases were enrolled. 590 (12.8%, CI 11.8-13.8 pediatric PTB were diagnosed. Overall 10.4% (CI 9.5-11.2 of presumptive PTB cases had positive results by Xpert MTB/RIF, compared with 4.8% (CI 4.2-5.4 who had smear-positive results. Upfront Xpert MTB/RIF testing of presumptive PTB and presumptive DR-TB cases resulted in diagnosis of 79 and 12 rifampicin resistance cases, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV for rifampicin resistance detection was high (98%, CI 90.1-99.9, with no statistically significant variation with respect to past history of treatment.Upfront access to Xpert MTB/RIF testing in pediatric presumptive PTB cases was associated with a two-fold increase in bacteriologically-confirmed PTB, and increased detection of rifampicin-resistant TB cases under routine operational conditions across India. These results suggest that routine Xpert MTB/RIF testing is a promising

  3. Assessment of an outreach street-based HIV rapid testing programme as a strategy to promote early diagnosis: a comparison with two surveillance systems in Spain, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, M J; Hoyos, J; Fernández-Balbuena, S; Diaz, A; Bravo, M J; de la Fuente, L

    2015-04-09

    We assess the added value of a multisite, street-based HIV rapid testing programme by comparing its results to pre-existing services and assessing its potential to reduce ongoing transmission. Between 2008 and 2011, 8,923 individuals underwent testing. We compare outcomes with those of a network of 20 sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV clinics (EPI-VIH) and the Spanish National HIV Surveillance System (SNHSS); evaluate whether good visibility prompts testing and assess whether it reaches under-tested populations. 89.2% of the new infections were in men who have sex with men (MSM) vs 78.0% in EPI-VIH and 56.0% in SNHSS. 83.6% of the MSM were linked to care and 20.9% had VIH. 56.5% of the HIV-positive MSM tested because they happened to see the programme, 18.4% were previously untested and 26.3% had their last test ≥2 years ago. The programme provided linkage to care and early diagnosis mainly to MSM but attendees presented a lower HIV prevalence than EPI-VIH. From a cost perspective it would benefit from being implemented in locations highly frequented by MSM. Conversely, its good visibility led to reduced periods of undiagnosed infection in a high proportion of MSM who were not testing with the recommended frequency.

  4. The case for early use of rapid whole genome sequencing in management of critically ill infants: Late diagnosis of Coffin-Siris syndrome in an infant with left congenital diaphragmatic hernia, congenital heart disease and recurrent infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Nathaly M; Nahas, Shareef A; Chowdhury, Shimul; Del Campo, Miguel; Jones, Marilyn C; Dimmock, David P; Kingsmore, Stephen F; Investigators, Rcigm

    2018-03-16

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) results from incomplete formation of the diaphragm leading to herniation of abdominal organs into the thoracic cavity. CDH is associated with pulmonary hypoplasia, congenital heart disease and pulmonary hypertension. Genetically, it is associated with aneuploidies, chromosomal copy number variants, and single gene mutations. CDH is the most expensive non-cardiac congenital defect: Management frequently requires implementation of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO), which increases management expenditures 2.4 - 3.5-fold. The cost of management of CDH has been estimated to exceed $250 million per year. Despite in hospital survival of 80-90%, current management is imperfect, as a great proportion of surviving children have long-term functional deficits. We report the case of a premature infant prenatally diagnosed with CDH and congenital heart disease, who had a protracted and complicated course in the intensive care unit with multiple surgical interventions, including post-cardiac surgery ECMO, gastrostomy tube placement with Nissen fundoplication, tracheostomy for respiratory failure, recurrent infections and developmental delay. Rapid whole genome sequencing (rWGS) identified a de novo, likely pathogenic, c.3096_3100delCAAAG (p.Lys1033Argfs*32) variant in ARID1B, providing a diagnosis of Coffin-Siris syndrome. Her parents elected palliative care and she died later that day. Had rWGS been performed as a neonate, eight months of suffering and futile healthcare utilization may have been avoided. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Preliminary studies of vanadium-base alloys intended for use in fabrication of cans for fast reactors; Etudes preliminaires sur les alliages a base de vanadium envisages pour la fabrication de gaines de reacteurs rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-15

    Preliminary research has been carried out on a series of vanadium-based alloys: V, 0.5 per cent Si; V, 5 per cent Ca; V, 5 per cent Mo; V, 5 per cent Nb; V, 2 per cent Zr; V, 20 per cent Ti; V, 10 per cent Al; V, 10 per cent Sn and v, 10 per cent Ti liable to be used as canning material in fast reactors. The transformation by forging at about 1000 deg. C and rolling between 200 deg. C and room temperature is satisfactory for all types of alloys except V with 10 per cent Sn and V with 10 per cent Al. The mechanical properties deduced from tensile strength tests carried out on alloy samples annealed 1 hour at 1050 deg. C in a vacuum show that, generally speaking, the addition elements lead to an improvement in these properties as compared to those of pure vanadium. After undergoing corrosion tests in a liquid sodium loop purified by a cold trap, the alloys become brittle at room temperature. Only the vanadium containing 20 per cent Ti keeps its plastic properties. These alloys are covered by a layer of vanadium carbide VC. After undergoing treatment in a liquid sodium loop purified by a hot trap, all the alloys keep their good mechanical characteristics. The surface layer with which they are covered is composed of two vanadium carbides VC and {sub {gamma}}VC, and a vanadium sub-oxide VO{sub 0.9}. (author) [French] Des etudes preliminaires ont ete faites sur une serie d'alliages a base de vanadium: V-0,5 pour cent Si, V-5 pour cent Ca, V-5 pour cent Mo, V-5 pour cent Nb, V-2 pour cent Zr, V-20 pour cent Ti, V-10 pour cent Al, V-10 pour cent Sn et V-10 pour cent Ti susceptibles d'etre utilises comme materiau de gainage pour les reacteurs rapides. La transformation par forgeage a 1000 deg. C environ et laminage entre 200 deg. C et la temperature ambiante est satisfaisante pour toutes les nuances d'alliage sauf le V-10 pour cent Sn et le V-10 pour cent Al. Les proprietes mecaniques deduites des essais de traction realises sur des eprouvettes d'alliages recuits 1 heure a

  6. Laser mass spectrometry for DNA sequencing, disease diagnosis, and fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston Chen, C.H.; Taranenko, N.I.; Zhu, Y.F.; Chung, C.N.; Allman, S.L.

    1997-03-01

    Since laser mass spectrometry has the potential for achieving very fast DNA analysis, the authors recently applied it to DNA sequencing, DNA typing for fingerprinting, and DNA screening for disease diagnosis. Two different approaches for sequencing DNA have been successfully demonstrated. One is to sequence DNA with DNA ladders produced from Snager`s enzymatic method. The other is to do direct sequencing without DNA ladders. The need for quick DNA typing for identification purposes is critical for forensic application. The preliminary results indicate laser mass spectrometry can possibly be used for rapid DNA fingerprinting applications at a much lower cost than gel electrophoresis. Population screening for certain genetic disease can be a very efficient step to reducing medical costs through prevention. Since laser mass spectrometry can provide very fast DNA analysis, the authors applied laser mass spectrometry to disease diagnosis. Clinical samples with both base deletion and point mutation have been tested with complete success.

  7. A new simple and rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method for quantification of plasma oxysterols as dimethylaminobutyrate esters. Its successful use for the diagnosis of Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boenzi, Sara; Deodato, Federica; Taurisano, Roberta; Martinelli, Diego; Verrigni, Daniela; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Bertini, Enrico; Pastore, Anna; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Johnson, David W

    2014-11-01

    Two oxysterols, cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol (C-triol) and 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC), have been recently proposed as diagnostic markers of Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease, representing a potential alternative diagnostic tool to the more invasive and time consuming filipin test in cultured fibroblasts. Usually, the oxysterols are detected and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) or electro-spray-ionization (ESI) sources, after a variety of derivatization procedures to enhance sensitivity. We developed a sensitive LC-MS/MS method to quantify the oxysterols in plasma as dimethylaminobutyrate ester, suitable for ESI analysis. This method, with an easy liquid-phase extraction and a short derivatization procedure, has been validated to demonstrate specificity, linearity, recovery, lowest limit of quantification, accuracy and precision. The assay was linear over a concentration range of 0.5-200ng/mL for C-triol and 1.0-200ng/mL for 7-KC. Intra-day and inter-day coefficients of variation (CV%) were <15% for both metabolites. Receiver operating characteristic analysis estimates that the area under curve was 0.998 for C-triol, and 0.972 for 7-KC, implying a significant discriminatory power for the method in this patient population of both oxysterols. In summary, our method provides a simple, rapid and non-invasive diagnostic tool for the biochemical diagnosis of NP-C disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Field evaluation of a PfHRP-2/pLDH rapid diagnostic test and light microscopy for diagnosis and screening of falciparum malaria during the peak seasonal transmission in an endemic area in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alareqi, Lina M Q; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Ali, Arwa A; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Tawfek, Rehab; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-01-28

    Malaria is a public health threat in Yemen, with 149,451 cases being reported in 2013. Of these, Plasmodium falciparum represents 99%. Prompt diagnosis by light microscopy (LM) and rapid diagnostic tests (RTDs) is a key element in the national strategy of malaria control. The heterogeneous epidemiology of malaria in the country necessitates the field evaluation of the current diagnostic strategies, especially RDTs. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate LM and an RDT, combining both P. falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2) and Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH), for falciparum malaria diagnosis and survey in a malaria-endemic area during the transmission season against nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the reference method. A household-based, cross-sectional malaria survey was conducted in Mawza District, a malaria-endemic area in Taiz governorate. A total of 488 participants were screened using LM and PfHRP-2/pLDH RDT. Positive samples (160) and randomly selected negative samples (52) by both RDT and LM were further analysed using 18S rRNA-based nested PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the RDT were 96.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 90.9-98.3), 56.0% (95% CI: 44.7-66.8), 76.3% (95% CI: 69.0-82.3), and 90.4% (95% CI: 78.8-96.8), respectively. On the other hand, LM showed sensitivity of 37.6% (95% CI: 29.6-46.3), specificity of 97.6% (95% CI: 91.7-99.7), PPV of 95.9% (95% CI: 86.3-98.9), and NPV of 51.3% (95% CI: 43.2-59.2). The sensitivity of LM dropped to 8.5% for detecting asymptomatic malaria. Malaria prevalence was 32.8% (32.1 and 37.5% for ≥10 and <10 years, respectively) with the RDT compared with 10.7% (10.8 and 9.4% for age groups of ≥10 and <10 years, respectively) with LM. Among asymptomatic malaria individuals, LM and RDT-based prevalence rates were 1.6 and 25.6%, respectively. However, rates of 88.2 and 94.1% of infection with P. falciparum were found

  9. Imaging diagnosis in jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, A.

    1985-01-01

    For a patient presenting with jaundice, ultrasonography is the most rapid and sure way of ascertaining whether the jaundice is due to biliary obstruction of a macroscopic surgical nature rather than of an intrahepatic microscopic nature. Diagnosis could be done by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or computed tomography. These methods as well as radionuclide scintigraphy are discussed

  10. Malaria diagnosis and treatment under the strategy of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI): relevance of laboratory support from the rapid immunochromatographic tests of ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2001-07-01

    The algorithm developed for the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) provides guidelines for the treatment of paediatric malaria. In areas where malaria is endemic, for example, the IMCI strategy may indicate that children who present with fever, a recent history of fever and/or pallor should receive antimalarial chemotherapy. In many holo-endemic areas, it is unclear whether laboratory tests to confirm that such signs are the result of malaria would be very relevant or useful. Children from a holo-endemic region of Tanzania were therefore checked for malarial parasites by microscopy and by using two rapid immunochromatographic tests (RIT) for the diagnosis of malaria (ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal. At the time they were tested, each of these children had been targeted for antimalarial treatment (following the IMCI strategy) because of fever and/or pallor. Only 70% of the 395 children classified to receive antimalarial drugs by the IMCI algorithm had malarial parasitaemias (68.4% had Plasmodium falciparum trophozoites, 1.3% only P. falciparum gametocytes, 0.3% P. ovale and 0.3% P. malariae). As indicators of P. falciparum trophozoites in the peripheral blood, fever had a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 15.5% whereas pallor had a sensitivity of 72.2% and a specificity of 50.8%. The RIT both had very high corresponding sensitivities (of 100.0% for the ICT and 94.0% for OptiMal) but the specificity of the ICT (74.0%) was significantly lower than that for OptiMal (100.0%). Fever and pallor were significantly associated with the P. falciparum asexual parasitaemias that equalled or exceeded the threshold intensity (2000/microl) that has the optimum sensitivity and specificity for the definition of a malarial episode. Diagnostic likelihood ratios (DLR) showed that a positive result in the OptiMal test (DLR = infinity) was a better indication of malaria than a positive result in the ICT (DLR = 3.85). In fact, OptiMal had diagnostic reliability (0

  11. Autism: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Donate Home What is Autism? What is Autism? ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Diagnosis Home / What is Autism? / Diagnosis Expand Medical ...

  12. Comparison of the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Toluidine Red Unheated Serum Test and the CSF Rapid Plasma Reagin Test with the CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory Test for Diagnosis of Neurosyphilis among HIV-Negative Syphilis Patients in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Gu, Xin; Peng, Rui-Rui; Wang, Cuini; Gao, Zixiao; Gao, Ying; Shi, Mei; Guan, Zhifang; Seña, Arlene C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the performance of nontreponemal antibody tests in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from syphilis patients. From September 2009 to September 2012, CSF specimens were collected at the Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital in Shanghai, China, from 1,132 syphilis patients without HIV infection, including 154 with symptomatic and 56 with asymptomatic neurosyphilis. All of the CSF specimens underwent testing with a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, an RPR-V (commercial RPR antigen diluted 1:2 in 10% saline) test, the toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST), and the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test. Specificities, sensitivities, positive predictive values (PPVs), negative predictive values (NPVs), and kappa values were calculated to determine the performances of the tests. We compared results of the CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST among patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic neurosyphilis who had reactive CSF-Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) test results. Overall, the CSF-VDRL test was reactive in 261 patients (23.1%). There were no cases in which the CSF-VDRL was nonreactive and CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, or CSF-TRUST was reactive. Agreement between the results of CSF-TRUST and CSF-RPR was almost perfect (κ = 0.861), with substantial agreement between the results of CSF-RPR and CSF-RPR-V (κ = 0.740). The sensitivities of CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST were 81.4%, 76.2%, 79.5%, and 76.2%, respectively. Compared to CSF-VDRL, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST had comparable PPVs and NPVs. However, the specificity of CSF-VDRL (90.3%) was significantly lower than those of the other tests (92.7 to 93.4%). Therefore, CSF-RPR, CSF-RPR-V, and CSF-TRUST can be considered alternative tests for neurosyphilis diagnosis in HIV-negative populations, particularly when the CSF-VDRL is not available. PMID:24335955

  13. Preliminary discussion on the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis and early staging of non-mycosis fungoides/Sézary's syndrome cutaneous malignant lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Shao; Qiang, Gao; Shu-Xia, Wang; Chang-Hong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We discussed the value of PET/CT in the diagnosis and early staging of non-MF/SS CML. • We calculated the sensitivity of CT and PET/CT in the diagnosis of primary skin lesions. • We calculated the value of CT and PET/CT in the diagnosis of LNs and other organs. - Abstract: Objective: To discuss the value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ( 18 F-PET/CT) scans in the diagnosis and early staging of non-mycosis fungoides/Sézary's syndrome cutaneous malignant lymphomas (non-MF/SS CML). Materials and methods: A total of 18 cases with non-MF/SS CML, confirmed by pathology or on clinical grounds, were analyzed in this study. The sensitivity of CT and PET/CT scans in the diagnosis of primary skin lesions, as well as the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of CT and PET/CT scans in the diagnosis of lymph nodes (LNs) and other organs (except skin and LNs) were calculated. Results: The diagnostic sensitivity of CT and PET/CT scans in the diagnosis of primary skin lesions was 82.4% (14/17) and 100% (17/17), respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of CT and PET/CT scans in the diagnosis of LN lesions were 55.6% (5/9), 88.9% (8/9), 72.2% (13/18), 83.3% (5/6), 66.7% (8/12), and 88.9% (8/9), 100% (9/9), 94.4% (17/18), 100% (8/8), 90.0% (9/10), respectively. The diagnostic value of the CT and PET/CT scans in the diagnosis of involvement of other organs, were 40.4% (2/5), 100% (13/13), 83.3 (15/18), 100% (2/2), 81.3% (13/16) and 80.6% (4/5), 100% (13/13), 94.4% (17/18), 100% (3/3), 92.9% (13/14), respectively. Conclusions: 18 F-FDG PET/CT has high value in the diagnosis and early staging of non-MF/SS CMLs

  14. Rapidly Progressive Quadriplegia and Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, DonRaphael; McCorquodale, Donald; Peters, Angela; Juster-Switlyk, Kelsey; Smith, Gordon; Ansari, Safdar

    2016-11-01

    A woman aged 77 years was transferred to our neurocritical care unit for evaluation and treatment of rapidly progressive motor weakness and encephalopathy. Examination revealed an ability to follow simple commands only and abnormal movements, including myoclonus, tongue and orofacial dyskinesias, and opsoclonus. Imaging study findings were initially unremarkable, but when repeated, they demonstrated enhancement of the cauda equina nerve roots, trigeminal nerve, and pachymeninges. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed mildly elevated white blood cell count and protein levels. Serial electrodiagnostic testing demonstrated a rapidly progressive diffuse sensory motor axonopathy, and electroencephalogram findings progressed from generalized slowing to bilateral periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges. Critical details of her recent history prompted a diagnostic biopsy. Over time, the patient became completely unresponsive with no further abnormal movements and ultimately died. The differential diagnosis, pathological findings, and diagnosis are discussed with a brief review of a well-known yet rare diagnosis.

  15. Sonographic diagnosis of pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna F Husain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung sonography has rapidly emerged as a reliable technique in the evaluation of various thoracic diseases. One important, well-established application is the diagnosis of a pneumothorax. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of a pneumothorax in the management of a critical patient can prevent the progression into a life-threatening situation. Sonographic signs, including ′lung sliding′, ′B-lines′ or ′comet tail artifacts′, ′A-lines′, and ′the lung point sign′ can help in the diagnosis of a pneumothorax. Ultrasound has a higher sensitivity than the traditional upright anteroposterior chest radiography (CXR for the detection of a pneumothorax. Small occult pneumothoraces may be missed on CXR during a busy trauma scenario, and CXR may not always be feasible in critically ill patients. Computed tomography, the gold standard for the detection of pneumothorax, requires patients to be transported out of the clinical area, compromising their hemodynamic stability and delaying the diagnosis. As ultrasound machines have become more portable and easier to use, lung sonography now allows a rapid evaluation of an unstable patient, at the bedside. These advantages combined with the low cost and ease of use, have allowed thoracic sonography to become a useful modality in many clinical settings.

  16. Preliminary Physics Summary: Measurements of low-$p_{\\rm T}$ electrons from semileptonic heavy-flavour hadron decays at mid-rapidity in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}= 7$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    The transverse-momentum ($p_{\\rm T}$) differential production cross section of electrons from semileptonic heavy-flavour hadron decays has been measured in the interval $0.5 < p_{\\rm T} < 4.0$ GeV/$c$ at mid-rapidity ($|y| < 0.8$) in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with ALICE at the LHC. Statistical and systematic uncertainties have been reduced by a factor of about three with respect to previously published results. Predictions from a fixed order perturbative QCD calculation with next-to-leading-log resummation describe the data within theoretical and experimental uncertainties.

  17. Anthrax: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Doctors in the United States rarely see a patient with anthrax. CDC Guidance and case definitions are available to help doctors diagnose anthrax, take ...

  18. Radiological diagnosis in AIDS - associated diseases: survey and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rademaker, J.; Frahm, C.

    1997-01-01

    Acute manifestations of illnesses in patients with HIV-infection or AIDS will benefit from rapid diagnosis. Radiologic examinations provide substantial information to narrow the differential diagnosis. This article reviews clinically important HIV-associated diseases for the radiologist. The braod spectrum of possible manifestations is illustrated by the accompanying case reports that typify the complexity of diagnoses in this growing problem worldwide. (orig.) [de

  19. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection; Culture, microscopy of biopsy smears, and the rapid urease test compared with the sup 14 C-urea breath test. Diagnostikk av Helicobacter pylori-infeksjon; Urease hurtigtest, mikroskopi av utstryk, og dyrking av ventrikkelbiopsi sammenlignet med sup 14 C-urea-pusteproeven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nysaeter, G; Berstad, K; Weberg, R; Berstad, A; Hardardottir, H [Haukeland Hospital, Bergen (Norway)

    1992-08-01

    By employing the {sup 14}C-urea breath test as the reference methods the authors determined the specificity and sensitivity of three bioptic methods for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in 103 subjects. All biopsy specimens were obtained from the gastric antrum. For culture the specificity was 100%. Its applicability was reduced, however, by a low sensitivity (73.8%) and a delay of several days before the final result was available. Microscopy of Loeffler-stained biopsy smears yielded a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 92.9%, but the method was regarded time-consuming. The rapid urease test yielded a specificity of 98.4% and a sensitivity of 85.7%. Being quick, simple and inexpensive, the rapid urease test is well suited for routine use in gastroscopy. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. The application of mechanical diagnosis and therapy in lateral epicondylalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccio, Joseph R.; Fink, Sarah; Yarznbowicz, Richard; May, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background lateral epicondylalgia (LE) is a musculoskeletal diagnosis that causes pain and dysfunction in the lateral aspect of the elbow. Mechanical diagnosis and therapy (MDT) is an orthopaedic classification and treatment system based on mechanical and symptomatic response to repeated and sustained end-range movement. There has been no investigation of the association between MDT and patients diagnosed with LE. Case description this report presents three patients matching the currently accepted diagnostic criteria for LE, two with a diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) from a medical doctor. These patients were classified and treated by a diplomat of MDT and two third-year doctoral students of physical therapy using MDT. Outcomes short- and long-term (one year) outcomes were excellent, demonstrating rapid abolishment of symptoms and return to prior levels of function in 3–6 visits between 11–59 days. Patients demonstrated the ability to prevent and manage reoccurrence of symptoms independently without seeking further health care. Discussion this case series raises questions about whether or not the pathologies traditionally associated with the aetiology of LE are actually at fault. Moreover, it raises questions about the utility of special tests typically utilized to identify those structures. The series provides preliminary evidence that MDT may be capable of providing effective short- and long-term outcomes in the management of LE. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:27559286

  1. Comparison of the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Toluidine Red Unheated Serum Test and the CSF Rapid Plasma Reagin Test with the CSF Venereal Disease Research Laboratory Test for Diagnosis of Neurosyphilis among HIV-Negative Syphilis Patients in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Lin; Gu, Xin; Peng, Rui-Rui; Wang, Cuini; Gao, Zixiao; Zhou, Pingyu; Gao, Ying; Shi, Mei; Guan, Zhifang; Seña, Arlene C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the performance of nontreponemal antibody tests in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from syphilis patients. From September 2009 to September 2012, CSF specimens were collected at the Shanghai Skin Disease Hospital in Shanghai, China, from 1,132 syphilis patients without HIV infection, including 154 with symptomatic and 56 with asymptomatic neurosyphilis. All of the CSF specimens underwent testing with a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, an RPR-V (commer...

  2. Fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  3. Prenatal Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94

  4. Clinical application of antenatal genetic diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta type IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Li, Song; Xu, YeYe; Cong, Lin

    2015-04-02

    Clinical analysis and genetic testing of a family with osteogenesis imperfecta type IV were conducted, aiming to discuss antenatal genetic diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta type IV. Preliminary genotyping was performed based on clinical characteristics of the family members and then high-throughput sequencing was applied to rapidly and accurately detect the changes in candidate genes. Genetic testing of the III5 fetus and other family members revealed missense mutation in c.2746G>A, pGly916Arg in COL1A2 gene coding region and missense and synonymous mutation in COL1A1 gene coding region. Application of antenatal genetic diagnosis provides fast and accurate genetic counseling and eugenics suggestions for patients with osteogenesis imperfecta type IV and their families.

  5. Development of single-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR assays for rapid diagnosis of enterovirus 71, coxsackievirus A6, and A16 in patients with hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Suwannakarn, Kamol; Chansaenroj, Jira; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Poovorawan, Yong

    2017-10-01

    Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) to detect enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) has facilitated the rapid and accurate identification of the two most common etiological agents underlying hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). However, the worldwide emergence of CV-A6 infection in HFMD necessitates development of an improved multiplex rRT-PCR method. To rapidly determine the etiology of HFMD, two rRT-PCR assays using TaqMan probes were developed to differentiate among three selected common enteroviruses (EV-A71, CV-A16 and CV-A6) and to enable broad detection of enteroviruses (pan-enterovirus assay). No cross-reactions were observed with other RNA viruses examined. The detection limits of both assays were 10 copies per microliter for EV-A71, CV-A6 and CV-A16, and pan-enterovirus. The methods showed high accuracy (EV-A71, 90.6%; CV-A6, 92.0%; CV-A16, 100%), sensitivity (EV-A71, 96.5%; CV-A6, 95.8%; CV-A16, 99.0%), and specificity (EV-A71, 100%; CV-A6, 99.9%; CV-A16, 99.9%) in testing clinical specimens (n=1049) during 2014-2016, superior to those of conventional RT-PCR. Overall, the multiplex rRT-PCR assays enabled highly sensitive detection and rapid simultaneous typing of EV-A71, CV-A6 and CV-A16, and enteroviruses, rendering them feasible and attractive methods for large-scale surveillance of enteroviruses associated with HFMD outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. SARS - Diagnosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SARS - Diagnosis. Mainly by exclusion of known causes of atypical pneumonia; * X ray Chest; * PCR on body fluids- primers defined by WHO centres available from website.-ve result does not exclude SARS. * Sequencing of amplicons; * Viral Cultures – demanding; * Antibody tests.

  7. Diagnosis of scrub typhus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Jeshina; Trowbridge, Paul; Varghese, George M

    2014-12-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness that, if untreated, can result in considerable morbidity and mortality. One of the primary reasons for delays in the treatment of this potentially fatal infection is the difficulty in diagnosing the condition. Diagnosis is often complicated because of the combination of non-specific symptoms that overlap with other infections commonly found in endemic areas and the poor available diagnostics. In the majority of the endemic settings, diagnosis still relies on the Weil-Felix test, which is neither sensitive nor specific. Other methods of testing have become available, but at this time, these remain insufficient to provide the rapid point-of-care diagnostics that would be necessary to significantly change the management of this infection by providers in endemic areas. This article reviews the currently available diagnostic tools for scrub typhus and their utility in the clinical setting.

  8. Development and Evaluation of Reverse Transcription-Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) Assay Coupled with a Portable Device for Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease in Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosaki, Yohei; Magassouba, N’Faly; Oloniniyi, Olamide K.; Cherif, Mahamoud S.; Sakabe, Saori; Takada, Ayato; Hirayama, Kenji; Yasuda, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Given the current absence of specific drugs or vaccines for Ebola virus disease (EVD), rapid, sensitive, and reliable diagnostic methods are required to stem the transmission chain of the disease. We have developed a rapid detection assay for Zaire ebolavirus based on reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and coupled with a novel portable isothermal amplification and detection platform. The RT-LAMP assay is based on primer sets that target the untranscribed trailer region or nucleoprotein coding region of the viral RNA. The test could specifically detect viral RNAs of Central and West African Ebola virus strains within 15 minutes with no cross-reactivity to other hemorrhagic fever viruses and arboviruses, which cause febrile disease. The assay was evaluated using a total of 100 clinical specimens (serum, n = 44; oral swab, n = 56) collected from suspected EVD cases in Guinea. The specificity of this diagnostic test was 100% for both primer sets, while the sensitivity was 100% and 97.9% for the trailer and nucleoprotein primer sets, respectively, compared with a reference standard RT-PCR test. These observations suggest that our diagnostic assay is useful for identifying EVD cases, especially in the field or in settings with insufficient infrastructure. PMID:26900929

  9. Malaria diagnosis and treatment under the strategy of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI): relevance of laboratory support from the rapid immunochromatographic tests of ICT Malaria P.f/P.v and OptiMal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarimo, D S; Minjas, J N; Bygbjerg, I C

    2001-01-01

    to be excluded as a cause of illness (e.g. prior to treatment with toxic or expensive drugs, or during malaria epidemics). Wherever the effective drugs for the first-line treatment of malaria are cheap (e.g. chloroquine and Fansidar), treatment based on clinical diagnosis alone should prove cost-saving in health...... significantly associated with the P. falciparum asexual parasitaemias that equalled or exceeded the threshold intensity (2000/microl) that has the optimum sensitivity and specificity for the definition of a malarial episode. Diagnostic likelihood ratios (DLR) showed that a positive result in the OptiMal test....... Although the RIT may seem attractive for use in primary health facilities because relatively inexperienced staff can perform them, the high cost of these tests is prohibitive. In holo-endemic areas, use of RIT or microscopical examination of bloodsmears may only be relevant when malaria needs...

  10. Avian influenza surveillance and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapid detection and accurate identification of low (LPAI) and high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) is critical to controlling infections and disease in poultry. Test selection and algorithms for the detection and diagnosis of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry may vary somewhat among differ...

  11. Social Inequality in Children’s ADHD Diagnosis: Evidence from a Danish birth Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling; Oldrup, Helene

    2014-01-01

    as those children receiving an ADHD diagnosis. Thus, it is possible to study the mechanisms associated with diagnosis versus non-diagnosis over time. Preliminary results suggest that social inequality does, to some degree, exist among children with regard to who receive an ADHD diagnosis in the Danish...

  12. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  13. Epidemiologi dan Diagnosis Dengue di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Zilhadia, Zilhadia

    2007-01-01

    Dengue fever/DF and dengue hemorrhagic fever/DHF is a global public health problem that occured in tropical and subtropical region. Epidemic dengue occurs every years, and it continues to be a major health problem in Indonesia. Due to its asymptomatic nature, a reliable, rapid and accurate dengue diagnosis is needed. Dengue diagnosis method based on molecular dengue virus properties and it will be developed by researcher. Dengue rapid test isnewly method. This article explaine about dengue ep...

  14. Diagnosis of Xeroderma Pigmentosum Groups A and C by Detection of Two Prevalent Mutations in West Algerian Population: A Rapid Genotyping Tool for the Frequent XPC Mutation c.1643_1644delTG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensenouci, Salima; Louhibi, Lotfi; De Verneuil, Hubert; Mahmoudi, Khadidja; Saidi-Mehtar, Nadhira

    2016-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. Considering that XP patients have a defect of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway which enables them to repair DNA damage caused by UV light, they have an increased risk of developing skin and eyes cancers. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of the prevalent XPA and XPC genes mutations-nonsense mutation (c.682C>T, p.Arg228X) and a two-base-pair (2 bp) deletion (c.1643_1644delTG or p.Val548Ala fsX25), respectively-in 19 index cases from 19 unrelated families in the West of Algeria. For the genetic diagnosis of XPA gene, we proceeded to PCR-RFLP. For the XPC gene, we validated a routine analysis which includes a specific amplification of a short region surrounding the 2 bp deletion using a fluorescent primer and fragment sizing (GeneScan size) on a sequencing gel. Among the 19 index cases, there were 17 homozygous patients for the 2 bp deletion in the XPC gene and 2 homozygous patients carrying the nonsense XPA mutation. Finally, XPC appears to be the major disease-causing gene concerning xeroderma pigmentosum in North Africa. The use of fragment sizing is the simplest method to analyze this 2 bp deletion for the DNA samples coming from countries where the mutation c.1643_1644delTG of XPC gene is prevalent.

  15. FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY IN TUMOUR DIAGNOSIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    The advantages of FNAC are innumerable and these include cost effectiveness, rapid reporting and bedside diagnosis, minimal physical and psychological discomfort, elimination of a two-stage procedure for diagnosis and treatment, active participation of the patient in treatment planning, and serving as a therapeutic.

  16. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Imaging with [Lys40(Ahx-HYNIC-99mTc/EDDA)NH2]-Exendin-4 for the Diagnosis of Recurrence or Dissemination of Medullary Thyroid Cancer: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pach, D.; Sowa-Staszczak, A.; Jabrocka-Hybel, A.; Stefańska, A.; Tomaszuk, M.; Mikołajczak, R.; Janota, B.; Trofimiuk-Müldner, M.; Przybylik-Mazurek, E.; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Epidemiological studies on medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) have shown that neither a change in stage at diagnosis nor improvement in survival has occurred during the past 30 years. In patients with detectable serum calcitonin and no clinically apparent disease, a careful search for local recurrence, and nodal or distant metastases, should be performed. Conventional imaging modalities will not show any disease until basal serum calcitonin is at least 150 pg/mL. The objective of the study was to present the first experience with labelled glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue [Lys40(Ahx-HYNIC-99mTc/EDDA)NH2]-exendin-4 in the visualisation of MTC in humans. Material and Method. Four patients aged 22–74 years (two with sporadic and two with MEN2 syndrome-related disseminated MTC) were enrolled in the study. In all patients, GLP-1 receptor imaging was performed. Results. High-quality images were obtained in all patients. All previously known MTC lesions have been confirmed in GLP-1 scintigraphy. Moreover, one additional liver lesion was detected in sporadic MTC male patient. Conclusions. GLP-1 receptor imaging with [Lys40(Ahx-HYNIC-99mTc/EDDA)NH2]-exendin-4 is able to detect MTC lesions. GLP-1 scintigraphy can serve as a confirmatory test in MTC patients, in whom other imaging procedures are inconsistent. PMID:23606839

  17. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Imaging with [Lys (40) (Ahx-HYNIC- (99 m) Tc/EDDA)NH 2 ]-Exendin-4 for the Diagnosis of Recurrence or Dissemination of Medullary Thyroid Cancer: A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pach, D; Sowa-Staszczak, A; Jabrocka-Hybel, A; Stefańska, A; Tomaszuk, M; Mikołajczak, R; Janota, B; Trofimiuk-Müldner, M; Przybylik-Mazurek, E; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Epidemiological studies on medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) have shown that neither a change in stage at diagnosis nor improvement in survival has occurred during the past 30 years. In patients with detectable serum calcitonin and no clinically apparent disease, a careful search for local recurrence, and nodal or distant metastases, should be performed. Conventional imaging modalities will not show any disease until basal serum calcitonin is at least 150 pg/mL. The objective of the study was to present the first experience with labelled glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue [Lys(40)(Ahx-HYNIC-(99m)Tc/EDDA)NH2]-exendin-4 in the visualisation of MTC in humans. Material and Method. Four patients aged 22-74 years (two with sporadic and two with MEN2 syndrome-related disseminated MTC) were enrolled in the study. In all patients, GLP-1 receptor imaging was performed. Results. High-quality images were obtained in all patients. All previously known MTC lesions have been confirmed in GLP-1 scintigraphy. Moreover, one additional liver lesion was detected in sporadic MTC male patient. Conclusions. GLP-1 receptor imaging with [Lys(40)(Ahx-HYNIC-(99m)Tc/EDDA)NH2]-exendin-4 is able to detect MTC lesions. GLP-1 scintigraphy can serve as a confirmatory test in MTC patients, in whom other imaging procedures are inconsistent.

  18. Mobile teledermoscopy--melanoma diagnosis by one click?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massone, Cesare; Brunasso, Alexandra M G; Campbell, Terri M; Soyer, H Peter

    2009-09-01

    Mobile telemedicine integrates wireless communications for different telemedical applications, such as mobile phones and personal digital assistants, and with the implementation of modern wireless telecommunication, wireless local area network and satellite communication is a reality. New generation cellular phones or personal digital assistants have overcome limitations of image quality seen in older devices and, with dermatology being a visual profession, mobile teledermatology is perhaps the most recent development in this field. Mobile teledermatology may provide a triage service aimed toward management of patients with emergent skin disease or for follow-up with patients requiring systemic treatment. Teledermoscopy enables rapid transmission of dermoscopic images via e-mail or specific web-application and studies have demonstrated a high, 91%, concordance between face-to-face diagnosis and remote diagnosis of such images. Further to this, telediagnosis of melanocytic skin neoplasms achieved a diagnostic accuracy of 83% versus the conventional histopathologic diagnosis. Mobile teledermoscopy is the combination of such approaches enabling transfer of images captured with cellular phones coupled with a pocket dermatoscope and preliminary studies have demonstrated the feasibility and potential of its use in triage of pigmented lesions. Such applications are of benefit to physicians in enabling easy storage of data for follow-up or referral of images for expert second opinion and may facilitate a "person-centered health system" for patients with numerous moles and pigmented skin lesions who could forward images for evaluation. The incidence of skin cancers has reached epidemic proportions among whites and the trend is still going upward. Mobile teledermatology and teledermoscopy may be implemented as a triage or screening tool for malignant tumors to facilitate early detection and diagnosis, which is crucial for improved patient outcomes. While the legal aspects

  19. The Clinical usefulness of {sup 99mT}c HMPAO Leukocyte/{sup 99mT}c phytate bone marrow scintigraphy for diagnosis of prosthetic knee infection: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyung Pyo; Park, Ji Sun; Lee, Ah Young; Choi, Su Jung; Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun [Inje Univ., Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The preferred radionuclide imaging procedure for diagnosing prosthetic joint infection is combined radiolabeled leukocyte/{sup 99mT}c sulfur colloid bone marrow scintigraphy, which has an accuracy of over 90%. Unfortunately, sulfur colloid is no longer available in South Korea. in this study, we evaluated the usefulness of {sup 99mT}c phytate, a substitute for {sup 99mT}c sulfur colloid, when combined with radiolabeled leukocyte scintigraphy in suspected prosthetic knee infections. Eleven patients (nine women, two men; mean age 72{+-}6 years) with painful knee prostheses and a suspicion of infection underwent both {sup 99mT}c phytate bone marrow scintigraphy (BMS). The combined images were interpreted as positive for infection when radioactivity in the LS at the sits of clinical interest clearly exceeded that of the BMS (discordant); they were interpreted as negative when the increased activity in the LS was consistent with an increased activity in the BMS(concordant). The final diagnosis was made with microbiological or intraoperative findings and a clinical follow up of at least 12 months. Five of eleven patients were diagnosed as having an infected prosthesis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of the combined LS/BMS were 100%, 83%, 83%, 100% and 91%, respectively. We find that combined {sup 99mT}c HMPAO LS/{sup 99mT}c phytate BMS shows comparable diagnostic performance to other studies utilizing sulfur colloid. Combined {sup 99mT}c HMPAO LS/{sup 99mT}c phytate BMS is therefore expected to be an acceptable alternative to combined radiolabeled LS/{sup 99ms}ulfur colloid BMS for diagnosing prosthetic knee infections.

  20. Una prueba de captura rápida de antígenos con tiras reactivas para el diagnóstico de malaria por P. falciparum A rapid dipstick antigen capture assay for the diagnosis of falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Los avances recientes en el diagnóstico de infecciones causadas por Plasmodium falciparum han permitido considerar la posibilidad de complementar la microscopia óptica con una prueba estandarizada de captura de antígenos con tiras reactivas basada en la detección de una proteína específica del parásito, que es segregada por los estadios sanguíneos asexuados y los gametocitos inmaduros, pero no por otros estadios. Los ensayos de campo indican que esta prueba proporciona resultados replicables con un umbral de detección de parasitemia de P. falciparum similar al obtenido con microscopia habitual de alta calidad para malaria y una especificidad y sensibilidad de alrededor de 90% en comparación con la microscopia habitual con extensión de sangre en capa gruesa. La estabilidad, reproducibilidad y facilidad de uso de la prueba indican claramente sus posibilidades de aplicación en el tratamiento de la malaria, particularmente en el nivel de atención de salud periférico, siempre y cuando se pueda garantizar su precisión y su costo sea módico. También debe considerarse la posibilidad de usarla más ampliamente donde lo justifiquen los requisitos operativos y los recursos y donde las decisiones se basen en una evaluación adecuada de los sistemas de prestación de asistencia de salud existentes.Recent advances in the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum infections have made it possible to consider supplementing light microscopy with a standardized dipstick antigen capture assay based on the detection of a parasite-specific protein, which is secreted by the asexual blood stages and immature gametocytes but not by the other stages. Field trials indicate that this dipstick assay provides consistently reproducible results, with a threshold of detection of P. falciparum parasitaemia similar to that obtained by high quality routine malaria microscopy and a specificity and sensitivity of around 90% compared with standard thick blood film

  1. School-based diagnosis and treatment of malaria by teachers using rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin-based combination therapy: experiences and perceptions of users and implementers of the Learner Treatment Kit, southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mphwatiwa, Treza; Witek-McManus, Stefan; Mtali, Austin; Okello, George; Nguluwe, Paul; Chatsika, Hard; Roschnik, Natalie; Halliday, Katherine E; Brooker, Simon J; Mathanga, Don P

    2017-08-07

    Training teachers to diagnose uncomplicated malaria using malaria rapid diagnostic tests and treat with artemisinin-based combination therapy has the potential to improve the access of primary school children (6-14 years) to prompt and efficient treatment for malaria, but little is known about the acceptability of such an intervention. This qualitative study explored experiences and perceptions of users and implementers of a programme of school-based malaria case management via a first-aid kit-the Learner Treatment Kit (LTK)-implemented as part of a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Zomba district, Malawi. From 29 primary schools where teachers were trained to test and treat school children for malaria using the LTK, six schools were purposively selected on the basis of relative intervention usage (low, medium or high); school size and geographical location. In total eight focus group discussions were held with school children, parents and guardians, and teachers; and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted with key stakeholders at the school, district and national levels. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analysed using a thematic analysis approach. The LTK was widely perceived by respondents to be a worthwhile intervention, with the opinion that trained teachers were trusted providers of malaria testing and treatment to school children. Benefits of the programme included a perception of improved access to malaria treatment for school children; decreased school absenteeism; and that the programme supported broader national health and education policies. Potential barriers to successful implementation expressed included increased teacher workloads, a feeling of inadequate supervision from health workers, lack of incentives and concerns for the sustainability of the programme regarding the supply of drugs and commodities. Training teachers to test for and treat uncomplicated malaria in schools was well received by both users and implementers alike, and

  2. Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Inhibin-A, but not Inhibin-B or Insulin-Like Peptide-3, may be Used as Surrogates in the Diagnosis of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescents: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetim, Aylin; Yetim, Çağcıl; Baş, Firdevs; Erol, Oğuz Bülent; Çığ, Gülnaz; Uçar, Ahmet; Darendeliler, Feyza

    2016-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine problem in adolescents with an increasing prevalence of 30%. Pursuing new biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity in the diagnosis of PCOS in adolescents is currently an active area of research. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), insulin-like peptide-3 (INSL3), inhibin-A (INH-A), and inhibin-B (INH-B) in adolescents with PCOS and also to determine the association, if any, between these hormones and clinical/laboratory findings related with hyperandrogenism. The study group comprised 53 adolescent girls aged between 14.5 and 20 years who were admitted to our outpatient clinic with symptoms of hirsutism and/or irregular menses and diagnosed as having PCOS in accordance with the Rotterdam criteria. Twenty-six healthy peers, eumenorrheic for at least two years and body mass index-matched, constituted the controls. Fasting blood samples for hormones [luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione (D4-A), total/free testosterone (T/fT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), AMH, INSL3, INH-A, INH-B] were drawn after an overnight fast. In the PCOS group, 83% of the subjects were oligomenorrheic/amenorrheic and 87% had hirsutism. The LH, LH/FSH ratio, total T, fT, free androgen-index (FAI), DHEAS levels were significantly higher (p=0.005, p=0.042, p=0.047, pPCOS patients as compared to the controls. Although the INSL-3 and INH-B levels showed no difference between the groups (p>0.05), AMH and INH-A levels were found to be significantly higher in the PCOS group compared to the controls (pPCOS. When AMH and INH-A were used in combination, the sensitivity (96.2%) increased. INSL3 and INH-B were not found to have diagnostic value in adolescents with PCOS. On the other hand, it was shown that INH-A could be used as a new diagnostic biomarker in addition to AMH.

  3. [Pleural effusion: diagnosis and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastré, J; Roussel, S; Israël Biet, D; Sanchez, O

    2015-04-01

    Pleural effusion management is a common clinical situation associated with numerous pulmonary, pleural or extra-pulmonary diseases. A systematic approach is needed to enable a rapid diagnosis and an appropriate treatment. Pleural fluid analysis is the first step to perform which allows a presumptive diagnosis in most cases. Otherwise, further analysis of the pleural fluid or thoracic imaging or pleural biopsy may be necessary. This review aims at highlighting the important elements of the work-up required by a pleural effusion. Copyright © 2014 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Rhabdomyolysis: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Patrick A.; Helmstetter, John A.; Kaye, Adam M.; Kaye, Alan David

    2015-01-01

    Background Rhabdomyolysis is a complex medical condition involving the rapid dissolution of damaged or injured skeletal muscle. Methods This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, causes, presentation, diagnosis, complications, management, and anesthetic considerations related to rhabdomyolysis. Results Any form of muscle damage––and by extension any entity that causes muscle damage––can initiate rhabdomyolysis. One of the most important treatment goals when rhabdomyolysis is suspected is avoiding acute kidney injury. Conclusion All clinicians should be aware of common causes, diagnosis, and treatment options. PMID:25829882

  5. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  6. Manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents by a rapid prototyping process chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knitter, R.; Bauer, W.; Goehring, D.; Hausselt, J.

    2001-01-01

    Manufacturing of new ceramic components may be improved significantly by the use of rapid prototyping processes especially in the development of miniaturized or micropatterned components. Most known generative ceramic molding processes do not provide a sufficient resolution for the fabrication of microstructured components. In contrast to this, a rapid prototyping process chain that for example, combines micro-stereolithography and low-pressure injection molding, allows the rapid manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents from functional models to preliminary or small-lot series. (orig.)

  7. Rapidly Progressive Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Aycan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal epidural abscess (SEA is a rare disease which is often rapidly progressive. Delayed diagnosis of SEA may lead to serious complications and the clinical findings of SEA are generally nonspecific. Paraspinal abscess should be considered in the presence of local low back tenderness, redness, and pain with fever, particularly in children. In case of delayed diagnosis and treatment, SEA may spread to the epidural space and may cause neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI remains the method of choice in the diagnosis of SEA. Treatment of SEA often consists of both medical and surgical therapy including drainage with percutaneous entry, corpectomy, and instrumentation.

  8. Five misconceptions in cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, William

    2009-01-01

    Much investment has been put into facilities for early cancer diagnosis. It is difficult to know how successful this investment has been. New facilities for rapid investigation in the UK have not reduced mortality, and may cause delays in diagnosis of patients with low-risk, or atypical, symptoms. In part, the failure of new facilities to translate into mortality benefits can be explained by five misconceptions. These are described, along with suggested research and organisational remedies. The first misconception is that cancer is diagnosed in hospitals. Consequently, secondary care data have been used to drive primary care decisions. Second, GPs are thought to be poor at cancer diagnosis, yet the type of education on offer to improve this may not be what is needed. Third, symptomatic cancer diagnosis has been downgraded in importance with the introduction of screening, yet screening identifies only a small minority of cancers. Fourth, pressure is put on GPs to make referrals for those with an individual high risk of cancer — disenfranchising those with ‘low-risk but not no-risk’ symptoms. Finally, considerable nihilism exists about the value of early diagnosis, despite considerable observational evidence that earlier diagnosis of symptomatic cancer is beneficial. PMID:19520027

  9. [The diagnosis and treatment of myxedema coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Chie; Kasai, Kikuo

    2012-11-01

    Myxedema coma is defined as severe hypothyroidism leading to decreased mental status, hypothermia, and other symptoms related to dysfunction in multiple organs. It is very rare disease with high mortality rate. Early recognition and therapy of myxedema coma are essential, and treatment should be begun on the basis of clinical suspection. However, regimen of myxedema is not well established even now, especially about thyroid hormone supplementation. Japan Thyroid Association is drawing up "The diagnostic criteria of myxedema coma (3rd draft) and preliminary guide to treatment of it". According to this criteria and preliminary guide, the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of myxedema coma will be reviewed here.

  10. Differential diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Adra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal uterine bleeding may be acute or chronic accounting for up to 30% of outpatient visits to gynecologists. Hyperprolactinemia is one of the most common endocrine disorders associated with ovulatory dysfunction that results in menstrual irregularities. Prior to initiating treatment, the various causes (physiologic, pathologic, pharmacologic, or idiopathic of hyperprolactinemia must be elucidated. Prolactin is a stress hormone that increases in response to stressful conditions; therefore, while collecting samples it is necessary to reduce venipuncture stress. A thorough patient history and physical examination will help to identify the cause and to direct therapy. Imaging results must always be assessed along with a patient’s clinical history and biochemical parameters when a pituitary tumor is suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the diagnosis of microprolactinomas and macroprolactinomas in both initial assessment and follow-up. Several drugs may cause a significant increase in serum prolactin concentration. If clinically feasible, the drug should be discontinued; if this is not possible, it should be substituted with a drug of similar action that does not cause hyperprolactinemia. Prolactinomas are the most common cause of pituitary adenomas affecting women of fertile age leading to significant elevations in prolactin that warrant treatment. Idiopathic hyperprolactinemia may be observed in the presence of elevated serum prolactin levels and in the absence of any other recognized cause of increased prolactin secretion. Dopamine agonists are the mainstay of therapy in prolactinomas and symptomatic idiopathic hyperprolactinemia because they normalize serum prolactin, effectively shrink prolactinomas and normalize gonadal function (i.e. menstruation.

  11. Mobile Complex For Rapid Diagnosis of the Technological System Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilin Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the up-to-dateness of the new informing and measuring tools and technologies development. It is reviewed the mobile complex for runtime diagnostics of technological system “machine-toolinstrument- detail”. It was found that the use of the complex allows to identify the frequency area in which the appearance of resonance of the technological system elements is possible, and thus to draw a conclusion on the technical state of the diagnosed object. It is concluded that there is the prospects for the use of the above mentioned mobile complex for vibration diagnostics.

  12. A rapid and sensitive method for diagnosis of dermatophyte induced

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sherin M. Emam

    2015-08-29

    10.1016/j.ajme.2015.05.001 ... C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis and Blastoschizomyces capitatus ... contaminants, Scrapings were taken with a sterile scalpel blade ... shape, consistency, margins, color of the colony both in recto.

  13. Diagnosis of vulvovaginitis: comparison of clinical and microbiological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esim Buyukbayrak, Esra; Kars, Bulent; Karsidag, Ayse Yasemin Karageyim; Karadeniz, Bernan Ilkay; Kaymaz, Ozge; Gencer, Serap; Pirimoglu, Zehra Meltem; Unal, Orhan; Turan, Mehmet Cem

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the current diagnostic clinical and laboratory approaches to women with vulvovaginal discharge complaint. The secondary outcomes were to determine the prevalence of infections in our setting and to look for the relation between vulvovaginal infections and predisposing factors if present. Premenopausal women applying to our gynecology outpatient clinic with vaginal discharge complaint were enrolled prospectively into the study. Each patient evaluated clinically with direct observation of vaginal secretions, wet mount examination, whiff test, vaginal pH testing and chlamydia rapid antigen test. Each patient also evaluated microbiologically with vaginal discharge culture and gram staining. Clinical diagnosis was compared with the microbiological diagnosis (the gold standard). Diagnostic accuracy was measured with sensitivity, specificity, positive (ppv) and negative predictive values (npv). 460 patients were included in the study. 89.8% of patients received a clinical diagnosis whereas only 36% of them had microbiological diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, ppv, npv of clinical diagnosis over microbiological culture results were 95, 13, 38, 82%, respectively. The most commonly encountered microorganisms by culture were Candida species (17.4%) and Gardnerella vaginalis (10.2%). Clinically, the most commonly made diagnoses were mixed infection (34.1%), bacterial vaginosis (32.4%) and fungal infection (14.1%). Symptoms did not predict laboratory results. Predisposing factors (DM, vaginal douching practice, presence of IUD and usage of oral contraceptive pills) were not found to be statistically important influencing factors for vaginal infections. Clinical diagnosis based on combining symptoms with office-based testing improves diagnostic accuracy but is insufficient. The most effective approach also incorporates laboratory testing as an adjunct when a diagnosis is in question or treatment is failing.

  14. The Psychological Impact of Awaiting Breast Diagnosis: A Preliminary Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Sweeny is a social psychologist by training, but she applies the theories and methods of social psychology to address patients' experiences with their health and healthcare. Over the years, her work has examined topics ranging from bad news delivery to physician-patient communication to screening decisions. Her current research program focuses on the stressful but understudied experience of awaiting uncertain news, including news about one's health. She developed the uncertainty navigation model as a theoretical framework for understanding the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that emerge during the wait for health-relevant news. Her work has provided broad and novel insights into this difficult experience, including how waiting experiences unfold over time, the nature of distress during waiting periods, the relative effectiveness of various strategies people can use to cope with uncertainty, and the implications of stressful waiting periods for sleep and health. Dr. Sweeny’s work has been funded by the National Science Foundation and published in top journals, including Annals of Behavioral Medicine, Health Psychology Review, Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, Psychological Bulletin, and Psychological Science. She received the inaugural Early Career Award from the Social Personality Health Network, and in 2016 she was awarded the APA Distinguished Scientific Award for an Early Career Contribution to Health Psychology. In her other life, Dr. Sweeny is a Middle Eastern dance performer and instructor, a yoga enthusiast, and an avid hiker. If you are a person with a disability and require an assistive device, services or other reasonable accommodations to participate in this activity, please contact the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program at (240) 276-5626 at least one week in advance of the lecture date to discuss your accommodation needs.

  15. Rapidly Progressive Corticobasal Degeneration Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Herrero Valverde

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS has a heterogeneous clinical presentation with no specific pathologic substratum. Its accurate diagnosis is a challenge for neurologists; in order to establish CBS definitively, postmortem confirmation is required. Some clinical and radiological features can help to distinguish it from other neurodegenerative conditions, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Clinical Case: A 74-year-old woman presented with language impairment, difficulty in walking and poor attentiveness that had begun 10 days before. Other symptoms, such as asymmetrical extra-pyramidal dysfunction, limb dystonia and ‘alien limb’ phenomena, were established over the next 2 months, with rapid progression. Death occurred 3 months after symptom onset. Laboratory results were normal. Initially, imaging only showed restricted diffusion with bilateral parieto-occipital gyri involvement on DWI-MRI, with unspecific EEG changes. An autopsy was performed. Brain neuropathology confirmed sporadic CJD (sCJD. Conclusions: CBS is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome whose differential diagnosis is extensive. CJD can occasionally present with clinical characteristics resembling CBS. MRI detection of abnormalities in some sequences (FLAIR, DWI, as previously reported, has high diagnostic utility for sCJD diagnosis – especially in early stages – when other tests can still appear normal. Abnormalities on DWI sequencing may not correlate with neuropathological findings, suggesting a functional basis to explain the changes found.

  16. Tuberculous and brucellosis meningitis differential diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, Hakan; Senbayrak, Seniha; Gencer, Serap

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Thwaites and Lancet scoring systems have been used in the rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). However, brucellar meningoencephalitis (BME) has similar characteristics with TBM. The ultimate aim of this study is to infer data to see if BME should be included in the dif......BACKGROUND: The Thwaites and Lancet scoring systems have been used in the rapid diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). However, brucellar meningoencephalitis (BME) has similar characteristics with TBM. The ultimate aim of this study is to infer data to see if BME should be included...

  17. Novel fiber optic-based needle redox imager for cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniyappan, Udayakumar; Xu, He N.; Tang, Qinggong; Gaitan, Brandon; Liu, Yi; Li, Lin Z.; Chen, Yu

    2018-02-01

    Despite various technological advancements in cancer diagnosis, the mortality rates were not decreased significantly. We aim to develop a novel optical imaging tool to assist cancer diagnosis effectively. Fluorescence spectroscopy/imaging is a fast, rapid, and minimally invasive technique which has been successfully applied to diagnosing cancerous cells/tissues. Recently, the ratiometric imaging of intrinsic fluorescence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), as pioneered by Britton Chance and the co-workers in 1950-70's, has gained much attention to quantify the physiological parameters of living cells/tissues. The redox ratio, i.e., FAD/(FAD+NADH) or FAD/NADH, has been shown to be sensitive to various metabolic changes in in vivo and in vitro cells/tissues. Optical redox imaging has also been investigated for providing potential imaging biomarkers for cancer transformation, aggressiveness, and treatment response. Towards this goal, we have designed and developed a novel fiberoptic-based needle redox imager (NRI) that can fit into an 11G clinical coaxial biopsy needle for real time imaging during clinical cancer surgery. In the present study, the device is calibrated with tissue mimicking phantoms of FAD and NADH along with various technical parameters such as sensitivity, dynamic range, linearity, and spatial resolution of the system. We also conducted preliminary imaging of tissues ex vivo for validation. We plan to test the NRI on clinical breast cancer patients. Once validated this device may provide an effective tool for clinical cancer diagnosis.

  18. Evaluation of Tc-99m leukocyte scan in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.A.; Marcus, C.S.; Henneman, P.L.; Inkelis, S.H.; Wilson, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    A new /sup 99m/Tc Microlite leukocyte scan was performed in 38 patients to assess its value in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Autologous leukocytes are labeled with /sup 99m/Tc by inducing phagocytosis of /sup 99m/Tc albumin microcolloid particles. The advantages of this test over the standard indium-111 scan include superior imaging capability, a marked reduction (greater than 75%) in the radiation dose, and performance of the test including labeling, in less than 3 hr. Imaging is performed at 5-90 min postinjection of labeled cells. There were 19 male and 19 female patients with ages ranging from 10 to 80 years, in whom the diagnosis of appendicitis was indeterminate on clinical examination. Of the 13 of the 38 patients (34%) who came to surgery 12 had acute appendicitis. The WBC scan correctly identified 10 of the 12 cases of appendicitis. There were two false-negative studies. In the nonoperative group of 25 patients admitted for observation, 21 studies were reported as negative and four identified other sites of inflammation. All patients with a negative study have remained asymptomatic on follow-up. With a sensitivity of 83% (10/12) and a specificity of 100% (26/26) the /sup 99m/Tc leukocyte scan provides a rapid and highly accurate method for diagnosis of appendicitis in this preliminary study of patients with equivocal clinical exams

  19. Smartphone-based fluorescence spectroscopy device aiding in preliminary skin screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Aparajita; Wahi, Akshat; Das, Anshuman

    2018-02-01

    Preliminary diagnosis of closely resembling skin conditions can be highly subjective for dermatologists. In ambiguous cases, it often leads to performing invasive procedures like biopsies. Different skin conditions, however, have varying concentrations of fluorophores (like collagen, NADH) and chromophores (like melanin, hemoglobin) which can alter their fluorescence spectra. We demonstrate a handheld, portable, smartphone-based spectrometer that leverages these alterations in skin autofluorescence spectra for rapid screening of skin conditions. This methodology involves excitation of affected skin areas with ultraviolet (UV-A) 385 nm light, capturing the generated fluorescence spectra and sending the data wirelessly to a companion mobile application for data storage, analysis and visualization. By collecting the fluorescence spectral signals from healthy and unhealthy skin conditions, we establish that the signals collected using this portable device can be used to develop a classification method to help in differentially diagnosing these conditions. It shows promise as a useful skin screening tool for both dermatologists and primary health care workers. This device can enable quick, non-invasive and a more objective preliminary examination. We envision the device to be especially useful in primary healthcare centers of developing countries where availability of dermatologists is limited.

  20. A comparison of rapid diagnostic testing (by plasmodium lactate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) considers early and rapid diagnosis as one of the strategies to control malaria. This study compared the performance of Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) test and the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with microscopy as the gold ...

  1. Rapid diagnosis and identification by PCR of Yersinia ruckeri isolated of Oncorhynchus mykiss from Canta, Lima, Peru Diagnóstico e identificación rápidos por PCR de Yersinia ruckeri aislada de Oncorhynchus mykiss procedentes de Canta, Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Sirvas-Cornejo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty individuals of rainbow trout were sampled (fry and juveniles from Acochinchan Fishfarm (Canta, Lima - Peru, and analyzed with the Polimerase Chain Reaction test (PCR in order to achieve a rapid identification of Yersinia ruckeri, which is the pathogen agent that causes the enteric red mouth disease (ERM and produces high rates of mortality. Nine fish samples were asymptomatic, while 11 of them showed signs of ERM. In addition, 22 bacterial strains were isolated from the liver, spleen and kidney. PCR and specific primers (16S rRNA, were used to amplified a specific 575 bp DNA fragment of Yersinia ruckeri. Nineteen strains were identified as Yersinia ruckeri by PCR in symptomatic and asymptomatic fishes. It was established a diagnosis time of 26 hours, compared with the 2 or 3 days that would take the diagnosis using biochemical tests.Se muestrearon 20 ejemplares (alevines y juveniles de trucha arco iris cultivados en la piscifactoría Acochinchán (Canta, Lima, Perú, y se les aplico la técnica de la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR con la finalidad de obtener una identificación rápida del agente patógeno Yersinia ruckeri que produce la enfermedad entérica de la boca roja (ERM y genera elevadas tasas de mortalidad. Nueve ejemplares fueron asintomáticos mientras que 11 presentaron signos de ERM. Se aislaron 22 cepas bacterianas del hígado, bazo y riñón. Se empleó la técnica de la PCR para la amplificación y cebadores específicos (ARNr 16S, que permitieron amplificar un fragmento de ADN de 575 pb de Yersinia ruckeri. Diecinueve cepas fueron identificadas como Yersinia ruckeri mediante la PCR, tanto en peces sintomáticos como asintomáticos. Se estableció un tiempo de diagnóstico de 26 horas, en comparación con los 2 ó 3 días que duraría el diagnóstico empleando las pruebas bioquímicas.

  2. Rapid onset aggressive vertebral haemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicholas K; Doorenbosch, Xenia; Christie, John G

    2011-03-01

    Vertebral haemangiomas are generally benign asymptomatic vascular tumours seen commonly in the adult population. Presentations in paediatric populations are extremely rare, which can result in rapid onset of neurological symptoms. We present a highly unusual case of an aggressive paediatric vertebral haemangioma causing significant cord compression. A 13-year-old boy presented with only 2 weeks duration of progressive gait disturbance, truncal ataxia and loss of bladder control. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine revealed a large vascular epidural mass extending between T6 and T8 vertebral bodies. Associated displacement and compression of the spinal cord was present. A highly vascular bony lesion was found during surgery. Histopathology identified this tumour to be a vertebral haemangioma. We present an extremely unusual acute presentation of a paediatric vertebral haemangioma. This study highlights the need for early diagnosis, MRI for investigation and urgent surgical management. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  3. Edema: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayes, Kathryn P; Studdiford, James S; Pickle, Sarah; Tully, Amber S

    2013-07-15

    Edema is an accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space that occurs as the capillary filtration exceeds the limits of lymphatic drainage, producing noticeable clinical signs and symptoms. The rapid development of generalized pitting edema associated with systemic disease requires timely diagnosis and management. The chronic accumulation of edema in one or both lower extremities often indicates venous insufficiency, especially in the presence of dependent edema and hemosiderin deposition. Skin care is crucial in preventing skin breakdown and venous ulcers. Eczematous (stasis) dermatitis can be managed with emollients and topical steroid creams. Patients who have had deep venous thrombosis should wear compression stockings to prevent postthrombotic syndrome. If clinical suspicion for deep venous thrombosis remains high after negative results are noted on duplex ultrasonography, further investigation may include magnetic resonance venography to rule out pelvic or thigh proximal venous thrombosis or compression. Obstructive sleep apnea may cause bilateral leg edema even in the absence of pulmonary hypertension. Brawny, nonpitting skin with edema characterizes lymphedema, which can present in one or both lower extremities. Possible secondary causes of lymphedema include tumor, trauma, previous pelvic surgery, inguinal lymphadenectomy, and previous radiation therapy. Use of pneumatic compression devices or compression stockings may be helpful in these cases.

  4. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  5. Histopathological Diagnosis of Fungal Infections: Problems and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathology is a major diagnostic tool in mycology and has the advantage of rapid diagnosis, cost effectiveness, ability to provide initial identification of the infecting fungus and demonstrates tissue reactions and currently the means of diagnosing the infections caused by the fungi: Lodoa loboi and Rhinosporidium ...

  6. Diabetes Part 1. Definition, Diagnosis and Prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skoludek_R

    increasing obesity and a steady year on year rise in the incidence of type 1 ... its under-diagnosis and under-treatment leads to rapid death in T1DM and to unnecessary suffering and ... 80% of the time), T1DM presents in childhood with.

  7. Active fault diagnosis by temporary destabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    An active fault diagnosis method for parametric or multiplicative faults is proposed. The method periodically adds a term to the controller that for a short period of time renders the system unstable if a fault has occurred, which facilitates rapid fault detection. An illustrative example is given....

  8. Diagnosis and Change or Change and Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammann, Cortlandt

    Organizational consultation is often viewed as a four-stage process: entry, diagnosis, intervention, and evaluation. A fifth stage, preparation of organizations to conduct diagnosis and change, is frequently neglected. In the preparation stage, organizational consultants must deal with resistance by creating conditions for the consideration of the…

  9. Imprint cytology: A boon in tissue diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charusheela Rajesh Gore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The technique of imprint cytology has provided great impetus to cytodiagnosis due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness, rapid results. It plays a significant role in the rapid diagnosis of the lesions. Objectives: To analyze the sensitivity and specificity of imprint cytology and thereby to evaluate its diagnostic utility. Materials and Methods: The prospective study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital. It included 105 cases. Both benign and malignant lesions from different organ systems were included in the study. Various techniques like touch imprints scrape cytology and squash preparations were used according to the nature of tissue sample. The cytodiagnosis was correlated with histopathological (HP diagnosis to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of imprint cytology. Results: Maximum lesions were of central nervous system (25.7% followed by breast, head, and neck. Imprint cytology diagnosis had sensitivity of 95.5% with 100% specificity for detection of benign and malignant lesions. Overall accuracy of detecting type of lesion was 98.1%. Total discordance with HP diagnosis was found in 1.9% of cases. Conclusion: The use of smear technique in intraoperative diagnosis provides a rapid and efficient means of pathological assessment which in experienced hand, is capable of obtaining a high degree of accuracy. Its use is highly recommended routinely.

  10. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysaeter, G.; Berstad, K.; Weberg, R.; Berstad, A.; Hardardottir, H.

    1992-01-01

    By employing the 14 C-urea breath test as the reference methods the authors determined the specificity and sensitivity of three bioptic methods for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in 103 subjects. All biopsy specimens were obtained from the gastric antrum. For culture the specificity was 100%. Its applicability was reduced, however, by a low sensitivity (73.8%) and a delay of several days before the final result was available. Microscopy of Loeffler-stained biopsy smears yielded a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 92.9%, but the method was regarded time-consuming. The rapid urease test yielded a specificity of 98.4% and a sensitivity of 85.7%. Being quick, simple and inexpensive, the rapid urease test is well suited for routine use in gastroscopy. 17 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Knowledge and practice on magnitude, diagnosis, treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is lack of information on the burden, risk factors, diagnosis modalities, ... HCC is clinically characterized by exhaustion, loss of appetite, rapid loss of weight, ... strategy on health education and early case detection is of critical importance.

  12. Use of WGS in Mycobacterium tuberculosis routine diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela M Cirillo

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: WGS is a rapid, cost-effective technique that promises to integrate and replace the other tests in routine laboratories for an accurate diagnosis of DR-TB, although it is suitable nowadays for cultured samples only.

  13. Disclosure of Diagnosis in Early Recognition of Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessing, Andreas; Studer, Anna; Gross, Amelie; Gruss, L Forest; Schneider, Roland; Dammann, Gerhard

    2017-10-01

    There is a debate concerning risks and benefits of early intervention in psychosis, especially concerning diagnosis disclosure. The present study reports preliminary findings on self-reported locus of control and psychological distress after the disclosure of diagnosis in an early recognition center. We compared the ratings of the locus of control and psychological distress before and after communication of diagnosis. The study included individuals with an at-risk mental state (ARMS) (n = 10), schizophrenia (n = 9), and other psychiatric disorders (n = 11). Results indicate greater endorsement of the internal locus of control in individuals with ARMS after communication of diagnosis in contrast to the other groups. Our results suggest that disclosure of diagnosis in an early recognition center leads to a reduction of psychological distress and increased feelings of control over one's health. Persons with ARMS seem to particularly benefit from disclosure of diagnosis as part of early intervention.

  14. Diagnosis of lymph node tuberculosis using the GeneXpert MTB/RIF in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Jaouadi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The implementation of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay may dramatically improve the rapid diagnosis of lymph node TB. This rapid TB test may complete usual methods (conventional microscopy, culture and histopathology.

  15. Rapid prototyping using CBCT: an initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yovchev, D.; Deliverska, E.; Indjova, J.; Ugrinov, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a case of fibrous dysplasia in the left lower jaw of a 12-year-old girl, scanned with CBCT. On the basis of CBCT scan a model of affected jaw was produced using a rapid-prototyping three-dimensional printer. The case demonstrates the possibility to get a prototype by CBCT data. Prototypes can be used to support the diagnosis, planning, training (students and postgraduates) and to obtain informed consent from the patient.

  16. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  17. Surface integral formulation of Maxwell's equations for simulation of non-destructive testing by eddy currents. Preliminary study on the implementation of the fast multipole method; Formulation integrale surfacique des equations de Maxwell pour la simulation de controles non destructifs par courant de Foucault. Etude preliminaire a la mise en oeuvre de la methode multipole rapide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, T.

    2011-04-28

    To simulate numerically a non-destructive by eddy current testing (NDT-CF), the sensor response can be modeled through a semi-analytical approach by volume integral equations. Faster than the finite element method, this approach is however restricted to the study of plane or cylindrical parts (without taking into account the edge effects) because of the complexity of the expression of the dyadic Green function for more general configurations. However, there is an industrial demand to extend the capabilities of the CF model in complex configurations (deformed plates, edges effects...). We were thus brought to formulate the electromagnetic problem differently, by setting ourselves the goal of maintaining a semi-analytical approach. The surface integral equation (SIE) expresses the volume problem by an equivalent transmission one at the interfaces (2D) between homogeneous sub-domains. This problem is approached by a linear system (by the method of moments), whose number of unknowns is reduced due to the nature of the surfacic mesh. Therefore, this system can be solved by a direct solver for small configurations. That enabled us to treat several various positions of the sensor for only one inversion of the impedance matrix. The numerical results obtained using this formulation involve plates with consideration of edge effects such as edge and corner. They are consistent with results obtained by the finite element method. For larger configurations, we conducted a preliminary study for the adaptation of an acceleration method of the matrix vector product involved in an iterative solver (fast multipole method or FMM) to define the conditions under which the FMM calculation works correctly (accuracy, convergence...) in the NDT's domain. A special attention has been given to the choice of basis functions (which have to satisfy an Hdiv conforming property) and on the evaluation of near interactions (which are weakly singular). (author) [French] Pour simuler

  18. Rapid improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  19. Preparation of the 99mTc-dextran lymphoscin tigraphic agent and its preliminary clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weiyue; You Dejian; Ma Yuanming; He Guangren; Zhang Wei; Tu Zhipei; Jin Bixia

    1991-01-01

    Dextran-70 was treated by gradient sedimentation, and that with a mean molecular weight of 105000 which was optimal for lymphatic system imaging rabbits was selected. Sn-Dextran kit was produced containing the above-mentioned dextran. Sn-Dextran kits can be stored at 4 deg C for 8 months. Its efficiency of labelling is more than 95%. The biodistribution, pharmacokinetics studies and lymphoscintigraphy in rabbits for 99m Tc-dextran showed: (1) high radioactivity in the popliteal nodes and very low redioactivity in other nontarget organs except kidneys through which it was excreted; (2) 99m Tc-dextran accumulated markedly and rapidly in lymphatic system. The lymph channels and nodes were well visualized in scintigrams; (3) 99m Tc-dextran cleared rapidly from the injection site. Radioactivity of 95% of the injected dose disappearing after 6.5h. Toxicity tests indicated that: 99m Tc-dextran is a drug of low toxicity and safe. Preliminary clinical applications of 99m Tc-dextran in 100 cases provided satisfactory results. The process of imaging usually took less than 1h after injection, and no side-effects occurred in any patient. In most cases, the results corresponded basically with the clinical diagnosis. Hence, 99m Tc-dextran is an ideal radiopharmaceutical that can be used for the visualization of the lymphatic system. It is recomminded for routine use in clincal practice

  20. Relación costo-efectividad del uso de pruebas rápidas para el diagnóstico de la malaria en la Amazonia peruana Cost-effectiveness ratio of using rapid tests for malaria diagnosis in the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Martín Rosas Aguirre

    2009-05-01

    promotores de salud a otras comunidades con condiciones similares a las estudiadas.OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness ratios of three options for diagnosing malaria at the local health provider in 50 communities near the Peruvian Amazon. METHODS: Calculation of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of three options for diagnosing malaria-not using rapid tests, using rapid tests, and accessing microscopy-in patients presenting with fever in 50 communities near Iquitos in the Peruvian Amazon, communities with limited access to microscopy that depend on a network of local health providers. The incremental costs and effects of the two latter options were calculated and compared with the first option (currently in use. By dividing the incremental costs among the incremental effects, the incremental costeffectiveness ratio was calculated. RESULTS: Using rapid tests would save the Ministry of Health of Peru: US$ 191 for each new case of Plasmodium falciparum malaria treated promptly and appropriately; US$ 31 per new case of P. vivax malaria treated promptly and appropriately;US$ 1 051 per case of acute malaria averted; and US$ 17 655 for each death avoided. Access to microscopy by all the communities would generate an additional cost of: US$ 198 per new case of P. falciparum malaria treated promptly and appropriately; US$ 31 per new case of P. vivax malaria treated promptly and appropriately; US$ 1 086 per case of acute malaria averted; and US$ 18 255 for each death avoided. CONCLUSIONS: The use of rapid tests by local health providers can improve the effectiveness of malaria diagnosis in patients with fever in the 50 communities studied, at a cost lower than the current method. The recommendation is to expand the use of rapid tests among the health providers in communities similar to those studied.

  1. Rapidity gaps in jet events at D0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.

    1997-07-01

    Preliminary results from the D0 experiment on jet production with rapidity gaps in p anti p collisions are presented. A class of dijet events with a forward rapidity gap is observed at center-of-mass energies √s = 1800 GeV and 630 GeV. The number of events with rapidity gaps at both center-of-mass energies is significantly greater than the expectation from multiplicity fluctuations and is consistent with a hard diffractive process. A class of events with two forward gaps and central dijets is also observed at 1800 GeV. This topology is consistent with hard double pomeron exchange

  2. Dual Diagnosis - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Library of Medicine Comorbidity or dual diagnosis - Opioid addiction, part 9 - English PDF Comorbidity or dual diagnosis - Opioid addiction, part 9 - español (Spanish) PDF Comorbidity or dual ...

  3. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding ulcer disease: rapid urease test and histology Diagnóstico mediante endoscopia de la infección por Helicobacter pylori en pacientes con úlcera gastroduodenal y hemorragia digestiva: test rápido de ureasa e histología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Castro-Fernández

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the endoscopic diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding peptic ulcer is limited by a decreased sensitivity in standard invasive tests, rapid urease test and histology. There is controversy about the convenience of using one, neither, or both diagnostic tests. Aims: to evaluate the results of simultaneously performed rapid urease test and histology in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection (H. pylori in patients with bleeding peptic ulcer. Patients and methods: we included 173 patients, 98 male and 75 female, with an average age of 62 years (18-88, with upper gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to duodenal ulcer (115 or gastric ulcer (58, diagnosed within 24 hours after hospital admission. None of the patients had received treatment for H. pylori, proton pump inhibitors or antibiotics in the two weeks prior to the upper gastrointestinal bleeding episode. H. pylori infection was investigated in all patients by two antral biopsy samples for histological study (hematoxilin-eosin and one or two antral biopsies for rapid urease test (Jatrox®-H.p.-test. In cases with a negative urease test and histology, a 13C urea breath test was performed. Infection was considered present when at least one invasive test or the breath test was positive, whereas both invasive tests and the breath test had to be negative to establish an absent infection. Results: 152 patients (88% showed H. pylori infection, 104 patients (90% with duodenal ulcer and 48 patients (83% with gastric ulcer. In all 119 cases (78% were diagnosed by the urease test and 112 cases (74% by histology. Both methods were used to diagnose 134 of 152 cases (88% (p Introducción: el diagnóstico de la infección por Helicobacter pylori, mediante endoscopia, en pacientes con úlcera gastroduodenal y hemorragia digestiva está limitado por la disminución de la sensibilidad de los métodos invasivos habituales, test de la ureasa e histología. Existen

  4. Usefulness of pantomography in the diagnosis of facial skeletal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozylo, T.K.

    1981-01-01

    The use of pantomography for the diagnosis of pathological processes in the facial skeleton makes possible obtaining of radiological data rapidly on the film. The possibilities of pantomography application for the diagnosis of various diseases of this skeleton describing the advantages and disadvantages of the method and its usefulness in different stomatological disciplines are presented. (author)

  5. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology In Tumour Diagnosis | Obaseki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), a technique for obtaining cellular material for cytological examination and diagnosis using a 21- gauge or smaller needle, is performed using a 5, 10, or 20ml syringe either freehand or using special syringe holders. It allows a minimally invasive, rapid diagnosis of tissue samples but

  6. Rapid response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrick G; Edelson, Dana P; Churpek, Matthew M

    2018-07-01

    Rapid response systems are commonly employed by hospitals to identify and respond to deteriorating patients outside of the intensive care unit. Controversy exists about the benefits of rapid response systems. We aimed to review the current state of the rapid response literature, including evolving aspects of afferent (risk detection) and efferent (intervention) arms, outcome measurement, process improvement, and implementation. Articles written in English and published in PubMed. Rapid response systems are heterogeneous, with important differences among afferent and efferent arms. Clinically meaningful outcomes may include unexpected mortality, in-hospital cardiac arrest, length of stay, cost, and processes of care at end of life. Both positive and negative interventional studies have been published, although the two largest randomized trials involving rapid response systems - the Medical Early Response and Intervention Trial (MERIT) and the Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients (EPOCH) trial - did not find a mortality benefit with these systems, albeit with important limitations. Advances in monitoring technologies, risk assessment strategies, and behavioral ergonomics may offer opportunities for improvement. Rapid responses may improve some meaningful outcomes, although these findings remain controversial. These systems may also improve care for patients at the end of life. Rapid response systems are expected to continue evolving with novel developments in monitoring technologies, risk prediction informatics, and work in human factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrel, M A; Kaban, L B; Vargervik, K; Baumrind, S

    1992-01-01

    Twelve adults with maxillary width discrepancy of greater than 5 mm were treated by surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. The procedure consisted of bilateral zygomatic buttress and midpalatal osteotomies combined with the use of a tooth-borne orthopedic device postoperatively. Mean palatal expansion of 7.5 mm (range of 6 to 13 mm), measured in the first molar region, was achieved within 3 weeks in all patients. Expansion remained stable during the 12-month study period, with a mean relapse for the entire group of 0.88 +/- 0.48 mm. Morbidity was limited to mild postoperative discomfort. The results of this preliminary study indicated that surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion is a safe, simple, and reliable procedure for achieving a permanent increase in skeletal maxillary width in adults. Further study is necessary to document the three-dimensional movements of the maxillary segments and long-term stability of the skeletal and dental changes.

  8. Urological diagnosis using clinical PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Stephen F.; Spetz, Kevin S.; Dwyer, Samuel J., III

    1995-05-01

    Urological diagnosis using fluoroscopy images has traditionally been performed using radiographic films. Images are generally acquired in conjunction with the application of a contrast agent, processed to create analog films, and inspected to ensure satisfactory image quality prior to being provided to a radiologist for reading. In the case of errors the entire process must be repeated. In addition, the radiologist must then often go to a particular reading room, possibly in a remote part of the healthcare facility, to read the images. The integration of digital fluoroscopy modalities with clinical PACS has the potential to significantly improve the urological diagnosis process by providing high-speed access to images at a variety of locations within a healthcare facility without costly film processing. The PACS additionally provides a cost-effective and reliable means of long-term storage and allows several medical users to simultaneously view the same images at different locations. The installation of a digital data interface between the existing clinically operational PACS at the University of Virginia Health Sciences Center and a digital urology fluoroscope is described. Preliminary user interviews that have been conducted to determine the clinical effectiveness of PACS workstations for urological diagnosis are discussed. The specific suitability of the workstation medium is discussed, as are overall advantages and disadvantages of the hardcopy and softcopy media in terms of efficiency, timeliness and cost. Throughput metrics and some specific parameters of gray-scale viewing stations and the expected system impacts resulting from the integration of a urology fluoroscope with PACS are also discussed.

  9. RApid Primary care Initiation of Drug treatment for Transient Ischaemic Attack (RAPID-TIA): study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Duncan; Fletcher, Kate; Deller, Rachel; McManus, Richard; Lasserson, Daniel; Giles, Matthew; Sims, Don; Norrie, John; McGuire, Graham; Cohn, Simon; Whittle, Fiona; Hobbs, Vikki; Weir, Christopher; Mant, Jonathan

    2013-07-02

    People who have a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke are at high risk of a recurrent stroke, particularly in the first week after the event. Early initiation of secondary prevention drugs is associated with an 80% reduction in risk of stroke recurrence. This raises the question as to whether these drugs should be given before being seen by a specialist--that is, in primary care or in the emergency department. The aims of the RAPID-TIA pilot trial are to determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial, to analyse cost effectiveness and to ask: Should general practitioners and emergency doctors (primary care physicians) initiate secondary preventative measures in addition to aspirin in people they see with suspected TIA or minor stroke at the time of referral to a specialist? This is a pilot randomised controlled trial with a sub-study of accuracy of primary care physician diagnosis of TIA. In the pilot trial, we aim to recruit 100 patients from 30 general practices (including out-of-hours general practice centres) and 1 emergency department whom the primary care physician diagnoses with TIA or minor stroke and randomly assign them to usual care (that is, initiation of aspirin and referral to a TIA clinic) or usual care plus additional early initiation of secondary prevention drugs (a blood-pressure lowering protocol, simvastatin 40 mg and dipyridamole 200 mg m/r bd). The primary outcome of the main study will be the number of strokes at 90 days. The diagnostic accuracy sub-study will include these 100 patients and an additional 70 patients in whom the primary care physician thinks the diagnosis of TIA is possible, rather than probable. For the pilot trial, we will report recruitment rate, follow-up rate, a preliminary estimate of the primary event rate and occurrence of any adverse events. For the diagnostic study, we will calculate sensitivity and specificity of primary care physician diagnosis using the final TIA clinic diagnosis as the

  10. Estudio comparativo entre una prueba rápida y RT-PCR tiempo real en el diagnóstico de influenza AH1N1 2009 Comparative study of a rapid testing with real time RT-PCR for diagnosis of influenza AH1N1 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Araceli Castro-Cárdenas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar la prueba QuickVue Influenza A+B empleando como estándar la RT-PCR tiempo real para influenza AH1N1 2009. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo-comparativo de 135 muestras de vías respiratorias de individuos sintomáticos para influenza procesadas de mayo 2009 a octubre 2010.Las pruebas citadas se realizaron simultáneamente. Se utilizó el software Confidence Interval Analysis 2000. RESULTADOS: Sensibilidad 62.96; especificidad 94.44; valor predictivo negativo 62.9; valor predictivo positivo 94.44; razón de probabilidad positiva 11.33 y razón de probabilidad negativa 0.39. Se calcularon intervalos de confianza a 95. DISCUSIÓN: Los valores obtenidos concuerdan con otros estudios donde la sensibilidad fluctúa de 50 a 70 y especificidad entre 90 y 95 por ciento. La prueba QuickVue Influenza A+B es rápida, simple y de menor costo que el RT-PCR tiempo real, útil para identificar el tipo de virus en brotes de influenza de una población determinadaOBJECTIVE: Compare QuickVue Influenza A+B test with real-time RT-PCR for the diagnosis of influenza AH1N1 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective-comparative study of 135 respiratory specimens from individuals with symptoms of influenza processed from May 2009 to October 2010.The above mentioned tests were performed simultaneously. For statistic analysisthe softwareof Confidence IntervalAnalysis 2000 was used. RESULTS: The parameters obtained were: sensitivity 62.96; specificity 94.44; negative predictive value 62.9; positive predictive value 94.44; positive likelihood ratio 11.33; negative likelihood ratio 0.39. Confidence intervals to 95,were calculated to all of the above data. DISCUSSION: The test QuickVue InfluenzaA+B is a rapid,simple test,with lower cost than real-time RT-PCR useful for identifying the type of virus outbreaks of influenza in a given population.It correlates well with more specific test and similar reports.

  11. A rapid and sensitive diagnosis of bovine leukaemia virus infection using the nested shuttle polymerase chain reaction Diagnóstico rápido e sensível da infecção com o vírus da Leucemia Bovina através de Shuttle Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester T. González

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukaemia virus (BLV is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL. In Argentina, where a program to eradicate EBL has been introduced, sensitive and reliable diagnosis has attained high priority. Although the importance of the agar gel immunodiffusion test remains unchanged for routine work, an additional diagnostic technique is necessary to confirm cases of sera with equivocal results or of calves carrying maternal antibodies.Utilizing a nested shuttle polymerase chain reaction, the proviral DNA was detected from cows experimentally infected with as little as 5 ml of whole blood from BLV seropositive cows that were nonetheless normal in haematological terms. It proved to be a very sensitive technique, since it rapidly revealed the presence of the provirus, frequently at 2 weeks postinoculation and using a two-round procedure of nested PCR taking only 3 hours. Additionally, the primers used flanked a portion of the viral genome often employed to differentiate BLV type applying BamHI digestion. It is concluded that this method might offer a highly promising diagnostic tool for BLV infection.O Vírus da leucemia bovina (BLV é o agente causal da Leucose Enzoótica Bovina (EBL. Na Argentina, iniciou-se um programa de erradicação da EBL. Neste estágio, é prioritário possuir uma ferramenta de diagnóstico confiável. Embora seja indiscutível a importância do teste de agar gel imunodifusão, empregado rotineiramente no diagnóstico serológico da EBL, faz-se necessária uma técnica de diagnóstico adicional capaz de confirmar os resultados duvidosos. Foi possivel detectar ADN proviral aplicando Nested-PCR em novilhos experimentalmente infectados com pequenas doses de sangue total (5ml obtidas de um bovino BLV soropositivo. Esta técnica, cujo procedimento leva 3 horas, demonstrou ser muito sensível, uma vez que foi capaz de detectar a presença do provirus duas semanas após a inoculação. Os primers utilizados são os que

  12. Hierarchical fault diagnosis for discrete-event systems under local consistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Rong; Wonham, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    In previous work the authors proposed a distributed diagnosis approach consisting of two phases—preliminary diagnosis in each local diagnoser and inter-diagnoser communication. The objective of communication is to achieve either global or local consistency among local diagnoses, where global

  13. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...... of the work is also to setup the kernel of a software tool for the visibility analysis thatshould be easily expandable to consider more complex strucures for future activities.This analysis is part of the UVISS assessment study and it is meant to provide elementsfor the definition and the selection...

  14. Utility of Gram staining for diagnosis of Malassezia folliculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wei-Ting; Chin, Szu-Ying; Chou, Chia-Lun; Hsu, Che-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Tsung; Liu, Donald; Lee, Woan-Ruoh; Shih, Yi-Hsien

    2018-02-01

    Malassezia folliculitis (MalF) mimics acne vulgaris and bacterial folliculitis in clinical presentations. The role of Gram staining in rapid diagnosis of MalF has not been well studied. In our study, 32 patients were included to investigate the utility of Gram staining for MalF diagnosis. The final diagnoses of MalF were determined according to clinical presentation, pathological result and treatment response to antifungal agents. Our results show that the sensitivity and specificity of Gram staining are 84.6% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, Gram staining is a rapid, non-invasive, sensitive and specific method for MalF diagnosis. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  15. Diagnosis Of Inherited Neurometabolic Disorders : A Biochemical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed a rapid increase in the knowledge of the inherited neurometabolic disorders. The precise diagnosis of these disorders which is a challenge to the physician can be best accomplished by biochemical methods. Screening of clinically selected patients with simple chemical urine tests and routine blood chemistry investigations followed by measurement of specific metabolites and assay of the relevant enzymes confirms the diagnosis in most cases. Biochemical diagnosis of inherited neurometabolic disorders although expensive is rapid and confirmatory and therefore aids in treatment and further prevention of these rare disorders.

  16. Antares: preliminary demonstrator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchner, A.

    2000-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an undersea neutrino telescope off Toulon (Mediterranean sea) with effective area ∼ 0.1 km 2 . An extensive study of the site properties has been achieved together with software analysis in order to optimize the performance of the detector. Results are summarized here. An instrumented line, linked to shore for first time via an electro-optical cable, has been immersed late 1999. The preliminary results of this demonstrator line are reported. (author)

  17. Label-free nanoplasmonic sensing of tumor-associate autoantibodies for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Maria; Estevez, M-Carmen; Villar-Vazquez, Roi; Casal, J Ignacio; Lechuga, Laura M

    2016-08-03

    Colorectal cancer is treatable and curable when detected at early stages. However there is a lack of less invasive and more specific screening and diagnosis methods which would facilitate its prompt identification. Blood circulating autoantibodies which are immediately produced by the immune system at tumor appearance have become valuable biomarkers for preclinical diagnosis of cancer. In this work, we present the rapid and label-free detection of colorectal cancer autoantibodies directly in blood serum or plasma using a recently developed nanoplasmonic biosensor. Our nanoplasmonic device offers sensitive and real-time quantification of autoantibodies with excellent selectivity and reproducibility, achieving limits of detection around 1 nM (150-160 ng mL(-1)). A preliminary evaluation of clinical samples of colorectal cancer patients has shown good correlation with ELISA. These results demonstrate the reliability of the nanobiosensor strategy and pave the way towards the achievement of a sensitive diagnostic tool for early detection of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Visceral leishmaniasis: an update of laboratory diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Tlamcani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis, is an infection due to obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania. There exist two varieties of visceral leishmaniasis, that vary in their transmission aspects: zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis and anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis. Their clinical features are comparable with sevral differences. Laboratory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis consists of microscopic observation of parasite, culture from appropriate samples, detection of antigen, serological tests, and identification of parasite DNA. In this review, we will discuss the different techniques of diagnosis and the interet of the recent methods such as rapid diagnostic test and direct agglutination test.

  19. Vibrational spectroscopy in diagnosis and screening

    CERN Document Server

    Severcan, F

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a tremendous growth in the use of vibrational spectroscopic methods for diagnosis and screening. These applications range from diagnosis of disease states in humans, such as cancer, to rapid identification and screening of microorganisms. The growth in such types of studies has been possible thanks to advances in instrumentation and associated computational and mathematical tools for data processing and analysis. This volume of Advances in Biomedical Spectroscopy contains chapters from leading experts who discuss the latest advances in the application of Fourier

  20. Sigmoid volvulus. Diagnosis and interdisciplinary treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, G.; Offer, C.; Glaser, K.

    1991-01-01

    Sigmoid volvolus is an emergency which requires rapid diagnosis and immediate adequate treatment. Diagnosis is primarily radiological. Emergency laparotomy carries a high mortality and should therefore not be the immediate treatment. In our opinion, detorsion by colonoscopy under radiological control is a promising form of treatment. Selective resection of the sigmoid, thereby removing the cause of the abnormality, should not be forgotten, since this prevents recurrences. For this method, mortality after adequate gut preparation is only 5.4%. An exception to the above is gangrene of the bowel, when an emergency laparotomy cannot be avoided. (orig.) [de

  1. Celiac Disease: Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Greg; Feighery, Conleth F

    2015-01-01

    Historically the diagnosis of celiac disease has relied upon clinical, serological, and histological evidence. In recent years the use of sensitive serological methods has meant an increase in the diagnosis of celiac disease. The heterogeneous nature of the disorder presents a challenge in the study and diagnosis of the disease with patients varying from subclinical or latent disease to patients with overt symptoms. Furthermore the related gluten-sensitive disease dermatitis herpetiformis, while distinct in some respects, shares clinical and serological features with celiac disease. Here we summarize current best practice for the diagnosis of celiac disease and briefly discuss newer approaches. The advent of next-generation assays for diagnosis and newer clinical protocols may result in more sensitive screening and ultimately the possible replacement of the intestinal biopsy as the gold standard for celiac disease diagnosis.

  2. AD/HD: POSSIBLE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl REICHELT

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show that a more exact diagnosis and dietary intervention in AD/HD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Di­sor­der is possible and probable. The clinical symptom based diagnosis we suggest may be supplemented with physiological tests. A ge­netic and environmental inter-action is clearly involved and explainable using phenyl­ke­tonuria as a model.Method: Examining peer reviewed published papers on gut to blood, blood to brain inter­action and effect of interventions in AD/HD and our own studies in the field. The various treatment options are discussed.Results: It can be shown that a gut to brain activity is possible and probable, and dietary intervention is useful and probably safer than drugs. Preliminary data on a small five year follow up of dietary intervention is shown.

  3. Sonographic diagnosis of lissencephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motte, J.; Morville, P.; Gomes, H.; Cymbalista, M.

    1987-01-01

    Lissencephaly is a developmental malformation characterized by absence of sulci in dysmorphic or epileptic infants. Real time ultrasonographic findings correlated with typical electroencephalographic abnormalities established the diagnosis. (orig.)

  4. Sonographic diagnosis of lissencephaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motte, J.; Morville, P.; Gomes, H.; Cymbalista, M.

    1987-07-01

    Lissencephaly is a developmental malformation characterized by absence of sulci in dysmorphic or epileptic infants. Real time ultrasonographic findings correlated with typical electroencephalographic abnormalities established the diagnosis.

  5. Rapid world modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Charles; Jensen, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and developed systems capable of large-scale, three-dimensional mapping of unstructured environments in near real time. This mapping technique is called rapid world modeling and has proven invaluable when used by prototype systems consisting of sensory detection devices mounted on mobile platforms. These systems can be deployed into previously unmapped environments and transmit real-time 3-D visual images to operators located remotely. This paper covers a brief history of the rapid world modeling system, its implementation on mobile platforms, and the current state of the technology. Applications to the nuclear power industry are discussed. (author)

  6. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on relativistic multiparticle processes in the central rapidity region at asymptotically high energies, a new experimental study of charged K→3π decays, pre-Cherenkov radiation as a phenomenon of 'light barrier', stable S=-2 H dibaryon found in Dubna, calculation of Green functions and gluon top in some unambiguous gauges, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment and the manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

  7. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  8. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on invisible Z-boson width and restrictions on next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, cosmic test of honeycomb drift chambers, fission of 209 Bi, 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 237 Np in a spallation neutron field, rapid screening of spontaneous and radiation-induced structural changes at the vestigial gene of Drosophila melanogaster by polymerase chain reaction, gamma-ray multiplicities in sub-barrier fission of 226 Th and the decay constants of the scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the quark models with quasilocal interaction

  9. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  10. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  11. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  12. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Lind, I

    1977-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) would facilitate the rapid, etiological diagnosis of bacterial meningitis when used in parallel with other routine methods in a medical bacteriological laboratory. Of 3,674 consecutive specimens of cerebros......The aim of the present study was to investigate whether counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE) would facilitate the rapid, etiological diagnosis of bacterial meningitis when used in parallel with other routine methods in a medical bacteriological laboratory. Of 3,674 consecutive specimens....../139) of the culture-negative specimens. CSF specimens from 21 patients with bacterial meningitis caused by other species were all negative in CIE, except four, three of which contained Escherichia coli antigen reacting with antiserum to N. meningitidis group B and one E. coli antigen reacting with antiserum to H...

  13. Laboratory Diagnosis of Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna W Peeling

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory illness. There is a need for accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods that will lead to improved patient care, appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and a better understanding of the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. Culture is highly specific but is technically demanding, expensive, has a long turnaround time and its sensitivity is highly dependent on transport conditions. Antigen detection tests such as enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent antibody assay, and molecular detection methods such as the polymerase chain reaction assay, may provide a rapid diagnosis without the requirement for stringent transport conditions. The results of these tests should be interpreted with caution until more thorough evaluation is available. Serology remains the method of choice. The limitations of different serological methods for the laboratory diagnosis of C pneumoniae are discussed.

  14. Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Tuberculosis - Past, Present and Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dheda, Keertan; Ruhwald, Morten; Theron, Grant

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis represents only one aspect of tuberculosis (TB) control but is perhaps one of the most challenging. The drawbacks of current tools highlight several unmet needs in TB diagnosis i.e. necessity for accuracy, rapidity of diagnosis, affordability, simplicity, and the ability to generate same...

  15. Conversion disorder: a problematic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Timothy R J; Stone, Jon; Kanaan, Richard A A

    2011-11-01

    The diagnosis of conversion disorder is problematic. Since doctors have conceptually and practically differentiated the symptoms from neurological ('organic') disease it has been presumed to be a psychological disorder, but the psychological mechanism, and how this differs from feigning (conscious simulation), has remained elusive. Although misdiagnosis of neurological disease as conversion disorder is uncommon, it remains a concern for clinicians, particularly for psychiatrists who may be unaware of the positive ways in which neurologists can exclude organic disease. The diagnosis is anomalous in psychiatry in that current diagnostic systems require that feigning is excluded and that the symptoms can be explained psychologically. In practice, feigning is very difficult to either disprove or prove, and a psychological explanation cannot always be found. Studies of childhood and adult psychological precipitants have tended to support the relevance of stressful life events prior to symptom onset at the group level but they are not found in a substantial proportion of cases. These problems highlight serious theoretical and practical issues not just for the current diagnostic systems but for the concept of the disorder itself. Psychology, physiology and functional imaging techniques have been used in attempts to elucidate the neurobiology of conversion disorder and to differentiate it from feigning, but while intriguing results are emerging they can only be considered preliminary. Such work looks to a future that could refine our understanding of the disorder. However, until that time, the formal diagnostic requirement for associated psychological stressors and the exclusion of feigning are of limited clinical value. Simplified criteria are suggested which will also encourage cooperation between neurology and psychiatry in the management of these patients.

  16. Rapid cognitive decline: not always Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, A; Ellis, R; Hywel, B; Davies, R R; Alusi, S H; Larner, A J

    2015-01-01

    A patient with rapidly progressive cognitive decline over an approximately four month period was suspected to have sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Features thought to support this diagnosis included psychiatric symptoms (anxiety and depression), visual hallucinations and a visual field defect. However, the finding of papilloedema broadened the differential diagnosis. Although standard brain imaging and electroencephalography had shown only non-specific abnormalities, subsequent cerebral angiography disclosed an intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula. Following embolisation, the patient made a good functional recovery. Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula merits consideration in any patient with subacute cognitive decline, and should be included in the differential diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

  17. Information Based Fault Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2008-01-01

    Fault detection and isolation, (FDI) of parametric faults in dynamic systems will be considered in this paper. An active fault diagnosis (AFD) approach is applied. The fault diagnosis will be investigated with respect to different information levels from the external inputs to the systems. These ...

  18. Differential diagnosis of myelitis; Differenzialdiagnostik der Myelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Soenke [Universitaetsmedizin Greifswald (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2016-09-15

    Acute transverse Myelitis is an inflammatory myelopathy characterized by rapid onset of bilateral neurological symptoms. There is a vast array of differential diagnoses and the underlying pathology often cannot be identified on clinical examination alone. Therefore neuroimaging has a central role in narrowing the differential diagnosis. This review aims to provide a summary of common causes of non-traumatic myelopathies, many of which may have similar radiological appearance.

  19. OMEGA Upgrade preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.

    1989-10-01

    The OMEGA laser system at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester is the only major facility in the United States capable of conducting fully diagnosed, direct-drive, spherical implosion experiments. As such, it serves as the national Laser Users Facility, benefiting scientists throughout the country. The University's participation in the National Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program underwent review by a group of experts under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences (the Happer Committee) in 1985. The Happer Committee recommended that the OMEGA laser be upgraded in energy to 30 kJ. To this end, Congress appropriated $4,000,000 for the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade, spread across FY88 and FY89. This document describes the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade. The proposed enhancements to the existing OMEGA facility will result in a 30-kHJ, 351-nm, 60-beam direct-drive system, with a versatile pulse-shaping facility and a 1%--2% uniformity of target drive. The Upgrade will allow scientists to explore the ignition-scaling regime, and to study target behavior that is hydrodynamically equivalent to that of targets appropriate for a laboratory microfusion facility (LMF). In addition, it will be possible to perform critical interaction experiments with large-scale-length uniformly irradiated plasmas

  20. Are rapid changes in brain elasticity possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, K. J.

    2017-09-01

    Elastography of the brain is a topic of clinical and preclinical research, motivated by the potential for viscoelastic measures of the brain to provide sensitive indicators of pathological processes, and to assist in early diagnosis. To date, studies of the normal brain and of those with confirmed neurological disorders have reported a wide range of shear stiffness and shear wave speeds, even within similar categories. A range of factors including the shear wave frequency, and the age of the individual are thought to have a possible influence. However, it may be that short term dynamics within the brain may have an influence on the measured stiffness. This hypothesis is addressed quantitatively using the framework of the microchannel flow model, which derives the tissue stiffness, complex modulus, and shear wave speed as a function of the vascular and fluid network in combination with the elastic matrix that comprise the brain. Transformation rules are applied so that any changes in the fluid channels or the elastic matrix can be mapped to changes in observed elastic properties on a macroscopic scale. The results are preliminary but demonstrate that measureable, time varying changes in brain stiffness are possible simply by accounting for vasodynamic or electrochemical changes in the state of any region of the brain. The value of this preliminary exploration is to identify possible mechanisms and order-of-magnitude changes that may be testable in vivo by specialized protocols.

  1. Differential diagnosis of Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Ross W; Torres-Chae, Charles C; Kuo, Amy L; Ando, Tim; Nguyen, Elizabeth A; Wong, Katherine; DeArmond, Stephen J; Haman, Aissa; Garcia, Paul; Johnson, David Y; Miller, Bruce L; Geschwind, Michael D

    2012-12-01

    To identify the misdiagnoses of patients with sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease (sCJD) during the course of their disease and determine which medical specialties saw patients with sCJD prior to the correct diagnosis being made and at what point in the disease course a correct diagnosis was made. Retrospective medical record review. A specialty referral center of a tertiary academic medical center. One hundred sixty-three serial patients over a 5.5-year period who ultimately had pathologically proven sCJD. The study used the subset of 97 patients for whom we had adequate medical records. Other diagnoses considered in the differential diagnosis and types of medical specialties assessing patients with sCJD. Ninety-seven subjects' records were used in the final analysis. The most common disease categories of misdiagnosis were neurodegenerative, autoimmune/paraneoplastic, infectious, and toxic/metabolic disorders. The most common individual misdiagnoses were viral encephalitis, paraneoplastic disorder, depression, vertigo, Alzheimer disease, stroke, unspecified dementia, central nervous system vasculitis, peripheral neuropathy, and Hashimoto encephalopathy. The physicians who most commonly made these misdiagnoses were primary care physicians and neurologists; in the 18% of patients who were diagnosed correctly at their first assessment, the diagnosis was almost always by a neurologist. The mean time from onset to diagnosis was 7.9 months, an average of two-thirds of the way through their disease course. Diagnosis of sCJD is quite delayed. When evaluating patients with rapidly progressive dementia with suspected neurodegenerative, autoimmune, infectious, or toxic/metabolic etiology, sCJD should also be included in the differential diagnosis, and appropriate diagnostic tests, such as diffusion brain magnetic resonance imaging, should be considered. Primary care physicians and neurologists need improved training in sCJD diagnosis.

  2. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  3. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabandere, L.A. de; Borginon, H.A.; Pattyn, H.A.; Pollet, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  4. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for microfluidics K. LAND, S. HUGO, M MBANJWA, L FOURIE CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidics refers to the manipulation of very small volumes of fluid.... Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  5. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  6. Rapid MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, R.R.; Buxton, R.B.; Brady, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods typically require several minutes to produce an image, but the periods of respiration, cardiac motion and peristalsis are on the order of seconds or less. The need to reduce motion artifact, as well as the need to reduce imaging time for patient comfort and efficiency, have provided a strong impetus for the development of rapid imaging methods. For abdominal imaging, motion artifacts due to respiration can be significantly reduced by collecting the entire image during one breath hold. For other applications, such as following the kinetics of administered contrast agents, rapid imaging is essential to achieve adequate time resolution. A shorter imaging time entails a cost in image signal/noise (S/N), but improvements in recent years in magnet homogeneity, gradient and radiofrequency coil design have led to steady improvements in S/N and consequently in image quality. For many chemical applications the available S/N is greater than needed, and a trade-off of lower S/N for a shorter imaging time is acceptable. In this chapter, the authors consider the underlying principles of rapid imaging as well as clinical applications of these methods. The bulk of this review concentrates on short TR imaging, but methods that provide for a more modest decrease in imaging time as well as or those that dramatically shorten the imaging time to tens of milliseconds are also discussed

  7. MAT FOR LEPTOSPIROSIS DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Rahardianingtyas.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a disease caused by bacterial infection leptospira interrogans.Leptospira bacteria is a spiral bacterium with solid strands with two flagella periplasmik.Septicaemic phase patient samples taken from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, whereassamples taken at phase immune extracted from urine. The diagnosis of leptospirosis occurdirectly or indirectly. Diagnosis is done by directly isolate and identify the causative agents ofthe agent. Diagnosis is done indirectly by detecting specific antibodies from the patient's body.Gold Standard of the diagnosis of leptospirosis is MAT. Mat made by reacting antibodies toleptospira antigen. Positive results seen with clump formed.Key words: Leptospirosis, Leptospirosis Diagnostic, MAT (Microscopic Agglutination Test Leptospirosis merupakan penyakit yang disebabkan karena infeksi bakteri leptospirainterrogans. Bakteri leptospira merupakan bakteri spiral dengan untaian yang padat dengan duaflagella periplasmik. Sampel pasien pada fase septicaemic diambil dari darah dan cairanserebrospinal, sedangkan sampel yang diambil pada fase immune diambil dari urine. Diagnosisleptospirosis dilakukan secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Diagnosis secara langsungdilakukan dengan cara mengisolasi agen penyebab dan mengidentifikasi agen tersebut. Diagnosissecara tidak langsung dilakukan dengan cara mendeteksi antibodi spesiflk dari dalam tubuhpasien. Gold Standart dari diagnosis leptospirosis adalah MAT. Mat dilakukan dengan caramereaksikan antibodi dengan antigen leptospira. Hasil positif dilihat dengan terbentuk gumpalanagglutinasiKata kunci: Leptospirosis, Leptospira, Leptospirosis Diagnosis.

  8. Plant diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozuka, Shin-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    Standard data approximately defined are inputted as 1:1 functional data between at least two or more plant data and each of plant data are inputted. Diagnosis data corresponding to each of process data are formed based on the functional data. Limit value data to be a threshold value which determines whether the diagnosis data are in a predetermined state or not are formed. The diagnosis data and the limit value data are displayed in a recognizable state. If diagnosis data of a plurality of plants are displayed simultaneously, all of the plant data are substantially the same value with one standard datum if the plant is in a normal state. When abnormality should occur in the plant, the difference between the diagnosis data and the standard data is remarkable, and the difference between the diagnosis data of other normal plant data and the standard data are also made remarkably, accordingly, the display of a plurality of diagnosis data is scattered thereby capable of diagnosing the abnormality of the plant. (N.H.)

  9. Rapid Diagnostic Device for Subclinical Mastitis Based on Electrochemical Detection of Superoxide Produced from Neutrophils in Fresh Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kohei; Fukuda, Junji; Suzuki, Hiroaki

    Electrochemical microdevices were fabricated to identify mastitic cows based on the increased number of neutrophils in raw milk. Because neutrophils produce superoxide (O2·-), the amount of O2·- can be used as an early indicator for subclinical mastitis. In the microdevices, O2·- was detected on a gold electrode using superoxide dismutase immobilized via a self-assembled monolayer of cysteine. In a preliminary test using xanthine oxidase to produce O2·-, one of the devices detected the production and rapid extinction of O2·-. When neutrophils obtained from a mastitic cow were concentrated by centrifugation and introduced into the device, a current increase distinctly different from the background was observed. Furthermore, a micropillar structure was fabricated on the gold electrode to trap and collect neutrophils, thereby facilitating the concentration of these cells around the electrode. The measured current clearly depended on the number of neutrophils in raw milk samples, demonstrating the applicability of the device for rapid diagnosis of subclinical mastitis.

  10. Electrical machines diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Trigeassou, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of electrical machine faults is a scientific and economic issue which is motivated by objectives for reliability and serviceability in electrical drives.This book provides a survey of the techniques used to detect the faults occurring in electrical drives: electrical, thermal and mechanical faults of the electrical machine, faults of the static converter and faults of the energy storage unit.Diagnosis of faults occurring in electrical drives is an essential part of a global monitoring system used to improve reliability and serviceability. This diagnosis is perf

  11. Laboratory Diagnosis Of Sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta S.K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is not an uncommon disease. Unfortunately, the awareness amongst clinicians is lacking and due to overwhelming prevalence of tuberculosis, a disease with many similar features, the diagnosis is missed and often delayed. The gold standard investigation finding in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis is the presence of noncaseating tuberculoid granuloma, also known as sarcoid or sarcoid-like granuloma. Some classical chest X-ray findings, clinico-radiological dissociation. Suggestive organ lesions, negative Mantoux test (MT, development of MT site granuloma, hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and raised serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE value and negative tests for tuberculosis are usually hekpful in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  12. Preliminary rail access study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site, located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site, is an undeveloped area under investigation as a potential site for nuclear waste disposal by the US Department of Energy. The site currently lacks rail service and an existing rail right-of-way. If the site is suitable and selected for development as a disposal site, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program because of the potential of rail to reduce number of shipments and costs relative to highway transportation. This preliminary report is a summary of progress to date for activities to identify and evaluate potential rail options from major rail carriers in the region to the Yucca Mountain site. It is currently anticipated that the rail spur will be operational after the year 2000. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Development of rapid phenotypic system for the identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is a fundamental goal of clinical microbiology. The diagnosis and surveillance of diseases is dependent, to a great extent, on laboratory services, which cannot function without effective reliable reagents and diagnostics. Despite the advancement in microbiology ...

  14. Colorimetry and SERS dual-mode detection of telomerase activity: combining rapid screening with high sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Shenfei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Chen, Hui; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Min; Chen, Peng; Cui, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted considerable attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Here, we present a colorimetry and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dual-mode telomerase activity detection method, which has several distinctive advantages. First, colorimetric functionality allows rapid preliminary discrimination of telomerase activity by the naked eye. Second, the employment of SERS technique results in greatly improved detection sensitivity. Third, the combination of colorimetry and SERS into one detection system can ensure highly efficacious and sensitive screening of numerous samples. Besides, the avoidance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures further guarantees fine reliability and simplicity. Generally, the presented method is realized by an "elongate and capture" procedure. To be specific, gold nanoparticles modified with Raman molecules and telomeric repeat complementary oligonucleotide are employed as the colorimetric-SERS bifunctional reporting nanotag, while magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with telomerase substrate oligonucleotide are used as the capturing substrate. Telomerase can synthesize and elongate telomeric repeats onto the capturing substrate. The elongated telomeric repeats subsequently facilitate capturing of the reporting nanotag via hybridization between telomeric repeat and its complementary strand. The captured nanotags can cause a significant difference in the color and SERS intensity of the magnetically separated sediments. Thus both the color and SERS can be used as indicators of the telomerase activity. With fast screening ability and outstanding sensitivity, we anticipate that this method would greatly promote practical application of telomerase-based early-stage cancer diagnosis.

  15. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjorn; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Lemmen, Josephine Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether women conceiving after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and their children have greater risks of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes compared with children conceived spontaneously or after IVF with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). DESIGN...

  16. Plague Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  17. DSS FOR ORGANIZATIONAL DIAGNOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FROWEIN, JC; POSTMA, TJBM

    1992-01-01

    Information technology in relation to organizational diagnosis and organizational change is the subject of extensive and increasing discussion. A condition for change is insight into organizational problems. This paper discusses the relation between the concepts ''problem'', ''decision making'' and

  18. Atrial Fibrillation: Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Atrial Fibrillation Atrial Fibrillation: Diagnosis Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents ... of your body's cells and organs. Read More "Atrial Fibrillation" Articles Atrial Fibrillation / Who Is at Risk for ...

  19. Laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carl; Kuhn, Raphael; Tsaltas, Jim

    2002-08-01

    To consider and explain the possibility of difficulties in diagnosis of endometriosis at previous laparoscopy Retrospective patient record review. The Endometriosis Care Centre of Australia and the private practices of authors. Two hundred and fifteen patients with clinical evidence of endometriosis examined laparoscopically between March 1999 and May 2001. Confirmation of endometriosis by histological biopsy. Endometriosis was confirmed in 168 of the 215 women. Of these women 38 had a previous negative laparoscopy within 12 months of the current laparoscopy. It is possible that in some of the patients, who previously had a negative laparoscopy, endometriosis was not recognised. Possible reasons for difficulty in diagnosis have been identified and techniques to improve diagnosis suggested. This retrospective study was performed to consider and explain the possibility of difficulties in diagnosis of endometriosis at previous laparoscopy.

  20. Dementia: Diagnosis and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Dementia Diagnosis & Tests If you or someone you care ... To determine whether an older adult might have dementia, a healthcare professional will: Ask about the person’s ...

  1. Microanalysis in cancer diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkacheva, G A [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Nauchnyj Tsentr

    1984-11-01

    An analysis of the diagnosis accuracy of malignant gastric, rectal, liver and prostatic tumors was performed with relation to the sensitivity and specificity of radioimmunological and immunoenzyme commercial kits of reagents manufactured by different companies and used to determine the concentration of the carcinoembryonic antigen, ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein and acid phosphatase of the prostate. With an increase of the test specificity its diagnostic sensitivity decreases, i.e. the percentage of false-negative results increases. The use of highly specific monoclonal antibodies in serological tests results in a marked decrease of the accuracy of tumor diagnosis. It is necessary to strictly determine indications for the use of the serological and immunodiagnostic kits: for the identification of risk populations, early diagnosis of tumors, differential diagnosis or the monitoring of patients.

  2. Molecular Diagnosis of Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Handayani, Diah; Burhan, Erlina; Yunus, Faisal

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of adult death in the Asia-Pacific Region, including Indonesia. As an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), TB remains a major public health issue especially in developing nations due to the lack of adequate diagnostic testing facilities. Diagnosis of TB has entered an era of molecular detection that provides faster and more cost-effective methods to diagnose and confirm drug resistance in TB cases, meanwhile, diagnosis by conventional culture systems requires several weeks. New advances in the molecular detection of TB, including the faster and simpler nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS), have resulted in a shorter time for diagnosis and, therefore, faster TB treatments. In this review, we explored the current findings on molecular diagnosis of TB and drug-resistant TB to see how this advancement could be integrated into public health systems in order to control TB.

  3. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on decays of excited strange mesons in the extended NJL model, production of heavy evaporation residues in the reactions induced by an extracted 48 Ca beam on a 208 Pb target, scaling behaviour of tensor analyzing power (A yy ) in the inelastic scattering or relativistic deuterons,two-photon collisions at very low Q 2 from LEP2: forthcoming results, high magnetic field uniformity superconducting magnet for a movable polarized target, multichannel time-to-digital converter for drift detector and wavelet-analysis: application to Gaussian signals

  5. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on the measurement of charge radii for Ti nuclei, spectroscopy of 13 Be, concentrations of hadrons and quark-gluon plasma in mixed phase, experimental results on one-spin pion asymmetry in the d↑ + A → π±(90 0 ) + X process, new results on cumulative pion and proton production in p-D collisions, investigation of charge exchange reactions, the study of the tensor analyzing power in cumulative particle production on a deuteron beam and an evidence for the excited states of the S = -2 stable light dibaryon. 32 figs., 6 tabs

  6. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate reports on analytic QCD running coupling with finite IR behaviour and universal α bar s (0) value, quark condensate in the interacting pion- nucleon medium at finite temperature and baryon number density, γ-π 0 discrimination with a shower maximum detector using neural networks for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC, off-specular neutron reflection from magnetic media with nondiagonal reflectivity matrices and molecular cytogenetics of radiation-induced gene mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. 21 fig., 1 tab

  7. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on additional conditions on eigenvectors in solving inverse problem for two-dimensional Schroedinger equation, on an absolute calibration of deuteron beam polarization at LHE, determination of the vector component of the polarization of the JINR synchrophasotron deuteron beam, wavelet-analysis: criterion of reliable signal selection, on asymptotics in inclusive production of antinuclei and nuclear fragments, use of neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor for atmospheric monitoring and impulse method for temperature measurement of silicon detectors

  8. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate reports on Monte Carlo simulation of silicon detectors for the ALICE experiment at LHC, a study of single tagged multihadronic γγ* events at an average Q 2 of 90 GeV 2 , epithermal neutron activation analysis of moss, lichen and pine needles in atmospheric deposition monitoring, the theory of neutrino oscillation, coupled quadrupole and monopole vibrations of large amplitude and test of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule using parametrization of the measured lepton-proton asymmetry. 21 figs., 18 tabs

  9. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  10. Ileocecal endometriosis: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana López Carrasco

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Variability in symptoms hinders diagnosis. The gold standard for diagnosis is MRI, but clinical suspicion optimizes imaging test diagnosis. Segmental resection should be indicated in the majority of the cases.

  11. Radiological diagnosis and differential diagnosis of headache

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, S.; Kirsch, M.

    2015-01-01

    Headache is very common and affects almost everyone at some point. It is one of the most common disorders that leads patients to see their physician. All different forms have the nociception via trigeminal nerve fibers in common. Beside the clinical course headaches are classified as either primary or secondary, with the latter having an identifiable structural or biochemical cause. Imaging has a low diagnostic yield in primary headache but play an important role in the differential diagnosis of secondary forms. An overview of different forms of secondary headache is given, outlining diagnostic procedures and the morphologic imaging features of each syndrome.

  12. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques

  13. Role of scrape cytology in the intraoperative diagnosis of tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolte Sachin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rapid diagnosis of surgically removed specimens has created many controversies and a single completely reliable method has not yet been developed. Histopathology of a paraffin section remains the ultimate gold standard in tissue diagnosis. Frozen section is routinely used by the surgical pathology laboratories for intraoperative diagnosis. The use of either frozen section or cytological examination alone has an acceptable rate (93-97% of correct diagnosis, with regard to interpretation of benign versus malignant. Aim : To evaluate the utility of scrape cytology for the rapid diagnosis of surgically removed tumors and its utilisation for learning cytopathology. Materials and Methods : 75 surgically removed specimens from various organs and systems were studied. Scrapings were taken from each specimen before formalin fixation and stained by modified rapid Papanicolaou staining. Results : Of the 75 cases studied, 73 could be correctly differentiated into benign and malignant tumors, with an accuracy rate of 97.3%. Conclusions : Intraoperative scrape cytology is useful for intraoperative diagnosis of tumor, where facilities for frozen section are not available. The skill and expertise developed by routinely practicing intraoperative cytology can be applied to the interpretation of fine needle aspirate smears. Thus, apart from its diagnostic role, intraoperative cytology can become a very useful learning tool in the field of cytopathology.

  14. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity

  15. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, W. B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Militzer, B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  16. Radiological diagnosis of fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlay, D.B.L.; Allen, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book is about radiology of fractures. While it contains sections of clinical features it is not intended that readers should rely entirely upon these for the diagnosis and management of the injured patient. As in the diagnosis and treatment of all medical problems, fracture management must be carried out in a logical step-by-step fashion - namely, history, examination, investigation, differential diagnosis, diagnosis and then treatment. Each section deals with a specific anatomical area and begins with line drawings of the normal radiographs demonstrating the anatomy. Accessory views that may be requested, and the indications for these, are included. Any radiological pitfalls for the area in general are then described. The fractures in adults are then examined in turn, their radiological features described, and any pitfalls in their diagnosis discussed. A brief note of important clinical findings is included. A brief mention is made of pediatric fractures which are of significance and their differences to the adult pattern indicated. Although fractures can be classified into types with different characteristics, in life every fracture is individual. Fractures by and large follow common patterns, but many have variations

  17. Molecular diagnosis and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Joaquín; Sastre-Ibañez, Marina

    2016-12-01

    To describe recent insights into how molecular diagnosis can improve indication and selection of suitable allergens for specific immunotherapy and increase the safety of this therapy. As specific allergen immunotherapy targets specific allergens, identification of the disease-eliciting allergen is a prerequisite for accurate prescription of treatment. In areas of complex sensitization to aeroallergens or in cases of hymenoptera venom allergy, the use of molecular diagnosis has demonstrated that it may lead to a change in indication and selection of allergens for immunotherapy in a large proportion of patients when compared with diagnosis based on skin prick testing and/or specific IgE determination with commercial extracts. These changes in immunotherapy prescription aided by molecular diagnosis have been demonstrated to be cost-effective in some scenarios. Certain patterns of sensitization to grass or olive pollen and bee allergens may identify patients with higher risk of adverse reaction during immunotherapy. Molecular diagnosis, when used with other tools and patients' clinical records, can help clinicians better to select the most appropriate patients and allergens for specific immunotherapy and, in some cases, predict the risk of adverse reactions. The pattern of sensitization to allergens could potentially predict the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy provided that these immunotherapy products contain a sufficient amount of these allergens. Nevertheless, multiplex assay remains a third-level approach, not to be used as screening method in current practice.

  18. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  19. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, DUBNA, contains eight separate records on symmetry in modern physics (dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of academician V.A.Fock), the double φ-meson production investigation on the Serpukhov accelerator, two-leptonic η-meson decays and SUSY without R parity, charge form factors and alpha-cluster internal structure of 12 C, increasing of muon-track reconstruction efficiency in ME1/1 Dubna prototype for the CMS/LHC, study of photon-structure function F 2 γ in the reaction e + e - → e + e - + hadrons at LEP2, jets reconstruction possibility in pAu and AuAu interactions at STAR RHIC and high-vacuum nondispersable gas absorber

  20. Rapid thermal pulse annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.G.; Koehn, B.W.; Chaplin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of recovery processes have been investigated for cases of heating a sample to successively higher temperatures by means of isochronal annealing or by using a rapid pulse annealing. A recovery spectra shows the same features independent of which annealing procedure is used. In order to determine which technique provides the best resolution, a study was made of how two independent first-order processes are separated for different heating rates and time increments of the annealing pulses. It is shown that the pulse anneal method offers definite advantages over isochronal annealing when annealing for short time increments. Experimental data by means of the pulse anneal techniques are given for the various substages of stage I of aluminium. (author)

  1. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on the identification of events with a secondary vertex in the experiment EXCHARM, the zero degree calorimeter for CERN WA-98 experiment, a new approach to increase the resource of installation elements for super-high energy physics, a method of the in-flight production of exotic systems in the charge-exchange reactions, the neutron activation analysis for monitoring northern terrestrial ecosystems, a search for 28 O and study of the neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron closure N=20, a search for new neutron-rich nuclei with a 70A MeV 48 Ca beam. 33 figs., 4 tabs

  2. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on quasi-classical description of one-nucleon transfer reactions with heavy ions, elastic and inelastic scattering in the high energy approximation, experimental study of fission and evaporation cross sections for 6 He + 209 Bi reaction, d ↑ + 12 C → p + X at Θ p = 0 o in the region of high internal momenta in the deuteron, the Nuclotron internal targets, actively screened superconducting magnets, using of polarized target in backward elastic dp scattering, application of transputers in the data acquisition system of the INESS-ALPHA spectrometer, narrow dibaryon resonances with isotopic spin I=2. 93 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs

  3. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on Lorentz transformations with superluminal velocities, photo chromic effect in HTSC films, the investigation of hypernuclei in the Nuclotron accelerator, a new hadron jets finding algorithm in the four-dimensional velocity space, investigations of neutral particle production by relativistic nuclei on the LHE 90-channel γ-spectrometer (results and perspectives), coherent meson production in the dp → 3 HeX reaction, the relativistic projectile nuclei fragmentation and A-dependence of nucleon Fermi-momenta, energy spectra of γ-quanta from d-propane interactions at momentum P d = 1.25 GeV/c per nucleon. 86 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  4. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on measurements of the total cross section difference Δσ L (np) at 1.59, 1.79, and 2.20 GeV, to the estimation of angular distributions of double charged spectator fragments in nucleus-nucleus interactions at superhigh energies, simulation dE/dx analysis results for silicon inner tracking system of ALICE set-up at LHC accelerator, high-multiplicity processes, triggering of high-multiplicity events using calorimetry, ORBIT-3.0 - a computer code for simulation and correction of the closed orbit and first turn in synchrotrons and determination of memory performance

  5. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on yields of the rare-earth neutron-deficient isotopes in the reactions of Mo isotopes with 40 Ca ions, observations of slow components of solitonic-type wave structure excited by e-beam in massive copper sample, development and investigation of low-mass multilayer drift chambers (MDC-2) for inner part of the HADES spectrometer, temperature measurement of the uranium sample irradiated with secondary neutrons, edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, the influence of the dielectric frame, an object-oriented framework for the hadronic Monte-Carlo event generators and uranium-238 as a source for electronuclear power production. 32 figs., 3 tabs

  6. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on collective energy dissipation and fluctuations in elastoplastic systems, diagnostics system of the circulating beam of the NUCLOTRON based on microchannel plates, time-of-flight detector for WA98 CERN experiment, fractal structure formation on the surfaces of solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion treatment, production of nuclei in 32,34,36 S-induced reactions in the energy range 6-75 MeV/A, rare-earth elements in soil and pine needle from northern terrestrial ecosystems, 'thermal' multifragmentation in p + Au collisions at relativistic energies, search for effects of the OZI rule violation in φ and ω mesons production in polarized deuteron beam interaction with polarized proton target (project DPHE3) and fast detector for triggering on charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

  7. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on observation of transversal handedness in the diffractive production of pion triples, a possible experiment on the research of dibaryon states, Cherenkov beam counter system of the CERES/NA45 spectrometer for investigation with 160 GeV/n. lead ions, a profile-based gaseous detector with capacitive pad readout as the prototype of the shower maximum detector for the end-cap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment, what DELPHI can get with an upgraded position for the very small angle tagger, estimation of the radiation environment and the shielding aspect for the point 2 area of the LHC and the orthopositronium decay puzzle

  8. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  9. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on investigation of the tensor analyzing power A yy in the reaction A(d polarized, p)X at large transverse momenta of proton, double-differential ionization cross section calculations for fast collisions of ions and atoms, a study of the two-photon interactions tagged at an average 2 > of 90 GeV 2 , cluster and single-particle distributions in nucleus-nucleus interactions, the Coulomb interaction of charged pions in CC-and CTa-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c, influence of nitrogen and oxygen gas admixtures on the response of the DELPHI HCAL and MUS detectors and an automation of physics research on base of open standards

  10. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on effects arising from charged particles overcoming of the light velocity barrier, deformable templates for circle recognition, scintillation detectors for precise time measurements, atomic form factors and incoherent scattering functions of atoms and ions with the number of electrons N ≤ 10, experimental set-up ANOMALON for measurement of relativistic nuclear fragmentation cross sections, superconducting dipole magnet for ALICE dimuon arm spectrometer, analysis of transverse mass dependence of Bose-Einstein correlation radii using the DELPHI data, low-energy theorem in softly broken supersymmetry and study of the characteristics of particles in reactions π - , p, d, He, C + C with the total disintegration on carbon nucleus

  11. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on test of a threshold aerogel Cherenkov counter on cosmic particles, first results of study of transversal dimension of region of cumulative particles production in d + C and d + Cu reactions for energy 2 GeV/nucleon, the evidence of σ[0 + (0 ++ 0)] meson at a mass of M π + π - = 750 ± 5 MeV/c 2 observed in π + π - combinations from the reaction np → npπ + π - at an incident momentum of P n (5.20 ± 0.16 GeV/c, inclusive spectra of protons and π - mesons emitted in 4 HeC and 12 CC interactions with total disintegration of nuclei, heavy quark-antiquark pair production by double pomeron exchange in pp and AA collisions on the CMS and global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

  12. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  13. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  14. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  15. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  16. Pickering safeguards: a preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, J.L.; Hodgkinson, J.G.

    1977-05-01

    A summary is presented of thoughts relative to a systems approach for implementing international safeguards. Included is a preliminary analysis of the Pickering Generating Station followed by a suggested safeguards system for the facility

  17. Cell emulation and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report details preliminary results of the testing plan implemented by the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute to evaluate Electric Vehicle (EV) battery durability and reliability under electric utility grid operations. Commercial EV battery cells ar...

  18. [Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of bronchial asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillissen, A; Bauer, T; Richter, F; Leonhardt, P

    2001-11-01

    Asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are the most important obstructive pulmonary diseases. Patient's history and physical evaluation give major hints of the underlying disease. Further diagnostic measures comprise lung function analysis including spirometry, plethysmography and--in severe cases--blood gas analysis. Bronchial hyperreactivity may be quantified with an unspecific inhalative provocation test. In many cases allergic diseases are accompanied by asthma. Thus, allergy tests--particularly skin prick tests--have to be carried out. To further define an underlying allergy, in some cases even specific inhalative provocation tests have to be performed. X-ray of the thorax and other imaging techniques, detailed blood analysis, further diagnosis of the upper respiratory tract and the cardiac system may have to be carried out a) to quantify the effects of a severe form of asthma or COPD on other organs, and b) for differential diagnostic examinations.

  19. CT diagnosis of hepatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Yuji [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1982-04-01

    In hepatocellular carcinoma, present status of CT diagnosis was discussed. Hepatocellular carcinoma is sometimes imaged in same concentration as that of surrounding tissues, and the detection rate ranged from 79 to 94%. The rate of differential diagnosis between primary and metastatic carcinoma was only 83% (includes 22% of false diagnosis) using contrast enhancement. The rates of detection of hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic one were also only 87% and 75%, respectively, even by the combined use of arterial infusion CT and dynamic CT. However, the CT images is reproducible, and is supplemented by the information of US. Thus, the combination of these methods is useful in diagnosing the presence, extension, and nature of liver carcinoma.

  20. Human prenatal diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis

  1. [Prenatal diagnosis of sirenomelia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladure, H; D'hervé, D; Loget, P; Poulain, P

    2006-04-01

    Sirenomelia sequence associates a fusion of inferior legs with renal anomalies until bilateral agenesis. It is a rare and lethal polymalformation. The purpose of the ultrasonographic study is to identify the sirenomelia as early as possible during pregnancy and to differentiate it from caudal regression syndrome. A case of sirenomelia diagnosed early is reported together with a review of the literature. The ultrasonographic diagnosis, associated defects, the interest of color Doppler study of abdominal vasculature are discussed. Antenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis should be obtained as early as possible, before 20th gestational week at the latest. Color Doppler is helpful to confirm the diagnosis in case of bilateral renal agenesis. The main differences between sirenomelia and caudal regression syndrome (which requires a very different genetic counselling) are summarized in a table.

  2. Diagnosis of venous disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minar, E.

    1993-01-01

    Limited accuracy in the clinic diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (VT) makes such diagnostic tests such as duplex sonography or venography necessary. Exact information on the age and extent of the thrombus are necessary for the clinician to optimize the therapeutric management. The correct diagnosis of calf vein thrombosis and of recurrent VT in patients with postphlebitis changes also has implications for treatment. After exclusion of thrombosis, the radiologist should evaluate the leg for other possible causes of symptoms besides VT. Investigation of the venous sytem also has a role in the diagnosis in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. In patients with chronic venous insuffficiency the deep venous system should assessed for patency and venous valve function. The superficial veins should be differentiated in segments with sufficient or insufficient venous valves, and it is also necessary to look for insufficiency of the perforrating veins. In patients with superficial phlebitis there is risk of propagation into the deep venous system. (orig.) [de

  3. Congenital intracerebral teratoma: a rare differential diagnosis in newborn hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storr, U.; Rupprecht, T.; Bornemann, A.; Ries, M.; Beinder, E.; Boewing, B.; Harms, D.

    1997-01-01

    Cogenital hydrocephalus is caused by a broad spectrum of underlying disorders. In the majority of cases it is due to aqueductal stenosis and other distinct congenital anomalies, like Arnold-Chiari malformation. Nevertheless, in the differential diagnosis rare conditions such as cerebral malignancies must also be considered. We present two cases of congenital intracerebral teratoma as a differential diagnosis in congenital obstructive hydrocephalus. A teratoma is suggested when a rapidly growing hydrocephalus with a central calcified and vascularized mass is found sonographically. Regular cerebral structures using cannot be detected. Early diagnosis in such cases is of clinical importance as the prognosis of congential intracerebral teratoma is generally very poor. (orig.)

  4. Congenital intracerebral teratoma: a rare differential diagnosis in newborn hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storr, U. [Landratsamt Neuburg-Schrobenhausen, Gesundheitsamt, Neuburg an der Donau (Germany)]|[Hospital for Sick Children, Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Nuernberg (Germany); Rupprecht, T. [Hospital for Sick Children, Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Nuernberg (Germany); Bornemann, A. [Inst. for General Pathology, Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Nuernberg (Germany); Ries, M. [Hospital for Sick Children, Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Nuernberg (Germany); Beinder, E. [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Nuernberg (Germany); Boewing, B. [Hospital for Sick Children, Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Nuernberg (Germany); Harms, D. [Hospital for Sick Children, Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Nuernberg (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Cogenital hydrocephalus is caused by a broad spectrum of underlying disorders. In the majority of cases it is due to aqueductal stenosis and other distinct congenital anomalies, like Arnold-Chiari malformation. Nevertheless, in the differential diagnosis rare conditions such as cerebral malignancies must also be considered. We present two cases of congenital intracerebral teratoma as a differential diagnosis in congenital obstructive hydrocephalus. A teratoma is suggested when a rapidly growing hydrocephalus with a central calcified and vascularized mass is found sonographically. Regular cerebral structures using cannot be detected. Early diagnosis in such cases is of clinical importance as the prognosis of congential intracerebral teratoma is generally very poor. (orig.)

  5. Diagnosis of epitheliod leiomyoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tret'yakov, A.E.; Shevyakov, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Epithelioid leiomyoma (EL) is unusual and rarely met tumor of the stomach. From International histological classification it belongs to benign tumors of smooth muscular tissue. As other nonepithelial tumors EL can grow endogastral, intramural and exogastral. Exogastral type of tumor growth presents difficulties for diagnosis as changes of mucous and sometimes muscular layers of stomach wall are absent. An observation was given of a patient with mentioned disease. Primary diagnosis was mechanical jaundice, chronic cholecystitis. Tumor formation (10x8x9 sm) was revealed in the stomach during operation

  6. [Laboratory diagnosis of mucormycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Hermoso, Dea

    2013-03-01

    Mucormycosis are deep infections caused by ubiquitous filamentous fungi of the order of Mucorales. The disease occurs mostly in immunocompromised, diabetic or solid organ transplant recipients. There are currently no specific diagnostic guidelines for mucormycosis. The histological examination and culture of the clinical sample remain the most useful approaches for diagnosis. Furthermore, alternative methods to the fungal culture are yet to be standardized. Here we review the current microbiological approaches used for the diagnosis and identification of Mucorales. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  7. Structural analysis for Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential technique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is re-considered in this paper. Matching is re-formulated as a problem...... of relating faults to known parameters and measurements of a system. Using explicit fault modelling, minimal over-determined subsystems are shown to provide necessary redundancy relations from the matching. Details of the method are presented and a realistic example used to clearly describe individual steps...

  8. Structural analysis for diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential tech-nique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is reconsidered in this paper. Matching is reformulated as a problem...... of relating faults to known parameters and measurements of a system. Using explicit fault modelling, minimal overdetermined subsystems are shown to provide necessary redundancy relations from the matching. Details of the method are presented and a realistic example used to clearly describe individual steps....

  9. Diagnosis of Pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, John; Lukacs, Zoltan; Straub, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of Pompe disease (acid maltase deficiency, glycogen storage disease type II) in children and adults can be challenging because of the heterogeneous clinical presentation and considerable overlap of signs and symptoms found in other neuromuscular diseases. This review evaluates some...... to identify late-onset Pompe disease often leads to false-negative results and subsequent delays in identification and treatment of the disorder. Serum creatine kinase level can be normal or only mildly elevated in late-onset Pompe disease and is not very helpful alone to suggest the diagnosis...

  10. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  11. Rabies diagnosis for developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salome Dürr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canine rabies is a neglected disease causing 55,000 human deaths worldwide per year, and 99% of all cases are transmitted by dog bites. In N'Djaména, the capital of Chad, rabies is endemic with an incidence of 1.71/1,000 dogs (95% C.I. 1.45-1.98. The gold standard of rabies diagnosis is the direct immunofluorescent antibody (DFA test, requiring a fluorescent microscope. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta, United States of America developed a histochemical test using low-cost light microscopy, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated the dRIT in the Chadian National Veterinary Laboratory in N'Djaména by testing 35 fresh samples parallel with both the DFA and dRIT. Additional retests (n = 68 in Chad, n = 74 at CDC by DFA and dRIT of stored samples enhanced the power of the evaluation. All samples were from dogs, cats, and in one case from a bat. The dRIT performed very well compared to DFA. We found a 100% agreement of the dRIT and DFA in fresh samples (n = 35. Results of retesting at CDC and in Chad depended on the condition of samples. When the sample was in good condition (fresh brain tissue, we found simple Cohen's kappa coefficient related to the DFA diagnostic results in fresh tissue of 0.87 (95% C.I. 0.63-1 up to 1. For poor quality samples, the kappa values were between 0.13 (95% C.I. -0.15-0.40 and 0.48 (95% C.I. 0.14-0.82. For samples stored in glycerol, dRIT results were more likely to agree with DFA testing in fresh samples than the DFA retesting. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The dRIT is as reliable a diagnostic method as the gold standard (DFA for fresh samples. It has an advantage of requiring only light microscopy, which is 10 times less expensive than a fluorescence microscope. Reduced cost suggests high potential for making rabies diagnosis available in other cities and rural areas of Africa for large populations for which a capacity for

  12. Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Leukemia/Lymphoma Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Leukemia Symptoms Frequent infections Fever and chills Anemia Easy ...

  13. Differential diagnosis diphtheria adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Liashenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,824 human cases of diphtheria, treated at the Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital SP Botkin (St. Petersburg during 1993, as well as 19 deaths in 1994. It is known that early diagnosis of infectious diseases, especially diphtheria, contributes to the favorable outcome of the disease. The diagnosis of diphtheria at the prehospital stage is always difficult. Presented in detail the differential diagnosis of the disease, clinically similar to diphtheria: Lacunal angina, angina Simanovsky, infectious mononucleosis, angina Ludwig’s angina Dugue, syphilis, non-infectious with clinical «masks» of diphtheria and other. Diphtheria epidemic of 1993–1994 in Russia and, in particular, in St. Petersburg, showed that the late admission of patients with diphtheria infection in hospitals, usually associated with irregular differential diagnosis of this dangerous disease.

  14. Body imaging: Diagnosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pfannenstiel incision for caesarean section was noted. No synchronous lesions were identified. Based on the location of the lesion, sonar features and MRI enhancement pattern, the principal radiological diagnosis was that of a desmoid tumour of the left rectus muscle. In fact, the initial sonar-guided core biopsy specimen ...

  15. Diagnosis of Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Linda; Moore, Bonita Marcus

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of mood disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (fourth edition) criteria and other relevant information. Differential diagnosis is facilitated through discussion of differences and similarities among mental disorders, age and gender-related patterns of mood disorders, and useful diagnostic tools. (Author)

  16. Serological diagnosis of brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K; Yu, W L

    2010-01-01

    To present a review and to describe the most widely used laboratory tests for serology diagnosis of brucellosis along with their pros and cons. Review the recent literature on brucellosis serology diagnostic tests. The choice of the testing strategy depends on the prevailing brucellosis epidemiological situation and the goal of testing. The 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of brucellosis is isolation and identification of the causative bacterium, a member of Brucella sp. Isolation of Brucella sp. requires high security laboratory facilities (biological containment level 3), highly skilled personnel, an extended turnaround time for results and it is considered a hazardous procedure. Hence brucellosis is generally diagnosed by detection of an elevated level of antibody in serum or other body fluid. This is a presumptive diagnosis as other microorganisms and perhaps environmental factors can also cause increased antibody levels. A large number of serological tests for brucellosis have been devised over the 100+ years since its initial isolation, starting with a simple agglutination test and progressing to sophisticated primary binding assays available today. However, no test devised to date is 100% accurate so generally serological diagnosis consists of testing sera by several tests, usually a screening test of high sensitivity, followed by a confirmatory test of high specificity.

  17. Hints for Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K

    2015-01-01

    /or caretakers. Based on this, a provisional decision to pursue a food allergy diagnosis may be made after carefully considering other possible reasons for an adverse reaction to a food: aversion, infection, intoxication, or an underlying metabolic disease. To respond to the next question, the anamnesis...

  18. Performance based fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Different aspects of fault detection and fault isolation in closed-loop systems are considered. It is shown that using the standard setup known from feedback control, it is possible to formulate fault diagnosis problems based on a performance index in this general standard setup. It is also shown...

  19. [Autoimmune hepatitis: Immunological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahim, Imane; Brahim, Ikram; Hazime, Raja; Admou, Brahim

    2017-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatopathies (AIHT) including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune cholangitis (AIC), represent an impressive entities in clinical practice. Their pathogenesis is not perfectly elucidated. Several factors are involved in the initiation of hepatic autoimmune and inflammatory phenomena such as genetic predisposition, molecular mimicry and/or abnormalities of T-regulatory lymphocytes. AIHT have a wide spectrum of presentation, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severe acute liver failure. The diagnosis of AIHT is based on the presence of hyperglobulinemia, cytolysis, cholestasis, typical even specific circulating auto-antibodies, distinctive of AIH or PBC, and histological abnormalities as well as necrosis and inflammation. Anti-F actin, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1 antibodies permit to distinguish between AIH type 1 and AIH type 2. Anti-SLA/LP antibodies are rather associated to more severe hepatitis, and particularly useful for the diagnosis of seronegative AIH for other the antibodies. Due to the relevant diagnostic value of anti-M2, anti-Sp100, and anti-gp210 antibodies, the diagnosis of PBC is more affordable than that of PSC and AIC. Based on clinical data, the immunological diagnosis of AIHT takes advantage of the various specialized laboratory techniques including immunofluorescence, immunodot or blot, and the Elisa systems, provided of a closer collaboration between the biologist and the physician. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Laboratory Diagnosis of Pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Joop F. P.; Mooi, Frits R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The introduction of vaccination in the 1950s significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality of pertussis. However, since the 1990s, a resurgence of pertussis has been observed in vaccinated populations, and a number of causes have been proposed for this phenomenon, including improved diagnostics, increased awareness, waning immunity, and pathogen adaptation. The resurgence of pertussis highlights the importance of standardized, sensitive, and specific laboratory diagnoses, the lack of which is responsible for the large differences in pertussis notifications between countries. Accurate laboratory diagnosis is also important for distinguishing between the several etiologic agents of pertussis-like diseases, which involve both viruses and bacteria. If pertussis is diagnosed in a timely manner, antibiotic treatment of the patient can mitigate the symptoms and prevent transmission. During an outbreak, timely diagnosis of pertussis allows prophylactic treatment of infants too young to be (fully) vaccinated, for whom pertussis is a severe, sometimes fatal disease. Finally, reliable diagnosis of pertussis is required to reveal trends in the (age-specific) disease incidence, which may point to changes in vaccine efficacy, waning immunity, and the emergence of vaccine-adapted strains. Here we review current approaches to the diagnosis of pertussis and discuss their limitations and strengths. In particular, we emphasize that the optimal diagnostic procedure depends on the stage of the disease, the age of the patient, and the vaccination status of the patient. PMID:26354823