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Sample records for rapid precise accurate

  1. Precise and Accurate Density Determination of Explosives Using Hydrostatic Weighing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Olinger

    2005-07-01

    Precise and accurate density determination requires weight measurements in air and water using sufficiently precise analytical balances, knowledge of the densities of air and water, knowledge of thermal expansions, availability of a density standard, and a method to estimate the time to achieve thermal equilibrium with water. Density distributions in pressed explosives are inferred from the densities of elements from a central slice.

  2. Precise and accurate isotopic measurements using multiple-collector ICPMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarède, F.; Telouk, Philippe; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Boyet, Maud; Agranier, Arnaud; Nelson, Bruce

    2004-06-01

    New techniques of isotopic measurements by a new generation of mass spectrometers equipped with an inductively-coupled-plasma source, a magnetic mass filter, and multiple collection (MC-ICPMS) are quickly developing. These techniques are valuable because of (1) the ability of ICP sources to ionize virtually every element in the periodic table, and (2) the large sample throughout. However, because of the complex trajectories of multiple ion beams produced in the plasma source whether from the same or different elements, the acquisition of precise and accurate isotopic data with this type of instrument still requires a good understanding of instrumental fractionation processes, both mass-dependent and mass-independent. Although physical processes responsible for the instrumental mass bias are still to be understood more fully, we here present a theoretical framework that allows for most of the analytical limitations to high precision and accuracy to be overcome. After a presentation of unifying phenomenological theory for mass-dependent fractionation in mass spectrometers, we show how this theory accounts for the techniques of standard bracketing and of isotopic normalization by a ratio of either the same or a different element, such as the use of Tl to correct mass bias on Pb. Accuracy is discussed with reference to the concept of cup efficiencies. Although these can be simply calibrated by analyzing standards, we derive a straightforward, very general method to calculate accurate isotopic ratios from dynamic measurements. In this study, we successfully applied the dynamic method to Nd and Pb as examples. We confirm that the assumption of identical mass bias for neighboring elements (notably Pb and Tl, and Yb and Lu) is both unnecessary and incorrect. We further discuss the dangers of straightforward standard-sample bracketing when chemical purification of the element to be analyzed is imperfect. Pooling runs to improve precision is acceptable provided the pooled

  3. Rapid and precise genotyping of porcine microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, G H; Beeckmann, P; Bartenschlager, H; Moser, G; Geldermann, H

    1999-11-01

    Microsatellites are useful markers for genetic mapping and linkage analysis because they are highly polymorphic, abundant in genomes and relatively easily scored with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A rapid genotyping system for microsatellites was developed, which included multiplex PCRs, multiple use of Hydrolink gels, automated fluorescent detection of fragments on an A.L.F. DNA sequencer, automatic assignment of alleles to each locus and verification of genotypes with a self-developed computer program "Fragtest". Eight multiplex PCRs have been developed to genotype 29 microsatellites for genetic and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping on pig chromosomes 6, 7, 12 and 13. Three to six microsatellites could be amplified in one multiplex PCR. Each multiplex reaction required only different concentrations of each pair of primers and a low concentration of dNTP (100 microM). A dNTP concentration of 100 microM proved to be optimal for the coamplification of microsatellites under the concentration of 1.5 mM MgCl2. Using four internal size standards added in each sample, the 5% Hydrolink gel could subsequently be used up to five times (total running time of 500 min) on the A.L.F. automated sequencer without significant loss of resolution and precision of fragment length analysis. Automatic assignment of alleles on each locus using "Fragtest" significantly increased the efficiency and precision of the genotyping. This system is thus a rapid, cheap, and highly discriminating genotyping system.

  4. Toward accurate and precise estimates of lion density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Nicholas B; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M

    2017-08-01

    Reliable estimates of animal density are fundamental to understanding ecological processes and population dynamics. Furthermore, their accuracy is vital to conservation because wildlife authorities rely on estimates to make decisions. However, it is notoriously difficult to accurately estimate density for wide-ranging carnivores that occur at low densities. In recent years, significant progress has been made in density estimation of Asian carnivores, but the methods have not been widely adapted to African carnivores, such as lions (Panthera leo). Although abundance indices for lions may produce poor inferences, they continue to be used to estimate density and inform management and policy. We used sighting data from a 3-month survey and adapted a Bayesian spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) model to estimate spatial lion density in the Maasai Mara National Reserve and surrounding conservancies in Kenya. Our unstructured spatial capture-recapture sampling design incorporated search effort to explicitly estimate detection probability and density on a fine spatial scale, making our approach robust in the context of varying detection probabilities. Overall posterior mean lion density was estimated to be 17.08 (posterior SD 1.310) lions >1 year old/100 km 2 , and the sex ratio was estimated at 2.2 females to 1 male. Our modeling framework and narrow posterior SD demonstrate that SECR methods can produce statistically rigorous and precise estimates of population parameters, and we argue that they should be favored over less reliable abundance indices. Furthermore, our approach is flexible enough to incorporate different data types, which enables robust population estimates over relatively short survey periods in a variety of systems. Trend analyses are essential to guide conservation decisions but are frequently based on surveys of differing reliability. We therefore call for a unified framework to assess lion numbers in key populations to improve management and

  5. Validation study of a fast, accurate, and precise brain tumor volume measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Mong; Modi, Jayesh; Roberts, Mike; Chan, Christopher; Mitchell, J Ross

    2013-08-01

    Precision and accuracy are sometimes sacrificed to ensure that medical image processing is rapid. To address this, our lab had developed a novel level set segmentation algorithm that is 16× faster and >96% accurate on realistic brain phantoms. This study reports speed, precision and estimated accuracy of our algorithm when measuring MRIs of meningioma brain tumors and compares it to manual tracing and modified MacDonald (MM) ellipsoid criteria. A repeated-measures study allowed us to determine measurement precisions (MPs) - clinically relevant thresholds for statistically significant change. Speed: the level set, MM, and trace methods required 1:20, 1:35, and 9:35 (mm:ss) respectively on average to complete a volume measurement (plesion volumes (p>0.05). Precision: the MM's within-operator and between-operator MPs were significantly higher (worse) than the other methods (p0.05). Our level set is faster on average than MM, yet has accuracy and precision comparable to manual tracing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid precision casting for complex thin-walled aluminum alloy parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanpu DONG

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on Vacuum Differential Pressure Casting (VDPC precision forming technology and the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS Rapid Prototyping (RP technology, a rapid manufacturing method called Rapid Precision Casting (RPC process from computer three-dimensional solid models to metallic parts was investigated. The experimental results showed that the main advantage of RPC was not only its ability to cast higher internal quality and more accurate complex thin-walled aluminum alloy parts, but also the greatly-reduced lead time cycle from Selective Laser Sintering(SLS plastic prototyping to metallic parts. The key forming technology of RPC for complex thin-walled metallic parts has been developed for new casting production and Rapid Tooling (RT, and it is possible to rapidly manufacture high-quality and accurate metallic parts by means of RP in foundry industry.

  7. A precise and accurate acupoint location obtained on the face using consistency matrix pointwise fusion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanq, Xuming; Ye, Yijun; Xia, Yong; Wei, Xuanzhong; Wang, Zheyu; Ni, Hongmei; Zhu, Ying; Xu, Lingyu

    2015-02-01

    To develop a more precise and accurate method, and identified a procedure to measure whether an acupoint had been correctly located. On the face, we used an acupoint location from different acupuncture experts and obtained the most precise and accurate values of acupoint location based on the consistency information fusion algorithm, through a virtual simulation of the facial orientation coordinate system. Because of inconsistencies in each acupuncture expert's original data, the system error the general weight calculation. First, we corrected each expert of acupoint location system error itself, to obtain a rational quantification for each expert of acupuncture and moxibustion acupoint location consistent support degree, to obtain pointwise variable precision fusion results, to put every expert's acupuncture acupoint location fusion error enhanced to pointwise variable precision. Then, we more effectively used the measured characteristics of different acupuncture expert's acupoint location, to improve the measurement information utilization efficiency and acupuncture acupoint location precision and accuracy. Based on using the consistency matrix pointwise fusion method on the acupuncture experts' acupoint location values, each expert's acupoint location information could be calculated, and the most precise and accurate values of each expert's acupoint location could be obtained.

  8. Rapid and accurate pyrosequencing of angiosperm plastid genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmerie William G

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plastid genome sequence information is vital to several disciplines in plant biology, including phylogenetics and molecular biology. The past five years have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of completely sequenced plastid genomes, fuelled largely by advances in conventional Sanger sequencing technology. Here we report a further significant reduction in time and cost for plastid genome sequencing through the successful use of a newly available pyrosequencing platform, the Genome Sequencer 20 (GS 20 System (454 Life Sciences Corporation, to rapidly and accurately sequence the whole plastid genomes of the basal eudicot angiosperms Nandina domestica (Berberidaceae and Platanus occidentalis (Platanaceae. Results More than 99.75% of each plastid genome was simultaneously obtained during two GS 20 sequence runs, to an average depth of coverage of 24.6× in Nandina and 17.3× in Platanus. The Nandina and Platanus plastid genomes shared essentially identical gene complements and possessed the typical angiosperm plastid structure and gene arrangement. To assess the accuracy of the GS 20 sequence, over 45 kilobases of sequence were generated for each genome using conventional sequencing. Overall error rates of 0.043% and 0.031% were observed in GS 20 sequence for Nandina and Platanus, respectively. More than 97% of all observed errors were associated with homopolymer runs, with ~60% of all errors associated with homopolymer runs of 5 or more nucleotides and ~50% of all errors associated with regions of extensive homopolymer runs. No substitution errors were present in either genome. Error rates were generally higher in the single-copy and noncoding regions of both plastid genomes relative to the inverted repeat and coding regions. Conclusion Highly accurate and essentially complete sequence information was obtained for the Nandina and Platanus plastid genomes using the GS 20 System. More importantly, the high accuracy

  9. Hydrogen atoms can be located accurately and precisely by x-ray crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woińska, Magdalena; Grabowsky, Simon; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2016-05-01

    Precise and accurate structural information on hydrogen atoms is crucial to the study of energies of interactions important for crystal engineering, materials science, medicine, and pharmacy, and to the estimation of physical and chemical properties in solids. However, hydrogen atoms only scatter x-radiation weakly, so x-rays have not been used routinely to locate them accurately. Textbooks and teaching classes still emphasize that hydrogen atoms cannot be located with x-rays close to heavy elements; instead, neutron diffraction is needed. We show that, contrary to widespread expectation, hydrogen atoms can be located very accurately using x-ray diffraction, yielding bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms (A-H) that are in agreement with results from neutron diffraction mostly within a single standard deviation. The precision of the determination is also comparable between x-ray and neutron diffraction results. This has been achieved at resolutions as low as 0.8 Å using Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR). We have applied HAR to 81 crystal structures of organic molecules and compared the A-H bond lengths with those from neutron measurements for A-H bonds sorted into bonds of the same class. We further show in a selection of inorganic compounds that hydrogen atoms can be located in bridging positions and close to heavy transition metals accurately and precisely. We anticipate that, in the future, conventional x-radiation sources at in-house diffractometers can be used routinely for locating hydrogen atoms in small molecules accurately instead of large-scale facilities such as spallation sources or nuclear reactors.

  10. Research on the rapid and accurate positioning and orientation approach for land missile-launching vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kui; Wang, Lei; Lv, Yanhong; Gao, Pengyu; Song, Tianxiao

    2015-10-20

    Getting a land vehicle's accurate position, azimuth and attitude rapidly is significant for vehicle based weapons' combat effectiveness. In this paper, a new approach to acquire vehicle's accurate position and orientation is proposed. It uses biaxial optical detection platform (BODP) to aim at and lock in no less than three pre-set cooperative targets, whose accurate positions are measured beforehand. Then, it calculates the vehicle's accurate position, azimuth and attitudes by the rough position and orientation provided by vehicle based navigation systems and no less than three couples of azimuth and pitch angles measured by BODP. The proposed approach does not depend on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), thus it is autonomous and difficult to interfere. Meanwhile, it only needs a rough position and orientation as algorithm's iterative initial value, consequently, it does not have high performance requirement for Inertial Navigation System (INS), odometer and other vehicle based navigation systems, even in high precise applications. This paper described the system's working procedure, presented theoretical deviation of the algorithm, and then verified its effectiveness through simulation and vehicle experiments. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can achieve positioning and orientation accuracy of 0.2 m and 20″ respectively in less than 3 min.

  11. Research on the Rapid and Accurate Positioning and Orientation Approach for Land Missile-Launching Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Getting a land vehicle’s accurate position, azimuth and attitude rapidly is significant for vehicle based weapons’ combat effectiveness. In this paper, a new approach to acquire vehicle’s accurate position and orientation is proposed. It uses biaxial optical detection platform (BODP to aim at and lock in no less than three pre-set cooperative targets, whose accurate positions are measured beforehand. Then, it calculates the vehicle’s accurate position, azimuth and attitudes by the rough position and orientation provided by vehicle based navigation systems and no less than three couples of azimuth and pitch angles measured by BODP. The proposed approach does not depend on Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS, thus it is autonomous and difficult to interfere. Meanwhile, it only needs a rough position and orientation as algorithm’s iterative initial value, consequently, it does not have high performance requirement for Inertial Navigation System (INS, odometer and other vehicle based navigation systems, even in high precise applications. This paper described the system’s working procedure, presented theoretical deviation of the algorithm, and then verified its effectiveness through simulation and vehicle experiments. The simulation and experimental results indicate that the proposed approach can achieve positioning and orientation accuracy of 0.2 m and 20″ respectively in less than 3 min.

  12. Nanoscale tailor-made membranes for precise and rapid molecular sieve separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Junyong; Zhang, Yatao; Liu, Jindun; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2017-03-02

    The precise and rapid separation of different molecules from aqueous, organic solutions and gas mixtures is critical to many technologies in the context of resource-saving and sustainable development. The strength of membrane-based technologies is well recognized and they are extensively applied as cost-effective, highly efficient separation techniques. Currently, empirical-based approaches, lacking an accurate nanoscale control, are used to prepare the most advanced membranes. In contrast, nanoscale control renders the membrane molecular specificity (sub-2 nm) necessary for efficient and rapid molecular separation. Therefore, as a growing trend in membrane technology, the field of nanoscale tailor-made membranes is highlighted in this review. An in-depth analysis of the latest advances in tailor-made membranes for precise and rapid molecule sieving is given, along with an outlook to future perspectives of such membranes. Special attention is paid to the established processing strategies, as well as the application of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in nanoporous membrane design. This review will provide useful guidelines for future research in the development of nanoscale tailor-made membranes with a precise and rapid molecular sieve separation property.

  13. An investigation of highly accurate and precise robotic hole measurements using non-contact devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Zahid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial robots arms are widely used in manufacturing industry because of their support for automation. However, in metrology, robots have had limited application due to their insufficient accuracy. Even using error compensation and calibration methods, robots are not effective for micrometre (μm level metrology. Non-contact measurement devices can potentially enable the use of robots for highly accurate metrology. However, the use of such devices on robots has not been investigated. The research work reported in this paper explores the use of different non-contact measurement devices on an industrial robot. The aim is to experimentally investigate the effects of robot movements on the accuracy and precision of measurements. The focus has been on assessing the ability to accurately measure various geometric and surface parameters of holes despite the inherent inaccuracies of industrial robot. This involves the measurement of diameter, roundness and surface roughness. The study also includes scanning of holes for measuring internal features such as start and end point of a taper. Two different non-contact measurement devices based on different technologies are investigated. Furthermore, effects of eccentricity, vibrations and thermal variations are also assessed. The research contributes towards the use of robots for highly accurate and precise robotic metrology.

  14. A Trace Data-Based Approach for an Accurate Estimation of Precise Utilization Maps in LTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For network planning and optimization purposes, mobile operators make use of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs, computed from Performance Measurements (PMs, to determine whether network performance needs to be improved. In current networks, PMs, and therefore KPIs, suffer from lack of precision due to an insufficient temporal and/or spatial granularity. In this work, an automatic method, based on data traces, is proposed to improve the accuracy of radio network utilization measurements collected in a Long-Term Evolution (LTE network. The method’s output is an accurate estimate of the spatial and temporal distribution for the cell utilization ratio that can be extended to other indicators. The method can be used to improve automatic network planning and optimization algorithms in a centralized Self-Organizing Network (SON entity, since potential issues can be more precisely detected and located inside a cell thanks to temporal and spatial precision. The proposed method is tested with real connection traces gathered in a large geographical area of a live LTE network and considers overload problems due to trace file size limitations, which is a key consideration when analysing a large network. Results show how these distributions provide a very detailed information of network utilization, compared to cell based statistics.

  15. Precise and accurate train run data: Approximation of actual arrival and departure times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Troels; Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

    possible with the present systems. GPS data from a major Danish Railway Undertaking is used as an alternate data source with more accurate arrival and departure times. The offset is based on the median of the time difference between these two sources. Factors taken into consideration when constructing......On the most intensively used parts of the Danish railway network, registration of arrivals and departure times are based on occupation of main track circuits and block sections. These measurements are precise. However, due to the nature of track circuits, they do not register the actual time when...... trains have come to a halt nor when trains have set in motion again. Thus the measurements are inaccurate and do not express the experience of the passengers. A commonly accepted method to make this measurement possible is to construct a correction function to the track circuit based measurement...

  16. Rapid and accurate biofuel moisture content gauging using magnetic resonance measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaervinen, T.

    2013-04-15

    Biomass is extensively utilised in energy production and as a raw material, such as for the production of liquid biofuels. All those processes will benefit if the moisture content of bio material is known in advance as accurately as possible under transient circumstances. Biofuel trade is increasingly based on the calorific value of fuels. In the first step, this also increases the need for rapid and accurate moisture content determination. During the last few years, large biofuel standardisation has been implemented, emphasising biofuel quality control at all stages of the utilisation chain. In principle, the moisture instrumental measurement can be utilised by many technologies and procedures. Typical techniques are infrared, radiofrequency, microwave, radiometric, electrical conductivity, capacitance, and impedance. Nuclear magnetic resonance (MR) and thermal neutron absorption are also applied. The MR measurement principle has been known and utilised already since the early 1950s. It has become the basic instrumental analysis tool in chemistry. It is also well-known as a very accurate method for analysing most compounds, especially substances containing hydrogen. The utilisation of MR metering is expanded extensively to medical diagnostics as a form of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Because of the precision of the MR principle, there have for a long time been efforts to apply it in new and different areas, and to make more user-friendly, smaller, and even portable devices. Such a device was designed by Vaisala a few years ago. VTT has utilised Vaisala's MR prototype for approximately one year for moisture content measurement of different biofuels. The first step in the use of an MR device for moisture determination was the definition of its measurement accuracy compared to the standard method (EN 14774). Those tests proved that the absolute precision seems to be comparable to the standard moisture content measurement method. It was also found out that

  17. High-precision, accurate optical frequency reference using a Fabry-Perót diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hongrok; Myneni, Krishna; Smith, David D.; Liaghati-Mobarhan, Hassan R.

    2017-06-01

    We show that the optical output of a temperature and current-tuned Fabry-Perót diode laser system, with no external optical feedback and in which the frequency is locked to Doppler-free hyperfine resonances of the 87Rb D2 line, can achieve high frequency stability and accuracy. Experimental results are presented for the spectral linewidth, frequency stability, and frequency accuracy of the source. Although our optical source is limited by a short-term spectral linewidth greater than 2 MHz, beat signal measurements from two such sources demonstrate a frequency stability of 1.1 kHz, or minimum Allan deviation of 4 ×1 0-12, at an integration time τ =15 s and with a frequency accuracy of 60 kHz at τ =300 s. We demonstrate the use of the optical source for the precision measurement of hyperfine level frequency spacings in the 5 P3 /2 excited state of 87Rb and provide an accurate frequency scale for optical spectroscopy.

  18. Rapid and accurate tumor-target bio-imaging through specific in vivo biosynthesis of a fluorescent europium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Wang, Jianling; Li, Qiwei; Dong, Xiawei; Ge, Wei; Chen, Yun; Jiang, Xuerui; Liu, Hongde; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Xuemei

    2016-04-01

    A new and facile method for rapidly and accurately achieving tumor targeting fluorescent images has been explored using a specifically biosynthesized europium (Eu) complex in vivo and in vitro. It demonstrated that a fluorescent Eu complex could be bio-synthesized through a spontaneous molecular process in cancerous cells and tumors, but not prepared in normal cells and tissues. In addition, the proteomics analyses show that some biological pathways of metabolism, especially for NADPH production and glutamine metabolism, are remarkably affected during the relevant biosynthesis process, where molecular precursors of europium ions are reduced to fluorescent europium complexes inside cancerous cells or tumor tissues. These results proved that the specific self-biosynthesis of a fluorescent Eu complex by cancer cells or tumor tissues can provide a new strategy for accurate diagnosis and treatment strategies in the early stages of cancers and thus is beneficial for realizing precise surgical intervention based on the relevant cheap and readily available agents.

  19. Experiments in rapid development of accurate phonetic alignments for TTS in Afrikaans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, DR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of corpus-based text-to-speech (TTS) systems depends on the accuracy of phonetic annotation (alignments) which directly influences the process of acoustic modelling. In this paper the author discusses the rapid development of accurate...

  20. High performance liquid chromatography method for rapid and accurate determination of homocysteine in plasma and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Birte; Rasmussen, K

    1991-01-01

    Determination of homocysteine in plasma or serum for evaluation of cobalamin and folate deficiency is becoming an important diagnostic procedure. Accurate, rapid and low cost methods for measuring homocysteine are therefore required. We have improved an HPLC method and made it suitable for clinical...

  1. Fast, Accurate and Precise Mid-Sagittal Plane Location in 3D MR Images of the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergo, Felipe P. G.; Falcão, Alexandre X.; Yasuda, Clarissa L.; Ruppert, Guilherme C. S.

    Extraction of the mid-sagittal plane (MSP) is a key step for brain image registration and asymmetry analysis. We present a fast MSP extraction method for 3D MR images, based on automatic segmentation of the brain and on heuristic maximization of the cerebro-spinal fluid within the MSP. The method is robust to severe anatomical asymmetries between the hemispheres, caused by surgical procedures and lesions. The method is also accurate with respect to MSP delineations done by a specialist. The method was evaluated on 64 MR images (36 pathological, 20 healthy, 8 synthetic), and it found a precise and accurate approximation of the MSP in all of them with a mean time of 60.0 seconds per image, mean angular variation within a same image (precision) of 1.26o and mean angular difference from specialist delineations (accuracy) of 1.64o.

  2. Reducing False Alarms in Ion Mobility Spectrometry Detectors: Determination of Accurate and Precise Reduced Mobility Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    COI values were measured as a function of multiple instrumental parameters. This initial database of accurate K0 COI values will be expanded in the...organizations were provided with one Adobe portable document format ( pdf ) electronic version of this report: U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological

  3. Precise and accurate measurements of strong-field photoionisation and a transferrable laser intensity calibration standard

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, W C; Khurmi, C; U., Satya Sainadh; Calvert, J E; Laban, D E; Pullen, M G; Bartschat, K; Grum-Grzhimailo, A N; Wells, D; Quiney, H M; Tong, X M; Litvinyuk, I V; Sang, R T; Kielpinski, D

    2016-01-01

    Ionization of atoms and molecules in strong laser fields is a fundamental process in many fields of research, especially in the emerging field of attosecond science. So far, demonstrably accurate data have only been acquired for atomic hydrogen (H), a species that is accessible to few investigators. Here we present measurements of the ionization yield for argon, krypton, and xenon with percentlevel accuracy, calibrated using H, in a laser regime widely used in attosecond science. We derive a transferrable calibration standard for laser peak intensity, accurate to 1.3%, that is based on a simple reference curve. In addition, our measurements provide a much-needed benchmark for testing models of ionisation in noble-gas atoms, such as the widely employed single-active electron approximation.

  4. Rapid identification of sequences for orphan enzymes to power accurate protein annotation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Ramkissoon

    Full Text Available The power of genome sequencing depends on the ability to understand what those genes and their proteins products actually do. The automated methods used to assign functions to putative proteins in newly sequenced organisms are limited by the size of our library of proteins with both known function and sequence. Unfortunately this library grows slowly, lagging well behind the rapid increase in novel protein sequences produced by modern genome sequencing methods. One potential source for rapidly expanding this functional library is the "back catalog" of enzymology--"orphan enzymes," those enzymes that have been characterized and yet lack any associated sequence. There are hundreds of orphan enzymes in the Enzyme Commission (EC database alone. In this study, we demonstrate how this orphan enzyme "back catalog" is a fertile source for rapidly advancing the state of protein annotation. Starting from three orphan enzyme samples, we applied mass-spectrometry based analysis and computational methods (including sequence similarity networks, sequence and structural alignments, and operon context analysis to rapidly identify the specific sequence for each orphan while avoiding the most time- and labor-intensive aspects of typical sequence identifications. We then used these three new sequences to more accurately predict the catalytic function of 385 previously uncharacterized or misannotated proteins. We expect that this kind of rapid sequence identification could be efficiently applied on a larger scale to make enzymology's "back catalog" another powerful tool to drive accurate genome annotation.

  5. Rapid Identification of Sequences for Orphan Enzymes to Power Accurate Protein Annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Sunil; Watson, Douglas S.; Bomar, Martha G.; Galande, Amit K.; Shearer, Alexander G.

    2013-01-01

    The power of genome sequencing depends on the ability to understand what those genes and their proteins products actually do. The automated methods used to assign functions to putative proteins in newly sequenced organisms are limited by the size of our library of proteins with both known function and sequence. Unfortunately this library grows slowly, lagging well behind the rapid increase in novel protein sequences produced by modern genome sequencing methods. One potential source for rapidly expanding this functional library is the “back catalog” of enzymology – “orphan enzymes,” those enzymes that have been characterized and yet lack any associated sequence. There are hundreds of orphan enzymes in the Enzyme Commission (EC) database alone. In this study, we demonstrate how this orphan enzyme “back catalog” is a fertile source for rapidly advancing the state of protein annotation. Starting from three orphan enzyme samples, we applied mass-spectrometry based analysis and computational methods (including sequence similarity networks, sequence and structural alignments, and operon context analysis) to rapidly identify the specific sequence for each orphan while avoiding the most time- and labor-intensive aspects of typical sequence identifications. We then used these three new sequences to more accurately predict the catalytic function of 385 previously uncharacterized or misannotated proteins. We expect that this kind of rapid sequence identification could be efficiently applied on a larger scale to make enzymology’s “back catalog” another powerful tool to drive accurate genome annotation. PMID:24386392

  6. Precise and accurate isotopic analysis of microscopic uranium-oxide grains using LA-MC-ICP-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Nicholas S.; Parrish, Randall R.; Horstwood, Matthew S.A.; Chenery, Simon R.N.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium isotope (235U, 236U, 238U) ratios were determined for microscopic uranium-oxide grains using laser-ablation multi-collector inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS). The grains were retrieved from contaminated soil and dust samples. The analytical technique utilised is rapid, requires minimal sample preparation, and is well suited for nuclear forensic applications. Precision and accuracy were assessed by replicate analyses of natural uraninite grains: relative uncer...

  7. Precise and accurate train run data: Approximation of actual arrival and departure times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Troels; Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær

    possible with the present systems. GPS data from a major Danish Railway Undertaking is used as an alternate data source with more accurate arrival and departure times. The offset is based on the median of the time difference between these two sources. Factors taken into consideration when constructing...... the correction function, are location, message type, platform used and train type. The approximated correction values are then analysed to ensure that interquartile range is within the defined criteria. The practical implementation is an additional column in the train run history database tables...

  8. Acquisition and reconstruction conditions in silico for accurate and precise magnetic resonance elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jin Long; Tardieu, Marion; Julea, Felicia; Boucneau, Tanguy; Sinkus, Ralph; Pellot-Barakat, Claire; Maître, Xavier

    2017-11-01

    Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a non invasive imaging modality, which holds the promise of absolute quantification of the mechanical properties of human tissues in vivo. MRE reconstruction with algebraic inversion of the Helmholtz equation upon the curl of the shear displacement field may theoretically be flawless. However, its performances are challenged by multiple experimental parameters, especially the frequency and the amplitude of the mechanical wave, the voxel size and the signal-to-noise ratio of the MRE acquisition. A point source excitation was simulated and realistic displacement fields were analytically computed to simulate MRE data sets in an isotropic, homogeneous, linearly-elastic, and half-space infinite medium. Acquisition and reconstruction methods were challenged and the joint influence of the aforementioned parameters was studied. For a given signal-to-noise ratio, the conditions on the number of voxels per wavelength were determined for optimizing voxel-wise accuracy and precision in MRE. It was shown that, once data are acquired, the reconstruction quality could even be improved by effective interpolation or decimation so data could eventually fulfill favorable conditions for mechanical characterization of the tissue. Finally, the overall outcome, which is usually computed from the three acquired motion-encoded directions, may further be improved by appropriate averaging strategies that are based on adapted curl of shear displacement field quality-weighting.

  9. Highly Accurate and Precise Infrared Transition Frequencies of the H_3^+ Cation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Adam J.; Markus, Charles R.; Hodges, James N.; Kocheril, G. Stephen; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2016-06-01

    Calculation of ab initio potential energy surfaces for molecules to high accuracy is only manageable for a handful of molecular systems. Among them is the simplest polyatomic molecule, the H_3^+ cation. In order to achieve a high degree of accuracy (theory and experiment is approaching 0.001 wn, whereas the agreement is on the order of 0.01 - 0.1 wn for higher levels which are closely rivaling the uncertainties on the experimental data. As method development for calculating these various corrections progresses it becomes necessary for the uncertainties on the experimental data to be improved in order to properly benchmark the calculations. Previously we have measured 20 rovibrational transitions of H_3^+ with MHz-level precision, all of which have arisen from low lying rotational levels. Here we present new measurements of rovibrational transitions arising from higher rotational and vibrational levels. These transitions not only allow for probing higher energies on the potential energy surface, but through the use of combination differences, will ultimately lead to prediction of the "forbidden" rotational transitions with MHz-level accuracy. L.G. Diniz, J.R. Mohallem, A. Alijah, M. Pavanello, L. Adamowicz, O.L. Polyansky, J. Tennyson Phys. Rev. A (2013), 88, 032506 O.L. Polyansky, A. Alijah, N.F. Zobov, I.I. Mizus, R.I. Ovsyannikov, J. Tennyson, L. Lodi, T. Szidarovszky, A.G. Császár Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A (2012), 370, 5014 J.N. Hodges, A.J. Perry, P.A. Jenkins II, B.M. Siller, B.J. McCall J. Chem. Phys. (2013), 139, 164201 A.J. Perry, J.N. Hodges, C.R. Markus, G.S. Kocheril, B.J. McCall J. Molec. Spectrosc. (2015), 317, 71-73.

  10. Development of a Fieldable, Rapid, Accurate and Sensitive Bio-Electronic, DNA Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    single molecule of DNA or RNA and therefore does not require the use of PCR. The sensor chip can be engineered with an array of hundreds of independent test sites, which allows for confirmatory tests leading to a high level of specificity, the ability to screen for multiple threat agents simultaneously, and the capability to detect genetically engineered organisms. Biological agents continue to pose a major threat to U.S. troops as well as U.S. civilians both domestically and overseas. Rapid, accurate and sensitive detection and identification of biological agents is

  11. Rapid and accurate analyses of silicon and phosphorus in plants using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidinger, Stefan; Ramsey, Michael H; Hartley, Susan E

    2012-08-01

    The elemental analysis of plant material is a frequently employed tool across biological disciplines, yet accurate, convenient and economical methods for the determination of some important elements are currently lacking. For instance, digestion-based techniques are often hazardous and time-consuming and, particularly in the case of silicon (Si), can suffer from low accuracy due to incomplete solubilization and potential volatilization, whilst other methods may require large, expensive and specialised equipment. Here, we present a rapid, safe and accurate procedure for the simultaneous, nonconsumptive analysis of Si and phosphorus (P) in as little as 0.1 g dried and ground plant material using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (P-XRF). We used certified reference materials from different plant species to test the analytical performance of P-XRF and show that the analysis suffers from very little bias and that the repeatability precision of the measurements is as good as or better than that of other methods. Using this technique we were able to process and analyse 200 ground samples a day, so P-XRF could provide a particularly valuable tool for plant biologists requiring the simultaneous nonconsumptive analysis of multiple elements, including those known to be difficult to measure such as Si, in large numbers of samples. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Rapid and accurate identification of microorganisms contaminating cosmetic products based on DNA sequence homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Y; Shibayama, H; Suzuki, Y; Karita, S; Takamatsu, S

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop rapid and accurate procedures to identify microorganisms contaminating cosmetic products, based on the identity of the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA coding DNA (rDNA). Five types of microorganisms were isolated from the inner portion of lotion bottle caps, skin care lotions, and cleansing gels. The rDNA ITS region of microorganisms was amplified through the use of colony-direct PCR or ordinal PCR using DNA extracts as templates. The nucleotide sequences of the amplified DNA were determined and subjected to homology search of a publicly available DNA database. Thereby, we obtained DNA sequences possessing high similarity with the query sequences from the databases of all the five organisms analyzed. The traditional identification procedure requires expert skills, and a time period of approximately 1 month to identify the microorganisms. On the contrary, 3-7 days were sufficient to complete all the procedures employed in the current method, including isolation and cultivation of organisms, DNA sequencing, and the database homology search. Moreover, it was possible to develop the skills necessary to perform the molecular techniques required for the identification procedures within 1 week. Consequently, the current method is useful for rapid and accurate identification of microorganisms, contaminating cosmetics.

  13. Rapid subsidence in damaging sinkholes: Measurement by high-precision leveling and the role of salt dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desir, G.; Gutiérrez, F.; Merino, J.; Carbonel, D.; Benito-Calvo, A.; Guerrero, J.; Fabregat, I.

    2018-02-01

    Investigations dealing with subsidence monitoring in active sinkholes are very scarce, especially when compared with other ground instability phenomena like landslides. This is largely related to the catastrophic behaviour that typifies most sinkholes in carbonate karst areas. Active subsidence in five sinkholes up to ca. 500 m across has been quantitatively characterised by means of high-precision differential leveling. The sinkholes occur on poorly indurated alluvium underlain by salt-bearing evaporites and cause severe damage on various human structures. The leveling data have provided accurate information on multiple features of the subsidence phenomena with practical implications: (1) precise location of the vaguely-defined edges of the subsidence zones and their spatial relationships with surveyed surface deformation features; (2) spatial deformation patterns and relative contribution of subsidence mechanisms (sagging versus collapse); (3) accurate subsidence rates and their spatial variability with maximum and mean vertical displacement rates ranging from 1.0 to 11.8 cm/yr and 1.9 to 26.1 cm/yr, respectively; (4) identification of sinkholes that experience continuous subsidence at constant rates or with significant temporal changes; and (5) rates of volumetric surface changes as an approximation to rates of dissolution-induced volumetric depletion in the subsurface, reaching as much as 10,900 m3/yr in the largest sinkhole. The high subsidence rates as well as the annual volumetric changes are attributed to rapid dissolution of high-solubility salts.

  14. Dimensional Precision Research of Wax Molding Rapid Prototyping based on Droplet Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingji, Huang; Geng, Wu; yan, Shan

    2017-11-01

    The traditional casting process is complex, the mold is essential products, mold quality directly affect the quality of the product. With the method of rapid prototyping 3D printing to produce mold prototype. The utility wax model has the advantages of high speed, low cost and complex structure. Using the orthogonal experiment as the main method, analysis each factors of size precision. The purpose is to obtain the optimal process parameters, to improve the dimensional accuracy of production based on droplet injection molding.

  15. Multifrequency excitation method for rapid and accurate dynamic test of micromachined gyroscope chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Zhou, Bin; Xing, Chao; Zhang, Rong

    2014-10-17

    A novel multifrequency excitation (MFE) method is proposed to realize rapid and accurate dynamic testing of micromachined gyroscope chips. Compared with the traditional sweep-frequency excitation (SFE) method, the computational time for testing one chip under four modes at a 1-Hz frequency resolution and 600-Hz bandwidth was dramatically reduced from 10 min to 6 s. A multifrequency signal with an equal amplitude and initial linear-phase-difference distribution was generated to ensure test repeatability and accuracy. The current test system based on LabVIEW using the SFE method was modified to use the MFE method without any hardware changes. The experimental results verified that the MFE method can be an ideal solution for large-scale dynamic testing of gyroscope chips and gyroscopes.

  16. Multifrequency Excitation Method for Rapid and Accurate Dynamic Test of Micromachined Gyroscope Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Deng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel multifrequency excitation (MFE method is proposed to realize rapid and accurate dynamic testing of micromachined gyroscope chips. Compared with the traditional sweep-frequency excitation (SFE method, the computational time for testing one chip under four modes at a 1-Hz frequency resolution and 600-Hz bandwidth was dramatically reduced from 10 min to 6 s. A multifrequency signal with an equal amplitude and initial linear-phase-difference distribution was generated to ensure test repeatability and accuracy. The current test system based on LabVIEW using the SFE method was modified to use the MFE method without any hardware changes. The experimental results verified that the MFE method can be an ideal solution for large-scale dynamic testing of gyroscope chips and gyroscopes.

  17. Easy Leaf Area: Automated Digital Image Analysis for Rapid and Accurate Measurement of Leaf Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien Ming Easlon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. Methods and Results: Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. Conclusions: Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images.

  18. Evaluation of the use of conductimetry for the rapid and precise measurement of Salmonella spp. growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, A E; Patterson, M F; Kilpatrick, D; Madden, R H

    2006-10-01

    The growth rates of 14 Salmonella serovars in tryptone soy broth plus yeast extract (TSBYE) were estimated using conventional plating techniques and indirect conductimetry using a Don Whitley RABIT system. Both methods gave identical results for the maximum specific growth rate (mumax) P>0.05. However, using the conductimetric method, mumax for a single serovar was determined in less than 7 h, whereas the conventional method required an additional 24 h. In addition, the conductimetric method was considerably more precise, much less labour-intensive and required the use of considerably less consumables. Using conductimetry, a trained operator could accurately determine mumax for 24 serovars in 3 working days, but only one serovar using the conventional plate counting technique. Hence, the use of conductimetry can markedly increase the precision and accuracy of mumax determinations by allowing a very significant increase in the number of results obtained and in their precision. The data generated will allow the development of better mathematical growth models. The method can also be used to compare growth media and conditions and hence rapidly optimise detection protocols for this pathogen.

  19. A Simple and Rapid Data Extraction Method for the Precision Aspheric Optical Surface Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Guohua; Peng, Yunfeng; Su, Xing

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, the application of aspheric optics is becoming more and more popular in the precision optical engineering field. Therefore, it urges the rapid development of the precision machining and measuring technology. Generally, the aspheric optical component is measured by the interferometer. The underlying question is that the figure output by interferometer can’t be always recognized by other analysis software or program though the interferometer has its own unique data processing system. In this paper, a robust, rapid and simple method is presented to interpret the surface height data of the precision machined aspheric optical surface. The optical surface is measured by interferometer. The result figure is split into two parts, one of which is the interferogram picture of the whole aspheric optical surface and the other is the colour reference column indicating the height value. The ratios of the red (R), green (G) and blue (B) are analysed based on the middle of the colour reference column, and the corresponding relationship between the colours and surface height is established and looked as a reference data base. Then the interferogram picture of the whole aspheric optical surface is also analysed and divided according to the red (R), green (G) and blue (B) colours. By comparing the ratios and values of RGB colour, the aspheric optical surface height can be extracted approximately. The feasibility of this method was approved by the extraction processing experiment of a polished aspheric optical surface.

  20. Optimal pcr primers for rapid and accurate detection of Aspergillus flavus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shuhaib, Mohammed Baqur S; Albakri, Ali H; Alwan, Sabah H; Almandil, Noor B; AbdulAzeez, Sayed; Borgio, J Francis

    2018-02-07

    Aspergillus flavus is among the most devastating opportunistic pathogens of several food crops including rice, due to its high production of carcinogenic aflatoxins. The presence of these organisms in economically important rice strip farming is a serious food safety concern. Several polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers have been designed to detect this species; however, a comparative assessment of their accuracy has not been conducted. This study aims to identify the optimal diagnostic PCR primers for the identification of A. flavus, among widely available primers. We isolated 122 A. flavus native isolates from randomly collected rice strips (N = 300). We identified 109 isolates to the genus level using universal fungal PCR primer pairs. Nine pairs of primers were examined for their PCR diagnostic specificity on the 109 isolates. FLA PCR was found to be the optimal PCR primer pair for specific identification of the native isolates, over aflP(1), aflM, aflA, aflD, aflP(3), aflP(2), and aflR. The PEP primer pair was found to be the most unsuitable for A. flavus identification. In conclusion, the present study indicates the powerful specificity of the FLA PCR primer over other commonly available diagnostic primers for accurate, rapid, and large-scale identification of A. flavus native isolates. This study provides the first simple, practical comparative guide to PCR-based screening of A. flavus infection in rice strips. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid and accurate intraoperative pathological diagnosis by artificial intelligence with deep learning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Song, Yanlin; Xia, Fan; Zhu, Chenjing; Zhang, Yingying; Song, Wenpeng; Xu, Jianguo; Ma, Xuelei

    2017-09-01

    Frozen section is widely used for intraoperative pathological diagnosis (IOPD), which is essential for intraoperative decision making. However, frozen section suffers from some drawbacks, such as time consuming and high misdiagnosis rate. Recently, artificial intelligence (AI) with deep learning technology has shown bright future in medicine. We hypothesize that AI with deep learning technology could help IOPD, with a computer trained by a dataset of intraoperative lesion images. Evidences supporting our hypothesis included the successful use of AI with deep learning technology in diagnosing skin cancer, and the developed method of deep-learning algorithm. Large size of the training dataset is critical to increase the diagnostic accuracy. The performance of the trained machine could be tested by new images before clinical use. Real-time diagnosis, easy to use and potential high accuracy were the advantages of AI for IOPD. In sum, AI with deep learning technology is a promising method to help rapid and accurate IOPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Innovations in Mass Spectrometry for Precise and Accurate Isotope Ratio Determination from Very Small Analyte Quantities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, N. S.; Bouman, C.; Horstwood, M. S.; Parrish, R. R.; Schwieters, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation describes progress in mass spectrometry for analysing very small analyte quantities, illustrated by example applications from nuclear forensics. In this challenging application, precise and accurate (‰) uranium isotope ratios are required from 1 - 2 µm diameter uranium oxide particles, which comprise less than 40 pg of uranium. Traditionally these are analysed using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), and more recently using secondary ionisation mass spectrometry (SIMS). Multicollector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) can offer higher productivity compared to these techniques, but is traditionally limited by low efficiency of analyte utilisation (sample through to ion detection). Samples can either be introduced as a solution, or sampled directly from solid using laser ablation. Large multi-isotope ratio datasets can help identify provenance and intended use of anthropogenic uranium and other nuclear materials [1]. The Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus (Bremen, Germany) with ‘Jet Interface’ option offers unparalleled MC-ICP-MS sensitivity. An analyte utilisation of c. 4% has previously been reported for uranium [2]. This high-sensitivity configuration utilises a dry high-capacity (100 m3/h) interface pump, special skimmer and sampler cones and a desolvating nebuliser system. Coupled with new acquisition methodologies, this sensitivity enhancement makes possible the analysis of micro-particles and small sample volumes at higher precision levels than previously achieved. New, high-performance, full-size and compact discrete dynode secondary electron multipliers (SEM) exhibit excellent stability and linearity over a large dynamic range and can be configured to simultaneously measure all of the uranium isotopes. Options for high abundance-sensitivity filters on two ion beams are also available, e.g. for 236U and 234U. Additionally, amplifiers with high ohm (1012 - 1013) feedback resistors have been developed to

  3. Freehand liver volumetry by using an electromagnetic pen tablet: accuracy, precision, and rapidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perandini, Simone; Faccioli, Niccolò; Inama, Marco; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the accuracy, precision, and rapidity of liver volumes calculated by using a freehand electromagnetic pen tablet contourtracing method as compared with the volumes calculated by using the standard optical mouse contourtracing method. The imaging data used as input for accuracy and precision testing were computed by software developed in our institution. This computer software can generate models of solid organs and allows both standard mouse-based and electromagnetic pen-driven segmentation (number of data sets, n = 70). The images used as input for rapidity testing was partly computed by modeling software (n = 70) and partly selected from contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations (n = 12). Mean volumes and time required to perform the segmentation, along with standard deviation and range values with both techniques, were calculated. Student's t test was used to assess significance regarding mean volumes and time calculated by using both segmentation techniques on phantom and CT data sets. P value was also calculated. The mean volume difference was significantly lower with the use of the freehand electromagnetic pen as compared with the optical mouse (0.2% vs. 1.8%; P introduction in clinical application.

  4. A novel low-cost mobile robot for rapid prototyping of precision farming applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Neerup, Mathias Mikkel; Larsen, Leon Bonde

    field experiments using field robots which is typically a demanding task in terms of time consumption and logistics. Small indoor robots are sometimes used to emulate the larger field robots which allows for rapid prototyping and intermediate testing in the laboratory before moving to the field...... experiments. In this work we present a novel FrobitPro robot platform designed for rapid prototyping of FroboMind field robot applications. FrobitPro has a fundamental design similar to many current wheeled and tracked robots such as the Kongskilde Robotti, and the workflow of migrating from simulation...... to FrobitPro to field robot is therefore merely a matter of using different low level interface components. The FrobitPro robot is capable of carrying larger sensors such as RTK- GNSS, LIDAR and 3d stereo vision cameras. The platform supports interchangeable wheels for accurate indoor driving as well...

  5. DNA Barcoding Coupled with High Resolution Melting Analysis Enables Rapid and Accurate Distinction of Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Gabor; Kocsube, Sandor; Leiter, Eva; Biro, Sandor; Paholcsek, Melinda

    2017-08-01

    We describe a high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis method that is rapid, reproducible, and able to identify reference strains and further 40 clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus (14), A. lentulus (3), A. terreus (7), A. flavus (8), A. niger (2), A. welwitschiae (4), and A. tubingensis (2). Asp1 and Asp2 primer sets were designed to amplify partial sequences of the Aspergillus benA (beta-tubulin) genes in a closed-, single-tube system. Human placenta DNA, further Aspergillus (3), Candida (9), Fusarium (6), and Scedosporium (2) nucleic acids from type strains and clinical isolates were also included in this study to evaluate cross reactivity with other relevant pathogens causing invasive fungal infections. The barcoding capacity of this method proved to be 100% providing distinctive binomial scores; 14, 34, 36, 35, 25, 15, 26 when tested among species, while the within-species distinction capacity of the assay proved to be 0% based on the aligned thermodynamic profiles of the Asp1, Asp2 melting clusters allowing accurate species delimitation of all tested clinical isolates. The identification limit of this HRM assay was also estimated on Aspergillus reference gDNA panels where it proved to be 10-102 genomic equivalents (GE) except the A. fumigatus panel where it was 103 only. Furthermore, misidentification was not detected with human genomic DNA or with Candida, Fusarium, and Scedosporium strains. Our DNA barcoding assay introduced here provides results within a few hours, and it may possess further diagnostic utility when analyzing standard cultures supporting adequate therapeutic decisions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Development a rapid and accurate multiplex real time PCR method for the detection Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarkar, Roya; Mehrabadi, Jalil Fallah; Noormohammadi, Zahra; Mirnejad, Reza

    2017-11-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases easily spread among sexually active people and often have no symptoms. Rapid and accurate method for detecting these infections are necessary in early stages. The traditional detection methods of them are difficult and time-consuming. In this study, multiplex real time PCR was optimized for rapid identification of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis in a single tube and was performed with our designed primers. The sensitivity test was carried out to designed primers with diluted genomic DNA. To defined the specificity, non STD bacteria were used as DNA template. This study indicated that the developed multiplex real time PCR can be an effective alternative procedure to the conventional methods for rapid and accurate identification of C Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis. Multiplex real-time PCR Results of them were checked with melting curves. The sensitivity of our designed primer by multiplex real time PCR for Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis were 4.78×1010 and 8.35×1010 , respectively, Which the primers did not amplify any product from a non-STD species. Multiplex real time PCR by our new primers and analysis of melting curves were successfully usable for rapid and accurate detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis. This assay instead of traditional culture method, has considerable potential to be rapid, accurate and highly sensitive molecular diagnostic tool for simultaneous and direct detection. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Rapid, accurate, and comparative differentiation of clinically and industrially relevant microorganisms via multiple vibrational spectroscopic fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamadali, Howbeer; Subaihi, Abdu; Mohammadtaheri, Mahsa; Xu, Yun; Ellis, David I; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Bansal, Vipul; Goodacre, Royston

    2016-08-15

    Despite the fact that various microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, fungi, viruses, etc.) have been linked with infectious diseases, their crucial role towards sustaining life on Earth is undeniable. The huge biodiversity, combined with the wide range of biochemical capabilities of these organisms, have always been the driving force behind their large number of current, and, as of yet, undiscovered future applications. The presence of such diversity could be said to expedite the need for the development of rapid, accurate and sensitive techniques which allow for the detection, differentiation, identification and classification of such organisms. In this study, we employed Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Raman, and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopies, as molecular whole-organism fingerprinting techniques, combined with multivariate statistical analysis approaches for the classification of a range of industrial, environmental or clinically relevant bacteria (P. aeruginosa, P. putida, E. coli, E. faecium, S. lividans, B. subtilis, B. cereus) and yeast (S. cerevisiae). Principal components-discriminant function analysis (PC-DFA) scores plots of the spectral data collected from all three techniques allowed for the clear differentiation of all the samples down to sub-species level. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models generated using the SERS spectral data displayed lower accuracy (74.9%) when compared to those obtained from conventional Raman (97.8%) and FT-IR (96.2%) analyses. In addition, whilst background fluorescence was detected in Raman spectra for S. cerevisiae, this fluorescence was quenched when applying SERS to the same species, and conversely SERS appeared to introduce strong fluorescence when analysing P. putida. It is also worth noting that FT-IR analysis provided spectral data of high quality and reproducibility for the whole sample set, suggesting its applicability to a wider range of samples, and perhaps the

  8. Flow-Based Systems for Rapid and High-Precision Enzyme Kinetics Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Kradtap Hartwell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzyme kinetics studies normally focus on the initial rate of enzymatic reaction. However, the manual operation of steps of the conventional enzyme kinetics method has some drawbacks. Errors can result from the imprecise time control and time necessary for manual changing the reaction cuvettes into and out of the detector. By using the automatic flow-based analytical systems, enzyme kinetics studies can be carried out at real-time initial rate avoiding the potential errors inherent in manual operation. Flow-based systems have been developed to provide rapid, low-volume, and high-precision analyses that effectively replace the many tedious and high volume requirements of conventional wet chemistry analyses. This article presents various arrangements of flow-based techniques and their potential use in future enzyme kinetics applications.

  9. Precision Metagenomics: Rapid Metagenomic Analyses for Infectious Disease Diagnostics and Public Health Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Chou, Chou; Alexander, Noah; Ahsanuddin, Sofia; Schuetz, Audrey N; Mason, Christopher E

    2017-04-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have ushered in the era of precision medicine, transforming the way we treat cancer patients and diagnose disease. Concomitantly, the advent of these technologies has created a surge of microbiome and metagenomic studies over the last decade, many of which are focused on investigating the host-gene-microbial interactions responsible for the development and spread of infectious diseases, as well as delineating their key role in maintaining health. As we continue to discover more information about the etiology of infectious diseases, the translational potential of metagenomic NGS methods for treatment and rapid diagnosis is becoming abundantly clear. Here, we present a robust protocol for the implementation and application of "precision metagenomics" across various sequencing platforms for clinical samples. Such a pipeline integrates DNA/RNA extraction, library preparation, sequencing, and bioinformatics analyses for taxonomic classification, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) marker screening, and functional analysis (biochemical and metabolic pathway abundance). Moreover, the pipeline has 3 tracks: STAT for results within 24 h; Comprehensive that affords a more in-depth analysis and takes between 5 and 7 d, but offers antimicrobial resistance information; and Targeted, which also requires 5-7 d, but with more sensitive analysis for specific pathogens. Finally, we discuss the challenges that need to be addressed before full integration in the clinical setting.

  10. Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS) Provides Accurate Direct from Culture Species Identification within the Genus Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Simon J S; Bolt, Frances; Perdones-Montero, Alvaro; Rickards, Tony; Hardiman, Kate; Abdolrasouli, Alireza; Burke, Adam; Bodai, Zsolt; Karancsi, Tamas; Simon, Daniel; Schaffer, Richard; Rebec, Monica; Balog, Julia; Takáts, Zoltan

    2016-11-14

    Members of the genus Candida, such as C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, are important human pathogens. Other members of this genus, previously believed to carry minimal disease risk, are increasingly recognised as important human pathogens, particularly because of variations in susceptibilities to widely used anti-fungal agents. Thus, rapid and accurate identification of clinical Candida isolates is fundamental in ensuring timely and effective treatments are delivered. Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS) has previously been shown to provide a high-throughput platform for the rapid and accurate identification of bacterial and fungal isolates. In comparison to commercially available matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF), REIMS based methods require no preparative steps nor time-consuming cell extractions. Here, we report on the ability of REIMS-based analysis to rapidly and accurately identify 153 clinical Candida isolates to species level. Both handheld bipolar REIMS and high-throughput REIMS platforms showed high levels of species classification accuracy, with 96% and 100% of isolates classified correctly to species level respectively. In addition, significantly different (FDR corrected P value < 0.05) lipids within the 600 to 1000 m/z mass range were identified, which could act as species-specific biomarkers in complex microbial communities.

  11. Can crop-climate models be accurate and precise? A case study for wheat production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montesino San Martin, Manuel; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Porter, John Roy

    2015-01-01

    Crop models, used to make projections of climate change impacts, differ greatly in structural detail. Complexity of model structure has generic effects on uncertainty and error propagation in climate change impact assessments. We applied Bayesian calibration to three distinctly different empirical...... and mechanistic wheat models to assess how differences in the extent of process understanding in models affects uncertainties in projected impact. Predictive power of the models was tested via both accuracy (bias) and precision (or tightness of grouping) of yield projections for extrapolated weather conditions...... accuracy comes at the cost of precision of the mechanistic model to embrace all observations within given boundaries. The approaches showed complementarity in sensitivity to weather variables and in accuracy for different extrapolation domains. Their differences in model precision and accuracy make them...

  12. Obtaining accurate and precise environmental reconstructions from the modern analog technique and North American surface pollen dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. W.; Shuman, B.

    2008-04-01

    Using a recently compiled surface-sample pollen dataset for North America, we test methods to improve the skillfulness (i.e. accuracy and precision) of the modern analog technique (MAT) for continental- to sub-continental-scale paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Interregional floristic differences challenge such reconstructions, because with widening spatial extent each pollen type represents an increasing number of species, each with its unique niche, thus blurring pollen-climate relationships. We conduct a series of cross-validation experiments in which we first explore (1) whether increasing the spatial extent of the pool of potential analogs improves or worsens MAT skill, (2) whether MAT skill is improved by increasing the number of pollen taxa and splitting pollen taxa into regional groups, and (3) the differences in MAT skill among environmental variables. Regional splits are guided by the range boundaries of parent species. Results are analyzed for multiple environmental variables. We then systematically explore options for (a) the value of the no-analog/analog threshold (T), (b) the maximum number of modern analogs (N) allowed for a target fossil sample, and (c) whether the environmental average constructed from the modern analogs should be weighted by their compositional dissimilarity (D) to the target sample. We demonstrate that substantial interregional differences in pollen-climate relationships, particularly between eastern and western North America, degrade MAT precision and accuracy, but these adverse effects can be overcome by expanding the list of taxa used and/or splitting pollen types into regional groups. MAT precision was best when pollen types were regionally split and better when more taxa were used, although increasing the taxon list from 64 to 135 types did not substantially increase performance. Temperature-related variables were reconstructed more precisely than hydrological variables, and there was little difference in MAT skill between

  13. Collision-induced fragmentation accurate mass spectrometric analysis methods to rapidly characterize plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid advances in analytical chromatography equipment have made the reliable and reproducible measurement of a wide range of plant chemical components possible. Full chemical characterization of a given plant material is possible with the new mass spectrometers currently available. For phytochem...

  14. Collision-induced fragmentation accurate mass spectrometric analysis methods to rapidly characterize phytochemicals in plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid advances in analytical chromatography equipment have made the reliable and reproducible measurement of a wide range of plant chemical components possible. Full chemical characterization of a given plant material is possible with the new mass spectrometers currently available. New methods a...

  15. Apparatus for use in rapid and accurate controlled-potential coulometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzini, Thomas L.; Holland, Michael K.; Pietri, Charles E.; Weiss, Jon R.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus for controlled-potential coulometric analysis of a solution includes a cell to contain the solution to be analyzed and a plurality of electrodes to contact the solution in the cell. Means are provided to stir the solution and to control the atmosphere above it. A potentiostat connected to the electrodes controls potential differences among the electrodes. An electronic circuit connected to the potentiostat provides analog-to-digital conversion and displays a precise count of charge transfer during a desired chemical process. This count provides a measure of the amount of an unknown substance in the solution.

  16. Improved method for rapid and accurate isolation and identification of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus from human plaque samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villhauer, Alissa L; Lynch, David J; Drake, David R

    2017-08-01

    Mutans streptococci (MS), specifically Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Streptococcus sobrinus (SS), are bacterial species frequently targeted for investigation due to their role in the etiology of dental caries. Differentiation of S. mutans and S. sobrinus is an essential part of exploring the role of these organisms in disease progression and the impact of the presence of either/both on a subject's caries experience. Of vital importance to the study of these organisms is an identification protocol that allows us to distinguish between the two species in an easy, accurate, and timely manner. While conducting a 5-year birth cohort study in a Northern Plains American Indian tribe, the need for a more rapid procedure for isolating and identifying high volumes of MS was recognized. We report here on the development of an accurate and rapid method for MS identification. Accuracy, ease of use, and material and time requirements for morphological differentiation on selective agar, biochemical tests, and various combinations of PCR primers were compared. The final protocol included preliminary identification based on colony morphology followed by PCR confirmation of species identification using primers targeting regions of the glucosyltransferase (gtf) genes of SM and SS. This method of isolation and identification was found to be highly accurate, more rapid than the previous methodology used, and easily learned. It resulted in more efficient use of both time and material resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. StatSTEM: An efficient program for accurate and precise model-based quantification of atomic resolution electron microscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, A.; van den Bos, K. H. W.; Van den Broek, W.; Sijbers, J.; Van Aert, S.

    2017-09-01

    An efficient model-based estimation algorithm is introduced in order to quantify the atomic column positions and intensities from atomic resolution (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) images. This algorithm uses the least squares estimator on image segments containing individual columns fully accounting for the overlap between neighbouring columns, enabling the analysis of a large field of view. For this algorithm, the accuracy and precision with which measurements for the atomic column positions and scattering cross-sections from annular dark field (ADF) STEM images can be estimated, is investigated. The highest attainable precision is reached even for low dose images. Furthermore, advantages of the model-based approach taking into account overlap between neighbouring columns are highlighted. To provide end-users this well-established quantification method, a user friendly program, StatSTEM, is developed which is freely available under a GNU public license.

  18. Rapid and accurate determination of the lignin content of lignocellulosic biomass by solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li; McCallum, Scott A; Miao, Jianjun; Hart, Courtney; Tudryn, Gregory J; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    Biofuels and biomaterials, produced from lignocellulosic feedstock, require facile access to cellulose and hemicellulose to be competitive with petroleum processing and sugar-based fermentation. Physical-chemical barriers resulting from lignin complicates the hydrolysis biomass into fermentable sugars. Thus, the amount of lignin within a substrate is critical in determining biomass processing. The application of 13 C cross-polarization, magic-angle spinning, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance for the direct quantification of lignin content in biomass is examined. Using a standard curve constructed from pristine lignin and cellulose, the lignin content of a biomass sample is accurately determined through direct measurement without chemical or enzymatic pre-treatment.

  19. StatSTEM: An efficient approach for accurate and precise model-based quantification of atomic resolution electron microscopy images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Backer, A.; Bos, K.H.W. van den [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Van den Broek, W. [AG Strukturforschung/Elektronenmikroskopie, Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Sijbers, J. [iMinds-Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Van Aert, S., E-mail: sandra.vanaert@uantwerpen.be [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2016-12-15

    An efficient model-based estimation algorithm is introduced to quantify the atomic column positions and intensities from atomic resolution (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) images. This algorithm uses the least squares estimator on image segments containing individual columns fully accounting for overlap between neighbouring columns, enabling the analysis of a large field of view. For this algorithm, the accuracy and precision with which measurements for the atomic column positions and scattering cross-sections from annular dark field (ADF) STEM images can be estimated, has been investigated. The highest attainable precision is reached even for low dose images. Furthermore, the advantages of the model-based approach taking into account overlap between neighbouring columns are highlighted. This is done for the estimation of the distance between two neighbouring columns as a function of their distance and for the estimation of the scattering cross-section which is compared to the integrated intensity from a Voronoi cell. To provide end-users this well-established quantification method, a user friendly program, StatSTEM, is developed which is freely available under a GNU public license. - Highlights: • An efficient model-based method for quantitative electron microscopy is introduced. • Images are modelled as a superposition of 2D Gaussian peaks. • Overlap between neighbouring columns is taken into account. • Structure parameters can be obtained with the highest precision and accuracy. • StatSTEM, auser friendly program (GNU public license) is developed.

  20. Rapid and accurate prediction and scoring of water molecules in protein binding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A Ross

    Full Text Available Water plays a critical role in ligand-protein interactions. However, it is still challenging to predict accurately not only where water molecules prefer to bind, but also which of those water molecules might be displaceable. The latter is often seen as a route to optimizing affinity of potential drug candidates. Using a protocol we call WaterDock, we show that the freely available AutoDock Vina tool can be used to predict accurately the binding sites of water molecules. WaterDock was validated using data from X-ray crystallography, neutron diffraction and molecular dynamics simulations and correctly predicted 97% of the water molecules in the test set. In addition, we combined data-mining, heuristic and machine learning techniques to develop probabilistic water molecule classifiers. When applied to WaterDock predictions in the Astex Diverse Set of protein ligand complexes, we could identify whether a water molecule was conserved or displaced to an accuracy of 75%. A second model predicted whether water molecules were displaced by polar groups or by non-polar groups to an accuracy of 80%. These results should prove useful for anyone wishing to undertake rational design of new compounds where the displacement of water molecules is being considered as a route to improved affinity.

  1. Rapid yet accurate measurement of mass diffusion coefficients by phase shifting interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Zhi Xiong; Komiya, A

    1999-01-01

    The technique of using a phase-shifting interferometer is applied to the study of diffusion in transparent liquid mixtures. A quick method is proposed for determining the diffusion coefficient from the measurements of the location of fringes on a grey level picture. The measurement time is very short (within 100 s) and a very small transient diffusion field can be observed and recorded accurately with a rate of 30 frames per second. The measurement can be completed using less than 0.12 cc of solutions. The influence of gravity on the measurement of the diffusion coefficient is eliminated in the present method. Results on NaCl-water diffusion systems are presented and compared with the reference data. (author)

  2. Accurate and rapid optical characterization of an anisotropic guided structure based on a neural method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Stéphane; Battie, Yann; Jamon, Damien; Royer, Francois

    2007-04-10

    Optimal performances of integrated optical devices are obtained by the use of an accurate and reliable characterization method. The parameters of interest, i.e., optical indices and thickness of the waveguide structure, are calculated from effective indices by means of an inversion procedure. We demonstrate how an artificial neural network can achieve such a process. The artificial neural network used is a multilayer perceptron. The first result concerns a simulated anisotropic waveguide. The accuracy in the determination of optical indices and waveguide thickness is 5 x 10(-5) and 4 nm, respectively. Then an experimental application on a silica-titania thin film is performed. In addition, effective indices are measured by m-lines spectroscopy. Finally, a comparison with a classical optimization algorithm demonstrates the robustness of the neural method.

  3. Rapid yet accurate first principle based predictions of alkali halide crystal phases using alchemical perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyeva, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    We assess the predictive power of alchemical perturbations for estimating fundamental properties in ionic crystals. Using density functional theory we have calculated formation energies, lattice constants, and bulk moduli for all sixteen iso-valence-electronic combinations of pure pristine alkali halides involving elements $A \\in \\{$Na, K, Rb, Cs$\\}$ and $X \\in \\{$F, Cl, Br, I$\\}$. For rock salt, zincblende and cesium chloride symmetry, alchemical Hellmann-Feynman derivatives, evaluated along lattice scans of sixteen reference crystals, have been obtained for all respective 16$\\times$15 combinations of reference and predicted target crystals. Mean absolute errors (MAE) are on par with density functional theory level of accuracy for energies and bulk modulus. Predicted lattice constants are less accurate. NaCl is the best reference salt for alchemical estimates of relative energies (MAE $<$ 40 meV/atom) while alkali fluorides are the worst. By contrast, lattice constants are predicted best using NaF as a re...

  4. A rapid, highly accurate method for quantifying CALR mutant allele burden in persons with myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiu-Mei; Zhou, Jiao; Gale, Robert Peter; Li, Jin-Lan; Li, Ling-Di; Li, Ning; Chen, Shan-Shan; Ruan, Guo-Rui

    2015-10-01

    Calreticulin (CALR) mutations were recently identified in a substantial proportion of persons with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and with primary myelofibrosis (PMF) without JAK2(V617F). Consequently rapid, sensitive, and specific methods to detect and quantify these mutations are needed. We studied samples from 1088 persons with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including 421 JAK2(V617F) negative subjects with ET, PMF, polycythemia vera (PV), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and hyper-eosinophilic syndrome (HES). Detection of CALR exon 9 mutations was done by PCR amplification followed by fragment length analysis and direct sequencing. Dilution assays were used to determine CALR mutant allele burden. We detected CALR mutations in blood and bone marrow samples from 152 subjects with ET and with PMF but not in samples from normal or persons with PV, CML, or HES. CALR mutant peaks were distinct from wild-type peaks and dilution experiments indicated a sensitivity level of 0.5-5% for a CALR mutant allele in a wild-type background. Diverse types of mutations were detected including deletions, insertions, and complex indels. All mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing. We also used dilution experiments to quantify mutant allele burden. We were able to reproducibly detect mutant allele levels as low 5% (0.5-5%) in a wild-type background. PCR amplification followed by fragment length analysis is a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for screening persons with MPNs for CALR mutations, especially those with ET and PMF and for estimating mutant allele burden.

  5. Bacterial Cytological Profiling (BCP as a Rapid and Accurate Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method for Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Quach

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful treatment of bacterial infections requires the timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. The failure to initiate the correct therapy in a timely fashion results in poor clinical outcomes, longer hospital stays, and higher medical costs. Current approaches to antibiotic susceptibility testing of cultured pathogens have key limitations ranging from long run times to dependence on prior knowledge of genetic mechanisms of resistance. We have developed a rapid antimicrobial susceptibility assay for Staphylococcus aureus based on bacterial cytological profiling (BCP, which uses quantitative fluorescence microscopy to measure antibiotic induced changes in cellular architecture. BCP discriminated between methicillin-susceptible (MSSA and -resistant (MRSA clinical isolates of S. aureus (n = 71 within 1–2 h with 100% accuracy. Similarly, BCP correctly distinguished daptomycin susceptible (DS from daptomycin non-susceptible (DNS S. aureus strains (n = 20 within 30 min. Among MRSA isolates, BCP further identified two classes of strains that differ in their susceptibility to specific combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics. BCP provides a rapid and flexible alternative to gene-based susceptibility testing methods for S. aureus, and should be readily adaptable to different antibiotics and bacterial species as new mechanisms of resistance or multidrug-resistant pathogens evolve and appear in mainstream clinical practice.

  6. Use of flow cytometry for rapid and accurate enumeration of live pathogenic Leptospira strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Célia; Crussard, Steve; Simon-Dufay, Nathalie; Pialot, Daniel; Bomchil, Natalia; Reyes, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Enumeration of Leptospira, the causative agent of leptospirosis, is arduous mainly because of its slow growth rate. Rapid and reliable tools for numbering leptospires are still lacking. The current standard for Leptospira cultures is the count on Petroff-Hausser chamber under dark-field microscopy, but this method remains time-consuming, requires well-trained operators and lacks reproducibility. Here we present the development of a flow-cytometry technique for counting leptospires. We showed that upon addition of fluorescent dyes, necessary to discriminate the bacterial population from debris, several live Leptospira strains could be enumerated at different physiologic states. Flow cytometry titers were highly correlated to counts with Petroff-Hausser chambers (R(2)>0.99). Advantages of flow cytometry lie in its rapidity, its reproducibility significantly higher than Petroff-Hausser method and its wide linearity range, from 10(4) to 10(8)leptospires/ml. Therefore, flow cytometry is a fast, reproducible and sensitive tool representing a promising technology to replace current enumeration techniques of Leptospira in culture. We were also able to enumerate Leptospira in artificially infected urine and blood with a sensitivity limit of 10(5)leptospires/ml and 10(6)leptospires/ml, respectively, demonstrating the feasibility to use flow cytometry as first-line tool for diagnosis or bacterial dissemination studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Accurate and precise 40Ar/39Ar dating by high-resolution, multi-collection, mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storey, Michael; Rivera, Tiffany; Flude, Stephanie

    New generation, high resolution, multi-collector noble gas mass spectrometers equipped with ion-counting electron multipliers provide opportunities for improved accuracy and precision in 40Ar/39Ar dating. Here we report analytical protocols and age cross-calibration studies using a NU-Instruments......New generation, high resolution, multi-collector noble gas mass spectrometers equipped with ion-counting electron multipliers provide opportunities for improved accuracy and precision in 40Ar/39Ar dating. Here we report analytical protocols and age cross-calibration studies using a NU......-Instruments multi-collector Noblesse noble gas mass spectrometer configured with a faraday detector and three ion-counting electron multipliers. The instrument has the capability to measure several noble gas isotopes simultaneously and to change measurement configurations instantaneously by the use of QUAD lenses...... (zoom optics). The Noblesse offer several advantages over previous generation noble gas mass spectrometers and is particularly suited for single crystal 40Ar/39Ar dating because of: (i) improved source sensitivity (ii) ion-counting electron multipliers, which have much lower signal to noise ratios than...

  8. Precise and accurate δ13C analysis of rock samples using Flash Combustion–Cavity Ring Down Laser Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev-Clausen, David Morten; Dahl, Tais W.; Saad, Nabil

    2013-01-01

    reference compounds to be using conventional mass spectrometry. We report data from a Cambrian succession of organic-rich shales straddling a positive d13Corg excursion of 2‰. We conclude that, optical determination of bulk organic d13C provides a high......The ratio of 13C to 12C in marine sedimentary rocks holds important clues to the evolution of the carbon cycle through Earth history. Isotopic analyses are traditionally carried out using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), but this technique is both labor-intensive, expensive and requires...... expert know-how. Here, we measure 13C/12C in natural sedimentary samples using Combustion Module - Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CM-CRDS) with average precision and standard reproducibility of 0.05‰ and 0.2‰ (1 s.d., n = 17), respectively. The accuracy of the technique was determined from certified...

  9. Molecular Detection of Foodborne Pathogens: A Rapid and Accurate Answer to Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangal, Manisha; Bansal, Sangita; Sharma, Satish K; Gupta, Ram K

    2016-07-03

    Food safety is a global health concern. For the prevention and recognition of problems related to health and safety, detection of foodborne pathogen is of utmost importance at all levels of food production chain. For several decades, a lot of research has been targeted at the development of rapid methodology as reducing the time needed to complete pathogen detection tests has been the primary goal of food microbiologists. With the result, food microbiology laboratories now have a wide array of detection methods and automated technologies such as enzyme immunoassay, polymerase chain reaction, and microarrays, which can cut test times considerably. Nucleic acid amplification strategies and advances in amplicon detection methodologies have been the key factors in the progress of molecular microbiology. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried out to give an overview in the field of foodborne pathogen detection. In this paper, we describe the conventional methods, as well as recent developments in food pathogen detection, identification, and quantification, with a major emphasis on molecular detection methods.

  10. Rapid and Accurate MRI Segmentation of Peritumoral Brain Edema in Meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latini, F; Larsson, E-M; Ryttlefors, M

    2017-06-01

    The extent of peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) in meningiomas commonly affects the clinical outcome. Despite its importance, edema volume is usually highly inaccurately approximated to a spheroid shape. We tested the accuracy and the reproducibility of semiautomatic lesion management software for the analysis of PTBE in a homogeneous case series of surgically confirmed intracranial meningiomas. PTBE volume was calculated on magnetic resonance images in 50 patients with intracranial meningiomas using commercial lesion management software (Vue PACS Livewire, Carestream, Rochester, NY, USA). Inter and intraobserver agreement evaluation and a comparison between manual volume calculation, the semiautomatic software and spheroid approximation were performed in 22 randomly selected patients. The calculation of edema volume was possible in all cases irrespective of the extent of the signal changes. The median time for each calculation was 3 min. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement confirmed the reproducibility of the method. Comparison with standard (fully manual) calculation confirmed the accuracy of this software. Our study showed a high level of reproducibility of this semiautomatic computational method for peritumoral brain edema. It is rapid and easy to use after relatively short training and is suitable for implementation in clinical practice.

  11. OrthoReD: a rapid and accurate orthology prediction tool with low computational requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battenberg, Kai; Lee, Ernest K; Chiu, Joanna C; Berry, Alison M; Potter, Daniel

    2017-06-21

    Identifying orthologous genes is an initial step required for phylogenetics, and it is also a common strategy employed in functional genetics to find candidates for functionally equivalent genes across multiple species. At the same time, in silico orthology prediction tools often require large computational resources only available on computing clusters. Here we present OrthoReD, an open-source orthology prediction tool with accuracy comparable to published tools that requires only a desktop computer. The low computational resource requirement of OrthoReD is achieved by repeating orthology searches on one gene of interest at a time, thereby generating a reduced dataset to limit the scope of orthology search for each gene of interest. The output of OrthoReD was highly similar to the outputs of two other published orthology prediction tools, OrthologID and/or OrthoDB, for the three dataset tested, which represented three phyla with different ranges of species diversity and different number of genomes included. Median CPU time for ortholog prediction per gene by OrthoReD executed on a desktop computer was <15 min even for the largest dataset tested, which included all coding sequences of 100 bacterial species. With high-throughput sequencing, unprecedented numbers of genes from non-model organisms are available with increasing need for clear information about their orthologies and/or functional equivalents in model organisms. OrthoReD is not only fast and accurate as an orthology prediction tool, but also gives researchers flexibility in the number of genes analyzed at a time, without requiring a high-performance computing cluster.

  12. Rapid and accurate identification of Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, D W; Griffin, R; Taylor, R; George, S

    2016-11-01

    Citrus canker is an economically important disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc). This organism targets a wide range of citrus plants, including sweet orange, grapefruit, lemon and lime. As Xcc is spread by environmental factors such as wind and rain, it is difficult to control its movement once the disease has established. In order to facilitate monitoring of citrus canker we sought to design a novel diagnostic protocol based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for identification of bacterial cells directly from canker pustules without cultivation or DNA extraction. This method was validated for specificity against a range of Xanthomonas species and strains. We show that our assay is extremely rapid (typically requiring between 2 and 3 h), and possesses a similar specificity to existing PCR diagnostic tools. The sensitivity of the assay is comparable to that of an existing PCR-based technique and sufficient for identifying Xcc in symptomatic plant material. The method is easily transferable to diagnosticians without prior experience using FISH. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is an aggressive and hardy pathogen of citrus plants worldwide. Outbreaks are difficult and costly to contain and the establishment of citrus canker results in restricted trade. In order to extend the existing toolkit for identification of Xcc we developed a novel diagnostic approach based on fluorescence in situ hybridization. Our approach is of comparable specificity and sensitivity to existing methods but can be performed directly on infected tissue making it significantly faster than existing PCRs, and requiring fewer laboratory resources. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Is a standalone inertial measurement unit accurate and precise enough for quantification of movement symmetry in the horse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighton, Charlotte; Olsen, Emil; Pfau, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    Standalone 'low-cost' inertial measurement units (IMUs) could facilitate large-scale studies into establishing minimal important differences (MID) for orthopaedic deficits (lameness) in horses. We investigated accuracy and limits of agreement (LoA) after correction of magnitude-dependent differences of a standalone 6 degree-of-freedom IMU compared with an established IMU-based gait analysis system (MTx) in six horses for two anatomical landmarks (sacrum and sternum). Established symmetry measures were calculated from vertical displacement: symmetry index (SI), difference between minima (MinDiff) and difference between maxima (MaxDiff). For the sacrum, LoA were ± 0.095 for SI, ± 6.6 mm for MinDiff and ± 4.3 mm for MaxDiff. For the sternum, LoA values were ± 0.088 for SI, ± 5.0 mm for MinDiff and ± 4.2 mm for MaxDiff. Compared with reference data from mildly lame horses, SI values indicate sufficient precision, whereas MinDiff and MaxDiff values are less favourable. Future studies should investigate specific calibration and processing algorithms further improving standalone IMU performance.

  14. Freehand Liver Volumetry by Using an Electromagnetic Pen Tablet: Accuracy, Precision, and Rapidity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perandini, Simone; Faccioli, Niccolò; Inama, Marco; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    ... with the volumes calculated by using the standard optical mouse contourtracing method. The imaging data used as input for accuracy and precision testing were computed by software developed in our institution...

  15. Photogrammetry-Based Head Digitization for Rapid and Accurate Localization of EEG Electrodes and MEG Fiducial Markers Using a Single Digital SLR Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausner, Tommy; Dalal, Sarang S; Crespo-García, Maité

    2017-01-01

    The performance of EEG source reconstruction has benefited from the increasing use of advanced head modeling techniques that take advantage of MRI together with the precise positions of the recording electrodes. The prevailing technique for registering EEG electrode coordinates involves electromagnetic digitization. However, the procedure adds several minutes to experiment preparation and typical digitizers may not be accurate enough for optimal source reconstruction performance (Dalal et al., 2014). Here, we present a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective alternative method to register EEG electrode positions, using a single digital SLR camera, photogrammetry software, and computer vision techniques implemented in our open-source toolbox, janus3D. Our approach uses photogrammetry to construct 3D models from multiple photographs of the participant's head wearing the EEG electrode cap. Electrodes are detected automatically or semi-automatically using a template. The rigid facial features from these photo-based models are then surface-matched to MRI-based head reconstructions to facilitate coregistration to MRI space. This method yields a final electrode coregistration error of 0.8 mm, while a standard technique using an electromagnetic digitizer yielded an error of 6.1 mm. The technique furthermore reduces preparation time, and could be extended to a multi-camera array, which would make the procedure virtually instantaneous. In addition to EEG, the technique could likewise capture the position of the fiducial markers used in magnetoencephalography systems to register head position.

  16. Contributing to a precise and accurate chronostratigraphic time scale for climatic records: Absolute dating and paleomagnetism in lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasco, Romain; Guillou, Herve; Kissel, Catherine; Wandres, Camille; Carracedo, Juan-Carlos; Perez Torrado, Francisco Jose

    2014-05-01

    Understanding climatic mechanisms requires a robust and precise timescale allowing long-distance and multi-archives correlations. A unique tool to construct such time scales is provided by the Earth magnetic field (EMF), which is independent from climatic variations and the past evolution of which is recorded in most of the geological/climatic archives. Sedimentary sequences provide continuous records of relative intensities of the EMF on stratigraphic time scales, usually based on orbital tuning. They are transferred onto absolute intensity scale and chronological time scale using robust tie points available for the past ~40 ka. However, for older periods this calibration remains poorly constrained. Our study reports on new tie points over the last 200 ka by combining paleomagnetic and geochronological (K/Ar and 40Ar-39Ar dating) studies on lavas. Based on the K-Ar LSCE age database, a set of 18 lava flows corresponding to potential geomagnetic excursions and/or highs and lows in the paleomagnetic intensity as observed from sediments and occurring in the studied time-window were selected in the Canary Islands (Tenerife, La Palma and Gran Canaria). A total of 205 oriented cores were taken from these 18 lava flows. Rock magnetic experiments include thermomagnetic analyses on each core, hysteresis loop and First Order Reversal Curves. Stepwise thermal demagnetizations in zero-field provided reliable mean-site paleomagnetic direction of the EMF for 15 of the flows. Paleointensity values were determined using the original Thellier and Thellier method. Based on previous experiments, 170 samples were analyzed, among which 51% provided reliable paleointensity values (determined using PICRIT-03 criteria). The geochronological study focused on 40Ar-39Ar dating. Based on preliminary paleomagnetic results, 13 flows were analyzed and 11 provided ages consistent at the 2 sigma level with the already available K-Ar ages. This coupled K/Ar - 40Ar-39Ar results strongly constrain

  17. Precise and accurate measurement of U and Th isotopes via ICP-MS using a single solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz-Kraus, R.; Sharp, W. D.; Ludwig, K. R.

    2012-04-01

    , allowing the sample's 238U/235U ratio to be measured. In step 3, we monitor peak-tails at half-mass positions (229.5, 231.5, 234.5) and on mass 237 while aspirating sample solution. Tail measurement requires a distinct cup configuration to maintain 238U in the cups; however, no sample is consumed during automated cup reconfiguration. We monitor the accuracy of 234U/238U ratios using CRM 145, which gives a weighted mean atom ratio of (5.2846 ± 0.0029) - 10-5 (all errors 2σ), consistent with published and reference values. The reproducibility of 230Th/238U ratios is monitored using the Schwartzwalder Mine secular-equilibrium standard (SM). We detect no bias in 230Th/238U or 234U/238U ratios measured for SM at beam intensities ranging over a factor of four, consistent with accurate correction for IC yields. Aladdin's cave coral (AC-1) was analyzed to check our ICP-MS method (and the preceding purification by ion exchange) on a carbonate and yields a mean age of 125.43 ± 0.38 ka, in agreement with published values. We are currently applying the method to corals, speleothems, pedogenic coatings, and tufas.

  18. Atom interferometry experiments with lithium. Accurate measurement of the electric polarizability; Experiences d'interferometrie atomique avec le lithium. Mesure de precision de la polarisabilite electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miffre, A

    2005-06-15

    Atom interferometers are very sensitive tools to make precise measurements of physical quantities. This study presents a measurement of the static electric polarizability of lithium by atom interferometry. Our result, {alpha} = (24.33 {+-} 0.16)*10{sup -30} m{sup 3}, improves by a factor 3 the most accurate measurements of this quantity. This work describes the tuning and the operation of a Mach-Zehnder atom interferometer in detail. The two interfering arms are separated by the elastic diffraction of the atomic wave by a laser standing wave, almost resonant with the first resonance transition of lithium atom. A set of experimental techniques, often complicated to implement, is necessary to build the experimental set-up. After a detailed study of the atom source (a supersonic beam of lithium seeded in argon), we present our experimental atom signals which exhibit a very high fringe visibility, up to 84.5 % for first order diffraction. A wide variety of signals has been observed by diffraction of the bosonic isotope at higher diffraction orders and by diffraction of the fermionic less abundant isotope. The quality of these signals is then used to do very accurate phase measurements. A first experiment investigates how the atom interferometer signals are modified by a magnetic field gradient. An absolute measurement of lithium atom electric polarizability is then achieved by applying a static electric field on one of the two interfering arms, separated by only 90 micrometers. The construction of such a capacitor, its alignment in the experimental set-up and its operation are fully detailed.We obtain a very accurate phase measurement of the induced Lo Surdo - Stark phase shift (0.07 % precision). For this first measurement, the final uncertainty on the electric polarizability of lithium is only 0.66 %, and is dominated by the uncertainty on the atom beam mean velocity, so that a further reduction of the uncertainty can be expected. (author)

  19. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis for the Rapid and Accurate Characterization of Hexacosanoylceramide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Charles W; Simonsick, William J; Bogusky, Michael J; Celikay, Recep W; Guare, James P; Newton, Randall C

    2016-06-28

    Ceramides are a central unit of all sphingolipids which have been identified as sites of biological recognition on cellular membranes mediating cell growth and differentiation. Several glycosphingolipids have been isolated, displaying immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities. These molecules have generated considerable interest as potential vaccine adjuvants in humans. Accurate analyses of these and related sphingosine analogues are important for the characterization of structure, biological function, and metabolism. We report the complementary use of direct laser desorption ionization (DLDI), sheath flow electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) and high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis for the rapid, accurate identification of hexacosanoylceramide and starting materials. DLDI does not require stringent sample preparation and yields representative ions. Sheath-flow ESI yields ions of the product and byproducts and was significantly better than monospray ESI due to improved compound solubility. Negative ion sheath flow ESI provided data of starting materials and products all in one acquisition as hexacosanoic acid does not ionize efficiently when ceramides are present. NMR provided characterization of these lipid molecules complementing the results obtained from MS analyses. NMR data was able to differentiate straight chain versus branched chain alkyl groups not easily obtained from mass spectrometry.

  20. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis for the Rapid and Accurate Characterization of Hexacosanoylceramide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Ross

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceramides are a central unit of all sphingolipids which have been identified as sites of biological recognition on cellular membranes mediating cell growth and differentiation. Several glycosphingolipids have been isolated, displaying immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities. These molecules have generated considerable interest as potential vaccine adjuvants in humans. Accurate analyses of these and related sphingosine analogues are important for the characterization of structure, biological function, and metabolism. We report the complementary use of direct laser desorption ionization (DLDI, sheath flow electrospray ionization (ESI Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS and high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis for the rapid, accurate identification of hexacosanoylceramide and starting materials. DLDI does not require stringent sample preparation and yields representative ions. Sheath-flow ESI yields ions of the product and byproducts and was significantly better than monospray ESI due to improved compound solubility. Negative ion sheath flow ESI provided data of starting materials and products all in one acquisition as hexacosanoic acid does not ionize efficiently when ceramides are present. NMR provided characterization of these lipid molecules complementing the results obtained from MS analyses. NMR data was able to differentiate straight chain versus branched chain alkyl groups not easily obtained from mass spectrometry.

  1. Development of improved enzyme-based and lateral flow immunoassays for rapid and accurate serodiagnosis of canine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, María E; Novak, Analía; Melli, Luciano J; Elena, Sebastián; Corbera, Natalia; Romero, Juan E; Nicola, Ana M; Ugalde, Juan E; Comerci, Diego J; Ciocchini, Andrés E

    2017-09-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Brucella canis is the etiological agent of canine brucellosis, a disease that can lead to sterility in bitches and dogs causing important economic losses in breeding kennels. Early and accurate diagnosis of canine brucellosis is central to control the disease and lower the risk of transmission to humans. Here, we develop and validate enzyme and lateral flow immunoassays for improved serodiagnosis of canine brucellosis using as antigen the B. canis rough lipopolysaccharide (rLPS). The method used to obtain the rLPS allowed us to produce more homogeneous batches of the antigen that facilitated the standardization of the assays. To validate the assays, 284 serum samples obtained from naturally infected dogs and healthy animals were analyzed. For the B. canis-iELISA and B. canis-LFIA the diagnostic sensitivity was of 98.6%, and the specificity 99.5% and 100%, respectively. We propose the implementation of the B. canis-LFIA as a screening test in combination with the highly accurate laboratory g-iELISA. The B. canis-LFIA is a rapid, accurate and easy to use test, characteristics that make it ideal for the serological surveillance of canine brucellosis in the field or veterinary laboratories. Finally, a blind study including 1040 serum samples obtained from urban dogs showed a prevalence higher than 5% highlighting the need of new diagnostic tools for a more effective control of the disease in dogs and therefore to reduce the risk of transmission of this zoonotic pathogen to humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of a pan-serotype point-of-care rapid diagnostic assay for accurate detection of acute dengue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Rosario; Ahamed, Syed Fazil; Kotabagi, Shalini; Chandele, Anmol; Khanna, Ira; Khanna, Navin; Nayak, Kaustuv; Dias, Mary; Kaja, Murali-Krishna; Shet, Anita

    2017-03-01

    The catastrophic rise in dengue infections in India and globally has created a need for an accurate, validated low-cost rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for dengue. We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic performance of NS1/IgM RDT (dengue day 1) using 211 samples from a pediatric dengue cohort representing all 4 serotypes in southern India. The dengue-positive panel consisted of 179 dengue real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive samples from symptomatic children. The dengue-negative panel consisted of 32 samples from dengue-negative febrile children and asymptomatic individuals that were negative for dengue RT-PCR/NS1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay/IgM/IgG. NS1/IgM RDT sensitivity was 89.4% and specificity was 93.8%. The NS1/IgM RDT showed high sensitivity throughout the acute phase of illness, in primary and secondary infections, in different severity groups, and detected all 4 dengue serotypes, including coinfections. This NS1/IgM RDT is a useful point-of-care assay for rapid and reliable diagnosis of acute dengue and an excellent surveillance tool in our battle against dengue. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Evaluation of a novel immunochromatographic device for rapid and accurate clinical detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis in subgingival plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, K; Takayama, S; Saito, A; Inoue, E; Nakayama, Y; Ogata, Y; Shirakawa, S; Nagano, T; Gomi, K; Morozumi, T; Akiishi, K; Watanabe, K; Yoshie, H

    2015-10-01

    An important goal for the improved diagnosis and management of infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as periodontitis, is the development of rapid and accurate technologies for the decentralized detection of bacterial pathogens. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to evaluate the clinical use of a novel immunochromatographic device with monoclonal antibodies for the rapid point-of-care detection and semi-quantification of Porphyromonas gingivalis in subgingival plaque. Sixty-three patients with chronic periodontitis and 28 periodontally healthy volunteers were subjected to clinical and microbiological examinations. Subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for the presence of P. gingivalis using a novel immunochromatography based device DK13-PG-001, designed to detect the 40k-outer membrane protein of P. gingivalis, and compared with a PCR-Invader method. In the periodontitis group, a significant strong positive correlation in detection results was found between the test device score and the PCR-Invader method (Spearman rank correlation, r=0.737, pgingivalis, whereas 76% (n=48) of periodontitis subjects were tested positive. There was a significant positive correlation between device scores for P. gingivalis and periodontal parameters including probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level (r=0.317 and 0.281, respectively, pgingivalis in subgingival plaque. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) UMIN000011943. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Accurate and rapid identification of the Burkholderia pseudomallei near-neighbour, Burkholderia ubonensis, using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erin P; Sarovich, Derek S; Webb, Jessica R; Ginther, Jennifer L; Mayo, Mark; Cook, James M; Seymour, Meagan L; Kaestli, Mirjam; Theobald, Vanessa; Hall, Carina M; Busch, Joseph D; Foster, Jeffrey T; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Tuanyok, Apichai; Pearson, Talima; Currie, Bart J

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia ubonensis is an environmental bacterium belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc), a group of genetically related organisms that are associated with opportunistic but generally nonfatal infections in healthy individuals. In contrast, the near-neighbour species Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a disease that can be fatal in up to 95% of cases if left untreated. B. ubonensis is frequently misidentified as B. pseudomallei from soil samples using selective culturing on Ashdown's medium, reflecting both the shared environmental niche and morphological similarities of these species. Additionally, B. ubonensis shows potential as an important biocontrol agent in B. pseudomallei-endemic regions as certain strains possess antagonistic properties towards B. pseudomallei. Current methods for characterising B. ubonensis are laborious, time-consuming and costly, and as such this bacterium remains poorly studied. The aim of our study was to develop a rapid and inexpensive real-time PCR-based assay specific for B. ubonensis. We demonstrate that a novel B. ubonensis-specific assay, Bu550, accurately differentiates B. ubonensis from B. pseudomallei and other species that grow on selective Ashdown's agar. We anticipate that Bu550 will catalyse research on B. ubonensis by enabling rapid identification of this organism from Ashdown's-positive colonies that are not B. pseudomallei.

  5. Accurate and rapid identification of the Burkholderia pseudomallei near-neighbour, Burkholderia ubonensis, using real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin P Price

    Full Text Available Burkholderia ubonensis is an environmental bacterium belonging to the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc, a group of genetically related organisms that are associated with opportunistic but generally nonfatal infections in healthy individuals. In contrast, the near-neighbour species Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, a disease that can be fatal in up to 95% of cases if left untreated. B. ubonensis is frequently misidentified as B. pseudomallei from soil samples using selective culturing on Ashdown's medium, reflecting both the shared environmental niche and morphological similarities of these species. Additionally, B. ubonensis shows potential as an important biocontrol agent in B. pseudomallei-endemic regions as certain strains possess antagonistic properties towards B. pseudomallei. Current methods for characterising B. ubonensis are laborious, time-consuming and costly, and as such this bacterium remains poorly studied. The aim of our study was to develop a rapid and inexpensive real-time PCR-based assay specific for B. ubonensis. We demonstrate that a novel B. ubonensis-specific assay, Bu550, accurately differentiates B. ubonensis from B. pseudomallei and other species that grow on selective Ashdown's agar. We anticipate that Bu550 will catalyse research on B. ubonensis by enabling rapid identification of this organism from Ashdown's-positive colonies that are not B. pseudomallei.

  6. Accurate, precise modeling of cell proliferation kinetics from time-lapse imaging and automated image analysis of agar yeast culture arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Lue

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide mutant strain collections have increased demand for high throughput cellular phenotyping (HTCP. For example, investigators use HTCP to investigate interactions between gene deletion mutations and additional chemical or genetic perturbations by assessing differences in cell proliferation among the collection of 5000 S. cerevisiae gene deletion strains. Such studies have thus far been predominantly qualitative, using agar cell arrays to subjectively score growth differences. Quantitative systems level analysis of gene interactions would be enabled by more precise HTCP methods, such as kinetic analysis of cell proliferation in liquid culture by optical density. However, requirements for processing liquid cultures make them relatively cumbersome and low throughput compared to agar. To improve HTCP performance and advance capabilities for quantifying interactions, YeastXtract software was developed for automated analysis of cell array images. Results YeastXtract software was developed for kinetic growth curve analysis of spotted agar cultures. The accuracy and precision for image analysis of agar culture arrays was comparable to OD measurements of liquid cultures. Using YeastXtract, image intensity vs. biomass of spot cultures was linearly correlated over two orders of magnitude. Thus cell proliferation could be measured over about seven generations, including four to five generations of relatively constant exponential phase growth. Spot area normalization reduced the variation in measurements of total growth efficiency. A growth model, based on the logistic function, increased precision and accuracy of maximum specific rate measurements, compared to empirical methods. The logistic function model was also more robust against data sparseness, meaning that less data was required to obtain accurate, precise, quantitative growth phenotypes. Conclusion Microbial cultures spotted onto agar media are widely used for genotype

  7. Use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR spectroscopy for rapid and accurate identification of Yeasts isolated from human and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate identification of yeast is increasingly important to stipulate the appropriate therapy thus reducing morbidity and mortality related to yeast infections. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques (infrared (IR and Raman could provide potential alternatives to conventional typing methods, because they constitute a rapid, inexpensive and highly specific spectroscopic fingerprint through-which microorganism can be identified. The present study evaluate (FTIR spectroscopy as a sensitive and effective assay for the identification of the most frequent yeast species isolated from human and animals. One hundred and twenty-eight yeasts isolated from infected human mouths/vaginas, chronic diseased cows, crop mycosis in chicken and soil contaminated with pigeon droppings were phenotypically identified. Using universal primers, ITS1/ITS4, we have amplified ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA regions for 39 yeast isolates as representative samples. The PCR products were digested with restriction enzyme MspI and examined by PCR-RFLP, which was an efficient technique for identification of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichosporon asahii. Further, identification of the same 39 isolates were done by FTIR spectroscopy and considered as reference for other strains by comparison of their FTIR spectra. The current study has sharply demonstrated the significant spectral differences between the various examined species of Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, Rhodotorula and Geotrichum isolated from different sources. Decisively, our research has confirmed that FTIR spectroscopy is a promising diagnostic tool, because of its sensitivity, rapidity, high differentiation capacity and simplicity compared to conventional/molecular techniques.

  8. Precise spatio-temporal control of rapid optogenetic cell ablation with mem-KillerRed in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, C; Carvalho, M T; Young, L K; Rider, S A; McFadden, C; Berlage, C; Verdon, R F; Taylor, J M; Girkin, J M; Mullins, J J

    2017-07-11

    The ability to kill individual or groups of cells in vivo is important for studying cellular processes and their physiological function. Cell-specific genetically encoded photosensitizing proteins, such as KillerRed, permit spatiotemporal optogenetic ablation with low-power laser light. We report dramatically improved resolution and speed of cell targeting in the zebrafish kidney through the use of a selective plane illumination microscope (SPIM). Furthermore, through the novel incorporation of a Bessel beam into the SPIM imaging arm, we were able to improve on targeting speed and precision. The low diffraction of the Bessel beam coupled with the ability to tightly focus it through a high NA lens allowed precise, rapid targeting of subsets of cells at anatomical depth in live, developing zebrafish kidneys. We demonstrate that these specific targeting strategies significantly increase the speed of optoablation as well as fish survival.

  9. Sensitive, accurate and rapid detection of trace aliphatic amines in environmental samples with ultrasonic-assisted derivatization microextraction using a new fluorescent reagent for high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Mengge; Li, Guoliang; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shijuan; Song, Cuihua; Wang, Hua; Suo, Yourui; You, Jinmao

    2014-07-25

    A new fluorescent reagent, 1-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-2-(2-phenyl-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazol-1-yl)ethanone (IPPIE), is synthesized, and a simple pretreatment based on ultrasonic-assisted derivatization microextraction (UDME) with IPPIE is proposed for the selective derivatization of 12 aliphatic amines (C1: methylamine-C12: dodecylamine) in complex matrix samples (irrigation water, river water, waste water, cultivated soil, riverbank soil and riverbed soil). Under the optimal experimental conditions (solvent: ACN-HCl, catalyst: none, molar ratio: 4.3, time: 8 min and temperature: 80°C), micro amount of sample (40 μL; 5mg) can be pretreated in only 10 min, with no preconcentration, evaporation or other additional manual operations required. The interfering substances (aromatic amines, aliphatic alcohols and phenols) get the derivatization yields of impurities. With this UDME-HPLC-FD-MS method, the accuracy (-0.73-2.12%), precision (intra-day: 0.87-3.39%; inter-day: 0.16-4.12%), recovery (97.01-104.10%) and sensitivity were significantly improved. Successful applications in environmental samples demonstrate the superiority of this method in the sensitive, accurate and rapid determination of trace aliphatic amines in micro amount of complex samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid and accurate assessment of GPCR-ligand interactions Using the fragment molecular orbital-based density-functional tight-binding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morao, Inaki; Fedorov, Dmitri G; Robinson, Roger; Southey, Michelle; Townsend-Nicholson, Andrea; Bodkin, Mike J; Heifetz, Alexander

    2017-09-05

    The reliable and precise evaluation of receptor-ligand interactions and pair-interaction energy is an essential element of rational drug design. While quantum mechanical (QM) methods have been a promising means by which to achieve this, traditional QM is not applicable for large biological systems due to its high computational cost. Here, the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method has been used to accelerate QM calculations, and by combining FMO with the density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) method we are able to decrease computational cost 1000 times, achieving results in seconds, instead of hours. We have applied FMO-DFTB to three different GPCR-ligand systems. Our results correlate well with site directed mutagenesis data and findings presented in the published literature, demonstrating that FMO-DFTB is a rapid and accurate means of GPCR-ligand interactions. © 2017 Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. An image-based algorithm for precise and accurate high throughput assessment of drug activity against the human parasite Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghyun Moon

    Full Text Available We present a customized high content (image-based and high throughput screening algorithm for the quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in host cells. Based solely on DNA staining and single-channel images, the algorithm precisely segments and identifies the nuclei and cytoplasm of mammalian host cells as well as the intracellular parasites infecting the cells. The algorithm outputs statistical parameters including the total number of cells, number of infected cells and the total number of parasites per image, the average number of parasites per infected cell, and the infection ratio (defined as the number of infected cells divided by the total number of cells. Accurate and precise estimation of these parameters allow for both quantification of compound activity against parasites, as well as the compound cytotoxicity, thus eliminating the need for an additional toxicity-assay, hereby reducing screening costs significantly. We validate the performance of the algorithm using two known drugs against T.cruzi: Benznidazole and Nifurtimox. Also, we have checked the performance of the cell detection with manual inspection of the images. Finally, from the titration of the two compounds, we confirm that the algorithm provides the expected half maximal effective concentration (EC50 of the anti-T. cruzi activity.

  12. An image-based algorithm for precise and accurate high throughput assessment of drug activity against the human parasite Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seunghyun; Siqueira-Neto, Jair L; Moraes, Carolina Borsoi; Yang, Gyongseon; Kang, Myungjoo; Freitas-Junior, Lucio H; Hansen, Michael A E

    2014-01-01

    We present a customized high content (image-based) and high throughput screening algorithm for the quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in host cells. Based solely on DNA staining and single-channel images, the algorithm precisely segments and identifies the nuclei and cytoplasm of mammalian host cells as well as the intracellular parasites infecting the cells. The algorithm outputs statistical parameters including the total number of cells, number of infected cells and the total number of parasites per image, the average number of parasites per infected cell, and the infection ratio (defined as the number of infected cells divided by the total number of cells). Accurate and precise estimation of these parameters allow for both quantification of compound activity against parasites, as well as the compound cytotoxicity, thus eliminating the need for an additional toxicity-assay, hereby reducing screening costs significantly. We validate the performance of the algorithm using two known drugs against T.cruzi: Benznidazole and Nifurtimox. Also, we have checked the performance of the cell detection with manual inspection of the images. Finally, from the titration of the two compounds, we confirm that the algorithm provides the expected half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of the anti-T. cruzi activity.

  13. A high-precision chronology for the rapid extinction of New Zealand moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, George L. W.; Wheeler, Andrew B.; Wood, Jamie R.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2014-12-01

    Megafaunal extinction followed the prehistoric human settlement of islands across the globe, but the exact duration and dynamics of the extinction processes are difficult to determine. The New Zealand moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes) are a prime example, where, despite an extensive fossil and archaeological record, debate continues about their extinction chronology and how extinction timings varied among regions and species. We apply probabilistic sightings methods to 111 high-quality radiocarbon dates (from a pool of 653 dates) on moa remains from natural and archaeological sites to provide a high-resolution spatio-temporal chronology of moa extinction. We interpret this alongside an estimated time for the onset of hunting pressure, obtained by applying the same methods to the most reliable proxies for initial human settlement of New Zealand: coprolites of and seeds gnawed by the commensal Pacific rat (Rattus exulans). By comparing local and national extinction times, we discriminate between the point at which hunting stopped (economic extinction) and the total extinction of moa (ca 150 and 200 years after settlement, respectively). Extinction occurred contemporaneously at sites separated by hundreds of kilometres. There was little difference between the extinction times of the smallest (20-50 kg) and largest (200+ kg) moa species. Our results demonstrate how rapidly megafauna were exterminated from even large, topographically- and ecologically-diverse islands such as New Zealand, and highlight the fragility of such ecosystems in the face of human impacts.

  14. Are rapid diagnostic tests more accurate in diagnosis of plasmodium falciparum malaria compared to microscopy at rural health centres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnussen Pascal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt, accurate diagnosis and treatment with artemisinin combination therapy remains vital to current malaria control. Blood film microscopy the current standard test for diagnosis of malaria has several limitations that necessitate field evaluation of alternative diagnostic methods especially in low income countries of sub-Saharan Africa where malaria is endemic. Methods The accuracy of axillary temperature, health centre (HC microscopy, expert microscopy and a HRP2-based rapid diagnostic test (Paracheck was compared in predicting malaria infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR as the gold standard. Three hundred patients with a clinical suspicion of malaria based on fever and or history of fever from a low and high transmission setting in Uganda were consecutively enrolled and provided blood samples for all tests. Accuracy of each test was calculated overall with 95% confidence interval and then adjusted for age-groups and level of transmission intensity using a stratified analysis. The endpoints were: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV. This study is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00565071. Results Of the 300 patients, 88(29.3% had fever, 56(18.7% were positive by HC microscopy, 47(15.7% by expert microscopy, 110(36.7% by Paracheck and 89(29.7% by PCR. The overall sensitivity >90% was only shown by Paracheck 91.0% [95%CI: 83.1-96.0]. The sensitivity of expert microscopy was 46%, similar to HC microscopy. The superior sensitivity of Paracheck compared to microscopy was maintained when data was stratified for transmission intensity and age. The overall specificity rates were: Paracheck 86.3% [95%CI: 80.9-90.6], HC microscopy 93.4% [95%CI: 89.1-96.3] and expert microscopy 97.2% [95%CI: 93.9-98.9]. The NPV >90% was shown by Paracheck 95.8% [95%CI: 91.9-98.2]. The overall PPV was Conclusion The HRP2-based RDT has shown superior sensitivity compared to

  15. Rapid Bayesian point source inversion using pattern recognition --- bridging the gap between regional scaling relations and accurate physical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, A. P.; Kaeufl, P.; De Wit, R. W. L.; Trampert, J.

    2014-12-01

    Obtaining knowledge about source parameters in (near) real-time during or shortly after an earthquake is essential for mitigating damage and directing resources in the aftermath of the event. Therefore, a variety of real-time source-inversion algorithms have been developed over recent decades. This has been driven by the ever-growing availability of dense seismograph networks in many seismogenic areas of the world and the significant advances in real-time telemetry. By definition, these algorithms rely on short time-windows of sparse, local and regional observations, resulting in source estimates that are highly sensitive to observational errors, noise and missing data. In order to obtain estimates more rapidly, many algorithms are either entirely based on empirical scaling relations or make simplifying assumptions about the Earth's structure, which can in turn lead to biased results. It is therefore essential that realistic uncertainty bounds are estimated along with the parameters. A natural means of propagating probabilistic information on source parameters through the entire processing chain from first observations to potential end users and decision makers is provided by the Bayesian formalism.We present a novel method based on pattern recognition allowing us to incorporate highly accurate physical modelling into an uncertainty-aware real-time inversion algorithm. The algorithm is based on a pre-computed Green's functions database, containing a large set of source-receiver paths in a highly heterogeneous crustal model. Unlike similar methods, which often employ a grid search, we use a supervised learning algorithm to relate synthetic waveforms to point source parameters. This training procedure has to be performed only once and leads to a representation of the posterior probability density function p(m|d) --- the distribution of source parameters m given observations d --- which can be evaluated quickly for new data.Owing to the flexibility of the pattern

  16. Rapid evolution of ritual architecture in central Polynesia indicated by precise 230Th/U coral dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Warren D; Kahn, Jennifer G; Polito, Christina M; Kirch, Patrick V

    2010-07-27

    In Polynesia, the complex Society Islands chiefdoms constructed elaborate temples (marae), some of which reached monumental proportions and were associated with human sacrifice in the 'Oro cult. We investigated the development of temples on Mo'orea Island by 230Th/U dating of corals used as architectural elements (facing veneers, cut-and-dressed blocks, and offerings). The three largest coastal marae (associated with the highest-ranked chiefly lineages) and 19 marae in the inland 'Opunohu Valley containing coral architectural elements were dated. Fifteen corals from the coastal temples meet geochemical criteria for accurate 230Th/U dating, yield reproducible ages for each marae, and have a mean uncertainty of 9 y (2sigma). Of 41 corals from wetter inland sites, 12 show some diagenesis and may yield unreliable ages; however, the majority (32) of inland dates are considered accurate. We also obtained six 14C dates on charcoal from four marae. The dates indicate that temple architecture on Mo'orea Island developed rapidly over a period of approximately 140 y (ca. AD 1620-1760), with the largest coastal temples constructed immediately before initial European contact (AD 1767). The result of a seriation of architectural features corresponds closely with this chronology. Acropora coral veneers were superceded by cut-and-dressed Porites coral blocks on altar platforms, followed by development of multitier stepped altar platforms and use of pecked basalt stones associated with the late 'Oro cult. This example demonstrates that elaboration of ritual architecture in complex societies may be surprisingly rapid.

  17. A rapid, accurate and robust particle-based assay for the simultaneous screening of plasma samples for the presence of five different anti-cytokine autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Daniel Kring Rasmussen; von Stemann, Jakob Hjorth; Larsen, Rune

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish and validate a rapid, cost-effective and accurate screening assay for the simultaneous testing of human naturally occurring anti-cytokine autoantibodies (c-aAb) targeting interleukin-1α (IL-1α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), granulocyte-macrophage colony...

  18. Dynamic balance of excitation and inhibition rapidly modulates spike probability and precision in feed-forward hippocampal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom-Helgren, Sarah; Klyachko, Vitaly A

    2016-12-01

    Feed-forward inhibitory (FFI) circuits are important for many information-processing functions. FFI circuit operations critically depend on the balance and timing between the excitatory and inhibitory components, which undergo rapid dynamic changes during neural activity due to short-term plasticity (STP) of both components. How dynamic changes in excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance during spike trains influence FFI circuit operations remains poorly understood. In the current study we examined the role of STP in the FFI circuit functions in the mouse hippocampus. Using a coincidence detection paradigm with simultaneous activation of two Schaffer collateral inputs, we found that the spiking probability in the target CA1 neuron was increased while spike precision concomitantly decreased during high-frequency bursts compared with a single spike. Blocking inhibitory synaptic transmission revealed that dynamics of inhibition predominately modulates the spike precision but not the changes in spiking probability, whereas the latter is modulated by the dynamics of excitation. Further analyses combining whole cell recordings and simulations of the FFI circuit suggested that dynamics of the inhibitory circuit component may influence spiking behavior during bursts by broadening the width of excitatory postsynaptic responses and that the strength of this modulation depends on the basal E/I ratio. We verified these predictions using a mouse model of fragile X syndrome, which has an elevated E/I ratio, and found a strongly reduced modulation of postsynaptic response width during bursts. Our results suggest that changes in the dynamics of excitatory and inhibitory circuit components due to STP play important yet distinct roles in modulating the properties of FFI circuits. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. New rapid, accurate T2 quantification detects pathology in normal-appearing brain regions of relapsing-remitting MS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. Shepherd

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The EMC algorithm precisely characterizes T2 values, and is able to detect subtle T2 changes in normal-appearing brain regions of RRMS patients. These presumably capture both axon and myelin changes from inflammation and neurodegeneration. Further, T2 variations between different brain regions of healthy controls may correlate with distinct nervous tissue environments that differ from one another at a mesoscopic length-scale.

  20. Rapid and Accurate Identification of Adulterants via an Electronic Nose and DNA Identification Platform: Identification of Fake Velvet Antlers as an Example

    OpenAIRE

    Guojie Xu; Chunsheng Liu; Caili Liao; Xiaolei Ren; Xinyue Zhang; Xiaorui Fu; Xueyong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background. Adulterants in Chinese medicines had always affected the efficacy of Chinese medicines and resulted in safety problems in drug use. We aimed to take the identification of fake velvet antlers as an example for establishment of a rapid and accurate identification platform for modern pharmaceutical companies and markets of Chinese medicine. Methods. In this study, we developed a novel electronic nose and DNA identification platform for identifying fake velvet antlers. Electronic nose...

  1. Adobe photoshop quantification (PSQ) rather than point-counting: A rapid and precise method for quantifying rock textural data and porosities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Bo; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Zhe; Shi, Kaibo; Wu, Shuanglin

    2014-08-01

    Commonly used petrological quantification methods are visual estimation, counting, and image analyses. However, in this article, an Adobe Photoshop-based analyzing method (PSQ) is recommended for quantifying the rock textural data and porosities. Adobe Photoshop system provides versatile abilities in selecting an area of interest and the pixel number of a selection could be read and used to calculate its area percentage. Therefore, Adobe Photoshop could be used to rapidly quantify textural components, such as content of grains, cements, and porosities including total porosities and different genetic type porosities. This method was named as Adobe Photoshop Quantification (PSQ). The workflow of the PSQ method was introduced with the oolitic dolomite samples from the Triassic Feixianguan Formation, Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China, for example. And the method was tested by comparing with the Folk's and Shvetsov's "standard" diagrams. In both cases, there is a close agreement between the "standard" percentages and those determined by the PSQ method with really small counting errors and operator errors, small standard deviations and high confidence levels. The porosities quantified by PSQ were evaluated against those determined by the whole rock helium gas expansion method to test the specimen errors. Results have shown that the porosities quantified by the PSQ are well correlated to the porosities determined by the conventional helium gas expansion method. Generally small discrepancies (mostly ranging from -3% to 3%) are caused by microporosities which would cause systematic underestimation of 2% and/or by macroporosities causing underestimation or overestimation in different cases. Adobe Photoshop could be used to quantify rock textural components and porosities. This method has been tested to be precise and accurate. It is time saving compared with usual methods.

  2. System for Rapid, Precise Modulation of Intraocular Pressure, toward Minimally-Invasive In Vivo Measurement of Intracranial Pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Stockslager

    Full Text Available Pathologic changes in intracranial pressure (ICP are commonly observed in a variety of medical conditions, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, and glaucoma. However, current ICP measurement techniques are invasive, requiring a lumbar puncture or surgical insertion of a cannula into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-filled ventricles of the brain. A potential alternative approach to ICP measurement leverages the unique anatomy of the central retinal vein, which is exposed to both intraocular pressure (IOP and ICP as it travels inside the eye and through the optic nerve; manipulating IOP while observing changes in the natural pulsations of the central retinal vein could potentially provide an accurate, indirect measure of ICP. As a step toward implementing this technique, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a system that is capable of manipulating IOP in vivo with <0.1 mmHg resolution and settling times less than 2 seconds. In vitro tests were carried out to characterize system performance. Then, as a proof of concept, we used the system to manipulate IOP in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri while video of the retinal vessels was recorded and the caliber of a selected vein was quantified. Modulating IOP using our system elicited a rapid change in the appearance of the retinal vein of interest: IOP was lowered from 10 to 3 mmHg, and retinal vein caliber sharply increased as IOP decreased from 7 to 5 mmHg. Another important feature of this technology is its capability to measure ocular compliance and outflow facility in vivo, as demonstrated in tree shrews. Collectively, these proof-of-concept demonstrations support the utility of this system to manipulate IOP for a variety of useful applications in ocular biomechanics, and provide a framework for further study of the mechanisms of retinal venous pulsation.

  3. Rapid and Accurate Identification of Animal Species in Natural Leather Goods by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuchi, Yukari; Takashima, Tsuneo; Hatano, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    The demand for leather goods has grown globally in recent years. Industry revenue is forecast to reach $91.2 billion by 2018. There is an ongoing labelling problem in the leather items market, in that it is currently impossible to identify the species that a given piece of leather is derived from. To address this issue, we developed a rapid and simple method for the specific identification of leather derived from cattle, horses, pigs, sheep, goats, and deer by analysing peptides produced by the trypsin-digestion of proteins contained in leather goods using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We determined species-specific amino acid sequences by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry analysis using the Mascot software program and demonstrated that collagen α-1(I), collagen α-2(I), and collagen α-1(III) from the dermal layer of the skin are particularly useful in species identification.

  4. Accurate, rapid identification of dislocation lines in coherent diffractive imaging via a min-max optimization formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, A.; Menickelly, M.; Wild, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    Defects such as dislocations impact materials properties and their response during external stimuli. Imaging these defects in their native operating conditions to establish the structure-function relationship and, ultimately, to improve performance via defect engineering has remained a considerable challenge for both electron-based and x-ray-based imaging techniques. While Bragg coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (BCDI) is successful in many cases, nuances in identifying the dislocations has left manual identification as the preferred method. Derivative-based methods are also used, but they can be inaccurate and are computationally inefficient. Here we demonstrate a derivative-free method that is both more accurate and more computationally efficient than either derivative- or human-based methods for identifying 3D dislocation lines in nanocrystal images produced by BCDI. We formulate the problem as a min-max optimization problem and show exceptional accuracy for experimental images. We demonstrate a 227x speedup for a typical experimental dataset with higher accuracy over current methods. We discuss the possibility of using this algorithm as part of a sparsity-based phase retrieval process. We also provide MATLAB code for use by other researchers.

  5. New rapid, accurate T2 quantification detects pathology in normal-appearing brain regions of relapsing-remitting MS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Timothy M; Kirov, Ivan I; Charlson, Erik; Bruno, Mary; Babb, James; Sodickson, Daniel K; Ben-Eliezer, Noam

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative T2 mapping may provide an objective biomarker for occult nervous tissue pathology in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). We applied a novel echo modulation curve (EMC) algorithm to identify T2 changes in normal-appearing brain regions of subjects with RRMS (N = 27) compared to age-matched controls (N = 38). The EMC algorithm uses Bloch simulations to model T2 decay curves in multi-spin-echo MRI sequences, independent of scanner, and scan-settings. T2 values were extracted from normal-appearing white and gray matter brain regions using both expert manual regions-of-interest and user-independent FreeSurfer segmentation. Compared to conventional exponential T2 modeling, EMC fitting provided more accurate estimations of T2 with less variance across scans, MRI systems, and healthy individuals. Thalamic T2 was increased 8.5% in RRMS subjects (p brain regions of RRMS patients. These presumably capture both axon and myelin changes from inflammation and neurodegeneration. Further, T2 variations between different brain regions of healthy controls may correlate with distinct nervous tissue environments that differ from one another at a mesoscopic length-scale.

  6. Rapid and Accurate Identification by Real-Time PCR of Biotoxin-Producing Dinoflagellates from the Family Gymnodiniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty F. Smith

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The identification of toxin-producing dinoflagellates for monitoring programmes and bio-compound discovery requires considerable taxonomic expertise. It can also be difficult to morphologically differentiate toxic and non-toxic species or strains. Various molecular methods have been used for dinoflagellate identification and detection, and this study describes the development of eight real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays targeting the large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA gene of species from the genera Gymnodinium, Karenia, Karlodinium, and Takayama. Assays proved to be highly specific and sensitive, and the assay for G. catenatum was further developed for quantification in response to a bloom in Manukau Harbour, New Zealand. The assay estimated cell densities from environmental samples as low as 0.07 cells per PCR reaction, which equated to three cells per litre. This assay not only enabled conclusive species identification but also detected the presence of cells below the limit of detection for light microscopy. This study demonstrates the usefulness of real-time PCR as a sensitive and rapid molecular technique for the detection and quantification of micro-algae from environmental samples.

  7. An accurate and rapid continuous wavelet dynamic time warping algorithm for unbalanced global mapping in nanopore sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Renmin

    2017-12-24

    Long-reads, point-of-care, and PCR-free are the promises brought by nanopore sequencing. Among various steps in nanopore data analysis, the global mapping between the raw electrical current signal sequence and the expected signal sequence from the pore model serves as the key building block to base calling, reads mapping, variant identification, and methylation detection. However, the ultra-long reads of nanopore sequencing and an order of magnitude difference in the sampling speeds of the two sequences make the classical dynamic time warping (DTW) and its variants infeasible to solve the problem. Here, we propose a novel multi-level DTW algorithm, cwDTW, based on continuous wavelet transforms with different scales of the two signal sequences. Our algorithm starts from low-resolution wavelet transforms of the two sequences, such that the transformed sequences are short and have similar sampling rates. Then the peaks and nadirs of the transformed sequences are extracted to form feature sequences with similar lengths, which can be easily mapped by the original DTW. Our algorithm then recursively projects the warping path from a lower-resolution level to a higher-resolution one by building a context-dependent boundary and enabling a constrained search for the warping path in the latter. Comprehensive experiments on two real nanopore datasets on human and on Pandoraea pnomenusa, as well as two benchmark datasets from previous studies, demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. In particular, cwDTW can almost always generate warping paths that are very close to the original DTW, which are remarkably more accurate than the state-of-the-art methods including FastDTW and PrunedDTW. Meanwhile, on the real nanopore datasets, cwDTW is about 440 times faster than FastDTW and 3000 times faster than the original DTW. Our program is available at https://github.com/realbigws/cwDTW.

  8. Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in infective endocarditis: a case report of a patient with mitral valve infective endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon Gitz; Pedersen, Line; Calum, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A case of infective endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva is presented. The use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in infective endocarditis is discussed.......A case of infective endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva is presented. The use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in infective endocarditis is discussed....

  9. Will Precision Airdrop Capability Provide the Joint Force Commander with the Rapid Response Required for Tomorrow's Humanitarian Relief Operations?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Witham, Randy L

    2007-01-01

    .... Precision direct delivery promises to slash in-transit time, minimize hub and spoke shuttle operations, reduce handling costs and save lives early in a relief operation before larger forces can arrive on scene...

  10. A reliable and accurate portable device for rapid quantitative estimation of iodine content in different types of edible salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Chakrabarty, Arijit; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2015-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of salt iodization to ensure the success of the Universal Salt Iodization (USI) program can be significantly strengthened by the use of a simple, safe, and rapid method of salt iodine estimation. This study assessed the validity of a new portable device, iCheck Iodine developed by the BioAnalyt GmbH to estimate the iodine content in salt. Validation of the device was conducted in the laboratory of the South Asia regional office of the International Council for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). The validity of the device was assessed using device specific indicators, comparison of iCheck Iodine device with the iodometric titration, and comparison between iodine estimation using 1 g and 10 g salt by iCheck Iodine using 116 salt samples procured from various small-, medium-, and large-scale salt processors across India. The intra- and interassay imprecision for 10 parts per million (ppm), 30 ppm, and 50 ppm concentrations of iodized salt were 2.8%, 6.1%, and 3.1%, and 2.4%, 2.2%, and 2.1%, respectively. Interoperator imprecision was 6.2%, 6.3%, and 4.6% for the salt with iodine concentrations of 10 ppm, 30 ppm, and 50 ppm respectively. The correlation coefficient between measurements by the two methods was 0.934 and the correlation coefficient between measurements using 1 g of iodized salt and 10 g of iodized salt by the iCheck Iodine device was 0.983. The iCheck Iodine device is reliable and provides a valid method for the quantitative estimation of the iodine content of iodized salt fortified with potassium iodate in the field setting and in different types of salt.

  11. A rapid and accurate approach for prediction of interactomes from co-elution data (PrInCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, R Greg; Skinnider, Michael A; Scott, Nichollas E; Foster, Leonard J

    2017-10-23

    An organism's protein interactome, or complete network of protein-protein interactions, defines the protein complexes that drive cellular processes. Techniques for studying protein complexes have traditionally applied targeted strategies such as yeast two-hybrid or affinity purification-mass spectrometry to assess protein interactions. However, given the vast number of protein complexes, more scalable methods are necessary to accelerate interaction discovery and to construct whole interactomes. We recently developed a complementary technique based on the use of protein correlation profiling (PCP) and stable isotope labeling in amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to assess chromatographic co-elution as evidence of interacting proteins. Importantly, PCP-SILAC is also capable of measuring protein interactions simultaneously under multiple biological conditions, allowing the detection of treatment-specific changes to an interactome. Given the uniqueness and high dimensionality of co-elution data, new tools are needed to compare protein elution profiles, control false discovery rates, and construct an accurate interactome. Here we describe a freely available bioinformatics pipeline, PrInCE, for the analysis of co-elution data. PrInCE is a modular, open-source library that is computationally inexpensive, able to use label and label-free data, and capable of detecting tens of thousands of protein-protein interactions. Using a machine learning approach, PrInCE offers greatly reduced run time, more predicted interactions at the same stringency, prediction of protein complexes, and greater ease of use over previous bioinformatics tools for co-elution data. PrInCE is implemented in Matlab (version R2017a). Source code and standalone executable programs for Windows and Mac OSX are available at https://github.com/fosterlab/PrInCE , where usage instructions can be found. An example dataset and output are also provided for testing purposes. PrInCE is the first fast and easy

  12. Electromagnetic calorimeter and accurate measurement with the ATLAS detector of the LHC collider; Calorimetrie electromagnetique et mesures de precision avec le detecteur ATLAS aupres du collisionneur LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pralavorio, P

    2007-06-15

    The main purpose of the ATLAS experiment is the understanding of the underlying mechanisms that drive the breaking of the electro-weak symmetry through the discovery of Higgs bosons. An important element to achieve this aim was the design of an electromagnetic calorimeter able to investigate the decay channels: H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} and H {yields} 4e. The high performance of the calorimeter will allow us to get a better accuracy on the measuring values of W and top masses which is essential to indirectly constrain the mass of the Higgs. In the same way, accurate measurements of top and W properties during the decays of top and tWb vertex will be necessary to question the standard model and to see beyond. The author has been working for 9 years in the ATLAS project, he has been involved in the design, construction, qualification and testing phases of the electromagnetic calorimeter of ATLAS. This document is a detailed presentation of the calorimeter, of its qualification and of its expectations when LHC is operating. This document is organized into 4 chapters: 1) assets and weaknesses of the standard model, 2) the ATLAS experiment, 3) the electromagnetic calorimeter, and 4) accurate measurements with ATLAS. This document presented before an academic board will allow its author to manage research works and particularly to tutor thesis students. (A.C.)

  13. Atomic spectroscopy and highly accurate measurement: determination of fundamental constants; Spectroscopie atomique et mesures de grande precision: determination de constantes fonfamentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwob, C

    2006-12-15

    This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author concerning highly accurate atomic spectroscopy applied for the determination of fundamental constants. A pure optical frequency measurement of the 2S-12D 2-photon transitions in atomic hydrogen and deuterium has been performed. The experimental setting-up is described as well as the data analysis. Optimized values for the Rydberg constant and Lamb shifts have been deduced (R = 109737.31568516 (84) cm{sup -1}). An experiment devoted to the determination of the fine structure constant with an aimed relative uncertainty of 10{sup -9} began in 1999. This experiment is based on the fact that Bloch oscillations in a frequency chirped optical lattice are a powerful tool to transfer coherently many photon momenta to the atoms. We have used this method to measure accurately the ratio h/m(Rb). The measured value of the fine structure constant is {alpha}{sub -1} = 137.03599884 (91) with a relative uncertainty of 6.7*10{sup -9}. The future and perspectives of this experiment are presented. This document presented before an academic board will allow his author to manage research work and particularly to tutor thesis students. (A.C.)

  14. A high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age for the Nördlinger Ries impact crater, Germany, and implications for the accurate dating of terrestrial impact events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, Martin; Kennedy, Trudi; Jourdan, Fred; Buchner, Elmar; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    2018-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar dating of specimens of moldavite, the formation of which is linked to the Ries impact in southern Germany, with a latest-generation ARGUS VI multi-collector mass spectrometer yielded three fully concordant plateau ages with a weighted mean age of 14.808 ± 0.021 Ma (± 0.038 Ma including all external uncertainties; 2σ; MSWD = 0.40, P = 0.67). This new best-estimate age for the Nördlinger Ries is in general agreement with previous 40Ar/39Ar results for moldavites, but constitutes a significantly improved precision with respect to the formation age of the distal Ries-produced tektites. Separates of impact glass from proximal Ries ejecta (suevite glass from three different surface outcrops) and partially melted feldspar particles from impact melt rock of the SUBO 18 Enkingen drill core failed to produce meaningful ages. These glasses show evidence for excess 40Ar introduction, which may have been incurred during interaction with hydrothermal fluids. Only partially reset 40Ar/39Ar ages could be determined for the feldspathic melt separates from the Enkingen core. The new 40Ar/39Ar results for the Ries impact structure constrain the duration of crater cooling, during the prevailing hydrothermal activity, to locally at least ∼60 kyr. With respect to the dating of terrestrial impact events, this paper briefly discusses a number of potential issues and effects that may be the cause for seemingly precise, but on a kyr-scale inaccurate, impact ages.

  15. Rapid and accurate identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and common non-tuberculous mycobacteria by multiplex real-time PCR targeting different housekeeping genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Esfahani, Bahram; Rezaei Yazdi, Hadi; Moghim, Sharareh; Ghasemian Safaei, Hajieh; Zarkesh Esfahani, Hamid

    2012-11-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of mycobacteria isolates from primary culture is important due to timely and appropriate antibiotic therapy. Conventional methods for identification of Mycobacterium species based on biochemical tests needs several weeks and may remain inconclusive. In this study, a novel multiplex real-time PCR was developed for rapid identification of Mycobacterium genus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and the most common non-tuberculosis mycobacteria species including M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. avium complex, M. kansasii, and the M. gordonae in three reaction tubes but under same PCR condition. Genetic targets for primer designing included the 16S rDNA gene, the dnaJ gene, the gyrB gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Multiplex real-time PCR was setup with reference Mycobacterium strains and was subsequently tested with 66 clinical isolates. Results of multiplex real-time PCR were analyzed with melting curves and melting temperature (T (m)) of Mycobacterium genus, MTC, and each of non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium species were determined. Multiplex real-time PCR results were compared with amplification and sequencing of 16S-23S rDNA ITS for identification of Mycobacterium species. Sensitivity and specificity of designed primers were each 100 % for MTC, M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. avium complex, M. kansasii, and M. gordonae. Sensitivity and specificity of designed primer for genus Mycobacterium was 96 and 100 %, respectively. According to the obtained results, we conclude that this multiplex real-time PCR with melting curve analysis and these novel primers can be used for rapid and accurate identification of genus Mycobacterium, MTC, and the most common non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium species.

  16. An Investigation into the Trueness and Precision of Copy Denture Templates Produced by Rapid Prototyping and Conventional Means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davda, K; Osnes, C; Dillon, S; Wu, J; Hyde, P; Keeling, A

    2017-12-01

    To assess the trueness and precision of copy denture templates produced using traditional methods and 3D printing. Six copies of a denture were made using: 1. Conventional technique with silicone putty in an impression tray (CT). 2. Conventional technique with no impression tray (CNT). 3. 3D scanning and printing (3D). Scan trueness and precision was investigated by scanning a denture six times and comparing five scans to the sixth. Then the scans of the six CT, CNT and 3D dentures were compared by aligning, in turn, the copies of each denture to the scanned original. Outcome measures were the mean surface-to-surface distance, standard deviation of that distance and the maximum distance. Student's unpaired t-tests with Bonferroni correction were used to analyse the results. The repeated scans of the original denture showed a scan trueness of 0.013mm (SD 0.002) and precision of 0.013mm (SD 0.002). Trueness: CT templates, 0.168mm (0.047), CNT templates 0.195mm (0.034) and 3D 0.103mm (0.021). Precision: CT templates 0.158mm (0.037), CNT 0.233mm (0.073), 3D 0.090mm (0.017). For each outcome measure the 3D templates demonstrated an improvement which was statistically significant (p⟨0.05). 3D printed copy denture templates reproduced the original with greater trueness and precision than conventional techniques. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  17. Development of a high-speed real-time PCR system for rapid and precise nucleotide recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazono, Hideyuki; Takei, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Akihiro; Yasuda, Kenji

    2010-04-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common method used to create copies of a specific target region of a DNA sequence and to produce large quantities of DNA. A few DNA molecules, which act as templates, are rapidly amplified by PCR into many billions of copies. PCR is a key technology in genome-based biological analysis, revolutionizing many life science fields such as medical diagnostics, food safety monitoring, and countermeasures against bioterrorism. Thus, many applications have been developed with the thermal cycling. For these PCR applications, one of the most important key factors is reduction in the data acquisition time. To reduce the acquisition time, it is necessary to decrease the temperature transition time between the high and low ends as much as possible. We have developed a novel rapid real-time PCR system based on rapid exchange of media maintained at different temperatures. This system consists of two thermal reservoirs and a reaction chamber for PCR observation. The temperature transition was achieved within 0.3 sec, and good thermal stability was achieved during thermal cycling with rapid exchange of circulating media. This system allows rigorous optimization of the temperatures required for each stage of the PCR processes. Resulting amplicons were confirmed by electrophoresis. Using the system, rapid DNA amplification was accomplished within 3.5 min, including initial heating and complete 50 PCR cycles. It clearly shows that the device could allow us faster temperature switching than the conventional conduction-based heating systems based on Peltier heating/cooling.

  18. A High-precision Correction Method of Ultra-rapid Ephemeris Clock Bias Prediction for GPS Block IIR-M Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Chenglin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A high-precision correction algorithm based on the block IIR-M satellites is proposed to improve the precision of IGS ultra-rapid predicted (IGU-P products. In order to ensure that the real-time precise point positioning (RTPPP with high positioning accuracy could come true, it is attempted to get the difference between the first prediction data and the last epoch of IGS ultra-rapid observed (IGU-O, and then to compute the value and determine the direction of accuracy revised value based on influence of the degree of residual value to difference sequence of IGU-O. The numerical examples with the data set of 19 IGU files showed that the prediction accuracy of proposed method was superior to three basic models and IGU-P within 6 hours, the rate of improved accuracy range from 3.48% to 6.13%, and average prediction accuracy of corresponding models were, in order,0.599 ns,0.570 ns and 0.531 ns.

  19. GeoNet's `Felt Rapid': Collecting What Is Needed, When You Need It, No More, No Less. Rapid, Volumous Data For Response Versus Detailed, Precise Data For Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C. L.; McBride, S.; Balfour, N.

    2016-12-01

    New Zealand's geohazard monitoring agency, GeoNet, recently implemented `Felt Rapid': earthquake felt reporting that is quick and simple. GeoNet locates 20,000 earthquakes each year with hundreds of those reported as being felt. Starting in the late 1800s, the New Zealand public has become adept at completing felt reports but feedback since the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence suggested that traditional felt reporting was not meeting researchers' or the public's needs. GeoNet required something rapid, adaptable and robust. The solution was Felt Rapid, a mobile app and website where respondents simply pick from 6 cartoon images - representing Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) 3-8 - that best aligned to what they felt. For the last decade, felt reporting has been conducted via the GeoNet website, with additional targeted surveys after damaging earthquakes. The vast majority of the submitted felt reports were for earthquakes too small to cause damage, as these are by far the most frequent. Reports from small events are of little interest to researchers who are only concerned with damaging, MMI6 and above. However, we found that when damaging earthquakes did occur, such as Christchurch's M6.3, they were only sparsely reported (3,776 reports). Understandably, sitting at a computer and completing a lengthy online form wasn't a priority for people after a devastating earthquake. With Felt Rapid, reporting has to be completed within an hour of an earthquake, the use of GeoNet's automatically compiled felt reporting maps had evolved; their main purpose is immediate assessment of an earthquake's impact on populations, and is used by Civil Defence agencies. Reports are immediately displayed on an interactive map via the website and mobile app. With over 250,000 users this provides rapid and robust information regarding the experienced shaking. When a damaging earthquake occurs and researchers want to collect important and rare damaging felt reports, a separate in-depth survey

  20. Rapid and Accurate Determination of Lipopolysaccharide O-Antigen Types in Klebsiella pneumoniae with a Novel PCR-Based O-Genotyping Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yun-Jui; Cheong, Cheng-Man; Yi, Wen-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae, a Gram-negative bacillus that causes life-threatening infections in both hospitalized patients and ambulatory persons, can be classified into nine lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen serotypes. The O-antigen type has important clinical and epidemiological significance. However, K. pneumoniae O serotyping is cumbersome, and the reagents are not commercially available. To overcome the limitations of conventional serotyping methods, we aimed to create a rapid and accurate PCR method for K. pneumoniae O genotyping. We sequenced the genetic determinants of LPS O antigen from serotypes O1, O2a, O2ac, O3, O4, O5, O8, O9, and O12. We established a two-step genotyping scheme, based on the two genomic regions associated with O-antigen biosynthesis. The first set of PCR primers, which detects alleles at the wzm-wzt loci of the wb gene cluster, distinguishes between O1/O2, O3, O4, O5, O8, O9, and O12. The second set of PCR primers, which detects alleles at the wbbY region, further differentiates between O1, O2a, and O2ac. We verified the specificity of O genotyping against the O-serotype reference strains. We then tested the sensitivity and specificity of O genotyping in K. pneumoniae, using the 56 K-serotype reference strains with known O serotypes determined by an inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). There is a very good correlation between the O genotypes and classical O serotypes. Three discrepancies were observed and resolved by nucleotide sequencing—all in favor of O genotyping. The PCR-based O genotyping, which can be easily performed in clinical and research microbiology laboratories, is a rapid and accurate method for determining the LPS O-antigen types of K. pneumoniae isolates. PMID:26719438

  1. Rapid and accurate species and genomic species identification and exhaustive population diversity assessment of Agrobacterium spp. using recA-based PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, M; Vial, L; Chapulliot, D; Nesme, X; Lavire, C

    2013-07-01

    Agrobacteria are common soil bacteria that interact with plants as commensals, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria or alternatively as pathogens. Indigenous agrobacterial populations are composites, generally with several species and/or genomic species and several strains per species. We thus developed a recA-based PCR approach to accurately identify and specifically detect agrobacteria at various taxonomic levels. Specific primers were designed for all species and/or genomic species of Agrobacterium presently known, including 11 genomic species of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens complex (G1-G9, G13 and G14, among which only G2, G4, G8 and G14 still received a Latin epithet: pusense, radiobacter, fabrum and nepotum, respectively), A. larrymoorei, A. rubi, R. skierniewicense, A. sp. 1650, and A. vitis, and for the close relative Allorhizobium undicola. Specific primers were also designed for superior taxa, Agrobacterium spp. and Rhizobiaceace. Primer specificities were assessed with target and non-target pure culture DNAs as well as with DNAs extracted from composite agrobacterial communities. In addition, we showed that the amplicon cloning-sequencing approach used with Agrobacterium-specific or Rhizobiaceae-specific primers is a way to assess the agrobacterial diversity of an indigenous agrobacterial population. Hence, the agrobacterium-specific primers designed in the present study enabled the first accurate and rapid identification of all species and/or genomic species of Agrobacterium, as well as their direct detection in environmental samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparative study of sample dissolution techniques and plasma-based instruments for the precise and accurate quantification of REEs in mineral matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty-Léveillé, Laurence; Turgeon, Keven [Département de génie des mines, de la métallurgie et des matériaux, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada); Département de chimie, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada); Bazin, Claude [Département de génie des mines, de la métallurgie et des matériaux, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada); Larivière, Dominic, E-mail: dominic.lariviere@chm.ulaval.ca [Département de chimie, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada)

    2017-04-08

    The recent commercialisation of inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometric (ICP-MS/MS) instruments has provided analytical chemists with a new tool to properly quantify atomic composition in a variety of matrices with minimal sample preparation. In this article, we report on our assessment of the compatibility of 3 sample preparation techniques (open-vessel acid digestion, microwave digestion and alkaline fusion) for the quantification of rare earth elements (REEs) in mineral matrices. The combination of the high digestion temperatures (1050 °C) and using LiBO{sub 2} as a flux was the most effective strategy for the digestion of all rare earth elements in mineral matrices and was compatible with ICP-MS/MS measurements. We also assessed the analytical performances of ICP-MS/MS against other plasma-based instrumentation (microwave induced plasma and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MIP-AES and ICP-AES, respectively) and single quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The comparative study showed that the concentrations obtained by ICP-MS/MS are in excellent agreement with the certified reference material values, and much more suited than the other analytical techniques tested for the quantification of REEs, which exhibited low detectability and/or spectral interferences for some elements/isotopes. Finally, the ruggedness of the analytical protocol proposed which combines a rapid sample dissolution step performed by an automated fusion unit and an ICP-MS/MS as a detector was established using various certified mineral matrices containing variable levels of REEs. - Highlights: • Three types of digestion methods were tested. • Four types of analytical techniques were compared. • Elimination of the spectral interferences encountered in ICP-MS was achieved by the use of Tandem ICP-MS. • Robustness of the analytical procedure was successfully evaluate on four types of certified reference material.

  3. Technical Note: An improved guideline for rapid and precise sample preparation of tree-ring stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollaen, K.; Baschek, H.; Heinrich, I.; Helle, G.

    2015-07-01

    The procedure of wood sample preparation, including tree-ring dissection, cellulose extraction, homogenization and finally weighing and packing for stable isotope analysis is labour intensive and time consuming. We present an elaborated methodical guideline from pre-analyses considerations, wood sample preparation through semi-automated chemical extraction of cellulose directly from tree-ring cross-sections to tree-ring dissection for high-precision isotope ratio mass spectrometry. This guideline reduces time and maximizes the tree-ring stable isotope data throughput significantly. The method was applied to ten different tree species (coniferous and angiosperm wood) with different wood growth rates and differently shaped tree-ring boundaries. The tree-ring structures of the cellulose cross-sections largely remained well identifiable. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometry and the comparison of stable isotope values with classical method confirm chemical purity of the resultant cellulose. Sample homogenization is no longer necessary. Cellulose extraction is now faster, cheaper and more user friendly allowing (i) the simultaneous treatment of wood cross-sections of a total length of 180 cm (equivalent to 6 increment cores of 30 cm length) and thickness of 0.5 to 2 mm, and (ii) precise tree-ring separation at annual to high-resolution scale utilizing manual devices or UV-laser microdissection microscopes.

  4. Rapid and accurate detection of Escherichia coli growth by fluorescent pH-sensitive organic nanoparticles for high-throughput screening applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Yang; Grazon, Chloé; Clavier, Gilles; Rieger, Jutta; Audibert, Jean-Frédéric; Sclavi, Bianca; Méallet-Renault, Rachel

    2016-01-15

    Rapid detection of bacterial growth is an important issue in the food industry and for medical research. Here we present a novel kind of pH-sensitive fluorescent nanoparticles (FANPs) that can be used for the rapid and accurate real-time detection of Escherichia coli growth. These organic particles are designed to be non-toxic and highly water-soluble. Here we show that the coupling of pH sensitive fluoresceinamine to the nanoparticles results in an increased sensitivity to changes in pH within a physiologically relevant range that can be used to monitor the presence of live bacteria. In addition, these FANPs do not influence bacterial growth and are stable over several hours in a complex medium and in the presence of bacteria. The use of these FANPs allows for continuous monitoring of bacterial growth via real-time detection over long time scales in small volumes and can thus be used for the screening of a large number of samples for high-throughput applications such as screening for the presence of antibiotic resistant strains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Rapid, Accurate, and Efficient Method to Map Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils of Abandoned Mine Sites Using Converted Portable XRF Data and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Jangwon; Lee, Hyeongyu; Choi, Yosoon

    2016-12-01

    The use of portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) increases the rapidity and accuracy of soil contamination mapping, respectively. In practice, it is often necessary to repeat the soil contamination assessment and mapping procedure several times during soil management within a limited budget. In this study, we have developed a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate soil contamination mapping method using a PXRF data and geostatistical spatial interpolation. To obtain a large quantity of high quality data for interpolation, in situ PXRF data analyzed at 40 points were transformed to converted PXRF data using the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data. The method was applied to an abandoned mine site in Korea to generate a soil contamination map for copper and was validated for investigation speed and prediction accuracy. As a result, regions that required soil remediation were identified. Our method significantly shortened the time required for mapping compared to the conventional mapping method and provided copper concentration estimates with high accuracy similar to those measured by ICP-AES. Therefore, our method is an effective way of mapping soil contamination if we consistently construct a database based on the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data.

  6. Accurate Mass Fragment Library for Rapid Analysis of Pesticides on Produce Using Ambient Pressure Desorption Ionization with High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Sara E.; Lin, Lora A.; Fricke, Frederick L.

    2014-08-01

    U.S. food imports have been increasing steadily for decades, intensifying the need for a rapid and sensitive screening technique. A method has been developed that uses foam disks to sample the surface of incoming produce. This work provides complimentary information to the extensive amount of published pesticide fragmentation data collected using LCMS systems (Sack et al. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59, 6383-6411, 2011; Mol et al. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 403, 2891-2908, 2012). The disks are directly analyzed using transmission-mode direct analysis in real time (DART) ambient pressure desorption ionization coupled to a high resolution accurate mass-mass spectrometer (HRAM-MS). In order to provide more certainty in the identification of the pesticides detected, a library of accurate mass fragments and isotopes of the protonated parent molecular ion (the [M+H]+) has been developed. The HRAM-MS is equipped with a quadrupole mass filter, providing the capability of "data-dependent" fragmentation, as opposed to "all -ion" fragmentation (where all of the ions enter a collision chamber and are fragmented at once). A temperature gradient for the DART helium stream and multiple collision energies were employed to detect and fragment 164 pesticides of varying chemical classes, sizes, and polarities. The accurate mass information of precursor ([M+H]+ ion) and fragment ions is essential in correctly identifying chemical contaminants on the surface of imported produce. Additionally, the inclusion of isotopes of the [M+H]+ in the database adds another metric to the confirmation process. The fragmentation data were collected using a Q-Exactive mass spectrometer and were added to a database used to process data collected with an Exactive mass spectrometer, an instrument that is more readily available for this screening application. The commodities investigated range from smooth-skinned produce such as apples to rougher surfaces like broccoli. The

  7. Precision Mass Measurements of 129-131Cd and Their Impact on Stellar Nucleosynthesis via the Rapid Neutron Capture Process

    CERN Document Server

    Atanasov, D.; Blaum, K.; Cakirli, R.B.; Cocolios, T.E.; George, S.; Herfurth, F.; Kisler, D.; Janka, H.T.; Just, O.; Kowalska, M.; Kreim, S.; Kisler, D.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Lunney, D.; Manea, V.; Neidherr, D.; Rosenbusch, M.; Schweikhard, L.; Welker, A.; Wienholtz, F.; Wolf, R. N.; Zuber, K.

    2015-01-01

    Masses adjacent to the classical waiting-point nuclide 130Cd have been measured by using the Penning- trap spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN. We find a significant deviation of over 400 keV from earlier values evaluated by using nuclear beta-decay data. The new measurements show the reduction of the N = 82 shell gap below the doubly magic 132Sn. The nucleosynthesis associated with the ejected wind from type-II supernovae as well as from compact object binary mergers is studied, by using state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations. We find a consistent and direct impact of the newly measured masses on the calculated abundances in the A = 128 - 132 region and a reduction of the uncertainties from the precision mass input data.

  8. Rapid measurement of human milk macronutrients in the neonatal intensive care unit: accuracy and precision of fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Gho, Deborah S; Mirmiran, Majid; German, J Bruce; Underwood, Mark A

    2014-05-01

    Although it is well established that human milk varies widely in macronutrient content, it remains common for human milk fortification for premature infants to be based on historic mean values. As a result, those caring for premature infants often underestimate protein intake. Rapid precise measurement of human milk protein, fat, and lactose to allow individualized fortification has been proposed for decades but remains elusive due to technical challenges. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of a Fourier transform (FT) mid-infrared (IR) spectroscope in the neonatal intensive care unit to measure human milk fat, total protein, lactose, and calculated energy compared with standard chemical analyses. One hundred sixteen breast milk samples across lactation stages from women who delivered at term (n = 69) and preterm (n = 5) were analyzed with the FT mid-IR spectroscope and with standard chemical methods. Ten of the samples were tested in replicate using the FT mid-IR spectroscope to determine repeatability. The agreement between the FT mid-IR spectroscope analysis and reference methods was high for protein and fat and moderate for lactose and energy. The intra-assay coefficients of variation for all outcomes were less than 3%. The FT mid-IR spectroscope demonstrated high accuracy in measurement of total protein and fat of preterm and term milk with high precision.

  9. Accuracy and precision of polyurethane dental arch models fabricated using a three-dimensional subtractive rapid prototyping method with an intraoral scanning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Ki-Baek; Kim, Woong-Chul; Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Young

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of polyurethane (PUT) dental arch models fabricated using a three-dimensional (3D) subtractive rapid prototyping (RP) method with an intraoral scanning technique by comparing linear measurements obtained from PUT models and conventional plaster models. Ten plaster models were duplicated using a selected standard master model and conventional impression, and 10 PUT models were duplicated using the 3D subtractive RP technique with an oral scanner. Six linear measurements were evaluated in terms of x, y, and z-axes using a non-contact white light scanner. Accuracy was assessed using mean differences between two measurements, and precision was examined using four quantitative methods and the Bland-Altman graphical method. Repeatability was evaluated in terms of intra-examiner variability, and reproducibility was assessed in terms of inter-examiner and inter-method variability. The mean difference between plaster models and PUT models ranged from 0.07 mm to 0.33 mm. Relative measurement errors ranged from 2.2% to 7.6% and intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.93 to 0.96, when comparing plaster models and PUT models. The Bland-Altman plot showed good agreement. The accuracy and precision of PUT dental models for evaluating the performance of oral scanner and subtractive RP technology was acceptable. Because of the recent improvements in block material and computerized numeric control milling machines, the subtractive RP method may be a good choice for dental arch models.

  10. Rapid, Sensitive, and Accurate Evaluation of Drug Resistant Mutant (NS5A-Y93H Strain Frequency in Genotype 1b HCV by Invader Assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yoshimi

    Full Text Available Daclatasvir and asunaprevir dual oral therapy is expected to achieve high sustained virological response (SVR rates in patients with HCV genotype 1b infection. However, presence of the NS5A-Y93H substitution at baseline has been shown to be an independent predictor of treatment failure for this regimen. By using the Invader assay, we developed a system to rapidly and accurately detect the presence of mutant strains and evaluate the proportion of patients harboring a pre-treatment Y93H mutation. This assay system, consisting of nested PCR followed by Invader reaction with well-designed primers and probes, attained a high overall assay success rate of 98.9% among a total of 702 Japanese HCV genotype 1b patients. Even in serum samples with low HCV titers, more than half of the samples could be successfully assayed. Our assay system showed a better lower detection limit of Y93H proportion than using direct sequencing, and Y93H frequencies obtained by this method correlated well with those of deep-sequencing analysis (r = 0.85, P <0.001. The proportion of the patients with the mutant strain estimated by this assay was 23.6% (164/694. Interestingly, patients with the Y93H mutant strain showed significantly lower ALT levels (p=8.8 x 10-4, higher serum HCV RNA levels (p=4.3 x 10-7, and lower HCC risk (p=6.9 x 10-3 than those with the wild type strain. Because the method is both sensitive and rapid, the NS5A-Y93H mutant strain detection system established in this study may provide important pre-treatment information valuable not only for treatment decisions but also for prediction of disease progression in HCV genotype 1b patients.

  11. Automated method for the rapid and precise estimation of adherent cell culture characteristics from phase contrast microscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaccard, Nicolas; Griffin, Lewis D; Keser, Ana; Macown, Rhys J; Super, Alexandre; Veraitch, Farlan S; Szita, Nicolas

    2014-03-01

    The quantitative determination of key adherent cell culture characteristics such as confluency, morphology, and cell density is necessary for the evaluation of experimental outcomes and to provide a suitable basis for the establishment of robust cell culture protocols. Automated processing of images acquired using phase contrast microscopy (PCM), an imaging modality widely used for the visual inspection of adherent cell cultures, could enable the non-invasive determination of these characteristics. We present an image-processing approach that accurately detects cellular objects in PCM images through a combination of local contrast thresholding and post hoc correction of halo artifacts. The method was thoroughly validated using a variety of cell lines, microscope models and imaging conditions, demonstrating consistently high segmentation performance in all cases and very short processing times (microscopy image processing pipelines. Furthermore, PCM image segmentation was used to facilitate the interpretation and analysis of fluorescence microscopy data, enabling the determination of temporal and spatial expression patterns of a fluorescent reporter. We created a software toolbox (PHANTAST) that bundles all the algorithms and provides an easy to use graphical user interface. Source-code for MATLAB and ImageJ is freely available under a permissive open-source license. © 2013 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A rapid and accurate method for determining protein content in dairy products based on asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qin-Qin; Li, Yong-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    An accurate and rapid method and a system to determine protein content using asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry based on reaction between coomassie brilliant blue G250 (CBBG) and protein was established. Main merit of our approach is that it can avoid interferences of other nitric-compounds in samples, such as melamine and urea. Optimized conditions are as follows: Concentrations of CBBG, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), NaCl and HCl are 150 mg/l, 30 mg/l, 0.1 mol/l and 1.0% (v/v), respectively; volumes of the sample and reagent are 150 μl and 30 μl, respectively; length of a reaction coil is 200 cm; total flow rate is 2.65 ml/min. The linear range of the method is 0.5-15 mg/l (BSA), its detection limit is 0.05 mg/l, relative standard deviation is less than 1.87% (n=11), and analytical speed is 60 samples per hour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enzymic colorimetry-based DNA chip: a rapid and accurate assay for detecting mutations for clarithromycin resistance in the 23S rRNA gene of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Shi-Hai; Zhou, Yu-Gui; Shao, Bo; Cui, Ya-Lin; Li, Jian; Yin, Hong-Bo; Song, Xiao-Ping; Cong, Hui; Jing, Feng-Xiang; Jin, Qing-Hui; Wang, Hui-Min; Zhou, Jie

    2009-11-01

    Macrolide drugs, such as clarithromycin (CAM), are a key component of many combination therapies used to eradicate Helicobacter pylori. However, resistance to CAM is increasing in H. pylori and is becoming a serious problem in H. pylori eradication therapy. CAM resistance in H. pylori is mostly due to point mutations (A2142G/C, A2143G) in the peptidyltransferase-encoding region of the 23S rRNA gene. In this study an enzymic colorimetry-based DNA chip was developed to analyse single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the 23S rRNA gene to determine the prevalence of mutations in CAM-related resistance in H. pylori-positive patients. The results of the colorimetric DNA chip were confirmed by direct DNA sequencing. In 63 samples, the incidence of the A2143G mutation was 17.46 % (11/63). The results of the colorimetric DNA chip were concordant with DNA sequencing in 96.83 % of results (61/63). The colorimetric DNA chip could detect wild-type and mutant signals at every site, even at a DNA concentration of 1.53 x 10(2) copies microl(-1). Thus, the colorimetric DNA chip is a reliable assay for rapid and accurate detection of mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of H. pylori that lead to CAM-related resistance, directly from gastric tissues.

  14. Rapid conversion of an oceanic spreading center to a subduction zone inferred from high-precision geochronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Timothy E; Encarnación, John; Buchwaldt, Robert; Fernandez, Dan; Mattinson, James; Rasoazanamparany, Christine; Luetkemeyer, P Benjamin

    2016-11-22

    Where and how subduction zones initiate is a fundamental tectonic problem, yet there are few well-constrained geologic tests that address the tectonic settings and dynamics of the process. Numerical modeling has shown that oceanic spreading centers are some of the weakest parts of the plate tectonic system [Gurnis M, Hall C, Lavier L (2004) Geochem Geophys Geosys 5:Q07001], but previous studies have not favored them for subduction initiation because of the positive buoyancy of young lithosphere. Instead, other weak zones, such as fracture zones, have been invoked. Because these models differ in terms of the ages of crust that are juxtaposed at the site of subduction initiation, they can be tested by dating the protoliths of metamorphosed oceanic crust that is formed by underthrusting at the beginning of subduction and comparing that age with the age of the overlying lithosphere and the timing of subduction initiation itself. In the western Philippines, we find that oceanic crust was less than ∼1 My old when it was underthrust and metamorphosed at the onset of subduction in Palawan, Philippines, implying forced subduction initiation at a spreading center. This result shows that young and positively buoyant, but weak, lithosphere was the preferred site for subduction nucleation despite the proximity of other potential weak zones with older, denser lithosphere and that plate motion rapidly changed from divergence to convergence.

  15. Accurate reconstruction of discontinuous mandible using a reverse engineering/computer-aided design/rapid prototyping technique: a preliminary clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-bin; Shang, Hong-tao; He, Li-sheng; Bo, Bin; Liu, Gui-cai; Liu, Yan-pu; Zhao, Jin-long

    2010-09-01

    To improve the reconstructive surgical outcome of a discontinuous mandibular defect, we used reverse engineering (RE), computer-aided design (CAD), and rapid prototyping (RP) technique to fabricate customized mandibular trays to precisely restore the mandibular defects. Autogenous bone grafting was also used to restore the bony continuity for occlusion rehabilitation. Six patients who had undergone block resection of the mandible underwent reconstruction using a custom titanium tray combining autogenous iliac grafts. The custom titanium tray was made using a RE/CAD/RP technique. A virtual 3-dimensional model was obtained by spiral computed tomography scanning. The opposite side of the mandible was mirrored to cover the defect area to restore excellent facial symmetry. A bone grafting tray was designed from the mirrored image and manufactured using RP processing and casting. The mandibular defects were restored using the trays in combination of autologous iliac grafting. An implant denture was made for 1 of the 6 patients at 24 weeks postoperatively for occlusion rehabilitation. The trays fabricated using this technique fit well in all 6 patients. The reconstructive procedures were easy and time saving. Satisfactory facial symmetry was restored. No severe complications occurred in the 5 patients without occlusion rehabilitation during a mean 50-month follow-up period. The reconstruction in the patient with occlusion lasted for only 1 year and failed eventually because of bone resorption and infection. Mandibular reconstruction was facilitated using the RE/CAD/RP technique. Satisfactory esthetic results were achieved. However, the rigidity of the cast tray could cause severe stress shielding to the grafts, which could lead to disuse atrophy. Therefore, some modification is needed for functional reconstruction. Copyright 2010 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Precision mass measurements for studies of nucleosynthesis via the rapid neutron-capture process. Penning-trap mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium and caesium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, Dinko

    2016-07-06

    Although the theory for the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) was developed more than 55 years ago, the astrophysical site is still under a debate. Theoretical studies predict that the r-process path proceeds through very neutron-rich nuclei with very asymmetric proton-to-neutron ratios. Knowledge about the properties of neutron-rich isotopes found in similar regions of the nuclear chart and furthermore suitable for r-process studies is still little or even not existing. The basic nuclear properties such as binding energies, half-lives, neutron-induced or neutron-capture reaction cross-sections, play an important role in theoretical simulations and can vary or even drastically alternate results of these studies. Therefore, a considerable effort was put forward to access neutron-rich isotopes at radioactive ion-beam facilities like ISOLDE at CERN. The goal of this PhD thesis is to describe the experimental work done for the precision mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium ({sup 129-131}Cd) and caesium ({sup 132,146-148}Cs) isotopes. Measurements were done at the on-line radioactive ion-beam facility ISOLDE by using the four-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The cadmium isotopes are key nuclides for the synthesis of stable isotopes around the mass peak A = 130 in the Solar System abundance.

  17. Precision mass measurements for studies of nucleosynthesis via the rapid neutron-capture process Penning-trap mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium and caesium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2085660; Litvinov, Yuri A.; Kreim, Susanne

    Although the theory for the rapid neutron-capture process (r-process) was developed more than 55 years ago, the astrophysical site is still under a debate. Theoretical studies predict that the r-process path proceeds through very neutron-rich nuclei with very asymmetric proton- to-neutron ratios. Knowledge about the properties of neutron-rich isotopes found in similar regions of the nuclear chart and furthermore suitable for r-process studies is still little or even not existing. The basic nuclear properties such as binding energies, half-lives, neutron-induced or neutron-capture reaction cross-sections, play an important role in theoretical simulations and can vary or even drastically alternate results of these studies. Therefore, a considerable effort was put forward to access neutron-rich isotopes at radioactive ion-beam facilities like ISOLDE at CERN. The goal of this PhD thesis is to describe the experimental work done for the precision mass measurements of neutron-rich cadmium (129−131 Cd) and caesium...

  18. Rapid and precise measurement of serum branched-chain and aromatic amino acids by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyue Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serum branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and AAAs have emerged as predictors for the future development of diabetes and may aid in diabetes risk assessment. However, the current methods for the analysis of such amino acids in biological samples are time consuming. METHODS: An isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC/MS/MS method for serum BCAAs and AAAs was developed. The serum was mixed with isotope-labeled BCAA and AAA internal standards and the amino acids were extracted with acetonitrile, followed by analysis using LC/MS/MS. The LC separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column, and the MS/MS detection was performed via the positive electronic spray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. RESULTS: Specific analysis of the amino acids was achieved within 2 min. Intra-run and total CVs for the amino acids were less than 2% and 4%, respectively, and the analytical recoveries ranged from 99.6 to 103.6%. CONCLUSION: A rapid and precise method for the measurement of serum BCAAs and AAAs was developed and may serve as a quick tool for screening serum BCAAs and AAAs in studies assessing diabetes risk.

  19. A novel generic dipstick-based technology for rapid and precise detection of tetracycline, streptogramin and macrolide antibiotics in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Nils; Weber, Wilfried; Fussenegger, Martin

    2007-02-20

    Excessive use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine and as growth promoters in stock farming has been associated with the dramatically increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant human pathogenic bacteria. European community legislators have therefore restricted the veterinary use of antibiotics and banned them as growth-promoting food additives in stock breeding (1831/2003/EC). The monitoring of such legislation requires technology for precise and straightforward on-site quantification of antibiotics in farm samples and food products without the need for extensive laboratory equipment and trained personnel. Capitalizing on bacterial transcriptional regulators (TetR, PIP, E), which are dose-dependently released from their cognate operators (tetO, PIR, ETR) upon binding of specific classes of antibiotics (tetracycline, streptogramins, macrolides) we have designed an easy-to-handle dipstick-based assay for detection of antibiotic levels in serum, meat and milk whose detection limits are up to 40-fold below licensed threshold values. The generic dipstick consists of either nitrocellulose, nylon or polyvinylidenfluorid (PVDF) membrane strips coated with streptavidin and immobilized biotinylated operator DNA, which acts as capture DNA to bind hexa-histidine (His(6))-tagged bacterial biosensors. Antibiotics present in specific samples triggered the dose-dependent release of the capture DNA-biosensor interaction, which, after dipping into two different solutions, results in a correlated conversion of a chromogenic substrate by a standard His(6)-targeted enzyme complex. This can be quantified by comparison of the dipstick to a standardized color scale or by assessing the terminal solution at 450nm. As demonstrated using serum, meat and milk samples spiked with 14 different antibiotics, the dipstick technology provided sensitive detection in a rapid assay format, and could be employed to monitor non-authorized use of antibiotics and to discover novel antibiotics.

  20. Development of a Rapid and Accurate Identification Method for Citrobacter Species Isolated from Pork Products Using a Matrix-Assisted Laser-Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Hye-Lim; Han, Sun-Kyung; Park, Sunghoon; Park, Si Hong; Shim, Jae-Yong; Oh, Mihwa; Ricke, Steven C; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2015-09-01

    Previous detection methods for Citrobacter are considered time consuming and laborious. In this study, we have developed a rapid and accurate detection method for Citrobacter species in pork products, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). A total of 35 Citrobacter strains were isolated from 30 pork products and identified by both MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA gene sequencing approaches. All isolates were identified to the species level by the MALDI-TOF MS, while 16S rRNA gene sequencing results could not discriminate them clearly. These results confirmed that MALDI-TOF MS is a more accurate and rapid detection method for the identification of Citrobacter species.

  1. Immediate-Early Gene Transcriptional Activation in Hippocampus Ca1 and Ca3 Does Not Accurately Reflect Rapid, Pattern Completion-Based Retrieval of Context Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pevzner, Aleksandr; Guzowski, John F.

    2015-01-01

    No studies to date have examined whether immediate-early gene (IEG) activation is driven by context memory recall. To address this question, we utilized the context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) paradigm. In CPFE, animals acquire contextual fear conditioning through hippocampus-dependent rapid retrieval of a previously formed contextual…

  2. Rapid and accurate identification of isolates of Candida species by melting peak and melting curve analysis of the internally transcribed spacer region 2 fragment (ITS2-MCA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decat, E.; van Mechelen, E.; Saerens, B.; Vermeulen, S.J.T.; Boekhout, T.; de Blaiser, S.; Vaneechoutte, M.; Deschaght, P.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid identification of clinically important yeasts can facilitate the initiation of anti-fungal therapy, since susceptibility is largely species-dependent. We evaluated melting peak and melting curve analysis of the internally transcribed spacer region 2 fragment (ITS2-MCA) as an identification

  3. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  4. A rapid and high-precision method for sulfur isotope δ(34)S determination with a multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer: matrix effect correction and applications for water samples without chemical purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, An-Jun; Yang, Tao; Jiang, Shao-Yong

    2014-04-15

    Previous studies have indicated that prior chemical purification of samples, although complex and time-consuming, is essential in obtaining precise and accurate results for sulfur isotope ratios using multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). In this study, we introduce a new, rapid and precise MC-ICP-MS method for sulfur isotope determination from water samples without chemical purification. The analytical work was performed on an MC-ICP-MS instrument with medium mass resolution (m/Δm ~ 3000). Standard-sample bracketing (SSB) was used to correct samples throughout the analytical sessions. Reference materials included an Alfa-S (ammonium sulfate) standard solution, ammonium sulfate provided by the lab of the authors and fresh seawater from the South China Sea. A range of matrix-matched Alfa-S standard solutions and ammonium sulfate solutions was used to investigate the matrix (salinity) effect (matrix was added in the form of NaCl). A seawater sample was used to confirm the reliability of the method. Using matrix-matched (salinity-matched) Alfa-S as the working standard, the measured δ(34)S value of AS (-6.73 ± 0.09‰) was consistent with the reference value (-6.78 ± 0.07‰) within the uncertainty, suggesting that this method could be recommended for the measurement of water samples without prior chemical purification. The δ(34)S value determination for the unpurified seawater also yielded excellent results (21.03 ± 0.18‰) that are consistent with the reference value (20.99‰), thus confirming the feasibility of the technique. The data and the results indicate that it is feasible to use MC-ICP-MS and matrix-matched working standards to measure the sulfur isotopic compositions of water samples directly without chemical purification. In comparison with the existing MC-ICP-MS techniques, the new method is better for directly measuring δ(34)S values in water samples with complex matrices; therefore, it can

  5. Are Treponema pallidum specific rapid and point-of-care tests for syphilis accurate enough for screening in resource limited settings? Evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Jafari

    Full Text Available Rapid and point-of-care (POC tests for syphilis are an invaluable screening tool, yet inadequate evaluation of their diagnostic accuracy against best reference standards limits their widespread global uptake. To fill this gap, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of rapid and POC tests in blood and serum samples against Treponema pallidum (TP specific reference standards.Five electronic databases (1980-2012 were searched, data was extracted from 33 articles, and Bayesian hierarchical models were fit.In serum samples, against a TP specific reference standard point estimates with 95% credible intervals (CrI for the sensitivities of popular tests were: i Determine, 90.04% (80.45, 95.21, ii SD Bioline, 87.06% (75.67, 94.50, iii VisiTect, 85.13% (72.83, 92.57, and iv Syphicheck, 74.48% (56.85, 88.44, while specificities were: i Syphicheck, 99.14% (96.37, 100, ii Visitect, 96.45% (91.92, 99.29, iii SD Bioline, 95.85% (89.89, 99.53, and iv Determine, 94.15% (89.26, 97.66. In whole blood samples, sensitivities were: i Determine, 86.32% (77.26, 91.70, ii SD Bioline, 84.50% (78.81, 92.61, iii Syphicheck, 74.47% (63.94, 82.13, and iv VisiTect, 74.26% (53.62, 83.68, while specificities were: i Syphicheck, 99.58% (98.91, 99.96, ii VisiTect, 99.43% (98.22, 99.98, iii SD Bioline, 97.95%(92.54, 99.33, and iv Determine, 95.85% (92.42, 97.74.Rapid and POC treponemal tests reported sensitivity and specificity estimates comparable to laboratory-based treponemal tests. In resource limited settings, where access to screening is limited and where risk of patients lost to follow up is high, the introduction of these tests has already been shown to improve access to screening and treatment to prevent stillbirths and neonatal mortality due to congenital syphilis. Based on the evidence, it is concluded that rapid and POC tests are useful in resource limited settings with poor access to laboratories or screening

  6. Importance of a Rapid and Accurate Diagnosis inStrongyloides Stercoralisand Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 Co-infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Olga; Berini, Carolina A; Waldbaum, Carlos; Avagnina, Alejandra; Juarez, María; Repetto, Silvia; Sorda, Juan; Biglione, Mirna

    2017-01-01

    Strongyloides (S.) stercoralis and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 (HTLV-1) share some endemic regions such as Japan, Jamaica, and South America and are mostly diagnosed elsewhere in immigrants from endemic areas. This co-infection has not been documented in Argentina although both pathogens are endemic in the Northwest. We present a case of S. stercoralis and HTLV-1 co-infection with an initial presentation due to gastrointestinal symptoms which presented neither eosinophilia nor the presence of larvae in stool samples in a non-endemic area for these infections. A young Peruvian woman living in Buenos Aires attended several emergency rooms and finally ended up admitted in a gastroenterology ward due to incoercible vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. Gastrointestinal symptoms started 3 months before she returned to Argentina from a trip to Peru. She presented malnutrition and abdominal distension parameters. HIV-1 and other immunodeficiencies were discarded. The serial coproparasitological test was negative. Computed tomography showed diffuse thickening of duodenal and jejunal walls. At the beginning, vasculitis was suspected and corticosteroid therapy was initiated. The patient worsened rapidly. Skin, new enteral biopsies, and a new set of coproparasitological samples revealed S. stercoralis . Then, HTLV-1 was suspected and infection was confirmed. Ivermectin and albendazole were administrated, until the stool sample remained negative for 2 weeks. Larvae were not observed in fresh stool, Ritchie method, and agar culture 1 week post-treatment. Although she required initial support with parenteral nutrition due to oral intolerance she slowly progressed favorably. It has been highly recommended to include a rapid and sensitive PCR strategy in the algorithm to confirm Strongyloides infection, which has demonstrated to improve early diagnosis in patients at-risk of disseminated strongyloidiasis.

  7. Snow thickness profiling on Antarctic sea ice with GPR—Rapid and accurate measurements with the potential to upscale needles to a haystack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffhuber, Andreas A.; Lieser, Jan L.; Haas, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Snow thickness on sea ice is a largely undersampled parameter yet of importance for the sea ice mass balance and for satellite-based sea ice thickness estimates and thus our general understanding of global ice volume change. Traditional direct thickness measurements with meter sticks can provide accurate but only spot information, referred to as "needles" due to their pinpoint focus and information, while airborne and satellite remote sensing snow products, referred to as "the haystack," have large uncertainties due to their scale. We demonstrate the remarkable accuracy and applicability of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) snow thickness measurements by comparing them with in situ meter stick data from two field campaigns to Antarctica in late winter/early spring. The efficiency and millimeter-to-centimeter accuracy of GPR enables practitioners to acquire extensive, semiregional data with the potential to upscale needles to the haystack and to potentially calibrate satellite remote sensing products that we confirm to derive roughly 30% of the in situ thickness. We find the radar wave propagation velocity in snow to be rather constant (± 6%), encouraging regional snow thickness surveys. Snow thinner than 10 cm is under the detection limit with the off-the-shelf GPR setup utilized in our study.

  8. Rapid and Accurate Approach for Screening of Microsatellite Unstable Tumours Using Quasimonomorphic Mononucleotide Repeats and Denaturating High Performance Liquid Chromatography (DHPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašper Berginc

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available MSI analysis is becoming increasingly important for the detection of both hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and sporadic primary colorectal tumours with MSI high phenotype. The Bethesda panel of five microsatellite markers has been proposed to provide uniform criteria for MSI analysis. Here we report on an MSI analysis approach using quasimonomorphic mononucleotide repeats and denaturating high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC. We analysed 595 newly diagnosed colorectal tumours and 145 normal samples. Microsatellite markers BAT-25, BAT-26, NR-21, NR-22, and NR-27 were amplified in multiplex reaction and analysed using DHPLC and capillary electrophoresis (CE. DHPLC conditions for analysis of MSI multiplex assay were evaluated and tested. Analysis and cross-examination of the results obtained from 96 samples using DHPLC and capillary electrophoresis showed the same sensitivity and specificity of the two approaches for detecting MSI-H tumours. Using our new approach we showed that the tested markers are quasimonomorphic in a Slovenian population, with frequencies of polymorphisms 0.07%, 1.4%, 2.1%, 1.4%, and 1.4% for BAT-25, BAT-26, NR-21, NR-22, and NR-27, respectively. Forty-three (7.2% new MSI-H tumours were identified, of which 84% showed instability in all 5 tested markers. Overall, we developed a high-throughput, robust, accurate and cost-effective approach for the detection of MSI-H tumours.

  9. Rapid genome mapping in nanochannel arrays for highly complete and accurate de novo sequence assembly of the complex Aegilops tauschii genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex R Hastie

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies have enabled high-throughput and low-cost generation of sequence data; however, de novo genome assembly remains a great challenge, particularly for large genomes. NGS short reads are often insufficient to create large contigs that span repeat sequences and to facilitate unambiguous assembly. Plant genomes are notorious for containing high quantities of repetitive elements, which combined with huge genome sizes, makes accurate assembly of these large and complex genomes intractable thus far. Using two-color genome mapping of tiling bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC clones on nanochannel arrays, we completed high-confidence assembly of a 2.1-Mb, highly repetitive region in the large and complex genome of Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum. Genome mapping is based on direct visualization of sequence motifs on single DNA molecules hundreds of kilobases in length. With the genome map as a scaffold, we anchored unplaced sequence contigs, validated the initial draft assembly, and resolved instances of misassembly, some involving contigs <2 kb long, to dramatically improve the assembly from 75% to 95% complete.

  10. Rapid genome mapping in nanochannel arrays for highly complete and accurate de novo sequence assembly of the complex Aegilops tauschii genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Alex R; Dong, Lingli; Smith, Alexis; Finklestein, Jeff; Lam, Ernest T; Huo, Naxin; Cao, Han; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Deal, Karin R; Dvorak, Jan; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Gu, Yong; Xiao, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled high-throughput and low-cost generation of sequence data; however, de novo genome assembly remains a great challenge, particularly for large genomes. NGS short reads are often insufficient to create large contigs that span repeat sequences and to facilitate unambiguous assembly. Plant genomes are notorious for containing high quantities of repetitive elements, which combined with huge genome sizes, makes accurate assembly of these large and complex genomes intractable thus far. Using two-color genome mapping of tiling bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) clones on nanochannel arrays, we completed high-confidence assembly of a 2.1-Mb, highly repetitive region in the large and complex genome of Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum). Genome mapping is based on direct visualization of sequence motifs on single DNA molecules hundreds of kilobases in length. With the genome map as a scaffold, we anchored unplaced sequence contigs, validated the initial draft assembly, and resolved instances of misassembly, some involving contigs <2 kb long, to dramatically improve the assembly from 75% to 95% complete.

  11. An Immunoassay to Rapidly Measure Acetaminophen Protein Adducts Accurately Identifies Patients With Acute Liver Injury or Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dean W; Lee, William M; Hinson, Jack A; Bai, Shasha; Swearingen, Christopher J; Stravitz, R Todd; Reuben, Adrian; Letzig, Lynda; Simpson, Pippa M; Rule, Jody; Fontana, Robert J; Ganger, Daniel; Reddy, K Rajender; Liou, Iris; Fix, Oren; James, Laura P

    2017-04-01

    A rapid and reliable point-of-care assay to detect acetaminophen protein adducts in the serum of patients with acute liver injury could improve diagnosis and management. AcetaSTAT is a competitive immunoassay used to measure acetaminophen protein adducts formed by toxic metabolites in serum samples from patients. We compared the accuracy of AcetaSTAT vs high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC; a sensitive and specific quantitative analytic assay) to detect acetaminophen protein adducts. We collected serum samples from 19 healthy individuals (no liver injury, no recent acetaminophen use), 29 patients without acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury, and 33 patients with acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury participating in the Acute Liver Failure Study Group registry. Each serum sample was analyzed by AcetaSTAT (reported as test band amplitude) and HPLC-EC (the reference standard). We also collected data on patient age, sex, weight, level of alanine aminotransferase on test day and peak values, concentration of acetaminophen, diagnoses (by site investigator and causality review committee), and outcome after 21 days. Differences between groups were analyzed using the Fisher exact test for categoric variables and the Kruskal-Wallis test or rank-sum test for continuous variables. AcetaSTAT discriminated between patients with and without acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury; the median AcetaSTAT test band amplitude for patients with acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury was 584 (range, 222-1027) vs 3678 (range, 394-8289) for those without (P acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury with 100% sensitivity, 86.2% specificity, a positive predictive value of 89.2%, and a negative predictive value of 100%. Results from AcetaSTAT were positive in 4 subjects who received a causality review committee diagnosis of non-acetaminophen-associated acute liver injury; HPLC-EC and biochemical profiles were consistent with

  12. High-Precision Computation and Mathematical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2008-11-03

    At the present time, IEEE 64-bit floating-point arithmetic is sufficiently accurate for most scientific applications. However, for a rapidly growing body of important scientific computing applications, a higher level of numeric precision is required. Such calculations are facilitated by high-precision software packages that include high-level language translation modules to minimize the conversion effort. This paper presents a survey of recent applications of these techniques and provides some analysis of their numerical requirements. These applications include supernova simulations, climate modeling, planetary orbit calculations, Coulomb n-body atomic systems, scattering amplitudes of quarks, gluons and bosons, nonlinear oscillator theory, Ising theory, quantum field theory and experimental mathematics. We conclude that high-precision arithmetic facilities are now an indispensable component of a modern large-scale scientific computing environment.

  13. Precision Machining

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This special issue of S¯adhan¯a is devoted to Precision Engineering. Recent progress in this field clearly indicates the transition of precision technology to precision science. Dr. Mer- chant's new theory on the mechanics of metal cutting in 1944 heralded a new approach, moving away from the empirical work of Taylor ...

  14. Dual rapid lateral flow immunoassay fingerstick wholeblood testing for syphilis and HIV infections is acceptable and accurate, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Claire C; Severe, Linda; Pape, Jean William; Javanbakht, Marjan; Lee, Sung-Jae; Comulada, Warren Scott; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-06-18

    Dual rapid tests for HIV and syphilis infections allow for detection of HIV infection and syphilis at the point-of-care. Those tests have been evaluated in laboratory settings and show excellent performance but have not been evaluated in the field. We evaluated the field performance of the SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo test in Port-au-Prince, Haiti using whole blood fingerprick specimens. GHESKIO (Haitian Study Group for Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections) clinic attendees 18 years of age or older were invited to participate. Venipuncture blood specimens were used for reference testing with standard commercially available tests for HIV and syphilis in Haiti. The sensitivity and specificity of the Duo test compared to the reference standard were calculated. The exact binomial method was used to determine 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Of 298 study participants, 237 (79.5 %) were female, of which 49 (20.7 %) were pregnant. For the HIV test component, the sensitivity and specificity were 99.2 % (95 % CI: 95.8 %, 100 %) and 97.0 % (95 % CI: 93.2 %, 99.0 %), respectively; and for the syphilis component were 96.5 % (95 % CI: 91.2 %, 99.0 %) and 90.8 % (95 % CI: 85.7 %, 94.6 %), respectively. In pregnant women, the sensitivity and specificity of the HIV test component were 93.3 % (95 % CI: 68.0 %, 99.8 %) and 94.1 % (95 % CI: 80.3 %, 99.3 %), respectively; and for the syphilis component were 100 % (95 % CI:81.5 %, 100 %) and 96.8 % (95 % CI:83.3 %, 99.9 %), respectively. The Standard Diagnostics BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo dual test performed well in a field setting in Haiti and should be considered for wider use.

  15. Laser precision microfabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Sugioka, Koji; Pique, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Miniaturization and high precision are rapidly becoming a requirement for many industrial processes and products. As a result, there is greater interest in the use of laser microfabrication technology to achieve these goals. This book composed of 16 chapters covers all the topics of laser precision processing from fundamental aspects to industrial applications to both inorganic and biological materials. It reviews the sate of the art of research and technological development in the area of laser processing.

  16. Precision Muonium Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, Klaus P.

    2016-01-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 mu s. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In

  17. Why precision?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes

    2012-05-15

    Precision measurements together with exact theoretical calculations have led to steady progress in fundamental physics. A brief survey is given on recent developments and current achievements in the field of perturbative precision calculations in the Standard Model of the Elementary Particles and their application in current high energy collider data analyses.

  18. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 5S-rRNA-NTS region: a rapid and precise method for plant identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertea, Cinzia Margherita; Gnavi, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Molecular genetic methods have several advantages over classical morphological and chemical analyses. The genetic method requires genotype instead than phenotype, therefore PCR-based techniques have been widely used for a rapid identification of plant species, varieties and chemotypes. Recently, the molecular discrimination of some higher plant species has been evaluated using sequences of a 5S-rRNA gene spacer region. The variation in the nontranscribed sequence (NTS) region has been used in a number of plant species for studying intraspecific variation, genome evolution, and phylogenetic reconstruction. Here, we describe a rapid method based on the use of the 5S-rRNA-NTS region as a tool for plant DNA fingerprinting, which combines PCR, sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses.

  19. Precision machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Slocum, Alexander H

    1992-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive engineering exploration of all the aspects of precision machine design - both component and system design considerations for precision machines. It addresses both theoretical analysis and practical implementation providing many real-world design case studies as well as numerous examples of existing components and their characteristics. Fast becoming a classic, this book includes examples of analysis techniques, along with the philosophy of the solution method. It explores the physics of errors in machines and how such knowledge can be used to build an error budget for a machine, how error budgets can be used to design more accurate machines.

  20. Precision metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X; Whitehouse, D J

    2012-08-28

    This article is a summary of the Satellite Meeting, which followed on from the Discussion Meeting at the Royal Society on 'Ultra-precision engineering: from physics to manufacture', held at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre, Chicheley Hall, Buckinghamshire, UK. The meeting was restricted to 18 invited experts in various aspects of precision metrology from academics from the UK and Sweden, Government Institutes from the UK and Germany and global aerospace industries. It examined and identified metrology problem areas that are, or may be, limiting future developments in precision engineering and, in particular, metrology. The Satellite Meeting was intended to produce a vision that will inspire academia and industry to address the solutions of those open-ended problems identified. The discussion covered three areas, namely the function of engineering parts, their measurement and their manufacture, as well as their interactions.

  1. A rapid and fully automatic method for the accurate determination of a wide carbon-chain range of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (C4-C18) in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ke; Gao, Yan; Li, Yili; Fu, Jianjie; Zhang, Aiqian

    2016-11-04

    A rapid and fully automatic method for determining 21 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (with carbon chains ranging from C4 to C18, including 13 PFCAs, 5 PFSAs, 2 Cl-PFESAs, and PFOSA) in human serum samples was developed. The HPLC parameters, Turboflow column, mobile phase, sample injection volume, loading flow rate, and sample cleanup and elution time were optimized. 25μL serum sample was directly injected into the developed on-line Turboflow SPE HPLC-MS/MS system for analysis after dilution. Matrix effects were corrected due to the matrix removal efficiency of the Turboflow column and sufficient types of internal isotope standards that were used. The established method showed a good linearity (r2>0.99), rapid processing time (20min per sample), satisfactory recoveries (matrix spiked recoveries range from 84.6% to 114%) and precision (intra-day and inter-day RSDs ranged from 1.5% to 9.2% and from 1.1% to 7.0%, respectively). The limits of detection (LODs) of the 21 analyzed PFASs were between 0.008 and 0.19ngmL-1. The LODs of short- and long-chain PFASs, such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxDA, and PFODA, were 0.008, 0.022, 0.15 and 0.19ngmL-1, respectively; the spiked recoveries of these PFASs were 101, 105, 87.1, and 85.8%, respectively. Both the LODs and recoveries were better than previous studies. Further, serum PFASs concentrations detected by the presented on-line SPE method were consistent with the traditional off-line SPE method (r: 0.98-0.99), which verified the accuracy and applicability of the present method. The method shows good practical prospects in the analysis of trace per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in human serum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Lind, Kim Martin Hjorth

    2017-01-01

    This chapter gives an introduction to Precision Agriculture (PA) with a short historic pathway of the development and the status of current available technologies. Part of this description also provides an overview of some of the economic barriers and technical obstacles when applying variable......-steering and Controlled Traffic Systems. Finally, the chapter looks into new developments of autonomous systems with an example of robotic seeding, farm information management in precision agriculture and different methods on the adoption of PA. The last chapter focuses on how PA can fulfil the current policy trends...

  3. Precision Muonium Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Jungmann, Klaus P

    2016-01-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 $\\mu$s. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In particular groun dstate hyperfine structure transitions can be measured by microwave spectroscopy to deliver the muon magnetic moment. The frequency of the 1s-2s transition in the hydrogen-like atom can be determined with laser spectroscopy to obtain the muon mass. With such measurements fundamental physical interactions, in particular Quantum Electrodynamics, can also be tested at highest precision. The results are important input parameters for experiments on the muon magnetic anomaly. The simplicity of the atom enables further precise experiments, such as a search for muonium-antimuonium conversion for testing charged lepton number conservation and searches for possible antigravity of muons and dark matter.

  4. Precision Muonium Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Klaus P.

    2016-09-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 µs. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In particular ground state hyperfine structure transitions can be measured by microwave spectroscopy to deliver the muon magnetic moment. The frequency of the 1s-2s transition in the hydrogen-like atom can be determined with laser spectroscopy to obtain the muon mass. With such measurements fundamental physical interactions, in particular quantum electrodynamics, can also be tested at highest precision. The results are important input parameters for experiments on the muon magnetic anomaly. The simplicity of the atom enables further precise experiments, such as a search for muonium-antimuonium conversion for testing charged lepton number conservation and searches for possible antigravity of muons and dark matter.

  5. A rapid, accurate and sensitive method with the new stable isotopic tags based on microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and its application to the determination of hydroxyl UV filters in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu; Chen, Guang; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Yuxia; Zhao, Xianen; Cao, Ziping; Xia, Lian; Li, Guoliang; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhang, Shijuan; Wang, Hua; You, Jinmao

    2017-05-15

    A rapid, accurate and sensitive method, using the stable isotope labeling (SIL), microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction (MADLLME) and the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), was developed and validated for the determination of hydroxyl UV Filters in environmental water samples. A pair of new isotopic tags D0-/D3-1-methylindole-3-acetic acid (D0-/D3-MIAA) is synthesized, with which a simple yet efficient pretreatment MADLLME-SIL is developed. Under the optimized conditions (80℃, 240W, 180s), the sample pretreatment including analyte extraction, pre-concentration and isotope labeling can be finished conveniently in only 9min. D0-/D3-MIAA labeling improves the chromatographic retention by strengthening the hydrophobicity and enhances the MS response for 3-4 orders of magnitude. Excellent linearity is established by the H/D ratios of 1/10-10/1 with the correlation coefficients >0.9990. The quite low detection limits (0.54-1.79ng/L) are achieved, ensuring the trace detection. This method is successfully applied to a series of environmental water samples. The recoveries (93.2%~103.5%) are significantly improved and the analysis time is largely reduced (filters in water samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A simple high-precision Jacob's staff design for the high-resolution stratigrapher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, W.P.

    1989-01-01

    The new generation of high-resolution stratigraphic research depends upon detailed bed-by-bed analysis to enhance regional correlation potential. The standard Jacob's staff is not an efficient and precise tool for measuring thin-bedded strata. The high-precision Jacob's staff design presented and illustrated in this paper meets the qualifications required of such an instrument. The prototype of this simple design consists of a sliding bracket that holds a Brunton-type compass at right angles to a ruled-off staff. This instrument provides rapid and accurate measurement of both thick- or thin-bedded sequences, thus decreasing field time and increasing stratigraphic precision. -Author

  7. Novel, In-House, SYBR Green Based One-Step rRT-PCR: Rapid and Accurate Diagnosis of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Suspected Patients From Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahraei, Bentolhoda; Hashemzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh; Najarasl, Mohammad; Zahiriyeganeh, Samaneh; Tat, Mahdi; Metanat, Maliheh; Sepehri Rad, Nahid; Khansari-Nejad, Behzad; Zafari, Ehsan; Sharti, Mojtaba; Dorostkar, Ruhollah

    2016-01-01

    The Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus causes severe disease in humans, with a high mortality rate. Since, there is no approved vaccine or specific treatment for CCHF, an early and accurate diagnosis, as well as reliable surveillance, is essential for case management and patient improvement. For this research, our aim was to evaluate the application of a novel SYBR Green based one-step real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay for the in-house diagnosis of the CCHF virus. In this experimental study, the highly conserved S-region sequence of the CCHF viral genome was first adapted from GenBank, and the specific primers targeting this region were designed. Then, the viral RNA was extracted from 75 serum samples from different patients in eastern Iran. The sensitivity and specificity of the primers were also evaluated in positive serum samples previously confirmed to have the CCHF virus, by this one-step rRT-PCR assay, as well as a DNA sequencing analysis. From a total of 75 suspected serum samples, 42 were confirmed to be positive for CCHF virus, with no false-positives detected by the sequencing results. After 40 amplification cycles, the melting curve analysis revealed a mean melting temperature (Tm) of 86.5 ± 0.6°C (quite different from those of the primer-dimers), and the positive samples showed only a small variation in the parameters. In all of the positive samples, the predicted length of 420 bp was confirmed by electrophoresis. Moreover, the sensitivity test showed that this assay can detect less than 20 copies of viral RNA per reaction. This study showed that this novel one-step rRT-PCR assay is a rapid, reliable, repeatable, specific, sensitive, and simple tool for the detection of the CCHF virus.

  8. Precise models deserve precise measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E. Hilbig

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The recognition heuristic (RH --- which predicts non-compensatory reliance on recognition in comparative judgments --- has attracted much research and some disagreement, at times. Most studies have dealt with whether or under which conditions the RH is truly used in paired-comparisons. However, even though the RH is a precise descriptive model, there has been less attention concerning the precision of the methods applied to measure RH-use. In the current work, I provide an overview of different measures of RH-use tailored to the paradigm of natural recognition which has emerged as a preferred way of studying the RH. The measures are compared with respect to different criteria --- with particular emphasis on how well they uncover true use of the RH. To this end, both simulations and a re-analysis of empirical data are presented. The results indicate that the adherence rate --- which has been pervasively applied to measure RH-use --- is a severely biased measure. As an alternative, a recently developed formal measurement model emerges as the recommended candidate for assessment of RH-use.

  9. When Is Network Lasso Accurate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The “least absolute shrinkage and selection operator” (Lasso method has been adapted recently for network-structured datasets. In particular, this network Lasso method allows to learn graph signals from a small number of noisy signal samples by using the total variation of a graph signal for regularization. While efficient and scalable implementations of the network Lasso are available, only little is known about the conditions on the underlying network structure which ensure network Lasso to be accurate. By leveraging concepts of compressed sensing, we address this gap and derive precise conditions on the underlying network topology and sampling set which guarantee the network Lasso for a particular loss function to deliver an accurate estimate of the entire underlying graph signal. We also quantify the error incurred by network Lasso in terms of two constants which reflect the connectivity of the sampled nodes.

  10. Precise Point Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xiaohong

    could be achievable depending on the observation session length, and kinematic positioning accuracy can reach cm to dm level. Furthermore, a new method for airborne lidar system misalignment calibration was described in detail. The proposed method was a so called ‘stepwise geometric misalignment......This report presents the results of investigations to determine accurate positions of aircrafts in airborne surveys (airborne gravity and airborne lidar) using precise point positioning, and also introduces a new so called “stepwise geometric misalignment determination” method to retrieve...... determination’ based on the relationship between the point clouds on regular objects (e.g. flat top buildings) and the ground truth of the objects used for calibration. In order to extract the footprints on the objects, filtering was implemented before the calibration. Three example tests have been made...

  11. Introduction to precise numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Aberth, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Precise numerical analysis may be defined as the study of computer methods for solving mathematical problems either exactly or to prescribed accuracy. This book explains how precise numerical analysis is constructed. The book also provides exercises which illustrate points from the text and references for the methods presented. All disc-based content for this title is now available on the Web. · Clearer, simpler descriptions and explanations ofthe various numerical methods· Two new types of numerical problems; accurately solving partial differential equations with the included software and computing line integrals in the complex plane.

  12. An Integrative Approach to Accurate Vehicle Logo Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Pan

    2013-01-01

    required for many applications in intelligent transportation systems and automatic surveillance. The task is challenging considering the small target of logos and the wide range of variability in shape, color, and illumination. A fast and reliable vehicle logo detection approach is proposed following visual attention mechanism from the human vision. Two prelogo detection steps, that is, vehicle region detection and a small RoI segmentation, rapidly focalize a small logo target. An enhanced Adaboost algorithm, together with two types of features of Haar and HOG, is proposed to detect vehicles. An RoI that covers logos is segmented based on our prior knowledge about the logos’ position relative to license plates, which can be accurately localized from frontal vehicle images. A two-stage cascade classier proceeds with the segmented RoI, using a hybrid of Gentle Adaboost and Support Vector Machine (SVM, resulting in precise logo positioning. Extensive experiments were conducted to verify the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  13. Development of Dual TaqMan Based One-Step rRT-PCR Assay Panel for Rapid and Accurate Diagnostic Test of MERS-CoV: A Novel Human Coronavirus, Ahead of Hajj Pilgrimage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh; Rasouli, Rahimeh; Zahraei, Bentolhoda; Izadi, Morteza; Tat, Mahdi; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Najarasl, Mohammad; Khansari Nejad, Behzad; Dorostkar, Ruhollah

    2016-11-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are large ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses causing primarily respiratory disease in humans. A novel human coronavirus, subsequently named middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was first reported in Saudi Arabia in September of 2012. With increasing numbers of infections and deaths from MERS-CoV, development of a rapid and reliable kit was crucial to prevent further spread of MERS-CoV. In this study, we present two real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays for in-house rapid and sensitive diagnostic testing of MERS-CoV, detecting the regions upstream of the envelope gene (upE) and open reading frame (ORF) 1b, respectively, for initial screening and final confirmation of MERS-CoV infection, as recommended by the world health organization (WHO). In this experimental study, acquiring patient samples was difficult; thus, according to WHO recommendations and standard protocols, we synthesized RNA sequences of upE and ORF1b genes as the template signatures and TaqMan based-diagnostic rRT-PCR assays were carried out using these synthetic genes for detection of MERS-CoV. In this research, we also inaugurated a cell-free system to transcribe these RNA sequences using the DNA templates synthesized. The upE and ORF1b based one-step rRT-PCR assays were optimized by testing several times via different synthetic RNAs, and validation results were highly successful. The sensitivity obtained for upE was fewer than ten copies of RNA template per reaction and for ORF1b was 50 or fewer copies per reaction. This study showed that the developed rRT-PCR assays are rapid, reliable, reproducible, specific, sensitive, and simple tools for detection of MERS-CoV. Finally, a kit consisting of two assay signatures and controls was assembled, which can be distributed to public health laboratories in Iran to support international MERS-CoV surveillance and public health response.

  14. Precision cosmological parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendt, William Ashton, Jr.

    2009-09-01

    Experimental efforts of the last few decades have brought. a golden age to mankind's endeavor to understand tine physical properties of the Universe throughout its history. Recent measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide strong confirmation of the standard big bang paradigm, as well as introducing new mysteries, to unexplained by current physical models. In the following decades. even more ambitious scientific endeavours will begin to shed light on the new physics by looking at the detailed structure of the Universe both at very early and recent times. Modern data has allowed us to begins to test inflationary models of the early Universe, and the near future will bring higher precision data and much stronger tests. Cracking the codes hidden in these cosmological observables is a difficult and computationally intensive problem. The challenges will continue to increase as future experiments bring larger and more precise data sets. Because of the complexity of the problem, we are forced to use approximate techniques and make simplifying assumptions to ease the computational workload. While this has been reasonably sufficient until now, hints of the limitations of our techniques have begun to come to light. For example, the likelihood approximation used for analysis of CMB data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anistropy Probe (WMAP) satellite was shown to have short falls, leading to pre-emptive conclusions drawn about current cosmological theories. Also it can he shown that an approximate method used by all current analysis codes to describe the recombination history of the Universe will not be sufficiently accurate for future experiments. With a new CMB satellite scheduled for launch in the coming months, it is vital that we develop techniques to improve the analysis of cosmological data. This work develops a novel technique of both avoiding the use of approximate computational codes as well as allowing the application of new, more precise analysis

  15. Grading More Accurately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Mark Carl

    2011-01-01

    Grades matter. College grading systems, however, are often ad hoc and prone to mistakes. This essay focuses on one factor that contributes to high-quality grading systems: grading accuracy (or "efficiency"). I proceed in several steps. First, I discuss the elements of "efficient" (i.e., accurate) grading. Next, I present analytical results…

  16. Precision Agriculture and the Role of Remote Sensing: A Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brisco, B; Brown, R J; Hirose, T; McNairn, H; Staenz, K

    1998-01-01

    .... Variable Rate Technology (VRT) available with farm implements, such as fertilizer of pesticide applicators and yield monitors, have evolved rapidly and have fostered the growth of precision agriculture...

  17. High-Precision Floating-Point Arithmetic in ScientificComputation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.

    2004-12-31

    At the present time, IEEE 64-bit floating-point arithmetic is sufficiently accurate for most scientific applications. However, for a rapidly growing body of important scientific computing applications, a higher level of numeric precision is required: some of these applications require roughly twice this level; others require four times; while still others require hundreds or more digits to obtain numerically meaningful results. Such calculations have been facilitated by new high-precision software packages that include high-level language translation modules to minimize the conversion effort. These activities have yielded a number of interesting new scientific results in fields as diverse as quantum theory, climate modeling and experimental mathematics, a few of which are described in this article. Such developments suggest that in the future, the numeric precision used for a scientific computation may be as important to the program design as are the algorithms and data structures.

  18. High-Precision Computation: Mathematical Physics and Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, D. H.; Barrio, R.; Borwein, J. M.

    2010-04-01

    At the present time, IEEE 64-bit oating-point arithmetic is suficiently accurate for most scientic applications. However, for a rapidly growing body of important scientic computing applications, a higher level of numeric precision is required. Such calculations are facilitated by high-precision software packages that include high-level language translation modules to minimize the conversion e ort. This pa- per presents a survey of recent applications of these techniques and provides someanalysis of their numerical requirements. These applications include supernova simulations, climate modeling, planetary orbit calculations, Coulomb n-body atomic systems, studies of the one structure constant, scattering amplitudes of quarks, glu- ons and bosons, nonlinear oscillator theory, experimental mathematics, evaluation of orthogonal polynomials, numerical integration of ODEs, computation of periodic orbits, studies of the splitting of separatrices, detection of strange nonchaotic at- tractors, Ising theory, quantum held theory, and discrete dynamical systems. We conclude that high-precision arithmetic facilities are now an indispensable compo- nent of a modern large-scale scientic computing environment.

  19. Precision medicine for psychopharmacology: a general introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Cheolmin; Han, Changsu; Pae, Chi-Un; Patkar, Ashwin A

    2016-07-01

    Precision medicine is an emerging medical model that can provide accurate diagnoses and tailored therapeutic strategies for patients based on data pertaining to genes, microbiomes, environment, family history and lifestyle. Here, we provide basic information about precision medicine and newly introduced concepts, such as the precision medicine ecosystem and big data processing, and omics technologies including pharmacogenomics, pharamacometabolomics, pharmacoproteomics, pharmacoepigenomics, connectomics and exposomics. The authors review the current state of omics in psychiatry and the future direction of psychopharmacology as it moves towards precision medicine. Expert commentary: Advances in precision medicine have been facilitated by achievements in multiple fields, including large-scale biological databases, powerful methods for characterizing patients (such as genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, diverse cellular assays, and even social networks and mobile health technologies), and computer-based tools for analyzing large amounts of data.

  20. Rapid and Accurate Idea Transfer: Presenting Ideas with Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-30

    50 PowerPoint slides, in thum bnail...numerically inferior to the rest of the population of the state, in a non-dominant position , whose members being citizens of a state, possess ethnic beliefs...acceptable of these definitions is that minority people, who are in a subordinate position due to their numbers, have to be different by "ethnic or

  1. Precision Clock Evaluation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Tests and evaluates high-precision atomic clocks for spacecraft, ground, and mobile applications. Supports performance evaluation, environmental testing,...

  2. BIOACCESSIBILITY TESTS ACCURATELY ESTIMATE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazards of soil-borne Pb to wild birds may be more accurately quantified if the bioavailability of that Pb is known. To better understand the bioavailability of Pb to birds, we measured blood Pb concentrations in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) fed diets containing Pb-contaminated soils. Relative bioavailabilities were expressed by comparison with blood Pb concentrations in quail fed a Pb acetate reference diet. Diets containing soil from five Pb-contaminated Superfund sites had relative bioavailabilities from 33%-63%, with a mean of about 50%. Treatment of two of the soils with P significantly reduced the bioavailability of Pb. The bioaccessibility of the Pb in the test soils was then measured in six in vitro tests and regressed on bioavailability. They were: the “Relative Bioavailability Leaching Procedure” (RBALP) at pH 1.5, the same test conducted at pH 2.5, the “Ohio State University In vitro Gastrointestinal” method (OSU IVG), the “Urban Soil Bioaccessible Lead Test”, the modified “Physiologically Based Extraction Test” and the “Waterfowl Physiologically Based Extraction Test.” All regressions had positive slopes. Based on criteria of slope and coefficient of determination, the RBALP pH 2.5 and OSU IVG tests performed very well. Speciation by X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that, on average, most of the Pb in the sampled soils was sorbed to minerals (30%), bound to organic matter 24%, or present as Pb sulfate 18%. Ad

  3. Groundwater recharge: Accurately representing evapotranspiration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bugan, Richard DH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater recharge is the basis for accurate estimation of groundwater resources, for determining the modes of water allocation and groundwater resource susceptibility to climate change. Accurate estimations of groundwater recharge with models...

  4. Aging affects neural precision of speech encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Samira; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina

    2012-10-10

    Older adults frequently report they can hear what is said but cannot understand the meaning, especially in noise. This difficulty may arise from the inability to process rapidly changing elements of speech. Aging is accompanied by a general slowing of neural processing and decreased neural inhibition, both of which likely interfere with temporal processing in auditory and other sensory domains. Age-related reductions in inhibitory neurotransmitter levels and delayed neural recovery can contribute to decreases in the temporal precision of the auditory system. Decreased precision may lead to neural timing delays, reductions in neural response magnitude, and a disadvantage in processing the rapid acoustic changes in speech. The auditory brainstem response (ABR), a scalp-recorded electrical potential, is known for its ability to capture precise neural synchrony within subcortical auditory nuclei; therefore, we hypothesized that a loss of temporal precision results in subcortical timing delays and decreases in response consistency and magnitude. To assess this hypothesis, we recorded ABRs to the speech syllable /da/ in normal hearing younger (18-30 years old) and older (60-67 years old) adult humans. Older adults had delayed ABRs, especially in response to the rapidly changing formant transition, and greater response variability. We also found that older adults had decreased phase locking and smaller response magnitudes than younger adults. Together, our results support the theory that older adults have a loss of temporal precision in the subcortical encoding of sound, which may account, at least in part, for their difficulties with speech perception.

  5. Precision Pointing Reconstruction and Geometric Metadata Generation for Cassini Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. S.; Showalter, M. R.; Gordon, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    We are reconstructing accurate pointing for 400,000 images taken by Cassini at Saturn. The results will be provided to the public along with per-pixel metadata describing precise image contents such as geographical location and viewing geometry.

  6. submitter LEP precision results

    CERN Document Server

    Kawamoto, T

    2001-01-01

    Precision measurements at LEP are reviewed, with main focus on the electroweak measurements and tests of the Standard Model. Constraints placed by the LEP measurements on possible new physics are also discussed.

  7. Zeptosecond precision pulse shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Jens; Wollenhaupt, Matthias; Bayer, Tim; Sarpe, Cristian; Baumert, Thomas

    2011-06-06

    We investigate the temporal precision in the generation of ultrashort laser pulse pairs by pulse shaping techniques. To this end, we combine a femtosecond polarization pulse shaper with a polarizer and employ two linear spectral phase masks to mimic an ultrastable common-path interferometer. In an all-optical experiment we study the interference signal resulting from two temporally delayed pulses. Our results show a 2σ-precision of 300 zs = 300 × 10(-21) s in pulse-to-pulse delay. The standard deviation of the mean is 11 zs. The obtained precision corresponds to a variation of the arm's length in conventional delay stage based interferometers of 0.45 Å. We apply these precisely generated pulse pairs to a strong-field quantum control experiment. Coherent control of ultrafast electron dynamics via photon locking by temporal phase discontinuities on a few attosecond timescale is demonstrated.

  8. NCI Precision Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This illustration represents the National Cancer Institute’s support of research to improve precision medicine in cancer treatment, in which unique therapies treat an individual’s cancer based on specific genetic abnormalities of that person’s tumor.

  9. Optimetrics for Precise Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangning; Heckler, Gregory; Gramling, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    Optimetrics for Precise Navigation will be implemented on existing optical communication links. The ranging and Doppler measurements are conducted over communication data frame and clock. The measurement accuracy is two orders of magnitude better than TDRSS. It also has other advantages of: The high optical carrier frequency enables: (1) Immunity from ionosphere and interplanetary Plasma noise floor, which is a performance limitation for RF tracking; and (2) High antenna gain reduces terminal size and volume, enables high precision tracking in Cubesat, and in deep space smallsat. High Optical Pointing Precision provides: (a) spacecraft orientation, (b) Minimal additional hardware to implement Precise Optimetrics over optical comm link; and (c) Continuous optical carrier phase measurement will enable the system presented here to accept future optical frequency standard with much higher clock accuracy.

  10. Stable, precise, and reproducible patterning of bicoid and hunchback molecules in the early Drosophila embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurie Okabe-Oho

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Precise patterning of morphogen molecules and their accurate reading out are of key importance in embryonic development. Recent experiments have visualized distributions of proteins in developing embryos and shown that the gradient of concentration of Bicoid morphogen in Drosophila embryos is established rapidly after fertilization and remains stable through syncytial mitoses. This stable Bicoid gradient is read out in a precise way to distribute Hunchback with small fluctuations in each embryo and in a reproducible way, with small embryo-to-embryo fluctuation. The mechanisms of such stable, precise, and reproducible patterning through noisy cellular processes, however, still remain mysterious. To address these issues, here we develop the one- and three-dimensional stochastic models of the early Drosophila embryo. The simulated results show that the fluctuation in expression of the hunchback gene is dominated by the random arrival of Bicoid at the hunchback enhancer. Slow diffusion of Hunchback protein, however, averages out this intense fluctuation, leading to the precise patterning of distribution of Hunchback without loss of sharpness of the boundary of its distribution. The coordinated rates of diffusion and transport of input Bicoid and output Hunchback play decisive roles in suppressing fluctuations arising from the dynamical structure change in embryos and those arising from the random diffusion of molecules, and give rise to the stable, precise, and reproducible patterning of Bicoid and Hunchback distributions.

  11. An efficient and accurate 3D displacements tracking strategy for digital volume correlation

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Bing

    2014-07-01

    Owing to its inherent computational complexity, practical implementation of digital volume correlation (DVC) for internal displacement and strain mapping faces important challenges in improving its computational efficiency. In this work, an efficient and accurate 3D displacement tracking strategy is proposed for fast DVC calculation. The efficiency advantage is achieved by using three improvements. First, to eliminate the need of updating Hessian matrix in each iteration, an efficient 3D inverse compositional Gauss-Newton (3D IC-GN) algorithm is introduced to replace existing forward additive algorithms for accurate sub-voxel displacement registration. Second, to ensure the 3D IC-GN algorithm that converges accurately and rapidly and avoid time-consuming integer-voxel displacement searching, a generalized reliability-guided displacement tracking strategy is designed to transfer accurate and complete initial guess of deformation for each calculation point from its computed neighbors. Third, to avoid the repeated computation of sub-voxel intensity interpolation coefficients, an interpolation coefficient lookup table is established for tricubic interpolation. The computational complexity of the proposed fast DVC and the existing typical DVC algorithms are first analyzed quantitatively according to necessary arithmetic operations. Then, numerical tests are performed to verify the performance of the fast DVC algorithm in terms of measurement accuracy and computational efficiency. The experimental results indicate that, compared with the existing DVC algorithm, the presented fast DVC algorithm produces similar precision and slightly higher accuracy at a substantially reduced computational cost. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Rapid detection of genetic modification for GMO monitoring in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Sofija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic technology has expanded the ways of new genetic variability creation. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs are organisms which total genome is altered in a way that could not happen in nature. GM crops recorded a steady increase in its share in agricultural production. However, for the most part, GMO in agriculture has been limited to two cultivars - soy and corn, and the two genetic modifications, the total herbicide resistance and pest of the Lepidoptera genus. In order to monitor cultivation and trade of GMOs, tests of different precision are used, qualitatively and/or quantitatively determining the presence of genetic modification. Tests for the rapid determination of the presence of GM are suitable, since they can be implemented quickly and accurately, in terms of declared sensitivity, outside or in the laboratory. The example of the use of rapid tests demonstrates their value in use for rapid and efficient monitoring.

  13. GPS Precision Timing at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Beetham, C G

    1999-01-01

    For the past decade, the Global Positioning System (GPS) has been used to provide precise time, frequency and position co-ordinates world-wide. Recently, equipment has become available specialising in providing extremely accurate timing information, referenced to Universal Time Co-ordinates (UTC). This feature has been used at CERN to provide time of day information for systems that have been installed in the Proton Synchrotron (PS), Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the Large Electron Positron (LEP) machines. The different systems are described as well as the planned developments, particularly with respect to optical transmission and the Inter-Range Instrumentation Group IRIG-B standard, for future use in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  14. Precision moisture generation and measurement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Irwin, Adriane Nadine

    2010-03-01

    In many industrial processes, gaseous moisture is undesirable as it can lead to metal corrosion, polymer degradation, and other materials aging processes. However, generating and measuring precise moisture concentrations is challenging due to the need to cover a broad concentration range (parts-per-billion to percent) and the affinity of moisture to a wide range surfaces and materials. This document will discuss the techniques employed by the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory of the Materials Reliability Department at Sandia National Laboratories to generate and measure known gaseous moisture concentrations. This document highlights the use of a chilled mirror and primary standard humidity generator for the characterization of aluminum oxide moisture sensors. The data presented shows an excellent correlation in frost point measured between the two instruments, and thus provides an accurate and reliable platform for characterizing moisture sensors and performing other moisture related experiments.

  15. Precision luminosity measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-12-05

    Measuring cross-sections at the LHC requires the luminosity to be determined accurately at each centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$. In this paper results are reported from the luminosity calibrations carried out at the LHC interaction point 8 with the LHCb detector for $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV (proton-proton collisions) and for $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5 TeV (proton-lead collisions). Both the "van der Meer scan" and "beam-gas imaging" luminosity calibration methods were employed. It is observed that the beam density profile cannot always be described by a function that is factorizable in the two transverse coordinates. The introduction of a two-dimensional description of the beams improves significantly the consistency of the results. For proton-proton interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV a relative precision of the luminosity calibration of 1.47% is obtained using van der Meer scans and 1.43% using beam-gas imaging, resulting in a combined precision of 1.12%. Applying the calibration to the full data set determin...

  16. Is Near-Patient Monitoring with Haemoglobinometer as accurate as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the surgical patient, intravascular volume and haemoglobin may change rapidly and frequent rapid assessment of patient status is indicated. We investigated whether near-patient monitoring using a haemoglobinometer was as accurate as a laboratory spectrophotometry in determining haemoglobin concentration.

  17. Precision Experiments at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    de Boer, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) established the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics with unprecedented precision, including all its radiative corrections. These led to predictions for the masses of the top quark and Higgs boson, which were beautifully confirmed later on. After these precision measurements the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 1999 jointly to 't Hooft and Veltman "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics". Another hallmark of the LEP results were the precise measurements of the gauge coupling constants, which excluded unification of the forces within the SM, but allowed unification within the supersymmetric extension of the SM. This increased the interest in Supersymmetry (SUSY) and Grand Unified Theories, especially since the SM has no candidate for the elusive dark matter, while Supersymmetry provides an excellent candidate for dark matter. In addition, Supersymmetry removes the quadratic divergencies of the SM and {\\it predicts} the Hig...

  18. Precision genome editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Catharina; Bennett, Eric P; Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram

    2014-01-01

    Precise and stable gene editing in mammalian cell lines has until recently been hampered by the lack of efficient targeting methods. While different gene silencing strategies have had tremendous impact on many biological fields, they have generally not been applied with wide success in the field...... of glycobiology, primarily due to their low efficiencies, with resultant failure to impose substantial phenotypic consequences upon the final glycosylation products. Here, we review novel nuclease-based precision genome editing techniques enabling efficient and stable gene editing, including gene disruption...... by introducing single or double-stranded breaks at a defined genomic sequence. We here compare and contrast the different techniques and summarize their current applications, highlighting cases from the field of glycobiology as well as pointing to future opportunities. The emerging potential of precision gene...

  19. Improving Precision of Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    mixing of unrelated types. Secondly, we present an improvement of the type checking algorithm in Java which enables the compiler to detect and ease the use of a common programming idiom called guarded casts. Thirdly, we present an improvement of the precision with which classes generated by a parser......Types in programming languages provide a powerful tool for the programmer to document the code so that a large aspect of the intent can not only be presented to fellow programmers but also be checked automatically by compilers. The precision with which types model the behavior of programs...... is crucial to the quality of these automated checks, and in this thesis we present three different improvements to the precision of types in three different aspects of the Java programming language. First we show how to extend the type system in Java with a new type which enables the detection of unintended...

  20. A passion for precision

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2006-01-01

    For more than three decades, the quest for ever higher precision in laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired many advances in laser, optical, and spectroscopic techniques, culminating in femtosecond laser optical frequency combs as perhaps the most precise measuring tools known to man. Applications range from optical atomic clocks and tests of QED and relativity to searches for time variations of fundamental constants. Recent experiments are extending frequency comb techniques into the extreme ultraviolet. Laser frequency combs can also control the electric field of ultrashort light pulses, creating powerful new tools for the emerging field of attosecond science.

  1. Precision electron polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudakov, Eugene A. [JLAB

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. M{\\o}ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at ~300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100\\%-polarized electron target for M{\\o}ller polarimetry.

  2. Platform Precision Autopilot Overview and Mission Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strovers, Brian K.; Lee, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The Platform Precision Autopilot is an instrument landing system-interfaced autopilot system, developed to enable an aircraft to repeatedly fly nearly the same trajectory hours, days, or weeks later. The Platform Precision Autopilot uses a novel design to interface with a NASA Gulfstream III jet by imitating the output of an instrument landing system approach. This technique minimizes, as much as possible, modifications to the baseline Gulfstream III jet and retains the safety features of the aircraft autopilot. The Platform Precision Autopilot requirement is to fly within a 5-m (16.4-ft) radius tube for distances to 200 km (108 nmi) in the presence of light turbulence for at least 90 percent of the time. This capability allows precise repeat-pass interferometry for the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar program, whose primary objective is to develop a miniaturized, polarimetric, L-band synthetic aperture radar. Precise navigation is achieved using an accurate differential global positioning system developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Flight-testing has demonstrated the ability of the Platform Precision Autopilot to control the aircraft within the specified tolerance greater than 90 percent of the time in the presence of aircraft system noise and nonlinearities, constant pilot throttle adjustments, and light turbulence.

  3. Precision Dairy Farming 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, C.; Steeneveld, W.

    2016-01-01

    The supply of new innovative precision dairy farming technologies is steadily increasing. It aims to help farmers to be more labour efficient and to support them in their daily management decisions. At the same time, since many technologies are developed from an engineering perspective, adoption of

  4. Targets for Precision Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, W.; Yao, L.; Asner, D. M.; Baker, R. G.; Bundgaard, J.; Burgett, E.; Cunningham, M.; Deaven, J.; Duke, D. L.; Greife, U.; Grimes, S.; Heffner, M.; Hill, T.; Isenhower, D.; Klay, J. L.; Kleinrath, V.; Kornilov, N.; Laptev, A. B.; Massey, T. N.; Meharchand, R.; Qu, H.; Ruz, J.; Sangiorgio, S.; Selhan, B.; Snyder, L.; Stave, S.; Tatishvili, G.; Thornton, R. T.; Tovesson, F.; Towell, D.; Towell, R. S.; Watson, S.; Wendt, B.; Wood, L.

    2014-05-01

    The general properties needed in targets (sources) for high precision, high accuracy measurements are reviewed. The application of these principles to the problem of developing targets for the Fission TPC is described. Longer term issues, such as the availability of actinide materials, improved knowledge of energy losses and straggling and the stability of targets during irradiation are also discussed.

  5. Teaching with Precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Ted; Solity, Jonathan

    1982-01-01

    Use of precision teaching principles with learning problem students involves five steps: specifying performance, recording daily behavior, charting daily behavior, recording the teaching approach, and analyzing data. The approach has been successfully implemented through consultation of school psychologists in Walsall, England. (CL)

  6. Precision Analysis of LEO Satellite Orbit Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yafei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The accuracy of different fitting intervals on the predicted orbit of different arc lengths was analyzed by using the dynamic fitting method and taken HY-2A satellite as an example. According to two orbit products, one was the precise orbit obtained by CNES and the other was rapid orbit computed by adopting zero-different reduced dynamic method, obtaining the precise predicted orbit. By the results, we can get that the 3DRMS is near 6dm by using 12h or 24h fitting orbit to forecast 12h arc; the 3DRMS is near 1m when forecasting 24h arc.

  7. Precision guided firearms: disruptive small arms technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Bret; Lupher, John

    2013-05-01

    Precision Guided Firearms (PGFs) employ target tracking, a Heads-Up Display, and advanced fire control technology to amplify shooting precision at long range by eliminating the most common sources of shooter error, including aim, trigger jerk, and shot setup miscalculation. Regardless of skill level or experience, PGFs significantly increase first shot success probability when compared to traditional technology, even at extreme ranges of 1,200 yards or more. More than just a scope, PGFs are fully integrated systems based on standard caliber bolt action or semi-automatic rifles with a Networked Tracking Scope, Guided Trigger and precision conventional ammunition. Onboard wireless technology allows PGFs to connect with local and wide area networks to deliver voice, video and data to mobile devices and various communication networks. These technologies allow shooters to be more accurate, engage multiple targets at unknown ranges quickly, track and engage moving targets, and communicate via command and control networks.

  8. Geometrical precision of 3DP casting form for founding gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Markowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents analysis of geometrical precision of casting form made by means of 3DP method. Three dimentional printing is a universal method of rapid prototyping which can be used to make tools – castings forms as a Rapid Tooling method. By means of this method in direct incremental process a casting form of spur gear was created. Precision of creating the form by 3DP method depends on different factors. Technological factors depending on machine operator include: the thickness of the layer and placing the model in working space. The precision of creating the model also depends on preparing the printer for work: the condition and calibration of printing heads, the condition of the printing unit slide guides and preparing the working space. Three dimentional printer Z510 Spectrum was prepared for work in a way assuring the greatest precision of created models. Technological parameters responsible for precision were set on maximum values. The aim of the research was defining the precision of casting form generated by 3DP Rapid Prototyping Method. The research was made by means of coordinate measuring machine Wenzel LH87. The measuring machine software was used to compare the outcome of the measurement to nominal model 3D-CAD. The problem of tool precision of casting forms generated by Rapid Tooling is rarely considered in literature covering rapid prototyping and casting technologies. That is why the research presented in this article isan original work in the technological and practical aspect.

  9. FIXED-WING MICRO AERIAL VEHICLE FOR ACCURATE CORRIDOR MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rehak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV equipped with precise position and attitude sensors that together with a pre-calibrated camera enables accurate corridor mapping. The design of the platform is based on widely available model components to which we integrate an open-source autopilot, customized mass-market camera and navigation sensors. We adapt the concepts of system calibration from larger mapping platforms to MAV and evaluate them practically for their achievable accuracy. We present case studies for accurate mapping without ground control points: first for a block configuration, later for a narrow corridor. We evaluate the mapping accuracy with respect to checkpoints and digital terrain model. We show that while it is possible to achieve pixel (3-5 cm mapping accuracy in both cases, precise aerial position control is sufficient for block configuration, the precise position and attitude control is required for corridor mapping.

  10. Fixed-Wing Micro Aerial Vehicle for Accurate Corridor Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehak, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2015-08-01

    In this study we present a Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) equipped with precise position and attitude sensors that together with a pre-calibrated camera enables accurate corridor mapping. The design of the platform is based on widely available model components to which we integrate an open-source autopilot, customized mass-market camera and navigation sensors. We adapt the concepts of system calibration from larger mapping platforms to MAV and evaluate them practically for their achievable accuracy. We present case studies for accurate mapping without ground control points: first for a block configuration, later for a narrow corridor. We evaluate the mapping accuracy with respect to checkpoints and digital terrain model. We show that while it is possible to achieve pixel (3-5 cm) mapping accuracy in both cases, precise aerial position control is sufficient for block configuration, the precise position and attitude control is required for corridor mapping.

  11. Rapid manufacturing and lightweight Composites for more precision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tim de Hond; Bart Bastings; Henk Kiela

    2010-01-01

    In the high-tech mechatronics world, aluminum and steel are well known materials, while carbon fiber is often neglected. In the RAAK project 'Composites in Mechatronics', the use of carbon fiber composites in mechatronics is investigated.

  12. Accurate Identification of Fatty Liver Disease in Data Warehouse Utilizing Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Joseph S; Natarajan, Yamini; Hou, Jason K; Wang, Jingqi; Hanif, Muzammil; Feng, Hua; Kramer, Jennifer R; Desiderio, Roxanne; Xu, Hua; El-Serag, Hashem B; Kanwal, Fasiha

    2017-10-01

    Natural language processing is a powerful technique of machine learning capable of maximizing data extraction from complex electronic medical records. We utilized this technique to develop algorithms capable of "reading" full-text radiology reports to accurately identify the presence of fatty liver disease. Abdominal ultrasound, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging reports were retrieved from the Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse from a random national sample of 652 patients. Radiographic fatty liver disease was determined by manual review by two physicians and verified with an expert radiologist. A split validation method was utilized for algorithm development. For all three imaging modalities, the algorithms could identify fatty liver disease with >90% recall and precision, with F-measures >90%. These algorithms could be used to rapidly screen patient records to establish a large cohort to facilitate epidemiological and clinical studies and examine the clinic course and outcomes of patients with radiographic hepatic steatosis.

  13. Precision Muon Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gorringe, T P

    2015-01-01

    The muon is playing a unique role in sub-atomic physics. Studies of muon decay both determine the overall strength and establish the chiral structure of weak interactions, as well as setting extraordinary limits on charged-lepton-flavor-violating processes. Measurements of the muon's anomalous magnetic moment offer singular sensitivity to the completeness of the standard model and the predictions of many speculative theories. Spectroscopy of muonium and muonic atoms gives unmatched determinations of fundamental quantities including the magnetic moment ratio $\\mu_\\mu / \\mu_p$, lepton mass ratio $m_{\\mu} / m_e$, and proton charge radius $r_p$. Also, muon capture experiments are exploring elusive features of weak interactions involving nucleons and nuclei. We will review the experimental landscape of contemporary high-precision and high-sensitivity experiments with muons. One focus is the novel methods and ingenious techniques that achieve such precision and sensitivity in recent, present, and planned experiment...

  14. A passion for precision

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    For more than three decades, the quest for ever higher precision in laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired many advances in laser, optical, and spectroscopic techniques, culminating in femtosecond laser optical frequency combs  as perhaps the most precise measuring tools known to man. Applications range from optical atomic clocks and tests of QED and relativity to searches for time variations of fundamental constants. Recent experiments are extending frequency comb techniques into the extreme ultraviolet. Laser frequency combs can also control the electric field of ultrashort light pulses, creating powerful new tools for the emerging field of attosecond science.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  15. Precision mass measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Koslowsky, V T; Ball, G C; Clifford, E T H; Davies, W G; Hagberg, E; Hardy, J C; Schmeing, H; Schrewe, U J; Sharma, K S

    1981-01-01

    A new technique analogous to the 'peak-matching' method used by mass spectroscopists is being used to measure differences in reaction Q- values to a precision of 100 eV. While at present the method is being applied to the study of charge-dependent corrections in T=1 superallowed 0/sup +/ to 0/sup +/ beta-decay matrix elements, it could easily be extended to measure mass differences of nuclei farther from beta stability. (0 refs).

  16. NNLOPS accurate associated HW production

    CERN Document Server

    Astill, William; Re, Emanuele; Zanderighi, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    We present a next-to-next-to-leading order accurate description of associated HW production consistently matched to a parton shower. The method is based on reweighting events obtained with the HW plus one jet NLO accurate calculation implemented in POWHEG, extended with the MiNLO procedure, to reproduce NNLO accurate Born distributions. Since the Born kinematics is more complex than the cases treated before, we use a parametrization of the Collins-Soper angles to reduce the number of variables required for the reweighting. We present phenomenological results at 13 TeV, with cuts suggested by the Higgs Cross Section Working Group.

  17. Ultrasonic precision optical grinding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Michael J.; Bechtold, Michael J.; Fess, Edward; Wolfs, Frank L.; Bechtold, Rob

    2015-10-01

    As optical geometries become more precise and complex and a wider range of materials are used, the processes used for manufacturing become more critical. As the preparatory stage for polishing, this is especially true for grinding. Slow processing speeds, accelerated tool wear, and poor surface quality are often detriments in manufacturing glass and hard ceramics. The quality of the ground surface greatly influences the polishing process and the resulting finished product. Through extensive research and development, OptiPro Systems has introduced an ultrasonic assisted grinding technology, OptiSonic, which has numerous advantages over traditional grinding processes. OptiSonic utilizes a custom tool holder designed to produce oscillations in line with the rotating spindle. A newly developed software package called IntelliSonic is integral to this platform. IntelliSonic automatically characterizes the tool and continuously optimizes the output frequency for optimal cutting while in contact with the part. This helps maintain a highly consistent process under changing load conditions for a more accurate surface. Utilizing a wide variety of instruments, test have proven to show a reduction in tool wear and increase in surface quality while allowing processing speeds to be increased. OptiSonic has proven to be an enabling technology to overcome the difficulties seen in grinding of glass and hard optical ceramics. OptiSonic has demonstrated numerous advantages over the standard CNC grinding process. Advantages are evident in reduced tool wear, better surface quality, and reduced cycle times due to increased feed rates. These benefits can be seen over numerous applications within the precision optics industry.

  18. Molecular Tools for Rapid and Accurate Detection of Black Truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vitt. in Inoculated Nursery Plants and Commercial Plantations in Chile Uso de Marcadores Moleculares para la Detección Rápida y Precisa de Trufa Negra (Tuber melanosporum Vitt. en Plantas de Vivero y Plantaciones Comerciales de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Cordero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vitt. culture is an agroforestry sector in Chile of increasing interest due to the high prices that truffles fetch in the national market and the recent evidence that its commercial production is possible in Chilean climatic and soil conditions. In this study, the efficiency of three methods of DNA extraction from a mix of 5 g of soil and roots from both nursery and field plants of Quercus ilex L. mycorrhized with T. melanosporum were evaluated, and a simple and reproducible protocol was established. Detection of T. melanosporum was performed by the technique of cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS from amplicons generated with the primers ADL1 (5´-GTAACGATAAAGGCCATCTATAGG-3´ and ADL3 (5´-CGTTTTTCCTGAACTCTTCATCAC-3`, where a restriction fragment of 160 bp specific for T. melanosporum was generated, which allows the discrimination of this species from the rest of the species belonging to the Tuber sp. genus. Direct detection of T. melanosporum in one step was also obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR from total DNA isolated from mycorrhized roots and with the primers ITSML (5´-TGGCCATGTGTCAGATTTAGTA-3´ and ITSLNG (5´-TGATATGCTTAAGTTCAGCGGG-3´, generating a single amplicon of 440 bp. The molecular detection of T. melanosporum by the methods presented here will allow the rapid and accurate detection of mycorrhization of trees, both under nursery and field conditions. This technology will also provide more security to farmers by controlling the quality of the mycorrhized trees they will plant and also by following the mycorrhization status of established orchards.

  19. Accurate predictions for the LHC made easy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The data recorded by the LHC experiments is of a very high quality. To get the most out of the data, precise theory predictions, including uncertainty estimates, are needed to reduce as much as possible theoretical bias in the experimental analyses. Recently, significant progress has been made in computing Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) computations, including matching to the parton shower, that allow for these accurate, hadron-level predictions. I shall discuss one of these efforts, the MadGraph5_aMC@NLO program, that aims at the complete automation of predictions at the NLO accuracy within the SM as well as New Physics theories. I’ll illustrate some of the theoretical ideas behind this program, show some selected applications to LHC physics, as well as describe the future plans.

  20. Accurate lineshape spectroscopy and the Boltzmann constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, G-W; Anstie, J D; May, E F; Stace, T M; Luiten, A N

    2015-10-14

    Spectroscopy has an illustrious history delivering serendipitous discoveries and providing a stringent testbed for new physical predictions, including applications from trace materials detection, to understanding the atmospheres of stars and planets, and even constraining cosmological models. Reaching fundamental-noise limits permits optimal extraction of spectroscopic information from an absorption measurement. Here, we demonstrate a quantum-limited spectrometer that delivers high-precision measurements of the absorption lineshape. These measurements yield a very accurate measurement of the excited-state (6P1/2) hyperfine splitting in Cs, and reveals a breakdown in the well-known Voigt spectral profile. We develop a theoretical model that accounts for this breakdown, explaining the observations to within the shot-noise limit. Our model enables us to infer the thermal velocity dispersion of the Cs vapour with an uncertainty of 35 p.p.m. within an hour. This allows us to determine a value for Boltzmann's constant with a precision of 6 p.p.m., and an uncertainty of 71 p.p.m.

  1. Accurate phase-shift velocimetry in rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Matsyendra Nath; Vallatos, Antoine; Phoenix, Vernon R; Holmes, William M

    2016-06-01

    Spatially resolved Pulsed Field Gradient (PFG) velocimetry techniques can provide precious information concerning flow through opaque systems, including rocks. This velocimetry data is used to enhance flow models in a wide range of systems, from oil behaviour in reservoir rocks to contaminant transport in aquifers. Phase-shift velocimetry is the fastest way to produce velocity maps but critical issues have been reported when studying flow through rocks and porous media, leading to inaccurate results. Combining PFG measurements for flow through Bentheimer sandstone with simulations, we demonstrate that asymmetries in the molecular displacement distributions within each voxel are the main source of phase-shift velocimetry errors. We show that when flow-related average molecular displacements are negligible compared to self-diffusion ones, symmetric displacement distributions can be obtained while phase measurement noise is minimised. We elaborate a complete method for the production of accurate phase-shift velocimetry maps in rocks and low porosity media and demonstrate its validity for a range of flow rates. This development of accurate phase-shift velocimetry now enables more rapid and accurate velocity analysis, potentially helping to inform both industrial applications and theoretical models. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Ultra-precision bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, F

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  3. [Precise thoracic surgery: new era of minimally invasive surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui

    2015-10-01

    Precise surgery is based on the integrated application of modern science and technology and integrated innovation of surgical technology revolution features. It is built in high-end digital medical bases. The purpose of precise surgery is to achieve accurate lesion resection, minimize injury, improve the quality of life and reduce the risk of surgery. In this paper we forward new concept of precise thoracic surgery. An overview was made on the development of precise surgery with great support of virtual reality technology, augmented reality technology and image acquisition technology. Finally the paper illustrated the prospect of precise of thoracic surgery from the following aspects: preoperative planning, the choice of surgical approach, precise tumor localization, postoperative immediate 3-dimension multi modality imaging evaluation.

  4. Precision measurements in supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Johnathan Lee [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Supersymmetry is a promising framework in which to explore extensions of the standard model. If candidates for supersymmetric particles are found, precision measurements of their properties will then be of paramount importance. The prospects for such measurements and their implications are the subject of this thesis. If charginos are produced at the LEP II collider, they are likely to be one of the few available supersymmetric signals for many years. The author considers the possibility of determining fundamental supersymmetry parameters in such a scenario. The study is complicated by the dependence of observables on a large number of these parameters. He proposes a straightforward procedure for disentangling these dependences and demonstrate its effectiveness by presenting a number of case studies at representative points in parameter space. In addition to determining the properties of supersymmetric particles, precision measurements may also be used to establish that newly-discovered particles are, in fact, supersymmetric. Supersymmetry predicts quantitative relations among the couplings and masses of superparticles. The author discusses tests of such relations at a future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider, using measurements that exploit the availability of polarizable beams. Stringent tests of supersymmetry from chargino production are demonstrated in two representative cases, and fermion and neutralino processes are also discussed.

  5. Precision Joining Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.W.; Westphal, D.A.

    1991-08-01

    A workshop to obtain input from industry on the establishment of the Precision Joining Center (PJC) was held on July 10--12, 1991. The PJC is a center for training Joining Technologists in advanced joining techniques and concepts in order to promote the competitiveness of US industry. The center will be established as part of the DOE Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Initiative, and operated by EG G Rocky Flats in cooperation with the American Welding Society and the Colorado School of Mines Center for Welding and Joining Research. The overall objectives of the workshop were to validate the need for a Joining Technologists to fill the gap between the welding operator and the welding engineer, and to assure that the PJC will train individuals to satisfy that need. The consensus of the workshop participants was that the Joining Technologist is a necessary position in industry, and is currently used, with some variation, by many companies. It was agreed that the PJC core curriculum, as presented, would produce a Joining Technologist of value to industries that use precision joining techniques. The advantage of the PJC would be to train the Joining Technologist much more quickly and more completely. The proposed emphasis of the PJC curriculum on equipment intensive and hands-on training was judged to be essential.

  6. Needs and challenges in precision wear measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.J.

    1996-01-10

    Accurate, precise wear measurements are a key element in solving both current wear problems and in basic wear research. Applications range from assessing durability of micro-scale components to accurate screening of surface treatments and thin solid films. Need to distinguish small differences in wear tate presents formidable problems to those who are developing new materials and surface treatments. Methods for measuring wear in ASTM standard test methods are discussed. Errors in using alterate methods of wear measurement on the same test specimen are also described. Human judgemental factors are a concern in common methods for wear measurement, and an experiment involving measurement of a wear scar by ten different people is described. Precision in wear measurement is limited both by the capabilities of the measuring instruments and by the nonuniformity of the wear process. A method of measuring wear using nano-scale indentations is discussed. Current and future prospects for incorporating advanced, higher-precision wear measurement methods into standards are considered.

  7. Precision Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision medicine helps doctors select cancer treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. Learn about the promise of precision medicine and the role it plays in cancer treatment.

  8. Linear signal noise summer accurately determines and controls S/N ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundry, J. L.

    1966-01-01

    Linear signal noise summer precisely controls the relative power levels of signal and noise, and mixes them linearly in accurately known ratios. The S/N ratio accuracy and stability are greatly improved by this technique and are attained simultaneously.

  9. Accurate measurements in volume data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliván Bescós, J.; Bosma, Marco; Smit, Jaap; Mun, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    An algorithm for very accurate visualization of an iso- surface in a 3D medical dataset has been developed in the past few years. This technique is extended in this paper to several kinds of measurements in which exact geometric information of a selected iso-surface is used to derive volume, length,

  10. Reliable low precision simulations in land surface models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andrew; Düben, Peter D.; MacLeod, David A.; Palmer, Tim N.

    2017-12-01

    Weather and climate models must continue to increase in both resolution and complexity in order that forecasts become more accurate and reliable. Moving to lower numerical precision may be an essential tool for coping with the demand for ever increasing model complexity in addition to increasing computing resources. However, there have been some concerns in the weather and climate modelling community over the suitability of lower precision for climate models, particularly for representing processes that change very slowly over long time-scales. These processes are difficult to represent using low precision due to time increments being systematically rounded to zero. Idealised simulations are used to demonstrate that a model of deep soil heat diffusion that fails when run in single precision can be modified to work correctly using low precision, by splitting up the model into a small higher precision part and a low precision part. This strategy retains the computational benefits of reduced precision whilst preserving accuracy. This same technique is also applied to a full complexity land surface model, resulting in rounding errors that are significantly smaller than initial condition and parameter uncertainties. Although lower precision will present some problems for the weather and climate modelling community, many of the problems can likely be overcome using a straightforward and physically motivated application of reduced precision.

  11. Optimizing mouse models for precision cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Magnen, Clémentine; Dutta, Aditya; Abate-Shen, Cory

    2016-03-01

    As cancer has become increasingly prevalent, cancer prevention research has evolved towards placing a greater emphasis on reducing cancer deaths and minimizing the adverse consequences of having cancer. 'Precision cancer prevention' takes into account the collaboration of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in influencing cancer incidence and aggressiveness in the context of the individual, as well as recognizing that such knowledge can improve early detection and enable more accurate discrimination of cancerous lesions. However, mouse models, and particularly genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models, have yet to be fully integrated into prevention research. In this Opinion article, we discuss opportunities and challenges for precision mouse modelling, including the essential criteria of mouse models for prevention research, representative success stories and opportunities for more refined analyses in future studies.

  12. Multi-sensor control for precise assembly of optical components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform an optical assembly accurately, a multi-sensor control strategy is developed which includes an attitude measurement system, a vision system, a loss measurement system and a force sensor. A 3-DOF attitude measuring method using linear variable differential transformers (LVDT is designed to adjust the relation of position and attitude between the spherical mirror and the resonator. A micro vision feedback system is set up to extract the light beam and the diaphragm, which can achieve the coarse positioning of the spherical mirror in the optical assembly process. A rapid self-correlation method is presented to analyze the spectrum signal for the fine positioning. In order to prevent the damage of the optical components and realize sealing of the resonator, a hybrid force-position control is constructed to control the contact force of the optical components. The experimental results show that the proposed multi-sensor control strategy succeeds in accomplishing the precise assembly of the optical components, which consists of parallel adjustment, macro coarse adjustment, macro approach, micro fine adjustment, micro approach and optical contact. Therefore, the results validate the multi-sensor control strategy.

  13. Precise RFID localization in impaired environment through sparse signal recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Saurav; Zhang, Yimin D.; Amin, Moeness G.

    2013-05-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a rapidly developing wireless communication technology for electronically identifying, locating, and tracking products, assets, and personnel. RFID has become one of the most important means to construct real-time locating systems (RTLS) that track and identify the location of objects in real time using simple, inexpensive tags and readers. The applicability and usefulness of RTLS techniques depend on their achievable accuracy. In particular, when multilateration-based localization techniques are exploited, the achievable accuracy primarily relies on the precision of the range estimates between a reader and the tags. Such range information can be obtained by using the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and/or the phase difference of arrival (PDOA). In both cases, however, the accuracy is significantly compromised when the operation environment is impaired. In particular, multipath propagation significantly affects the measurement accuracy of both RSSI and phase information. In addition, because RFID systems are typically operated in short distances, RSSI and phase measurements are also coupled with the reader and tag antenna patterns, making accurate RFID localization very complicated and challenging. In this paper, we develop new methods to localize RFID tags or readers by exploiting sparse signal recovery techniques. The proposed method allows the channel environment and antenna patterns to be taken into account and be properly compensated at a low computational cost. As such, the proposed technique yields superior performance in challenging operation environments with the above-mentioned impairments.

  14. Precision Medicine in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Since President Obama announced the Precision Medicine Initiative in the United States, more and more attention has been paid to precision medicine. However, clinicians have already used it to treat conditions such as cancer. Many cardiovascular diseases have a familial presentation, and genetic variants are associated with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, which are the basis for providing precise care to patients with cardiovascular diseases. Large-scale cohorts and multiomics are critical components of precision medicine. Here we summarize the application of precision medicine to cardiovascular diseases based on cohort and omic studies, and hope to elicit discussion about future health care.

  15. Qualification of a precision pattern dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ammel, Raf; Sobiech-Matura, Katarzyna; Wätjen, Uwe; Vercammen, Tom; Castelein, Pieter; Wuyts, Roel; Paul, Johan

    2017-06-16

    In order to automate sample preparation processes, a precision pattern dispenser was designed to reproducibly dispense radioactive solutions at pre-defined positions. It is composed of an automatic liquid sample handling unit coupled to an XYZ table. Qualification tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of the instrument and to assess the compliance with the requirements, in particular trueness (< 2%) and repeatability (< 1%). The instrument allows preparing sources in different source holders and on air filters, in a fast and accurate way. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Toward Accurate and Quantitative Comparative Metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfach, Stephen; Pollard, Katherine S

    2016-08-25

    Shotgun metagenomics and computational analysis are used to compare the taxonomic and functional profiles of microbial communities. Leveraging this approach to understand roles of microbes in human biology and other environments requires quantitative data summaries whose values are comparable across samples and studies. Comparability is currently hampered by the use of abundance statistics that do not estimate a meaningful parameter of the microbial community and biases introduced by experimental protocols and data-cleaning approaches. Addressing these challenges, along with improving study design, data access, metadata standardization, and analysis tools, will enable accurate comparative metagenomics. We envision a future in which microbiome studies are replicable and new metagenomes are easily and rapidly integrated with existing data. Only then can the potential of metagenomics for predictive ecological modeling, well-powered association studies, and effective microbiome medicine be fully realized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Highly Accurate Approach for Aeroelastic System with Hysteresis Nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Cui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an accurate approach, based on the precise integration method, to solve the aeroelastic system of an airfoil with a pitch hysteresis. A major procedure for achieving high precision is to design a predictor-corrector algorithm. This algorithm enables accurate determination of switching points resulting from the hysteresis. Numerical examples show that the results obtained by the presented method are in excellent agreement with exact solutions. In addition, the high accuracy can be maintained as the time step increases in a reasonable range. It is also found that the Runge-Kutta method may sometimes provide quite different and even fallacious results, though the step length is much less than that adopted in the presented method. With such high computational accuracy, the presented method could be applicable in dynamical systems with hysteresis nonlinearities.

  18. Accurate Accident Reconstruction in VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Kopylova, Yuliya; Farkas, Csilla; Xu, Wenyuan

    2011-01-01

    Part 9: Short Papers; International audience; We propose a forensic VANET application to aid an accurate accident reconstruction. Our application provides a new source of objective real-time data impossible to collect using existing methods. By leveraging inter-vehicle communications, we compile digital evidence describing events before, during, and after an accident in its entirety. In addition to sensors data and major components’ status, we provide relative positions of all vehicles involv...

  19. Computer-Assisted Adjuncts for Aneurysmal Morphologic Assessment: Toward More Precise and Accurate Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabzadeh-Oghaz, Hamidreza; Varble, Nicole; Davies, Jason M.; Mowla, Ashkan; Shakir, Hakeem J.; Sonig, Ashish; Shallwani, Hussain; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Levy, Elad I.; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Meng, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Neurosurgeons currently base most of their treatment decisions for intracranial aneurysms (IAs) on morphological measurements made manually from 2D angiographic images. These measurements tend to be inaccurate because 2D measurements cannot capture the complex geometry of IAs and because manual measurements are variable depending on the clinician's experience and opinion. Incorrect morphological measurements may lead to inappropriate treatment strategies. In order to improve the accuracy and consistency of morphological analysis of IAs, we have developed an image-based computational tool, AView. In this study, we quantified the accuracy of computer-assisted adjuncts of AView for aneurysmal morphologic assessment by performing measurement on spheres of known size and anatomical IA models. AView has an average morphological error of 0.56% in size and 2.1% in volume measurement. We also investigate the clinical utility of this tool on a retrospective clinical dataset and compare size and neck diameter measurement between 2D manual and 3D computer-assisted measurement. The average error was 22% and 30% in the manual measurement of size and aneurysm neck diameter, respectively. Inaccuracies due to manual measurements could therefore lead to wrong treatment decisions in 44% and inappropriate treatment strategies in 33% of the IAs. Furthermore, computer-assisted analysis of IAs improves the consistency in measurement among clinicians by 62% in size and 82% in neck diameter measurement. We conclude that AView dramatically improves accuracy for morphological analysis. These results illustrate the necessity of a computer-assisted approach for the morphological analysis of IAs. PMID:28867867

  20. Machine learning to analyze images of shocked materials for precise and accurate measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresselhaus-Cooper, Leora; Howard, Marylesa; Hock, Margaret C.; Meehan, B. T.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Bolme, Cindy A.; Sandberg, Richard L.; Nelson, Keith A.

    2017-09-14

    A supervised machine learning algorithm, called locally adaptive discriminant analysis (LADA), has been developed to locate boundaries between identifiable image features that have varying intensities. LADA is an adaptation of image segmentation, which includes techniques that find the positions of image features (classes) using statistical intensity distributions for each class in the image. In order to place a pixel in the proper class, LADA considers the intensity at that pixel and the distribution of intensities in local (nearby) pixels. This paper presents the use of LADA to provide, with statistical uncertainties, the positions and shapes of features within ultrafast images of shock waves. We demonstrate the ability to locate image features including crystals, density changes associated with shock waves, and material jetting caused by shock waves. This algorithm can analyze images that exhibit a wide range of physical phenomena because it does not rely on comparison to a model. LADA enables analysis of images from shock physics with statistical rigor independent of underlying models or simulations.

  1. Machine learning to analyze images of shocked materials for precise and accurate measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus-Cooper, Leora; Howard, Marylesa; Hock, Margaret C.; Meehan, B. T.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Bolme, Cindy A.; Sandberg, Richard L.; Nelson, Keith A.

    2017-09-01

    A supervised machine learning algorithm, called locally adaptive discriminant analysis (LADA), has been developed to locate boundaries between identifiable image features that have varying intensities. LADA is an adaptation of image segmentation, which includes techniques that find the positions of image features (classes) using statistical intensity distributions for each class in the image. In order to place a pixel in the proper class, LADA considers the intensity at that pixel and the distribution of intensities in local (nearby) pixels. This paper presents the use of LADA to provide, with statistical uncertainties, the positions and shapes of features within ultrafast images of shock waves. We demonstrate the ability to locate image features including crystals, density changes associated with shock waves, and material jetting caused by shock waves. This algorithm can analyze images that exhibit a wide range of physical phenomena because it does not rely on comparison to a model. LADA enables analysis of images from shock physics with statistical rigor independent of underlying models or simulations.

  2. Precisely Tracking Childhood Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Tamer H; Koplan, Jeffrey P; Breiman, Robert F; Madhi, Shabir A; Heaton, Penny M; Mundel, Trevor; Ordi, Jaume; Bassat, Quique; Menendez, Clara; Dowell, Scott F

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about the specific causes of neonatal and under-five childhood death in high-mortality geographic regions due to a lack of primary data and dependence on inaccurate tools, such as verbal autopsy. To meet the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 to eliminate preventable child mortality in every country, better approaches are needed to precisely determine specific causes of death so that prevention and treatment interventions can be strengthened and focused. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a technique that uses needle-based postmortem sampling, followed by advanced histopathology and microbiology to definitely determine cause of death. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is supporting a new surveillance system called the Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance network, which will determine cause of death using MITS in combination with other information, and yield cause-specific population-based mortality rates, eventually in up to 12-15 sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. However, the Gates Foundation funding alone is not enough. We call on governments, other funders, and international stakeholders to expand the use of pathology-based cause of death determination to provide the information needed to end preventable childhood mortality.

  3. Precisely predictable Dirac observables

    CERN Document Server

    Cordes, Heinz Otto

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a "Clean Quantum Theory of the Electron", based on Dirac’s equation. "Clean" in the sense of a complete mathematical explanation of the well known paradoxes of Dirac’s theory, and a connection to classical theory, including the motion of a magnetic moment (spin) in the given field, all for a charged particle (of spin ½) moving in a given electromagnetic field. This theory is relativistically covariant, and it may be regarded as a mathematically consistent quantum-mechanical generalization of the classical motion of such a particle, à la Newton and Einstein. Normally, our fields are time-independent, but also discussed is the time-dependent case, where slightly different features prevail. A "Schroedinger particle", such as a light quantum, experiences a very different (time-dependent) "Precise Predictablity of Observables". An attempt is made to compare both cases. There is not the Heisenberg uncertainty of location and momentum; rather, location alone possesses a built-in uncertainty ...

  4. Flying spot laser triangulation scanner using lateral synchronization for surface profile precision measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanlin; Ren, Yongjie; Liu, Changjie; Zhu, Jigui

    2014-07-10

    High-speed surface profile measurement with high precision is crucial for target inspection and quality control. In this study, a laser scanner based on a single point laser triangulation displacement sensor and a high-speed rotating polygon mirror is proposed. The autosynchronized scanning scheme is introduced to alleviate the trade-off between the field of view and the range precision, which is the inherent deficiency of the conventional triangulation. The lateral synchronized flying spot technology has excellent characteristics, such as programmable and larger field of view, high immunity to ambient light or secondary reflections, high optical signal-to-noise ratio, and minimum shadow effect. Owing to automatic point-to-point laser power control, high accuracy and superior data quality are possible when measuring objects featuring varying surface characteristics even in demanding applications. The proposed laser triangulation scanner is validated using a laboratory-built prototype and practical considerations for design and implementation of the system are described, including speckle noise reduction method and real-time signal processing. A method for rapid and accurate calibration of the laser triangulation scanner using lookup tables is also devised, and the system calibration accuracy is generally smaller than ±0.025  mm. Experimental results are presented and show a broad application prospect for fast surface profile precision measurement.

  5. Precise positioning method for multi-process connecting based on binocular vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ding, Lichao; Zhao, Kai; Li, Xiao; Wang, Ling; Jia, Zhenyuan

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of aviation and aerospace, the demand for metal coating parts such as antenna reflector, eddy-current sensor and signal transmitter, etc. is more and more urgent. Such parts with varied feature dimensions, complex three-dimensional structures, and high geometric accuracy are generally fabricated by the combination of different manufacturing technology. However, it is difficult to ensure the machining precision because of the connection error between different processing methods. Therefore, a precise positioning method is proposed based on binocular micro stereo vision in this paper. Firstly, a novel and efficient camera calibration method for stereoscopic microscope is presented to solve the problems of narrow view field, small depth of focus and too many nonlinear distortions. Secondly, the extraction algorithms for law curve and free curve are given, and the spatial position relationship between the micro vision system and the machining system is determined accurately. Thirdly, a precise positioning system based on micro stereovision is set up and then embedded in a CNC machining experiment platform. Finally, the verification experiment of the positioning accuracy is conducted and the experimental results indicated that the average errors of the proposed method in the X and Y directions are 2.250 μm and 1.777 μm, respectively.

  6. Precise Truss Assembly Using Commodity Parts and Low Precision Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendera, Erik; Reishus, Dustin; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, W. R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Hardware and software design and system integration for an intelligent precision jigging robot (IPJR), which allows high precision assembly using commodity parts and low-precision bonding, is described. Preliminary 2D experiments that are motivated by the problem of assembling space telescope optical benches and very large manipulators on orbit using inexpensive, stock hardware and low-precision welding are also described. An IPJR is a robot that acts as the precise "jigging", holding parts of a local structure assembly site in place, while an external low precision assembly agent cuts and welds members. The prototype presented in this paper allows an assembly agent (for this prototype, a human using only low precision tools), to assemble a 2D truss made of wooden dowels to a precision on the order of millimeters over a span on the order of meters. The analysis of the assembly error and the results of building a square structure and a ring structure are discussed. Options for future work, to extend the IPJR paradigm to building in 3D structures at micron precision are also summarized.

  7. [Precision nutrition in the era of precision medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P Z; Wang, H

    2016-12-06

    Precision medicine has been increasingly incorporated into clinical practice and is enabling a new era for disease prevention and treatment. As an important constituent of precision medicine, precision nutrition has also been drawing more attention during physical examinations. The main aim of precision nutrition is to provide safe and efficient intervention methods for disease treatment and management, through fully considering the genetics, lifestyle (dietary, exercise and lifestyle choices), metabolic status, gut microbiota and physiological status (nutrient level and disease status) of individuals. Three major components should be considered in precision nutrition, including individual criteria for sufficient nutritional status, biomarker monitoring or techniques for nutrient detection and the applicable therapeutic or intervention methods. It was suggested that, in clinical practice, many inherited and chronic metabolic diseases might be prevented or managed through precision nutritional intervention. For generally healthy populations, because lifestyles, dietary factors, genetic factors and environmental exposures vary among individuals, precision nutrition is warranted to improve their physical activity and reduce disease risks. In summary, research and practice is leading toward precision nutrition becoming an integral constituent of clinical nutrition and disease prevention in the era of precision medicine.

  8. A Precision Analysis of Camera Distortion Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhongwei; Grompone von Gioi, Rafael; Monasse, Pascal; Morel, Jean-Michel

    2017-06-01

    This paper addresses the question of identifying the right camera direct or inverse distortion model, permitting a high subpixel precision to fit to real camera distortion. Five classic camera distortion models are reviewed and their precision is compared for direct or inverse distortion. By definition, the three radially symmetric models can only model a distortion radially symmetric around some distortion center. They can be extended to deal with non-radially symmetric distortions by adding tangential distortion components, but still may be too simple for very accurate modeling of real cameras. The polynomial and the rational models instead miss a physical or optical interpretation, but can cope equally with radially and non-radially symmetric distortions. Indeed, they do not require the evaluation of a distortion center. When requiring high precisions, we found that the distortion modeling must also be evaluated primarily as a numerical problem. Indeed, all models except the polynomial involve a non-linear minimization, which increases the numerical risk. The estimation of a polynomial distortion model leads instead to a linear problem, which is secure and much faster. We concluded by extensive numerical experiments that, although high degree polynomials were required to reach a high precision of 1/100 pixels, such polynomials were easily estimated and produced a precise distortion modeling without overfitting. Our conclusion is validated by three independent experimental setups: the models were compared first on the lens distortion database of the Lensfun library by their distortion simulation and inversion power; second by fitting real camera distortions estimated by a non parametric algorithm; and finally by the absolute correction measurement provided by the photographs of tightly stretched strings, warranting a high straightness.

  9. 16S Classifier: A Tool for Fast and Accurate Taxonomic Classification of 16S rRNA Hypervariable Regions in Metagenomic Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Nikhil; Sharma, Ashok K.; Agarwal, Piyush; Gupta, Ankit; Sharma, Vineet K.

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of microbial species in a metagenomic study is commonly assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. With the rapid developments in genome sequencing technologies, the focus has shifted towards the sequencing of hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA gene instead of full length gene sequencing. Therefore, 16S Classifier is developed using a machine learning method, Random Forest, for faster and accurate taxonomic classification of short hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA sequence. It displayed precision values of up to 0.91 on training datasets and the precision values of up to 0.98 on the test dataset. On real metagenomic datasets, it showed up to 99.7% accuracy at the phylum level and up to 99.0% accuracy at the genus level. 16S Classifier is available freely at http://metagenomics.iiserb.ac.in/16Sclassifier and http://metabiosys.iiserb.ac.in/16Sclassifier. PMID:25646627

  10. Accurate determination of antenna directivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Mikael

    1997-01-01

    The derivation of a formula for accurate estimation of the total radiated power from a transmitting antenna for which the radiated power density is known in a finite number of points on the far-field sphere is presented. The main application of the formula is determination of directivity from power......-pattern measurements. The derivation is based on the theory of spherical wave expansion of electromagnetic fields, which also establishes a simple criterion for the required number of samples of the power density. An array antenna consisting of Hertzian dipoles is used to test the accuracy and rate of convergence...

  11. Rapid Measurement of Tectonic Deformation Using Structure-from-Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, A.; DeLong, S.; Lienkaemper, J. J.; Hecker, S.; Prentice, C. S.; Schwartz, D. P.; Sickler, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid collection and distribution of accurate surface slip data after earthquakes can support emergency response, help coordinate scientific response, and constrain coseismic slip that can be rapidly overprinted by postseismic slip, or eliminated as evidence of surface deformation is repaired or obscured. Analysis of earthquake deformation can be achieved quickly, repeatedly and inexpensively with the use of Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry. Traditional methods of measuring surface slip (e.g. manual measurement with tape measures) have proven inconsistent and irreproducible, and sophisticated methods such as laser scanning require specialized equipment and longer field time. Here we present a simple, cost-effective workflow for rapid, three-dimensional imaging and measurement of features affected by earthquake rupture. As part of a response drill performed by the USGS and collaborators on May 11, 2016, geologists documented offset cultural features along the creeping Hayward Fault in northern California, in simulation of a surface-rupturing earthquake. We present several photo collections from smart phones, tablets, and DSLR cameras from a number of locations along the fault collected by users with a range of experience. Using professionally calibrated photogrammetric scale bars we automatically and accurately scale our 3D models to 1 mm accuracy for precise measurement in three dimensions. We then generate scaled 3D point clouds and extract offsets from manual measurement and multiple linear regression for comparison with collected terrestrial scanner data. These results further establish dense photo collection and SfM processing as an important, low-cost, rapid means of quantifying surface deformation in the critical hours after a surface-rupturing earthquake and emphasize that researchers with minimal training can rapidly collect three-dimensional data that can be used to analyze and archive the surface effects of damaging earthquakes.

  12. Constraints on extra dimensions from precision molecular spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salumbides, E.J.; Schellekens, A.N.; Gato-Rivera, B.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate investigations of quantum-level energies in molecular systems are shown to provide a testing ground to constrain the size of compactified extra dimensions. This is made possible by recent progress in precision metrology with ultrastable lasers on energy levels in neutral molecular hydrogen

  13. Precision Teaching, Frequency-Building, and Ballet Dancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokke, Gunn E. H.; Lokke, Jon A.; Arntzen, Erick

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the effectiveness of a brief intervention aimed at achieving fluency in basic ballet moves in a 9-year-old Norwegian girl by use of frequency-building and Precision Teaching procedures. One nonfluent ballet move was pinpointed, and instructional and training procedures designed to increase the frequency of accurate responding…

  14. Precision and within- and between-day variation of bioimpedance parameters in children aged 2-14 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine B; Jødal, Lars; Arveschoug, Anne

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) offers the possibility to perform rapid estimates of fluid distribution and body composition. Few studies, however, have addressed the precision and biological variation in a pediatric population. Our objectives were to evaluate precision, variat...

  15. Accurate Modeling of Advanced Reflectarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Min

    of the incident field, the choice of basis functions, and the technique to calculate the far-field. Based on accurate reference measurements of two offset reflectarrays carried out at the DTU-ESA Spherical NearField Antenna Test Facility, it was concluded that the three latter factors are particularly important...... to the conventional phase-only optimization technique (POT), the geometrical parameters of the array elements are directly optimized to fulfill the far-field requirements, thus maintaining a direct relation between optimization goals and optimization variables. As a result, better designs can be obtained compared...... using the GDOT to demonstrate its capabilities. To verify the accuracy of the GDOT, two offset contoured beam reflectarrays that radiate a high-gain beam on a European coverage have been designed and manufactured, and subsequently measured at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility...

  16. The Accurate Particle Tracer Code

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yulei; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for large-scale particle simulations on dynamical systems. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and non-linear problems. Under the well-designed integrated and modularized framework, APT serves as a universal platform for researchers from different fields, such as plasma physics, accelerator physics, space science, fusion energy research, computational mathematics, software engineering, and high-performance computation. The APT code consists of seven main modules, including the I/O module, the initialization module, the particle pusher module, the parallelization module, the field configuration module, the external force-field module, and the extendible module. The I/O module, supported by Lua and Hdf5 projects, provides a user-friendly interface for both numerical simulation and data analysis. A series of new geometric numerical methods...

  17. More Questions on Precision Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, E. C.; Solity, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Precision teaching can accelerate basic skills progress of special needs children. Issues discussed include using probes as performance tests, charting daily progress, using the charted data to modify teaching methods, determining appropriate age levels, assessing the number of students to be precision taught, and carefully allocating time. (JDD)

  18. SIMS: a hybrid method for rapid conformational analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Gipson

    Full Text Available Proteins are at the root of many biological functions, often performing complex tasks as the result of large changes in their structure. Describing the exact details of these conformational changes, however, remains a central challenge for computational biology due the enormous computational requirements of the problem. This has engendered the development of a rich variety of useful methods designed to answer specific questions at different levels of spatial, temporal, and energetic resolution. These methods fall largely into two classes: physically accurate, but computationally demanding methods and fast, approximate methods. We introduce here a new hybrid modeling tool, the Structured Intuitive Move Selector (sims, designed to bridge the divide between these two classes, while allowing the benefits of both to be seamlessly integrated into a single framework. This is achieved by applying a modern motion planning algorithm, borrowed from the field of robotics, in tandem with a well-established protein modeling library. sims can combine precise energy calculations with approximate or specialized conformational sampling routines to produce rapid, yet accurate, analysis of the large-scale conformational variability of protein systems. Several key advancements are shown, including the abstract use of generically defined moves (conformational sampling methods and an expansive probabilistic conformational exploration. We present three example problems that sims is applied to and demonstrate a rapid solution for each. These include the automatic determination of "active" residues for the hinge-based system Cyanovirin-N, exploring conformational changes involving long-range coordinated motion between non-sequential residues in Ribose-Binding Protein, and the rapid discovery of a transient conformational state of Maltose-Binding Protein, previously only determined by Molecular Dynamics. For all cases we provide energetic validations using well

  19. High-Precision Timing of Millisecond Pulsars and Precision Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, V.

    1994-01-01

    We present the technique of long-term, high-precision timing of millisecond pulsars as applied to precision astrometry. We provide a tutorial on pulsars and pulsar timing, as well as up-to-date results of long-term observation of two millisecond pulsars. We consider the feasibility of tying the extragalactic and optical reference frames to that defined by solar system objects, and we conclude that precision astrometry from millisecond pulsar timing will continue to yield interesting results at an accelerating pace in the next decade.

  20. High-precision positioning of radar scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Small, David; Schubert, Adrian; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2016-05-01

    Remote sensing radar satellites cover wide areas and provide spatially dense measurements, with millions of scatterers. Knowledge of the precise position of each radar scatterer is essential to identify the corresponding object and interpret the estimated deformation. The absolute position accuracy of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) scatterers in a 2D radar coordinate system, after compensating for atmosphere and tidal effects, is in the order of centimeters for TerraSAR-X (TSX) spotlight images. However, the absolute positioning in 3D and its quality description are not well known. Here, we exploit time-series interferometric SAR to enhance the positioning capability in three dimensions. The 3D positioning precision is parameterized by a variance-covariance matrix and visualized as an error ellipsoid centered at the estimated position. The intersection of the error ellipsoid with objects in the field is exploited to link radar scatterers to real-world objects. We demonstrate the estimation of scatterer position and its quality using 20 months of TSX stripmap acquisitions over Delft, the Netherlands. Using trihedral corner reflectors (CR) for validation, the accuracy of absolute positioning in 2D is about 7 cm. In 3D, an absolute accuracy of up to ˜ 66 cm is realized, with a cigar-shaped error ellipsoid having centimeter precision in azimuth and range dimensions, and elongated in cross-range dimension with a precision in the order of meters (the ratio of the ellipsoid axis lengths is 1/3/213, respectively). The CR absolute 3D position, along with the associated error ellipsoid, is found to be accurate and agree with the ground truth position at a 99 % confidence level. For other non-CR coherent scatterers, the error ellipsoid concept is validated using 3D building models. In both cases, the error ellipsoid not only serves as a quality descriptor, but can also help to associate radar scatterers to real-world objects.

  1. Oligonucleotide?directed mutagenesis for precision gene editing

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Noel J.; Mozoruk, Jerry; Miller, Ryan B.; Warburg, Zachary J.; Walker, Keith A.; Beetham, Peter R.; Sch?pke, Christian R.; Gocal, Greg F. W.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Differences in gene sequences, many of which are single nucleotide polymorphisms, underlie some of the most important traits in plants. With humanity facing significant challenges to increase global agricultural productivity, there is an urgent need to accelerate the development of these traits in plants. oligonucleotide?directed mutagenesis (ODM), one of the many tools of Cibus? Rapid Trait Development System ( RTDS ?) technology, offers a rapid, precise and non?transgenic breeding a...

  2. Precision respiratory medicine and the microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Geraint B; Wesselingh, Steve

    2016-01-01

    A decade of rapid technological advances has provided an exciting opportunity to incorporate information relating to a range of potentially important disease determinants in the clinical decision-making process. Access to highly detailed data will enable respiratory medicine to evolve from one-size-fits-all models of care, which are associated with variable clinical effectiveness and high rates of side-effects, to precision approaches, where treatment is tailored to individual patients. The human microbiome has increasingly been recognised as playing an important part in determining disease course and response to treatment. Its inclusion in precision models of respiratory medicine, therefore, is essential. Analysis of the microbiome provides an opportunity to develop novel prognostic markers for airways disease, improve definition of clinical phenotypes, develop additional guidance to aid treatment selection, and increase the accuracy of indicators of treatment effect. In this Review we propose that collaboration between researchers and clinicians is needed if respiratory medicine is to replicate the successes of precision medicine seen in other clinical specialties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The accurate particle tracer code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Yu, Zhi; Yao, Yicun

    2017-11-01

    The Accurate Particle Tracer (APT) code is designed for systematic large-scale applications of geometric algorithms for particle dynamical simulations. Based on a large variety of advanced geometric algorithms, APT possesses long-term numerical accuracy and stability, which are critical for solving multi-scale and nonlinear problems. To provide a flexible and convenient I/O interface, the libraries of Lua and Hdf5 are used. Following a three-step procedure, users can efficiently extend the libraries of electromagnetic configurations, external non-electromagnetic forces, particle pushers, and initialization approaches by use of the extendible module. APT has been used in simulations of key physical problems, such as runaway electrons in tokamaks and energetic particles in Van Allen belt. As an important realization, the APT-SW version has been successfully distributed on the world's fastest computer, the Sunway TaihuLight supercomputer, by supporting master-slave architecture of Sunway many-core processors. Based on large-scale simulations of a runaway beam under parameters of the ITER tokamak, it is revealed that the magnetic ripple field can disperse the pitch-angle distribution significantly and improve the confinement of energetic runaway beam on the same time.

  4. Precision medicine: In need of guidance and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Zhen; Long, Jun-Yu; Wang, An-Qiang; Zheng, Ying; Zhao, Hai-Tao

    2017-07-28

    Precision medicine, currently a hotspot in mainstream medicine, has been strongly promoted in recent years. With rapid technological development, such as next-generation sequencing, and fierce competition in molecular targeted drug exploitation, precision medicine represents an advance in science and technology; it also fulfills needs in public health care. The clinical translation and application of precision medicine - especially in the prevention and treatment of tumors - is far from satisfactory; however, the aims of precision medicine deserve approval. Thus, this medical approach is currently in its infancy; it has promising prospects, but it needs to overcome numbers of problems and deficiencies. It is expected that in addition to conventional symptoms and signs, precision medicine will define disease in terms of the underlying molecular characteristics and other environmental susceptibility factors. Those expectations should be realized by constructing a novel data network, integrating clinical data from individual patients and personal genomic background with existing research on the molecular makeup of diseases. In addition, multi-omics analysis and multi-discipline collaboration will become crucial elements in precision medicine. Precision medicine deserves strong support, and its development demands directed momentum. We propose three kinds of impetus (research, application and collaboration impetus) for such directed momentum toward promoting precision medicine and accelerating its clinical translation and application.

  5. Problems, challenges and promises: perspectives on precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, David J

    2016-05-01

    The 'precision medicine (systems medicine)' concept promises to achieve a shift to future healthcare systems with a more proactive and predictive approach to medicine, where the emphasis is on disease prevention rather than the treatment of symptoms. The individualization of treatment for each patient will be at the centre of this approach, with all of a patient's medical data being computationally integrated and accessible. Precision medicine is being rapidly embraced by biomedical researchers, pioneering clinicians and scientific funding programmes in both the European Union (EU) and USA. Precision medicine is a key component of both Horizon 2020 (the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation) and the White House's Precision Medicine Initiative. Precision medicine promises to revolutionize patient care and treatment decisions. However, the participants in precision medicine are faced with a considerable central challenge. Greater volumes of data from a wider variety of sources are being generated and analysed than ever before; yet, this heterogeneous information must be integrated and incorporated into personalized predictive models, the output of which must be intelligible to non-computationally trained clinicians. Drawing primarily from the field of 'oncology', this article will introduce key concepts and challenges of precision medicine and some of the approaches currently being implemented to overcome these challenges. Finally, this article also covers the criticisms of precision medicine overpromising on its potential to transform patient care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. French Meteor Network for High Precision Orbits of Meteoroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, P.; Vaubaillon, J.; Colas, F.; Bouley, S.; Gaillard, B.; Sauli, I.; Kwon, M. K.

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of precise meteoroids orbit from video observations as most of the meteor stations use off-the-shelf CCD cameras. Few meteoroids orbit with precise semi-major axis are available using film photographic method. Precise orbits are necessary to compute the dust flux in the Earth s vicinity, and to estimate the ejection time of the meteoroids accurately by comparing them with the theoretical evolution model. We investigate the use of large CCD sensors to observe multi-station meteors and to compute precise orbit of these meteoroids. An ideal spatial and temporal resolution to get an accuracy to those similar of photographic plates are discussed. Various problems faced due to the use of large CCD, such as increasing the spatial and the temporal resolution at the same time and computational problems in finding the meteor position are illustrated.

  7. Effective and Accurate Colormap Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyng, K. M.; Greene, C. A.; Hetland, R. D.; Zimmerle, H.; DiMarco, S. F.

    2016-12-01

    Science is often communicated through plots, and design choices can elucidate or obscure the presented data. The colormap used can honestly and clearly display data in a visually-appealing way, or can falsely exaggerate data gradients and confuse viewers. Fortunately, there is a large resource of literature in color science on how color is perceived which we can use to inform our own choices. Following this literature, colormaps can be designed to be perceptually uniform; that is, so an equally-sized jump in the colormap at any location is perceived by the viewer as the same size. This ensures that gradients in the data are accurately percieved. The same colormap is often used to represent many different fields in the same paper or presentation. However, this can cause difficulty in quick interpretation of multiple plots. For example, in one plot the viewer may have trained their eye to recognize that red represents high salinity, and therefore higher density, while in the subsequent temperature plot they need to adjust their interpretation so that red represents high temperature and therefore lower density. In the same way that a single Greek letter is typically chosen to represent a field for a paper, we propose to choose a single colormap to represent a field in a paper, and use multiple colormaps for multiple fields. We have created a set of colormaps that are perceptually uniform, and follow several other design guidelines. There are 18 colormaps to give options to choose from for intuitive representation. For example, a colormap of greens may be used to represent chlorophyll concentration, or browns for turbidity. With careful consideration of human perception and design principles, colormaps may be chosen which faithfully represent the data while also engaging viewers.

  8. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  9. Can precision medicine reduce overdiagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Stephen; Jha, Saurabh

    2015-08-01

    Precision Medicine promises to get the right patient, the right test, the right diagnosis, the right treatment, and in the right amount. Is this hope or hype? Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. FROM PERSONALIZED TO PRECISION MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Raskina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to maintain a high quality of life against a backdrop of its inevitably increasing duration is one of the main problems of modern health care. The concept of "right drug to the right patient at the right time", which at first was bearing the name "personalized", is currently unanimously approved by international scientific community as "precision medicine". Precision medicine takes all the individual characteristics into account: genes diversity, environment, lifestyles, and even bacterial microflora and also involves the use of the latest technological developments, which serves to ensure that each patient gets assistance fitting his state best. In the United States, Canada and France national precision medicine programs have already been submitted and implemented. The aim of this review is to describe the dynamic integration of precision medicine methods into routine medical practice and life of modern society. The new paradigm prospects description are complemented by figures, proving the already achieved success in the application of precise methods for example, the targeted therapy of cancer. All in all, the presence of real-life examples, proving the regularity of transition to a new paradigm, and a wide range  of technical and diagnostic capabilities available and constantly evolving make the all-round transition to precision medicine almost inevitable.

  11. Note: Fast, small, accurate 90° rotator for a polarizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, David P; O'Donnell, William M; Norton, James L

    2011-03-01

    A permanent magnet stepper motor is modified to hold a dichroic polarizer inside the motor. Rotation of the polarizer by 90° ± 0.04° is accomplished within 80 ms. This device is used for measurements of the intensity ratio for two orthogonal linear polarized components of a light beam. The two selected polarizations can be rapidly alternated to allow for signal drift compensation, and the two selected polarizations are accurately orthogonal.

  12. Micropropulsion Systems for Precision Controlled Space Flight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jack

    Space science is subject to a constantly increasing demand for larger coherence lengths or apertures of the space observation systems, which in turn translates into a demand for increased dimensions and subsequently cost and complexity of the systems. When this increasing demand reaches...... the pratical limitations of increasing the physical dimensions of the spacecrafts, the observation platforms will have to be distributed on more spacecrafts flying in very accurate formations. Consequently, the observation platform becomes much more sensitive to disturbances from the space environment....... This project is thus concentrating on developing a method by which an entire, ecient, control system compensating for the disturbances from the space environment and thereby enabling precision formation flight can be realized. The space environment is initially studied and the knowledge gained is used...

  13. PRECISE COSMIC RAYS MEASUREMENTS WITH PAMELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bruno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The PAMELA experiment was launched on board the Resurs-DK1 satellite on June 15th 2006. The apparatus was designed to conduct precision studies of charged cosmic radiation over a wide energy range, from tens of MeV up to several hundred GeV, with unprecedented statistics. In five years of continuous data taking in space, PAMELA accurately measured the energy spectra of cosmic ray antiprotons and positrons, as well as protons, electrons and light nuclei, sometimes providing data in unexplored energetic regions. These important results have shed new light in several astrophysical fields like: an indirect search for Dark Matter, a search for cosmological antimatter (anti-Helium, and the validation of acceleration, transport and secondary production models of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Some of the most important items of Solar and Magnetospheric physics were also investigated. Here we present the most recent results obtained by the PAMELA experiment.

  14. Efficient and Accurate Computational Framework for Injector Design and Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CFD codes used to simulate upper stage expander cycle engines are not adequately mature to support design efforts. Rapid and accurate simulations require more...

  15. Calculation of Weighted Geometric Dilution of Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Sheng Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve high accuracy in wireless positioning systems, both accurate measurements and good geometric relationship between the mobile device and the measurement units are required. Geometric dilution of precision (GDOP is widely used as a criterion for selecting measurement units, since it represents the geometric effect on the relationship between measurement error and positioning determination error. In the calculation of GDOP value, the maximum volume method does not necessarily guarantee the selection of the optimal four measurement units with minimum GDOP. The conventional matrix inversion method for GDOP calculation demands a large amount of operation and causes high power consumption. To select the subset of the most appropriate location measurement units which give the minimum positioning error, we need to consider not only the GDOP effect but also the error statistics property. In this paper, we employ the weighted GDOP (WGDOP, instead of GDOP, to select measurement units so as to improve the accuracy of location. The handheld global positioning system (GPS devices and mobile phones with GPS chips can merely provide limited calculation ability and power capacity. Therefore, it is very imperative to obtain WGDOP accurately and efficiently. This paper proposed two formations of WGDOP with less computation when four measurements are available for location purposes. The proposed formulae can reduce the computational complexity required for computing the matrix inversion. The simpler WGDOP formulae for both the 2D and the 3D location estimation, without inverting a matrix, can be applied not only to GPS but also to wireless sensor networks (WSN and cellular communication systems. Furthermore, the proposed formulae are able to provide precise solution of WGDOP calculation without incurring any approximation error.

  16. A Police and Insurance Joint Management System Based on High Precision BDS/GPS Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwei Zuo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Car ownership in China reached 194 million vehicles at the end of 2016. The traffic congestion index (TCI exceeds 2.0 during rush hour in some cities. Inefficient processing for minor traffic accidents is considered to be one of the leading causes for road traffic jams. Meanwhile, the process after an accident is quite troublesome. The main reason is that it is almost always impossible to get the complete chain of evidence when the accident happens. Accordingly, a police and insurance joint management system is developed which is based on high precision BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS/Global Positioning System (GPS positioning to process traffic accidents. First of all, an intelligent vehicle rearview mirror terminal is developed. The terminal applies a commonly used consumer electronic device with single frequency navigation. Based on the high precision BDS/GPS positioning algorithm, its accuracy can reach sub-meter level in the urban areas. More specifically, a kernel driver is built to realize the high precision positioning algorithm in an Android HAL layer. Thus the third-party application developers can call the general location Application Programming Interface (API of the original standard Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS to get high precision positioning results. Therefore, the terminal can provide lane level positioning service for car users. Next, a remote traffic accident processing platform is built to provide big data analysis and management. According to the big data analysis of information collected by BDS high precision intelligent sense service, vehicle behaviors can be obtained. The platform can also automatically match and screen the data that uploads after an accident to achieve accurate reproduction of the scene. Thus, it helps traffic police and insurance personnel to complete remote responsibility identification and survey for the accident. Thirdly, a rapid processing flow is established in this article to

  17. A Police and Insurance Joint Management System Based on High Precision BDS/GPS Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wenwei; Guo, Chi; Liu, Jingnan; Peng, Xuan; Yang, Min

    2018-01-10

    Car ownership in China reached 194 million vehicles at the end of 2016. The traffic congestion index (TCI) exceeds 2.0 during rush hour in some cities. Inefficient processing for minor traffic accidents is considered to be one of the leading causes for road traffic jams. Meanwhile, the process after an accident is quite troublesome. The main reason is that it is almost always impossible to get the complete chain of evidence when the accident happens. Accordingly, a police and insurance joint management system is developed which is based on high precision BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning to process traffic accidents. First of all, an intelligent vehicle rearview mirror terminal is developed. The terminal applies a commonly used consumer electronic device with single frequency navigation. Based on the high precision BDS/GPS positioning algorithm, its accuracy can reach sub-meter level in the urban areas. More specifically, a kernel driver is built to realize the high precision positioning algorithm in an Android HAL layer. Thus the third-party application developers can call the general location Application Programming Interface (API) of the original standard Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) to get high precision positioning results. Therefore, the terminal can provide lane level positioning service for car users. Next, a remote traffic accident processing platform is built to provide big data analysis and management. According to the big data analysis of information collected by BDS high precision intelligent sense service, vehicle behaviors can be obtained. The platform can also automatically match and screen the data that uploads after an accident to achieve accurate reproduction of the scene. Thus, it helps traffic police and insurance personnel to complete remote responsibility identification and survey for the accident. Thirdly, a rapid processing flow is established in this article to meet the

  18. Pink-Beam, Highly-Accurate Compact Water Cooled Slits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndaker, Aaron; Deyhim, Alex; Jayne, Richard; Waterman, Dave; Caletka, Dave; Steadman, Paul; Dhesi, Sarnjeet

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Design Consulting, Inc. (ADC) has designed accurate compact slits for applications where high precision is required. The system consists of vertical and horizontal slit mechanisms, a vacuum vessel which houses them, water cooling lines with vacuum guards connected to the individual blades, stepper motors with linear encoders, limit (home position) switches and electrical connections including internal wiring for a drain current measurement system. The total slit size is adjustable from 0 to 15 mm both vertically and horizontally. Each of the four blades are individually controlled and motorized. In this paper, a summary of the design and Finite Element Analysis of the system are presented.

  19. Golden Jubilee photos: Precision is their motto

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1980s, CERN embarked on the enormous Large Electron-Positron Collider construction project. The excavation of the 27-kilometre LEP tunnel was a huge technical challenge. The tunnel-boring machines excavated the tunnel in 3.3 km octants and had to be operated with extraordinary precision to ensure that they reached their destination - the bottom of the next vertical shaft - precisely on target. The tunnel was excavated before high-performance instruments were developed for the construction of the Channel Tunnel. As no firms were willing to perform the surveying work, CERN's own surveyors, with experience from the SPS behind them, took up the challenge. At the surface, the surveyors established the world's most accurate geodetic network, performing measurements to an accuracy of 10-7, or 1mm per 10 km, using the Terrameter (see photo). The excavation of the tunnel was completed in 1988 and the finished tunnel's trajectory was found to diverge from the theoretical value specified by the...

  20. 38 CFR 4.46 - Accurate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accurate measurement. 4... RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.46 Accurate measurement. Accurate measurement of the length of stumps, excursion of joints, dimensions and location of scars with respect to...

  1. Rapidly rotating red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  2. Development of immunochromatographic strip test using fluorescent, micellar silica nanosensors for rapid detection of B. abortus antibodies in milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Swati S; Jadhav, Sushma V; Majee, Sharmila B; Shastri, Jayanthi S; Patravale, Vandana B

    2015-08-15

    Presence of bacteria such as Brucella spp. in dairy products is an immense risk to public health. Point of care immunoassays are rapid in that they can quickly screen various samples in a relatively short amount of time, are sensitive, specific and offer a great advantage in accurate and fast diagnosis of infectious diseases. We have fabricated a point of care rapid diagnostic assay that employs fluorescent, micellar silica nanosensors capable of specifically detecting Brucella IgG antibodies in milk samples of afflicted animals. Currently, point of care detection assays are not commercially available for field testing of farm animals using milk samples. The nanosensing allows precise detection of antibodies with low sample volumes (50 μl). We demonstrate recognition of B. abortus antibodies through capture by fluorescent silica nanosensors using spiked and raw milk samples validated by ELISA and PCR. The test results are accurate and repeatable with high sensitivity and specificity, and a short assay time of 10 min for antigenic recognition and do not require any sample processing procedures such as isolation and separation. Additionally, well defined antigenic components and surface biomarkers of various disease causing microbes can be broadly incorporated within the purview of this technology for accurate and rapid detection of suspected bovine pathological conditions, and can largely enable rapid field testing that can be implemented in farms and food industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Geometrical Alignment of Multiple Fabrication Steps for Rapid Prototyping of Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Mohammad; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett; Macka, Mirek

    2017-11-21

    Three main fabrication steps for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) were fully integrated with accurate geometrical alignment between the individual steps in a simple and rapid manner. A wax printer for creating hydrophobic barriers was integrated with an inexpensive (ca. $300) electronic craft plotter/cutter for paper cutting, followed by colorimetric reagent deposition using technical pens. The principal shortcoming in the lack of accurate and precise alignment of the features created by these three individual fabrication steps was addressed in this work by developing appropriate alignment procedures during the multistep fabrication process. The wax printing step was geometrically aligned with the following cutting and plotting (deposition) steps in a highly accurate and precise manner using optical scanning function of the plotter/cutter based on registration marks printed on the paper using the wax printer and scanned by the plotter/cutter. The accuracy and precision of alignment in a two-dimensional plane were quantified by cutting and plotting cross-shaped features and measuring their center coordinates relative to wax printed reference lines. The average accuracy along the X- and Y-axis was 0.12 and 0.16 mm for cutting and 0.19 and 0.17 mm for plotting, respectively. The potential of this approach was demonstrated by fabricating μPADs for instrument-free determination of cobalt in waters using distance-based readout, with excellent precision (%RSD = 5.7) and detection limit (LOD) of 2.5 ng and 0.5 mg/L (mass and concentration LODs, respectively).

  4. Atomic physics precise measurements and ultracold matter

    CERN Document Server

    Inguscio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atomic Physics provides an expert guide to two spectacular new landscapes in physics: precision measurements, which have been revolutionized by the advent of the optical frequency comb, and atomic physics, which has been revolutionized by laser cooling. These advances are not incremental but transformative: they have generated a consilience between atomic and many-body physics, precipitated an explosion of scientific and technological applications, opened new areas of research, and attracted a brilliant generation of younger scientists. The research is advancing so rapidly, the barrage of applications is so dazzling, that students can be bewildered. For both students and experienced scientists, this book provides an invaluable description of basic principles, experimental methods, and scientific applications.

  5. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  6. Ultrafast, high precision gated integrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast, high precision gated integrator has been developed by introducing new design approaches that overcome the problems associated with earlier gated integrator circuits. The very high speed is evidenced by the output settling time of less than 50 ns and 20 MHz input pulse rate. The very high precision is demonstrated by the total output offset error of less than 0.2mV and the output droop rate of less than 10{mu}V/{mu}s. This paper describes the theory of this new gated integrator circuit operation. The completed circuit test results are presented.

  7. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  8. Accurate Biomass Estimation via Bayesian Adaptive Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, K.; Knuth, K.; Castle, P.

    2005-12-01

    and IKONOS imagery and the 3-D volume estimates. The combination of these then allow for a rapid and hopefully very accurate estimation of biomass.

  9. Accurate determination of residual acrylic acid in superabsorbent polymer of hygiene products by headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Xin; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Jiang, Ran

    2017-02-17

    This work reports on a method for the determination of residual acrylic acid (AA) in the superabsorbent polymers for hygiene products by headspace analysis. It was based on water extraction for the polymer sample at a room temperature for 50min. Then, the AA in the extractant reacted with bicarbonate solution in a closed headspace sample vial, from which the carbon dioxide generated from the reaction (within 20min at 70°C) was detected by gas chromatography (GC). It was found that there is adsorption partition equilibrium of AA between solid-liquid phases. Therefore, an equation for calculating the total AA content in the original polymers sample was derived based on the above phase equilibrium. The results show that the HS-GC method has good precision (RSD<2.51%) and good accuracy (recoveries from 93 to 105%); the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 373mg/kg. The present method is rapid, accurate, and suitable for determining total residual acrylic acid in a wide variety of applications from processing of superabsorbent polymer to commercial products quality control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Platform Precision Autopilot Overview and Flight Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, V.; Strovers, B.; Lee, J.; Beck, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Platform Precision Autopilot is an instrument landing system interfaced autopilot system, developed to enable an aircraft to repeatedly fly nearly the same trajectory hours, days, or weeks later. The Platform Precision Autopilot uses a novel design to interface with a NASA Gulfstream III jet by imitating the output of an instrument landing system approach. This technique minimizes, as much as possible, modifications to the baseline Gulfstream III jet and retains the safety features of the aircraft autopilot. The Platform Precision Autopilot requirement is to fly within a 5-m (16.4-ft) radius tube for distances to 200 km (108 nmi) in the presence of light turbulence for at least 90 percent of the time. This capability allows precise repeat-pass interferometry for the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar program, whose primary objective is to develop a miniaturized, polarimetric, L-band synthetic aperture radar. Precise navigation is achieved using an accurate differential global positioning system developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Flight-testing has demonstrated the ability of the Platform Precision Autopilot to control the aircraft within the specified tolerance greater than 90 percent of the time in the presence of aircraft system noise and nonlinearities, constant pilot throttle adjustments, and light turbulence.

  11. The precise temporal calibration of dinosaur origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsicano, Claudia A.; Irmis, Randall B.; Mancuso, Adriana C.; Mundil, Roland; Chemale, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs have been major components of ecosystems for over 200 million years. Although different macroevolutionary scenarios exist to explain the Triassic origin and subsequent rise to dominance of dinosaurs and their closest relatives (dinosauromorphs), all lack critical support from a precise biostratigraphically independent temporal framework. The absence of robust geochronologic age control for comparing alternative scenarios makes it impossible to determine if observed faunal differences vary across time, space, or a combination of both. To better constrain the origin of dinosaurs, we produced radioisotopic ages for the Argentinian Chañares Formation, which preserves a quintessential assemblage of dinosaurian precursors (early dinosauromorphs) just before the first dinosaurs. Our new high-precision chemical abrasion thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-TIMS) U-Pb zircon ages reveal that the assemblage is early Carnian (early Late Triassic), 5- to 10-Ma younger than previously thought. Combined with other geochronologic data from the same basin, we constrain the rate of dinosaur origins, demonstrating their relatively rapid origin in a less than 5-Ma interval, thus halving the temporal gap between assemblages containing only dinosaur precursors and those with early dinosaurs. After their origin, dinosaurs only gradually dominated mid- to high-latitude terrestrial ecosystems millions of years later, closer to the Triassic-Jurassic boundary.

  12. High precision innovative micropump for artificial pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappel, E.; Mefti, S.; Lettieri, G.-L.; Proennecke, S.; Conan, C.

    2014-03-01

    The concept of artificial pancreas, which comprises an insulin pump, a continuous glucose meter and a control algorithm, is a major step forward in managing patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The stability of the control algorithm is based on short-term precision micropump to deliver rapid-acting insulin and to specific integrated sensors able to monitor any failure leading to a loss of accuracy. Debiotech's MEMS micropump, based on the membrane pump principle, is made of a stack of 3 silicon wafers. The pumping chamber comprises a pillar check-valve at the inlet, a pumping membrane which is actuated against stop limiters by a piezo cantilever, an anti-free-flow outlet valve and a pressure sensor. The micropump inlet is tightly connected to the insulin reservoir while the outlet is in direct communication with the patient skin via a cannula. To meet the requirement of a pump dedicated to closed-loop application for diabetes care, in addition to the well-controlled displacement of the pumping membrane, the high precision of the micropump is based on specific actuation profiles that balance effect of pump elasticity in low-consumption push-pull mode.

  13. The preliminary exploration of 64-slice volume computed tomography in the accurate measurement of pleural effusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Zhi-Jun [Dept. of Radiology, North China Petroleum Bureau General Hospital, Renqiu, Hebei (China)], e-mail: Gzj3@163.com; Lin, Qiang [Dept. of Oncology, North China Petroleum Bureau General Hospital, Renqiu, Hebei (China); Liu, Hai-Tao [Dept. of General Surgery, North China Petroleum Bureau General Hospital, Renqiu, Hebei (China)] [and others])

    2013-09-15

    Background: Using computed tomography (CT) to rapidly and accurately quantify pleural effusion volume benefits medical and scientific research. However, the precise volume of pleural effusions still involves many challenges and currently does not have a recognized accurate measuring. Purpose: To explore the feasibility of using 64-slice CT volume-rendering technology to accurately measure pleural fluid volume and to then analyze the correlation between the volume of the free pleural effusion and the different diameters of the pleural effusion. Material and Methods: The 64-slice CT volume-rendering technique was used to measure and analyze three parts. First, the fluid volume of a self-made thoracic model was measured and compared with the actual injected volume. Second, the pleural effusion volume was measured before and after pleural fluid drainage in 25 patients, and the volume reduction was compared with the actual volume of the liquid extract. Finally, the free pleural effusion volume was measured in 26 patients to analyze the correlation between it and the diameter of the effusion, which was then used to calculate the regression equation. Results: After using the 64-slice CT volume-rendering technique to measure the fluid volume of the self-made thoracic model, the results were compared with the actual injection volume. No significant differences were found, P = 0.836. For the 25 patients with drained pleural effusions, the comparison of the reduction volume with the actual volume of the liquid extract revealed no significant differences, P = 0.989. The following linear regression equation was used to compare the pleural effusion volume (V) (measured by the CT volume-rendering technique) with the pleural effusion greatest depth (d): V = 158.16 X d - 116.01 (r = 0.91, P = 0.000). The following linear regression was used to compare the volume with the product of the pleural effusion diameters (l X h X d): V = 0.56 X (l X h X d) + 39.44 (r = 0.92, P = 0

  14. Near-real-time regional troposphere models for the GNSS precise point positioning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, T.; Kaplon, J.; Bosy, J.; Sierny, J.; Wilgan, K.

    2013-05-01

    The GNSS precise point positioning (PPP) technique requires high quality product (orbits and clocks) application, since their error directly affects the quality of positioning. For real-time purposes it is possible to utilize ultra-rapid precise orbits and clocks which are disseminated through the Internet. In order to eliminate as many unknown parameters as possible, one may introduce external information on zenith troposphere delay (ZTD). It is desirable that the a priori model is accurate and reliable, especially for real-time application. One of the open problems in GNSS positioning is troposphere delay modelling on the basis of ground meteorological observations. Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics of Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (IGG WUELS) has developed two independent regional troposphere models for the territory of Poland. The first one is estimated in near-real-time regime using GNSS data from a Polish ground-based augmentation system named ASG-EUPOS established by Polish Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography (GUGiK) in 2008. The second one is based on meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure and humidity) gathered from various meteorological networks operating over the area of Poland and surrounding countries. This paper describes the methodology of both model calculation and verification. It also presents results of applying various ZTD models into kinematic PPP in the post-processing mode using Bernese GPS Software. Positioning results were used to assess the quality of the developed models during changing weather conditions. Finally, the impact of model application to simulated real-time PPP on precision, accuracy and convergence time is discussed.

  15. Precision Teaching ... and All That!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, E. C.; Solity, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Two proponents of the precision teaching approach to teaching the handicapped discuss such principles as: the problem of partial application of the method; relationship to behaviorism; relationship to experiential learning; and the importance of fluency in task performance, mastery learning, and recordkeeping. (DB)

  16. Spin and precision electroweak physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, W.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-12-01

    A perspective on fundamental parameters and precision tests of the Standard Model is given. Weak neutral current reactions are discussed with emphasis on those processes involving (polarized) electrons. The role of electroweak radiative corrections in determining the top quark mass and probing for {open_quotes}new physics{close_quotes} is described.

  17. Future challenges for precision QCD

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Precision measurements at Run II of the LHC continue to demand smaller theoretical uncertainties. In this meeting we aim to bring together experts in the field to discuss current issues in the theoretical models. Topics of particular interest are Higgs and Top quark physics, new techniques for infrared subtraction and loop integrals as well as fixed order and parton shower matching beyond NLO.

  18. Precision muon lifetime at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulhauser, Francoise [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (United States) and Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland)

    2006-05-15

    The goal of MuLan, positive muon lifetime measurement, is the measurement of the positive muon lifetime to 1 ppm, which will in turn determine the Fermi coupling constant G {sub F} to 0.5 ppm precision. We will describe our experimental efforts and latest achievements.

  19. Precision Machining Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide was developed from a Technical Committee Report prepared with the assistance of industry personnel and containing a Task List which is the basis of the guide. It presents competency-based program standards for courses in precision machining technology and is part of the Idaho Vocational Curriculum Guide Project, a cooperative…

  20. High current precision long pulse electron beam position monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, S D; Fessenden, T J; Holmes, C

    2000-01-01

    Precision high current long pulse electron beam position monitoring has typically experienced problems with high Q sensors, sensors damped to the point of lack of precision, or sensors that interact substantially with any beam halo thus obscuring the desired signal. As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using transverse electromagnetic stripline kicker technology, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams for accurate beam position control (6 - 40 MeV, 1 - 4 kA, 2 μs beam pulse, sub millimeter beam position accuracy.) The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (< 20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt position measurements.

  1. Precisely Tailored DNA Nanostructures and their Theranostic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bing; Wang, Lihua; Li, Jiang; Fan, Chunhai

    2017-12-01

    A critical challenge in nanotechnology is the limited precision and controllability of the structural parameters, which brings about concerns in uniformity, reproducibility and performance. Self-assembled DNA nanostructures, as a newly emerged type of nano-biomaterials, possess low-nanometer precision, excellent programmability and addressability. They can precisely arrange various molecules and materials to form spatially ordered complex, resulting in unambiguous physical or chemical properties. Because of these, DNA nanostructures have shown great promise in numerous biomedical theranostic applications. In this account, we briefly review the history and advances on construction of DNA nanoarchitectures and superstructures with accurate structural parameters. We focus on recent progress in exploiting these DNA nanostructures as platforms for quantitative biosensing, intracellular diagnosis, imaging, and smart drug delivery. We also discuss key challenges in practical applications. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Advancing Precision Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging for Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Chadwick L; Maly, Joseph J; Zhang, Jun; Knopp, Michael V

    2017-01-01

    PET with fluorodeoxyglucose F 18 (18F FDG-PET) is a meaningful biomarker for the detection, targeted biopsy, and treatment of lymphoma. This article reviews the evolution of 18F FDG-PET as a putative biomarker for lymphoma and addresses the current capabilities, challenges, and opportunities to enable precision medicine practices for lymphoma. Precision nuclear medicine is driven by new imaging technologies and methodologies to more accurately detect malignant disease. Although quantitative assessment of response is limited, such technologies will enable a more precise metabolic mapping with much higher definition image detail and thus may make it a robust and valid quantitative response assessment methodology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. GABA-Mediated Presynaptic Inhibition Is Required for Precision of Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Patrick K.; Dulka, Brooke N.; Ortiz, Samantha; Riccio, David C.; Jasnow, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    Though much attention has been given to the neural structures that underlie the long-term consolidation of contextual memories, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of memory precision. Here, we demonstrate a rapid time-dependent decline in memory precision in GABA [subscript B(1a)] receptor knockout mice. First, we…

  4. Precision Calculations in Supersymmetric Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mihaila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on the newest developments in precision calculations in supersymmetric theories. An important issue related to this topic is the construction of a regularization scheme preserving simultaneously gauge invariance and supersymmetry. In this context, we discuss in detail dimensional reduction in component field formalism as it is currently the preferred framework employed in the literature. Furthermore, we set special emphasis on the application of multi-loop calculations to the analysis of gauge coupling unification, the prediction of the lightest Higgs boson mass, and the computation of the hadronic Higgs production and decay rates in supersymmetric models. Such precise theoretical calculations up to the fourth order in perturbation theory are required in order to cope with the expected experimental accuracy on the one hand and to enable us to distinguish between the predictions of the Standard Model and those of supersymmetric theories on the other hand.

  5. Precision electroweak physics at LEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannelli, M.

    1994-12-01

    Copious event statistics, a precise understanding of the LEP energy scale, and a favorable experimental situation at the Z{sup 0} resonance have allowed the LEP experiments to provide both dramatic confirmation of the Standard Model of strong and electroweak interactions and to place substantially improved constraints on the parameters of the model. The author concentrates on those measurements relevant to the electroweak sector. It will be seen that the precision of these measurements probes sensitively the structure of the Standard Model at the one-loop level, where the calculation of the observables measured at LEP is affected by the value chosen for the top quark mass. One finds that the LEP measurements are consistent with the Standard Model, but only if the mass of the top quark is measured to be within a restricted range of about 20 GeV.

  6. Precision predictions for Higgs differential distributions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Markus

    2017-08-15

    After the discovery of a Standard-Model-like Higgs boson at the LHC a central aspect of the LHC physics program is to study the Higgs boson's couplings to Standard Model particles in detail in order to elucidate the nature of the Higgs mechanism and to search for hints of physics beyond the Standard Model. This requires precise theory predictions for both inclusive and differential Higgs cross sections. In this thesis we focus on the application of resummation techniques in the framework of Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) to obtain accurate predictions with reliable theory uncertainties for various observables. We first consider transverse momentum distributions, where the resummation of large logarithms in momentum (or distribution) space has been a long-standing open question. We show that its two-dimensional nature leads to additional difficulties not observed in one-dimensional observables such as thrust, and solving the associated renormalization group equations (RGEs) in momentum space thus requires a very careful scale setting. This is achieved using distributional scale setting, a new technique to solve differential equations such as RGEs directly in distribution space, as it allows one to treat logarithmic plus distributions like ordinary logarithms. We show that the momentum space solution fundamentally differs from the standard resummation in Fourier space by different boundary terms to all orders in perturbation theory and hence provides an interesting and complementary approach to obtain new insight into the all-order perturbative and nonperturbative structure of transverse momentum distributions. Our work lays the ground for a detailed numerical study of the momentum space resummation. We then show that in the case of a discovery of a new heavy color-singlet resonance such as a heavy Higgs boson, one can reliably and model-independently infer its production mechanism by dividing the data into two mutually exclusive jet bins. The method is

  7. Precision luminosity measurements at LHCb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M. -O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjornstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S. -F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C. -T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. -M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Faerber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R. F.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Pardinas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Geraci, A.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Goebel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Gandara, M. Grabalosa; Graciani Diaz, R.; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Grauges, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruenberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. -P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Maerki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Sanchez, A. Martin; Martinelli, M.; Santos, D. Martinez; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. -N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Morda, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. -B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mueller, K.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Altarelli, M. Pepe; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Pessina, G.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilar, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Perez, P. Rodriguez; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M. -H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Coutinho, R. Silva; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V. K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Garcia, M. Ubeda; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Gomez, R. Vazquez; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vazquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilschut, H. W.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2014-01-01

    Measuring cross-sections at the LHC requires the luminosity to be determined accurately at each centre-of-mass energy root s. In this paper results are reported from the luminosity calibrations carried out at the LHC interaction point 8 with the LHCb detector for root s = 2.76, 7 and 8TeV

  8. Precision machining of steel decahedrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy, W. J.; Sealy, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Production of highly accurate decahedron prisms from hardened stainless steel is discussed. Prism is used to check angular alignment of mounting pads of strapdown inertial guidance system. Accuracies obtainable using recommended process and details of operation are described. Photographic illustration of production device is included.

  9. Higgs Precision Measurements with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery of the Higgs boson, precise measurements of its properties are of particular importance to understand the true nature of the found particle, which could be the Standard Model predicted Higgs, or indeed offering to be a portal for new physics beyond the Standard Model. In this talk measurement of the mass, cross sections and the couplings of the Higgs boson in bosonic and fermionic decay channels with the ATLAS detector will be presented and compared with Standard Model predictions.

  10. Precision measurements of electroweak parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Savin, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    A set of selected precise measurements of the SM parameters from the LHC experiments is discussed. Results on W-mass measurement and forward-backward asymmetry in production of the Drell--Yan events in both dielectron and dimuon decay channels are presented together with results on the effective mixing angle measurements. Electroweak production of the vector bosons in association with two jets is discussed.

  11. Numerical precision and data structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, W.

    1978-01-01

    Technical proposals and recommendations for revising FORTRAN were studied and categorized. In the area of numerical precision, the proposals basically agree on a set of necessary parameters, although a wide range of nomenclature and specific function names are used. Environmental parameters identified include the following: (1) base of floating point representation, (2) largest positive real number, exponent and integer, (3) largest negative real number, exponent and integer, (4) number of significant digits, and (5) exponent bias.

  12. Knowledge of Precision Farming Beneficiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Greena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Precision Farming is one of the many advanced farming practices that make production more efficient by better resource management and reducing wastage. TN-IAMWARM is a world bank funded project aims to improve the farm productivity and income through better water management. The present study was carried out in Kambainallur sub basin of Dharmapuri district with 120 TN-IAMWARM beneficiaries as respondents. The result indicated that more than three fourth (76.67 % of the respondents had high level of knowledge on precision farming technologies which was made possible by the implementation of TN-IAMWARM project. The study further revealed that educational status, occupational status and exposure to agricultural messages had a positive and significant contribution to the knowledge level of the respondents at 0.01 level of probability whereas experience in precision farming and social participation had a positive and significant contribution at 0.05 level of probability.

  13. Precision Measurement of Transition Matrix Elements via Light Shift Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, C. D.; Vaidya, V. D.; Li, X.; Rolston, S. L.; Porto, J. V.; Safronova, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    We present a method for accurate determination of atomic transition matrix elements at the 10-3 level. Measurements of the ac Stark (light) shift around “magic-zero” wavelengths, where the light shift vanishes, provide precise constraints on the matrix elements. We make the first measurement of the 5s-6p matrix elements in rubidium by measuring the light shift around the 421 and 423 nm zeros through diffraction of a condensate off a sequence of standing wave pulses. In conjunction with existing theoretical and experimental data, we find 0.3235(9)ea0 and 0.5230(8)ea0 for the 5s-6p1/2 and 5s-6p3/2 elements, respectively, an order of magnitude more accurate than the best theoretical values. This technique can provide needed, accurate matrix elements for many atoms, including those used in atomic clocks, tests of fundamental symmetries, and quantum information.

  14. Aesthetic and biomechanical precision in complex cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Basil

    2009-12-01

    The success of dental restorations should not only be measured by immediate outcomes, such as patient comfort and appearance, but also by long-term survival and stability of the definitive restorations. Long-term success is dependant on the level of precision at which treatment is carried out. The three main areas in which this precision should be focused are precision of fit, occiusal precision, and aesthetic precision.

  15. Compact and Accurate Turbocharger Modelling for Engine Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C; Hendricks, Elbert; Magnússon, Sigurjón

    2005-01-01

    (Engine Control Unit) as a table. This method uses a great deal of memory space and often requires on-line interpolation and thus a large amount of CPU time. In this paper a more compact, accurate and rapid method of dealing with the compressor modelling problem is presented and is applicable to all......With the current trend towards engine downsizing, the use of turbochargers to obtain extra engine power has become common. A great díffuculty in the use of turbochargers is in the modelling of the compressor map. In general this is done by inserting the compressor map directly into the engine ECU...

  16. Metabolomics enables precision medicine: "A White Paper, Community Perspective".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, Richard D; Dunn, Warwick; Schmidt, Michael A; Gross, Steven S; Kirwan, Jennifer A; Cascante, Marta; Brennan, Lorraine; Wishart, David S; Oresic, Matej; Hankemeier, Thomas; Broadhurst, David I; Lane, Andrew N; Suhre, Karsten; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Sumner, Susan J; Thiele, Ines; Fiehn, Oliver; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima

    Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of the metabolome, the repertoire of biochemicals (or small molecules) present in cells, tissues, and body fluids. The study of metabolism at the global or "-omics" level is a rapidly growing field that has the potential to have a profound impact upon medical practice. At the center of metabolomics, is the concept that a person's metabolic state provides a close representation of that individual's overall health status. This metabolic state reflects what has been encoded by the genome, and modified by diet, environmental factors, and the gut microbiome. The metabolic profile provides a quantifiable readout of biochemical state from normal physiology to diverse pathophysiologies in a manner that is often not obvious from gene expression analyses. Today, clinicians capture only a very small part of the information contained in the metabolome, as they routinely measure only a narrow set of blood chemistry analytes to assess health and disease states. Examples include measuring glucose to monitor diabetes, measuring cholesterol and high density lipoprotein/low density lipoprotein ratio to assess cardiovascular health, BUN and creatinine for renal disorders, and measuring a panel of metabolites to diagnose potential inborn errors of metabolism in neonates. We anticipate that the narrow range of chemical analyses in current use by the medical community today will be replaced in the future by analyses that reveal a far more comprehensive metabolic signature. This signature is expected to describe global biochemical aberrations that reflect patterns of variance in states of wellness, more accurately describe specific diseases and their progression, and greatly aid in differential diagnosis. Such future metabolic signatures will: (1) provide predictive, prognostic, diagnostic, and surrogate markers of diverse disease states; (2) inform on underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases; (3) allow for sub-classification of diseases, and

  17. Real-time, autonomous precise satellite orbit determination using the global positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David Ben

    2000-10-01

    The desire for autonomously generated, rapidly available, and highly accurate satellite ephemeris is growing with the proliferation of constellations of satellites and the cost and overhead of ground tracking resources. Autonomous Orbit Determination (OD) may be done on the ground in a post-processing mode or in real-time on board a satellite and may be accomplished days, hours or immediately after observations are processed. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is now widely used as an alternative to ground tracking resources to supply observation data for satellite positioning and navigation. GPS is accurate, inexpensive, provides continuous coverage, and is an excellent choice for autonomous systems. In an effort to estimate precise satellite ephemeris in real-time on board a satellite, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) created the GPS Enhanced OD Experiment (GEODE) flight navigation software. This dissertation offers alternative methods and improvements to GEODE to increase on board autonomy and real-time total position accuracy and precision without increasing computational burden. First, GEODE is modified to include a Gravity Acceleration Approximation Function (GAAF) to replace the traditional spherical harmonic representation of the gravity field. Next, an ionospheric correction method called Differenced Range Versus Integrated Doppler (DRVID) is applied to correct for ionospheric errors in the GPS measurements used in GEODE. Then, Dynamic Model Compensation (DMC) is added to estimate unmodeled and/or mismodeled forces in the dynamic model and to provide an alternative process noise variance-covariance formulation. Finally, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is implemented in the form of Genetic Model Compensation (GMC) to optimize DMC forcing noise parameters. Application of GAAF, DRVID and DMC improved GEODE's position estimates by 28.3% when applied to GPS/MET data collected in the presence of Selective Availability (SA), 17.5% when SA is removed from the GPS

  18. Precision radiometric surface temperature (PRST) sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, James T.; Roberts, Carson; Bodkin, Andrew; Sundberg, Robert; Beaven, Scott; Weinheimer, Jeffrey

    2013-05-01

    There is a need for a Precision Radiometric Surface Temperature (PRST) measurement capability that can achieve noncontact profiling of a sample's surface temperature when heated dynamically during laser processing, aerothermal heating or metal cutting/machining. Target surface temperature maps within and near the heated spot provide critical quantitative diagnostic data for laser-target coupling effectiveness and laser damage assessment. In the case of metal cutting, this type of measurement provides information on plastic deformation in the primary shear zone where the cutting tool is in contact with the workpiece. The challenge in these cases is to measure the temperature of a target while its surface's temperature and emissivity are changing rapidly and with incomplete knowledge of how the emissivity and surface texture (scattering) changes with temperature. Bodkin Design and Engineering, LLC (BDandE), with partners Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI) and Space Computer Corporation (SCC), has developed a PRST Sensor that is based on a hyperspectral MWIR imager spanning the wavelength range 2-5 μm and providing a hyperspectral datacube of 20-24 wavelengths at 60 Hz frame rate or faster. This imager is integrated with software and algorithms to extract surface temperature from radiometric measurements over the range from ambient to 2000K with a precision of 20K, even without a priori knowledge of the target's emissivity and even as the target emissivity may be changing with time and temperature. In this paper, we will present a description of the PRST system as well as laser heating test results which show the PRST system mapping target surface temperatures in the range 600-2600K on a variety of materials.

  19. Precision luminosity measurement at ILC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073074; Pandurovic, M; Smiljanic, I

    2013-01-01

    In these proceedings a novel approach to deal with the beam-induced effects in luminosity measurement is presented. Based on the relativistic kinematics of the collision frame of the Bhabha process, the beam-beam related uncertainties can be reduced to the permille level independently of a precision with which the beam parameters are known. Specific event selection combined with the corrective methods we introduce, leads to the systematic uncertainty from the beam-induced effects to be at a few permille level in the peak region above the 80% of the nominal centre-of-mass energies at ILC.

  20. Electroweak precision measurements in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Dordevic, Milos

    2017-01-01

    An overview of recent results on electroweak precision measurements from the CMS Collaboration is presented. Studies of the weak boson differential transverse momentum spectra, Z boson angular coefficients, forward-backward asymmetry of Drell-Yan lepton pairs and charge asymmetry of W boson production are made in comparison to the state-of-the-art Monte Carlo generators and theoretical predictions. The results show a good agreement with the Standard Model. As a proof of principle for future W mass measurements, a W-like analysis of the Z boson mass is performed.

  1. Precision Measurement in Quantum Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, David J.

    The work contained in this thesis is derived from various projects completed during my studies at the University of Rochester. The first chapter introduces the reader to foundational concepts in quantum mechanics, quantum optics, weak values, and the interaction of light with matter. Chapter two covers the results of experiments conducted to measure the deflection of a beam of classical light using the weak value formalism. A discussion of the optimal signal to noise ratio of such a measurement is included. Chapter three shows how the so-called "inverse weak value" can be used to measure the phase of an optical beam with high precision. The following chapter includes results on precision frequency measurements using a standard glass prism and weak values, followed by related experimental results arising from the interaction of light with gaseous rubidium. Chapter five focuses on a proposal to use weak measurements to undo a random disturbance in the amplitude or phase of an entangled pair of photons. It is shown that the entanglement of an ensemble of photon pairs can be largely restored after this random disturbance.

  2. Precision metrology using weak measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A

    2015-05-29

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  3. Accurate test limits under prescribed consumer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim; Arts, G.R.J.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Measurement errors occurring during inspection of manufactured parts force producers to replace specification limits by slightly more strict test limits. Here accurate test limits are presented which maximize the yield while limiting the fraction of defectives reaching the consumer.

  4. Accurate mass measurements on neutron-deficient krypton isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez, D.; Äystö, J.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Bollen, G.; Herfurth, F.; Jokinen, A.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kluge, H.-J.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Oinonen, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schwarz, S.

    2006-01-01

    The masses of $^{72–78,80,82,86}$Kr were measured directly with the ISOLTRAP Penning trap mass spectrometer at ISOLDE/CERN. For all these nuclides, the measurements yielded mass uncertainties below 10 keV. The ISOLTRAP mass values for $^{72–75}$Kr being more precise than the previous results obtained by means of other techniques, and thus completely determine the new values in the Atomic-Mass Evaluation. Besides the interest of these masses for nuclear astrophysics, nuclear structure studies, and Standard Model tests, these results constitute a valuable and accurate input to improve mass models. In this paper, we present the mass measurements and discuss the mass evaluation for these Kr isotopes.

  5. Precision Casting via Advanced Simulation and Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A two-year program was conducted to develop and commercially implement selected casting manufacturing technologies to enable significant reductions in the costs of castings, increase the complexity and dimensional accuracy of castings, and reduce the development times for delivery of high quality castings. The industry-led R&D project was cost shared with NASA's Aerospace Industry Technology Program (AITP). The Rocketdyne Division of Boeing North American, Inc. served as the team lead with participation from Lockheed Martin, Ford Motor Company, Howmet Corporation, PCC Airfoils, General Electric, UES, Inc., University of Alabama, Auburn University, Robinson, Inc., Aracor, and NASA-LeRC. The technical effort was organized into four distinct tasks. The accomplishments reported herein. Task 1.0 developed advanced simulation technology for core molding. Ford headed up this task. On this program, a specialized core machine was designed and built. Task 2.0 focused on intelligent process control for precision core molding. Howmet led this effort. The primary focus of these experimental efforts was to characterize the process parameters that have a strong impact on dimensional control issues of injection molded cores during their fabrication. Task 3.0 developed and applied rapid prototyping to produce near net shape castings. Rocketdyne was responsible for this task. CAD files were generated using reverse engineering, rapid prototype patterns were fabricated using SLS and SLA, and castings produced and evaluated. Task 4.0 was aimed at developing technology transfer. Rocketdyne coordinated this task. Casting related technology, explored and evaluated in the first three tasks of this program, was implemented into manufacturing processes.

  6. Precision non-conservative force modelling for Low Earth Orbiting spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorpe, Anthony John

    2006-10-01

    Low Earth Orbiting spacecraft are used in various ways for remote observation and measurement of system Earth some classes of measurements are only useful when modelled in a spatial reference frame. As the position of a satellite at a particular epoch is used to provide a fixed point of reference, it is vital that we know these positions both accurately and precisely. Non-conservative forces, which change the energy state of a spacecraft system, can have a dramatic effect on the estimated position of a satellite if unmodelled or, as is often the case, are modelled only crudely. Downstream Earth observation data can inherit significant errors as a result. As an example of this, it has been recognised that apparent long wavelength signals can be introduced into interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images by orbit error. Such images are used to monitor surface deformation, and may provide an indication of strain accumulation as a pre-cursor to Earthquake activity. It makes sense therefore to better model these non-conservative forces, thus improving the quality of the Earth observation data. This project develops precise methodologies for modelling of solar radiation pressure / thermal re-radiation / eclipse modelling / Earth radiation pressure / spacecraft internal heat distribution / on-board instrument power output, and applies these techniques to the European Space Agency's ENVISAT satellite. This complicated satellite has necessitated the development of a significant number of new algorithms for dealing with a large number of geometric primitives. A graphical display tool, developed during this research, allows rapid model development and improved error checking. Resultant models are incorporated into the GEODYN II orbit determination software, developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Centre. Precise orbits computed using tracking data in combination with the newly developed force models are compared against precise orbits generated using nominal force

  7. Coaxial visible and FIR camera system with accurate geometric calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Yuka; Shibata, Takashi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Okutomi, Masatoshi

    2017-05-01

    A far-infrared (FIR) image contains important invisible information for various applications such as night vision and fire detection, while a visible image includes colors and textures in a scene. We present a coaxial visible and FIR camera system accompanied to obtain the complementary information of both images simultaneously. The proposed camera system is composed of three parts: a visible camera, a FIR camera, and a beam-splitter made from silicon. The FIR radiation from the scene is reflected at the beam-splitter, while the visible radiation is transmitted through this beam-splitter. Even if we use this coaxial visible and FIR camera system, the alignment between the visible and FIR images are not perfect. Therefore, we also present the joint calibration method which can simultaneously estimate accurate geometric parameters of both cameras, i.e. the intrinsic parameters of both cameras and the extrinsic parameters between both cameras. In the proposed calibration method, we use a novel calibration target which has a two-layer structure where thermal emission property of each layer is different. By using the proposed calibration target, we can stably and precisely obtain the corresponding points of the checker pattern in the calibration target from both the visible and the FIR images. Widely used calibration tools can accurately estimate both camera parameters. We can obtain aligned visible and FIR images by the coaxial camera system with precise calibration using two-layer calibration target. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed camera system is useful for various applications such as image fusion, image denoising, and image up-sampling.

  8. Study of accurate volume measurement system for plutonium nitrate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoma, T. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    1998-12-01

    It is important for effective safeguarding of nuclear materials to establish a technique for accurate volume measurement of plutonium nitrate solution in accountancy tank. The volume of the solution can be estimated by two differential pressures between three dip-tubes, in which the air is purged by an compressor. One of the differential pressure corresponds to the density of the solution, and another corresponds to the surface level of the solution in the tank. The measurement of the differential pressure contains many uncertain errors, such as precision of pressure transducer, fluctuation of back-pressure, generation of bubbles at the front of the dip-tubes, non-uniformity of temperature and density of the solution, pressure drop in the dip-tube, and so on. The various excess pressures at the volume measurement are discussed and corrected by a reasonable method. High precision-differential pressure measurement system is developed with a quartz oscillation type transducer which converts a differential pressure to a digital signal. The developed system is used for inspection by the government and IAEA. (M. Suetake)

  9. Precise GNSS Positioning Using Smart Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Realini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent access to GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System phase observations on smart devices, enabled by Google through its Android operating system, opens the possibility to apply precise positioning techniques using off-the-shelf, mass-market devices. The target of this work is to evaluate whether this is feasible, and which positioning accuracy can be achieved by relative positioning of the smart device with respect to a base station. Positioning of a Google/HTC Nexus 9 tablet was performed by means of batch least-squares adjustment of L1 phase double-differenced observations, using the open source goGPS software, over baselines ranging from approximately 10 m to 8 km, with respect to both physical (geodetic or low-cost and virtual base stations. The same positioning procedure was applied also to a co-located u-blox low-cost receiver, to compare the performance between the receiver and antenna embedded in the Nexus 9 and a standard low-cost single-frequency receiver with external patch antenna. The results demonstrate that with a smart device providing raw GNSS phase observations, like the Nexus 9, it is possible to reach decimeter-level accuracy through rapid-static surveys, without phase ambiguity resolution. It is expected that sub-centimeter accuracy could be achieved, as demonstrated for the u-blox case, if integer phase ambiguities were correctly resolved.

  10. Precise GNSS Positioning Using Smart Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, Eugenio; Caldera, Stefano; Pertusini, Lisa; Sampietro, Daniele

    2017-10-24

    The recent access to GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) phase observations on smart devices, enabled by Google through its Android operating system, opens the possibility to apply precise positioning techniques using off-the-shelf, mass-market devices. The target of this work is to evaluate whether this is feasible, and which positioning accuracy can be achieved by relative positioning of the smart device with respect to a base station. Positioning of a Google/HTC Nexus 9 tablet was performed by means of batch least-squares adjustment of L1 phase double-differenced observations, using the open source goGPS software, over baselines ranging from approximately 10 m to 8 km, with respect to both physical (geodetic or low-cost) and virtual base stations. The same positioning procedure was applied also to a co-located u-blox low-cost receiver, to compare the performance between the receiver and antenna embedded in the Nexus 9 and a standard low-cost single-frequency receiver with external patch antenna. The results demonstrate that with a smart device providing raw GNSS phase observations, like the Nexus 9, it is possible to reach decimeter-level accuracy through rapid-static surveys, without phase ambiguity resolution. It is expected that sub-centimeter accuracy could be achieved, as demonstrated for the u-blox case, if integer phase ambiguities were correctly resolved.

  11. Precision cosmology and the landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael

    2006-10-01

    After reviewing the cosmological constant problem -- why is Lambda not huge? -- I outline the two basic approaches that had emerged by the late 1980s, and note that each made a clear prediction. Precision cosmological experiments now indicate that the cosmological constant is nonzero. This result strongly favors the environmental approach, in which vacuum energy can vary discretely among widely separated regions in the universe. The need to explain this variation from first principles constitutes an observational constraint on fundamental theory. I review arguments that string theory satisfies this constraint, as it contains a dense discretuum of metastable vacua. The enormous landscape of vacua calls for novel, statistical methods of deriving predictions, and it prompts us to reexamine our description of spacetime on the largest scales. I discuss the effects of cosmological dynamics, and I speculate that weighting vacua by their entropy production may allow for prior-free predictions that do not resort to explicitly anthropic arguments.

  12. Precise Nanoelectronics with Adatom Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshishige

    1999-01-01

    Adatom chains on an atomically regulated substrate will be building components in future precise nanoelectronics. Adatoms need to be secured with chemical bonding, but then electronic isolation between the adatom and substrate systems is not guaranteed. A one-dimensional model shows that good isolation with existence of surface states is expected on an s-p crossing substrate such as Si, Ge, or GaAs, reflecting the bulk nature of the substrate. Isolation is better if adatoms are electronically similar to the substrate atoms, and can be manipulated by hydrogenation. Chain structures with group IV adatoms with two chemical bonds, or group III adatoms with one chemical bond, are semiconducting, reflecting the surface nature of the substrate. These structures are unintentionally doped due to the charge transfer across the chemical bonds. Physical properties of adatom chains have to be determined for the unified adatom-substrate system.

  13. Precise α from τ Decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaescu, B.

    2009-01-01

    An updated measurement of α(mτ2) from ALEPH τ hadronic spectral functions is presented. We report a study of the perturbative prediction(s) showing that the fixed-order perturbation theory manifests convergence or principle problems not presented in the contour-improved calculation. Potential systematic effects from quark-hadron duality violations are estimated to be within the quoted systematic errors. The fit result is α(mτ2)=0.344±0.005±0.007, where the first error is experimental and the second theoretical. After evolution, the α(mZ2) determined from τ data is one of the most precise to date, in agreement with the corresponding NLO value derived from Z decays.

  14. Precision QCD measurements at HERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirumov Hayk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent experimental results on perturbative QCD from the HERA experiments H1 and ZEUS is presented. All inclusive deep inelastic cross sections measured by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations in neutral and charged current unpolarised ep scattering are combined. They span six orders of magnitude in negative four-momentum-transfer squared, Q2, and in Bjorken x. This data set is used as the sole input to NLO and NNLO QCD analyses to determine new sets of parton distributions, HERAPDF2.0, with small experimental uncertainties and an estimate of model and parametrisation uncertainties. Also shown are new results on inclusive jet, dijet and trijet differential cross sections measured in neutral current deep inelastic scattering. The precision jet data is used to extract the strong coupling αs at NLO with small experimental errors.

  15. Role of telecommunications in precision agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision agriculture has been made possible by the confluence of several technologies: geographic positioning systems, geographic information systems, image analysis software, low-cost microcomputer-based variable rate controller/recorders, and precision tractor guidance systems. While these techn...

  16. Precision Electrospray Thruster Assembly (PETA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New low cost, low volume, low power, rugged electrospray thrusters will be ideal as actuators for precision thrusting, if provided with precision high voltage power...

  17. Magnitude, precision, and realism of depth perception in stereoscopic vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Paul B; Haines, Alice E; Hornsey, Rebecca L

    2017-01-01

    Our perception of depth is substantially enhanced by the fact that we have binocular vision. This provides us with more precise and accurate estimates of depth and an improved qualitative appreciation of the three-dimensional (3D) shapes and positions of objects. We assessed the link between these quantitative and qualitative aspects of 3D vision. Specifically, we wished to determine whether the realism of apparent depth from binocular cues is associated with the magnitude or precision of perceived depth and the degree of binocular fusion. We presented participants with stereograms containing randomly positioned circles and measured how the magnitude, realism, and precision of depth perception varied with the size of the disparities presented. We found that as the size of the disparity increased, the magnitude of perceived depth increased, while the precision with which observers could make depth discrimination judgments decreased. Beyond an initial increase, depth realism decreased with increasing disparity magnitude. This decrease occurred well below the disparity limit required to ensure comfortable viewing.

  18. HIGH PRECISION TEXTURE RECONSTRUCTION FOR 3D SCULPTURE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zhang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High precision 3D sculpture model can take the accurate records of the shape, material and color on the surface of the sculpture. It is an important foundation work of digital documentation, preservation, archaeological research and analysis for the sculpture types of cultural heritage. Constructing high precision 3D sculpture model includes two aspects: geometry modeling and texture reconstruction. But, there are many urgent problems still existing in the method of high precision texture reconstruction. This paper discussed a method of high precision texture reconstruction based on non-rigid transformation for 3D sculpture model. First, coarse registration of texture image to geometrical model is conducted with direct linear transformation (DLT method. Then, the registration is optimized with thin plane spline (TPS function to reduce local matching errors between texture image and geometrical model. Finally, texture mapping is implemented with optimized registration result. The experiments based on the sculpture in Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes of China are conducted, and the efficiency and feasibility of the proposed methods are proved.

  19. Improving the Precision of the Half Life of 34Ar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, V. E.; Hardy, J. C.; Bencomo, M.; Chen, L.; Horvat, V.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.

    2016-03-01

    Currently, precise ft-values measured for superallowed 0+ -->0+ β transitions provide the most accurate value for Vud, the up-down quark mixing element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. This enables the most demanding test of CKM unitarity, one of the pillars of the Standard Model. Further improvements in precision are possible if the ft values for pairs of mirror 0+ -->0+ transitions can be measured with 0.1% precision or better. The decays of 34Ar and 34Cl are members of such a mirror pair, but so far the former is not known with sufficient precision. Since our 2006 publication of the half-life of 34Ar, we have improved significantly our acquisition and analysis techniques, adding refinements that have led to increased accuracy. The 34Cl half-life is about twice that of 34Ar. This obscures the 34Ar contribution to the decay in measurements such as ours, which detected the decay positrons and was thus unable to differentiate between the parent and daughter decays. We report here two experiments aiming to improve the half-life of 34Ar: The first detected positrons as in but with improved controls; the second measured γ rays in coincidence with positrons, thus achieving a clear separation of 34Ar decay from 34Cl.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging for precise radiotherapy of small laboratory animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenzel, Thorsten [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Bereich Strahlentherapie; Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Anatomie und Experimentelle Morphologie; Kaul, Michael Gerhard; Ernst, Thomas Michael; Salamon, Johannes [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Jaeckel, Maria [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie; Schumacher, Udo [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Anatomie und Experimentelle Morphologie; Kruell, Andreas [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Bereich Strahlentherapie

    2017-05-01

    Radiotherapy of small laboratory animals (SLA) is often not as precisely applied as in humans. Here we describe the use of a dedicated SLA magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner for precise tumor volumetry, radiotherapy treatment planning, and diagnostic imaging in order to make the experiments more accurate. Different human cancer cells were injected at the lower trunk of pfp/rag2 and SCID mice to allow for local tumor growth. Data from cross sectional MRI scans were transferred to a clinical treatment planning system (TPS) for humans. Manual palpation of the tumor size was compared with calculated tumor size of the TPS and with tumor weight at necropsy. As a feasibility study MRI based treatment plans were calculated for a clinical 6 MV linear accelerator using a micro multileaf collimator (μMLC). In addition, diagnostic MRI scans were used to investigate animals which did clinical poorly during the study. MRI is superior in precise tumor volume definition whereas manual palpation underestimates their size. Cross sectional MRI allow for treatment planning so that conformal irradiation of mice with a clinical linear accelerator using a μMLC is in principle feasible. Several internal pathologies were detected during the experiment using the dedicated scanner. MRI is a key technology for precise radiotherapy of SLA. The scanning protocols provided are suited for tumor volumetry, treatment planning, and diagnostic imaging.

  1. Precision medicine and traditional chinese medicine of dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Xin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The precision medicine is more precise individualized medicine, based on the patient’s genes or physiological to formulate the specific treatment plan, for the realization of individualized treatment of various diseases to provide valuable information.But with the progress of modern science and technology, modern medicine dependence on medical instruments are too serious, traditional ways are gradually forgotten.If the machine depends on the instrument test results too serious which don’t combined with the actual diagnosis, the cause of misdiagnosis, so we should pay attention to the overall analysis of diseases and systematic diagnosis and examination, use of the overall treatment concept traced back to find the cause of Traditional Chinese Medicine, finally decide to select a best treatment plan.We should use the dialectical attitude to look at the precise medical. Not blindly requirements according to the road of precision medicine of Traditional Chinese Medicine to go, to shine in himself field, form of self characteristic of Traditional Chinese Medicine.Can learn some of the advantages of accurate concept, the good and rejecting the bad, hope the Traditional Chinese Medicine in the modern environment more walk more far.

  2. (DGPS) to harvesting date and precision viticulture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-29

    Nov 29, 2010 ... Tysseyre B, Ardoin N, Sevilla F (1999). Precise viticulture: precise location and vigour mapping aspects. Papers presented at the 2nd. European Conference on Precision Agriculture, Odense, Denmark,. 11-15 July 1999. Sheffiled Academic Press, Sheffield, UK, pp. 319-. 330. Zufferey V, Murisier F (1997).

  3. High precision optical spectroscopy and quantum state selected photodissociation of ultracold 88Sr2 molecules in an optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Mickey

    2017-04-01

    Over the past several decades, rapid progress has been made toward the accurate characterization and control of atoms, epitomized by the ever-increasing accuracy and precision of optical atomic lattice clocks. Extending this progress to molecules will have exciting implications for chemistry, condensed matter physics, and precision tests of physics beyond the Standard Model. My thesis describes work performed over the past six years to establish the state of the art in manipulation and quantum control of ultracold molecules. We describe a thorough set of measurements characterizing the rovibrational structure of weakly bound 88Sr2 molecules from several different perspectives, including determinations of binding energies; linear, quadratic, and higher order Zeeman shifts; transition strengths between bound states; and lifetimes of narrow subradiant states. Finally, we discuss measurements of photofragment angular distributions produced by photodissociation of molecules in single quantum states, leading to an exploration of quantum-state-resolved ultracold chemistry. The images of exploding photofragments produced in these studies exhibit dramatic interference effects and strongly violate semiclassical predictions, instead requiring a fully quantum mechanical description.

  4. New Models of the Milky Way's Dark Matter Distribution for the Era of High Precision Astrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besla, Gurtina

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the assembly history and dark matter distribution of our Milky Way (MW) is a major challenge for astrophysics. Thanks to the unique capabilities of HST, proper motions of satellite galaxies, globular clusters and stellar streams have been measured with accuracies of order 0.05 mas/yr ( 10 km/s) at distances of 50-300 kpc. When combined with detailed models of the MW's halo potential, such measurements become high-precision tools to constrain the dark matter mass profile of the MW and compute accurate orbital histories of satellites. However, the MW hosts a pair of massive dwarf galaxies, the LMC and SMC, that contribute to its dark matter distribution and change the shape of the potential in a non-symmetrical, time evolving manner. To date, these effects have not been accounted for in existing models of the MW halo. We propose to develop high resolution simulations to quantify the time evolving structure of the MW's dark matter halo owing to the influence of the LMC and SMC. These novel models will enable rapid orbital integration of halo objects (satelllites, globular clusters, stellar streams), using high accuracy HST proper motions, while also capturing the complex halo potential resulting from the LMC-SMC-MW interaction. The era of high-precision astrometry has arrived, yet we do not currently have an appropriate theoretical framework to study the assembly history of MW-like galaxies in the presence of massive satellite perturbers. Our proposed program is thus critical to ongoing HST programs and all efforts to understand the structure and evolution of the dark matter halo of our Galaxy and analogous systems like M31 and its massive satellite, M33.

  5. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  6. Precision production: enabling deterministic throughput for precision aspheres with MRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Chris; Entezarian, Navid; Dumas, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Aspherical lenses offer advantages over spherical optics by improving image quality or reducing the number of elements necessary in an optical system. Aspheres are no longer being used exclusively by high-end optical systems but are now replacing spherical optics in many applications. The need for a method of production-manufacturing of precision aspheres has emerged and is part of the reason that the optics industry is shifting away from artisan-based techniques towards more deterministic methods. Not only does Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF) empower deterministic figure correction for the most demanding aspheres but it also enables deterministic and efficient throughput for series production of aspheres. The Q-flex MRF platform is designed to support batch production in a simple and user friendly manner. Thorlabs routinely utilizes the advancements of this platform and has provided results from using MRF to finish a batch of aspheres as a case study. We have developed an analysis notebook to evaluate necessary specifications for implementing quality control metrics. MRF brings confidence to optical manufacturing by ensuring high throughput for batch processing of aspheres.

  7. Accurate colon residue detection algorithm with partial volume segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Liang, Zhengrong; Zhang, PengPeng; Kutcher, Gerald J.

    2004-05-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Earlier detection and removal of polyps can dramatically reduce the chance of developing malignant tumor. Due to some limitations of optical colonoscopy used in clinic, many researchers have developed virtual colonoscopy as an alternative technique, in which accurate colon segmentation is crucial. However, partial volume effect and existence of residue make it very challenging. The electronic colon cleaning technique proposed by Chen et al is a very attractive method, which is also kind of hard segmentation method. As mentioned in their paper, some artifacts were produced, which might affect the accurate colon reconstruction. In our paper, instead of labeling each voxel with a unique label or tissue type, the percentage of different tissues within each voxel, which we call a mixture, was considered in establishing a maximum a posterior probability (MAP) image-segmentation framework. A Markov random field (MRF) model was developed to reflect the spatial information for the tissue mixtures. The spatial information based on hard segmentation was used to determine which tissue types are in the specific voxel. Parameters of each tissue class were estimated by the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm during the MAP tissue-mixture segmentation. Real CT experimental results demonstrated that the partial volume effects between four tissue types have been precisely detected. Meanwhile, the residue has been electronically removed and very smooth and clean interface along the colon wall has been obtained.

  8. Ultra-accurate collaborative information filtering via directed user similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Q.; Song, W.-J.; Liu, J.-G.

    2014-07-01

    A key challenge of the collaborative filtering (CF) information filtering is how to obtain the reliable and accurate results with the help of peers' recommendation. Since the similarities from small-degree users to large-degree users would be larger than the ones in opposite direction, the large-degree users' selections are recommended extensively by the traditional second-order CF algorithms. By considering the users' similarity direction and the second-order correlations to depress the influence of mainstream preferences, we present the directed second-order CF (HDCF) algorithm specifically to address the challenge of accuracy and diversity of the CF algorithm. The numerical results for two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix, show that the accuracy of the new algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art CF algorithms. Comparing with the CF algorithm based on random walks proposed by Liu et al. (Int. J. Mod. Phys. C, 20 (2009) 285) the average ranking score could reach 0.0767 and 0.0402, which is enhanced by 27.3% and 19.1% for MovieLens and Netflix, respectively. In addition, the diversity, precision and recall are also enhanced greatly. Without relying on any context-specific information, tuning the similarity direction of CF algorithms could obtain accurate and diverse recommendations. This work suggests that the user similarity direction is an important factor to improve the personalized recommendation performance.

  9. Data fusion for accurate microscopic rough surface metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuhang, E-mail: chenyh@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-06-15

    Data fusion for rough surface measurement and evaluation was analyzed on simulated datasets, one with higher density (HD) but lower accuracy and the other with lower density (LD) but higher accuracy. Experimental verifications were then performed on laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterizations of surface areal roughness artifacts. The results demonstrated that the fusion based on Gaussian process models is effective and robust under different measurement biases and noise strengths. All the amplitude, height distribution, and spatial characteristics of the original sample structure can be precisely recovered, with better metrological performance than any individual measurements. As for the influencing factors, the HD noise has a relatively weaker effect as compared with the LD noise. Furthermore, to enable an accurate fusion, the ratio of LD sampling interval to surface autocorrelation length should be smaller than a critical threshold. In general, data fusion is capable of enhancing the nanometrology of rough surfaces by combining efficient LSM measurement and down-sampled fast AFM scan. The accuracy, resolution, spatial coverage and efficiency can all be significantly improved. It is thus expected to have potential applications in development of hybrid microscopy and in surface metrology. - Highlights: • Data fusion for rough surface nanometrology has been investigated. • Gaussian process based fusion is robust under different biases and noise strengths. • Sampling interval should be smaller than a threshold to enable accurate fusion. • Measurement accuracy, resolution, and efficiency can all be significantly improved. • Data fusion is expected to have potential applications in hybrid microscopy.

  10. Optimizing the Precision of Case Fatality Ratio Estimates Under the Surveillance Pyramid Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pelat, Camille; Ferguson, Neil M; White, Peter J.; Reed, Carrie; Finelli, Lyn; Cauchemez, Simon; Fraser, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In the management of emerging infectious disease epidemics, precise and accurate estimation of severity indices, such as the probability of death after developing symptoms—the symptomatic case fatality ratio (sCFR)—is essential. Estimation of the sCFR may require merging data gathered through different surveillance systems and surveys. Since different surveillance strategies provide different levels of precision and accuracy, there is need for a theory to help investigators select the strateg...

  11. Dilution of Precision as a Geometry Metric for Swarm Relative Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    that relates the geometry to localization accuracy. Such a metric, called Dilution of Precision (DOP), is commonly used for global positioning...achieve accurate relative position information.1 This is particularly important in global positioning system (GPS)-denied environments where there are...5–9; Kissimmee, FL. p. 2708. 7. Langley RB. Dilution of precision. GPS World . 1999:52–59. 8. Iliev N, Paprotny I. Review and comparison of spatial

  12. A Precise-Mask-Based Method for Enhanced Image Inpainting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanxu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mask of damage region is the pretreatment step of the image inpainting, which plays a key role in the ultimate effect. However, state-of-the-art methods have attached significance to the inpainting model, and the mask of damage region is usually selected manually or by the conventional threshold-based method. Since manual method is time-consuming and the threshold-based method does not have the same precision for different images, we herein report a new method for automatically constructing the precise mask by the joint filtering of guided filtering and L0 smoothing. It can accurately locate the boundary of damaged region in order to effectively segment the damage region and then greatly improves the ultimate effect of image inpainting. The experimental results show that the proposed method is superior to state-of-the-art methods in the step of constructing inpainting mask, especially for the damaged region with inconspicuous boundary.

  13. A validation study of reconstructed rapid prototyping models produced by two technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Christian Andreas; Ender, Andreas; Baumgartner, Stefan; Mehl, Albert

    2017-09-01

    To determine the accuracy (trueness and precision) of two different rapid prototyping (RP) techniques for the physical reproduction of three-dimensional (3D) digital orthodontic study casts, a comparative assessment using two 3D STL files of two different maxillary dentitions (two cases) as a reference was accomplished. Five RP replicas per case were fabricated using both stereolithography (SLA) and the PolyJet system. The 20 reproduced casts were digitized with a highly accurate reference scanner, and surface superimpositions were performed. Precision was measured by superimposing the digitized replicas within each case with themselves. Superimposing the digitized replicas with the corresponding STL reference files assessed trueness. Statistical significance between the two tested RP procedures was evaluated with independent-sample t-tests (P < .05). The SLA and PolyJet replicas showed statistically significant differences for trueness and precision. The precision of both tested RP systems was high, with mean deviations in stereolithographic models of 23 (±6) μm and in PolyJet replicas of 46 (±13) μm. The mean deviation for trueness in stereolithographic replicas was 109 (±4) μm, while in PolyJet replicas, it was 66 (±14) μm. Comparing the STL reference files, the PolyJet replicas showed higher trueness than the SLA models. But the precision measurements favored the SLA technique. The dimensional errors observed in this study were a maximum of 127 μm. In the present study, both types of reproduced digital orthodontic models are suitable for diagnostics and treatment planning.

  14. Interval estimates and their precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Luboš; Vrabec, Michal

    2015-06-01

    A task very often met in in practice is computation of confidence interval bounds for the relative frequency within sampling without replacement. A typical situation includes preelection estimates and similar tasks. In other words, we build the confidence interval for the parameter value M in the parent population of size N on the basis of a random sample of size n. There are many ways to build this interval. We can use a normal or binomial approximation. More accurate values can be looked up in tables. We consider one more method, based on MS Excel calculations. In our paper we compare these different methods for specific values of M and we discuss when the considered methods are suitable. The aim of the article is not a publication of new theoretical methods. This article aims to show that there is a very simple way how to compute the confidence interval bounds without approximations, without tables and without other software costs.

  15. Accurate LAI retrieval method based on PROBA/CHRIS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Fan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is one of the key structural variables in terrestrial vegetation ecosystems. Remote sensing offers an opportunity to accurately derive LAI at regional scales. The anisotropy of canopy reflectance, variations in background characteristics, and variability in atmospheric conditions constitute three factors that can strongly constrain the accuracy of retrieved LAI. Based on a hybrid canopy reflectance model, a new hyperspectral directional second derivative method (DSD is proposed in this paper. This method can estimate LAI accurately through analyzing the canopy anisotropy. The effect of the background can also be effectively removed. With the aid of a widely-accepted atmospheric model, the influence of atmospheric conditions can be minimized as well. Thus the inversion precision and the dynamic range can be markedly improved, which has been proved by numerical simulations. As the derivative method is very sensitive to random noise, we put forward an innovative filtering approach, by which the data can be de-noised in spectral and spatial dimensions synchronously. It shows that the filtering method can remove random noise effectively; therefore, the method can be applied to hyperspectral images. The study region was situated in Zhangye, Gansu Province, China; hyperspectral and multi-angular images of the study region were acquired via the Compact High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer/Project for On-Board Autonomy (CHRIS/PROBA, on 4 June 2008. After the pre-processing procedures, the DSD method was applied, and the retrieved LAI was validated by ground reference data at 11 sites. Results show that the new LAI inversion method is accurate and effective with the aid of the innovative filtering method.

  16. Rapid and Accurate Assembly Method for a New Laue Lens Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wade, Colin; Barriere, Nicolas; Hanlon, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    The Laue lens is a technology for gamma-ray astrophysics whereby gamma-rays of particular energies can be focused by a suitable arrangement of crystals. The Laue lens assembly station at UC Berkeley was used to build a technological demonstrator addressing the key issues of crystal mounting speed...

  17. Implementing an accurate and rapid sparse sampling approach for low-dose atomic resolution STEM imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarik, L.; Stevens, A.; Liyu, A.; Browning, N. D.

    2016-10-01

    While aberration correction for scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEMs) dramatically increased the spatial resolution obtainable in the images of materials that are stable under the electron beam, the practical resolution of many STEM images is now limited by the sample stability rather than the microscope. To extract physical information from the images of beam sensitive materials, it is becoming clear that there is a critical dose/dose-rate below which the images can be interpreted as representative of the pristine material, while above it the observation is dominated by beam effects. Here, we describe an experimental approach for sparse sampling in the STEM and in-painting image reconstruction in order to reduce the electron dose/dose-rate to the sample during imaging. By characterizing the induction limited rise-time and hysteresis in the scan coils, we show that a sparse line-hopping approach to scan randomization can be implemented that optimizes both the speed of the scan and the amount of the sample that needs to be illuminated by the beam. The dose and acquisition time for the sparse sampling is shown to be effectively decreased by at least a factor of 5× relative to conventional acquisition, permitting imaging of beam sensitive materials to be obtained without changing the microscope operating parameters. The use of sparse line-hopping scan to acquire STEM images is demonstrated with atomic resolution aberration corrected the Z-contrast images of CaCO3, a material that is traditionally difficult to image by TEM/STEM because of dosage issues.

  18. Highly Accurate Antibody Assays for Early and Rapid Detection of Tuberculosis in African and Asian Elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) in elephants is a re-emerging zoonotic disease caused primarily by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Current methods for screening and diagnosis rely on trunk wash culture, which has serious limitations due to low test sensitivity, slow turn-around time, and variable sample quality. Inn...

  19. Application of the antibiotic batumin for accurate and rapid identification of staphylococcal small colony variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Churkina Larisa N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen causing significant morbidity and mortality. The S. aureus colonies in osteomyelitis, in patients with cystic fibrosis and patients with endoprosthesis rejection frequently have an atypical morphology, i.e. staphylococcal small-colony variants, which form a naturally occurring subpopulation of clinically important staphylococci. Identification of these small colony variants is difficult, because of the loss of typical phenotypic characteristics of these variants. We wanted to improve and simplify the diagnosis of staphylococcal infection using a diagnostic preparation, consisting of 5 μg batumin paper disks. Batumin possesses a unique selective activity against all studied Staphylococcus spp., whereas all other species tested thus far are batumin resistant. We assessed the efficacy of the batumin diagnostic preparation to identify staphylococcal small colony variants, isolated from osteomyelitis patients. Findings With the batumin diagnostic preparation, all 30 tested staphylococcal small-colony variants had a growth inhibition zone around the disk of minimum 25 mm, accordant with the inhibition zones of the parent strains, isolated from the same patients. Conclusions The batumin diagnostic preparation correctly identified the small-colony variants of S. aureus, S. haemolyticus and S. epidermidis as belonging to the genus Staphylococcus, which differ profoundly from parental strains and are difficult to identify with standard methods. Identification of staphylococcal small-colony variants with the batumin diagnostic preparation is technically simple and can facilitate practical laboratory work.

  20. Rapid and accurate assembly method for a new Laue lens prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Colin; Barrière, Nicolas; Hanlon, Lorraine; Boggs, Steven E.; Brejnholt, Nicolai F.; Massahi, Sonny; Tomsick, John A.; von Ballmoos, Peter

    2015-09-01

    The Laue lens is a technology for gamma-ray astrophysics whereby gamma-rays of particular energies can be focused by a suitable arrangement of crystals. The Laue lens assembly station at UC Berkeley was used to build a technological demonstrator addressing the key issues of crystal mounting speed, crystal position and orientation accuracy, and crystal reflectivity. The new prototype is a lens segment containing a total of 48 5 x 5 mm2 crystals - 36 Iron and 12 Aluminium. The segment is composed of 8 partial rings, each of which is aligned to diffract an energy between 95 and 130 keV from a source at 12:5m with a focal length of 1:5 m.

  1. Rapid accurate analysis of metal (oxide)-on-silica catalysts by atomic absorption spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jütte, B.A.H.G.; Heikamp, A.; Agterdenbos, J.

    1979-01-01

    The catalysts, which contain 10–60% copper, chromium, nickel and silicon, are decomposed in sealed Teflon-lined vessels and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Matrix matching and bracketing standards are applied. The RSD of a single determination is about 1% for all components.

  2. Accurate and rapid species typing from cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis lesions of the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Jorge; Veland, Nicolas; Montalvo, Ana M; Praet, Nicolas; Boggild, Andrea K; Valencia, Braulio M; Arévalo, Jorge; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Van der Auwera, Gert

    2012-10-01

    The heat-shock protein 70 gene (hsp70) has been exploited for Leishmania species identification in the Old and New World, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Three new Leishmania-specific hsp70 PCRs were recently described, and we applied 2 of these on 89 clinical samples from a total of 73 Peruvian patients with either cutaneous or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The new PCRs on average showed a 2- to 3-fold improved sensitivity in the tested sample types (lesion biopsies, aspirates, and scrapings), for both genus detection and species typing, and were most successful in biopsies. Leishmania braziliensis, L. peruviana, and L. guyanensis were encountered. About one third of the L. braziliensis parasites contained 2 hsp70 alleles. This study is a paradigm for the implementation of a globally applicable upgraded tool for the identification of Leishmania directly on human specimens from cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions in the New World. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Implementing an Accurate and Rapid Sparse Sampling Approach for Low-Dose Atomic Resolution STEM Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovarik, Libor; Stevens, Andrew J.; Liyu, Andrey V.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2016-10-17

    Aberration correction for scanning transmission electron microscopes (STEM) has dramatically increased spatial image resolution for beam-stable materials, but it is the sample stability rather than the microscope that often limits the practical resolution of STEM images. To extract physical information from images of beam sensitive materials it is becoming clear that there is a critical dose/dose-rate below which the images can be interpreted as representative of the pristine material, while above it the observation is dominated by beam effects. Here we describe an experimental approach for sparse sampling in the STEM and in-painting image reconstruction in order to reduce the electron dose/dose-rate to the sample during imaging. By characterizing the induction limited rise-time and hysteresis in scan coils, we show that sparse line-hopping approach to scan randomization can be implemented that optimizes both the speed of the scan and the amount of the sample that needs to be illuminated by the beam. The dose and acquisition time for the sparse sampling is shown to be effectively decreased by factor of 5x relative to conventional acquisition, permitting imaging of beam sensitive materials to be obtained without changing the microscope operating parameters. The use of sparse line-hopping scan to acquire STEM images is demonstrated with atomic resolution aberration corrected Z-contrast images of CaCO3, a material that is traditionally difficult to image by TEM/STEM because of dose issues.

  4. A Rapid and Accurate Solution for the Poisson Equation with Neumann Boundary Conditions on General Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-17

    4] Hockney , R. W., "The Potential Calculation and Some Application," Methods in Computational Physics, Vol. 9, 1970, pp. 135-211. [5] Ghia, K. N. and...Merkle Commander The Pennsylvania State University David W. Taylor Naval Ship R&D Center Department of Mechanical Engineering Department of the Navy

  5. High Order Accurate Algorithms for Shocks, Rapidly Changing Solutions and Multiscale Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-13

    convection boundary layer flow and heat transfer of non - Newtonian power law fluid over a cylinder. Different from most classical works, the temperature...dependent variable fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are taken into account in highly coupled velocity and temperature fields. The motion of the...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Research has been performed on weighted essentially non -oscillatory schemes and discontinuous Galerkin methods, and other

  6. Rapid, accurate and direct determination of total lycopene content in tomato paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.D.; Anese, M.; Luterotti, S.; Dadarlat, D.; Gibkes, J.; Lubbers, M.T.M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Lycopene that imparts red color to the tomato fruit is the most potent antioxidant among carotenes, an important nutrient and also used as a color ingredient in many food formulations. Since cooked and processed foods derived from tomatoes were shown to provide optimal lycopene boost, products such

  7. Approaches for the accurate definition of geological time boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaltegger, Urs; Baresel, Björn; Ovtcharova, Maria; Goudemand, Nicolas; Bucher, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    Which strategies lead to the most precise and accurate date of a given geological boundary? Geological units are usually defined by the occurrence of characteristic taxa and hence boundaries between these geological units correspond to dramatic faunal and/or floral turnovers and they are primarily defined using first or last occurrences of index species, or ideally by the separation interval between two consecutive, characteristic associations of fossil taxa. These boundaries need to be defined in a way that enables their worldwide recognition and correlation across different stratigraphic successions, using tools as different as bio-, magneto-, and chemo-stratigraphy, and astrochronology. Sedimentary sequences can be dated in numerical terms by applying high-precision chemical-abrasion, isotope-dilution, thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) U-Pb age determination to zircon (ZrSiO4) in intercalated volcanic ashes. But, though volcanic activity is common in geological history, ashes are not necessarily close to the boundary we would like to date precisely and accurately. In addition, U-Pb zircon data sets may be very complex and difficult to interpret in terms of the age of ash deposition. To overcome these difficulties we use a multi-proxy approach we applied to the precise and accurate dating of the Permo-Triassic and Early-Middle Triassic boundaries in South China. a) Dense sampling of ashes across the critical time interval and a sufficiently large number of analysed zircons per ash sample can guarantee the recognition of all system complexities. Geochronological datasets from U-Pb dating of volcanic zircon may indeed combine effects of i) post-crystallization Pb loss from percolation of hydrothermal fluids (even using chemical abrasion), with ii) age dispersion from prolonged residence of earlier crystallized zircon in the magmatic system. As a result, U-Pb dates of individual zircons are both apparently younger and older than the depositional age

  8. Precise orbit determination and point positioning using GPS, Glonass, Galileo and BeiDou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegedor J.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available State of the art Precise Point Positioning (PPP is currently based on dual-frequency processing of GPS and Glonass navigation systems. The International GNSS Service (IGS is routinely providing the most accurate orbit and clock products for these constellations, allowing point positioning at centimeter-level accuracy. At the same time, the GNSS landscape is evolving rapidly, with the deployment of new constellations, such as Galileo and BeiDou. The BeiDou constellation currently consists of 14 operational satellites, and the 4 Galileo In-Orbit Validation (IOV satellites are transmitting initial Galileo signals. This paper focuses on the integration of Galileo and BeiDou in PPP, together with GPS and Glonass. Satellite orbits and clocks for all constellations are generated using a network adjustment with observation data collected by the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX, as well as from Fugro proprietary reference station network. The orbit processing strategy is described, and orbit accuracy for Galileo and BeiDou is assessed via orbit overlaps, for different arc lengths. Kinematic post-processed multi-GNSS positioning results are presented. The benefits of multiconstellation PPP are discussed in terms of enhanced availability and positioning accuracy.

  9. Rapid assessment of rice seed availability for wildlife in harvested fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, B.J.; Miller, M.R.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, P.S.; Farinha, M.A.; Benjamin, Gustafson K.; Yee, J.L.; Fleskes, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Rice seed remaining in commercial fields after harvest (waste rice) is a critical food resource for wintering waterfowl in rice-growing regions of North America. Accurate and precise estimates of the seed mass density of waste rice are essential for planning waterfowl wintering habitat extents and management. In the Sacramento Valley of California, USA, the existing method for obtaining estimates of availability of waste rice in harvested fields produces relatively precise estimates, but the labor-, time-, and machineryintensive process is not practical for routine assessments needed to examine long-term trends in waste rice availability. We tested several experimental methods designed to rapidly derive estimates that would not be burdened with disadvantages of the existing method. We first conducted a simulation study of the efficiency of each method and then conducted field tests. For each approach, methods did not vary in root mean squared error, although some methods did exhibit bias for both simulations and field tests. Methods also varied substantially in the time to conduct each sample and in the number of samples required to detect a standard trend. Overall, modified line-intercept methods performed well for estimating the density of rice seeds. Waste rice in the straw, although not measured directly, can be accounted for by a positive relationship with density of rice on the ground. Rapid assessment of food availability is a useful tool to help waterfowl managers establish and implement wetland restoration and agricultural habitat-enhancement goals for wintering waterfowl. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  10. Oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis for precision gene editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Noel J; Mozoruk, Jerry; Miller, Ryan B; Warburg, Zachary J; Walker, Keith A; Beetham, Peter R; Schöpke, Christian R; Gocal, Greg F W

    2016-02-01

    Differences in gene sequences, many of which are single nucleotide polymorphisms, underlie some of the most important traits in plants. With humanity facing significant challenges to increase global agricultural productivity, there is an urgent need to accelerate the development of these traits in plants. oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis (ODM), one of the many tools of Cibus' Rapid Trait Development System (RTDS(™) ) technology, offers a rapid, precise and non-transgenic breeding alternative for trait improvement in agriculture to address this urgent need. This review explores the application of ODM as a precision genome editing technology, with emphasis on using oligonucleotides to make targeted edits in plasmid, episomal and chromosomal DNA of bacterial, fungal, mammalian and plant systems. The process of employing ODM by way of RTDS technology has been improved in many ways by utilizing a fluorescence conversion system wherein a blue fluorescent protein (BFP) can be changed to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) by editing a single nucleotide of the BFP gene (CAC→TAC; H66 to Y66). For example, dependent on oligonucleotide length, applying oligonucleotide-mediated technology to target the BFP transgene in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts resulted in up to 0.05% precisely edited GFP loci. Here, the development of traits in commercially relevant plant varieties to improve crop performance by genome editing technologies such as ODM, and by extension RTDS, is reviewed. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Precision measurements with atom interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christian; Abend, Sven; Schlippert, Dennis; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2017-04-01

    Interferometry with matter waves enables precise measurements of rotations, accelerations, and differential accelerations [1-5]. This is exploited for determining fundamental constants [2], in fundamental science as e.g. testing the universality of free fall [3], and is applied for gravimetry [4], and gravity gradiometry [2,5]. At the Institut für Quantenoptik in Hannover, different approaches are pursued. A large scale device is designed and currently being set up to investigate the gain in precision for gravimetry, gradiometry, and fundamental tests on large baselines [6]. For field applications, a compact and transportable device is being developed. Its key feature is an atom chip source providing a collimated high flux of atoms which is expected to mitigate systematic uncertainties [7,8]. The atom chip technology and miniaturization benefits from microgravity experiments in the drop tower in Bremen and sounding rocket experiments [8,9] which act as pathfinders for space borne operation [10]. This contribution will report about our recent results. The presented work is supported by the CRC 1227 DQ-mat, the CRC 1128 geo-Q, the RTG 1729, the QUEST-LFS, and by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under Grant No. DLR 50WM1552-1557. [1] P. Berg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 114, 063002, 2015; I. Dutta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 116, 183003, 2016. [2] J. B. Fixler et al., Science 315, 74 (2007); G. Rosi et al., Nature 510, 518, 2014. [3] D. Schlippert et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 112, 203002, 2014. [4] A. Peters et al., Nature 400, 849, 1999; A. Louchet-Chauvet et al., New J. Phys. 13, 065026, 2011; C. Freier et al., J. of Phys.: Conf. Series 723, 012050, 2016. [5] J. M. McGuirk et al., Phys. Rev. A 65, 033608, 2002; P. Asenbaum et al., arXiv:1610.03832. [6] J. Hartwig et al., New J. Phys. 17, 035011, 2015. [7] H. Ahlers et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 173601

  12. Highly accurate analytical energy of a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Ngoc-Tram D. [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Duy-Anh P. [Department of Natural Science, Thu Dau Mot University, 6, Tran Van On Street, Thu Dau Mot City, Binh Duong Province (Viet Nam); Hoang, Van-Hung [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Le, Van-Hoang, E-mail: levanhoang@tdt.edu.vn [Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Street, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Street, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-08-15

    Explicit expressions are given for analytically describing the dependence of the energy of a two-dimensional exciton on magnetic field intensity. These expressions are highly accurate with the precision of up to three decimal places for the whole range of the magnetic field intensity. The results are shown for the ground state and some excited states; moreover, we have all formulae to obtain similar expressions of any excited state. Analysis of numerical results shows that the precision of three decimal places is maintained for the excited states with the principal quantum number of up to n=100.

  13. Studying antimatter with laser precision

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of antihydrogen trapping devices, ALPHA-2, is moving into CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (AD) hall. This brand-new experiment will allow the ALPHA collaboration to conduct studies of antimatter with greater precision. ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst was recently awarded a grant by the Carlsberg Foundation, which will be used to purchase equipment for the new experiment.   A 3-D view of the new magnet (in blue) and cryostat. The red lines show the paths of laser beams. LHC-type current leads for the superconducting magnets are visible on the top-right of the image. The ALPHA collaboration has been working to trap and study antihydrogen since 2006. Using antiprotons provided by CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (AD), ALPHA was the first experiment to trap antihydrogen and to hold it long enough to study its properties. “The new ALPHA-2 experiment will use integrated lasers to probe the trapped antihydrogen,” explains Jeffrey Hangst, ALP...

  14. The Age of Precision Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, our understanding of the evolution and fate of the universe has increased dramatically. This "Age of Precision Cosmology" has been ushered in by measurements that have both elucidated the details of the Big Bang cosmology and set the direction for future lines of inquiry. Our universe appears to consist of 5% baryonic matter; 23% of the universe's energy content is dark matter which is responsible for the observed structure in the universe; and 72% of the energy density is so-called "dark energy" that is currently accelerating the expansion of the universe. In addition, our universe has been measured to be geometrically flat to 1 %. These observations and related details of the Big Bang paradigm have hinted that the universe underwent an epoch of accelerated expansion known as Uinflation" early in its history. In this talk, I will review the highlights of modern cosmology, focusing on the contributions made by measurements of the cosmic microwave background, the faint afterglow of the Big Bang. I will also describe new instruments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to search for evidence of cosmic inflation.

  15. Precision is in their nature

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    There are more than 100 of them in the LHC ring and they have a total of about 400 degrees of freedom. Each one has 4 motors and the newest ones have their own beam-monitoring pickups. Their jaws constrain the relativistic, high-energy particles to a very small transverse area and protect the machine aperture. We are speaking about the LHC collimators, those ultra-precise instruments that leave escaping unstable particles no chance.   The internal structure of a new LHC collimator featuring (see red arrow) one of the beam position monitor's pickups. Designed at CERN but mostly produced by very specialised manufacturers in Europe, the LHC collimators are among the most complex elements of the accelerator. Their job is to control and safely dispose of the halo particles that are produced by unavoidable beam losses from the circulating beam core. “The LHC collimation system has been designed to ensure that beam losses in superconducting magnets remain below quench limits in al...

  16. Personalized and precision orthodontic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, L R; Covell, D A; Frazier-Bowers, S A; Kapila, S; Huja, S S; Nickel, J C

    2015-04-01

    To bring together orthodontic stakeholders from academics, industry, and private practice for a series of thematically focused workshops to explore and develop the transfer of novel approaches into clinical orthodontic practice. Twenty-seven invited speakers, eight poster presenters, and participants of the Consortium for Orthodontic Advances in Science and Technology (COAST) 2014 Innovators' Workshop at the Eaglewood Resort and Spa, Itasca, Illinois, September 11-14, 2014. Five themed sessions involving between 4-7 presentations followed by panel discussions were organized. The aims of the discussion sessions were to highlight important findings and consider the strength of evidence for these, indicate next steps and needed research or technological developments to move forward, and to weigh the expected benefits from these findings and steps to implement in clinical practice. Among important areas for attention identified were need for multiscale and multispecies modeling and experimentation for interspecies translation of results; large-scale collaborative efforts within the profession to address the need for adequate sample sizes for future genetic studies of complex traits such as malocclusion; a consortium approach to improve new technologies such as intra-oral scanning and 3D imaging by establishing standards; and harnessing the growing body of knowledge about bone biology for application in orthodontics. With increased awareness of the potential of current and emerging technologies, translation of personalized and precision approaches in the field of orthodontics holds ever-increasing promise. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. PRECISION TIME-DELAY GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, B.J.; Peckham, V.D.

    1959-06-16

    A precision time-delay generator circuit with low jitter is described. The first thyratron has a series resonant circuit and a diode which is connected to the second thyratron. The first thyratron is triggered at the begin-ning of a time delay and a capacitor is discharged through the first thyratron and the diode, thereby, triggering the second thyratron. (T.R.H.) l6l9O The instrument described can measure pressures between sea level and 300,000 ft. The pressure- sensing transducer of the instrument is a small cylindrical tube with a thin foil of titanium-tritium fastened around the inside of the tube. Output is a digital signal which can be used for storage or telemetering more conveniently than an analog signal. (W.D.M.) l6l9l An experimental study was made on rolling contacts in the temperature range of 550 to 1000 deg F. Variables such as material composition, hardness, and operating conditions were investigated in a rolling test stand. Ball bearing tests were run to determine the effect of design parameters, bearing materials, lubricants, and operating conditions. (auth)

  18. A precise modeling of Phoebe's rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottereau, L.; Aleshkina, E.; Souchay, J.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: Although the rotation of some Saturn's satellites in spin-orbit has already been studied by several authors, this is not the case for the rotation of Phoebe, which stands out because it is non-resonant. The purpose of the paper is to determine for the first time and with precision its precession-nutation motion. Methods: We adopt an Hamiltonian formalism of the rotation motion of rigid celestial bodies set up by Kinoshita (1977, Celest. Mech., 15, 277) based on Andoyer variables and canonical equations. First we calculate Phoebe's obliquity at J2000,0 from available astronomical data as well as the gravitational perturbation caused by Saturn on Phoebe's rotational motion. Then we carry out a numerical integration and compare our results for the precession rate and the nutation coefficients with a purely analytical model. Results: Our results for Phoebe's obliquity (23°95) and Phoebe's precession rate (5580.65 arcsec/cy) are very close to the respective values for the Earth. Moreover the amplitudes of the nutations (26” peak to peak for the nutaton in longitude and 8” for the nutation in obliquity) are on the same order as the respective amplitudes for the Earth. We give complete tables of nutation, obtained from a fast fourier transform (FFT) analysis starting from the numerical signals. We show that a purely analytical model of the nutation is not accurate because Phoebe's orbital elements e, M and LS do not show a simple linear behaviour at all. Conclusions: The precession and nutation of Phoebe have been calculated for the first time in this paper. We will continue this study in the future by studying the additional gravitational effects of the Sun, of the large satellites such as Titan, as well as Saturn's dynamical ellipticity.

  19. Corrosion of metal samples rapidly measured

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskell, C. E.

    1966-01-01

    Corrosion of a large number of metal samples that have been exposed to controlled environment is accurately and rapidly measured. Wire samples of the metal are embedded in clear plastic and sectioned for microexamination. Unexposed wire can be included in the matrix as a reference.

  20. Fast and accurate methods for phylogenomic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warnow Tandy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species phylogenies are not estimated directly, but rather through phylogenetic analyses of different gene datasets. However, true gene trees can differ from the true species tree (and hence from one another due to biological processes such as horizontal gene transfer, incomplete lineage sorting, and gene duplication and loss, so that no single gene tree is a reliable estimate of the species tree. Several methods have been developed to estimate species trees from estimated gene trees, differing according to the specific algorithmic technique used and the biological model used to explain differences between species and gene trees. Relatively little is known about the relative performance of these methods. Results We report on a study evaluating several different methods for estimating species trees from sequence datasets, simulating sequence evolution under a complex model including indels (insertions and deletions, substitutions, and incomplete lineage sorting. The most important finding of our study is that some fast and simple methods are nearly as accurate as the most accurate methods, which employ sophisticated statistical methods and are computationally quite intensive. We also observe that methods that explicitly consider errors in the estimated gene trees produce more accurate trees than methods that assume the estimated gene trees are correct. Conclusions Our study shows that highly accurate estimations of species trees are achievable, even when gene trees differ from each other and from the species tree, and that these estimations can be obtained using fairly simple and computationally tractable methods.

  1. Accurate overlaying for mobile augmented reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W; van der Schaaf, A; Lagendijk, RL; Jansen, F.W.

    1999-01-01

    Mobile augmented reality requires accurate alignment of virtual information with objects visible in the real world. We describe a system for mobile communications to be developed to meet these strict alignment criteria using a combination of computer vision. inertial tracking and low-latency

  2. Accurate automatic profile monitoring. Genaue automatische Profilkontrolle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacher, F. (Amberg Messtechnik AG (Germany))

    1994-06-09

    It is almost inconceivable that the present tunnelling methods will not employ modern surveying and monitoring technologies. Accurate, automatic profile monitoring is an aid to optimization of construction work in technical, financial and scheduling respects. These aspects are explained in more detail on the basis of a description of use, various practical examples and a cost analysis. (orig.)

  3. Evaluating the performance of a low-cost GPS in precision agriculture applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Larsen, Morten; Simonsen, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Field Robots are often equipped with a Real Time Kinematic (RTK) GPS to obtain precise positioning. In many precision agriculture applications, however, the robot operates in semi-structured environments like orchards and row crops, where local sensors such as computer vision and laser range...... scanners can produce accurate positioning relative to the crops. GPS is then primarily needed for robust inter-row navigation. This work evaluates a new low-cost GPS. Static tests were used to test the absolute accuracy. To test the GPS in a precision agriculture environment it was installed on a robot...

  4. Leveraging Two Kinect Sensors for Accurate Full-Body Motion Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiquan; Yu, Yao; Zhou, Yu; Du, Sidan

    2015-09-22

    Accurate motion capture plays an important role in sports analysis, the medical field and virtual reality. Current methods for motion capture often suffer from occlusions, which limits the accuracy of their pose estimation. In this paper, we propose a complete system to measure the pose parameters of the human body accurately. Different from previous monocular depth camera systems, we leverage two Kinect sensors to acquire more information about human movements, which ensures that we can still get an accurate estimation even when significant occlusion occurs. Because human motion is temporally constant, we adopt a learning analysis to mine the temporal information across the posture variations. Using this information, we estimate human pose parameters accurately, regardless of rapid movement. Our experimental results show that our system can perform an accurate pose estimation of the human body with the constraint of information from the temporal domain.

  5. Technology in precision viticulture: a state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matese A

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Matese,1 Salvatore Filippo Di Gennaro1,2 1Institute of Biometeorology, National Research Council (IBIMET-CNR, Florence, Italy; 2Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy Abstract: Precision viticulture aims to maximize the oenological potential of vineyards. This is especially true in regions where the high quality standards of wine production justify the adoption of site-specific management practices to simultaneously increase both quality and yield. The introduction of new technologies for supporting vineyard management allows the efficiency and quality of production to be improved and, at the same time, reduces the environmental impact. The rapid evolution of information communication technologies and geographical science offers enormous potential for the development of optimized solutions for distributed information for precision viticulture. Recent technological developments have allowed useful tools to be elaborated that help in the monitoring and control of many aspects of vine growth. Precision viticulture thus seeks to exploit the widest range of available observations to describe the vineyard spatial variability with high resolution, and provide recommendations to improve management efficiency in terms of quality, production, and sustainability. This review presents a brief outline of state of the art of technologies in precision viticulture. It is divided in two sections, the first focusing on monitoring technologies such as geolocating and remote and proximal sensing; the second focuses on variable-rate technologies and the new agricultural robots. Keywords: remote sensing, proximal sensing, variable-rate technology, robot 

  6. Rapid Diagnosis of Bacterial Meningitis Using a Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Jy Ben

    2008-06-01

    Conclusion: The microarray method provides a more accurate and rapid diagnostic tool for bacterial meningitis compared to traditional culture methods. Clinical application of this new technique may reduce the potential risk of delay in treatment.

  7. Precise wave-function engineering with magnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigley, P. B.; Starkey, L. M.; Szigeti, S. S.; Jasperse, M.; Hope, J. J.; Turner, L. D.; Anderson, R. P.

    2017-07-01

    Controlling quantum fluids at their fundamental length scale will yield superlative quantum simulators, precision sensors, and spintronic devices. This scale is typically below the optical diffraction limit, precluding precise wave-function engineering using optical potentials alone. We present a protocol to rapidly control the phase and density of a quantum fluid down to the healing length scale using strong time-dependent coupling between internal states of the fluid in a magnetic field gradient. We demonstrate this protocol by simulating the creation of a single stationary soliton and double soliton states in a Bose-Einstein condensate with control over the individual soliton positions and trajectories, using experimentally feasible parameters. Such states are yet to be realized experimentally, and are a path towards engineering soliton gases and exotic topological excitations.

  8. Targeted modification of plant genomes for precision crop breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilscher, Julia; Bürstmayr, Hermann; Stoger, Eva

    2017-01-01

    The development of gene targeting and gene editing techniques based on programmable site-directed nucleases (SDNs) has increased the precision of genome modification and made the outcomes more predictable and controllable. These approaches have achieved rapid advances in plant biotechnology, particularly the development of improved crop varieties. Here, we review the range of alterations which have already been implemented in plant genomes, and summarize the reported efficiencies of precise genome modification. Many crop varieties are being developed using SDN technologies and although their regulatory status in the USA is clear there is still a decision pending in the EU. DNA-free genome editing strategies are briefly discussed because they also present a unique regulatory challenge. The potential applications of genome editing in plant breeding and crop improvement are highlighted by drawing examples from the recent literature. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Technological advances in precision medicine and drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Elaine; Patterson, Nicole E; Montagna, Cristina

    New technologies are rapidly becoming available to expand the arsenal of tools accessible for precision medicine and to support the development of new therapeutics. Advances in liquid biopsies, which analyze cells, DNA, RNA, proteins, or vesicles isolated from the blood, have gained particular interest for their uses in acquiring information reflecting the biology of tumors and metastatic tissues. Through advancements in DNA sequencing that have merged unprecedented accuracy with affordable cost, personalized treatments based on genetic variations are becoming a real possibility. Extraordinary progress has been achieved in the development of biological therapies aimed to even further advance personalized treatments. We provide a summary of current and future applications of blood based liquid biopsies and how new technologies are utilized for the development of biological therapeutic treatments. We discuss current and future sequencing methods with an emphasis on how technological advances will support the progress in the field of precision medicine.

  10. High precision {sup 14}C AMS at CIRCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrasi, Filippo [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); CIRCE, INNOVA, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078 (Italy)], E-mail: filippo.terrasi@unina2.it; De Cesare, Nicola [Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, II Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); CIRCE, INNOVA, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078 (Italy); D' Onofrio, Antonio; Lubritto, Carmine; Marzaioli, Fabio [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); CIRCE, INNOVA, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078 (Italy); Passariello, Isabella [CIRCE, INNOVA, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078 (Italy); Rogalla, Detlef [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik III, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Bochum D-44780 (Germany); Sabbarese, Carlo [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy); CIRCE, INNOVA, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078 (Italy); Borriello, Gianluca; Casa, Giovanni; Palmieri, Antonio [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali, II Universita di Napoli, Via Vivaldi 43, Caserta 81100 (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    The CIRCE AMS system started operation in March 2005. The measurement of isotopic ratios {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C in samples of archaeological and environmental interest has rapidly attained high precision and accuracy levels in routine operation. The results of the intercomparison campaign in the framework of the VIRI program, as well as the outcome of a statistical analysis of the about 200 control measurements performed with standard samples, have shown the capability of the whole system for high precision measurements ({delta}R/R < 0.3%), allowing systematic investigations in both archaeological and environmental sciences. {sup 26}Al AMS has been implemented for the measurement of the astrophysically relevant {sup 25}Mg(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Al reaction cross section, while a beam line is under construction for the measurement of actinides isotopic ratios.

  11. Is a standalone inertial measurement unit accurate and precise enough for quantification of movement symmetry in the horse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brighton, Charlotte; Olsen, Emil; Pfau, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    Standalone ‘low-cost’ inertial measurement units (IMUs) could facilitate large-scale studies into establishing minimal important differences (MID) for orthopaedic deficits (lameness) in horses. We investigated accuracy and limits of agreement (LoA) after correction of magnitude-dependent differen......Standalone ‘low-cost’ inertial measurement units (IMUs) could facilitate large-scale studies into establishing minimal important differences (MID) for orthopaedic deficits (lameness) in horses. We investigated accuracy and limits of agreement (LoA) after correction of magnitude......-dependent differences of a standalone 6 degree-of-freedom IMU compared with an established IMU-based gait analysis system (MTx) in six horses for two anatomical landmarks (sacrum and sternum). Established symmetry measures were calculated from vertical displacement: symmetry index (SI), difference between minima (Min......, whereas MinDiff and MaxDiff values are less favourable. Future studies should investigate specific calibration and processing algorithms further improving standalone IMU performance....

  12. Design principles for precision mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Soemers, Herman

    2011-01-01

    The successful design of mechanisms for products, tools and equipment relies on excellent concepts and properly designed details. Both are covered in this book. Many of the examples presented have been realised in practice and properly evaluated, giving the reader/designer a high level of confidence. Every example comes with the considerations underlying the application and the limitations of the particular idea. This book is based on the work started in the 1960s by W. van der Hoek at Philips in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, and subsequently continued by M.P. Koster, culminating in the Dutch-language book “Constructieprincipes” [Design principles for accurate movement and positioning]. The core of their design approach has been preserved, while theory and examples were updated and the English language was adopted to reach a broad audience within the Netherlands as well as abroad. Herman (H.M.J.R.) Soemers is associated with the University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands. He also works as a technolog...

  13. Light Microscopy at Maximal Precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierbaum, Matthew; Leahy, Brian D.; Alemi, Alexander A.; Cohen, Itai; Sethna, James P.

    2017-10-01

    Microscopy is the workhorse of the physical and life sciences, producing crisp images of everything from atoms to cells well beyond the capabilities of the human eye. However, the analysis of these images is frequently little more accurate than manual marking. Here, we revolutionize the analysis of microscopy images, extracting all the useful information theoretically contained in a complex microscope image. Using a generic, methodological approach, we extract the information by fitting experimental images with a detailed optical model of the microscope, a method we call parameter extraction from reconstructing images (PERI). As a proof of principle, we demonstrate this approach with a confocal image of colloidal spheres, improving measurements of particle positions and radii by 10-100 times over current methods and attaining the maximum possible accuracy. With this unprecedented accuracy, we measure nanometer-scale colloidal interactions in dense suspensions solely with light microscopy, a previously impossible feat. Our approach is generic and applicable to imaging methods from brightfield to electron microscopy, where we expect accuracies of 1 nm and 0.1 pm, respectively.

  14. Precision Nutrition for Targeting Lipid Metabolism in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aguirre-Portolés

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a multistage and multifactorial condition with genetic and environmental factors modulating tumorogenesis and disease progression. Nevertheless, cancer is preventable, as one third of cancer deaths could be avoided by modifying key risk factors. Nutrients can directly affect fundamental cellular processes and are considered among the most important risk factors in colorectal cancer (CRC. Red and processed meat, poultry consumption, fiber, and folate are the best-known diet components that interact with colorectal cancer susceptibility. In addition, the direct association of an unhealthy diet with obesity and dysbiosis opens new routes in the understanding of how daily diet nutrients could influence cancer prognosis. In the “omics” era, traditional nutrition has been naturally evolved to precision nutrition where technical developments have contributed to a more accurate discipline. In this sense, genomic and transcriptomic studies have been extensively used in precision nutrition approaches. However, the relation between CRC carcinogenesis and nutrition factors is more complex than originally expected. Together with classical diet-nutrition-related genes, nowadays, lipid-metabolism-related genes have acquired relevant interest in precision nutrition studies. Lipids regulate very diverse cellular processes from ATP synthesis and the activation of essential cell-signaling pathways to membrane organization and plasticity. Therefore, a wide range of tumorogenic steps can be influenced by lipid metabolism, both in primary tumours and distal metastasis. The extent to which genetic variants, together with the intake of specific dietary components, affect the risk of CRC is currently under investigation, and new therapeutic or preventive applications must be explored in CRC models. In this review, we will go in depth into the study of co-occurring events, which orchestrate CRC tumorogenesis and are essential for the evolution of precision

  15. The SPECIES and ORGANISMS Resources for Fast and Accurate Identification of Taxonomic Names in Text

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Pletscher-Frankild, Sune; Fanini, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The exponential growth of the biomedical literature is making the need for efficient, accurate text-mining tools increasingly clear. The identification of named biological entities in text is a central and difficult task. We have developed an efficient algorithm and implementation of a dictionary......-based approach to named entity recognition, which we here use to identify names of species and other taxa in text. The tool, SPECIES, is more than an order of magnitude faster and as accurate as existing tools. The precision and recall was assessed both on an existing gold-standard corpus and on a new corpus...

  16. Precise two-dimensional D-bar reconstructions of human chest and phantom tank via sinc-convolution algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasi Mahdi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT is used as a fast clinical imaging technique for monitoring the health of the human organs such as lungs, heart, brain and breast. Each practical EIT reconstruction algorithm should be efficient enough in terms of convergence rate, and accuracy. The main objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of precise empirical conductivity imaging using a sinc-convolution algorithm in D-bar framework. Methods At the first step, synthetic and experimental data were used to compute an intermediate object named scattering transform. Next, this object was used in a two-dimensional integral equation which was precisely and rapidly solved via sinc-convolution algorithm to find the square root of the conductivity for each pixel of image. For the purpose of comparison, multigrid and NOSER algorithms were implemented under a similar setting. Quality of reconstructions of synthetic models was tested against GREIT approved quality measures. To validate the simulation results, reconstructions of a phantom chest and a human lung were used. Results Evaluation of synthetic reconstructions shows that the quality of sinc-convolution reconstructions is considerably better than that of each of its competitors in terms of amplitude response, position error, ringing, resolution and shape-deformation. In addition, the results confirm near-exponential and linear convergence rates for sinc-convolution and multigrid, respectively. Moreover, the least degree of relative errors and the most degree of truth were found in sinc-convolution reconstructions from experimental phantom data. Reconstructions of clinical lung data show that the related physiological effect is well recovered by sinc-convolution algorithm. Conclusions Parametric evaluation demonstrates the efficiency of sinc-convolution to reconstruct accurate conductivity images from experimental data. Excellent results in phantom and clinical

  17. Feedback about More Accurate versus Less Accurate Trials: Differential Effects on Self-Confidence and Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected by feedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On Day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of…

  18. Automatic and accurate reconstruction of distal humerus contours through B-Spline fitting based on control polygon deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Kamal; Tutunea-Fatan, O Remus; Bordatchev, Evgueni V; Johnson, James A

    2014-12-01

    The strong advent of computer-assisted technologies experienced by the modern orthopedic surgery prompts for the expansion of computationally efficient techniques to be built on the broad base of computer-aided engineering tools that are readily available. However, one of the common challenges faced during the current developmental phase continues to remain the lack of reliable frameworks to allow a fast and precise conversion of the anatomical information acquired through computer tomography to a format that is acceptable to computer-aided engineering software. To address this, this study proposes an integrated and automatic framework capable to extract and then postprocess the original imaging data to a common planar and closed B-Spline representation. The core of the developed platform relies on the approximation of the discrete computer tomography data by means of an original two-step B-Spline fitting technique based on successive deformations of the control polygon. In addition to its rapidity and robustness, the developed fitting technique was validated to produce accurate representations that do not deviate by more than 0.2 mm with respect to alternate representations of the bone geometry that were obtained through different-contact-based-data acquisition or data processing methods. © IMechE 2014.

  19. New Claus catalyst tests accurately reflect process conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglio, A.; Schubert, P.F.

    1988-09-12

    Methods for testing Claus catalysts are developed that more accurately represent the actual operating conditions in commercial sulfur recovery units. For measuring catalyst activity, an aging method has been developed that results in more meaningful activity data after the catalyst has been aged, because all catalysts undergo rapid initial deactivation in commercial units. An activity test method has been developed where catalysts can be compared at less than equilibrium conversion. A test has also been developed to characterize abrasion loss of Claus catalysts, in contrast to the traditional method of determining physical properties by measuring crush strengths. Test results from a wide range of materials correlated well with actual pneumatic conveyance attrition. Substantial differences in Claus catalyst properties were observed as a result of using these tests.

  20. Rapid high-resolution three-dimensional mapping of T1 and age-dependent variations in the non-human primate brain using magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE) sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junjie V.; Bock, Nicholas A.; Silva, Afonso C.

    2011-01-01

    The use of quantitative T1 mapping in neuroscience and neurology has raised strong interest in the development of T1-mapping techniques that can measure T1 in the whole brain, with high accuracy and precision and within short imaging and computation times. Here, we present a new inversion-recovery (IR) based T1-mapping method using a standard 3D magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE) sequence. By varying only the inversion time (TI), but keeping other parameters constant, MPRAGE image signals become linear to exp(−TI/T1), allowing for accurate T1 estimation without flip angle correction. We also show that acquiring data at just 3 TIs, with the three different TI values optimized, gives maximum T1 precision per unit time, allowing for new efficient approaches to measure and compute T1. We demonstrate the use of our method at 7 Tesla to obtain 3D T1 maps of the whole brain in common marmosets at 0.60 mm resolution and within 11 minutes. T1 maps from the same individuals were highly reproducible across different days. Across subjects, the peak of cerebral gray matter T1 distribution was 1735±52 ms, and the lower edge of cerebral white matter T1 distribution was 1270±43 ms. We found a significant decrease of T1 in both gray and white matter of the marmoset brain with age over a span of 14 years, in agreement with previous human studies. This application illustrates that MPRAGE-based 3D T1 mapping is rapid, accurate and precise, and can facilitate high-resolution anatomical studies in neuroscience and neurological diseases. PMID:21376814

  1. Accurate estimation of indoor travel times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentow, Thor Siiger; Blunck, Henrik; Stisen, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The ability to accurately estimate indoor travel times is crucial for enabling improvements within application areas such as indoor navigation, logistics for mobile workers, and facility management. In this paper, we study the challenges inherent in indoor travel time estimation, and we propose...... the InTraTime method for accurately estimating indoor travel times via mining of historical and real-time indoor position traces. The method learns during operation both travel routes, travel times and their respective likelihood---both for routes traveled as well as for sub-routes thereof. InTraTime...... allows to specify temporal and other query parameters, such as time-of-day, day-of-week or the identity of the traveling individual. As input the method is designed to take generic position traces and is thus interoperable with a variety of indoor positioning systems. The method's advantages include...

  2. Highly Accurate Prediction of Jobs Runtime Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Reiner-Benaim; Anna Grabarnick; Edi Shmueli

    2016-01-01

    Separating the short jobs from the long is a known technique to improve scheduling performance. In this paper we describe a method we developed for accurately predicting the runtimes classes of the jobs to enable this separation. Our method uses the fact that the runtimes can be represented as a mixture of overlapping Gaussian distributions, in order to train a CART classifier to provide the prediction. The threshold that separates the short jobs from the long jobs is determined during the ev...

  3. Pursuit of Precision in the Field Artillery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    artillery would satisfy the commander’s requirement for a precision standoff tactical weapon. The Copperhead was the U.S. Army’s attempt to make a 155...mm anti- tank artillery shell. Even though forward observers could use the Copperhead to engage specific targets on the battlefield, the line of...destroying Soviet tanks culminated in five separate and distinct precision munitions. The copperhead had true precision due to its laser seeker head

  4. Modeling and control of precision actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Kiong, Tan Kok

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionGrowing Interest in Precise ActuatorsTypes of Precise ActuatorsApplications of Precise ActuatorsNonlinear Dynamics and ModelingHysteresisCreepFrictionForce RipplesIdentification and Compensation of Preisach Hysteresis in Piezoelectric ActuatorsSVD-Based Identification and Compensation of Preisach HysteresisHigh-Bandwidth Identification and Compensation of Hysteretic Dynamics in Piezoelectric ActuatorsConcluding RemarksIdentification and Compensation of Frict

  5. Precision Diagnosis Of Melanoma And Other Skin Lesions From Digital Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Abhishek; Young, Albert; Wong, Andrew; Stalling, Simone; Wei, Maria; Hadley, Dexter

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma will affect an estimated 73,000 new cases this year and result in 9,000 deaths, yet precise diagnosis remains a serious problem. Without early detection and preventative care, melanoma can quickly spread to become fatal (Stage IV 5-year survival rate is 20-10%) from a once localized skin lesion (Stage IA 5- year survival rate is 97%). There is no biomarker for melanoma in clinical use, and the current diagnostic criteria for skin lesions remains subjective and imprecise. Accurate diagnosis of melanoma relies on a histopathologic gold standard; thus, aggressive excision of melanocytic skin lesions has been the mainstay of treatment. It is estimated that 36 biopsies are performed for every melanoma confirmed by pathology among excised lesions. There is significant morbidity in misdiagnosing melanoma such as progression of the disease for a false negative prediction vs the risks of unnecessary surgery for a false positive prediction. Every year, poor diagnostic precision adds an estimated $673 million in overall cost to manage the disease. Currently, manual dermatoscopic imaging is the standard of care in selecting atypical skin lesions for biopsy, and at best it achieves 90% sensitivity but only 59% specificity when performed by an expert dermatologist. Many computer vision (CV) algorithms perform better than dermatologists in classifying skin lesions although not significantly so in clinical practice. Meanwhile, open source deep learning (DL) techniques in CV have been gaining dominance since 2012 for image classification, and today DL can outperform humans in classifying millions of digital images with less than 5% error rates. Moreover, DL algorithms are readily run on commoditized hardware and have a strong online community of developers supporting their rapid adoption. In this work, we performed a successful pilot study to show proof of concept to DL skin pathology from images. However, DL algorithms must be trained on very large labelled datasets of

  6. Accurate Calculation of Electric Fields Inside Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; He, X; Zhang, J Z H

    2016-01-01

    The specific electric field generated by a protease at its active site is considered as an important source of the catalytic power. Accurate calculation of electric field at the active site of an enzyme has both fundamental and practical importance. Measuring site-specific changes of electric field at internal sites of proteins due to, eg, mutation, has been realized by using molecular probes with CO or CN groups in the context of vibrational Stark effect. However, theoretical prediction of change in electric field inside a protein based on a conventional force field, such as AMBER or OPLS, is often inadequate. For such calculation, quantum chemical approach or quantum-based polarizable or polarized force field is highly preferable. Compared with the result from conventional force field, significant improvement is found in predicting experimentally measured mutation-induced electric field change using quantum-based methods, indicating that quantum effect such as polarization plays an important role in accurate description of electric field inside proteins. In comparison, the best theoretical prediction comes from fully quantum mechanical calculation in which both polarization and inter-residue charge transfer effects are included for accurate prediction of electrostatics in proteins. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Precision Force Control for an Electro-Hydraulic Press Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ming Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This thesis is primarily intended to design a PC-based control system to control the force of an electro-hydraulic servo press system for implementing precision force control. The main feature is to develop a composite control by using the relief valve and the flow servo valve. Using feedback from a force sensor, a fuzzy controller was designed with LabVIEW software as the system control core for achieving a precision force control for the hydraulic cylinder on its travel and output. The weakness of hydraulic systems is that hydraulic oil is compressible and prone to leaking, and its characteristics can vary with oil temperature, thus making it difficult for a general linear controller to achieve accurate control. Therefore, a fuzzy controller was designed with LabVIEW along with a NI-PCI_6221 interface card and a load cell to control the servo valve flow and the relief valve to control the pressure source. The testing results indicate that accurate force control output of an electro-hydraulic servo press system can be obtained.

  8. Precise segmentation of 3-D magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Baz, Ayman; Elnakib, Ahmed; Khalifa, Fahmi; El-Ghar, Mohamed Abou; McClure, Patrick; Soliman, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy

    2012-07-01

    Accurate automatic extraction of a 3-D cerebrovascular system from images obtained by time-of-flight (TOF) or phase contrast (PC) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a challenging segmentation problem due to the small size objects of interest (blood vessels) in each 2-D MRA slice and complex surrounding anatomical structures (e.g., fat, bones, or gray and white brain matter). We show that due to the multimodal nature of MRA data, blood vessels can be accurately separated from the background in each slice using a voxel-wise classification based on precisely identified probability models of voxel intensities. To identify the models, an empirical marginal probability distribution of intensities is closely approximated with a linear combination of discrete Gaussians (LCDG) with alternate signs, using our previous EM-based techniques for precise linear combination of Gaussian-approximation adapted to deal with the LCDGs. The high accuracy of the proposed approach is experimentally validated on 85 real MRA datasets (50 TOF and 35 PC) as well as on synthetic MRA data for special 3-D geometrical phantoms of known shapes.

  9. Gene-Diet Interaction and Precision Nutrition in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heianza, Yoriko; Qi, Lu

    2017-04-07

    The rapid rise of obesity during the past decades has coincided with a profound shift of our living environment, including unhealthy dietary patterns, a sedentary lifestyle, and physical inactivity. Genetic predisposition to obesity may have interacted with such an obesogenic environment in determining the obesity epidemic. Growing studies have found that changes in adiposity and metabolic response to low-calorie weight loss diets might be modified by genetic variants related to obesity, metabolic status and preference to nutrients. This review summarized data from recent studies of gene-diet interactions, and discussed integration of research of metabolomics and gut microbiome, as well as potential application of the findings in precision nutrition.

  10. Fast and Accurate Computation of Gauss--Legendre and Gauss--Jacobi Quadrature Nodes and Weights

    KAUST Repository

    Hale, Nicholas

    2013-03-06

    An efficient algorithm for the accurate computation of Gauss-Legendre and Gauss-Jacobi quadrature nodes and weights is presented. The algorithm is based on Newton\\'s root-finding method with initial guesses and function evaluations computed via asymptotic formulae. The n-point quadrature rule is computed in O(n) operations to an accuracy of essentially double precision for any n ≥ 100. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  11. Accurate free and forced rotational motions of rigid Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottereau, L.; Souchay, J.; Aljbaae, S.

    2010-06-01

    Context. The precise and accurate modelling of a terrestrial planet like Venus is an exciting and challenging topic, all the more interesting because it can be compared with that of Earth for which such a modelling has already been achieved at the milli-arcsecond level. Aims: We aim to complete a previous study, by determining the polhody at the milli-arcsecond level, i.e. the torque-free motion of the angular momentum axis of a rigid Venus in a body-fixed frame, as well as the nutation of its third axis of figure in space, which is fundamental from an observational point of view. Methods: We use the same theoretical framework as Kinoshita (1977, Celest. Mech., 15, 277) did to determine the precession-nutation motion of a rigid Earth. It is based on a representation of the rotation of a rigid Venus, with the help of Andoyer variables and a set of canonical equations in Hamiltonian formalism. Results: In a first part we computed the polhody, we showed that this motion is highly elliptical, with a very long period of 525 cy compared with 430 d for the Earth. This is due to the very small dynamical flattening of Venus in comparison with our planet. In a second part we precisely computed the Oppolzer terms, which allow us to represent the motion in space of the third Venus figure axis with respect to the Venus angular momentum axis under the influence of the solar gravitational torque. We determined the corresponding tables of the nutation coefficients of the third figure axis both in longitude and in obliquity due to the Sun, which are of the same order of amplitude as for the Earth. We showed that the nutation coefficients for the third figure axis are significantly different from those of the angular momentum axis on the contrary of the Earth. Our analytical results have been validated by a numerical integration, which revealed the indirect planetary effects.

  12. Highly accurate quantitative spectroscopy of massive stars in the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva, María-Fernanda; Przybilla, Norbert

    2017-11-01

    Achieving high accuracy and precision in stellar parameter and chemical composition determinations is challenging in massive star spectroscopy. On one hand, the target selection for an unbiased sample build-up is complicated by several types of peculiarities that can occur in individual objects. On the other hand, composite spectra are often not recognized as such even at medium-high spectral resolution and typical signal-to-noise ratios, despite multiplicity among massive stars is widespread. In particular, surveys that produce large amounts of automatically reduced data are prone to oversight of details that turn hazardous for the analysis with techniques that have been developed for a set of standard assumptions applicable to a spectrum of a single star. Much larger systematic errors than anticipated may therefore result because of the unrecognized true nature of the investigated objects, or much smaller sample sizes of objects for the analysis than initially planned, if recognized. More factors to be taken care of are the multiple steps from the choice of instrument over the details of the data reduction chain to the choice of modelling code, input data, analysis technique and the selection of the spectral lines to be analyzed. Only when avoiding all the possible pitfalls, a precise and accurate characterization of the stars in terms of fundamental parameters and chemical fingerprints can be achieved that form the basis for further investigations regarding e.g. stellar structure and evolution or the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. The scope of the present work is to provide the massive star and also other astrophysical communities with criteria to evaluate the quality of spectroscopic investigations of massive stars before interpreting them in a broader context. The discussion is guided by our experiences made in the course of over a decade of studies of massive star spectroscopy ranging from the simplest single objects to multiple systems.

  13. ACCURATE CHEMICAL MASTER EQUATION SOLUTION USING MULTI-FINITE BUFFERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Youfang; Terebus, Anna; Liang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The discrete chemical master equation (dCME) provides a fundamental framework for studying stochasticity in mesoscopic networks. Because of the multi-scale nature of many networks where reaction rates have large disparity, directly solving dCMEs is intractable due to the exploding size of the state space. It is important to truncate the state space effectively with quantified errors, so accurate solutions can be computed. It is also important to know if all major probabilistic peaks have been computed. Here we introduce the Accurate CME (ACME) algorithm for obtaining direct solutions to dCMEs. With multi-finite buffers for reducing the state space by O(n!), exact steady-state and time-evolving network probability landscapes can be computed. We further describe a theoretical framework of aggregating microstates into a smaller number of macrostates by decomposing a network into independent aggregated birth and death processes, and give an a priori method for rapidly determining steady-state truncation errors. The maximal sizes of the finite buffers for a given error tolerance can also be pre-computed without costly trial solutions of dCMEs. We show exactly computed probability landscapes of three multi-scale networks, namely, a 6-node toggle switch, 11-node phage-lambda epigenetic circuit, and 16-node MAPK cascade network, the latter two with no known solutions. We also show how probabilities of rare events can be computed from first-passage times, another class of unsolved problems challenging for simulation-based techniques due to large separations in time scales. Overall, the ACME method enables accurate and efficient solutions of the dCME for a large class of networks. PMID:27761104

  14. Accurate and Automatic Building Roof Extraction Using Neighborhood Information of Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Chuan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High accuracy building roof extraction from LiDAR data is the key to build topological relationship of building roofs and reconstruct buildings. Aiming at the poor adaptation and low extraction precision of existing roof extraction methods for complex building, an accurate and automatic building roof extraction method using neighborhood information of point clouds is proposed. Point clouds features are calculated by principle component analysis, and reliable seed points are selected after feature histogram construction. Initial roof surfaces are extracted quickly and precisely by the proposed local normal vector distribution density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (LNVD-DBSCAN. Roof competition problem is solved effectively by the poll model based on neighborhood information. Experimental results show that the proposed method can extract building roofs automatically and precisely, and has preferable adaptation to buildings with different complexity, which is able to provide reliable roof information for building reconstruction.

  15. Precision spectroscopy on atomic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthey, Christian Godehard

    2011-12-15

    This Thesis reports on three measurements involving the 1S-2S transition in atomic hydrogen and deuterium conducted on a 5.8 K atomic beam. The transition is excited Doppler-free via two counter-propagating photons near 243 nm. The H/D isotope shift has been determined as {delta}{integral}{sub exp}=670 994 334 606(15) Hz. Comparing with the theoretical value for the isotope shift, excluding the leading nuclear size effect, {delta}{integral}{sub th}=670 999 566.90(66)(60) kHz we confirm, twice more accurate, the rms charge radius difference of the deuteron and the proton as left angle r{sup 2} right angle {sub d}- left angle r{sup 2} right angle {sub p}=3.82007(65) fm{sup 2} and the deuteron structure radius r{sub str}=1.97507(78) fm. The frequency ratio of the 1S-2S transition in atomic hydrogen to the cesium ground state hyperfine transition provided by the mobile cesium fountain clock FOM is measured to be {integral}{sub 1S-2S}=2 466 061 413 187 035 (10) Hz which presents a fractional frequency uncertainty of 4.2 x 10{sup -15}. The second absolute frequency measurement of the 1S-2S transition in atomic hydrogen presents the first application of a 900 km fiber link between MPQ and Physikalisch- Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Braunschweig which we have used to calibrate the MPQ hydrogen maser with the stationary cesium fountain clock CSF1 at PTB. With the result of {integral}{sub 1S-2S}=2 466 061 413 187 017 (11) Hz we can put a constraint on the electron Lorentz boost violating coefficients 0.95c{sub (TX)}-0.29c{sub (TY)}-0.08 c{sub (TZ)}=(2.2{+-}1.8) x 10{sup -11} within the framework of minimal standard model extensions. We limit a possible drift of the strong coupling constant through the ratio of magnetic moments at a competitive level ({partial_derivative})/({partial_derivative}t)ln ({mu}{sub Cs})/({mu}{sub B})=-(3.0{+-}1.2) x 10{sup -15} yr{sup -1}.

  16. Atomically precise organomimetic cluster nanomolecules assembled via perfluoroaryl-thiol SNAr chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Elaine A.; Wixtrom, Alex I.; Axtell, Jonathan C.; Saebi, Azin; Jung, Dahee; Rehak, Pavel; Han, Yanxiao; Moully, Elamar Hakim; Mosallaei, Daniel; Chow, Sylvia; Messina, Marco S.; Wang, Jing Yang; Royappa, A. Timothy; Rheingold, Arnold L.; Maynard, Heather D.; Král, Petr; Spokoyny, Alexander M.

    2017-04-01

    The majority of biomolecules are intrinsically atomically precise, an important characteristic that enables rational engineering of their recognition and binding properties. However, imparting a similar precision to hybrid nanoparticles has been challenging because of the inherent limitations of existing chemical methods and building blocks. Here we report a new approach to form atomically precise and highly tunable hybrid nanomolecules with well-defined three-dimensionality. Perfunctionalization of atomically precise clusters with pentafluoroaryl-terminated linkers produces size-tunable rigid cluster nanomolecules. These species are amenable to facile modification with a variety of thiol-containing molecules and macromolecules. Assembly proceeds at room temperature within hours under mild conditions, and the resulting nanomolecules exhibit high stabilities because of their full covalency. We further demonstrate how these nanomolecules grafted with saccharides can exhibit dramatically improved binding affinity towards a protein. Ultimately, the developed strategy allows the rapid generation of precise molecular assemblies to investigate multivalent interactions.

  17. High precision ray tracing in cylindrically symmetric electrostatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards Jr, David, E-mail: dej122842@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • High precision ray tracing is formulated using power series techniques. • Ray tracing is possible for fields generated by solution to laplace's equation. • Spatial and temporal orders of 4–10 are included. • Precisions in test geometries of hemispherical deflector analyzer of ∼10{sup −20} have been obtained. • This solution offers a considerable extension to the ray tracing accuracy over the current state of art. - Abstract: With the recent availability of a high order FDM solution to the curved boundary value problem, it is now possible to determine potentials in such geometries with considerably greater accuracy than had been available with the FDM method. In order for the algorithms used in the accurate potential calculations to be useful in ray tracing, an integration of those algorithms needs to be placed into the ray trace process itself. The object of this paper is to incorporate these algorithms into a solution of the equations of motion of the ray and, having done this, to demonstrate its efficacy. The algorithm incorporation has been accomplished by using power series techniques and the solution constructed has been tested by tracing the medial ray through concentric sphere geometries. The testing has indicated that precisions of ray calculations of 10{sup −20} are now possible. This solution offers a considerable extension to the ray tracing accuracy over the current state of art.

  18. Fast and sensitive detection of indels induced by precise gene targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhang; Steentoft, Catharina; Hauge, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    The nuclease-based gene editing tools are rapidly transforming capabilities for altering the genome of cells and organisms with great precision and in high throughput studies. A major limitation in application of precise gene editing lies in lack of sensitive and fast methods to detect...... and characterize the induced DNA changes. Precise gene editing induces double-stranded DNA breaks that are repaired by error-prone non-homologous end joining leading to introduction of insertions and deletions (indels) at the target site. These indels are often small and difficult and laborious to detect...

  19. Accurate reading with sequential presentation of single letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Seow Chiang Price

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid, accurate reading is possible when isolated, single words from a sentence are sequentially presented at a fixed spatial location. We investigated if reading of words and sentences is possible when single letters are rapidly presented at the fovea under user-controlled or automatically-controlled rates. When tested with complete sentences, trained participants achieved reading rates of over 60 words/minute and accuracies of over 90% with the single letter reading (SLR method and naive participants achieved average reading rates over 30 wpm with >90% accuracy. Accuracy declined as individual letters were presented for shorter periods of time, even when the overall reading rate was maintained by increasing the duration of spaces between words. Words in the lexicon that occur more frequently were identified with higher accuracy and more quickly, demonstrating that trained participants have lexical access. In combination, our data strongly suggest that comprehension is possible and that SLR is a practicable form of reading under conditions in which normal scanning of text is not possible, or for scenarios with limited spatial and temporal resolution such as patients with low vision or prostheses.

  20. Rapid determination of capsaicinoids by colorimetric method

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Wang-Kyun; Kim, Hee-Woong; Kim, Geun-Dong; Rhee, Hae-Ik

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicinoids, the pungent component of chili peppers, are generally analyzed by precise analytical techniques, such as gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), but these are not practical for the mass analyses of samples. To analyze mass samples rapidly, a colorimetric method was suggested. In this work, pigments and capsaicinoids were efficiently separated from chili pepper extract by sequential solid–liquid extraction and liquid–liquid extraction in test tubes ...

  1. Rapid Detection of Small Movements with GNSS Doppler Observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohensinn, Roland; Geiger, Alain

    2017-04-01

    High-alpine terrain reacts very sensitively to varying environmental conditions. As an example, increasing temperatures cause thawing of permafrost areas. This, in turn causes an increasing threat by natural hazards like debris flow (e.g. rock glaciers) or rockfalls. The Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry is contributing to alpine mass-movement monitoring systems in different project areas in the Swiss Alps. A main focus lies on providing geodetic mass-movement information derived from GNSS static solutions on a daily and a sub-daily basis, obtained with low-cost and autonomous GNSS stations. Another focus is set on rapidly providing reliable geodetic information in real-time i.e. for an integration in early warning systems. One way to achieve this is the estimation of accurate station velocities from observations of range rates, which can be obtained as Doppler observables from time derivatives of carrier phase measurements. The key for this method lies in a precise modeling of prominent effects contributing to the observed range rates, which are satellite velocity, atmospheric delay rates and relativistic effects. A suitable observation model is then devised, which accounts for these predictions. The observation model, combined with a simple kinematic movement model forms the basis for the parameter estimation. Based on the estimated station velocities, movements are then detected using a statistical test. To improve the reliablity of the estimated parameters, another spotlight is set on an on-line quality control procedure. We will present the basic algorithms as well as results from first tests which were carried out with a low-cost GPS L1 phase receiver. With a u-blox module and a sampling rate of 5 Hz, accuracies on the mm/s level can be obtained and velocities down to 1 cm/s can be detected. Reliable and accurate station velocities and movement information can be provided within seconds.

  2. Rapid diagnosis of mycobacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Drancourt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB remains an important public health issue worldwide, there is an emerging interest in non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM which is responsible for opportunistic infections of the respiratory tract as well as other anatomical sites in both developed and developing countries. In this context the one goal of the clinical mycobacteriology laboratories is to provide physicians with an accurate identification of the mycobacterium as rapidly as possible. During the last ten years, several lines of laboratory tools have been developed in order to speed the isolation and identification of mycobacteria from clinical specimens. Chiefly, the composition of culture medium was renewed along with the protocol of incubation in order to recover Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB micro-colonies as soon as 48 h after the inoculation of the specimen. MALDI-TOF rapid identification is clearly the tool to be implemented in the laboratory for the rapid identification of the micro-colonies. Also, molecular tools and genomics are necessary in order to depict new mycobacteria species, including those of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex and the Mycobacterium avium complex. All these tools and their connections will be presented during this conference.

  3. Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.

  4. 40 CFR 75.41 - Precision criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Precision criteria. 75.41 Section 75.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.41 Precision criteria. (a) Data collection...

  5. Precision Education Initiative: Moving toward Personalized Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A.

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes the Precision Education Initiative, which is the tailoring of education to the specific characteristics of the individual student. Mirroring precision medicine, the author lays out both near-term and longer term goals that educational research, and importantly educational practice, should follow.

  6. High precision laser forming for micro actuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkersma, Ger; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Huis in 't Veld, Bert; Nakata, Yoshiki; Xu, Xianfan; Roth, Stephan; Neuenschwander, Beat

    2014-01-01

    For assembly of micro-devices, such as photonic devices, the precision alignment of components is often critical for their performance. Laser forming, also known as laser-adjusting, can be used to create an integrated microactuator to align the components with sub-micron precision after bonding. In

  7. Ultra-precision processes for optics manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William R.

    1991-12-01

    The Optics MODIL (Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Laboratory) is developing advanced manufacturing technologies for fabrication of ultra precision optical components, aiming for a ten-fold improvement in precision and a shortening of the scheduled lead time. Current work focuses on diamond single point turning, ductile grinding, ion milling, and in/on process metrology.

  8. The new field of 'precision psychiatry'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Brisa S; Williams, Leanne M; Steiner, Johann; Leboyer, Marion; Carvalho, André F; Berk, Michael

    2017-04-13

    Precision medicine is a new and important topic in psychiatry. Psychiatry has not yet benefited from the advanced diagnostic and therapeutic technologies that form an integral part of other clinical specialties. Thus, the vision of precision medicine as applied to psychiatry - 'precision psychiatry' - promises to be even more transformative than in other fields of medicine, which have already lessened the translational gap. Herein, we describe 'precision psychiatry' and how its several implications promise to transform the psychiatric landscape. We pay particular attention to biomarkers and to how the development of new technologies now makes their discovery possible and timely. The adoption of the term 'precision psychiatry' will help propel the field, since the current term 'precision medicine', as applied to psychiatry, is impractical and does not appropriately distinguish the field. Naming the field 'precision psychiatry' will help establish a stronger, unique identity to what promises to be the most important area in psychiatry in years to come. In summary, we provide a wide-angle lens overview of what this new field is, suggest how to propel the field forward, and provide a vision of the near future, with 'precision psychiatry' representing a paradigm shift that promises to change the landscape of how psychiatry is currently conceived.

  9. Electroweak precision data and gravitino dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electroweak precision measurements can provide indirect information about the possible scale of supersymmetry already at the present level of accuracy. We review present day sensitivities of precision data in mSUGRA-type models with the gravitino as the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP). The 2 fit is based on , ...

  10. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  11. Climate Models have Accurately Predicted Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccitelli, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Climate model projections of global temperature changes over the past five decades have proven remarkably accurate, and yet the myth that climate models are inaccurate or unreliable has formed the basis of many arguments denying anthropogenic global warming and the risks it poses to the climate system. Here we compare average global temperature predictions made by both mainstream climate scientists using climate models, and by contrarians using less physically-based methods. We also explore the basis of the myth by examining specific arguments against climate model accuracy and their common characteristics of science denial.

  12. Simulating nonlinear aeroelastic responses of an airfoil with freeplay based on precise integration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, C. C.; Liu, J. K.; Chen, Y. M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposed a numerical algorithm based on precise integration method to investigate the aeroelastic system of an airfoil with a freeplay. The system was split into three linear sub-systems separated by switching points related with the freeplay. A predictor-corrector algorithm was constructed to tackle the key computational obstacle in accurately searching system responses passing the switching points. With the aid of the algorithm, the precise integration method can solve the sub-systems one by one and provide solutions to any desired accuracy compared with exact solutions. Moreover, it can keep high precision with the step length increasing. The precise integration method is more accurate and efficient than the Runge-Kutta method with the same time step. In addition, the Runge-Kutta sometimes provides limit cycle oscillations, bifurcation charts or chaotic responses falsely even though the step length is much smaller than that adopted in precise integration method. Due to the high precision and efficiency, the presented approach has potential to become a benchmark for solution techniques for piecewise nonlinear dynamical systems.

  13. Precision surveying the principles and geomatics practice

    CERN Document Server

    Ogundare, John Olusegun

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of high precision surveying, including recent developments in geomatics and their applications This book covers advanced precision surveying techniques, their proper use in engineering and geoscience projects, and their importance in the detailed analysis and evaluation of surveying projects. The early chapters review the fundamentals of precision surveying: the types of surveys; survey observations; standards and specifications; and accuracy assessments for angle, distance and position difference measurement systems. The book also covers network design and 3-D coordinating systems before discussing specialized topics such as structural and ground deformation monitoring techniques and analysis, mining surveys, tunneling surveys, and alignment surveys. Precision Surveying: The Principles and Geomatics Practice: * Covers structural and ground deformation monitoring analysis, advanced techniques in mining and tunneling surveys, and high precision alignment of engineering structures *...

  14. An aberrant precision account of autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca P Lawson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by problems with social-communication, restricted interests and repetitive behaviour. A recent and controversial article presented a compelling normative explanation for the perceptual symptoms of autism in terms of a failure of Bayesian inference (Pellicano and Burr, 2012. In response, we suggested that when Bayesian interference is grounded in its neural instantiation – namely, predictive coding – many features of autistic perception can be attributed to aberrant precision (or beliefs about precision within the context of hierarchical message passing in the brain (Friston et al., 2013. Here, we unpack the aberrant precision account of autism. Specifically, we consider how empirical findings – that speak directly or indirectly to neurobiological mechanisms – are consistent with the aberrant encoding of precision in autism; in particular, an imbalance of the precision ascribed to sensory evidence relative to prior beliefs.

  15. Survey of Capabilities and Applications of Accurate Clocks: Directions for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehant, Véronique; Park, Ryan; Dirkx, Dominic; Iess, Luciano; Neumann, Gregory; Turyshev, Slava; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2017-11-01

    For planetary science, accurate clocks are mainly used as part of an onboard radioscience transponder. In the case of two-way radio data, the dominating data type for planetary radioscience, an accurate spacecraft clock is not necessary since the measurements can be calibrated using high-precision clocks on Earth. In the case of one-way radio data, however, an accurate clock can make the precision of one-way radio data be comparable to the two-way data, and possibly better since only one leg of radio path would be affected by the media. This article addresses several ways to improve observations for planetary science, either by improving the onboard clock or by using further variants of the classical radioscience methods, e.g., Same Beam Interferometry (SBI). For a clock to be useful for planetary science, we conclude that it must have at least a short-time stability (<1{,}000 s) better than 10^{-13} and its size be substantially miniaturized. A special case of using laser ranging to the Moon and the implication of having an accurate clock is shown as an example.

  16. An Accurate Projector Calibration Method Based on Polynomial Distortion Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In structure light measurement systems or 3D printing systems, the errors caused by optical distortion of a digital projector always affect the precision performance and cannot be ignored. Existing methods to calibrate the projection distortion rely on calibration plate and photogrammetry, so the calibration performance is largely affected by the quality of the plate and the imaging system. This paper proposes a new projector calibration approach that makes use of photodiodes to directly detect the light emitted from a digital projector. By analyzing the output sequence of the photoelectric module, the pixel coordinates can be accurately obtained by the curve fitting method. A polynomial distortion representation is employed to reduce the residuals of the traditional distortion representation model. Experimental results and performance evaluation show that the proposed calibration method is able to avoid most of the disadvantages in traditional methods and achieves a higher accuracy. This proposed method is also practically applicable to evaluate the geometric optical performance of other optical projection system.

  17. Accurate age estimation in small-scale societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Yoan; Smith, Daniel; Gerbault, Pascale; Dyble, Mark; Page, Abigail E; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg; Thomas, Mark G

    2017-08-01

    Precise estimation of age is essential in evolutionary anthropology, especially to infer population age structures and understand the evolution of human life history diversity. However, in small-scale societies, such as hunter-gatherer populations, time is often not referred to in calendar years, and accurate age estimation remains a challenge. We address this issue by proposing a Bayesian approach that accounts for age uncertainty inherent to fieldwork data. We developed a Gibbs sampling Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm that produces posterior distributions of ages for each individual, based on a ranking order of individuals from youngest to oldest and age ranges for each individual. We first validate our method on 65 Agta foragers from the Philippines with known ages, and show that our method generates age estimations that are superior to previously published regression-based approaches. We then use data on 587 Agta collected during recent fieldwork to demonstrate how multiple partial age ranks coming from multiple camps of hunter-gatherers can be integrated. Finally, we exemplify how the distributions generated by our method can be used to estimate important demographic parameters in small-scale societies: here, age-specific fertility patterns. Our flexible Bayesian approach will be especially useful to improve cross-cultural life history datasets for small-scale societies for which reliable age records are difficult to acquire.

  18. HIPPI: highly accurate protein family classification with ensembles of HMMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-phuong Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given a new biological sequence, detecting membership in a known family is a basic step in many bioinformatics analyses, with applications to protein structure and function prediction and metagenomic taxon identification and abundance profiling, among others. Yet family identification of sequences that are distantly related to sequences in public databases or that are fragmentary remains one of the more difficult analytical problems in bioinformatics. Results We present a new technique for family identification called HIPPI (Hierarchical Profile Hidden Markov Models for Protein family Identification. HIPPI uses a novel technique to represent a multiple sequence alignment for a given protein family or superfamily by an ensemble of profile hidden Markov models computed using HMMER. An evaluation of HIPPI on the Pfam database shows that HIPPI has better overall precision and recall than blastp, HMMER, and pipelines based on HHsearch, and maintains good accuracy even for fragmentary query sequences and for protein families with low average pairwise sequence identity, both conditions where other methods degrade in accuracy. Conclusion HIPPI provides accurate protein family identification and is robust to difficult model conditions. Our results, combined with observations from previous studies, show that ensembles of profile Hidden Markov models can better represent multiple sequence alignments than a single profile Hidden Markov model, and thus can improve downstream analyses for various bioinformatic tasks. Further research is needed to determine the best practices for building the ensemble of profile Hidden Markov models. HIPPI is available on GitHub at https://github.com/smirarab/sepp .

  19. Nanoparticle counting: towards accurate determination of the molar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jing; Gao, Xiaohu

    2014-11-07

    Innovations in nanotechnology have brought tremendous opportunities for the advancement of many research frontiers, ranging from electronics, photonics, energy, to medicine. To maximize the benefits of nano-scaled materials in different devices and systems, precise control of their concentration is a prerequisite. While concentrations of nanoparticles have been provided in other forms (e.g., mass), accurate determination of molar concentration, arguably the most useful one for chemical reactions and applications, has been a major challenge (especially for nanoparticles smaller than 30 nm). Towards this significant yet chronic problem, a variety of strategies are currently under development. Most of these strategies are applicable to a specialized group of nanoparticles due to their restrictions on the composition and size range of nanoparticles. As research and uses of nanomaterials are being explored in an unprecedented speed, it is necessary to develop universal strategies that are easy to use and are compatible with nanoparticles of different sizes, compositions, and shapes. This review outlines the theories and applications of current strategies to measure nanoparticle molar concentration, discusses the advantages and limitations of these methods, and provides insights into future directions.

  20. An Accurate Projector Calibration Method Based on Polynomial Distortion Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Sun, Changku; Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua

    2015-01-01

    In structure light measurement systems or 3D printing systems, the errors caused by optical distortion of a digital projector always affect the precision performance and cannot be ignored. Existing methods to calibrate the projection distortion rely on calibration plate and photogrammetry, so the calibration performance is largely affected by the quality of the plate and the imaging system. This paper proposes a new projector calibration approach that makes use of photodiodes to directly detect the light emitted from a digital projector. By analyzing the output sequence of the photoelectric module, the pixel coordinates can be accurately obtained by the curve fitting method. A polynomial distortion representation is employed to reduce the residuals of the traditional distortion representation model. Experimental results and performance evaluation show that the proposed calibration method is able to avoid most of the disadvantages in traditional methods and achieves a higher accuracy. This proposed method is also practically applicable to evaluate the geometric optical performance of other optical projection system. PMID:26492247

  1. Quantitative proteomic analysis by accurate mass retention time pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jeffrey C; Denny, Richard; Dorschel, Craig A; Gorenstein, Marc; Kass, Ignatius J; Li, Guo-Zhong; McKenna, Therese; Nold, Michael J; Richardson, Keith; Young, Phillip; Geromanos, Scott

    2005-04-01

    Current methodologies for protein quantitation include 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis techniques, metabolic labeling, and stable isotope labeling methods to name only a few. The current literature illustrates both pros and cons for each of the previously mentioned methodologies. Keeping with the teachings of William of Ockham, "with all things being equal the simplest solution tends to be correct", a simple LC/MS based methodology is presented that allows relative changes in abundance of proteins in highly complex mixtures to be determined. Utilizing a reproducible chromatographic separations system along with the high mass resolution and mass accuracy of an orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometer, the quantitative comparison of tens of thousands of ions emanating from identically prepared control and experimental samples can be made. Using this configuration, we can determine the change in relative abundance of a small number of ions between the two conditions solely by accurate mass and retention time. Employing standard operating procedures for both sample preparation and ESI-mass spectrometry, one typically obtains under 5 ppm mass precision and quantitative variations between 10 and 15%. The principal focus of this paper will demonstrate the quantitative aspects of the methodology and continue with a discussion of the associated, complementary qualitative capabilities.

  2. Nanoparticle Counting: Towards Accurate Determination of the Molar Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jing; Gao, Xiaohu

    2014-01-01

    Summary Innovations in nanotechnology have brought tremendous opportunities for the advancement of many research frontiers, ranging from electronics, photonics, energy, to medicine. To maximize the benefits of nano-scaled materials in different devices and systems, precise control of their concentration is a prerequisite. While concentrations of nanoparticles have been provided in other forms (e.g., mass), accurate determination of molar concentration, arguably the most useful one for chemical reactions and applications, has been a major challenge (especially for nanoparticles smaller than 30 nm). Towards this significant yet chronic problem, a variety of strategies are currently under development. Most of these strategies are applicable to a specialized group of nanoparticles due to their restrictions on the composition and size ranges of nanoparticles. As research and uses of nanomaterials being explored in an unprecedented speed, it is necessary to develop universal strategies that are easy to use, and compatible with nanoparticles of different sizes, compositions, and shapes. This review outlines the theories and applications of current strategies to measure nanoparticle molar concentration, discusses the advantages and limitations of these methods, and provides insights into future directions. PMID:25099190

  3. Accurate mass and velocity functions of dark matter haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparat, Johan; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo; Klypin, Anatoly

    2017-08-01

    N-body cosmological simulations are an essential tool to understand the observed distribution of galaxies. We use the MultiDark simulation suite, run with the Planck cosmological parameters, to revisit the mass and velocity functions. At redshift z = 0, the simulations cover four orders of magnitude in halo mass from ˜1011M⊙ with 8783 874 distinct haloes and 532 533 subhaloes. The total volume used is ˜515 Gpc3, more than eight times larger than in previous studies. We measure and model the halo mass function, its covariance matrix w.r.t halo mass and the large-scale halo bias. With the formalism of the excursion-set mass function, we explicit the tight interconnection between the covariance matrix, bias and halo mass function. We obtain a very accurate (Planck cosmology. Finally, we provide precise analytical fits of the Vmax maximum velocity function up to redshift z < 2.3 to push for the development of halo occupation distribution using Vmax. The data and the analysis code are made publicly available in the Skies and Universes data base.

  4. Data fusion for accurate microscopic rough surface metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhang

    2016-06-01

    Data fusion for rough surface measurement and evaluation was analyzed on simulated datasets, one with higher density (HD) but lower accuracy and the other with lower density (LD) but higher accuracy. Experimental verifications were then performed on laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) characterizations of surface areal roughness artifacts. The results demonstrated that the fusion based on Gaussian process models is effective and robust under different measurement biases and noise strengths. All the amplitude, height distribution, and spatial characteristics of the original sample structure can be precisely recovered, with better metrological performance than any individual measurements. As for the influencing factors, the HD noise has a relatively weaker effect as compared with the LD noise. Furthermore, to enable an accurate fusion, the ratio of LD sampling interval to surface autocorrelation length should be smaller than a critical threshold. In general, data fusion is capable of enhancing the nanometrology of rough surfaces by combining efficient LSM measurement and down-sampled fast AFM scan. The accuracy, resolution, spatial coverage and efficiency can all be significantly improved. It is thus expected to have potential applications in development of hybrid microscopy and in surface metrology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Accurate line intensities of methane from first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Andrei V.; Rey, Michael; Tyuterev, Vladimir G.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we report first-principle theoretical predictions of methane spectral line intensities that are competitive with (and complementary to) the best laboratory measurements. A detailed comparison with the most accurate data shows that discrepancies in integrated polyad intensities are in the range of 0.4%-2.3%. This corresponds to estimations of the best available accuracy in laboratory Fourier Transform spectra measurements for this quantity. For relatively isolated strong lines the individual intensity deviations are in the same range. A comparison with the most precise laser measurements of the multiplet intensities in the 2ν3 band gives an agreement within the experimental error margins (about 1%). This is achieved for the first time for five-atomic molecules. In the Supplementary Material we provide the lists of theoretical intensities at 269 K for over 5000 strongest transitions in the range below 6166 cm-1. The advantage of the described method is that this offers a possibility to generate fully assigned exhaustive line lists at various temperature conditions. Extensive calculations up to 12,000 cm-1 including high-T predictions will be made freely available through the TheoReTS information system (http://theorets.univ-reims.fr, http://theorets.tsu.ru) that contains ab initio born line lists and provides a user-friendly graphical interface for a fast simulation of the absorption cross-sections and radiance.

  6. Superpixel-based graph cuts for accurate stereo matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liting; Qin, Kaihuai

    2017-06-01

    Estimating the surface normal vector and disparity of a pixel simultaneously, also known as three-dimensional label method, has been widely used in recent continuous stereo matching problem to achieve sub-pixel accuracy. However, due to the infinite label space, it’s extremely hard to assign each pixel an appropriate label. In this paper, we present an accurate and efficient algorithm, integrating patchmatch with graph cuts, to approach this critical computational problem. Besides, to get robust and precise matching cost, we use a convolutional neural network to learn a similarity measure on small image patches. Compared with other MRF related methods, our method has several advantages: its sub-modular property ensures a sub-problem optimality which is easy to perform in parallel; graph cuts can simultaneously update multiple pixels, avoiding local minima caused by sequential optimizers like belief propagation; it uses segmentation results for better local expansion move; local propagation and randomization can easily generate the initial solution without using external methods. Middlebury experiments show that our method can get higher accuracy than other MRF-based algorithms.

  7. Simple and rapid method on High Performance Liquid Chromatography for simultaneous determination of benzylpenicillin potassium, streptomycin sulphate and related substances in Ascomicin – a veterinary use ointment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neagu Maria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new simple, rapid, accurate and precise High – Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method for determination of benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate in Ascomicin ointment was developed and validated. The method can be used for the detection and quantification of known and unknown impurities and degradation products in this pharmaceutical product during routine analysis and also for stability studies in view of its capability to separate degradation products. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness and quantification limits according to ICH Guidelines. The estimation of benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate was done by Waters HPLC 2695. The chromatographic conditions comprised a reverse-phased C18 column (5 µm particle size, 250 mm×4.6 mm i.d. with a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of solution in water containing 0.025 M of sodium phosphate dibasic and 0.02 of sodium hexansulfonate adjusted to pH 6.0 with 22.5 g/lsolution of phosphoric acid and acetonitrile in gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min. Standard curves were linear over the concentration range of 5.00 µg/ml to 5.00 mg/ml for streptomycin sulphate and 3.26 µg/ml to 3.26 mg/ml for benzylpenicillin potassium. Statistical analyses proved the method was precise, reproducible, selective, specific and accurate for analysis of benzylpenicillin potassium, streptomycin sulphate and related substances.

  8. Comparison of the precision of three commonly used GPS models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Chavoshi

    2016-04-01

    farming operations as well as the efficiency of the work done in different situations. Materials and Methods: In this study, three commonly used GPS models belong to GARMIN CO. were selected for comparison. This company is the world biggest manufacturer of GPS device. Three models include eTrex VISTA, MAP 60 csx and MAP 78s that in recent years have been the most widely used receivers in precision agriculture (Figure 1, Table 1. To assess the accuracy and precision of the receivers, 9 recording stations were selected in a field (20×20 m2 and detailed mapping by the odolite camera under high precision compass networks and regular conditions (figure 2 was identified. To reduce the error of multi-path, a relatively open and unobstructed place in the Abbas Abad field of Bu-Ali Sina University were considered. This study was conducted in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with factorial analysis to examine three factors, at three levels, each in three replication including weather conditions (clear, partially cloudy and full cloudy sky, time of day (9 am, 12 am and 4 pm and three different models of receiver (MAP 60 csx, eTrex VISTA and MAP 78s, in 9 local stations. Difference of deviation value at each station with the mean value of latitude and longitude recorded at same station was used to precision calculate on (equation 1 and the difference of deviation value at each station with a deviation of the actual position latitude and longitude of the same station was used to calculate the accuracy (equation 2. The base station position (No.1 was determined with an accurately large-scale map. Then, the positions of other stations were defined with camera and compass in exact rectangular grid by underlying base station. Mean error for each station using equation (3 and the precision and accuracy and the definitions of each receiver was calculated. Results and Discussion: To display the geographical distribution stations and the registered location data for GPS devices Arc

  9. [Precision Nursing: Individual-Based Knowledge Translation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Su, Sui-Lung

    2016-12-01

    U.S. President Obama announced a new era of precision medicine in the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI). This initiative aims to accelerate the progress of personalized medicine in light of individual requirements for prevention and treatment in order to improve the state of individual and public health. The recent and dramatic development of large-scale biologic databases (such as the human genome sequence), powerful methods for characterizing patients (such as genomics, microbiome, diverse biomarkers, and even pharmacogenomics), and computational tools for analyzing big data are maximizing the potential benefits of precision medicine. Nursing science should follow and keep pace with this trend in order to develop empirical knowledge and expertise in the area of personalized nursing care. Nursing scientists must encourage, examine, and put into practice innovative research on precision nursing in order to provide evidence-based guidance to clinical practice. The applications in personalized precision nursing care include: explanations of personalized information such as the results of genetic testing; patient advocacy and support; anticipation of results and treatment; ongoing chronic monitoring; and support for shared decision-making throughout the disease trajectory. Further, attention must focus on the family and the ethical implications of taking a personalized approach to care. Nurses will need to embrace the paradigm shift to precision nursing and work collaboratively across disciplines to provide the optimal personalized care to patients. If realized, the full potential of precision nursing will provide the best chance for good health for all.

  10. Gene expression during blow fly development: improving the precision of age estimates in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Aaron M; Foran, David R

    2011-01-01

    Forensic entomologists use size and developmental stage to estimate blow fly age, and from those, a postmortem interval. Since such estimates are generally accurate but often lack precision, particularly in the older developmental stages, alternative aging methods would be advantageous. Presented here is a means of incorporating developmentally regulated gene expression levels into traditional stage and size data, with a goal of more precisely estimating developmental age of immature Lucilia sericata. Generalized additive models of development showed improved statistical support compared to models that did not include gene expression data, resulting in an increase in estimate precision, especially for postfeeding third instars and pupae. The models were then used to make blind estimates of development for 86 immature L. sericata raised on rat carcasses. Overall, inclusion of gene expression data resulted in increased precision in aging blow flies. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Direct Quantification of Campylobacter jejuni in Chicken Fecal Samples Using Real-Time PCR: Evaluation of Six Rapid DNA Extraction Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia Clavero, Ana Belén; Kamara, Judy N.; Vigre, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    for their effectiveness for the direct quantification (without enrichment) of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken fecal samples using real-time PCR. The presence of inhibitory substances in chicken fecal samples may reduce or even completely impede the PCR amplification process making quantification very difficult. Six rapid......Direct and accurate quantification of Campylobacter in poultry is crucial for the assessment of public health risks and the evaluation of the effectiveness of control measures against Campylobacter in poultry. The aim of this study was to assess several rapid DNA extraction methods...... of this study, the Easy-DNA (Invitrogen) method generated lower Ct values, the best amplification efficiency (AE = 93.2 %) and good precision (R squared = 0.996). The method NucleoSpin® Tissue was able to detect samples spiked with the lowest Campylobacter concentration level (10 CFU/ml) but the amplification...

  12. Accurate renormalization group analyses in neutrino sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haba, Naoyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue 690-8504 (Japan); Kaneta, Kunio [Kavli IPMU (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan); Takahashi, Ryo [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue 690-8504 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Yuya [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    We investigate accurate renormalization group analyses in neutrino sector between ν-oscillation and seesaw energy scales. We consider decoupling effects of top quark and Higgs boson on the renormalization group equations of light neutrino mass matrix. Since the decoupling effects are given in the standard model scale and independent of high energy physics, our method can basically apply to any models beyond the standard model. We find that the decoupling effects of Higgs boson are negligible, while those of top quark are not. Particularly, the decoupling effects of top quark affect neutrino mass eigenvalues, which are important for analyzing predictions such as mass squared differences and neutrinoless double beta decay in an underlying theory existing at high energy scale.

  13. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception.

  14. Fast and accurate multicomponent transport property evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ern, A. [CERMICS-ENPC, Le Grand (France)]|[Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Giovangigli, V. [CMAP-CNRS, Palaiseau (France)

    1995-08-01

    We investigate iterative methods for solving linear systems arising from the kinetic theory and providing transport coefficients of dilute polyatomic gas mixtures. These linear systems are obtained in their naturally constrained, singular, and symmetric form, using the formalism of Waldmann and Truebenbacher. The transport coefficients associated with the systems obtained by Monchick, Yun, and Mason are also recovered, if two misprints are corrected in the work of these authors. Using the recent theory of Ern and Giovangigli, all the transport coefficients are expressed as convergent series. By truncating these series, new, accurate, approximate expressions are obtained for all the transport coefficients. Finally, the computational efficiency of the present transport algorithms in multicomponent flow applications is illustrated with several numerical experiments. 38 refs., 12 tabs.

  15. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  16. Mixed-Precision Spectral Deferred Correction: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grout, Ray W. S.

    2015-09-02

    Convergence of spectral deferred correction (SDC), where low-order time integration methods are used to construct higher-order methods through iterative refinement, can be accelerated in terms of computational effort by using mixed-precision methods. Using ideas from multi-level SDC (in turn based on FAS multigrid ideas), some of the SDC correction sweeps can use function values computed in reduced precision without adversely impacting the accuracy of the final solution. This is particularly beneficial for the performance of combustion solvers such as S3D [6] which require double precision accuracy but are performance limited by the cost of data motion.

  17. Increased localization precision by interference fringe analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Carl G.; Meiri, Amihai; Martineau, Jason; Zalevsky, Zeev; Gerton, Jordan M.; Menon, Rajesh

    2015-06-01

    We report a novel optical single-emitter-localization methodology that uses the phase induced by path length differences in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to improve localization precision. Using information theory, we demonstrate that the localization capability of a modified Fourier domain signal generated by photon interference enables a more precise localization compared to a standard Gaussian intensity distribution of the corresponding point-spread function. The calculations were verified by numerical simulations and an exemplary experiment, where the centers of metal nanoparticles were localized to a precision of 3 nm.

  18. Advances in Precision Medicine: Tailoring Individualized Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchett, Kyle B; Lynam-Lennon, Niamh; Watson, R William; Brown, James A L

    2017-10-25

    The traditional bench-to-bedside pipeline involves using model systems and patient samples to provide insights into pathways deregulated in cancer. This discovery reveals new biomarkers and therapeutic targets, ultimately stratifying patients and informing cohort-based treatment options. Precision medicine (molecular profiling of individual tumors combined with established clinical-pathological parameters) reveals, in real-time, individual patient's diagnostic and prognostic risk profile, informing tailored and tumor-specific treatment plans. Here we discuss advances in precision medicine presented at the Irish Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, highlighting examples where personalized medicine approaches have led to precision discovery in individual tumors, informing customized treatment programs.

  19. Accurate Black Hole Spin Measurements using ABC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Andrew

    Measuring the spin of black holes provides important insights into the supernova formation mechanism of stellar-mass black holes, galaxy merger scenarios for supermassive black holes, and the launching mechanisms of ballistic jets. It is therefore of crucial importance to measure black hole spins to a high degree of accuracy. Stellar-mass black holes in binary systems (BHBs) have two major advantages over Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN): (1) owing to their proximity and brightness, observations of BHBs are not as limited by counting statistics as their supermassive counter-parts; (2) unlike in AGN, one can use two largely independent methods to measure the spin in BHBs, providing a check on spin measurements. However, the high flux that makes BHBs such excellent targets for spin measurements also proves to be their Achilles heel: modern CCD cameras are optimized for observing faint sources. Consequently, observations of bright BHBs with CCD cameras are subject to non-linear instrumental effects among them pile-up and grade migration that strongly distort the spectrum. Since spin measurements rely on a very precise model of both the continuum X-ray flux and disc reflection signatures superimposed on top of the former, these instrumental effects may cause inferred spin measurements to differ by a factor of two or more. Current mitigation strategies are aimed at removing instrumental effects either during the observations themselves, by requiring simultaneous observations with multiple telescopes, or in post-processing. Even when these techniques are employed, pile-up may remain unrecognized and still distort results, whereas mitigation strategies may introduce additional systematic biases, e.g. due to increased (cross-)calibration uncertainties. Advances in modern statistical methodology allow for efficient modeling of instrumental effects during the analysis stage, largely eliminating the requirements for observations with multiple instruments or increased observation

  20. Value of Sample Return and High Precision Analyses: Need for A Resource of Compelling Stories, Metaphors and Examples for Public Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.

    2017-01-01

    There is widespread agreement among planetary scientists that much of what we know about the workings of the solar system comes from accurate, high precision measurements on returned samples. Precision is a function of the number of atoms the instrumentation is able to count. Accuracy depends on the calibration or standardization technique. For Genesis, the solar wind sample return mission, acquiring enough atoms to ensure precise SW measurements and then accurately quantifying those measurements were steps known to be non-trivial pre-flight. The difficulty of precise and accurate measurements on returned samples, and why they cannot be made remotely, is not communicated well to the public. In part, this is be-cause "high precision" is abstract and error bars are not very exciting topics. This paper explores ideas for collecting and compiling compelling metaphors and colorful examples as a resource for planetary science public speakers.

  1. Accurate diode behavioral model with reverse recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banáš, Stanislav; Divín, Jan; Dobeš, Josef; Paňko, Václav

    2018-01-01

    This paper deals with the comprehensive behavioral model of p-n junction diode containing reverse recovery effect, applicable to all standard SPICE simulators supporting Verilog-A language. The model has been successfully used in several production designs, which require its full complexity, robustness and set of tuning parameters comparable with standard compact SPICE diode model. The model is like standard compact model scalable with area and temperature and can be used as a stand-alone diode or as a part of more complex device macro-model, e.g. LDMOS, JFET, bipolar transistor. The paper briefly presents the state of the art followed by the chapter describing the model development and achieved solutions. During precise model verification some of them were found non-robust or poorly converging and replaced by more robust solutions, demonstrated in the paper. The measurement results of different technologies and different devices compared with a simulation using the new behavioral model are presented as the model validation. The comparison of model validation in time and frequency domains demonstrates that the implemented reverse recovery effect with correctly extracted parameters improves the model simulation results not only in switching from ON to OFF state, which is often published, but also its impedance/admittance frequency dependency in GHz range. Finally the model parameter extraction and the comparison with SPICE compact models containing reverse recovery effect is presented.

  2. Precision of methods for calculating identity-by-descent matrices using multiple markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorensen, A.C.; Pong Wong, R.; Windig, J.J.; Woolliams, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid, deterministic method (DET) based on a recursive algorithm and a stochastic method based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) for calculating identity-by-descent (IBD) matrices conditional on multiple markers were compared using stochastic simulation. Precision was measured by the mean squared

  3. Precise subtyping for synchronous multiparty sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangiola Dezani-Ciancaglini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The notion of subtyping has gained an important role both in theoretical and applicative domains: in lambda and concurrent calculi as well as in programming languages. The soundness and the completeness, together referred to as the preciseness of subtyping, can be considered from two different points of view: operational and denotational. The former preciseness has been recently developed with respect to type safety, i.e. the safe replacement of a term of a smaller type when a term of a bigger type is expected. The latter preciseness is based on the denotation of a type which is a mathematical object that describes the meaning of the type in accordance with the denotations of other expressions from the language. The result of this paper is the operational and denotational preciseness of the subtyping for a synchronous multiparty session calculus. The novelty of this paper is the introduction of characteristic global types to prove the operational completeness.

  4. An aberrant precision account of autism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawson, Rebecca P; Rees, Geraint; Friston, Karl J

    2014-01-01

    ... (Pellicano and Burr, 2012). In response, we suggested that when Bayesian inference is grounded in its neural instantiation-namely, predictive coding-many features of autistic perception can be attributed to aberrant precision...

  5. The forthcoming era of precision medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Gamulin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of this essay is to present the definition and principles of personalized or precision medicine, the perspective and barriers to its development and clinical application. The implementation of precision medicine in health care requires the coordinated efforts of all health care stakeholders (the biomedical community, government, regulatory bodies, patients’ groups. Particularly, translational research with the integration of genomic and comprehensive data from all levels of the organism (“big data”, development of bioinformatics platforms enabling network analysis of disease etiopathogenesis, development of a legislative framework for handling personal data, and new paradigms of medical education are necessary for successful application of the concept of precision medicine in health care. Conclusion. In the present and future era of precision medicine, the collaboration of all participants in health care is necessary for its realization, resulting in improvement of diagnosis, prevention and therapy, based on a holistic, individually tailored approach.

  6. Nucleon measurements at the precision frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Carl E. [Physics Department, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    We comment on nucleon measurements at the precision frontier. As examples of what can be learned, we concentrate on three topics, which are parity violating scattering experiments, the proton radius puzzle, and the symbiosis between nuclear and atomic physics.

  7. Mechanics and Physics of Precise Vacuum Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Deulin, E. A; Panfilov, Yu V; Nevshupa, R. A

    2010-01-01

    In this book the Russian expertise in the field of the design of precise vacuum mechanics is summarized. A wide range of physical applications of mechanism design in electronic, optical-electronic, chemical, and aerospace industries is presented in a comprehensible way. Topics treated include the method of microparticles flow regulation and its determination in vacuum equipment and mechanisms of electronics; precise mechanisms of nanoscale precision based on magnetic and electric rheology; precise harmonic rotary and not-coaxial nut-screw linear motion vacuum feedthroughs with technical parameters considered the best in the world; elastically deformed vacuum motion feedthroughs without friction couples usage; the computer system of vacuum mechanisms failure predicting. This English edition incorporates a number of features which should improve its usefulness as a textbook without changing the basic organization or the general philosophy of presentation of the subject matter of the original Russian work. Exper...

  8. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A. [Fermilab

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  9. Precision Munition Electro-Sciences Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility allows the characterization of the electro-magnetic environment produced by a precision weapon in free flight. It can measure the radiofrequency (RF)...

  10. Courseware Review: Vernier Software: Precision Timer II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, John C.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "Vernier Software: Precision Timer II" for high school through college mechanics. Introduces 14 different modes including pulse time, pendulum timer, bouncer timer, gate timer, collision timers, and stroke calibration. Provides two typical displays and ratings of the software. (YP)

  11. Accurate atom-mapping computation for biochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latendresse, Mario; Malerich, Jeremiah P; Travers, Mike; Karp, Peter D

    2012-11-26

    The complete atom mapping of a chemical reaction is a bijection of the reactant atoms to the product atoms that specifies the terminus of each reactant atom. Atom mapping of biochemical reactions is useful for many applications of systems biology, in particular for metabolic engineering where synthesizing new biochemical pathways has to take into account for the number of carbon atoms from a source compound that are conserved in the synthesis of a target compound. Rapid, accurate computation of the atom mapping(s) of a biochemical reaction remains elusive despite significant work on this topic. In particular, past researchers did not validate the accuracy of mapping algorithms. We introduce a new method for computing atom mappings called the minimum weighted edit-distance (MWED) metric. The metric is based on bond propensity to react and computes biochemically valid atom mappings for a large percentage of biochemical reactions. MWED models can be formulated efficiently as Mixed-Integer Linear Programs (MILPs). We have demonstrated this approach on 7501 reactions of the MetaCyc database for which 87% of the models could be solved in less than 10 s. For 2.1% of the reactions, we found multiple optimal atom mappings. We show that the error rate is 0.9% (22 reactions) by comparing these atom mappings to 2446 atom mappings of the manually curated Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) RPAIR database. To our knowledge, our computational atom-mapping approach is the most accurate and among the fastest published to date. The atom-mapping data will be available in the MetaCyc database later in 2012; the atom-mapping software will be available within the Pathway Tools software later in 2012.

  12. Accurate, fully-automated NMR spectral profiling for metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanbakhsh, Siamak; Liu, Philip; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Bjordahl, Trent C; Mandal, Rupasri; Grant, Jason R; Wilson, Michael; Eisner, Roman; Sinelnikov, Igor; Hu, Xiaoyu; Luchinat, Claudio; Greiner, Russell; Wishart, David S

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases cause significant changes to the concentrations of small molecules (a.k.a. metabolites) that appear in a person's biofluids, which means such diseases can often be readily detected from a person's "metabolic profile"-i.e., the list of concentrations of those metabolites. This information can be extracted from a biofluids Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrum. However, due to its complexity, NMR spectral profiling has remained manual, resulting in slow, expensive and error-prone procedures that have hindered clinical and industrial adoption of metabolomics via NMR. This paper presents a system, BAYESIL, which can quickly, accurately, and autonomously produce a person's metabolic profile. Given a 1D 1H NMR spectrum of a complex biofluid (specifically serum or cerebrospinal fluid), BAYESIL can automatically determine the metabolic profile. This requires first performing several spectral processing steps, then matching the resulting spectrum against a reference compound library, which contains the "signatures" of each relevant metabolite. BAYESIL views spectral matching as an inference problem within a probabilistic graphical model that rapidly approximates the most probable metabolic profile. Our extensive studies on a diverse set of complex mixtures including real biological samples (serum and CSF), defined mixtures and realistic computer generated spectra; involving > 50 compounds, show that BAYESIL can autonomously find the concentration of NMR-detectable metabolites accurately (~ 90% correct identification and ~ 10% quantification error), in less than 5 minutes on a single CPU. These results demonstrate that BAYESIL is the first fully-automatic publicly-accessible system that provides quantitative NMR spectral profiling effectively-with an accuracy on these biofluids that meets or exceeds the performance of trained experts. We anticipate this tool will usher in high-throughput metabolomics and enable a wealth of new applications of NMR in

  13. Accurate, fully-automated NMR spectral profiling for metabolomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Ravanbakhsh

    Full Text Available Many diseases cause significant changes to the concentrations of small molecules (a.k.a. metabolites that appear in a person's biofluids, which means such diseases can often be readily detected from a person's "metabolic profile"-i.e., the list of concentrations of those metabolites. This information can be extracted from a biofluids Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectrum. However, due to its complexity, NMR spectral profiling has remained manual, resulting in slow, expensive and error-prone procedures that have hindered clinical and industrial adoption of metabolomics via NMR. This paper presents a system, BAYESIL, which can quickly, accurately, and autonomously produce a person's metabolic profile. Given a 1D 1H NMR spectrum of a complex biofluid (specifically serum or cerebrospinal fluid, BAYESIL can automatically determine the metabolic profile. This requires first performing several spectral processing steps, then matching the resulting spectrum against a reference compound library, which contains the "signatures" of each relevant metabolite. BAYESIL views spectral matching as an inference problem within a probabilistic graphical model that rapidly approximates the most probable metabolic profile. Our extensive studies on a diverse set of complex mixtures including real biological samples (serum and CSF, defined mixtures and realistic computer generated spectra; involving > 50 compounds, show that BAYESIL can autonomously find the concentration of NMR-detectable metabolites accurately (~ 90% correct identification and ~ 10% quantification error, in less than 5 minutes on a single CPU. These results demonstrate that BAYESIL is the first fully-automatic publicly-accessible system that provides quantitative NMR spectral profiling effectively-with an accuracy on these biofluids that meets or exceeds the performance of trained experts. We anticipate this tool will usher in high-throughput metabolomics and enable a wealth of new applications of

  14. Methods for precise photoelectron counting with photomultipliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dossi, R.; Ianni, A.; Ranucci, G.; Smirnov, O.Ju. E-mail: smirnov@lngs.infn.itsmipol@cv.jinr.ru

    2000-09-11

    A series of measurements has been performed on a THORN EMI 9351 phototube in order to investigate its response to a low light intensity. Precise procedures to determine the intensity of the incident photon flux have been developed and compared. The data show that the various approaches give consistent and reliable results, thus allowing the precise calibration of the device for applications of photon counting.

  15. A path to precision in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslove, David M; Lamontagne, Francois; Marshall, John C; Heyland, Daren K

    2017-04-03

    Precision medicine is increasingly touted as a groundbreaking new paradigm in biomedicine. In the ICU, the complexity and ambiguity of critical illness syndromes have been identified as fundamental justifications for the adoption of a precision approach to research and practice. Inherently protean diseases states such as sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome have manifestations that are physiologically and anatomically diffuse, and that fluctuate over short periods of time. This leads to considerable heterogeneity among patients, and conditions in which a "one size fits all" approach to therapy can lead to widely divergent results. Current ICU therapy can thus be seen as imprecise, with the potential to realize substantial gains from the adoption of precision medicine approaches. A number of challenges still face the development and adoption of precision critical care, a transition that may occur incrementally rather than wholesale. This article describes a few concrete approaches to addressing these challenges.First, novel clinical trial designs, including registry randomized controlled trials and platform trials, suggest ways in which conventional trials can be adapted to better accommodate the physiologic heterogeneity of critical illness. Second, beyond the "omics" technologies already synonymous with precision medicine, the data-rich environment of the ICU can generate complex physiologic signatures that could fuel precision-minded research and practice. Third, the role of computing infrastructure and modern informatics methods will be central to the pursuit of precision medicine in the ICU, necessitating close collaboration with data scientists. As work toward precision critical care continues, small proof-of-concept studies may prove useful in highlighting the potential of this approach.

  16. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  17. Towards precision medicine; a new biomedical cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegter, M W

    2018-02-10

    Precision Medicine has become a common label for data-intensive and patient-driven biomedical research. Its intended future is reflected in endeavours such as the Precision Medicine Initiative in the USA. This article addresses the question whether it is possible to discern a new 'medical cosmology' in Precision Medicine, a concept that was developed by Nicholas Jewson to describe comprehensive transformations involving various dimensions of biomedical knowledge and practice, such as vocabularies, the roles of patients and physicians and the conceptualisation of disease. Subsequently, I will elaborate my assessment of the features of Precision Medicine with the help of Michel Foucault, by exploring how precision medicine involves a transformation along three axes: the axis of biomedical knowledge, of biomedical power and of the patient as a self. Patients are encouraged to become the managers of their own health status, while the medical domain is reframed as a data-sharing community, characterised by changing power relationships between providers and patients, producers and consumers. While the emerging Precision Medicine cosmology may surpass existing knowledge frameworks; it obscures previous traditions and reduces research-subjects to mere data. This in turn, means that the individual is both subjected to the neoliberal demand to share personal information, and at the same time has acquired the positive 'right' to become a member of the data-sharing community. The subject has to constantly negotiate the meaning of his or her data, which can either enable self-expression, or function as a commanding Superego.

  18. Precision validation of MIPAS-Envisat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Piccolo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the variation and validation of the precision, or estimated random error, associated with the ESA Level 2 products from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS. This quantity represents the propagation of the radiometric noise from the spectra through the retrieval process into the Level 2 profile values. The noise itself varies with time, steadily rising between ice decontamination events, but the Level 2 precision has a greater variation due to the atmospheric temperature which controls the total radiance received. Hence, for all species, the precision varies latitudinally/seasonally with temperature, with a small superimposed temporal structure determined by the degree of ice contamination on the detectors. The precision validation involves comparing two MIPAS retrievals at the intersections of ascending/descending orbits. For 5 days per month of full resolution MIPAS operation, the standard deviation of the matching profile pairs is computed and compared with the precision given in the MIPAS Level 2 data, except for NO2 since it has a large diurnal variation between ascending/descending intersections. Even taking into account the propagation of the pressure-temperature retrieval errors into the VMR retrieval, the standard deviation of the matching pairs is usually a factor 1–2 larger than the precision. This is thought to be due to effects such as horizontal inhomogeneity of the atmosphere and instability of the retrieval.

  19. Precision medicine needs pioneering clinical bioinformaticians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Dopazo, Joaquín; Cigudosa, Juan C; Valencia, Alfonso; Al-Shahrour, Fátima

    2017-10-25

    Success in precision medicine depends on accessing high-quality genetic and molecular data from large, well-annotated patient cohorts that couple biological samples to comprehensive clinical data, which in conjunction can lead to effective therapies. From such a scenario emerges the need for a new professional profile, an expert bioinformatician with training in clinical areas who can make sense of multi-omics data to improve therapeutic interventions in patients, and the design of optimized basket trials. In this review, we first describe the main policies and international initiatives that focus on precision medicine. Secondly, we review the currently ongoing clinical trials in precision medicine, introducing the concept of 'precision bioinformatics', and we describe current pioneering bioinformatics efforts aimed at implementing tools and computational infrastructures for precision medicine in health institutions around the world. Thirdly, we discuss the challenges related to the clinical training of bioinformaticians, and the urgent need for computational specialists capable of assimilating medical terminologies and protocols to address real clinical questions. We also propose some skills required to carry out common tasks in clinical bioinformatics and some tips for emergent groups. Finally, we explore the future perspectives and the challenges faced by precision medicine bioinformatics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Principles of precision medicine in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Jason D; Rost, Natalia S; Leung, Thomas W; Montaner, Joan; Muir, Keith W; Brown, Scott; Arenillas, Juan F; Feldmann, Edward; Liebeskind, David S

    2017-01-01

    The era of precision medicine has arrived and conveys tremendous potential, particularly for stroke neurology. The diagnosis of stroke, its underlying aetiology, theranostic strategies, recurrence risk and path to recovery are populated by a series of highly individualised questions. Moreover, the phenotypic complexity of a clinical diagnosis of stroke makes a simple genetic risk assessment only partially informative on an individual basis. The guiding principles of precision medicine in stroke underscore the need to identify, value, organise and analyse the multitude of variables obtained from each individual to generate a precise approach to optimise cerebrovascular health. Existing data may be leveraged with novel technologies, informatics and practical clinical paradigms to apply these principles in stroke and realise the promise of precision medicine. Importantly, precision medicine in stroke will only be realised once efforts to collect, value and synthesise the wealth of data collected in clinical trials and routine care starts. Stroke theranostics, the ultimate vision of synchronising tailored therapeutic strategies based on specific diagnostic data, demand cerebrovascular expertise on big data approaches to clinically relevant paradigms. This review considers such challenges and delineates the principles on a roadmap for rational application of precision medicine to stroke and cerebrovascular health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Precision cosmology from future lensed gravitational wave and electromagnetic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kai; Fan, Xi-Long; Ding, Xuheng; Biesiada, Marek; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2017-10-27

    The standard siren approach of gravitational wave cosmology appeals to the direct luminosity distance estimation through the waveform signals from inspiralling double compact binaries, especially those with electromagnetic counterparts providing redshifts. It is limited by the calibration uncertainties in strain amplitude and relies on the fine details of the waveform. The Einstein telescope is expected to produce 10 4 -10 5 gravitational wave detections per year, 50-100 of which will be lensed. Here, we report a waveform-independent strategy to achieve precise cosmography by combining the accurately measured time delays from strongly lensed gravitational wave signals with the images and redshifts observed in the electromagnetic domain. We demonstrate that just 10 such systems can provide a Hubble constant uncertainty of 0.68% for a flat lambda cold dark matter universe in the era of third-generation ground-based detectors.

  2. Precise surface gravities of δ Scuti stars from asteroseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Hernández, A.; Suárez, J. C.; Moya, A.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Guo, Z.; Reese, D. R.; Pascual-Granado, J.; Barceló Forteza, S.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Garrido, R.; Nieto, J.

    2017-10-01

    The work reported here demonstrates that it is possible to accurately determine surface gravities of δ Scuti (δ Sct) stars using the frequency content from high-precision photometry and a measurement of the parallax. Using a sample of 10 eclipsing binary systems with a δ Sct component and the unique δ Sct star discovered with a transiting planet, WASP-33, we were able to refine the Δν-\\bar{ρ } relation. Using this relation and parallaxes, we obtained independent values for the masses and radii, allowing us to calculate the surface gravities without any constraints from spectroscopic or binary analysis. A remarkably good agreement was found between our results and those published, extracted from the analysis of the radial velocities and light curves of the systems. This reinforces the potential of Δν as a valuable observable for δ Sct stars and settles the degeneracy problem for the log g determination through spectroscopy.

  3. Precise acquisition and unsupervised segmentation of multi-spectral images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomez, David Delgado; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2007-01-01

    In this work, an integrated imaging system to obtain accurate and reproducible multi-spectral images and a novel multi-spectral image segmentation algorithm are proposed. The system collects up to 20 different spectral bands within a range that vary from 395 nm to 970 nm. The system is designed...... to acquire geometrically and chromatically corrected images in homogeneous and diffuse illumination, so images can be compared over time. The proposed segmentation algorithm combines the information provided by all the spectral bands to segment the different regions of interest. Three experiments...... are conducted to show the ability of the system to acquire highly precise, reproducible and standardized multi-spectral images and to show its applicabilities in different situations....

  4. Applying green analytical chemistry for rapid analysis of drugs: Adding health to pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazrul Haq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Green RP-HPLC method for a rapid analysis of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM in bulk drugs, self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS and marketed tablets was developed and validated in the present investigation. The chromatographic identification was achieved on Lichrosphere 250 × 4.0 mm RP C8 column having a 5 μm packing as a stationary phase using a combination of green solvents ethyl acetate:ethanol (50:50% v/v as a mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 250 nm. The proposed method was validated for linearity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility, robustness, sensitivity and specificity. The utility of the proposed method was verified by an assay of OLM in SMEDDS and commercial tablets. The proposed method was found to be selective, precise, reproducible, accurate, robust, sensitive and specific. The amount of OLM in SMEDDS and commercial tablets was found to be 101.25% and 98.67% respectively. The proposed method successfully resolved OLM peak in the presence of its degradation products which indicated stability-indicating property of the proposed method. These results indicated that the proposed method can be successfully employed for a routine analysis of OLM in bulk drugs and commercial formulations.

  5. An inexpensive and portable microvolumeter for rapid evaluation of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, John K; Wcislo, William T

    2010-08-01

    We describe an improved microvolumeter (MVM) for rapidly measuring volumes of small biological samples, including live zooplankton, embryos, and small animals and organs. Portability and low cost make this instrument suitable for widespread use, including at remote field sites. Beginning with Archimedes' principle, which states that immersing an arbitrarily shaped sample in a fluid-filled container displaces an equivalent volume, we identified procedures that maximize measurement accuracy and repeatability across a broad range of absolute volumes. Crucial steps include matching the overall configuration to the size of the sample, using reflected light to monitor fluid levels precisely, and accounting for evaporation during measurements. The resulting precision is at least 100 times higher than in previous displacement-based methods. Volumes are obtained much faster than by traditional histological or confocal methods and without shrinkage artifacts due to fixation or dehydration. Calibrations using volume standards confirmed accurate measurements of volumes as small as 0.06 microL. We validated the feasibility of evaluating soft-tissue samples by comparing volumes of freshly dissected ant brains measured with the MVM and by confocal reconstruction.

  6. The application of rapid prototyping to improve bone reconstruction in immediate dentoalveolar restoration: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins da Rosa, José Carlos; Fadanelli, Marcos Alexandre; Zimmerman, Diego; de Oliveira Rosa, Ariádene Cristina Pértile

    This article describes the use of rapid prototyping (RP) for diagnosis, planning, and execution of the reconstruction of hard and soft tissue in socket defects using immediate dentoalveolar restoration (IDR). In cases of tissue loss in anterior dental areas, esthetic rehabilitation poses a major challenge with respect to treatment planning with the goal of long-term tissue maintenance. The IDR technique consists of immediate reconstruction in a single procedure of bone and soft tissue around implants placed immediately after extraction, and prosthetic rehabilitation. As this procedure is immediate and flapless, the correct diagnosis of tissue loss and correct graft adaptation are mandatory. RP can increase the precision of the procedure, as demonstrated using a clinical case characterized by total loss of the buccal bone wall and gingival recession. The results were evaluated by clinical assessment, photography, radiography, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), and prototyping. The application of RP facilitated the execution of IDR as it enabled more accurate diagnosis of the socket defect and more precise adaptation of the tissue graft. A clinical study should be conducted to evaluate the effects of RP on the clinical results of the IDR technique.

  7. Incremental heating of Bishop Tuff sanidine reveals preeruptive radiogenic Ar and rapid remobilization from cold storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Nathan L.; Jicha, Brian R.; Singer, Brad S.; Hildreth, Wes

    2017-11-01

    Accurate and precise ages of large silicic eruptions are critical to calibrating the geologic timescale and gauging the tempo of changes in climate, biologic evolution, and magmatic processes throughout Earth history. The conventional approach to dating these eruptive products using the 40Ar/39Ar method is to fuse dozens of individual feldspar crystals. However, dispersion of fusion dates is common and interpretation is complicated by increasingly precise data obtained via multicollector mass spectrometry. Incremental heating of 49 individual Bishop Tuff (BT) sanidine crystals produces 40Ar/39Ar dates with reduced dispersion, yet we find a 16-ky range of plateau dates that is not attributable to excess Ar. We interpret this dispersion to reflect cooling of the magma reservoir margins below ˜475 °C, accumulation of radiogenic Ar, and rapid preeruption remobilization. Accordingly, these data elucidate the recycling of subsolidus material into voluminous rhyolite magma reservoirs and the effect of preeruptive magmatic processes on the 40Ar/39Ar system. The youngest sanidine dates, likely the most representative of the BT eruption age, yield a weighted mean of 764.8 ± 0.3/0.6 ka (2σ analytical/full uncertainty) indicating eruption only ˜7 ky following the Matuyama‑Brunhes magnetic polarity reversal. Single-crystal incremental heating provides leverage with which to interpret complex populations of 40Ar/39Ar sanidine and U-Pb zircon dates and a substantially improved capability to resolve the timing and causal relationship of events in the geologic record.

  8. A stiffly accurate integrator for elastodynamic problems

    KAUST Repository

    Michels, Dominik L.

    2017-07-21

    We present a new integration algorithm for the accurate and efficient solution of stiff elastodynamic problems governed by the second-order ordinary differential equations of structural mechanics. Current methods have the shortcoming that their performance is highly dependent on the numerical stiffness of the underlying system that often leads to unrealistic behavior or a significant loss of efficiency. To overcome these limitations, we present a new integration method which is based on a mathematical reformulation of the underlying differential equations, an exponential treatment of the full nonlinear forcing operator as opposed to more standard partially implicit or exponential approaches, and the utilization of the concept of stiff accuracy which ensures that the efficiency of the simulations is significantly less sensitive to increased stiffness. As a consequence, we are able to tremendously accelerate the simulation of stiff systems compared to established integrators and significantly increase the overall accuracy. The advantageous behavior of this approach is demonstrated on a broad spectrum of complex examples like deformable bodies, textiles, bristles, and human hair. Our easily parallelizable integrator enables more complex and realistic models to be explored in visual computing without compromising efficiency.

  9. Accurate Theoretical Thermochemistry for Fluoroethyl Radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganyecz, Ádám; Kállay, Mihály; Csontos, József

    2017-02-09

    An accurate coupled-cluster (CC) based model chemistry was applied to calculate reliable thermochemical quantities for hydrofluorocarbon derivatives including radicals 1-fluoroethyl (CH3-CHF), 1,1-difluoroethyl (CH3-CF2), 2-fluoroethyl (CH2F-CH2), 1,2-difluoroethyl (CH2F-CHF), 2,2-difluoroethyl (CHF2-CH2), 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl (CF3-CH2), 1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl (CF3-CHF), and pentafluoroethyl (CF3-CF2). The model chemistry used contains iterative triple and perturbative quadruple excitations in CC theory, as well as scalar relativistic and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. To obtain heat of formation values with better than chemical accuracy perturbative quadruple excitations and scalar relativistic corrections were inevitable. Their contributions to the heats of formation steadily increase with the number of fluorine atoms in the radical reaching 10 kJ/mol for CF3-CF2. When discrepancies were found between the experimental and our values it was always possible to resolve the issue by recalculating the experimental result with currently recommended auxiliary data. For each radical studied here this study delivers the best heat of formation as well as entropy data.

  10. Accurate Emission Line Diagnostics at High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tucker

    2017-08-01

    How do the physical conditions of high redshift galaxies differ from those seen locally? Spectroscopic surveys have invested hundreds of nights of 8- and 10-meter telescope time as well as hundreds of Hubble orbits to study evolution in the galaxy population at redshifts z 0.5-4 using rest-frame optical strong emission line diagnostics. These surveys reveal evolution in the gas excitation with redshift but the physical cause is not yet understood. Consequently there are large systematic errors in derived quantities such as metallicity.We have used direct measurements of gas density, temperature, and metallicity in a unique sample at z=0.8 to determine reliable diagnostics for high redshift galaxies. Our measurements suggest that offsets in emission line ratios at high redshift are primarily caused by high N/O abundance ratios. However, our ground-based data cannot rule out other interpretations. Spatially resolved Hubble grism spectra are needed to distinguish between the remaining plausible causes such as active nuclei, shocks, diffuse ionized gas emission, and HII regions with escaping ionizing flux. Identifying the physical origin of evolving excitation will allow us to build the necessary foundation for accurate measurements of metallicity and other properties of high redshift galaxies. Only then can we expoit the wealth of data from current surveys and near-future JWST spectroscopy to understand how galaxies evolve over time.

  11. Fast and accurate exhaled breath ammonia measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A; Risby, Terence H

    2014-06-11

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations.

  12. A solution of High-precision WLAN positioning based on TDOA and PTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For indoor WLAN positioning it is difficult to achieve decimeter or centimeter-level precision questions, to IEEE1588v2 (PTP precision network clock synchronization technology and the arrival time difference principle (TDOA, combined with non line of sight (NLOS error mitigation techniques ranging research and design a set based on the existing WLAN (IEEE802.11x series of standards device with high precision realtime location solutions. First, build a high-performance software-defined radio network communications platform, for accurate measurement of the radio signal arrival time and is calculated based on TDOA location. Secondly, the use of high-precision clock IEEE1588v2 standard equipment PTPGrand-2100 as a network clock source, through the integrated application of multi-hop latency compensation and asymmetric compensation algorithm to ensure nanosecond clock synchronization between the various WLAN access points (AP accuracy(Experiments show that 1 nanosecond time synchronization error is equivalent to 10 to 30 cm of positioning error. Finally, based NLOS error becomes stability principle, filtered NLOS error and pre-positioned before the data, eliminate the influence of the greatest degree of NLOS error, the time domain error control in wireless ranging 5ns or less to achieve decimeter or more accurately estimate the position. The case can be widely used in mobile Internet, logistics management, mineral exploration, health and other needs of the precise location services (LBS in other industry sectors.

  13. Accurate identification of whispering gallery mode patterns of gyrotron with stabilized electro-optic imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ingeun; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Dong-Joon; Choi, EunMi

    2018-01-01

    The precise field pattern measurement and analysis of a typical whispering gallery mode excited in a gyrotron are important to understand the interaction physics of the gyrotron. We precisely analyzed the characteristic of a whispering gallery mode, rotating TE6,2 mode, by a photonic-assisted W-band (75-110 GHz) electro-optic imaging measurement system. The whispering gallery mode in the W-band region diverges fast in free space as it propagates from the radiation port. Therefore, scanning the field patterns of a device-under-test should be performed as close as possible to identify the device's characteristics. We successfully accomplished visualizing highly accurate field patterns of a rotating and mixed whispering gallery mode based on the measured electric field magnitude and phase by using dual optical fiber-scale electro-optic (EO) probes. We observed the distorted fields when the typical open-ended waveguide and a general EO probe were used in the extremely near-field zone, whereas a very precise field was measured in a minimally invasive way by the proposed EO probe. The measured mode patterns were quantitatively analyzed by using a cross correlation function and a mode purity equation. This work promises a way to provide accurate electric field information in the generation of the whispering gallery mode in the millimeter and submillimeter regime.

  14. Rapid chromatin repression by Aire provides precise control of immune tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Andrew S; Miller, Erik L; Buenrostro, Jason D; Moskowitz, David M; Wang, Jing; Greenleaf, William J; Chang, Howard Y; Crabtree, Gerald R

    2018-02-01

    Aire mediates the expression of tissue-specific antigens in thymic epithelial cells to promote tolerance against self-reactive T lymphocytes. However, the mechanism that allows expression of tissue-specific genes at levels that prevent harm is unknown. Here we show that Brg1 generates accessibility at tissue-specific loci to impose central tolerance. We found that Aire has an intrinsic repressive function that restricts chromatin accessibility and opposes Brg1 across the genome. Aire exerted this repressive influence within minutes after recruitment to chromatin and restrained the amplitude of active transcription. Disease-causing mutations that impair Aire-induced activation also impair the protein's repressive function, which indicates dual roles for Aire. Together, Brg1 and Aire fine-tune the expression of tissue-specific genes at levels that prevent toxicity yet promote immune tolerance.

  15. Precise and Rapid Detection of Optical Activity for Accumulative Femtosecond Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuernberger P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a fast and sensitive polarimeter combining common-path optical heterodyne interferometry and accumulative spectroscopy to detect rotatory power. The sensitivity of rotatory detection is determined to be 0.10 milli-degrees for a measurement time of only one second and an interaction length of 250 μm. Its suitability for femtosecond studies is demonstrated in a non-resonant two-photon photodissociation experiment.

  16. A novel sample preparation method using rapid nonheated saponification method for the determination of cholesterol in emulsified foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, In-Seek; Kwak, Byung-Man; Ahn, Jang-Hyuk; Leem, Donggil; Yoon, Taehyung; Yoon, Changyong; Jeong, Jayoung; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Jin-Man

    2012-10-01

    In this study, nonheated saponification was employed as a novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method for the determination of cholesterol in emulsified foods. Cholesterol content was analyzed using gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The cholesterol extraction method was optimized for maximum recovery from baby food and infant formula. Under these conditions, the optimum extraction solvent was 10 mL ethyl ether per 1 to 2 g sample, and the saponification solution was 0.2 mL KOH in methanol. The cholesterol content in the products was determined to be within the certified range of certified reference materials (CRMs), NIST SRM 1544 and SRM 1849. The results of the recovery test performed using spiked materials were in the range of 98.24% to 99.45% with an relative standard devitation (RSD) between 0.83% and 1.61%. This method could be used to reduce sample pretreatment time and is expected to provide an accurate determination of cholesterol in emulsified food matrices such as infant formula and baby food. A novel, rapid, and easy sample preparation method using nonheated saponification was developed for cholesterol detection in emulsified foods. Recovery tests of CRMs were satisfactory, and the recoveries of spiked materials were accurate and precise. This method was effective and decreased the time required for analysis by 5-fold compared to the official method. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Fast Monte Carlo Electron-Photon Transport Method and Application in Accurate Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lijuan; Sun, Guangyao; Zheng, Huaqing; Song, Jing; Chen, Zhenping; Li, Gui

    2014-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) method is the most accurate computational method for dose calculation, but its wide application on clinical accurate radiotherapy is hindered due to its poor speed of converging and long computation time. In the MC dose calculation research, the main task is to speed up computation while high precision is maintained. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the calculation speed of MC method for electron-photon transport with high precision and ultimately to reduce the accurate radiotherapy dose calculation time based on normal computer to the level of several hours, which meets the requirement of clinical dose verification. Based on the existing Super Monte Carlo Simulation Program (SuperMC), developed by FDS Team, a fast MC method for electron-photon coupled transport was presented with focus on two aspects: firstly, through simplifying and optimizing the physical model of the electron-photon transport, the calculation speed was increased with slightly reduction of calculation accuracy; secondly, using a variety of MC calculation acceleration methods, for example, taking use of obtained information in previous calculations to avoid repeat simulation of particles with identical history; applying proper variance reduction techniques to accelerate MC method convergence rate, etc. The fast MC method was tested by a lot of simple physical models and clinical cases included nasopharyngeal carcinoma, peripheral lung tumor, cervical carcinoma, etc. The result shows that the fast MC method for electron-photon transport was fast enough to meet the requirement of clinical accurate radiotherapy dose verification. Later, the method will be applied to the Accurate/Advanced Radiation Therapy System ARTS as a MC dose verification module.

  18. Development of INCONEL 600 precision tube (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Yeong Han; Jo, Bong Hyeon; Lee, Dong Hee; Kim, Wan Kyo; Jeong, Pyeong Keun; Yoon, Hwang Lo; Chio, Seok Sik [Sammi Steel Co. Ltd., Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    Steam generator, being connected with nuclear fuel reactor is one of the most important part of nuclear power plant and consists of a large number of INCONEL 600 tubes. Approximately 160 tons of tubes are needed for a single nuclear power plant. All of INCONEL 600 steam generator tubes for domestic nuclear power plants have been imported. The aim of this research is to develop INCONEL 600 precision tubes for steam generator of nuclear power plant. If this research is conducted successfully, we can produce nuclear fuel tubes, Ni-alloy precision tubes and stainless steel precision tubes for many purposes and technology of INCONEL 600 steam generator tubes are similar to those of other tubes above mentioned. In the current study, development of preliminary manufacturing process of INCONEL 600 precision tubes for steam generator and investigation of material`s metallurgical characteristics were conducted. The main scope of this research is as follows. First, the preliminary manufacturing process design was conducted after investigations of foreign manufacturing processes and technical reports. Second, the results of investigations of material`s metallurgical characteristics through the manufacturing process were applied to the production technology of tentative INCONEL 600 precision tubes for sample. Third, preliminary process routes were established and samples of INCONEL 600 precision tube were produced by this process. As the results of this research, 14 pieces of INCONEL 600 precision tubes were produced by preliminary manufacturing process and the material`s metallurgical characteristics were investigated through the processes. But the SCC test could not be conducted due to the absence of equipment. In order to apply the results of SCC test to the manufacturing process, we need a SCC tester which can simulate SCC characteristics under high temperature and high pressurized circulating water. 95 refs., 55 figs., 20 tabs.

  19. A precise gravimetric geoid model for the Gulf of Corinth (KTH-COR12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daras, I.; Papazissi, K.; Pail, R.; Marinou, A.; Fairhead, D.

    2012-04-01

    Greece is a very active region where three major tectonic plates, the Eurasia, Africa, and Arabia plates meet. The motions of those major plates drive smaller plates, like the Aegean Sea plate, whose shape and motion determine the locations and focal mechanisms of most earthquakes in the region. The northern edge of the Aegean Sea plate is the Eurasian plate which is a divergent boundary responsible for the formation of the Gulf of Corinth. As a result our area of interest is the most rapidly extending rift system in Greece connected with the highest seismic activities in the Euro-Mediterranean region, an estimate of 1 to 1.5 cm/year of north-south extension, frequent seismic swarms, and destructive historical earthquakes. The key to a better monitoring of the regional earth crustal movements is the use of accurate orthometric heights stemming from GPS geometric heights and a precise geoid model. A precise gravimetric geoid model of the Gulf of Corinth has been computed using the least squares modification of Stokes formula developed at KTH (KTH method). In this method, a stochastic approach applies additional information about the potential coefficients and the gravity anomaly errors in combination with the least squares modification of Stokes kernel to minimize the expected global mean square error (MSE). For this purpose, a dataset of local terrestrial gravity anomalies was combined with a global geopotential model, namely the ITG-Grace2010s satellite-only gravity field model. Areas with no terrestrial gravity information (i.e. sea regions) were filled with EGM08 gravity anomaly values. The SRTM90 digital elevation data from Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) of NASA, with a 90m resolution was chosen for the, essential for the computations, DEM. Additionally, GPS/Levelling, mean sea surface (MSS) and mean dynamic topography (MDT) datasets were used for externally evaluating the geoid model. In this poster the methodology behind the construction of the KTH

  20. Consolidation and assessment of a technique to provide fast and precise point positioning (Fast-PPP)

    OpenAIRE

    Rovira Garcia, Adrià

    2016-01-01

    The research of this paper-based dissertation is focused on the Fast Precise Point Positioning (Fast-PPP) technique. The novelty relies on using an accurate ionosphere model, in combination with the standard precise satellite clock and orbit products, to reduce the convergence time of state-of-the-art high-accuracy navigation techniques from approximately one hour to few minutes. My first contribution to the Fast-PPP technique as a Ph.D. student has been the design and implementation of a ...