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Sample records for rapid postural change

  1. Changes in head posture after rapid maxillary expansion in patients with nasopharyngeal obstruction

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    Kjurchieva-Chuchkova G

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasopharyngeal obstruction is an important etiologic factor in the development of an extreme vertical growth facial pattern, and insufficient transversal growth of the maxilla. The treatment outcomes associated with rapid maxillary expansion in the literature are mainly discussed in terms of changes in dentofacial morphology, without special reference to changes in the pharyngeal airway, the position of the mandible, hyoid bone and the tongue. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME, on changes in head posture and airway dimension. Materials and methods: The cephalometric evaluation was conducted on thirty lateral cephalograms of patients with nasopharyngeal obstruction (mean age 9.11 years; standard deviation (SD ± 2.0; range 8-14 years treated with appliance for rapid maxillary expansion. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: 1 study group comprised of 15 patients treated with RME immediately after the first visit; 2 a control group comprised of 15 subjects monitored for approximately 12 months prior to commencing therapy, who became untreated controls. Lateral cephalograms, taken in the natural head position, were obtained at the first visit and 6 months later for all subjects. Six angular measurements were measured to describe craniocervical angulation, and five linear measurements were measured to describe airway dimension. Results: The investigated group treated with RME shows a statistically significant decrease in craniocervical angulation, especially at the angle of interaction between palatal plane and the tangent odontoid processus (4.07 degrees, for PP/OPT angle and angle interaction between palatal plane and the tangent of cervical vertebra (4.95 degrees for PP/CVT angle. Airway dimension in the treated group increased, especially at the levels PNS-ad1 (2.52 mm, ve-pve (2.97 mm, and uv-puv (2.88 mm. No significant changes were observed in the control group

  2. Effects of rapid maxillary expansion on head posture, postural stability, and fall risk

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    Fatih Celebi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME on head posture, postural stability, and fall risk. Materials and Methods: A sample of 51 adolescent patients was randomly divided into two groups. In the first group, which consisted of 28 patients (15 females and 13 males, RME was performed as a part of routine orthodontic treatment. The remaining 23 individuals (12 females and 11 males served as the control group. Lateral cephalometric radiographs taken in natural head position, postural stability, and fall risk scores were obtained during the first visit. They were repeated on average 3.8 months and 3.5 months later for the study and control groups, respectively. The changes were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, paired samples t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and independent samples t-test. Results: As a result of RME, a statistically significant decrease was detected in the fall risk score (P < 0.05 in the study group, while the head position and postural stability remained unchanged. For the control group, no significant changes were observed in all measurements. Conclusions: The result of the present study suggests that RME has a capacity of improving fall risk.

  3. Fatigue-induced adaptive changes of anticipatory postural adjustments.

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    Strang, Adam J; Berg, William P

    2007-03-01

    To examine the fatigue-induced adaptive changes (e.g., timing) of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), APAs of 30 research participants were recorded before (baseline) and after (post-test) conditions of either rest (control group, n=15) or fatigue (fatigue group, n=15). Muscle fatigue was generated using a dead-lift exercise performed to exhaustion. Self-initiated postural perturbations were induced using a rapid unilateral arm-raising maneuver (focal movement), and APAs were obtained using electromyography (EMG) recorded bilaterally in the lumbar and thoracic paraspinal muscles as well as the hamstring muscles. Postural stability during the focal movement was assessed using a force plate. Results showed that fatigue had no effect on postural stability during the focal movement, and yet caused earlier APA onsets in three of the six muscles evaluated. In spite of early APA activation, the APA EMG integrals of two of the three postural control muscles which exhibited fatigue-induced early APA onsets (T9 and L4 contralateral paraspinals) did not differ between baseline and post-test measures. The findings suggest that early APA onset may enhance postural stability by permitting a longer duration APA which can counteract fatigue-induced decreases in the force-producing capability of muscles that contribute to postural stability.

  4. Age-related changes in posture control are differentially affected by postural and cognitive task complexity.

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    Bernard-Demanze, L; Dumitrescu, M; Jimeno, P; Borel, L; Lacour, M

    2009-07-01

    The simple postural task of quiet standing, which requires minimal attentional resources, is generally paired with cognitive activity. Competition for attentional resources is a consequence of simultaneously performing balance tasks and cognitive tasks, and impairment of attentional resource allocation with aging leads to increased risks of fall. We investigated age-related changes in posture control during dual task performance, using a paradigm that crossed a static (quiet standing) and a dynamic (keeping balance on a translational force plate) postural task and cognitive tasks of low demand (mental arithmetic) and high demand (spatial memory). Postural performance was analyzed through center-of-pressure displacements using both statistical (body sway area/sway velocity) and nonlinear (wavelet transform) methods in three age groups (younger, middle-aged, and older healthy participants). Results showed that 1) the nonlinear analysis method was more sensitive than the traditional approach in distinguishing performance between age groups, a result that explains discrepancies in the dual-task literature; 2) dual-tasking costs were dependent on both postural task difficulty and cognitive task complexity, corroborating previous investigations; 3) younger adults improved their postural performance during dual-tasking, but older adults lowered their performance; 4) balance recovery strategies in the dynamic postural task appeared to differ in younger versus older adults. Together, our findings on dual-tasking can be interpreted within the conceptual frame of task prioritization: shifting attention away from postural task automates posture control in the younger adults, whereas prioritization of postural task and selection of compensatory strategy are the main characteristics of posture control in the older population.

  5. Developmental changes in associations among timber wolf (Canis lupus) postures.

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    McLeod, P J

    1996-11-01

    I examined developmental changes in associations among components of timber wolf (Canis lupus) postural communication in two hand-reared pups between 15 and 85 days of age. The frequency with which select postural components co-occurred was scored from 180 randomly sampled frames of video records of these pups made during social interactions. I used this index of association as the basis for multidimensional scaling and cluster analyses. Relations among postural components became more structured with age. Two-dimensional models were found to account for associations among postures displayed at 69-85 and 32-67 days of age but not at 15-32 days of age. I interpret these orthogonal dimensions as continua of dominance to submission and seriousness to playfulness. These data suggest the intended messages contained in postural displays may depend on the specific combinations of components used.

  6. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

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    Peter G Tickle

    Full Text Available Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  7. Barnacle geese achieve significant energetic savings by changing posture.

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    Tickle, Peter G; Nudds, Robert L; Codd, Jonathan R

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy consumption of hindlimb postural muscles when sitting, we hypothesise that a change in breathing mechanics represents one potential mechanism for at least part of the observed difference in energetic cost. Due to the significant effect of posture, future studies of resting metabolic rates need to take into account and/or report differences in posture.

  8. Changes in Habitual and Active Sagittal Posture in Children and Adolescents with and without Visual Input – Implications for Diagnostic Analysis of Posture

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    Mazet, Carola; Mazet, Dirk; Hammes, Annette; Schmitt, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Poor posture in children and adolescents has a prevalence of 22-65% and is suggested to be responsible for back pain. To assess posture, photometric imaging of sagittal posture is widely used, but usually only habitual posture positions (resting position with minimal muscle activity) are analysed. Aim The objective of this study was 1) to investigate possible changes in posture-describing parameters in the sagittal plane, when the subjects changed from a habitual passive posture to an actively corrected posture, and 2) to investigate the changes in posture parameters when an actively corrected posture was to be maintained with closed eyes. Materials and Methods In a group of 216 male children and adolescents (average 12.4 ± 2.5 years, range 7.0 – 17.6 years), six sagittal posture parameters (body tilt BT, trunk incline TI, posture index PI, horizontal distances between ear, shoulder and hip and the perpendicular to the ankle joint) were determined by means of photometric imaging in an habitual passive posture position, in an actively erect posture with eyes open, and in active stance with eyes closed. The change in these parameters during the transition between the posture positions was analysed statistically (dependent t-Test or Wilcoxon-Test) after Bonferroni correction (pposture BT, TI, PI, dEar, dShoulder, and dHip decreased significantly(pposture positions. Conclusion Changes in sagittal posture parameters that occur when a habitual passive posture switches into an active posture or when an active posture is to be maintained while the eyes are closed can be used for diagnostic purposes regarding poor posture and posture regulation. PMID:27042547

  9. Analysis of musculoskeletal changes in patients with postural roundback

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    Débora Pinheiro Lédio Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and radiographic changes in patients with postural rounded upper back. METHODS: 30 patients diagnosed with postural rounded upper back were studied, being 22 male and eight female, aged between 10 and 20 years, referred by the outpatient clinic of the Grupo de Cirurgia da Coluna of the Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Patients underwent assessment of posture, special tests to check for muscle retractions and radiographic examination to measure the curvatures of spine using the Cobb method. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: It is concluded that in the postural roundback there is a moderate increase of the thoracic kyphosis; the lumbar and cervical curvatures do not increase as a compensatory mechanism; the head appears anteriorized and the shoulder is also anteriorized and medially rotated; muscle retractions are present in the hamstrings, hip flexors, pectoralis minor and adductors of the shoulder muscles; the mobility of the lumbar spine is preserved and there is no relationship between the magnitude of thoracic curvature and the retraction of the hamstring muscles.

  10. Catecholamine responses to changes in posture during human pregnancy.

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    Whittaker, P G; Gerrard, J; Lind, T

    1985-06-01

    Human pregnancy may induce changes in the sensitivity of the cardiovascular system to endogenous catecholamines. This was investigated in multigravid women with little likelihood of unsuspected vascular disease. The responses of blood pressure, pulse rate, plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline to a change in posture from semi-recumbency to standing were assessed in six normotensive women at 36 weeks gestation and in six non-pregnant control subjects. Standing for 10 min caused a surge in blood pressure, pulse rate and plasma noradrenaline in non-pregnant women. The pregnant women, whose basal levels of noradrenaline were higher than those in non-pregnant women, showed a slower noradrenergic response to postural change, and this response had less effect upon the cardiovascular indices. Blood pressure dropped immediately on standing and pulse rate remained unaffected throughout. It is suggested that some women may maintain a non-pregnant level of pressor sensitivity during pregnancy and thereby become hypertensive.

  11. Effect of dual tasking on postural responses to rapid lower limb movement while seated on an exercise ball.

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    Jones, P; Sorinola, I; Strutton, P H

    2014-06-01

    Postural adjustments are used by the central nervous system to pre-empt and correct perturbations in balance during voluntary body movements. Alteration in these responses is associated with a number of neuromuscular/musculoskeletal conditions. Attention has been identified as important in this system; performing a concurrent cognitive task has been suggested to reduce the efficacy of this postural control. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of concurrent cognitive tasking on anticipatory postural adjustments while sitting on an exercise ball with a view to help inform future rehabilitation programmes. Bilateral EMG activity was recorded from the external and internal obliques, rectus abdominis, erector spinae and the right rectus femoris of 20 healthy subjects (9 males) with mean (SD) age of 21.88 (0.86) years (range 21-24 years). A rapid hip flexion protocol was carried out under three conditions: no concurrent task, counting out loud up from one and completing a serial sevens task. The addition of the cognitive task delayed and reduced the EMG in the prime mover muscle but had little impact on the responses of the trunk muscles within the time frame of the anticipatory responses; suggestive of a decoupling of voluntary and postural control mechanisms. The results of this study suggest that perhaps the clinical effects of dual task may not be largely due to changes in anticipatory postural adjustments. However, it would be important to compare these results to those seen in older and functionally impaired individuals as this would be more representative of the typical population undertaking such rehabilitation programmes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanisms of inhibition of vasopressin release during moderate antiorthostatic posture change in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, B.; Gabrielsen, A.; Christensen, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the carotid baroreceptor stimulation caused by a posture change from upright seated with legs horizontal (Seat) to supine (Sup) participates in the suppression of arginine vasopressin (AVP) release. Ten healthy males underwent this posture change for 30 min without...... decreased from 0.9 +/- 0.2 to 0.5 +/- 0.1 pg/ml (P posture...

  13. Changes in postural activity of the trunk muscles following spinal manipulative therapy.

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    Ferreira, Manuela L; Ferreira, Paulo H; Hodges, Paul W

    2007-08-01

    Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is common in the management of low back pain (LBP) and has been associated with changes in muscle activity, but evidence is conflicting. This study investigated the effect of SMT on trunk muscle activity in postural tasks in people with and without LBP. In 20 subjects (10 with LBP and 10 controls), EMG recordings were made with fine-wire electrodes inserted into transversus (TrA), obliquus internus (OI), and externus (OE) abdominis. Rectus abdominis (RA) and anterior deltoid EMG was recorded with surface electrodes. Standing subjects rapidly flexed an arm in response to a light, before and after a small amplitude end range rotational lumbar mobilization at L4-5. In controls, there was no change in trunk muscle EMG during the postural perturbation after SMT. In LBP subjects there was an increase in the postural response of OI and an overall increase in OE EMG. There was no change in TrA or RA EMG. These results indicate that SMT changes the functional activity of trunk muscles in people with LBP, but has no effect on control subjects. Importantly, SMT increased the activity of the oblique abdominal muscles with no change in the deep trunk muscle TrA, which is often the target of exercise interventions.

  14. A New Standing Posture Detector to Enable People with Multiple Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation by Changing Their Standing Posture through a Commercial Wii Balance Board

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    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chiang, Ming-Shan

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture) and a Wii Balance Board with a newly developed standing posture detection program (i.e. a new software program turns a Wii Balance Board into a precise standing posture detector). The…

  15. A passerine spreads its tail to facilitate a rapid recovery of its body posture during hovering

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    Su, Jian-Yuan; Ting, Shang-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Hung; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that a passerine exploits tail spreading to intercept the downward flow induced by its wings to facilitate the recovery of its posture. The periodic spreading of its tail by the White-eye bird exhibits a phase correlation with both wingstroke motion and body oscillation during hovering flight. During a downstroke, a White-eye's body undergoes a remarkable pitch-down motion, with the tail undergoing an upward swing. This pitch-down motion becomes appropriately suppressed at the end of the downstroke; the bird's body posture then recovers gradually to its original status. Employing digital particle-image velocimetry, we show that the strong downward flow induced by downstroking the wings serves as an external jet flow impinging upon the tail, providing a depressing force on the tail to counteract the pitch-down motion of the bird's body. Spreading of the tail enhances a rapid recovery of the body posture because increased forces are experienced. The maximum force experienced by a spread tail is approximately 2.6 times that of a non-spread tail. PMID:22258552

  16. Evaluation of ergonomic postures of dental professions by Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA, in Birjand, Iran

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    Nasl Saraji J.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are major parts of the occupational diseases in workplaces. Protection from such diseases is dependent on assessment and improvement of job postures by using job analysis methods in ergonomics. Purpose: This study was aimed to evaluate ergonomic conditions in dental professions by rapid entire body assessment (REBA in Birjand city and also to assess the relation between MSDS in different parts of the body and work conditions. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytical approach performed on 48 persons working at different professions by using REBA method. The prevalence of MSDs was obtained by using Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ. The data were analyzed by independent t-test, Chi-square and Fisher tests with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: In this investigation, the prevalence of disorders for different parts of the body was as follows: 65% for neck, 60% for back, 38% for shoulders, and 31% for wrist. These disorders were higher in women than men except for the back. There were significant correlation between disorders of femur and foreleg with work history, ankle and sole with body mass index (BMI, and MSDs with work conditions (P<0.05. Conclusion: It is concluded that the work conditions and postures need to be improved. In addition the level of dental professional education regarding biomechanical hazardous effects as well as correct work conditions and postures should be increased.

  17. A passerine spreads its tail to facilitate a rapid recovery of its body posture during hovering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian-Yuan; Ting, Shang-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Hung; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2012-07-07

    We demonstrate experimentally that a passerine exploits tail spreading to intercept the downward flow induced by its wings to facilitate the recovery of its posture. The periodic spreading of its tail by the White-eye bird exhibits a phase correlation with both wingstroke motion and body oscillation during hovering flight. During a downstroke, a White-eye's body undergoes a remarkable pitch-down motion, with the tail undergoing an upward swing. This pitch-down motion becomes appropriately suppressed at the end of the downstroke; the bird's body posture then recovers gradually to its original status. Employing digital particle-image velocimetry, we show that the strong downward flow induced by downstroking the wings serves as an external jet flow impinging upon the tail, providing a depressing force on the tail to counteract the pitch-down motion of the bird's body. Spreading of the tail enhances a rapid recovery of the body posture because increased forces are experienced. The maximum force experienced by a spread tail is approximately 2.6 times that of a non-spread tail.

  18. A Study of Postural Loading in Malaysian Mining Industry using Rapid Entire Body Assessment

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    Norhidayah M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ergonomics and environment factors have been the core issue for the mining industry for many years, and its profiles are rising. To ensure an ergonomics work environment, it is possible to require specific attention especially in this industries sector. It is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the essential issue in Malaysia due to lack of ergonomics knowledge and low awareness among the engineers in the mining sector. The focus of this study is to evaluate and validate the physical risk factor associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSDs by using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA among mining industry workers. All the physical risk factors involved the main body regions such as upper arm, lower arm, wrist, trunk, neck and leg that has been identified associated with WMSDs. There were 18 subjects were selected to involve in this study. Those subjects were chosen according to their job task. To increase the reliability of the result, each subject was evaluated thrice in the trials. From the analysis, the average of final score of the REBA is 8.24 indicates high risk and calls for engineering/or work method changes to reduce or eliminate muscular disorder risk. The results of the analysis were used to improve the process of work, design of workstation and also improving the work posture to enhance the comfort level of operators. This study is crucial among the mining industry that is a lack of the information and research about the ergonomics issues in the industry. The overall finding indicated that the whole process of selected work task will contribute to musculoskeletal disorder either for a short or long time exposure.

  19. Responsiveness of a modified version of the postural assessment scale for stroke patients and longitudinal change in postural control after stroke- Postural Stroke Study in Gothenburg (POSTGOT -

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    Persson Carina U

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Responsiveness data certify that a change in a measurement output represents a real change, not a measurement error or biological variability. The objective was to evaluate the responsiveness of the modified version of the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (SwePASS in patients with a first event of stroke. An additional aim was to estimate the change in postural control during the first 12 months after stroke onset. Methods The SwePASS assessments were conducted during the first week and 3, 6 and 12 months after stroke in 90 patients. Svensson’s method, Relative Position (RP, Relative Concentration (RC and Relative Rank Variance (RV, were used to estimate the scale’s responsiveness and the patients’ change in postural control over time. Results From the first week to 3 months after stroke, the patients improved in terms of postural control with 2 to 12 times larger systematic changes in Relative Position (RP, for which 9 items and the total score showed a significant responsiveness to change when compared to the intrarater reliability measurement error of the SwePASS reported in a previous study. When SwePASS was used to assess change in postural control between the first week and 3 months, 74% of the patients received higher scores while 10% received lower scores, RP 0.31 (95% CI 0.219-0.402. The corresponding figures between 3 and 6 and between 6 and 12 months were 37% and 16%, RP 0.09 (95% CI 0.030-0.152, and 18% and 26%, RP −0.07 (95% CI −0.134- (−0.010, respectively. Conclusions The SwePASS is responsive to change. Postural control evaluated using the SwePASS showed an improvement during the first 6 months after stroke. The measurement property, in the form of responsiveness, shows that the SwePASS scoring method can be considered for use in rehabilitation when assessing postural control in patients after stroke, especially during the first 3 months.

  20. Longitudinal change in foot posture in children with cerebral palsy.

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    Church, C; Lennon, N; Alton, R; Schwartz, J; Niiler, T; Henley, J; Miller, F

    2017-06-01

    Foot deformities are common in children with cerebral palsy (CP), yet the evolution of such deformities is not well documented. We aimed to observe and analyse changes in foot posture during growth in children with CP. Methods We followed 51 children (16 unilateral, 35 bilateral; 37 Gross Motor Function Classification Scale (GMFCS) I/II, 14 III/IV) aged two to 12 years in this level II, IRB-approved prospective longitudinal study. Data after bony foot corrections were excluded. Outcome measures included coronal plane pressure index (CPPI) and pressure impulses from the heel, medial midfoot and medial forefoot. Data were LOESS smoothed and resulting models were compared for significant differences across time using a derived FANOVA method. The GMFCS I/II group had more foot valgus than typically developing (TD) children until seven years which normalised thereafter. From two to 12 years, GMFCS III/IV children had more foot valgus than TD children. Heel impulse was significantly reduced in both GMFCS groups compared with TD children, and the III/IV group had less heel contact than the I/II group. Due to early variability and the tendency for resolving valgus foot posture in children with CP, conservative management of coronal plane foot deformity is suggested in early childhood, especially for children classified as GMFCS I and II.

  1. Mechanisms of inhibition of vasopressin release during moderate antiorthostatic posture change in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pump, B; Gabrielsen, A; Christensen, N J

    1999-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the carotid baroreceptor stimulation caused by a posture change from upright seated with legs horizontal (Seat) to supine (Sup) participates in the suppression of arginine vasopressin (AVP) release. Ten healthy males underwent this posture change for 30 min without ...

  2. The behavior of evoked otoacoustic emissions during and after postural changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kleine, E; Wit, HP; Avan, P; van Dijk, P

    Click-evoked and stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs and SFOAEs, respectively) were studied in humans during and after postural changes. The subjects were tilted from upright to a recumbent position (head down 30 deg) and upright again. Due to the downward posture change, CEOAEs showed

  3. Fast increase of motor cortical inhibition following postural changes in healthy subjects.

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    Oliveri, Massimiliano; Caltagirone, Carlo; Loriga, Rita; Pompa, Maria Novella; Versace, Viviana; Souchard, Philippe

    2012-11-14

    Postural reactions are associated with changes in the excitability of the motor system. In the present study we investigated the presence of neurophysiological changes of motor cortical areas targeting muscles of the inferior limbs following treatment with a physiotherapy technique aimed to treat postural dysfunctions by stretching postural muscles, global postural reeducation (GPR). Twenty healthy subjects were evaluated with paired-transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the motor cortex and recording of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from peripheral muscles of the inferior limb before and after two GPR manoeuvres applied in different experiments (1 and 2). The effects of GPR were posture- and task-specific: indeed, a GPR manoeuvre applied in standing subjects increased inhibition in cortical areas controlling flexor muscles (Biceps Femoris: ppostural changes on motor cortical disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Barnacle Geese Achieve Significant Energetic Savings by Changing Posture

    OpenAIRE

    Tickle, Peter G.; Robert L Nudds; Codd, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the resting metabolic rate in barnacle geese (Branta leucopsis) and provide evidence for the significant energetic effect of posture. Under laboratory conditions flow-through respirometry together with synchronous recording of behaviour enabled a calculation of how metabolic rate varies with posture. Our principal finding is that standing bipedally incurs a 25% increase in metabolic rate compared to birds sitting on the ground. In addition to the expected decrease in energy con...

  5. The influence of physiological changes on the posture during pregnancy and possible rational solutions for kinesiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    BLAŽKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Author: Zuzana Blažková Institution: Rehab clinic LF UK in Hradec Králové Topic of bachelor's thesis: The influence of physiological changes on the posture during pregnancy and potentional rational solutions for kinesiotherapy Supervisor: Mgr. Michaela Němečková Number of pages: 101 Year of vindication 2012 Key words: pregnancy, physiological changes, posture, deep stabilisation spinal system, kinesiotherapy This bachelor's thesis is focused on physiological changes that could occur during pr...

  6. Changes in Postural Sway After a Single Global Postural Reeducation Session in University Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Lozano-Quijada, Carlos; Poveda-Pagán, Emilio J; Segura-Heras, José V; Hernández-Sánchez, Sergio; Prieto-Castelló, María J

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a single session of global postural reeducation (GPR) in postural sway in young adult university students who use data visualization screens. A randomized controlled trial with 2 parallel groups was performed. Sixty-four subjects were randomized in the experimental group (12 men and 20 women) who underwent the GPR session, and a control group (13 men and 19 women) that did not receive any intervention was included. Center of pressure (COP) was assessed using a stabilometric platform, with eyes open and eyes closed before, immediately after, 48 hours after, and 7 days after intervention in both groups. In the interaction of time and gender, statistically significant differences were found for the area covered by COP (P = .020) and for the standard deviation (SD) in the mediolateral axis (P = .035). Considering the complete interaction time, gender, and group, statistically significant differences were found (P = .015) for the anteroposterior rate covered by COP and the SD in the anteroposterior axis (P = .033). In eyes closed condition, the intersubject analysis showed statistically significant differences for the interaction between group and gender for the variable mediolateral SD (P = .043). Considering the interaction of time with group, statistically significant differences were found for full length covered by COP (P = .017). Changes in postural sway were observed after a single GPR session, mainly at 48 hours, with different behaviors between men and women. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Postural changes and pain in the academic performance of elementary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Sampaio, Maria Homéria Leite de Morais; Oliveira,Lucia Conde de; Pinto, Francisco José Maia; Muniz, Maria Zuleide Amorim; Gomes,Regina Cláudia Tabosa Ferreira; Coelho, Geni Rodrigues Loiola

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postural changes and pain in the spine of children and adolescents of school age are influenced by the permanent incorrect sitting position, misuse of furniture and weight of the backpack. The aim of this study was to verify postural changes and pain in the academic performance of elementary school students. It was a cross-sectional study, with a descriptive and analytical approach. The subjects were 83 elementary students, aged 8 to 12 years, of Kindergarten and Elementary Education...

  8. Obstructive sleep apnoea in adults: body postures and weight changes interactions.

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    Oksenberg, Arie; Dynia, Aida; Nasser, Khitam; Gadoth, Natan

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the relationship between changes of body posture dominance and changes of body weight overtime in adults with obstructive sleep apnoea. The participants were 112 non-treated adults with obstructive sleep apnoea who underwent two polysomnographic evaluations at our Sleep Disorders Unit during an average of 6.2years interval. Positional patients - having most of their breathing abnormalities in the supine posture and who became non-positional patients - had a significant gain in weight and a significant increase in apnoea-hypopnoea index, mainly in lateral apnoea-hypopnoea index. On the contrary, non-positional patients who became positional patients had a significant decrease in weight (but less than the increase in weight of positional patients who became non-positional patients) and showed a significant improvement in apnoea-hypopnoea index, again mainly in lateral apnoea-hypopnoea index. These non-positional patients who became positional patients initially had a less severe disease, as judged by apnoea-hypopnoea index, lateral apnoea-hypopnoea index and minimum SaO(2) during non-rapid eye movement sleep, and were less obese than non-positional patients who remained non-positional patients. The later were the patients who showed initially the worst disease and were more obese than the rest of the patients, and their condition did not change significantly over time. Non-positional patients who converted to positional patients showed a decrease in body weight and improvement of obstructive sleep apnoea, while positional patients who converted to non-positional patients showed an increase in body weight and worsening of obstructive sleep apnoea. It appears that weight changes have a modulatory effect on positional dominance, and lateral apnoea-hypopnoea index appears to be a sensitive parameter of these changes. © 2011 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Risk factors associated with structural postural changes in the spinal column of children and adolescents

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    Juliana Adami Sedrez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between behavioral risk factors, specifically postural habits, with the presence of structural changes in the spinal column of children and adolescents. METHODS: 59 students were evaluated through the self-reporting Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument and spinal panoramic radiographic examination. Spine curvatures were classified based on Cobb angles, as normal or altered in the saggital plane and as normal or scoliotic in the frontal plane. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0, based on descriptive statistics and chi-square association test (a=0,05. RESULTS: The prevalence of postural changes was 79.7% (n=47, of which 47.5% (n=28 showed frontal plane changes and 61% (n=36 sagital plane changes. Significant association was found between the presence of thoracic kyphosis and female gender, practice of physical exercises only once or twice a week, sleep time greater than 10 hours, inadequate postures when sitting on a seat and sitting down to write, and how school supplies are carried. Lumbar lordosis was associated with the inadequate way of carrying the school backpack (asymmetric; and scoliosis was associated wuth the practice of competitive sports and sleep time greater than 10 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle may be associated with postural changes. It is important to develop health policies in order to reduce the prevalence of postural changes, by decreasing the associated risk factors.

  10. The role of neuromuscular changes in aging and knee osteoarthritis on dynamic postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Judit; Carpenter, Mark G; Garland, S Jayne; Hunt, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint condition, with 30% of those over the age of 75 exhibiting severe radiographic disease. Nearly 50% of those with knee OA have experienced a fall in the past year. Falls are a considerable public health concern, with a high risk of serious injury and a significant socioeconomic impact. The ability to defend against a fall relies on adequate dynamic postural control, and alterations in dynamic postural control are seen with normal aging. Neuromuscular changes associated with aging may be responsible for some of these alterations in dynamic postural control. Even greater neuromuscular deficits, which may impact dynamic postural control and the ability to defend against a fall, are seen in people with knee OA. There is little evidence to date on how knee OA affects the ability to respond to and defend against falls and the neuromuscular changes that contribute to balance deficits. As a result, this review will: summarize the key characteristics of postural responses to an external perturbation, highlight the changes in dynamic postural control seen with normal aging, review the neuromuscular changes associated with aging that have known and possible effects on dynamic postural control, and summarize the neuromuscular changes and balance problems in knee OA. Future research to better understand the role of neuromuscular changes in knee OA and their effect on dynamic postural control will be suggested. Such an understanding is critical to the successful creation and implementation of fall prevention and treatment programs, in order to reduce the excessive risk of falling in knee OA.

  11. Changes in gait and posture as factors of dynamic stability during walking in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krkeljas, Zarko

    2017-12-15

    Changes in gait and postural control during pregnancy may lead to increased fall rates during walking relative to non-pregnant women. Due to lack of empirical evidence on balance and postural control in dynamic conditions, the primary aim of this study was investigate the changes in gait and postural control as factors of stability during walking. Gait and posture of thirty-five (35) pregnant women (27 ± 6.1 years) were analysed at self-selected walking speed, and at different stage of pregnancy. The results indicate that although the gait kinematics did not differ between the trimesters, significant associations were noted between the step width, the lateral trunk lean, and the medio-lateral deviations in centre of gravity and centre of pressure. In contrast to the static conditions, anterior-posterior postural sway is not present during walking, whereas the lateral trunk lean is the primary factor women use in pregnancy to keep the centre of gravity closer to the base of support. Postural changes and those in gait kinematics were largely affected by the relative mass gain, rather than the absolute mass. Considering the importance of relative mass gain, more attention during healthy pregnancy should be given to monitoring the timing of onset of musculoskeletal changes, and design of antenatal exercise programs targeting core strength and pelvic stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Personality traits and individual differences predict threat-induced changes in postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaback, Martin; Cleworth, Taylor W; Carpenter, Mark G; Adkin, Allan L

    2015-04-01

    This study explored whether specific personality traits and individual differences could predict changes in postural control when presented with a height-induced postural threat. Eighty-two healthy young adults completed questionnaires to assess trait anxiety, trait movement reinvestment (conscious motor processing, movement self-consciousness), physical risk-taking, and previous experience with height-related activities. Tests of static (quiet standing) and anticipatory (rise to toes) postural control were completed under low and high postural threat conditions. Personality traits and individual differences significantly predicted height-induced changes in static, but not anticipatory postural control. Individuals less prone to taking physical risks were more likely to lean further away from the platform edge and sway at higher frequencies and smaller amplitudes. Individuals more prone to conscious motor processing were more likely to lean further away from the platform edge and sway at larger amplitudes. Individuals more self-conscious about their movement appearance were more likely to sway at smaller amplitudes. Evidence is also provided that relationships between physical risk-taking and changes in static postural control are mediated through changes in fear of falling and physiological arousal. Results from this study may have indirect implications for balance assessment and treatment; however, further work exploring these factors in patient populations is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptive Changes In Postural Equilibrium And Motion Sickness Following Repeated Exposures To Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, D. L.; Taylor, L. C.

    2006-01-01

    Virtual environments offer unique training opportunities, particularly for training astronauts and preadapting them to the novel sensory conditions of microgravity. Two unresolved human factors issues in virtual reality (VR) systems are: 1) potential "cybersickness", and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor performance following exposure to VR systems. Interestingly, these aftereffects are often quite similar to adaptive sensorimotor responses observed in astronauts during and/or following space flight. Changes in the environmental sensory stimulus conditions and the way we interact with the new stimuli may result in motion sickness, and perceptual, spatial orientation and sensorimotor disturbances. Initial interpretation of novel sensory information may be inappropriate and result in perceptual errors. Active exploratory behavior in a new environment, with resulting feedback and the formation of new associations between sensory inputs and response outputs, promotes appropriate perception and motor control in the new environment. Thus, people adapt to consistent, sustained alterations of sensory input such as those produced by microgravity, unilateral labyrinthectomy and experimentally produced stimulus rearrangements. Adaptation is revealed by aftereffects including perceptual disturbances and sensorimotor control disturbances. The purpose of the current study was to compare disturbances in postural control produced by dome and head-mounted virtual environment displays, and to examine the effects of exposure duration, and repeated exposures to VR systems. Forty-one subjects (21 men, 20 women) participated in the study with an age range of 21-49 years old. One training session was completed in order to achieve stable performance on the posture and VR tasks before participating in the experimental sessions. Three experimental sessions were performed each separated by one day. The subjects performed a navigation and pick and place task in either a dome or head-mounted display

  14. Changes in Postural Syntax Characterize Sensory Modulation and Natural Variation of C. elegans Locomotion.

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    Roland F Schwarz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Locomotion is driven by shape changes coordinated by the nervous system through time; thus, enumerating an animal's complete repertoire of shape transitions would provide a basis for a comprehensive understanding of locomotor behaviour. Here we introduce a discrete representation of behaviour in the nematode C. elegans. At each point in time, the worm's posture is approximated by its closest matching template from a set of 90 postures and locomotion is represented as sequences of postures. The frequency distribution of postural sequences is heavy-tailed with a core of frequent behaviours and a much larger set of rarely used behaviours. Responses to optogenetic and environmental stimuli can be quantified as changes in postural syntax: worms show different preferences for different sequences of postures drawn from the same set of templates. A discrete representation of behaviour will enable the use of methods developed for other kinds of discrete data in bioinformatics and language processing to be harnessed for the study of behaviour.

  15. Attentional biases using the body in the crowd task: are angry body postures detected more rapidly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Tracy; Martin, Rachael; Coulson, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Research using schematic faces has consistently demonstrated attentional biases towards threatening information (angry faces), which are accentuated for individuals with higher levels of anxiety. However, research has yet to reveal whether this is the case for other nonverbal channels of communication. In the research reported here, ninety-five undergraduates completed a body in the crowd task analogous to the face in the crowd task, to examine whether attentional biases for threat existed for schematic body postures. Participants demonstrated faster detection of threat. A discrepant angry posture in a neutral crowd was identified quicker than a discrepant happy posture in a neutral crowd. This effect was pronounced for individuals with higher self-reported levels of trait anxiety. Results also demonstrated evidence of delayed disengagement from threat. Individuals were slower (i.e., more distracted) by identical crowds of angry postures rather than happy or neutral crowds and were slower to detect a discrepant neutral posture among an angry crowd than neutral among a happy crowd. These findings are the first to establish threat biases using body postures in a visual search paradigm. The results are in accordance with previous research using schematic face stimuli. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  16. Kinesiology taping does not change fibularis longus latency time and postural sway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Christophe; Lopes, Susana; Gonçalves, Rafael; Torres, Rui; Pinho, Francisco; Gonçalves, Pedro; Rodrigues, Mário; Costa, Rui; Lopes, Mário; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Kinesiology tape seems to improve muscle force, although little is known regarding its effect on latency time and postural sway. To examine the effects of kinesiology taping on fibularis longus latency time and postural sway in healthy subjects. Thirty participants were equally randomized into three groups, two experimental groups receiving kinesiology tape (EG1, from origin to insertion; EG2, from insertion to origin) and a control group. Before and 20-min after the intervention, postural sway was assessed on a force platform and fibularis longus latency time was recorded with surface electromyography during a sudden inversion perturbation. At baseline, no differences were found between groups regarding age, anthropometrics variables, postural sway and fibularis longus latency time. In both experimental groups, the application of tape did not change postural sway and fibularis longus latency time (EG1: 93.7 ± 15.0 to 89.9 ± 15.6 ms; EG2, 81.24 ± 14.21 to 81.57 ± 16.64, p Kinesiology tape seems not to enhance fibularis longus reaction time and postural sway in young healthy subjects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Risk factors associated with structural postural changes in the spinal column of children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedrez, Juliana Adami; da Rosa, Maria Izabel Zaniratti; Noll, Matias; Medeiros, Fernanda da Silva; Candotti, Claudia Tarragô

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between behavioral risk factors, specifically postural habits, with the presence of structural changes in the spine of children and adolescents. 59 students were evaluated through the self-reporting Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument e and the spine panoramic radiographic examination. The spine curvatures were classified, based on Cobb' angle, as normal or altered in the saggital plane and as normal or scoliotic in the frontal plane. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0, from descriptive statistics and chi-square association test (α=0,05). The prevalence of postural alterations was 79.7% (n=47), of which 47.5% (n=28) showed frontal plane alterations and 61% (n=36) sagital plane alterations. Significant association was found between the presence of thoracic kyphosis and female gender, practice of physical exercise only once or twice a week, sleep time greater than 10 hours, inappropriate postures to sit on the bench and sit down to write, and transport of school supplies. Lumbar lordosis was associated with improperly transportation of school backpack (asymmetric); and scoliosis was associated with the practice of competitive sport and sleep time greater than 10 hours. Lifestyle may be associated with postural alterations. It is important to develop health policies in order to reduce the prevalence of postural alterations with a reduction of associated risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Postural changes and pain in the academic performance of elementary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Homéria Leite de Morais Sampaio

    Full Text Available Abstract Postural changes and pain in the spine of children and adolescents of school age are influenced by the permanent incorrect sitting position, misuse of furniture and weight of the backpack. The aim of this study was to verify postural changes and pain in the academic performance of elementary school students. It was a cross-sectional study, with a descriptive and analytical approach. The subjects were 83 elementary students, aged 8 to 12 years, of Kindergarten and Elementary Education at Paulo Sarasate Municipal School, Ceará. It was performed from March to June 2008. In the physical examination it was used an evaluation form, based on Global Postural reeducation, by Souchard method, which included the variables: compromised anterior, posterior, superior shoulder muscle chains and pain and, in academic performance, a semi-structured questionnaire with the variables: behavior, attendance and performance. The data was stored in the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS version 18.0. In the descriptive analysis, absolute and relative frequencies were used, and in the inferential analysis, the following tests were applied: Mann-Whitney, to verify the existence of significant differences in changes in groups A and B, at a significance level of 5%, and the F statistical test, for comparing postural changes and pain, in the three grades. Results: it was noted that the majority of the students presented postural changes, such as forward head, lifted shoulders, dorsal hyperkyphosis and pain, which predominantly occurred in the anterior chain, when compared with the posterior and superior chains. These changes in both groups were statistically significant only in subjects of the fifth grade with satisfactory academic performance and behavior. It was concluded that there was no association between postural changes and school performance, although it was influenced by pain.

  19. Aldosterone-producing adenoma--variable serum aldosterone response to postural change: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S P; Lin, H D; Chen, M T; Wang, G G; Ching, K N; Chiang, B N

    1991-11-01

    A 25-year-old female was admitted for evaluation of hypertension and hypokalemia. Plasma renin activity was suppressed and plasma aldosterone level was higher than normal. The CT scan of adrenal gland revealed a 2.5cm in size low density tumor mass over right adrenal area, and NP-59 adrenal scan showed early and persistent uptake of radioactivity in the right adrenal gland. Interestingly, the plasma aldosterone level was elevated, decreased and unchanged to postural change on three different occasions. After right adrenalectomy, the plasma aldosterone level decreased to 4.77ng/dl, blood pressure, serum potassium, and plasma aldosterone returned to normal response to postural change. Histologically, it was compatible with the picture of cortical adenoma. However, the tumor cell may not have reached autonomous function yet, since different responses of plasma aldosterone to postural change were observed clinically.

  20. Evaluation of the autonomic neuropathy function immediately after a change to upright posture using the impulse response function; Impulse oto kansu wo mochiita shisei henkan katoki ni okeru jiritsu shinkei kino hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, K. [Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Moyoshi, M.; Takata, K. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Watanabe, Y. [Toyota College of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1997-05-20

    Autonomic neuropathy function immediately after a change to upright posture has been evaluated by applying transient response function of the system to the blood regulation system. The impulse response function was determined from the change in heart rate before postural change to the upright posture, and was compared with the transient change immediately after a change to the upright posture. The time series of R-R interval of electrocardiogram was used as the time series of the change in heart rate. To determine the impulse response function, an autoregressive model was applied to the R-R interval time series. The impulse response function at the steady state is a transient reaction at the impulse stimulation added to the blood regulation system. The R-R interval decreases rapidly by the autonomic neuropathy reaction in which the blood is rapidly transferred into the legs immediately after a change to upright posture. There is a close correlation between the initial temporary decrease in R-R interval and the impulse response function derived from the change in heart rate immediately after a change to the upright posture. Accordingly, the blood regulation and autonomic neuropathy functions can be evaluated by the impulse response function without actual standing test and load of tested persons. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Decrease Heart Rate Variability But Preserve Postural Blood Pressure Change in Type 2 Diabetes with Microalbuminuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harn-Shen Chen

    2006-06-01

    Conclusion: Type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria have diminished heart rate variability in response to deep breathing, change of position and the Valsalva maneuver, but they preserve BP response to postural change. Therefore, microalbuminuria seems to be associated with early DAN, but not with advanced DAN.

  2. Stoma-Closure-Induced Fulminant Pseudomembranous Colitis Recovered by Adjunctive Intracolic Vancomycin with Postural Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yozo; Takahashi, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Nakano, Daisuke; Koizumi, Koichi

    2010-05-12

    A 67-year-old man with a history of low anterior resection and diverting loop transverse colostomy for rectal carcinoma developed fulminant pseudomembranous colitis after stoma closure. Oral administration of vancomycin at 0.5 g every 6 h and colonoscopy with intracolic vancomycin administration was unsuccessful, but continuation of intracolic vancomycin with postural change resulted in dramatic recovery. Postural change may extend the efficacy of intracolic vancomycin, and intracolic vancomycin should be considered as an option between conventional therapy and surgical intervention for pseudomembranous colitis.

  3. Stoma-Closure-Induced Fulminant Pseudomembranous Colitis Recovered by Adjunctive Intracolic Vancomycin with Postural Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yozo Suzuki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man with a history of low anterior resection and diverting loop transverse colostomy for rectal carcinoma developed fulminant pseudomembranous colitis after stoma closure. Oral administration of vancomycin at 0.5 g every 6 h and colonoscopy with intracolic vancomycin administration was unsuccessful, but continuation of intracolic vancomycin with postural change resulted in dramatic recovery. Postural change may extend the efficacy of intracolic vancomycin, and intracolic vancomycin should be considered as an option between conventional therapy and surgical intervention for pseudomembranous colitis.

  4. Age-related changes in postural control to the demands of a precision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ting-Ting; Cinelli, Michael E; Lyons, James L; Lee, Timothy D

    2015-12-01

    Optimal sensorimotor integration is needed to maintain the precision of a visuomotor postural task. Furthermore, cognitive resources have been suggested to be involved in maintaining balance, especially in older adults. This study investigated how older and younger adults differed in employing sensorimotor strategies in a dual-task situation. Older (age 65-84 years) and younger adults (age 19-30 years) performed a visually-based, postural tracking task in different body orientations (from 0° to 45°), which necessitated slightly different task goals. On some trials, participants performed a concurrent silent arithmetic task with the visuomotor tracking task. The results demonstrated that sensorimotor control declined with age. Older adults showed greater medial-lateral center of pressure variability compared to younger adults in the precision task. Younger adults displayed a trend to decrease anterior-posterior variability, but older adults exhibited an opposite trend when the body orientation changed from 0° to 45°. The addition of a dual-task situation decreased overall postural variability in both age groups. Age-related changes in postural control may degrade the flexible coordination of the sensory feedback and motor execution. This study suggested that medial-lateral stability may be more sensitive to this age-related decline and may be closely associated with postural instability and falls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Postural stability changes during the prism adaptation test in patients with intermittent and constant exotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Toshihiko; Yabuki, Akiko; Hasebe, Kayoko; Shira, Yoshie Hirai; Imai, Sayuri; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi

    2010-12-01

    Computerized static stabilometry is a clinical test in neurologic and muscular diseases to assess postural stability or body sway in a quantitative manner. The purpose of this study was to examine whether postural stability would change in the process of the prism adaptation test in patients with intermittent and constant exotropia. Postural stability was measured before the prism adaptation test and immediately, 15 minutes, and 60 minutes after the prism adaptation test by computerized static stabilometry in 17 consecutive adult patients with exotropia, including 10 patients with intermittent exotropia and seven with constant exotropia. Stabilometric parameters were compared between patients with intermittent and those with constant exotropia for 60 minutes by repeated-measures analysis of variance as statistical analysis. The Romberg quotients for the root mean square areas of the sway path (cm(2)), the area in the condition of the patients' eyes open, divided by that in the condition of the patients' eyes closed, increased significantly in the time course of the prism adaptation test and returned to the pretest level in patients with intermittent exotropia and in patients with constant exotropia (P = 0.0173). No significant difference in the Romberg quotients was noted between the patients with intermittent exotropia and those with constant exotropia. Postural instability became more pronounced by the prism adaptation test in the patients with exotropia. Binocular visual and motor perceptional changes induced by the prism adaptation test could lead to postural instability, with adaptation taking place 60 minutes after the start of the test.

  6. Postural Heart Rate Changes in Young Patients With Vasovagal Syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medow, Marvin S; Merchant, Sana; Suggs, Melissa; Terilli, Courtney; O'Donnell-Smith, Breige; Stewart, Julian M

    2017-04-01

    Recurrent postural vasovagal syncope (VVS) is caused by transient cerebral hypoperfusion from episodic hypotension and bradycardia; diagnosis is made by medical history. VVS contrasts with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS), defined by chronic daily symptoms of orthostatic intolerance with excessive upright tachycardia without hypotension. POTS has recently been conflated with VVS when excessive tachycardia is succeeded by hypotension during tilt testing. We hypothesize that excessive tachycardia preceding hypotension and bradycardia is part of the vasovagal response during tilt testing of patients with VVS. We prospectively performed head-up tilt (HUT) testing on patients with recurrent VVS (n = 47, 17.9 ± 1.1 y), who fainted at least 3 times within the last year, and control subjects (n = 15, 17.1 ± 1.0 y), from age and BMI-matched volunteers and measured blood pressure, heart rate (HR), cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and end tidal carbon dioxide. Baseline parameters were the same in both groups. HR (supine versus 5 and 10 minutes HUT) significantly increased in control (65 ± 2.6 vs 83 ± 3.6 vs 85 ± 3.7, P < .001) and patients with VVS (69 ± 1.6 vs 103 ± 2.3 vs 109 ± 2.4, P < .001). HUT in controls maximally increased HR by 20.3 ± 2.9 beats per minute; the increase in patients with VVS of 39.8 ± 2.1 beats per minute was significantly greater (P < .001). An increase in HR of ≥40 beats per minute by 5 and 10 minutes or before faint with HUT, occurred in 26% and 44% of patients with VVS, respectively, but not in controls. Orthostasis in VVS is accompanied by large increases in HR that should not be construed as POTS. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Body posture changes in women with migraine with or without temporomandibular disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mariana C.; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Dach, Fabíola É.; Speciali, José G.; Gonçalves, Maria C.; Chaves, Thais C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Migraine and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are reported to be associated. However, there are no reports on the association among migraines, TMDs and changes in body posture. Objectives To assess changes in body posture in women suffering migraines with or without TMD compared with a control group. Method Sixty-six women with a mean age of 18 to 45 years participated in this study. The groups were composed of 22 volunteers with migraine and TMD (MTMD), 22 volunteers with migraines without TMD (MG) and 22 women in the control group (CG). Static posture was assessed by photogrammetry, and 19 angles were measured. Results Postural asymmetry was observed in the face for 4 angles measured on the frontal plane in the MG group and for 4 angles of the trunk in the MG and MTMD groups with respect to CG. However, for comparisons between MTMD and CG, clinical relevance was identified for two angles of the sagittal plane (Cervical and Lumbar Lordosis, Effect Size - ES - moderate: 0.53 and 0.60). For comparisons between the MG and CG, the clinical relevance/potential was verified for three angles with moderate ES (ES>0.42). The clinical relevance when comparing MTMD and CG was identified for four angles of facial symmetry head inclination (ES>0.54) and for two angles between MG and CG (ES>0.48). Conclusion The results demonstrated the presence of postural changes compared with a control group in women with migraines with or without TMD, and there were similar clinically relevant postural changes among the patients with migraines with and without TMD. PMID:24675909

  8. Body posture changes in women with migraine with or without temporomandibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana C. Ferreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs are reported to be associated. However, there are no reports on the association among migraines, TMDs and changes in body posture. Objectives : To assess changes in body posture in women suffering migraines with or without TMD compared with a control group. Method: Sixty-six women with a mean age of 18 to 45 years participated in this study. The groups were composed of 22 volunteers with migraine and TMD (MTMD, 22 volunteers with migraines without TMD (MG and 22 women in the control group (CG. Static posture was assessed by photogrammetry, and 19 angles were measured. Results: Postural asymmetry was observed in the face for 4 angles measured on the frontal plane in the MG group and for 4 angles of the trunk in the MG and MTMD groups with respect to CG. However, for comparisons between MTMD and CG, clinical relevance was identified for two angles of the sagittal plane (Cervical and Lumbar Lordosis, Effect Size - ES - moderate: 0.53 and 0.60. For comparisons between the MG and CG, the clinical relevance/potential was verified for three angles with moderate ES (ES>0.42. The clinical relevance when comparing MTMD and CG was identified for four angles of facial symmetry head inclination (ES>0.54 and for two angles between MG and CG (ES>0.48. Conclusion : The results demonstrated the presence of postural changes compared with a control group in women with migraines with or without TMD, and there were similar clinically relevant postural changes among the patients with migraines with and without TMD.

  9. Body posture changes in women with migraine with or without temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mariana C; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Dach, Fabíola E; Speciali, José G; Gonçalves, Maria C; Chaves, Thais C

    2014-01-01

    Migraine and temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are reported to be associated. However, there are no reports on the association among migraines, TMDs and changes in body posture. To assess changes in body posture in women suffering migraines with or without TMD compared with a control group. Sixty-six women with a mean age of 18 to 45 years participated in this study. The groups were composed of 22 volunteers with migraine and TMD (MTMD), 22 volunteers with migraines without TMD (MG) and 22 women in the control group (CG). Static posture was assessed by photogrammetry, and 19 angles were measured. Postural asymmetry was observed in the face for 4 angles measured on the frontal plane in the MG group and for 4 angles of the trunk in the MG and MTMD groups with respect to CG. However, for comparisons between MTMD and CG, clinical relevance was identified for two angles of the sagittal plane (Cervical and Lumbar Lordosis, Effect Size - ES - moderate: 0.53 and 0.60). For comparisons between the MG and CG, the clinical relevance/potential was verified for three angles with moderate ES (ES>0.42). The clinical relevance when comparing MTMD and CG was identified for four angles of facial symmetry head inclination (ES>0.54) and for two angles between MG and CG (ES>0.48). The results demonstrated the presence of postural changes compared with a control group in women with migraines with or without TMD, and there were similar clinically relevant postural changes among the patients with migraines with and without TMD.

  10. Age-related changes in dynamic postural control and attentional demands are minimally affected by local muscle fatigue.

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony eRemaud; Cecile eThuong-Cong; Martin eBilodeau

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging results in alterations in the visual, vestibular and somtaosensory systems, which in turn modify the control of balance. Muscle fatigue may exacerbate these age-related changes in sensory and motor functions, and also increase the attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on dynamic postural control and posture-related attentional demands before and after a plantar flexor fatigue protocol. Partic...

  11. Age-Related Changes in Dynamic Postural Control and Attentional Demands are Minimally Affected by Local Muscle Fatigue

    OpenAIRE

    Remaud, Anthony; Thuong-Cong, Cécile; Bilodeau, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging results in alterations in the visual, vestibular and somtaosensory systems, which in turn modify the control of balance. Muscle fatigue may exacerbate these age-related changes in sensory and motor functions, and also increase the attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on dynamic postural control and posture-related attentional demands before and after a plantar flexor fatigue protocol. Partic...

  12. Arm posture-dependent changes in corticospinal excitability are largely spinal in origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, James L.; Trajano, Gabriel S.; Barry, Benjamin K.; Gandevia, Simon C.

    2016-01-01

    Biceps brachii motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from cortical stimulation are influenced by arm posture. We used subcortical stimulation of corticospinal axons to determine whether this postural effect is spinal in origin. While seated at rest, 12 subjects assumed several static arm postures, which varied in upper-arm (shoulder flexed, shoulder abducted, arm hanging to side) and forearm orientation (pronated, neutral, supinated). Transcranial magnetic stimulation over the contralateral motor cortex elicited MEPs in resting biceps and triceps brachii, and electrical stimulation of corticospinal tract axons at the cervicomedullary junction elicited cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials (CMEPs). MEPs and CMEPs were normalized to the maximal compound muscle action potential (Mmax). Responses in biceps were influenced by upper-arm and forearm orientation. For upper-arm orientation, biceps CMEPs were 68% smaller (P = 0.001), and biceps MEPs 31% smaller (P = 0.012), with the arm hanging to the side compared with when the shoulder was flexed. For forearm orientation, both biceps CMEPs and MEPs were 34% smaller (both P posture. The novel finding is that arm posture-dependent changes in corticospinal excitability in humans are largely spinal in origin. An interplay of multiple reflex inputs to motoneurons likely explains the results. PMID:26864764

  13. Structural changes in postural sway lend insight into effects of balance training, vision, and support surface on postural control in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Adam J; Haworth, Joshua; Hieronymus, Mathias; Walsh, Mark; Smart, L James

    2011-07-01

    Postural sway was assessed [via center of pressure (COP) 95% elliptical area (EA), path length (PL), normalized path length (PL(n)) and sample entropy (SEn)] in four conditions of bipedal upright stance [compliant (Foam) vs. non-compliant (Hard) with eyes-open (EO) vs. eyes-closed (EC)] prior to, and immediately following, a six-week balance training intervention in a group of healthy adults (N = 26). The intervention was comprised of nine exercises progressed in difficulty based on the subjective assessments of individual competency. Results showed that EA and PL were increased, while PL(n) and SEn were decreased, in EC and Foam stance conditions (collapsed across effects of balance training). Interpretations were that restricted vision and a compliant surface represented constraints to postural control that caused increases in the amount (PL) and area (EA) of sway, but decreases in its coordinative twisting/turning (PL(n)) and temporal complexity (SEn). It was argued that these changes might represent compensatory adaptations in effort to maintain postural control given the demands of the imposed constraints. Balance training caused no change to EA, but did result in decreased PL, PL(n), and SEn for stance conditions performed on the Foam (either EO or EC). These changes were interpreted to reflect improved postural control, potentially through the learned adoption of a more deterministic postural control strategy that is uniquely defined by the constraints imposed on upright stance by the compliant surface.

  14. The behavior of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions during and after postural changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kleine, E; Wit, HP; van Dijk, P; Avan, P

    Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) were studied in humans during and after postural changes. The subjects were tilted from upright to a recumbent position (head down 30 degrees) and upright again in a 6-min period. The SOAEs were recorded continuously and analyzed off-line. The tilting caused

  15. Modeling cerebral blood flow during posture change from sitting to standing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.; Olufsen, M.; Tran, H.T.

    2004-01-01

    extremities, the brain, and the heart. We use physiologically based control mechanisms to describe the regulation of cerebral blood flow velocity and arterial pressure in response to orthostatic hypotension resulting from postural change. To justify the fidelity of our mathematical model and control...

  16. Modeling Cerebral Blood Flow Control During Posture Change from Sitting to Standing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olufsen, Mette; Tran, Hien; Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2004-01-01

    , the heart, and venous valves. We use physiologically based control mechanisms to describe the regulation of cerebral blood velocity and arterial pressure in response to orthostatic hypotension resulting from postural change. Beyond active control mechanisms we also have to include certain passive non...... mechanisms development, we will show validation results of our model against experimental data from a young subject....

  17. Decerebrate posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which can lead to: Coma Inability to communicate Paralysis Seizures Alternative Names Opisthotonos - decerebrate posture; Abnormal posturing - decerebrate posture; Traumatic brain injury - decerebrate posture; Decorticate posture - decerebrate posture References ...

  18. Relationship between postural changes and injuries of the locomotor system in indoor soccer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Zucareli Pinto Ribeiro

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the sport practice has been initiated precociously. These precocious beginning of competitive sports may result in changes on the young athletes' posture alignment, because the child's bone and muscle systems are still developing and these systems are more susceptible to stress and injuries. The purpose of this study was to verify the indoor soccer (Futsal injuries and the changes of posture alignment in players between 9 to 16 years old. We examined the posture of 50 volunteers young futsal male players, volunteers, from a first division club team. These athletes were divided in two different groups: the group one (G1 was formed by those players who have suffered injuries related to Futsal; and group two (G2 was composed by athletes who did not have injuries related to futsal. First, the athletes or their parents answered a questionnaire about anthropometric characteristics of the subjects, player position, how long they have been practicing Futsal, how often they practiced Futsal and previous injuries related to Futsal practice. Then, we evaluated the postural alignment using an specific protocol to check the postural alterations. Both groups showed changes on the body alignment. The most common changes seen were in ankle and knee in both groups. The changes of the alignment in lumbar spine was more common in group 1. Considering injuries in group 1, the most common injury was in ankle (45.2% of all injuries and the second most common injury was in knee (19% of all injuries. Considering the kind of injury, sprain and fracture/dislocate were the two most common (26.2% each one and muscle injury comes in second with 21.4% of all kinds of injuries. We could discuss the relationship between the changes of posture alignment and sports injuries, once the changes of posture alignment result in stress in muscle and ligaments and it may result in injuries. We couldn't find a relationship between the cause and the consequence of these factors.

  19. Does postural sway change in association with manual therapeutic interventions? A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhe Alexander

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design Literature Review Objectives The objective of this literature review was to determine if postural sway changes in association with manual therapeutic interventions and to investigate whether any changes occur in healthy individuals or in association with pain intensity. Summary of Background data Improving postural stability has been proposed as a goal of manual therapeutic interventions. So far, no literature review has addressed whether there is supportive evidence for this and if so, what factors may be associated or causative for observed sway alterations. Search methods Seven online databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, ScienceDirect and the Cochrane library were systematically searched followed by a manual search of the retrieved papers. Selection criteria Studies comparing postural sway derived from bipedal force plate measurements in association with a manual therapeutic intervention, ideally compared to a control group. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts for relevance, conducted the data extraction and the risk of bias assessment which was conducted using the RTI item bank. A descriptive analysis was conducted as the heterogeneous study designs prevented pooling of data. Results Nine studies of varying methodological quality met the inclusion criteria. No direct comparison of data across the studies was possible. There was no evidence that manual interventions lead to a change in postural sway in healthy individuals regardless of the body regions addressed by the intervention. There was some indication that postural sway may change at follow-up measurements in pain sufferers; however, this may be due to variations in pain intensity rather than resulting from the intervention itself. Conclusions There is no conclusive scientific evidence that manual therapeutic interventions may exhibit any immediate or long-term effect on COP excursions. Any

  20. Postural changes in women with chronic pelvic pain: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Antonio A

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pelvic pain (CPP is a lower abdominal pain lasting at least 6 months, occurring continuously or intermittently and not associated exclusively with menstruation or intercourse. Although the musculoskeletal system has been found to be involved in CPP, few studies have assessed the contribution of posture in women with CPP. We aimed to determine if the frequency of postural changes was higher in women with CPP than healthy subjects. Methods A case-control study included 108 women with CPP of more than 6 months' duration (CPP group who consecutively attended at the Hospital of the University of São Paulo and 48 healthy female volunteers (control group. Postural assessment was noninvasive and performed in the standing position, with the reference points of Kendall used as normal parameters. Factors associated with CPP were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results Logistic regression showed that the independent factors associated with CPP were postural changes in the cervical spine (OR 4.1; 95% CI 1.6–10.7; p Conclusion Musculoskeletal changes were associated with CPP in 34% of women. These findings suggest that a more detailed assessment of women with CPP is necessary for better diagnosis and for more effective treatment.

  1. ANALISIS POSTUR KERJA PADA PT. XYZ MENGGUNAKAN METODE ROSA (RAPID OFFICE STRAIN ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosma Hani Damayanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan teknologi informasi, dimana komputer sebagai medianya kini semakin meningkat. Frekuensi yang tinggi akan penggunaan komputer yang tidak memperhatikan sisi ergonomi dalam bekerja mengakibatkan adanya resiko yang dirasakan oleh pengguna. PT. XYZ merupakan salah satu perusahaan yang menggunakan komputer sebagai salah satu alat utama dalam bekerja. Pada penggunaannya karyawan pada Departemen Publishing merasakan keluhan pada punggung, pinggang, nyeri bahu, leher dan tangan. Keluhan yang dirasakan oleh pekerja pada Departemen publishing dapat diminimalkan dengan cara mengetahui dan mengidentifikasi postur kerja pada pekerja dalam menggunakan komputer. Identifikasi tersebut digunakan untuk mengetahui kondisi pekerja dan mengetahui penyebab keluhan yang dirasakan oleh pekerja untuk dilakukan perbaikan. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan analisis dengan menggunakan metode ROSA untuk mengurangi adanya keluhan yang dirasakan oleh pekerja pada Departemen publishing. ROSA merupakan salah satu metode pada office ergonomics, dimana penilaiannnya dirancang untuk mengukur resiko yang terkait dengan penggunaan komputer serta untuk menetapkan tingkat tindakan perubahan berdasarkan laporan dari ketidaknyamanan pekerja. Dengan menggunakan metode ROSA, dapat diketahui apakah postur kerja karyawan pada Departemen Publishing pada saat bekerja aman atau berbahaya. Hasil analisis postur kerja menggunakan metode ROSA pada Departemen Publishing menunjukkan bahwa seluruh pekerja yang menjadi sampel memiliki level resiko yang tinggi dan perlu dilakukan perbaikan segera.  Perbaikan yang dapat dilakukan untuk mengurangi tingkat resiko yang dirasakan oleh pekerja yaitu dengan perbaikan fasilitas yang digunakan oleh pekerja yang sesuai dengan standar ergonomi, melakukan sosialisasi kepada pekerja tentang pentingnya ergonomi pada dunia kerja, dan sebaiknya pekerja melakukan istirahat atau peregangan otot minimal setiap tiga jam sekali.

  2. ANALISIS POSTUR KERJA PADA PT. XYZ MENGGUNAKAN METODE ROSA (RAPID OFFICE STRAIN ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosma Hani Damayanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan teknologi informasi, dimana komputer sebagai medianya kini semakin meningkat. Frekuensi yang tinggi akan penggunaan komputer yang tidak memperhatikan sisi ergonomi dalam bekerja mengakibatkan adanya resiko yang dirasakan oleh pengguna. PT. XYZ merupakan salah satu perusahaan yang menggunakan komputer sebagai salah satu alat utama dalam bekerja. Pada penggunaannya karyawan pada Departemen Publishing merasakan keluhan pada punggung, pinggang, nyeri bahu, leher dan tangan. Keluhan yang dirasakan oleh pekerja pada Departemen publishing dapat diminimalkan dengan cara mengetahui dan mengidentifikasi postur kerja pada pekerja dalam menggunakan komputer. Identifikasi tersebut digunakan untuk mengetahui kondisi pekerja dan mengetahui penyebab keluhan yang dirasakan oleh pekerja untuk dilakukan perbaikan. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan analisis dengan menggunakan metode ROSA untuk mengurangi adanya keluhan yang dirasakan oleh pekerja pada Departemen publishing. ROSA merupakan salah satu metode pada office ergonomics, dimana penilaiannnya dirancang untuk mengukur resiko yang terkait dengan penggunaan komputer serta untuk menetapkan tingkat tindakan perubahan berdasarkan laporan dari ketidaknyamanan pekerja. Dengan menggunakan metode ROSA, dapat diketahui apakah postur kerja karyawan pada Departemen Publishing pada saat bekerja aman atau berbahaya. Hasil analisis postur kerja menggunakan metode ROSA pada Departemen Publishing menunjukkan bahwa seluruh pekerja yang menjadi sampel memiliki level resiko yang tinggi dan perlu dilakukan perbaikan segera. Perbaikan yang dapat dilakukan untuk mengurangi tingkat resiko yang dirasakan oleh pekerja yaitu dengan perbaikan fasilitas yang digunakan oleh pekerja yang sesuai dengan standar ergonomi, melakukan sosialisasi kepada pekerja tentang pentingnya ergonomi pada dunia kerja, dan sebaiknya pekerja melakukan istirahat atau peregangan otot minimal setiap tiga jam sekali.

  3. Size estimates of action-relevant objects remain invariant in the face of systematic changes to postural stability and arousal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canal Bruland, R.; Aertssen, A.M.; Ham, La.; Stins, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual estimates of action-relevant space have been reported to vary dependent on postural stability and concomitant changes in arousal. These findings contribute to current theories proposing that perception may be embodied. However, systematic manipulations to postural stability have not been

  4. Three-year-olds' rapid facial electromyographic responses to emotional facial expressions and body postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geangu, Elena; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Conte, Stefania; Croci, Emanuela; Turati, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    Rapid facial reactions (RFRs) to observed emotional expressions are proposed to be involved in a wide array of socioemotional skills, from empathy to social communication. Two of the most persuasive theoretical accounts propose RFRs to rely either on motor resonance mechanisms or on more complex mechanisms involving affective processes. Previous studies demonstrated that presentation of facial and bodily expressions can generate rapid changes in adult and school-age children's muscle activity. However, to date there is little to no evidence to suggest the existence of emotional RFRs from infancy to preschool age. To investigate whether RFRs are driven by motor mimicry or could also be a result of emotional appraisal processes, we recorded facial electromyographic (EMG) activation from the zygomaticus major and frontalis medialis muscles to presentation of static facial and bodily expressions of emotions (i.e., happiness, anger, fear, and neutral) in 3-year-old children. Results showed no specific EMG activation in response to bodily emotion expressions. However, observing others' happy faces led to increased activation of the zygomaticus major and decreased activation of the frontalis medialis, whereas observing others' angry faces elicited the opposite pattern of activation. This study suggests that RFRs are the result of complex mechanisms in which both affective processes and motor resonance may play an important role. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of experience when using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment to assess postural risk in children using information and communication technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Janice D; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Parsons, Richard; Buzzard, Jennifer; Ciccarelli, Marina

    2014-05-01

    The Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is an observation-based screening tool that has been used to assess postural risks of children in school settings. Studies using eye-tracking technology suggest that visual search strategies are influenced by experience in the task performed. This study investigated if experience in postural risk assessments contributed to differences in outcome scores on the RULA and the visual search strategies utilized. While wearing an eye-tracker, 16 student occupational therapists and 16 experienced occupational therapists used the RULA to assess 11 video scenarios of a child using different mobile information and communication technologies (ICT) in the home environment. No significant differences in RULA outcome scores, and no conclusive differences in visual search strategies between groups were found. RULA can be used as a screening tool for postural risks following a short training session regardless of the assessor's experience in postural risk assessments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in obtaining nucleus pulposus (NP) water content with changing postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Jalil; Pope, Malcolm H; Graveling, Richard A

    2015-05-01

    Opportunities to evaluate spinal loading in vivo are limited and a large majority of studies on the mechanical functions of the spine have been in vitro cadaveric studies and/or models based on many assumptions that are difficult to validate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in obtaining nucleus pulposus (NP) water content measurements with changing postures. MRI studies were conducted on 25 healthy males with no history of low back pain (age 20-38). The L1 to S1 intradiscal levels were imaged in supine, sitting and standing postures using an upright 0.6 Tesla magnet, where a set of H2O: D2O7 phantoms were mounted on the back of the subjects. A calibration curve, provided from these phantoms, was applied to the absolute proton density image, yielding a pixel-by-pixel map of the water content of the NP. The NP at all levels showed a highly significant water loss (pNP in different postures are in agreement with those determined from published invasive disc pressure measurements. The result of study demonstrates the feasibility of using MRI to determine the water content of the NP with changing postures and to use these data to evaluate spinal loading in these postures. This measurement method of water content by quantitative MR imaging could become a powerful tool for both clinical and ergonomic applications. The proposed methodology does not require invasive pressure measurement techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Age-related changes in posture response under a continuous and unexpected perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Ching; Hsieh, Lin-Fen; Yang, Saiwei

    2014-01-22

    Aging is a critical factor to influence the functional performance during daily life. Without an appropriate posture control response when experiencing an unexpected external perturbation, fall may occur. A novel six-degree-of freedom platform with motion control protocol was designed to provide a real-life simulation of unexpected disturbance in order to discriminate the age-related changes of the balance control and the recovery ability. Twenty older adults and 20 healthy young adults participated in the study. The subjects stood barefoot on the novel movable platform, data of the center of mass (COM) excursion, joint rotation angle and electromyography (EMG) were recorded and compared. The results showed that the older adults had similar patterns of joint movement and COM excursion as the young adults during the balance reactive-recovery. However, larger proximal joint rotation in elderly group induced larger COM sway envelop and therefore loss of the compensatory strategy of posture recovery. The old adults also presented a lower muscle power. In order to keep an adequate joint stability preventing from falling, the EMG activity was increased, but the asymmetric pattern might be the key reason of unstable postural response. This novel design of moveable platform and test protocol comprised the computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) demonstrate its value to assess the possible sensory, motor, and central adaptive impairments to balance control and could be the training tool for posture inability person. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Center of Pressure Displacement of Standing Posture during Rapid Movements Is Reorganised Due to Experimental Lower Extremity Muscle Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Shiozawa

    Full Text Available Postural control during rapid movements may be impaired due to musculoskeletal pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of experimental knee-related muscle pain on the center of pressure (CoP displacement in a reaction time task condition.Nine healthy males performed two reaction time tasks (dominant side shoulder flexion and bilateral heel lift before, during, and after experimental pain induced in the dominant side vastus medialis or the tibialis anterior muscles by hypertonic saline injections. The CoP displacement was extracted from the ipsilateral and contralateral side by two force plates and the net CoP displacement was calculated.Compared with non-painful sessions, tibialis anterior muscle pain during the peak and peak-to-peak displacement for the CoP during anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs of the shoulder task reduced the peak-to-peak displacement of the net CoP in the medial-lateral direction (P<0.05. Tibialis anterior and vastus medialis muscle pain during shoulder flexion task reduced the anterior-posterior peak-to-peak displacement in the ipsilateral side (P<0.05.The central nervous system in healthy individuals was sufficiently robust in maintaining the APA characteristics during pain, although the displacement of net and ipsilateral CoP in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions during unilateral fast shoulder movement was altered.

  9. The effectiveness of a lumbopelvic monitor and feedback device to change postural behavior: a feasibility randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Daniel Cury; Sole, Gisela; Abbott, J Haxby; Milosavljevic, Stephan

    2014-09-01

    Feasibility randomized controlled trial. To assess the feasibility of a trial to investigate the effectiveness of a lumbopelvic monitor as a feedback device for modifying postural behavior during daily work-related activities. Frequent or sustained flexed postures play a role in the development or maintenance of nonspecific low back pain. The provision of postural feedback could help individuals with or at risk of nonspecific low back pain improve their postural awareness and avoid hazardous or pain-provoking postures. Sixty-two participants employed in a health care organization were randomly allocated into 1 of 3 groups: a control group, an intermittent feedback group, and a constant feedback group. Adherence and follow-up rates were assessed. Differences in postural pattern between baseline and follow-up measurements were used to assess the effectiveness of the lumbopelvic monitor as a postural feedback device. Adherence was approximately 75%. With the exception of 1 center, the follow-up overall rates exceeded the a priori desired threshold of 80%. Within-group comparisons revealed no significant differences in postural pattern for the control group and intermittent feedback group. The constant feedback group showed a significant reduction in flexed posture at the follow-up period compared with the baseline period. Differences between groups did not reach statistical significance; however, the constant feedback group, compared with the control group, demonstrated an effect size (d) of 0.60. The provision of constant postural feedback seems promising for promoting changes in postural behavior. This feasibility trial identified adherence and follow-up rates and sample-size estimates important to the conduct of a fully powered efficacy trial. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 2b-.

  10. Changes in gait kinematics and posture with the use of a front pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiolkowski, Paul; Horodyski, Marybeth; Bishop, Mark; Williams, Melissa; Stylianou, Lee

    2006-07-15

    The objective of this study was to determine if posture during gait can be affected by position of the load. It was hypothesized that the front pack would result in postural changes in the gait cycle, compared to a similarly loaded backpack. Thirteen healthy adults, free of any injury, volunteered to participate in this study. Two dimensional video data were collected at 50 Hz using a MacReflex video system. A backpack and a front pack were compared using loads of 10 and 15% of body weight. Markers were placed on the ear, acromion, greater trochanter and lateral joint line of the knee, lateral malleolus and fifth metatarsophalangeal joint. Data were collected while the participants walked at 0.75 stride/s. The data were used to calculate joint angles and displacements during each gait cycle. There was a significant difference noted in angles of the hip flexion, with the backpack condition demonstrating a greater flexion in each stride than either the control or front pack. Both backpack and front pack conditions demonstrated a significant change in neck motion compared to the control condition. The results of the position analysis over time also revealed an increase in the forward head position when participants were wearing the backpack compared to either the control or the front pack condition. It was concluded that the use of a front pack results in a more upright posture in gait, when compared to a backpack carrying the same load.

  11. Effects of Simulated Low Vision on Postural Adjustment to Changes in Center of Mass in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copolillo, Al; Christopher, Ann; Lyons, Amanda

    2017-04-01

    This study examined how instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) performed by older adults under low-vision simulation conditions affect postural adjustments to changes in center of mass (COM). Ten participants with normal vision performed seven activities under two conditions, normal vision, and simulated macular degeneration (MD). Postural adjustment to changes in COM and time to complete activities were recorded. Low vision was compared to normal vision using Wilcoxon signed rank and t tests. Differences between the two conditions were statistically significant for postural adjustments to change in COM and time. Postural adjustments and time to perform IADLs are greater under simulated low vision conditions versus normal vision. These preliminary findings support research with older adults with MD, who may be at risk when making movement transitions like descending or ascending stairs, stepping in and out of a tub, stooping, or reaching from one surface to another.

  12. Decorticate posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which can lead to: Coma Inability to communicate Paralysis Seizures Alternative Names Abnormal posturing - decorticate posture; Traumatic brain injury - decorticate posture References Ball JW, Dains JE, ...

  13. Fluid Shifts: Otoacoustical Emission Changes in Response to Posture and Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgoza, R.; Kemp, D.; Ebert, D.; Danielson, R.; Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the NASA Fluid Shifts Study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. Due to the invasive nature of direct measures of ICP, a noninvasive technique of monitoring ICP is desired for use during spaceflight. The phase angle and amplitude of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) have been shown to be sensitive to posture change and ICP (1, 2), therefore use of OAEs is an attractive option. OAEs are low-level sounds produced by the sensory cells of the cochlea in response to auditory stimulation. These sounds travel peripherally from the cochlea, through the oval window, to the ear canal where they can be recorded. OAE transmission is sensitive to changes in the stiffness of the oval window, occurring as a result of changes in cochlear pressure. Increased stiffness of the oval window largely affects the transmission of sound from the cochlea at frequencies between 800 Hz and 1600 Hz. OAEs can be self-recorded in the laboratory or on the ISS using a handheld device. Our primary objectives regarding OAE measures in this experiment were to 1) validate this method during preflight testing of each crewmember (while sitting, supine and in head-down tilt position), and 2) determine if OAE measures (and presumably ICP) are responsive to lower body negative pressure and to spaceflight. METHODS: Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) were recorded preflight using the Otoport Advance OAE system (Otodynamics Ltd., Hatfield, UK). Data were collected in four conditions (seated

  14. Changes in foot posture during pregnancy and their relation with musculoskeletal pain: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico Pardo, Francisco Javier; López Del Amo, Andres; Pardo Rios, Manuel; Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel; Yuste, Cristina Castro

    2017-09-06

    To examine foot posture changes during the three trimesters of pregnancy and to determine whether there is a relationship between these changes and the pain experienced in this period. The study sample consisted of 62 pregnant women who attended the Gynaecology Service at Hospital ​Santa María del Puerto (Cádiz, Spain), between January 2013 and May 2014. In their first visit, the following sociodemographic and anthropometric data were recorded: age, weight, height and foot size. In addition, information was obtained regarding pain in the lower back, knees, ankles and feet. In this first visit, too, the Foot Posture Index (FPI) was assessed, and three subsequent controls were performed during the first, second and third months of pregnancy (termed Stages 1, 2 and 3, respectively). In Stage 1, the average foot size (i.e., shoe size) was 38.3 (SD 1.5). This size did not change between Stages 1, 2 and 3. However, body weight and BMI did present statistically significant changes during this period (p<0.0001). The FPI varied during pregnancy but no relation was observed between these changes and the onset of pain. During pregnancy, pronation increases but this does not appear to influence the onset of pain in the lower limbs. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Viewing pain and happy faces elicited similar changes in postural body sway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gea

    Full Text Available Affective facial expressions are potent social cues that can induce relevant physiological changes, as well as behavioral dispositions in the observer. Previous studies have revealed that angry faces induced significant reductions in body sway as compared with neutral and happy faces, reflecting an avoidance behavioral tendency as freezing. The expression of pain is usually considered an unpleasant stimulus, but also a relevant cue for delivering effective care and social support. Nevertheless, there are few data about behavioral dispositions elicited by the observation of pain expressions in others. The aim of the present research was to evaluate approach-avoidance tendencies by using video recordings of postural body sway when participants were standing and observing facial expressions of pain, happy and neutral. We hypothesized that although pain faces would be rated as more unpleasant than the other faces, they would provoke significant changes in postural body sway as compared to neutral facial expressions. Forty healthy female volunteers (mean age 25 participated in the study. Amplitude of forward movements and backward movements in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes were obtained. Statistical analyses revealed that pain faces were the most unpleasant stimuli, and that both happy and pain faces were more arousing than neutral ones. Happy and pain faces also elicited greater amplitude of body sway in the anterior-posterior axes as compared with neutral faces. In addition, significant positive correlations were found between body sway elicited by pain faces and pleasantness and empathic ratings, suggesting that changes in postural body sway elicited by pain faces might be associated with approach and cooperative behavioral responses.

  16. Nest building and posture changes and activity budget of gilts housed in pens and crates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Inger Lise; Vasdal, Guro; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study nest building, posture changes and the overall activity budget of gilts in pens vs. crates. Twenty-three HB gilts (high piglet survival day 5) and 21 LB gilts (low piglet survival day 5) were video recorded from day 110 in pregnancy to four days after...... farrowing in either a farrowing pen or farrowing crate. The gilts were provided with 2 kg of chopped straw daily from day 113 of pregnancy until farrowing in both environments. Nest building and other activity measures of the sows were analysed using continuous sampling the last 12 h before the first piglet...

  17. Classic ballet dancers postural patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseani Paulini Neves Simas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate classic ballet practice and its influence on postural patterns and (a identify the most frequent postural changes; (b determine the postural pattern; (c verify the existence of association of practice time and postural changes. The investigation was carried out in two stages: one, description in which 106 dancers participated; the other, causal comparative in which 50 dancers participated; and (a questionnaire; (b a checkerboard; (c postural chart; (d measure tape; (e camera and (f pedoscope were used as instrument. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used for analysis. The results revealed the most frequent postural changes such as hyperlordosis, unleveled shoulders and pronated ankles. Ballet seems to have negative implications in the postural development , affecting especially the vertebral spine, trunk and feet. The practice time was not a parameter to indicate the increase in postural changes. In conclusion, ballet may be associated with postural changes and determining a characteristic postural pattern.

  18. Age-related changes in dynamic postural control and attentional demands are minimally affected by local muscle fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony eRemaud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal aging results in alterations in the visual, vestibular and somtaosensory systems, which in turn modify the control of balance. Muscle fatigue may exacerbate these age-related changes in sensory and motor functions, and also increase the attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on dynamic postural control and posture-related attentional demands before and after a plantar flexor fatigue protocol. Participants (young adults: n=15; healthy seniors: n=13 performed a dynamic postural task along the antero-posterior and the medio-lateral axes, with and without the addition of a simple reaction time task. The dynamic postural task consisted in following a moving circle on a computer screen with the representation of the center of pressure (COP. This protocol was repeated before and after a fatigue task where ankle plantarflexor muscles were targeted. The mean COP-target distance and the mean COP velocity were calculated for each trial. Cross-correlation analyses between the COP and target displacements were also performed. Reaction times were recorded during dual-task trials. Results showed that while young adults adopted an anticipatory control mode to move their COP as close as possible to the target center, seniors adopted a reactive control mode, lagging behind the target center. This resulted in longer COP-target distance and higher COP velocity in the latter group. Concurrently, reaction time increased more in seniors when switching from static stance to dynamic postural conditions, suggesting potential alterations in the central nervous system functions. Finally, plantar flexor muscle fatigue and dual-tasking had only minor effects on dynamic postural control of both young adults and seniors. Future studies should investigate why the fatigue-induced changes in quiet standing postural control do not seem to transfer to dynamic balance tasks.

  19. Age-Related Changes in Dynamic Postural Control and Attentional Demands are Minimally Affected by Local Muscle Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remaud, Anthony; Thuong-Cong, Cécile; Bilodeau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Normal aging results in alterations in the visual, vestibular and somtaosensory systems, which in turn modify the control of balance. Muscle fatigue may exacerbate these age-related changes in sensory and motor functions, and also increase the attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on dynamic postural control and posture-related attentional demands before and after a plantar flexor fatigue protocol. Participants (young adults: n = 15; healthy seniors: n = 13) performed a dynamic postural task along the antero-posterior (AP) and the medio-lateral (ML) axes, with and without the addition of a simple reaction time (RT) task. The dynamic postural task consisted in following a moving circle on a computer screen with the representation of the center of pressure (COP). This protocol was repeated before and after a fatigue task where ankle plantar flexor muscles were targeted. The mean COP-target distance and the mean COP velocity were calculated for each trial. Cross-correlation analyses between the COP and target displacements were also performed. RTs were recorded during dual-task trials. Results showed that while young adults adopted an anticipatory control mode to move their COP as close as possible to the target center, seniors adopted a reactive control mode, lagging behind the target center. This resulted in longer COP-target distance and higher COP velocity in the latter group. Concurrently, RT increased more in seniors when switching from static stance to dynamic postural conditions, suggesting potential alterations in the central nervous system (CNS) functions. Finally, plantar flexor muscle fatigue and dual-tasking had only minor effects on dynamic postural control of both young adults and seniors. Future studies should investigate why the fatigue-induced changes in quiet standing postural control do not seem to transfer to dynamic balance tasks.

  20. Age-Related Changes in Dynamic Postural Control and Attentional Demands are Minimally Affected by Local Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remaud, Anthony; Thuong-Cong, Cécile; Bilodeau, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging results in alterations in the visual, vestibular and somtaosensory systems, which in turn modify the control of balance. Muscle fatigue may exacerbate these age-related changes in sensory and motor functions, and also increase the attentional demands associated with dynamic postural control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aging on dynamic postural control and posture-related attentional demands before and after a plantar flexor fatigue protocol. Participants (young adults: n = 15; healthy seniors: n = 13) performed a dynamic postural task along the antero-posterior (AP) and the medio-lateral (ML) axes, with and without the addition of a simple reaction time (RT) task. The dynamic postural task consisted in following a moving circle on a computer screen with the representation of the center of pressure (COP). This protocol was repeated before and after a fatigue task where ankle plantar flexor muscles were targeted. The mean COP-target distance and the mean COP velocity were calculated for each trial. Cross-correlation analyses between the COP and target displacements were also performed. RTs were recorded during dual-task trials. Results showed that while young adults adopted an anticipatory control mode to move their COP as close as possible to the target center, seniors adopted a reactive control mode, lagging behind the target center. This resulted in longer COP-target distance and higher COP velocity in the latter group. Concurrently, RT increased more in seniors when switching from static stance to dynamic postural conditions, suggesting potential alterations in the central nervous system (CNS) functions. Finally, plantar flexor muscle fatigue and dual-tasking had only minor effects on dynamic postural control of both young adults and seniors. Future studies should investigate why the fatigue-induced changes in quiet standing postural control do not seem to transfer to dynamic balance tasks. PMID:26834626

  1. Haptic stabilization of posture: changes in arm proprioception and cutaneous feedback for different arm orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, E.; Bortolami, S. B.; DiZio, P.; Lackner, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    Postural sway during quiet stance is attenuated by actively maintained contact of the index finger with a stationary surface, even if the level of applied force (test this analysis, subjects touched a laterally versus anteriorly placed surface while in each of two stances: the heel-to-toe tandem Romberg stance that reduces medial-lateral stability and the heel-to-heel, toes-outward, knees-bent, "duck stance" that reduces fore-aft stability. Postural sway was always least with finger contact in the unstable plane: for the tandem stance, lateral fingertip contact was significantly more effective than frontal contact, and, for the duck stance, frontal contact was more effective than lateral fingertip contact. Force changes at the fingertip led changes in center of pressure of the feet by approximately 250 ms for both fingertip contact locations for both test stances. These results support the geometric analysis, which showed that 1) arm joint angles change by the largest amount when fingertip contact is maintained in the plane of greatest sway, and 2) the somatosensory cues at the fingertip provide both direction and amplitude information about sway when the finger is contacting a surface in the unstable plane.

  2. Indigenous people's detection of rapid ecological change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswani, Shankar; Lauer, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    When sudden catastrophic events occur, it becomes critical for coastal communities to detect and respond to environmental transformations because failure to do so may undermine overall ecosystem resilience and threaten people's livelihoods. We therefore asked how capable of detecting rapid ecological change following massive environmental disruptions local, indigenous people are. We assessed the direction and periodicity of experimental learning of people in the Western Solomon Islands after a tsunami in 2007. We compared the results of marine science surveys with local ecological knowledge of the benthos across 3 affected villages and 3 periods before and after the tsunami. We sought to determine how people recognize biophysical changes in the environment before and after catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis and whether people have the ability to detect ecological changes over short time scales or need longer time scales to recognize changes. Indigenous people were able to detect changes in the benthos over time. Detection levels differed between marine science surveys and local ecological knowledge sources over time, but overall patterns of statistically significant detection of change were evident for various habitats. Our findings have implications for marine conservation, coastal management policies, and disaster-relief efforts because when people are able to detect ecological changes, this, in turn, affects how they exploit and manage their marine resources. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Postural change-dependent T-wave oversensing resulting in the administration of inappropriate shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukoh Hirai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old man with dilated cardiomyopathy (left ventricular ejection fraction, 15% and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Even though his cardiac status had greatly improved 2 years later after β-blocker therapy, he experienced 2 episodes of sudden shock when he was squatting in a bathroom without any preceding symptoms. His serum electrolyte and plasma glucose levels were normal. Interrogation of the device revealed that the shock was caused by sinus tachycardia and T-wave oversensing. A number of episodes of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia due to T-wave oversensing was also recorded. Follow-up interrogation of the device with the patient in the supine position could not reproduce the T-wave oversensing. We were able to elicit T-wave oversensing only after reproduction of the patient's clinical situation using isoproterenol and postural changes (i.e., sinus tachycardia and squatting. This case suggests that sudden increases in nonsustained ventricular tachycardia events may be caused by T-wave oversensing, and postural changes should be taken into consideration in such situations.

  4. Postural change during venous blood collection is a major source of bias in clinical chemistry testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Brocco, Giorgio; Danese, Elisa; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2015-02-02

    To investigate the influence of different phlebotomy postures on clinical chemistry testing. Nineteen volunteers were recruited from the laboratory staff. A first set of samples was drawn after 25 min of resting in supine position, a second after 20 min in sitting position, and a third after 20 min in upright position. Clinical chemistry testing was performed on Roche Cobas C501. The plasma volume change (PVC) was -3.4% from supine to sitting, -14.1% from supine to standing and -9.7% from sitting to standing. Compared to quality specifications for bias, hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and total proteins exhibited meaningful increases from supine to sitting, whereas meaningful increases were observed for hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amylase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, calcium, total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), magnesium, total protein and triglycerides from sitting to standing. The parameters with meaningful bias from sitting to upright were hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin, ALP, total bilirubin, calcium, total and HDL cholesterol, glucose, LDH and total protein. These results provide further support to the need of standardizing patient's posture during phlebotomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A dance to the music of time: aesthetically-relevant changes in body posture in performing art.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Daprati

    Full Text Available In performing arts, body postures are both means for expressing an artist's intentions, and also artistic objects, appealing to the audience. The postures of classical ballet obey the body's biomechanical limits, but also follow strict rules established by tradition. This combination offers a perfect milieu for assessing scientifically how the execution of this particular artistic activity has changed over time, and evaluating what factors may induce such changes. We quantified angles between body segments in archive material showing dancers from a leading company over a 60-year period. The data showed that body positions supposedly fixed by codified choreography were in fact implemented by very different elevation angles, according to the year of ballet production. Progressive changes lead to increasingly vertical positions of the dancer's body over the period studied. Experimental data showed that these change reflected aesthetic choices of naïve modern observers. Even when reduced to stick figures and unrecognisable shapes, the more vertical postures drawn from later productions were systematically preferred to less vertical postures from earlier productions. This gradual change within a conservative art form provides scientific evidence that aesthetic change may arise from continuous interaction between artistic tradition, individual artists' creativity, and a wider environmental context. This context may include social aesthetic pressure from audiences.

  6. A dance to the music of time: aesthetically-relevant changes in body posture in performing art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daprati, Elena; Iosa, Marco; Haggard, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    In performing arts, body postures are both means for expressing an artist's intentions, and also artistic objects, appealing to the audience. The postures of classical ballet obey the body's biomechanical limits, but also follow strict rules established by tradition. This combination offers a perfect milieu for assessing scientifically how the execution of this particular artistic activity has changed over time, and evaluating what factors may induce such changes. We quantified angles between body segments in archive material showing dancers from a leading company over a 60-year period. The data showed that body positions supposedly fixed by codified choreography were in fact implemented by very different elevation angles, according to the year of ballet production. Progressive changes lead to increasingly vertical positions of the dancer's body over the period studied. Experimental data showed that these change reflected aesthetic choices of naïve modern observers. Even when reduced to stick figures and unrecognisable shapes, the more vertical postures drawn from later productions were systematically preferred to less vertical postures from earlier productions. This gradual change within a conservative art form provides scientific evidence that aesthetic change may arise from continuous interaction between artistic tradition, individual artists' creativity, and a wider environmental context. This context may include social aesthetic pressure from audiences.

  7. Time-dependent changes in postural control in early Parkinson's disease: what are we missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Din, Silvia; Godfrey, Alan; Coleman, Shirley; Galna, Brook; Lord, Sue; Rochester, Lynn

    2016-03-01

    Impaired postural control (PC) is an important feature of Parkinson's disease (PD), but optimal testing protocols are yet to be established. Accelerometer-based monitors provide objective measures of PC. We characterised time-dependent changes in PC in people with PD and controls during standing, and identified outcomes most sensitive to pathology. Thirty-one controls and 26 PD patients were recruited: PC was measured with an accelerometer on the lower back for 2 minutes (mins). Preliminary analysis (autocorrelation) that showed 2 seconds (s) was the shortest duration sensitive to changes in the signal; time series analysis of a range of PC outcomes was undertaken using consecutive 2-s windows over the test. Piecewise linear regression was used to fit the time series data during the first 30 s and the subsequent 90 s of the trial. PC outcomes changed over the 2 mins, with the greatest change observed during the first 30 s after which PC stabilised. Changes in PC were reduced in PD compared to controls, and Jerk was found to be discriminative of pathology. Previous studies focusing on average performance over the duration of a test may miss time-dependent differences. Evaluation of time-dependent change may provide useful insights into PC in PD and effectiveness of intervention.

  8. EFFECT OF SITTING POSTURE ON THORACIC CONFIGURATION AND CHANGES IN VOLUME OF HEMITHORACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shōbo A

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor posture is detrimental to breathing. Our purpose was to investigate the effect of upright and hunchbacked sitting on thoracic configuration and changes in the volume of the thorax during quiet and volitional deep breathing. Methods: The participants were 11 healthy men with a mean age of 21.6 years, mean body mass of 59.8 kg, mean height of 169.7 cm and a body mass index of 20.7 kg/m2. Eighty-four reflective markers were placed on the trunk. Three-dimensional motion analysis measured the volume within the hemithoraces. To calculate upper and lower thoracic volumes, six imaginary hexahedra were visualized using four reflective markers for each on both aspects of the thorax. Each hexahedron was divided into three imaginary triangular pyramids to calculate positional vectors. Finally, the volume for the hexahedra and triangular pyramids was calculated. Upper thoracic volume encompassed a space from the sternal notch to a midpoint on the ventral aspect of the third rib and the lower thoracic volume from the xiphoid process to the midpoint on tenth rib’s dorsal aspect. Results: In hunchbacked sitting during quiet breathing the left lower hemithorax yielded a significantly larger volume (p=0.003, and both breathing patterns during inspiration and expiration yielded a significantly greater change in thoracic configuration (p=0.01, p=0.016. Conclusion: Findings suggested that, in a hunchbacked sitting, there was decreased thoracic asymmetry with re-establishment of thoracic vertebral alignment, consequently stabilizing the sitting position, but breathing was suppressed and tidal volume decreased. Physiotherapy should aim at ensuring correction of hunchbacked posture and maintenance of thoracic symmetry.

  9. Effectiveness of a lumbopelvic monitor and feedback device to change postural behaviour: a protocol for the ELF cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljevic, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Low back pain (LBP) is the most common, costly and disabling musculoskeletal disorder worldwide, and is prevalent in healthcare workers. Posture is a modifiable risk factor for LBP shown to reduce the prevalence of LBP. Our feasibility research suggests that postural feedback might help healthcare workers avoid hazardous postures. The Effectiveness of Lumbopelvic Feedback (ELF) trial will investigate the extent to which postural monitor and feedback (PMF) can reduce exposure to hazardous posture associated with LBP. Methods This is a participant-blinded, randomised controlled trial with blocked cluster random allocation. Participants will include volunteer healthcare workers recruited from aged care institutions and hospitals. A postural monitoring and feedback device will monitor and record lumbopelvic forward bending posture, and provide audio feedback whenever the user sustains a lumbopelvic forward bending posture that exceeds predefined thresholds. The primary outcome measure will be postural behaviour (exceeding thresholds). Secondary outcome measures will be incidence of LBP, participant-reported disability and adherence. Following baseline assessment, we will randomly assign participants to 1 of 2 intervention arms: a feedback group and a no-feedback control group. We will compare between-group differences of changes in postural behaviour by using a repeated measures mixed-effect model analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) at 6 weeks. Postural behaviour baseline scores, work-related psychosocial factors and disability scores will be input as covariates into the statistical models. We will use logistic mixed model analysis and Cox's proportional hazards for assessing the effect of a PMF on LBP incidence between groups. Discussion Posture is a modifiable risk factor for low back disorders. Findings from the ELF trial will inform the design of future clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of wearable technology on minimising hazardous posture

  10. Temporal parameter change of human postural control ability during upright swing using recursive least square method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akifumi; Ishida, Mizuri; Sagawa, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to derive quantitative assessment indicators of the human postural control ability. An inverted pendulum is applied to standing human body and is controlled by ankle joint torque according to PD control method in sagittal plane. Torque control parameters (KP: proportional gain, KD: derivative gain) and pole placements of postural control system are estimated with time from inclination angle variation using fixed trace method as recursive least square method. Eight young healthy volunteers are participated in the experiment, in which volunteers are asked to incline forward as far as and as fast as possible 10 times over 10 [s] stationary intervals with their neck joint, hip joint and knee joint fixed, and then return to initial upright posture. The inclination angle is measured by an optical motion capture system. Three conditions are introduced to simulate unstable standing posture; 1) eyes-opened posture for healthy condition, 2) eyes-closed posture for visual impaired and 3) one-legged posture for lower-extremity muscle weakness. The estimated parameters Kp, KD and pole placements are applied to multiple comparison test among all stability conditions. The test results indicate that Kp, KD and real pole reflect effect of lower-extremity muscle weakness and KD also represents effect of visual impairment. It is suggested that the proposed method is valid for quantitative assessment of standing postural control ability.

  11. Orthostatic Dysregulation during Postural Change on the Dental Chair and Intraoperative Monitoring by Heart Rate Variability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Momota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first case report of orthostatic dysregulation (OD manifested during postural change on the dental chair and intraoperatively monitored by heart rate variability (HRV analysis. OD-associated autonomic dysfunction is induced by postural changes and easily leads to disturbance in circulatory dynamics; however, most dental practices have not yet realized the importance of managing OD. We measured autonomic activity in a patient with OD during dental therapy and assessed the clinical significance of HRV analysis for OD. The patient was a 17-year-old Japanese female. She was diagnosed with impacted wisdom teeth and had no previous history of a distinct systemic disease. A surgical procedure to extract the teeth was safely performed under both local anesthesia and sedation with nitrous oxide and midazolam. After the surgery, her postural change to sitting induced orthostatic hypotension. HRV variables showed parasympathetic dominance due to the upright position. Subsequently, her posture was returned to supine, and atropine sulfate administration for the immediate treatment of OD returned her blood pressure to normal levels. HRV variables showed relative sympathetic dominance due to an atropine-derived parasympathetic blockade. HRV analysis revealed OD-associated autonomic dysfunction and should become a standard tool for safe and secure dental management of OD.

  12. The effect of three-dimensional postural change on shear elastic modulus of the iliotibial band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Shiratori, Sakiko; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2016-06-01

    To understand and treat iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome, caused by excessive compression between the ITB and lateral femoral condyle, it is important to identify factors contributing to an increase in ITB stiffness. The purpose of this study was to clarify the factors that contribute to an increase in ITB stiffness by examining the relationship between three-dimensional postural changes and ITB stiffness. Fourteen healthy individuals performed one-leg standing under 7 conditions (including normal one-leg standing as a control condition) in which the pelvic position was changed in three planes. The shear elastic modulus in the ITB was measured using shear-wave elastography, as a measure of ITB stiffness. The three-dimensional joint angles and external joint moments in the hip and knee joints were also measured to confirm the changes in joint angles and external load. Compared to the normal one-leg standing condition, ITB stiffness was significantly increased in the pelvic posterior tilted position (i.e. hip extension), contralateral pelvic dropped position (i.e. hip adduction), and contralateral pelvic posterior rotated position (i.e. hip external rotation). The findings suggest that interventions to reduce hip extension, adduction, and external rotation might be useful if these excessive positional changes are detected in patients with ITB syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in Postural Control After a Ball-Kicking Balance Exercise in Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Josilene Souza; Schaefer de Araújo, Felipe Gustavo; Santos, Gilmar Moraes; Keighley, John; Dos Santos, Marcio Jose

    2016-06-02

    Rehabilitation programs for patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI) generally involve balance-perturbation training (BPT). Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs) are the primary strategies used to maintain equilibrium during body perturbations. Little is known, however, about how APAs and CPAs are modified to promote better postural control for individuals with CAI after BPT. To investigate the effect of BPT that involves kicking a ball on postural-control strategies in individuals with CAI. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Laboratory. We randomly assigned 44 volunteers with CAI to either a training group (TG; 11 women, 11 men; age = 24 ± 4 years, height = 173.0 ± 9.8 cm, mass = 72.64 ± 11.98 kg) or control group (CG; 11 women, 11 men; age = 22 ± 3 years, height = 171.0 ± 9.7 cm, mass = 70.00 ± 11.03 kg). The TG performed a single 30-minute training session that involved kicking a ball while standing on 1 foot. The CG received no intervention. The primary outcome was the sum of the integrated electromyographic activity (∑∫EMG) of the lower extremity muscles in the supporting limb that were calculated during typical intervals for APAs and CPAs. A secondary outcome was center-of-pressure displacement during similar intervals. In the TG after training, the ∑∫EMG decreased in both dorsal and ventral muscles during compensatory adjustment (ie, the time interval that followed lower limb movement). During this interval, muscle activity (∑∫EMG) was less in the TG than in the CG. Consequently, center-of-pressure displacement increased during the task after training. A single session of ball-kicking BPT promoted changes in postural-control strategies in individuals with CAI. These results should stimulate new and more comprehensive studies to investigate the effect of this and other BPT techniques on postural control in patients with CAI.

  14. Investigation of the Differential Contributions of Superficial and Deep Muscles on Cervical Spinal Loads with Changing Head Postures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiu Cheng

    Full Text Available Cervical spinal loads are predominately influenced by activities of cervical muscles. However, the coordination between deep and superficial muscles and their influence on the spinal loads is not well understood. This study aims to document the changes of cervical spinal loads and the differential contributions of superficial and deep muscles with varying head postures. Electromyography (EMG of cervical muscles from seventeen healthy adults were measured during maximal isometric exertions for lateral flexion (at 10°, 20° and terminal position as well as flexion/extension (at 10°, 20°, 30°, and terminal position neck postures. An EMG-assisted optimization approach was used to estimate the muscle forces and subsequent spinal loads. The results showed that compressive and anterior-posterior shear loads increased significantly with neck flexion. In particular, deep muscle forces increased significantly with increasing flexion. It was also determined that in all different static head postures, the deep muscle forces were greater than those of the superficial muscle forces, however, such pattern was reversed during peak efforts where greater superficial muscle forces were identified with increasing angle of inclination. In summary, the identification of significantly increased spinal loads associated with increased deep muscle activation during flexion postures, implies higher risks in predisposing the neck to occupationally related disorders. The results also explicitly supported that deep muscles play a greater role in maintaining stable head postures where superficial muscles are responsible for peak exertions and reinforcing the spinal stability at terminal head postures. This study provided quantitative data of normal cervical spinal loads and revealed motor control strategies in coordinating the superficial and deep muscles during physical tasks.

  15. Investigation of the Differential Contributions of Superficial and Deep Muscles on Cervical Spinal Loads with Changing Head Postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Chien, Andy; Hsu, Wei-Li; Chen, Carl Pai-Chu; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spinal loads are predominately influenced by activities of cervical muscles. However, the coordination between deep and superficial muscles and their influence on the spinal loads is not well understood. This study aims to document the changes of cervical spinal loads and the differential contributions of superficial and deep muscles with varying head postures. Electromyography (EMG) of cervical muscles from seventeen healthy adults were measured during maximal isometric exertions for lateral flexion (at 10°, 20° and terminal position) as well as flexion/extension (at 10°, 20°, 30°, and terminal position) neck postures. An EMG-assisted optimization approach was used to estimate the muscle forces and subsequent spinal loads. The results showed that compressive and anterior-posterior shear loads increased significantly with neck flexion. In particular, deep muscle forces increased significantly with increasing flexion. It was also determined that in all different static head postures, the deep muscle forces were greater than those of the superficial muscle forces, however, such pattern was reversed during peak efforts where greater superficial muscle forces were identified with increasing angle of inclination. In summary, the identification of significantly increased spinal loads associated with increased deep muscle activation during flexion postures, implies higher risks in predisposing the neck to occupationally related disorders. The results also explicitly supported that deep muscles play a greater role in maintaining stable head postures where superficial muscles are responsible for peak exertions and reinforcing the spinal stability at terminal head postures. This study provided quantitative data of normal cervical spinal loads and revealed motor control strategies in coordinating the superficial and deep muscles during physical tasks. PMID:26938773

  16. Perilymphatic pressure dynamics following posture change in patients with Meniere's disease and in normal hearing subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosingh, HJ; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    The hydrostatic pressure of the inner ear depends on the cerebrospinal fluid pressure through the cochlear aqueduct. The time-course of inner ear pressure change following rapid change in cerebrospinal fluid pressure is related to the aqueduct patency. In this study the patency of the cochlear

  17. Diurnal changes in postural control in normal children: Computerized static and dynamic assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourelle, Sophie; Taiar, Redha; Berge, Benoit; Gautheron, Vincent; Cottalorda, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) causes postural control deficits and accordingly comparison of aberrant postural control against normal postural control may help diagnose mTBI. However, in the current literature, little is known regarding the normal pattern of postural control in young children. This study was therefore conducted as an effort to fill this knowledge gap. Eight normal school-aged children participated. Posture assessment was conducted before (7-8 a.m. in the morning) and after (4-7 p.m. in the afternoon) school on regular school days using the Balance Master® evaluation system composed of 3 static tests and 2 dynamic balance tests. A significant difference in the weight-bearing squats was detected between morning hours and afternoon hours (P control of the lateral rhythmic weight shifts was observed at the end of the afternoon than at morning hours (P posture control in humans. On a regular school day, the capacity of postural control and laterality or medio-lateral balance in children varies between morning and afternoon hours. We suggest that posturographic assessment in children, either in normal (e.g., physical education and sports training) or in abnormal conditions (e.g., mTBI-associated balance disorders), be better performed late in the afternoon.

  18. Blood pressure and blood flow variation during postural change from sitting to standing: model development and validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olufsen, M.S.; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Tran, H.T.

    2005-01-01

    dynamic changes in beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity during postural change from sitting to standing. Our cardiovascular model utilizes 11 compartments to describe blood pressure, blood flow, compliance, and resistance in the heart and systemic circulation....... To include dynamics due to the pulsatile nature of blood pressure and blood flow, resistances in the large systemic arteries are modeled using nonlinear functions of pressure. A physiologically based submodel is used to describe effects of gravity on venous blood pooling during postural change. Two types...... of control mechanisms are included: 1) autonomic regulation mediated by sympathetic and parasympathetic responses, which affect heart rate, cardiac contractility, resistance, and compliance, and 2) autoregulation mediated by responses to local changes in myogenic tone, metabolic demand, and CO2 concentration...

  19. Public health in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Andreeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several months in 2013 and 2014 have been a hardly predictable time in Ukraine, and the situation is still far from being stable. This made the editorial team of TCPHEE based in Ukraine postpone publishing consecutive issues. However, while the situation still requires practical steps, many aspects including those related to public health require analysis and debate. Thus we invite opinion pieces and studies addressing all different spheres of how public health should function under changing social circumstances. There might be a wide range of such related topics. The most obvious ones are those linked to changing living conditions. Many studies have been undertaken and published with regard to health threats to refugees, people involved in natural or technical disasters (Noji, 2005. Along with environmental health threats, there might be mental health disturbances (World Health Organization, 1992 resulting from long-term strain, losses et cetera. Another important focus is related to changes in health services provision. Crimea, which is a former Ukrainian territory now occupied by the Russian Federation, was among those in Ukraine highly affected with HIV (Dehne, Khodakevich, Hamers, & Schwartlander, 1999. This was responded by several NGOs actively providing harm reduction services to high-risk groups along with methadone substitution therapy to opiate users and antiretroviral medicines to those HIV-infected (Curtis, 2010. However, there are news reports that Russia is going to stop provision of methadone (kommersant.ru, 2014. As opiate substitution programs have been shown an effective approach towards preventing HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (MacArthur et al., 2012, such change in public health policies might affect not only most at risk populations but their partners and population as a whole as well resulting in a rapid spread of HIV. Yet another related topic is that of how health services can be organized at times of

  20. Effects of Changes of Foot Position on Romberg's Quotient of Postural Sway and Leg Muscles Electromyographic Activities in Standing

    OpenAIRE

    Morioka, Shu; Okita, Manabu; Takata, Yu; Miyamoto, Shozo; Itaba, Hideyuki

    2000-01-01

    Changing of standing position and visual blocking methods have been used as a convenient evaluation of standing balance by physical therapists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of changes of foot positions on Romberg's quotient of postural sway and the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles activities in standing for normal men. Subjects were 45 college students. For the measurement of muscles activities, 15 subjects were selected at random from among the 45 stude...

  1. Influence on intraocular pressure of the postural change and daily activities in the early morning in suspected glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Chen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the influence on intraocular pressure(IOPof the postural change and daily activities in the early morning in suspected glaucoma patients.METHODS:The supine and sitting IOP were measured and analyzed on 51 suspected glaucoma patients(100 eyeswith Icare rebound tonometer before and after getting up and daily activities in the early morning. RESULTS: The mean of sitting IOP of 51 patients was 17.12±4.53mmHg, which was significantly lower than the mean of supine IOP(19.14±5.51mmHg. The mean of IOP before and after daily activity of 51 patients were 17.12±4.53mmHg and 14.44±3.90mmHg respectively, which showed significantly difference. CONCLUSION:Postural change and daily activities can result in significant changes of IOP in suspected glaucoma patients.

  2. The influence of athletic status on maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics and postural balance performance in Division I female soccer athletes and non-athlete controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ty B; Hawkey, Matt J; Thiele, Ryan M; Conchola, Eric C; Adams, Bailey M; Akehi, Kazuma; Smith, Doug B; Thompson, Brennan J

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles and postural balance performance to discriminate between female collegiate soccer athletes and non-athlete controls. Ten athletes (mean ± SE: age = 19·20 ± 0·36 year; mass = 62·23 ± 3·12 kg; height = 162·43 ± 1·70 cm) and 10 non-athletes (age = 20·30 ± 0·40 year; mass = 69·64 ± 3·20 kg; height = 163·22 ± 2·10 cm) performed two isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the hip extensor muscles. Peak torque (PT) and absolute and relative rate of torque development (RTD) at early (0-50 ms) and late (100-200 ms) phases of muscle contraction were examined during each MVC. Postural balance was assessed using a commercially designed balance testing device, which provides a measurement of static stability based on sway index (SI). Results indicated that absolute and relative RTD at 0-50 ms (RTD50 and RTD50norm) were greater (P = 0·007 and 0·026), and postural SI was lower (P = 0·022) in the athletes compared with the non-athletes. However, no differences (P = 0·375-0·709) were observed for PT nor absolute and relative RTD at 100-200 ms (RTD100-200 and RTD100-200norm). Significant relationships were also observed between RTD50 and RTD50norm and SI (r = -0·559 and -0·521; P = 0·010 and 0·019). These findings suggest that early rapid torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles and postural balance performance may be sensitive and effective measures for discriminating between college-aged athletes and non-athletes. Coaches and practitioners may use these findings as performance evaluation tools to help in identifying athletes with both superior early rapid torque and balance performance abilities, which may possibly be an indicator of overall athletic potential. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John

  3. Retention of finger blood flow against postural change as an indicator of successful sympathetic block in the upper limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakatani T

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Toshihiko Nakatani,1 Tatsuya Hashimoto,2 Ichiro Sutou,2 Yoji Saito3 1Department of Palliative Care, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, 2Palliative Care Center, Shimane University Hospital, Izumo, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, Izumo, Japan Background: Sympathetic block in the upper limb has diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic utility for disorders in the upper extremity that are associated with sympathetic disturbances. Increased skin temperature and decreased sweating are used to identify the adequacy of sympathetic block in the upper limb after stellate ganglion block (SGB. Baroreflexes elicited by postural change induce a reduction in peripheral blood flow by causing sympathetic vasoconstriction. We hypothesized that sympathetic block in the upper limb reduces the decrease in finger blood flow caused by baroreflexes stimulated by postural change from the supine to long sitting position. This study evaluated if sympathetic block of the upper limb affects the change in finger blood flow resulting from postural change. If change in finger blood flow would be kept against postural changes, it has a potential to be a new indicator of sympathetic blockade in the upper limb.Methods: Subjects were adult patients who had a check-up at the Department of Pain Management in our university hospital over 2 years and 9 months from May 2012. We executed a total of 91 SGBs in nine patients (N=9, which included those requiring treatment for pain associated with herpes zoster in seven of the patients, tinnitus in one patient and upper limb pain in one patient. We checked for the following four signs after performing SGB: Horner’s sign, brachial nerve blockade, finger blood flow measured by a laser blood flow meter and skin temperature of the thumb measured by thermography, before and after SGB in the supine position and immediately after adopting the long sitting position.Results: We executed a total of

  4. The development and validation of using inertial sensors to monitor postural change in resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleadhill, Sam; Lee, James Bruce; James, Daniel

    2016-05-03

    This research presented and validated a method of assessing postural changes during resistance exercise using inertial sensors. A simple lifting task was broken down to a series of well-defined tasks, which could be examined and measured in a controlled environment. The purpose of this research was to determine whether timing measures obtained from inertial sensor accelerometer outputs are able to provide accurate, quantifiable information of resistance exercise movement patterns. The aim was to complete a timing measure validation of inertial sensor outputs. Eleven participants completed five repetitions of 15 different deadlift variations. Participants were monitored with inertial sensors and an infrared three dimensional motion capture system. Validation was undertaken using a Will Hopkins Typical Error of the Estimate, with a Pearson׳s correlation and a Bland Altman Limits of Agreement analysis. Statistical validation measured the timing agreement during deadlifts, from inertial sensor outputs and the motion capture system. Timing validation results demonstrated a Pearson׳s correlation of 0.9997, with trivial standardised error (0.026) and standardised bias (0.002). Inertial sensors can now be used in practical settings with as much confidence as motion capture systems, for accelerometer timing measurements of resistance exercise. This research provides foundations for inertial sensors to be applied for qualitative activity recognition of resistance exercise and safe lifting practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thermal sensation during mild hyperthermia is modulated by acute postural change in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Ryosuke; Imai, Daiki; Suzuki, Akina; Ota, Akemi; Naghavi, Nooshin; Yamashina, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Yoshikazu; Yokoyama, Hisayo; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Okazaki, Kazunobu

    2016-12-01

    Thermal sensation represents the primary stimulus for behavioral and autonomic thermoregulation. We assessed whether the sensation of skin and core temperatures for the driving force of behavioral thermoregulation was modified by postural change from the supine (Sup) to sitting (Sit) during mild hyperthermia. Seventeen healthy young men underwent measurements of noticeable increase and decrease (±0.1 °C/s) of skin temperature (thresholds of warm and cold sensation on the skin, 6.25 cm2 of area) at the forearm and chest and of the whole-body warm sensation in the Sup and Sit during normothermia (NT; esophageal temperature (Tes), ˜36.6 °C) and mild hyperthermia (HT; Tes, ˜37.2 °C; lower legs immersion in 42 °C of water). The threshold for cold sensation on the skin at chest was lower during HT than NT in the Sit ( P cold on the skin and more whole-body warmth.

  6. Postural change in intraocular pressure: a comparison of measurement with a Goldmann tonometer, Tonopen XL, pneumatonometer, and HA-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkana, Yaniv

    2014-01-01

    To compare directly the results of 4 tonometers in measuring postural change in the intraocular pressure (IOP) between sitting and lying body positions. In 19 healthy subjects, the IOP was measured both eyes with a Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) while sitting, then using the same GAT with the subject in the left lateral decubitus position after lying for 15 minutes, using a novel system comprising a motorized bed and a modified slit-lamp table. On the next day, the sitting IOP was measured in 1 eye using GAT, and additionally in random order Tonopen XL and pneumatonometer. Then subjects were asked to lie down, and the IOP was measured with these tonometers and also with a hand-held applanation tonometer (HA-2) after lying for 15 minutes and for 45 minutes; measurements were made with subjects in the supine position except with GAT. There were 10 male and 9 female subjects, with a mean age of 33.0±12.4 years. On day 1, the sitting GAT IOP (mm Hg) was 13.7±3.0 right eye and 13.6±2.8 left eye (P=0.7) and the lying GAT IOP was 17.8±3.5 right eye and 18.1±3.2 left eye (P=0.3 for inter-eye postural IOP change). Postural change in the right and the left eyes was moderately correlated, with a coefficient of 0.453. On day 2, postural changes after lying for 15 minutes as measured with a GAT, a Tonopen, a pneumatonometer, and a HA-2 were 4.9±2.6, 1.6±1.8, 4.2±2.0, and 3.1±2.7, respectively. After lying for 45 minutes, it decreased to 3.3±2.1, 1.1±4.3, 3.1±2.5, and 2.6±3.3, respectively; this IOP decrease was statistically significant for the GAT and the pneumatonometer. The inter-subject variability was large, as in some subjects there was nearly no postural change in the IOP, whereas in some the IOP increased by 8 to 10 mm Hg. Ninety-five percent limits of agreement showed a poor agreement between GAT and the other 3 tonometers in the sitting and lying IOPs and postural IOP changes measured. The average postural IOP change was similar when measured with

  7. Diurnal changes in postural control in normal children: Computerized static and dynamic assessments

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    Sophie Bourelle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI causes postural control deficits and accordingly comparison of aberrant postural control against normal postural control may help diagnose mTBI. However, in the current literature, little is known regarding the normal pattern of postural control in young children. This study was therefore conducted as an effort to fill this knowledge gap. Eight normal school-aged children participated. Posture assessment was conducted before (7-8 a.m. in the morning and after (4-7 p.m. in the afternoon school on regular school days using the Balance Master ® evaluation system composed of 3 static tests and 2 dynamic balance tests. A significant difference in the weight-bearing squats was detected between morning hours and afternoon hours (P < 0.05. By end of afternoon, the body weight was borne mainly on the left side with the knee fully extended and at various degrees of knee flexion. A significantly better directional control of the lateral rhythmic weight shifts was observed at the end of the afternoon than at morning hours (P < 0.05. In summary, most of our findings are inconsistent with results from previous studies in adults, suggesting age-related differences in posture control in humans. On a regular school day, the capacity of postural control and laterality or medio-lateral balance in children varies between morning and afternoon hours. We suggest that posturographic assessment in children, either in normal (e.g., physical education and sports training or in abnormal conditions (e.g., mTBI-associated balance disorders, be better performed late in the afternoon.

  8. Auditory stimulation with music influences the geometric indices of heart rate variability in response to the postural change maneuver

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca C. R. de Castro; Heraldo L Guida; Adriano L Roque; Luiz Carlos de Abreu; Celso Ferreira; Renata S Marcomini; Carlos B. M. Monteiro; Fernando Adami; Viviane F Ribeiro; Fernando L. A. Fonseca; Vilma N. S. Santos; Vitor E Valenti

    2014-01-01

    It is poor in the literature the behavior of the geometric indices of heart rate variability (HRV) during the musical auditory stimulation. The objective is to investigate the acute effects of classic musical auditory stimulation on the geometric indexes of HRV in women in response to the postural change maneuver (PCM). We evaluated 11 healthy women between 18 and 25 years old. We analyzed the following indices: Triangular index, Triangular interpolation of RR intervals and Poincarι plot (sta...

  9. Comparison of Abdominal Muscles Thickness Changes Different Postures beween Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain Patients and Healthy Males by Ultrasonography

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    Omid Rasouli

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: Abdominal muscles respond to postural changes and these muscles are automatically targeted by decreasing the seated stability. In non–specific chronic low back pain patients, activity of Transvers Abdominis was decreased and activity of Rectus Abdominis was increased.

  10. Changes in falling risk depending on induced axis directions of astigmatism on static posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Yeob; Moon, Byeong-Yeon; Cho, Hyun Gug

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] To assess the changes in falling risk depending on the induced axis direction of astigmatism using cylindrical lenses in a static posture. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty subjects (10 males, 10 females; mean age, 23.4 ± 2.70 years) fully corrected by subjective refraction participated. To induce myopic simple astigmatism conditions, cylindrical lenses of +0.50, +1.00, +1.50, +2.00, +3.00, +4.00, and +5.00 D were used. The direction of astigmatic axes were induced under five conditions with increased cylindrical powers:, 180°, 90°, and 45° on both eyes; 180°/90° right/left eye, and 45°/135° right/left eye. Changes in the fall risk index were analyzed using the TETRAX biofeedback system. Measurements were performed for 32 seconds for each condition. [Results] The fall risk index increased significantly from C+4.00 D in 180°/90° right/left eye, C+3.00 D in 45°/135° right/left eye, and C+3.00 D in 45° on both eyes versus corrected emmetropia. Among the five axis conditions with the same cylindrical power lenses, the increase in the fall risk index was highest at 45° in both eyes. [Conclusion] Uncorrected oblique astigmatism may increase falling risk compared to with-the-rule and against-the-rule astigmatism. Clinical specialists should consider appropriate correction of astigmatism for preventing falls, especially for uncorrected oblique astigmatism.

  11. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change provides data and information on global and regional land cover change in raster format for...

  12. The influence of changes in trunk and pelvic posture during single leg standing on hip and thigh muscle activation in a pain free population

    OpenAIRE

    Prior, Simon; Mitchell, Tim; Whiteley, Rod; O’Sullivan, Peter; Williams, Benjamin K; Racinais, Sebastien; Farooq, Abdulaziz

    2014-01-01

    Background Thigh muscle injuries commonly occur during single leg loading tasks and patterns of muscle activation are thought to contribute to these injuries. The influence trunk and pelvis posture has on hip and thigh muscle activation during single leg stance is unknown and was investigated in a pain free population to determine if changes in body posture result in consistent patterns of changes in muscle activation. Methods Hip and thigh muscle activation patterns were compared in 22 asymp...

  13. Rapid climate change: lessons from the recent geological past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jonathan; Lowe, John; Wolff, Eric; Srokosz, Meric

    2011-12-01

    Rapid, or abrupt, climate change is regarded as a change in the climate system to a new state following the crossing of a threshold. It generally occurs at a rate exceeding that of the change in the underlying cause. Episodes of rapid climate change abound in the recent geological past (defined here as the interval between the last glacial maximum, dated to approximately 20,000 years ago, and the present). Rapid climate changes are known to have occurred over time periods equal to or even less than a human lifespan: moreover, their effects on the global system are sufficiently large to have had significant societal impacts. The potential for similar events to occur in the future provides an important impetus for investigating the nature and causes of rapid climate change. This paper provides a brief overview of rapid climate change and an introduction to this special issue, which presents results generated by the palaeoclimatic component of the UK Natural Environment Research Council's rapid climate change programme, called RAPID. The papers in the special issue employ palaeoclimatic proxy data-sets obtained from marine, ice core and terrestrial archives to reconstruct rapid climate change during the last glacial cycle, its subsequent termination and the ensuing Holocene interglacial; some papers also report new attempts to match the palaeoclimate data to hypothesised causes through numerical modelling. The results confirm the importance of freshwater forcing in triggering changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) and the close links between MOC and rapid climate change. While advancing our understanding of these linkages, the RAPID research has highlighted the need for further research in order to elucidate more specific details of the mechanisms involved.

  14. Quantitative assessment of walking time and postural change in patients with COPD using a new triaxial accelerometer system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawagoshi A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Atsuyoshi Kawagoshi,1,2 Noritaka Kiyokawa,2 Keiyu Sugawara,2 Hitomi Takahashi,2 Shunichi Sakata,3 Saori Miura,4 Sachie Sawamura,5 Masahiro Satake,1 Takanobu Shioya1 1Department of Physical Therapy, Akita University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Akita, 2Department of Rehabilitation, Akita City Hospital, Akita, 3Kumamoto Technology and Industry Foundations, Kumamoto, 4Department of Rehabilitation, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, 5Department of Rehabilitation, Research Institute for Brain and Blood Vessels-Akita, Akita Prefecture Hospital Organization, Akita, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to quantify the walking time and frequency of postural changes in daily life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD using a new triaxial accelerometer system. Methods: Twenty-six elderly patients with stable COPD (age 76.8 ± 6.2 years; percent forced expiratory volume in one second [%FEV1] 52.9% ± 26.3% and 20 age-matched elderly subjects (age 73.0 ± 4.2 years; %FEV1 124.0% ± 22.3% participated in the study. The subjects’ time spent walking (slow, fast, standing, sitting, and lying down and the frequency of their postural changes (getting up, standing up were assessed for 7 consecutive days using an Activity Monitoring And Evaluation System (A-MES™. We analyzed the relationships among walking times, frequency of postural changes, and physiologic factors in both COPD patients and controls. Results: The COPD patients’ total walking time, including slow (<2 km/hour and fast (≥2 km/hour walking, and their frequency of standing up were significantly lower than those of the age-matched controls (P < 0.01. The fast walking time in daily life was significantly correlated with the 6-minute walking distance, quadriceps femoris muscle force, and dyspnea (P < 0.01. Conclusion: These results suggest that both slow (<2 km/hour and fast (≥2 km/hour walking time and frequency of postural changes is significantly

  15. Changes in Postural Control After a Ball-Kicking Balance Exercise in Individuals With Chronic Ankle Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Josilene Souza; Schaefer de Araújo, Felipe Gustavo; Santos, Gilmar Moraes; Keighley, John

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Rehabilitation programs for patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI) generally involve balance-perturbation training (BPT). Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs) are the primary strategies used to maintain equilibrium during body perturbations. Little is known, however, about how APAs and CPAs are modified to promote better postural control for individuals with CAI after BPT. Objective:  To investigate the effect of BPT that involves kicking a ball on postural-control strategies in individuals with CAI. Design:  Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting:  Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants:  We randomly assigned 44 volunteers with CAI to either a training group (TG; 11 women, 11 men; age = 24 ± 4 years, height = 173.0 ± 9.8 cm, mass = 72.64 ± 11.98 kg) or control group (CG; 11 women, 11 men; age = 22 ± 3 years, height = 171.0 ± 9.7 cm, mass = 70.00 ± 11.03 kg). Intervention(s):  The TG performed a single 30-minute training session that involved kicking a ball while standing on 1 foot. The CG received no intervention. Main Outcome Measure(s):  The primary outcome was the sum of the integrated electromyographic activity (∑∫EMG) of the lower extremity muscles in the supporting limb that were calculated during typical intervals for APAs and CPAs. A secondary outcome was center-of-pressure displacement during similar intervals. Results:  In the TG after training, the ∑∫EMG decreased in both dorsal and ventral muscles during compensatory adjustment (ie, the time interval that followed lower limb movement). During this interval, muscle activity (∑∫EMG) was less in the TG than in the CG. Consequently, center-of-pressure displacement increased during the task after training. Conclusions:  A single session of ball-kicking BPT promoted changes in postural-control strategies in individuals with CAI. These results should stimulate new and more comprehensive studies to

  16. Effect of postural change on intraocular pressure fluctuation in open angle glaucoma patients after trabeculectomy

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    Wei Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To study the effect of postural change on intraocular pressure(IOPfluctuation in open angle glaucoma patients after trabeculectomy, and to discuss the value of this investigation on prognosis. METHODS: Fifty-one cases(62 eyesof primary open angle glaucoma were selected as the research object. Perkins ophthalmotonometer was used to test IOP at the time when patient seat(first seat. The patients were asked to lie supine for 25min, detected IOP, and the patients seated again(final seat, sustaining for 15min, detected IOP. According to whether the IOP range was more than 5mmHg, they were divided into high volatility fluctuation group and low volatility fluctuation group. We recorded their visual field progression(with AGIS score, HPA staging, in order to evaluate the correlation of IOP range with them. Reviews were made 3mo a time, and lasted for 1a, in order to evaluate the relation between IOP range and AGIS scores.RESULTS: The IOP of first seat was 18.1+2.2mmHg. There was no significant difference in the same position(P>0.05. The IOP range was 4.1±1.5mmHg. Low volatility fluctuation group was more likely to have low AGIS score and to be early vision HPA(PPr=0.412, PPCONCLUSION: Visual field progression is related to the degree of IOP fluctuation in open angle glaucoma patients after trabeculectomy, so we can predict the prognosis of patients simply by detect IOP fluctuation. This is good to adjust the IOP control scheme.

  17. P3-25: Creativity in Drawing: The Role of Visual Perception in Postural Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Nishizaki

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing is a complex and uniquely human activity that involves motoric, perceptual, and conceptual processes. Realistic drawing usually requires several hours for depicting structure, texture, and shadow. This study, based on Gibson's ecological approach, treated vision as perceptual systems (Gibson, 1966 The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems for the purpose of understanding the process by which a realistic depiction is drawn on a surface. Two experiments examined the role of visual perception in drawing. Each task was performed under two typical conditions. In Experiment 1 (“vertical”, the participant, a skilled individual who had more than 7 years of experience with art, performed the drawing with an easel. In Experiment 2, (“horizontal” this participant performed the drawing without an easel. The coordination of the actions that comprised the drawing process were examined according to the points at which shifts in behavior occurred. Observations revealed that perceptual–motor coordination can be classified into four basic patterns: (A head and torso movements, (B looking at objects, (C depicting by hand, and (D looking at the picture. The drawing process is characterized by transitions in the frequency and duration of combinations of these patterns. In particular, combinations including (A influenced the results of both Experiment 1 and Experiment 2. Moreover, the combination of (A and (D was more frequent under the vertical than the horizontal condition. These findings suggest that the control of the looking-and-depicting seemed to be supported by flexibility in postural changes and in the direction of the drawing surface.

  18. Effect of postural changes on aldosterone to plasma renin ratio in patients with suspected secondary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barigou, M; Ah-Kang, F; Orloff, E; Amar, J; Chamontin, B; Bouhanick, B

    2015-06-01

    To study the influence of postural changes on aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) in patients with suspected secondary hypertension and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the recommended seated ARR compared to supine and upright ARR for primary aldosteronism screening. Fifty-three hypertensive patients were prospectively hospitalized for secondary hypertension exploration (age: 51 ± 12, 66% males). After withdrawal of drugs interfering with renin angiotensin system, plasma aldosterone and direct renin concentration were measured in the morning, at bed after an overnight supine position, then out of bed after 1 hour of upright position and finally 2 hours later after 15 minutes of seating. Minimal renin value was set at 5 μUI/mL. Referring to ARR cut-off of 23 pg/μUI, the sensitivity of seated ARR was 57.1% and specificity was 92.3%. The negative and positive predictive values were 95.1% and 45.2% respectively. Compared to these results, a cut-off of 19 improved sensitivity to 85.7% with a specificity of 89.7%. Negative and positive predictive values were 98.3% and 41.1% respectively. Seated ARR mean value was lower than supine and upright ARR mean values, due to an overall increase in renin at seating compared to the supine position by factor 1.9 while aldosterone just slightly increased by factor 1.2. Seated ARR correlated to supine and upright ARR: correlation coefficients (r) 0.90 and 0.93 respectively (P<0.001). Current recommended measurement of ARR in the seating position is fairly correlated to supine and upright ARR. A suggested cut-off value of 19 instead of 23 pg/μUI increased the discriminating power of this test. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Regional changes in spine posture at lift onset with changes in lift distance and lift style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, K.P.; Bennet, S.J.; Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. Repeated measures experiment. OBJECTIVE. To determine the effect of changes in horizontal lift distance on the amount of flexion, at lift onset, in different spine regions when using different lift styles. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. By approximating spine bending during lifting as a

  20. Are rapid changes in brain elasticity possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, K. J.

    2017-09-01

    Elastography of the brain is a topic of clinical and preclinical research, motivated by the potential for viscoelastic measures of the brain to provide sensitive indicators of pathological processes, and to assist in early diagnosis. To date, studies of the normal brain and of those with confirmed neurological disorders have reported a wide range of shear stiffness and shear wave speeds, even within similar categories. A range of factors including the shear wave frequency, and the age of the individual are thought to have a possible influence. However, it may be that short term dynamics within the brain may have an influence on the measured stiffness. This hypothesis is addressed quantitatively using the framework of the microchannel flow model, which derives the tissue stiffness, complex modulus, and shear wave speed as a function of the vascular and fluid network in combination with the elastic matrix that comprise the brain. Transformation rules are applied so that any changes in the fluid channels or the elastic matrix can be mapped to changes in observed elastic properties on a macroscopic scale. The results are preliminary but demonstrate that measureable, time varying changes in brain stiffness are possible simply by accounting for vasodynamic or electrochemical changes in the state of any region of the brain. The value of this preliminary exploration is to identify possible mechanisms and order-of-magnitude changes that may be testable in vivo by specialized protocols.

  1. Tongue posture improvement and pharyngeal airway enlargement as secondary effects of rapid maxillary expansion: a cone-beam computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Tomonori; Saitoh, Issei; Takemoto, Yoshihiko; Inada, Emi; Kakuno, Eriko; Kanomi, Ryuzo; Hayasaki, Haruaki; Yamasaki, Youichi

    2013-02-01

    Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is known to improve nasal airway ventilation. Recent evidence suggests that RME is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea in children with maxillary constriction. However, the effect of RME on tongue posture and pharyngeal airway volume in children with nasal airway obstruction is not clear. In this study, we evaluated these effects using cone-beam computed tomography. Twenty-eight treatment subjects (mean age 9.96 ± 1.21 years) who required RME treatment had cone-beam computed tomography images taken before and after RME. Twenty control subjects (mean age 9.68 ± 1.02 years) received regular orthodontic treatment. Nasal airway ventilation was analyzed by using computational fluid dynamics, and intraoral airway (the low tongue space between tongue and palate) and pharyngeal airway volumes were measured. Intraoral airway volume decreased significantly in the RME group from 1212.9 ± 1370.9 mm(3) before RME to 279.7 ± 472.0 mm(3) after RME. Nasal airway ventilation was significantly correlated with intraoral airway volume. The increase of pharyngeal airway volume in the control group (1226.3 ± 1782.5 mm(3)) was only 41% that of the RME group (3015.4 ± 1297.6 mm(3)). In children with nasal obstruction, RME not only reduces nasal obstruction but also raises tongue posture and enlarges the pharyngeal airway. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Human young children as well as adults demonstrate 'superior' rapid snake detection when typical striking posture is displayed by the snake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Masataka

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans as well as some nonhuman primates have an evolved predisposition to associate snakes with fear by detecting their presence as fear-relevant stimuli more rapidly than fear-irrelevant ones. In the present experiment, a total of 74 of 3- to 4-year-old children and adults were asked to find a single target black-and-white photo of a snake among an array of eight black-and-white photos of flowers as distracters. As target stimuli, we prepared two groups of snake photos, one in which a typical striking posture was displayed by a snake and the other in which a resting snake was shown. When reaction time to find the snake photo was compared between these two types of the stimuli, its mean value was found to be significantly smaller for the photos of snakes displaying striking posture than for the photos of resting snakes in both the adults and children. These findings suggest the possibility that the human perceptual bias for snakes per se could be differentiated according to the difference of the degree to which their presence acts as a fear-relevant stimulus.

  3. Postural dependence of human locomotion during gait initiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mille, Marie-Laure; Simoneau, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The initiation of human walking involves postural motor actions for body orientation and balance stabilization that must be effectively integrated with locomotion to allow safe and efficient transport. Our ability to coordinately adapt these functions to environmental or bodily changes through error-based motor learning is essential to effective performance. Predictive compensations for postural perturbations through anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) that stabilize mediolateral (ML) standing balance normally precede and accompany stepping. The temporal sequencing between these events may involve neural processes that suppress stepping until the expected stability conditions are achieved. If so, then an unexpected perturbation that disrupts the ML APAs should delay locomotion. This study investigated how the central nervous system (CNS) adapts posture and locomotion to perturbations of ML standing balance. Healthy human adults initiated locomotion while a resistance force was applied at the pelvis to perturb posture. In experiment 1, using random perturbations, step onset timing was delayed relative to the APA onset indicating that locomotion was withheld until expected stability conditions occurred. Furthermore, stepping parameters were adapted with the APAs indicating that motor prediction of the consequences of the postural changes likely modified the step motor command. In experiment 2, repetitive postural perturbations induced sustained locomotor aftereffects in some parameters (i.e., step height), immediate but rapidly readapted aftereffects in others, or had no aftereffects. These results indicated both rapid but transient reactive adaptations in the posture and gait assembly and more durable practice-dependent changes suggesting feedforward adaptation of locomotion in response to the prevailing postural conditions. PMID:25231611

  4. Rapidly changing flows in the Earth's core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Mandea, M.

    2008-01-01

    recently been used to investigate small-scale core flow(3,4), but no advantage has yet been taken of the improved temporal resolution, partly because the filtering effect of the electrically conducting mantle was assumed to mask short-period magnetic variations(5). Here we show that changes in the magnetic...

  5. Time course and dimensions of postural control changes following neuromuscular training in youth field hockey athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Astrid; Klahn, Philipp; Hoeft, Jon; zu Eulenburg, Christine; Steib, Simon

    2014-02-01

    Injury prevention effects of neuromuscular training have been partly attributed to postural control adaptations. Uncertainty exists regarding the magnitude of these adaptations and on how they can be adequately monitored. The objective was to determine the time course of neuromuscular training effects on functional, dynamic and static balance measures. Thirty youth (14.9 ± 3 years) field hockey athletes were randomised to an intervention or control group. The intervention included a 20-min neuromuscular warm-up program performed twice weekly for 10 weeks. Balance assessments were performed at baseline, week three, week six and post-intervention. They included the star excursion balance test (SEBT), balance error scoring system (BESS), jump-landing time to stabilization (TTS) and center of pressure (COP) sway velocity during single-leg standing. No baseline differences were found between groups in demographic data and balance measures. Adherence was at 86%. All balance measures except the medial-lateral TTS improved significantly over time (p controls (31.8 ± 22.1%). There were no significant group by time interactions in the SEBT, TTS and COP sway velocity. Neuromuscular training was effective in improving postural control in youth team athletes. However, this effect was not reflected in all balance measures suggesting that the neuromuscular training did not influence all dimensions of postural control. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential of specific warm-up programs to improve postural control.

  6. Evaluating Behavioral Self-Monitoring with Accuracy Training for Changing Computer Work Postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Nicole E.; Loewy, Shannon; Rice, Anna; Austin, John

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to replicate and extend a study by Gravina, Austin, Schroedter, and Loewy (2008). A similar self-monitoring procedure, with the addition of self-monitoring accuracy training, was implemented to increase the percentage of observations in which participants worked in neutral postures. The accuracy training…

  7. Social psychiatry in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. J. Craig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many societies around the world are experiencing a period of unprecedented change in traditional social roles and customs. Globalisation has contributed to materialism and a me-first individualism that heightens awareness of income inequality that itself is one of the most robust markers of unhappiness in society. Ever increasing urbanisation has driven an erosion of large ‘joint’ family arrangements to be replaced by smaller and relatively isolated nuclear families and single parent living. Mass migration has unmasked deep seated fear and prejudice towards the outsider in society. These global changes are fertile ground for the social conditions that have long been known to be risks for mental illness – poverty, poor quality child care, social isolation and the active discrimination and exclusion of the alien, the physically disabled and mentally ill. While there is little we can do to reverse global change, there is much a social psychiatrist can do to mitigate the effect, ensuring his/her voice is added to other calls for reducing discriminatory practice, promoting evidence-based social interventions such as parenting advice and peer support and ensuring that the success of a treatment is measured not just in terms of symptomatic improvement but in whether it results in an outcome that is valued by the patient.

  8. Postural changes in obese and non-obese children and adolescents. 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n6p448

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rosa da Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached epidemic proportions over recent years and is related to cardiovascular risk factors, as well as to the occurrence of postural changes in adults, children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of postural abnormalities and pain in schoolchildren. Fifty-one children and adolescents of both genders aged 9-17 years were divided into an obese (n = 33 and a non-obese group (n = 18. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index. A questionnaire was used to assess the presence or absence of pain. Postural deviations of the shoulder, head and knees were analyzed by photometry using the Corel Draw12 software for the determination of angular measures and size. Obese boys showed greater postural changes in the region of the knees than non-obese ones (p<0.001. No significant differences in any of the regions analyzed were observed for girls. On the other hand, the prevalence of pain was significantly higher among obese girls than among non-obese girls. We conclude that postural changes are not limited to obese children, but excess weight may increase this deviation. Further studies are needed to diagnose these changes during childhood in order to permit early intervention and good posture in adult life.

  9. Postural changes in obese and non-obese children and adolescents.DOI:10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n6p448

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rosa da Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has reached epidemic proportions over recent years and is related to cardiovascular risk factors, as well as to the occurrence of postural changes in adults, children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of postural abnormalities and pain in schoolchildren. Fifty-one children and adolescents of both genders aged 9-17 years were divided into an obese (n = 33 and a non-obese group (n = 18. Weight and height were measured to calculate the body mass index. A questionnaire was used to assess the presence or absence of pain. Postural deviations of the shoulder, head and knees were analyzed by photometry using the Corel Draw12 software for the determination of angular measures and size. Obese boys showed greater postural changes in the region of the knees than non-obese ones (p<0.001. No significant differences in any of the regions analyzed were observed for girls. On the other hand, the prevalence of pain was significantly higher among obese girls than among non-obese girls. We conclude that postural changes are not limited to obese children, but excess weight may increase this deviation. Further studies are needed to diagnose these changes during childhood in order to permit early intervention and good posture in adult life.

  10. Effects on the Treatments in Physical Therapy with the Wii Fit Plus Balance Board Concerning the Postural Changes on Children Suffering Spastics Hemiparesis. Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Fernanda Córdoba Castillo; Viviana Carolina Gómez Lozano; Leidy Karina Tello Fernández; Luz Ángela Tovar Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study tried to determine the effects on the treatments in physical therapy with the Wii Balance Board and Wii Fit Plus __both of Wii, Nintendo Company Limited__ concerning the postural changes on children suffering spastics hemiparesis. Material and methods: Longitudinal cohort case studies done with two children, from the municipality of Popayán, suffering cerebral palsy type spastic hemiparesis. This children had a test on static posture with the software APIC v. 2.0, pre...

  11. Load Dependency of Postural Control--Kinematic and Neuromuscular Changes in Response to over and under Load Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ritzmann

    Full Text Available Load variation is associated with changes in joint torque and compensatory reflex activation and thus, has a considerable impact on balance control. Previous studies dealing with over (OL and under loading (UL used water buoyancy or additional weight with the side effects of increased friction and inertia, resulting in substantially modified test paradigms. The purpose of this study was to identify gravity-induced load dependency of postural control in comparable experimental conditions and to determine the underlying neuromuscular mechanisms.Balance performance was recorded under normal loading (NL, 1 g, UL (0.16 g 0.38 g and OL (1.8 g in monopedal stance. Center of pressure (COP displacement and frequency distribution (low 0.15-0.5 Hz (LF, medium 0.5-2 Hz (MF, high 2-6 Hz (HF as well as ankle, knee and hip joint kinematics were assessed. Soleus spinal excitability was determined by H/M-recruitment curves (H/M-ratios.Compared to NL, OL caused an increase in ankle joint excursion, COP HF domain and H/M-ratio. Concomitantly, hip joint excursion and COP LF decreased. Compared to NL, UL caused modulations in the opposite direction: UL decreased ankle joint excursions, COP HF and H/M-ratio. Collaterally, hip joint excursion and COP LF increased. COP was augmented both in UL and in OL compared to NL.Subjects achieved postural stability in OL and UL with greater difficulty compared to NL. Reduced postural control was accompanied by modified balance strategies and compensatory reflex activation. With increasing load, a shift from hip to ankle strategy was observed. Accompanying, COP frequency distribution shifted from LF to HF and spinal excitability was enhanced. It is suggested that in OL, augmented ankle joint torques are compensated by quick reflex-induced postural reactions in distal muscles. Contrarily, UL is associated with diminished joint torques and thus, postural equilibrium may be controlled by the proximal segments to adjust the center of

  12. Load Dependency of Postural Control--Kinematic and Neuromuscular Changes in Response to over and under Load Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Freyler, Kathrin; Weltin, Elmar; Krause, Anne; Gollhofer, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Load variation is associated with changes in joint torque and compensatory reflex activation and thus, has a considerable impact on balance control. Previous studies dealing with over (OL) and under loading (UL) used water buoyancy or additional weight with the side effects of increased friction and inertia, resulting in substantially modified test paradigms. The purpose of this study was to identify gravity-induced load dependency of postural control in comparable experimental conditions and to determine the underlying neuromuscular mechanisms. Balance performance was recorded under normal loading (NL, 1 g), UL (0.16 g 0.38 g) and OL (1.8 g) in monopedal stance. Center of pressure (COP) displacement and frequency distribution (low 0.15-0.5 Hz (LF), medium 0.5-2 Hz (MF), high 2-6 Hz (HF)) as well as ankle, knee and hip joint kinematics were assessed. Soleus spinal excitability was determined by H/M-recruitment curves (H/M-ratios). Compared to NL, OL caused an increase in ankle joint excursion, COP HF domain and H/M-ratio. Concomitantly, hip joint excursion and COP LF decreased. Compared to NL, UL caused modulations in the opposite direction: UL decreased ankle joint excursions, COP HF and H/M-ratio. Collaterally, hip joint excursion and COP LF increased. COP was augmented both in UL and in OL compared to NL. Subjects achieved postural stability in OL and UL with greater difficulty compared to NL. Reduced postural control was accompanied by modified balance strategies and compensatory reflex activation. With increasing load, a shift from hip to ankle strategy was observed. Accompanying, COP frequency distribution shifted from LF to HF and spinal excitability was enhanced. It is suggested that in OL, augmented ankle joint torques are compensated by quick reflex-induced postural reactions in distal muscles. Contrarily, UL is associated with diminished joint torques and thus, postural equilibrium may be controlled by the proximal segments to adjust the center of

  13. Word-Induced Postural Changes Reflect a Tight Interaction Between Motor and Lexico-Semantic Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiller, Douglas M.; Bourguignon, Nicolas; Frak, Victor; Nazir, Tatjana; Cadoret, Geneviève; Robert, Maxime; Lemay, Martin

    2013-01-01

    A tight coupling between lexico-semantic access and motor control has been established on the basis of neuropsychological, neurophysiological, and behavioral evidence. For example, sensory and motor cortices have been shown to be active when subjects listen to words denoting bodily actions. Kinematic analyses of participants’ motor actions during the processing of linguistic stimuli provide further insights into the nature and time-course of this relationship. However, such studies have largely focused on individual body parts, in particular the upper limbs, thus neglecting the effect of language processing on lower or whole body representations. The present study bridges this gap by evaluating the interaction between linguistic processing and wholebody postural control during quiet standing. The results reveal a systematic influence of passive listening to action verbs, but not mental-state verbs, on measures of postural control, pointing to a clear and specific neural link between words conveying action concepts and whole-body motor functions. PMID:24051340

  14. Rethinking species’ ability to cope with rapid climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hof, Christian; Levinsky, Irina; Bastos Araujo, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is assumed to be exceptional because of its unprecedented velocity. However, new geophysical research suggests that dramatic climatic changes during the Late Pleistocene occurred extremely rapid, over just a few years. These abrupt climatic changes may have been even faster...... species' ability to cope with climate change, and that lessons must be learned for modelling future impacts of climate change on species....

  15. Effect of postural changes on ICP in healthy and ill subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lonnie G; Juhler, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    of a solitary clearly demarcated small brain tumour and fitted with a telemetric ICP monitoring device for long-term ICP monitoring; 27 patients requiring invasive ICP monitoring as a part of their diagnostic work-up or monitoring of shunt treatment effect. ICP was recorded in the following body positions...... us to distinguish the normal group from patient groups. Normal patients appear able to more tightly regulate ICP when switching body postures....

  16. Changes in postural control in patients with Parkinson's disease: a posturographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doná, F; Aquino, C C; Gazzola, J M; Borges, V; Silva, S M C A; Ganança, F F; Caovilla, H H; Ferraz, H B

    2016-09-01

    Postural instability is one of the most disabling features in Parkinson's disease (PD), and often leads to falls that reduce mobility and functional capacity. The objectives of this study were to analyse the limit of stability (LOS) and influence of the manipulation of visual, somatosensorial and visual-vestibular information on postural control in patients with PD and healthy subjects. Cross-sectional. Movement Disorders Unit, university setting. Eighty-two subjects aged between 37 and 83 years: 41 with Parkinson's disease in the 'on' state and 41 healthy subjects with no neurological disorders. Both groups were matched in terms of sex and age. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)-motor score, modified Hoehn and Yahr staging, Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) and posturography with integrated virtual reality. The parameters analysed by posturography were LOS area, area of body centre of pressure excursion and balance functional reserve in the standing position in 10 conditions (open and closed eyes, unstable surface with eyes closed, saccadic and optokinetic stimuli, and visual-vestibular interaction). The mean UPDRS motor score and DGI score were 27 [standard deviation (SD) 14] and 21 (SD 3), respectively. Thirteen participants scored between 0 and 19 points, indicating major risk of falls. Posturographic assessment showed that patients with PD had significantly lower LOS area and balance functional reserve values, and greater body sway area in all posturographic conditions compared with healthy subjects. Patients with PD have reduced LOS area and greater postural sway compared with healthy subjects. The deterioration in postural control was significantly associated with major risk of falls. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in neck muscle electromyography and forward head posture of children when carrying schoolbags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M H; Yi, C H; Kwon, O Y; Cho, S H; Yoo, W G

    2008-06-01

    This study tested the effects of three alternative types of backpack on head posture and neck muscle electromyography (EMG) in children. Four loading conditions were tested: no pack; a backpack; a double pack; a modified double pack (designed with a backpack and a front pack weighing 10% and 5% of body weight, respectively). Dependent variables were neck muscle activity, forward head angle and forward head distance (the perpendicular distance from C7 to a vertical line through the tragus of the ear). Fifteen children were asked to walk at a speed of 0.8 m/s on a treadmill. The EMG activity of upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid and midcervical paraspinals muscles and the forward head angle and forward head distance were all significantly higher when carrying a backpack than for the other conditions. When carrying a double pack, there was a backward head posture characterised by an increased negative forward head angle, decreased forward head distance, increased sternocleidomastoid EMG signal and decreased midcervical paraspinals EMG signal, compared to carrying no pack. When carrying a modified double pack, the forward head angle and forward head distance decreased when compared to carrying a backpack. These findings indicate that the modified double pack minimises postural deviation.

  18. Rapid gene expression changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes upon practice of a comprehensive yoga program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Su; Olafsrud, Solveig Mjelstad; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Saatcioglu, Fahri

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common integrative medicine (IM) modalities is yoga and related practices. Previous work has shown that yoga may improve wellness in healthy people and have benefits for patients. However, the mechanisms of how yoga may positively affect the mind-body system are largely unknown. Here we have assessed possible rapid changes in global gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in healthy people that practiced either a comprehensive yoga program or a control regimen. The experimental sessions included gentle yoga postures, breathing exercises, and meditation (Sudarshan Kriya and Related Practices--SK&P) compared with a control regimen of a nature walk and listening to relaxing music. We show that the SK&P program has a rapid and significantly greater effect on gene expression in PBMCs compared with the control regimen. These data suggest that yoga and related practices result in rapid gene expression alterations which may be the basis for their longer term cell biological and higher level health effects.

  19. Rapid gene expression changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes upon practice of a comprehensive yoga program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Qu

    Full Text Available One of the most common integrative medicine (IM modalities is yoga and related practices. Previous work has shown that yoga may improve wellness in healthy people and have benefits for patients. However, the mechanisms of how yoga may positively affect the mind-body system are largely unknown. Here we have assessed possible rapid changes in global gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in healthy people that practiced either a comprehensive yoga program or a control regimen. The experimental sessions included gentle yoga postures, breathing exercises, and meditation (Sudarshan Kriya and Related Practices--SK&P compared with a control regimen of a nature walk and listening to relaxing music. We show that the SK&P program has a rapid and significantly greater effect on gene expression in PBMCs compared with the control regimen. These data suggest that yoga and related practices result in rapid gene expression alterations which may be the basis for their longer term cell biological and higher level health effects.

  20. Ecosystem stewardship: sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Stuart Chapin; Stephen R. Carpenter; Gary P. Kofinas; Carl Folke; Nick Abel; William C. Clark; Per Olsson; D. Mark Stafford Smith; Brian Walker; Oran R. Young; Fikret Berkes; Reinette Biggs; J. Morgan Grove; Rosamond L. Naylor; Evelyn Pinkerton; Will Steffen; Frederick J. Swanson

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem stewardship is an action-oriented framework intended to foster the social-ecological sustainability of a rapidly changing planet. Recent developments identify three strategies that make optimal use of current understanding in an environment of inevitable uncertainty and abrupt change: reducing the magnitude of, and exposure and sensitivity to, known stresses...

  1. Managing in the rapidly changing context of higher education: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher education is one of the most rapidly changing sectors of our society. Besides the rate of change in the sector there are also, as seen from the continuous media coverage, a number of universities and technikons in some form of financial or leadership crisis. Over the past years one of the main reasons given for these ...

  2. The influence of changes in trunk and pelvic posture during single leg standing on hip and thigh muscle activation in a pain free population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Simon; Mitchell, Tim; Whiteley, Rod; O'Sullivan, Peter; Williams, Benjamin K; Racinais, Sebastien; Farooq, Abdulaziz

    2014-03-27

    Thigh muscle injuries commonly occur during single leg loading tasks and patterns of muscle activation are thought to contribute to these injuries. The influence trunk and pelvis posture has on hip and thigh muscle activation during single leg stance is unknown and was investigated in a pain free population to determine if changes in body posture result in consistent patterns of changes in muscle activation. Hip and thigh muscle activation patterns were compared in 22 asymptomatic, male subjects (20-45 years old) in paired functionally relevant single leg standing test postures: Anterior vs. Posterior Trunk Sway; Anterior vs. Posterior Pelvic Rotation; Left vs. Right Trunk Shift; and Pelvic Drop vs. Raise. Surface EMG was collected from eight hip and thigh muscles calculating Root Mean Square. EMG was normalized to an "upright standing" reference posture. Repeated measures ANOVA was performed along with associated F tests to determine if there were significant differences in muscle activation between paired test postures. In right leg stance, Anterior Trunk Sway (compared to Posterior Sway) increased activity in posterior sagittal plane muscles, with a concurrent deactivation of anterior sagittal plane muscles (p: 0.016 - <0.001). Lateral hip abductor muscles increased activation during Left Trunk Shift (compared to Right) (p :≤ 0.001). Lateral Pelvic Drop (compared to Raise) decreased activity in hip abductors and increased hamstring, adductor longus and vastus lateralis activity (p: 0.037 - <0.001). Changes in both trunk and pelvic posture during single leg stance generally resulted in large, predictable changes in hip and thigh muscle activation in asymptomatic young males. Changes in trunk position in the sagittal plane and pelvis position in the frontal plane had the greatest effect on muscle activation. Investigation of these activation patterns in clinical populations such as hip and thigh muscle injuries may provide important insights into injury

  3. Girls with generalized joint hypermobility display changed muscle activity and postural sway during static balance tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, B; Johansen, Kl; Hendriksen, P

    2016-01-01

    ) of Q, H, and G muscle activity was calculated. Knee function was self-reported using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for children (KOOS-Child). RESULTS: GJH had a significantly lower lateral HQ CCI and a higher medial/lateral HQ CCI ratio in all balance tasks. Group mean EMG varied......OBJECTIVES: To study knee muscle activity and static postural sway in girls with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH). METHOD: Sixteen girls with GJH and 11 girls with non-GJH (NGJH) aged 14 years, randomly recruited among schoolchildren, participated in this study. GJH inclusion criteria were...... of pressure path length, COPL) was calculated, along with rambling and trembling components. Surface electromyography (sEMG) from the quadriceps (Q), hamstrings (H), and gastrocnemius (G) muscles was recorded, expressed as a percentage of the maximum voluntary EMG (%MVE), and the co-contraction index (CCI...

  4. The effect of short-term changes in body mass distribution on feed-forward postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Aruin, Alexander S

    2009-10-01

    It was recently shown that short-term changes in the whole body mass and associated changes in the vertical position of the center of mass (COM) modify anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) [Li X, Aruin AS. The effect of short-term changes in the body mass on anticipatory postural adjustments. Exp Brain Res 2007;181:333-46]. In this study, we investigated whether changes in the body mass distribution and related changes in the anterior-posterior COM position affect APA generation. Fourteen subjects were instructed to catch a 2.2 kg load with their arms extended while standing with no additional weight or while carrying a 9.08 kg weight. Adding weight to a backpack, front pack or belly pocket was associated with an increase of the whole body mass, but it also involved changes in the anterior-posterior (A/P) and vertical positions of the COM. Electromyographic activity of leg and trunk muscles, body kinematics, and ground reaction forces were recorded and quantified within the typical time intervals of APAs. APAs were modified in conditions with changed body mass distribution: increased magnitude of anticipatory EMG activity in leg and trunk muscles, as well as co-activation of leg muscles and decreased anticipatory displacement of the COM in the vertical direction, were seen in conditions with increased body mass. Changes in the COM position induced in both A/P and vertical directions were associated with increased anticipatory EMG activity. In addition, they were linked to a co-activation of muscles at the ankle joints and significant changes in the center of pressure (COP) position. Modifications of the COM position induced in the A/P direction were related to increased anticipatory EMG activity in the leg and trunk muscles. At the same time, no significant differences in anticipatory EMG activity or displacement of COP were observed when changes of COM position were induced in the vertical direction. The study outcome suggests that the CNS uses different

  5. Rapid Communication: v= 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 5. Rapid Communication: Δ υ = 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3 − states and B ( E 3 ) systematics of Sn isotopes. BHOOMIKA MAHESHWARI SWATI GARG ASHOK KUMAR JAIN. Research Article Volume 89 Issue 5 November 2017 Article ID 75 ...

  6. Rapid Communication: seniority changing transitions in yrast states ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhoomika Maheshwari

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Rapid Communication: v = 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3− states and B(E3) systematics of Sn isotopes. BHOOMIKA MAHESHWARI1,∗. , SWATI GARG2 and ASHOK KUMAR JAIN2. 1Department of Physics, Banasthali University, Banasthali 304 022, India. 2Department of Physics, IIT Roorkee, ...

  7. Geoengineering and the Risk of Rapid Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A. J.; Matthews, D.

    2008-12-01

    Many scientists have proposed that geoengineering could be used to artificially cool the planet as a means of reducing CO2-induced climate warming. However, several recent studies have shown some of the potential risks of geoengineering, including negative impacts on stratospheric ozone, the hydrologic cycle and the possibility of rapid climate change in the case of abrupt failure, or rapid decommissioning of geoengineering technology. In this study, we have emulated a geoengineering scenario in the MAGICC climate model, by counteracting the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases. We have used a hypothetical scenario of business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions, in which geoengineering is implemented at the year 2020, and is removed abruptly after 40 years. By varying the climate sensitivity of the MAGICC model, and using previously published estimates of climate sensitivity likelihoods, we are able to derive a probabilistic prediction of the rate of temperature change following the removal of geoengineering. In a simulation without geoengineering (considering only the A1B AIM emissions scenario) the maximum annual rate of temperature change (in the highest climate sensitivity simulation) was 0.5° C per decade. In the geoengineering simulations the maximum annual rate of temperature change, occurring in the year after geoengineering was stopped, varied from 0.22° C per decade for a climate sensitivity of 0.5° C to nearly 8° C per decade for a climate sensitivity of 10° C. The most likely maximum rate of change (corresponding to a climate sensitivity of 2.5° C) was just over 5° C per decade. There is a 99.8 percent probability that the rate of temperature change following the stoppage of geoengineering in this scenario would exceed 3° C per decade. This risk of rapid climate change associated with the use of planetary-scale geoengineering is highly relevant to discussion of climate policies aimed at avoiding "dangerous anthropogenic interference" in the

  8. Active, non-spring-like muscle movements in human postural sway: how might paradoxical changes in muscle length be produced?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ian D Loram; Constantinos N Maganaris; Martin Lakie

    2005-01-01

    .... It has been generally assumed that these postural muscles behave like springs with dynamic stiffness reflecting their mechanical properties, reflex gain including higher derivatives, and central control...

  9. Development of an Experimental and Digital Cardiovascular Arterial Model for Transient Hemodynamic and Postural Change Studies: "A Preliminary Framework Analysis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlin, Rodward L; Kizito, John P

    2017-11-09

    The ultimate goal of the present work is to aid in the development of tools to assist in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Gaining an understanding of hemodynamic parameters for medical implants allow clinicians to have some patient-specific proposals for intervention planning. In the present work an experimental and digital computational fluid dynamics (CFD) arterial model consisting of a number of major arteries (aorta, carotid bifurcation, cranial, femoral, jejunal, and subclavian arteries) were fabricated to study: (1) the effects of local hemodynamics (flow parameters) on global hemodynamics (2) the effects of transition from bedrest to upright position (postural change) on hemodynamics, and (3) diffusion of dye (medical drug diffusion simulation) in the arterial system via experimental and numerical techniques. The experimental and digital arterial models used in the present study are the first 3-D systems reported in literature to incorporate the major arterial vessels that deliver blood from the heart to the cranial and femoral arteries. These models are also the first reported in literature to be used for flow parameter assessment via medical drug delivery and orthostatic postural change studies. The present work addresses the design of the experimental and digital arterial model in addition to the design of measuring tools used to measure hemodynamic parameters. The experimental and digital arterial model analyzed in the present study was developed from patient specific computed tomography angiography (CTA) scans and simplified geometric data. Segments such as the aorta (ascending and descending) and carotid bifurcation arteries of the experimental and digital arterial model was created from online available patient-specific CTA scan data provided by Charite' Clinical and Research Hospital. The cranial and coronary arteries were simplified arterial geometries developed from dimensional specification data used in previous work. For the patient

  10. Major rapid weight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie

    2016-01-01

    analysis has been suggested as a more sensitive method to identify changes in cardiac repolarization. We examined the effect of a major and rapid weight loss on T-wave morphology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six individuals had electrocardiograms (ECG) taken before and after eight weeks of weight loss...... intervention along with plasma measurements of fasting glucose, HbA1c, and potassium. For assessment of cardiac repolarization changes, T-wave Morphology Combination Score (MCS) and ECG intervals: RR, PR, QT, QTcF (Fridericia-corrected QT-interval), and QRS duration were derived. The participants lost......A1c (pMonitoring of MCS during calorie restriction makes it possible to detect repolarization changes with higher discriminative power than the QT-interval during major rapid weight...

  11. Specific trunk and general exercise elicit similar changes in anticipatory postural adjustments in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Cristy; Kennedy, Suzanne; Marshall, Paul W M

    2012-12-01

    A randomized controlled trial. To compare changes in self-rated disability, pain, and anticipatory postural adjustments between specific trunk exercise and general exercise in patients with chronic low back pain. Chronic low back pain is associated with altered motor control of the trunk muscles. The best exercise to address altered motor control is unclear. Sixty-four patients with chronic low back pain were randomly assigned to a specific trunk exercise group (SEG) that included skilled cognitive activation of the trunk muscles in addition to a number of other best practice exercises, whereas the general exercise group performed only seated cycling exercise. The training program lasted for 8 weeks. Self-rated disability and pain scores were collected before and after the training period. Electromyographic activity of various trunk muscles was recorded during performance of a rapid shoulder flexion task before and after training. Muscle onsets were calculated, and the latency time (in ms) between the onset of each trunk muscle and the anterior deltoid formed the basis of the motor control analysis. After training, disability was significantly lower in the SEG (d = 0.62, P = 0.018). Pain was reduced in both groups after training (P pain, whereas similar between-group changes in trunk muscle onsets were observed. The motor control adaptation seems to reflect a strategy of improved coordination between the trunk muscles with the unilateral shoulder movement. Trunk muscle onsets during rapid limb movement do not seem to be a valid mechanism of action for specific trunk exercise rehabilitation programs.

  12. Concern about falls elicits changes in gait parameters in conditions of postural threat in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbaere, Kim; Sturnieks, Daina L; Crombez, Geert; Lord, Stephen R

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have indicated that gait patterns in older people may be affected by concern about falling. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of concern about falling and physiological falls risk on gait performance using a paradigm in which concern about falling was experimentally induced. Forty-four community-living older adults (17 men, 27 women) with a mean age of 76.8 (standard deviation = 5.2) years walked at self-selected speeds on the floor and on a 60-cm elevated walkway in normal and dim lighting conditions. Temporal and spatial gait parameters, muscle activity, measures of physiological arousal, physiological falls risk, and concern about falls were assessed. Physiological falls risk was associated with slower walking speeds in all conditions including the optimal (floor) condition (p = .029). In the elevated walkway conditions, concern about falls (both self-report and as indicated by physiological arousal) was increased and participants walked more slowly, took shorter steps, decreased their cadence, and spent more time in double support (p concern about falling (p = .018). These findings suggest that walking performance is influenced by both physiological and psychological factors. Physiological falls risk appears to determine walking speed under optimal conditions, whereas concern about falling elicits greater (possibly excessive) gait adjustments under conditions of postural threat.

  13. Rapid climate change and society: assessing responses and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Simon; Petts, Judith; Hobson, Kersty

    2005-12-01

    Assessing the social risks associated with climate change requires an understanding of how humans will respond because it affects how well societies will adapt. In the case of rapid or dangerous climate change, of particular interest is the potential for these responses to cross thresholds beyond which they become maladaptive. To explore the possibility of such thresholds, a series of climate change scenarios were presented to U.K. participants whose subjective responses were recorded via interviews and surveyed using Q methodology. The results indicate an initially adaptive response to climate warming followed by a shift to maladaptation as the magnitude of change increases. Beyond this threshold, trust in collective action and institutions was diminished, negatively impacting adaptive capacity. Climate cooling invoked a qualitatively different response, although this may be a product of individuals being primed for warming because it has dominated public discourse. The climate change scenarios used in this research are severe by climatological standards. In reality, the observed responses might occur at a lower rate of change. Whatever the case, analysis of subjectivity has revealed potential for maladaptive human responses, constituting a dangerous or rapid climate threshold within the social sphere.

  14. Postural Control in Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen-Raz, Reuven; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Postural control was evaluated in 91 autistic, 166 normal, and 18 mentally retarded children using a computerized posturographic procedure. In comparison to normal children, the autistic subjects were less likely to exhibit age-related changes in postural performance, and postures were more variable and less stable. (Author/JDD)

  15. The Chinese experience of rapid modernization: sociocultural changes, psychological consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong eSun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena.

  16. The Chinese Experience of Rapid Modernization: Sociocultural Changes, Psychological Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiahong; Ryder, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena. PMID:27092093

  17. Detecting altered postural control after cerebral concussion in athletes with normal postural stability

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanaugh, J; Guskiewicz, K.; Giuliani, C.; Marshall, S.; Mercer, V; Stergiou, N

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine if approximate entropy (ApEn), a regularity statistic from non-linear dynamics, could detect changes in postural control during quiet standing in athletes with normal postural stability after cerebral concussion.

  18. RAPID CHANGES IN SOCIETY, TECHNOLOGY ,ECONOMY AND PUBLIC SERVICE INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirthendu Bagchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Current paper has the purpose to analyze the statement by Drucker (1985 that rapid changes in today’s society, technology, and economy in general are simultaneously a great threat to public-service institutions and even greater opportunity. The statement by Drucker will be analyzed  particularly with context of post offices that what are they going through these days or have gone through. Finally, some recommendations will be made for USPS based on the findings of the analysis..

  19. Determining posture from physiological tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Mark V.; Kording, Konrad P.

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of body and limb posture is important to many clinical and research studies. Current approaches either directly measure posture (e.g., using optical or magnetic methods) or more indirectly measure it by integrating changes over time (e.g., using gyroscopes and/or accelerometers). Here, we introduce a way of estimating posture from movements without requiring integration over time and the resultingcomplications. Weshow how the almost imperceptible tremor of the hand is affected by posture in an intuitive way and therefore can be used to estimate the posture of the arm. We recorded postures and tremor of the arms of volunteers. By using only the minor axis in the covariance of hand tremor, we could estimate the angle of the forearm with a standard deviation of about 4° when the subject's elbow is resting on a table and about 10° when it is off the table. This technique can also be applied as a post hoc analysis on other hand-position data sets to extract posture. This new method allows the estimation of body posture from tremor, is complementary to other techniques, and so can become a useful tool for future research and clinical applications. PMID:21997329

  20. Changes in postural and trunk muscles responses in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain during sudden upper limb loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Mahmood; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Maroufi, Nader; Haghani, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the neuromuscular control of the spine were found in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Sudden loading of the spine is assumed to be the cause of approximately 12% of lower back injuries. However, some aspects of this problem, such as alterations in the sensory-motor control of the spine, remain questionable. This study investigated postural and neuro- motor changes in trunk muscles during sudden upper limb loading in patients with CLBP. Electromyography of the erector spinae (ES) and transverses abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO) and external oblique (EOA) muscles were recorded in 20 patients with CLBP and 20 asymptomatic individuals with eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions. Moreover, measurements of the center of pressure (COP) and vertical ground reaction force (GRF) or Fz were recorded using a force plate. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test at the significance level of 0.05. In patients with CLBP, decreased electrical activity of the ES muscle was observed under both the EO and EC conditions and that of the TrA/IO muscle was observed under the EO condition (pmuscle in the EO condition and a greater increase in the peak latency of the ES muscle following the EC condition (pmuscle activity may indicate less stiffening or preparatory muscle activity in the trunk muscle of patients with CLBP. Altered latency of the muscle may lead to microtrauma of lumbar structures and CLBP.

  1. Effects on the Treatments in Physical Therapy with the Wii Fit Plus Balance Board Concerning the Postural Changes on Children Suffering Spastics Hemiparesis. Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Fernanda Córdoba Castillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study tried to determine the effects on the treatments in physical therapy with the Wii Balance Board and Wii Fit Plus __both of Wii, Nintendo Company Limited__ concerning the postural changes on children suffering spastics hemiparesis. Material and methods: Longitudinal cohort case studies done with two children, from the municipality of Popayán, suffering cerebral palsy type spastic hemiparesis. This children had a test on static posture with the software APIC v. 2.0, previously, It was executed an exercises program using Wii Fit plus Balance Board for 20 sessions. Results: Both of the patients had remarkable changes on lateralization of the center of gravity. This change can subserve the postural changes later. Conclusions: The application of the game with Wii Fit Plus with Wii Balance Board in physical therapy is a useful alternative in rehabilitation of hemi paretic patients related to a better distribution of the center of gravity. It is advisable to avoid weight overload and compensations.

  2. Perilymphatic pressure dynamics following posture change in patients with Menière's disease and in normal hearing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosingh, H J; Wit, H P; Albers, F W

    1998-01-01

    The hydrostatic pressure of the inner ear depends on the cerebrospinal fluid pressure through the cochlear aqueduct. The time-course of inner ear pressure change following rapid change in cerebrospinal fluid pressure is related to the aqueduct patency. In this study the patency of the cochlear aqueduct in 27 patients with Menière's disease (28 affected ears, 16 non-affected ears) and in 12 normal hearing subjects (18 control ears) was assessed non-invasively by means of the MMS-10 Tympanic Displacement Analyser. Following a rapid change in body position, changes in intracranial cerebrospinal fluid pressure were found to influence perilymphatic pressure within 1 min. No significant differences were found among affected ears, non-affected ears and control ears.

  3. Cerebral autoregulation in response to posture change in elderly subjects-assessment by wavelet phase coherence analysis of cerebral tissue oxyhemoglobin concentrations and arterial blood pressure signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanjin; Zhang, Ming; Han, Qingyu; Li, Wenhao; Xin, Qing; Wang, Yan; Li, Zengyong

    2015-02-01

    This study aims to assess the dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) in response to posture change using wavelet phase coherence (WPCO) of cerebral tissue oxyhemoglobin concentrations (Delta [HbO2]) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) signals in healthy elderly subjects. Continuous recordings of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and ABP signals were obtained from simultaneous measurements in 16 healthy elderly subjects (age: 68.9±7.1 years) and 19 young subjects (age: 24.9±3.2 years). The phase coherence between Delta [HbO2] and ABP oscillations in six frequency intervals (I, 0.6-2 Hz; II, 0.15-0.6 Hz; III, 0.05-0.15 Hz; IV, 0.02-0.05 Hz, V, 0.0095-0.02 Hz and VI, 0.005-0.0095 Hz) was analyzed using WPCO. The sit-to-stand posture change induces significantly lower WPCO in interval III (F=5.50 p=0.025) in the elderly subjects than in the young subjects. However, the stand-to-sit posture change induces higher WPCO in intervals II (F=5.25 p=0.028) and V (F=6.22 p=0.018) in the elderly subjects than in the young subjects. The difference of WPCO in response to posture change between the elderly and the young subjects indicates an altered CA due to aging. This study provides new insight into the dynamics of CA and may be useful in identifying the risk for dCA processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Postural performance of vestibular loss patients under increased postural threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Laurence R; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence; Dumitrescu, Michel; Magnan, Jacques; Borel, Liliane; Lacour, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The effects of increasing postural task difficulty on balance control was investigated in 9 compensated vestibular loss patients whose results were compared to 11 healthy adults. Subjects were tested in static (stable support) and dynamic (sinusoidal translation of the support) conditions, both at floor level and at height (62 cm above the floor), and with and without vision, to create an additional postural threat. Wavelet analysis of the center of foot pressure displacement and motion analysis of the body segments were used to evaluate the postural performance. Evaluation questionnaires were used to examine the compensation level of the patients (DHI test), their general anxiety level (SAST), fear of height (subjective scale), and workload (NASA TLX test). (Vestibular loss patients rely more on vision and spend more energy maintaining balance than controls, but they use the same postural strategy as normals in both static and dynamic conditions.) Questionnaire data all showed differences in behavior and perceptions between the controls and the patients. However, at height and without vision, a whole body strategy leading to rigid posture replaces the head stabilization strategy found for standing at floor level. The effects of height on postural control can be attributable to an increase in postural threat and attention changes resulting from modifications in perception.

  5. Rapid treatment-induced brain changes in pediatric CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpelding, Nathalie; Simons, Laura; Lebel, Alyssa; Serrano, Paul; Pielech, Melissa; Prabhu, Sanjay; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2016-03-01

    To date, brain structure and function changes in children with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) as a result of disease and treatment remain unknown. Here, we investigated (a) gray matter (GM) differences between patients with CRPS and healthy controls and (b) GM and functional connectivity (FC) changes in patients following intensive interdisciplinary psychophysical pain treatment. Twenty-three patients (13 females, 9 males; average age ± SD = 13.3 ± 2.5 years) and 21 healthy sex- and age-matched controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to controls, patients had reduced GM in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, midcingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, basal ganglia, thalamus, and hippocampus. Following treatment, patients had increased GM in the dlPFC, thalamus, basal ganglia, amygdala, and hippocampus, and enhanced FC between the dlPFC and the periaqueductal gray, two regions involved in descending pain modulation. Accordingly, our results provide novel evidence for GM abnormalities in sensory, motor, emotional, cognitive, and pain modulatory regions in children with CRPS. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate rapid treatment-induced GM and FC changes in areas implicated in sensation, emotion, cognition, and pain modulation.

  6. Rapid Treatment-Induced Brain Changes in Pediatric CRPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpelding, Nathalie; Simons, Laura; Lebel, Alyssa; Serrano, Paul; Pielech, Melissa; Prabhu, Sanjay; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    To date, brain structure and function changes in children with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) as a result of disease and treatment remain unknown. Here, we investigated (a) gray matter (GM) differences between patients with CRPS and healthy controls and (b) GM and functional connectivity (FC) changes in patients following intensive interdisciplinary psychophysical pain treatment. Twenty-three patients (13 females, 9 males; average age ± SD = 13.3 ± 2.5 years) and 21 healthy sex-and age-matched controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to controls, patients had reduced GM in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, midcingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, basal ganglia, thalamus, and hippocampus. Following treatment, patients had increased GM in the dlPFC, thalamus, basal ganglia, amygdala, and hippocampus, and enhanced FC between the dlPFC and the periaqueductal gray (PAG), two regions involved in descending pain modulation. Accordingly, our results provide novel evidence for GM abnormalities in sensory, motor, emotional, cognitive, and pain modulatory regions in children with CRPS. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate rapid treatment-induced GM and FC changes in areas implicated in sensation, emotion, cognition, and pain modulation. PMID:25515312

  7. Mobile work: Ergonomics in a rapidly changing work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honan, Meg

    2015-01-01

    Places of work have been completely transformed by innovations in mobile work tools and ever-present access to internet data. This article characterizes use patterns and provides preliminary considerations for productive and comfortable use of common mobile devices. Two surveys described trends in mobile work. In the first, ergonomics professionals who oversee programs reported common mobile devices, their users and what data is accessed. The second, an end user survey, explored common activities performed on mobile devices, duration of use and locations where mobile work is common. The survey results provide a baseline data point for the status of mobile work in early 2014. Research indicates that additional risks have been introduced to the neck, thumbs and hands when using mobile devices. Possible trends regarding device use and work locations emerge. Intervention studies provide some direction for the practitioner. Practical strategies are outlined to reduce exposure intensity and duration. Contemporary mobile work presents tremendous change and opportunity for ergonomists and researchers to keep pace with fitting the changing models of work to the person. Continued research is needed on current mobile device use patterns to better understand ergonomic risk exposure in this rapidly changing realm.

  8. Effects of rapid changes in temperature on two estuarine crustaceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, D.T.; Capizzi, T.P.; Margrey, S.L.; Wakefield, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Weight specific oxygen consumption (Q/sub O/sub 2// patterns of the amphipod, Gammarus sp. (acclimated to 5/sup 0/, 15/sup 0/ and 25/sup 0/ C) and of juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus (15/sup 0/ and 25/sup 0/ C) were used to evaluate the potential effect of exposure to rapid temperature changes simulating once-through power plant pumped entrainment. Amphipods at all acclimation temperatures and blue crabs at 15/sup 0/ C responded to the temperature changes by increasing Q/sub O/sub 2// above pre-exposure levels after the thermal increase and then returning to pre-exposure levels. The response was judged to be a normal physiological compensation response, not a thermal stress response, as suggested by some investigators. Significant differences were found among seasonal Q/sub O/sub 2// patterns in both species; Q/sub O/sub 2// increased with increasing acclimation temperature. However, no seasonal stress effects were found as a result of exposure to the temperature changes. This implies that the effects of ..delta..T's up to 10(/sup 0/C) from power plants of this design should have no significant impact on these organisms.

  9. Rapid genomic DNA changes in allotetraploid fish hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Ye, L H; Liu, Q Z; Peng, L Y; Liu, W; Yi, X G; Wang, Y D; Xiao, J; Xu, K; Hu, F Z; Ren, L; Tao, M; Zhang, C; Liu, Y; Hong, Y H; Liu, S J

    2015-06-01

    Rapid genomic change has been demonstrated in several allopolyploid plant systems; however, few studies focused on animals. We addressed this issue using an allotetraploid lineage (4nAT) of freshwater fish originally derived from the interspecific hybridization of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., ♀, 2n=100) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., ♂, 2n=100). We constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from allotetraploid hybrids in the 20th generation (F20) and sequenced 14 BAC clones representing a total of 592.126 kb, identified 11 functional genes and estimated the guanine-cytosine content (37.10%) and the proportion of repetitive elements (17.46%). The analysis of intron evolution using nine orthologous genes across a number of selected fish species detected a gain of 39 introns and a loss of 30 introns in the 4nAT lineage. A comparative study based on seven functional genes among 4nAT, diploid F1 hybrids (2nF1) (first generation of hybrids) and their original parents revealed that both hybrid types (2nF1 and 4nAT) not only inherited genomic DNA from their parents, but also demonstrated rapid genomic DNA changes (homoeologous recombination, parental DNA fragments loss and formation of novel genes). However, 4nAT presented more genomic variations compared with their parents than 2nF1. Interestingly, novel gene fragments were found for the iqca1 gene in both hybrid types. This study provided a preliminary genomic characterization of allotetraploid F20 hybrids and revealed evolutionary and functional genomic significance of allopolyploid animals.

  10. Running posture and step length changes immediately after chiropractic treatment in a patient with xeroderma pigmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dean L; Walsh, Mark; Smith, Jane P

    2009-01-01

    This case study reports on selected measures of locomotion (running) in a 5-year-old patient with xeroderma pigmentosum after chiropractic care. A 5-year-old female patient (16.4 kg, 99.1 cm) with xeroderma pigmentosum (type A) volunteered to participate in the experiment with the consent of her parents. The patient had well-documented signs of delayed fine motor (eg, difficulty with writing, coloring, cutting) and gross motor control (eg, balance and coordination dysfunction and falling while running), and delayed speech. Trunk forward lean angles, step lengths, and hip horizontal translations were assessed by video as the participant ran as fast as possible down a laboratory runway. After chiropractic manipulation (adjustments), the patient reduced the trunk forward lean angle to become more vertical (P = .000). In addition, the patient experienced an increase in step length (P = .031). No significant change in lateral translation was observed after the intervention. For this patient with xeroderma pigmentosum, chiropractic manipulation (adjustments) resulted in immediate changes in running performance. Further investigation is needed to examine the effect of chiropractic on locomotion in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients.

  11. Effect of spinal sympathetic blockade upon postural changes of blood flow in human peripheral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skagen, K; Haxholdt, O; Henriksen, O

    1982-01-01

    in subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle to head-up tilt whereas local blockade was able to prevent the response. Local mechanisms including the local veno-arteriolar reflex appear to play an important role for the observed maintenance of arterial blood pressure in the tilted position during central sympathetic......The effect of head-up tilt upon subcutaneous and skeletal muscle blood flow in the crus was studied before and during epidural blockade in 10 subjects. Relative changes in blood flow were estimated by the local 133Xe washout technique. In subcutaneous tissue head-up tilt induced a decrease in blood...... local nervous blockade was induced by Lidocaine in 133Xe labelled subcutaneous tissue on one side. During epidural blockade and tilt blood flow increased by 12% whereas blood flow decreased by 30% on the control side. Thus epidural blockade had no influence on the vasoconstrictor response...

  12. Auditory stimulation with music influences the geometric indices of heart rate variability in response to the postural change maneuver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca C. R. de Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is poor in the literature the behavior of the geometric indices of heart rate variability (HRV during the musical auditory stimulation. The objective is to investigate the acute effects of classic musical auditory stimulation on the geometric indexes of HRV in women in response to the postural change maneuver (PCM. We evaluated 11 healthy women between 18 and 25 years old. We analyzed the following indices: Triangular index, Triangular interpolation of RR intervals and Poincarι plot (standard deviation of the instantaneous variability of the beat-to beat heart rate [SD1], standard deviation of long-term continuous RR interval variability and Ratio between the short - and long-term variations of RR intervals [SD1/SD2] ratio. HRV was recorded at seated rest for 10 min. The women quickly stood up from a seated position in up to 3 s and remained standing still for 15 min. HRV was recorded at the following periods: Rest, 0-5 min, 5-10 min and 10-15 min during standing. In the second protocol, the subject was exposed to auditory musical stimulation (Pachelbel-Canon in D for 10 min at seated position before standing position. Shapiro-Wilk to verify normality of data and ANOVA for repeated measures followed by the Bonferroni test for parametric variables and Friedman′s followed by the Dunn′s posttest for non-parametric distributions. In the first protocol, all indices were reduced at 10-15 min after the volunteers stood up. In the protocol musical auditory stimulation, the SD1 index was reduced at 5-10 min after the volunteers stood up compared with the music period. The SD1/SD2 ratio was decreased at control and music period compared with 5-10 min after the volunteers stood up. Musical auditory stimulation attenuates the cardiac autonomic responses to the PCM.

  13. Auditory stimulation with music influences the geometric indices of heart rate variability in response to the postural change maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Bianca C R; Guida, Heraldo L; Roque, Adriano L; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Ferreira, Celso; Marcomini, Renata S; Monteiro, Carlos B M; Adami, Fernando; Ribeiro, Viviane F; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Santos, Vilma N S; Valenti, Vitor E

    2014-01-01

    It is poor in the literature the behavior of the geometric indices of heart rate variability (HRV) during the musical auditory stimulation. The objective is to investigate the acute effects of classic musical auditory stimulation on the geometric indexes of HRV in women in response to the postural change maneuver (PCM). We evaluated 11 healthy women between 18 and 25 years old. We analyzed the following indices: Triangular index, Triangular interpolation of RR intervals and Poincarι plot (standard deviation of the instantaneous variability of the beat-to beat heart rate [SD1], standard deviation of long-term continuous RR interval variability and Ratio between the short - and long-term variations of RR intervals [SD1/SD2] ratio). HRV was recorded at seated rest for 10 min. The women quickly stood up from a seated position in up to 3 s and remained standing still for 15 min. HRV was recorded at the following periods: Rest, 0-5 min, 5-10 min and 10-15 min during standing. In the second protocol, the subject was exposed to auditory musical stimulation (Pachelbel-Canon in D) for 10 min at seated position before standing position. Shapiro-Wilk to verify normality of data and ANOVA for repeated measures followed by the Bonferroni test for parametric variables and Friedman's followed by the Dunn's posttest for non-parametric distributions. In the first protocol, all indices were reduced at 10-15 min after the volunteers stood up. In the protocol musical auditory stimulation, the SD1 index was reduced at 5-10 min after the volunteers stood up compared with the music period. The SD1/SD2 ratio was decreased at control and music period compared with 5-10 min after the volunteers stood up. Musical auditory stimulation attenuates the cardiac autonomic responses to the PCM.

  14. Pheromones-based sexual selection in a rapidly changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneken, Jessica; Jones, Therésa M

    2017-12-01

    Insects utilise chemical cues for a range of different purposes and the complexity and degree of specificity of these signals is arguably unparalleled in the animal kingdom. Chemical signals are particularly important for insect reproduction and the selective pressures driving their evolution and maintenance have been the subject of previous reviews. However, the world in which chemical cues evolved and are maintained is changing at an unprecedented rate. How (or indeed whether) chemical signals used in sexual selection will respond is largely unknown. Here, we explore how recent increases in urbanisation and associated anthropogenic impacts may affect how chemical signals are produced and perceived. We focus on four anthropomorphic influences which have the potential to interact with pheromone-mediated sexual selection processes; climatic temperature shifts, exposure to chemical pollutants, the presence of artificial light at night and nutrient availability. Our aim is to provide a broad overview of key areas where the rapidly changing environment of the future might specifically affect pheromones utilised in sexual selection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Rapid Middle Eocene temperature change in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Fiebig, Jens; Wacker, Ulrike; Gerdes, Axel; Graham, Stephan A.; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2016-09-01

    Eocene hyperthermals are among the most enigmatic phenomena of Cenozoic climate dynamics. These hyperthermals represent temperature extremes superimposed on an already warm Eocene climate and dramatically affected the marine and terrestrial biosphere, yet our knowledge of temperature and rainfall in continental interiors is still rather limited. We present stable isotope (δ18O) and clumped isotope temperature (Δ47) records from a middle Eocene (41 to 40 Ma) high-elevation mammal fossil locality in the North American continental interior (Montana, USA). Δ47 paleotemperatures of soil carbonates delineate a rapid +9/-11 °C temperature excursion in the paleosol record. Δ47 temperatures progressively increase from 23 °C ± 3 °C to peak temperatures of 32 °C ± 3 °C and subsequently drop by 11 °C. This hyperthermal event in the middle Eocene is accompanied by low δ18O values and reduced pedogenic carbonate concentrations in paleosols. Based on laser ablation U/Pb geochronology of paleosol carbonates in combination with magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, stable isotope, and Δ47 evidence, we suggest that this pronounced warming event reflects the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) in western North America. The terrestrial expression of northern hemisphere MECO in western North America appears to be characterized by warmer and wetter (sub-humid) conditions, compared to the post-MECO phase. Large and rapid shifts in δ18O values of precipitation and pedogenic CaCO3 contents parallel temperature changes, indicating the profound impact of the MECO on atmospheric circulation and rainfall patterns in the western North American continental interior during this transient warming event.

  16. Evaluation of immediate soft tissue changes after rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Beom Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immediate soft tissue changes following rapid maxillary expansion (RME in growing patients, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. METHODS: Twenty-three consecutive patients (10 male, 13 female treated by RME were selected. Patients were scanned using CBCT prior to placement of the rapid maxillary expander (T0, then immediately following full activation of the appliance (T1. Defined landmarks were then located on the pre- and post-treatment orientated images. Change in landmark position from pre- to post-treatment was then measured. In addition to landmarks, 10 direct measures were made to determine distance change without regard to direction to measure soft tissue change of the lips. RESULTS: Significant transverse expansion was measured on most soft tissue landmark locations. All the measures made showed significant change in the lip position with a lengthening of the vertical dimension of the upper lip, and a generalized decrease of anterior-posterior thickness of both the upper and lower lips. CONCLUSIONS: Significant changes in the soft tissue do occur with RME treatment. There is a transverse widening of the midface, and a thinning of the lips.OBJETIVO: avaliar as mudanças imediatas no tecido mole após a expansão rápida da maxila (ERM em pacientes em fase de crescimento, usando tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC. MÉTODOS: vinte e três pacientes (10 do sexo masculino e 13 do feminino tratados com ERM foram selecionados. Os pacientes foram escaneados por TCFC antes da implantação do expansor maxilar (T0 e imediatamente após a completa ativação do aparelho (T1. Pontos cefalométricos definidos foram localizados nas imagens pré- e pós-tratamento. As mudanças de posição desses pontos do pré- para o pós-tratamento foram, então, analisadas. Adicionalmente aos pontos, 10 medições diretas foram realizadas para determinar a mudança nas distâncias - independentemente da direção - nos

  17. Postural performance and strategy in the unipedal stance of soccer players at different levels of competition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paillard, Thierry; Noé, Frédéric; Rivière, Terence; Marion, Vincent; Montoya, Richard; Dupui, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    .... Postural changes are different according to the sport practiced, but few authors have analyzed subjects' postural performances to discriminate the expertise level among highly skilled athletes within...

  18. Salivary a-Amylase Reflects Change in Attentional Demands during Postural Control: Comparison with Probe Reaction Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Kazunori; Ohashi, Yukari

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The influence of attention on postural control and the relationship between attention and falling has been reported in previous studies. Although a dual-task procedure is commonly used to measure attentional demand, such procedures are affected by allocation policy, which is a mental strategy to divide attention between simultaneous…

  19. Human relations with soil are changing rapidly: SSSA's new Work Group on Soil Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humanity has rapidly become Earth’s chief agent of soil change, and geologists have named the epoch in which we live the Anthropocene, due to the global scale of human impact on the environment, including soil. In response to the increasing influence of humans on soil processes, the disciplines of ...

  20. Static and Dynamic Postural Changes after a Mountain Ultra-Marathon of 80 km and 5500 D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Marcolin

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effect of fatigue on static and dynamic postural stability after completing a mountain ultra-marathon. Twelve male athletes participated in the study. Postural stability was assessed before and immediately after the race. Static postural stability was evaluated on a dynamometric platform with eyes opened (OE and closed (CE. Dynamic postural stability was assessed with OE on an instrumented plate which allowed medio-lateral oscillations. Stabilometric data were affected by fatigue in the OE condition, concerning sway path velocity (p = 0.0006, sway area velocity (p = 0.0006, area of the confidence ellipse (p = 0.0016, maximal anterior-posterior (AP (p = 0.0017 and medio-lateral (ML (p = 0.0039 oscillations. In the CE condition the sway path velocity (p = 0.0334, the maximal ML oscillations (p = 0.0161 and the area of the confident ellipse (p = 0.0180 were also negatively influenced. Stabilogram diffusion analysis showed in the OE condition an increase of short-term diffusion coefficients considering the anterior-posterior direction (Dfys; p = 0.0023 and the combination of the two (Dfr2s; p = 0.0032. Equally, long term diffusion coefficients increased considering the anterior-posterior direction (Dfyl; p = 0.0093 and the combination of the two (Dfr2l; p = 0.0086. In CE condition greater values were detected for medio-lateral direction (Dfxl; p = 0.033, anterior-posterior direction (Dfyl; p = 0.0459 and the combination of the two (Dfr2l; p = 0.0048. The dynamic postural stability test showed an increase of the time spent with the edges of the plate on the floor (p = 0.0152. Our results showed that mountain ultra-marathon altered static stability more than dynamic stability. An involvement of cognitive resources to monitor postural stability after fatiguing could be the explanation of the worsening in the automatic task (quiet standing and of the positive compensation in the less automatic task (dynamic standing on

  1. Postural development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelard, T; Jamon, M; Gasc, J-P; Vidal, P-P

    2006-11-01

    Mammals adopt a limited number of postures during their day-to-day activities. These stereotyped skeletal configurations are functionally adequate and limit the number of degrees of freedom to be controlled by the central nervous system. The temporal pattern of emergence of these configurations in altricial mammals is unknown. We therefore carried out an X-ray study in unrestrained rats from birth (P0) until postnatal day 23 (P23). The X-rays showed that many of the skeletal configurations described in adult rodents were already present at birth. By contrast, limb placement changed abruptly at around P10. These skeletal configurations, observed in anesthetized pups, required the maintenance of precise motor control. On the other hand, motor control continued to mature, as shown by progressive changes in resting posture and head movements from P0 to P23. We suggest that a few innate skeletal configurations provide the necessary frames of reference for the gradual construction of an adult motor repertoire in altricial mammals, such as the rat. The apparent absence of a requirement for external sensorial cues in the maturation of this repertoire may account for the maturation of postural and motor control in utero in precocial mammals (Muir et al., 2000 for a review on the locomotor behavior of altricial and precocial animals).

  2. Optical Defocus Rapidly Changes Choroidal Thickness in Schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyang Wang

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to examine the short-term choroidal response to optical defocus in schoolchildren. Myopic schoolchildren aged 8-16 were randomly allocated to control group (CG, myopic defocus group (MDG and hyperopic defocus group (HDG (n = 17 per group. Children in MDG and HDG received additional +3D and -3D lenses, respectively, to their full corrections on the right eyes. Full correction was given to their left eyes, and on both eyes in the CG. Axial length (AXL and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFChT were then measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Children wore their group-specific correction for 2 hours after which any existing optical defocus was removed, and subjects wore full corrections for another 2 hours. Both the AXL and SFChT were recorded hourly for 4 hours. The mean refraction of all subjects was -3.41 ± 0.37D (± SEM. SFChT thinned when exposed to hyperopic defocus for 2 hours but less thinning was observed in response to myopic defocus compared to the control group (p < 0.05, two-way ANOVA. Removal of optical defocus significantly decreased SFChT in the MDG and significantly increased SFChT in the HDG after 1 and 2 hours (mean percentage change at 2-hour; control vs. hyperopic defocus vs. myopic defocus; -0.33 ± 0.59% vs. 3.04 ± 0.60% vs. -1.34 ± 0.74%, p < 0.01. Our results showed short-term exposure to myopic defocus induced relative choroidal thickening while hyperopic defocus led to choroidal thinning in children. This rapid and reversible choroidal response may be an important clinical parameter in gauging retinal response to optical defocus in human myopia.

  3. Hydrothermal iron flux variability following rapid sea level changes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Middleton, Jennifer L; Langmuir, Charles H; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; McManus, Jerry F; Mitrovica, Jerry X

    2016-01-01

    .... Mir sediments reveal sixfold to eightfold increases in hydrothermal iron and copper deposition during the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by a rapid decline during the sea level rise associated with deglaciation...

  4. Postural Stability is Altered by Blood Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, M.; Denise, P.; Guincetre, J. Y.; Normand, H.

    2008-06-01

    Non-vestibular influences as shift in blood volume changed perception of body posture. Then, factors affecting blood shift may alter postural control. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of leg venous contention on postural stability. Twelve subjects were studied on a balance plate for 5 minutes with the eyes closed, in 3 conditions: with no leg venous contention or grade 1 and 3 support stockings. Standard deviation of x and y position was calculated before and after the closure of the eyes. Strong venous contention altered postural stability, after the eyes were closed, during the first 10 s of standing. As support stockings prevent blood shift induced by upright posture, this result is in line with the hypothesis that blood shifts influence the perception of body orientation and postural control among others factors as vision, vestibular inputs... This strong venous contention could induce an increase of fall.

  5. Using local scale exponent to characterize heart rate variability in response to postural changes in people with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyuan eLiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV is a promising marker for evaluating the remaining autonomic function in people with spinal cord injury (SCI. HRV is commonly assessed by spectral analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. This study aimed to investigate whether local scale exponent α(t can reveal new features of HRV that cannot be reflected by spectral measures and DFA coefficients. We studied 12 participants with SCI and 15 healthy able-bodied controls. ECG signals were continually recorded during 10 min sitting and 10 min prone postures. α(t was calculated for scales between 4 s and 60 s. Because α(t could be overestimated at small scales, we developed an approach for correcting α(t based on previous studies. The simulation results on simulated monofractal time series with α between 0.5 and 1.3 showed that the proposed method can yield improved estimation of α(t. We applied the proposed method to raw RR interval series. The results showed that α(t in healthy controls monotonically decreased with scale at scales between 4 s and 12 s (0.083-0.25 Hz in both the sitting and prone postures, whereas in participants with SCI, α(t slowly decreased at almost all scales. The sharp decreasing trend in α(t in controls suggests a more complex dynamics of HRV in controls. α(t at scales between 4 s (0.25 Hz and around 7 s (0.143 Hz was lower in subjects with SCI than in controls in the sitting posture; α(t at a narrow range of scales around 12 s (0.083 Hz was higher in participants with SCI than in controls in the prone posture. However, none of normalized low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz power, the ratio of low frequency power to high frequency (0.15-0.4 Hz power and long-term (>11 beats DFA coefficient showed significant difference between healthy controls and subjects with SCI in the prone posture. Our results suggest that α(t can reveal more detailed information in comparison to spectral measures and the standard DFA parameters.

  6. Using local scale exponent to characterize heart rate variability in response to postural changes in people with spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fuyuan; Liau, Ben-Yi; Rice, Ian M.; Elliott, Jeannette; Brooks, Ian; Jan, Yih-Kuen

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a promising marker for evaluating the remaining autonomic function in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). HRV is commonly assessed by spectral analysis and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). This study aimed to investigate whether local scale exponent α(t) can reveal new features of HRV that cannot be reflected by spectral measures and DFA coefficients. We studied 12 participants with SCI and 15 healthy able-bodied controls. ECG signals were continually recorded during 10 min sitting and 10 min prone postures. α(t) was calculated for scales between 4 and 60 s. Because α(t) could be overestimated at small scales, we developed an approach for correcting α(t) based on previous studies. The simulation results on simulated monofractal time series with α between 0.5 and 1.3 showed that the proposed method can yield improved estimation of α(t). We applied the proposed method to raw RR interval series. The results showed that α(t) in healthy controls monotonically decreased with scale at scales between 4 and 12 s (0.083–0.25 Hz) in both the sitting and prone postures, whereas in participants with SCI, α(t) slowly decreased at almost all scales. The sharp decreasing trend in α(t) in controls suggests a more complex dynamics of HRV in controls. α(t) at scales between 4 (0.25 Hz) and around 7 s (0.143 Hz) was lower in subjects with SCI than in controls in the sitting posture; α(t) at a narrow range of scales around 12 s (0.083 Hz) was higher in participants with SCI than in controls in the prone posture. However, none of normalized low frequency (0.04–0.15 Hz) power, the ratio of low frequency power to high frequency (0.15–0.4 Hz) power and long-term (>11 beats) DFA coefficient showed significant difference between healthy controls and subjects with SCI in the prone posture. Our results suggest that α(t) can reveal more detailed information in comparison to spectral measures and the standard DFA parameters. PMID:26029112

  7. Women in Physics in a Rapidly Changing China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling-An

    2008-03-01

    Despite the upheavals of the 20th century, physics managed to survive quite well in China, where the first woman president of the American Physical Society was born and bred. During the 1950s as a result of policies that emphasized science and engineering, declared equal rights and equal pay for men and women, and assigned jobs to college graduates irrespective of sex, the number of women in physics increased rapidly, many of whom made notable achievements. Since China's opening up over the last thirty years tremendous changes have taken place, and women now face new opportunities as well as challenges in all aspects of society. Whereas physics used to be regarded as the most elite of the sciences, new fields such as computer science, biotechnology and business are now competing for the best students. Compared with other countries the statistics are not bad; in schools and many physics departments the ratio of women teachers may be 30% or higher, but the numbers drop drastically with rank. Moreover, in some research institutions the ratio of female physicists is actually declining, due to retirement of the older generation and fewer successors. Compulsory retirement for women at an earlier age than for men is also a new factor. Conversely, in recent years the ratio of female graduate students enrolling in physics has increased, even reaching 40% in some universities. However, the reasons for this do not bode well: men are not performing so well as women in entrance exams, while the latter are facing increasing discrimination in employment so they have to seek higher degree qualifications. With the further development of China's economy there will be abundant demand for qualified personnel including women with a physics background. It is imperative to actively support the upcoming generation of women physicists and not lose them in the leaky pipeline. The Chinese Physical Society has taken certain positive steps, such as the recent establishment of the Xie Xi

  8. Rapid method to estimate temperature changes in electronics elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oborskii G. A., Savel’eva O. S., Shikhireva Yu. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal behavior of electronic equipment is the determining factor for performing rapid assessment of the effectiveness of design and operation of the equipment. The assessment method proposed in this article consists in fixation of an infrared video stream from the surface of the device and converting it into a visible flow by means of a thermal imager, splitting it into component colors and their further processing using parabolic transformation. The result of the transformation is the number used as a rapid criterion for estimation of distribution stability of heat in the equipment.

  9. A rapid mitochondrial toxicity assay utilizing rapidly changing cell energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuki, Yosuke; Araki, Tetsuro; Nakazono, Osamu; Tsurui, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is a major cause of safety-related drug-marketing withdrawals. Several drugs have been reported to disrupt mitochondrial function, resulting in hepatotoxicity. The development of a simple and effective in vitro assay to identify the potential for mitochondrial toxicity is thus desired to minimize the risk of causing hepatotoxicity and subsequent drug withdrawal. An in vitro test method called the "glucose-galactose" assay is often used in drug development but requires prior-culture of cells over several passages for mitochondrial adaptation, thereby restricting use of the assay. Here, we report a rapid version of this method with the same predictability as the original method. We found that replacing the glucose in the medium with galactose resulted in HepG2 cells immediately shifting their energy metabolism from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation due to drastic energy starvation; in addition, the intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by mitotoxicants when glucose in the medium was replaced with galactose. Using our proposed rapid method, mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells can be evaluated by drug exposure for one hour without a pre-culture step. This rapid assay for mitochondrial toxicity may be more suitable for high-throughput screening than the original method at an early stage of drug development.

  10. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed...

  11. Rapid socio-cultural change and health in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    2001-01-01

    health and survival have improved but at the expense of mental health. The incidence of tuberculosis and the infant mortality rate have decreased because of improved socioeconomic conditions and health care. Mental health has deteriorated parallel to the rapid modernization of Greenlandic society...

  12. Assessment of changes in smile after rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Morales Cobra de Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated changes in the smile characteristics of patients with maxillary constriction submitted to rapid maxillary expansion (RME. METHODS: The sample consisted of 81 extraoral photographs of maximum smile of 27 patients with mean age of 10 years, before expansion and 3 and 6 months after fixation of the expanding screw. The photographs were analyzed on the software Cef X 2001, with achievement of the following measurements: Transverse smile area, buccal corridors, exposure of maxillary incisors, gingival exposure of maxillary incisors, smile height, upper and lower lip thickness, smile symmetry and smile arch. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: RME promoted statistically significant increase in the transverse smile dimension and exposure of maxillary central and lateral incisors; maintenance of right and left side smile symmetry and of the lack of parallelism between the curvature of the maxillary incisal edges and lower lip border. CONCLUSIONS: RME was beneficial for the smile esthetics with the increase of the transverse smile dimension and exposure of maxillary central and lateral incisors.INTRODUÇÃO: esse estudo avaliou as alterações das características do sorriso de pacientes com atresia maxilar submetidos à expansão rápida da maxila (ERM. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 81 fotografias extrabucais do sorriso máximo de 27 pacientes, com idade média de 10 anos, antes da expansão e aos três e seis meses após a fixação do parafuso expansor. As análises das fotografias foram realizadas por meio do programa Cef X 2001, e as seguintes medidas foram analisadas: dimensão transversal do sorriso, corredores bucais, quantidade de exposição dos incisivos superiores, exposição gengival dos incisivos superiores, altura do sorriso, espessuras dos lábios superior e inferior, simetria e arco do sorriso. As alterações no sorriso durante

  13. Axial Extension (Posture Exercise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this helps: It lengthens your spine, which improves posture, and increases comfort, mobility and range of motion. Many of us have a forward head posture. We get this from the type of recreation ...

  14. Policy options to respond to rapid climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, R.J.; Marinova, N.A.; Bakker, S.; Tilburg, van X.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing research on climate change indicates that we cannot rule out the possibility of extreme climatic changes, beyond current IPCC scenarios. The thinking about policy responses to address these risks is still in its infancy. This study explores the possibilities for responding to extreme

  15. Changes in Sensory Evoked Responses Coincide with Rapid Improvement in Speech Identification Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alain, Claude; Campeanu, Sandra; Tremblay, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual learning is sometimes characterized by rapid improvements in performance within the first hour of training (fast perceptual learning), which may be accompanied by changes in sensory and/or response pathways. Here, we report rapid physiological changes in the human auditory system that coincide with learning during a 1-hour test session…

  16. [Risks of awkward posture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzini, G; Capodaglio, E; Panigazzi, M; Prestifilippo, E; Vercesi, C

    2010-01-01

    For posture we mean the position of the body in the space and the relationship with its segments. The correct posture is determined by neurophysiological, biomechanical, emotional, psychological and relation factors, enabling us to perform daily and working activities with the lowest energy expenditure. When possible we suggest during posture variation, a preventive measure where there are prolonged fixed activities.

  17. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Retno Nurwulan

    Full Text Available Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1 texting impaired postural stability, (2 the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3 performing texting is perceived to be more difficult.

  18. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwulan, Nurul Retno; Jiang, Bernard C; Iridiastadi, Hardianto

    2015-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1) texting impaired postural stability, (2) the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3) performing texting is perceived to be more difficult.

  19. Changes in nasal volume of patients undergoing rapid maxillary expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Muniz, Renata Da Fonseca Lacerda E; Mario Cappellette Jr.; Daniela Carlini

    2008-01-01

    Os efeitos da disjunção maxilar na resistência nasal e fluxo aéreo têm sido amplamente discutidos na literatura, com controvérsias. Suas indicações esqueléticas e dentárias parecem estar bem claras. Porém, aquelas puramente rinológicas não são justificadas, porque nem sempre resultados positivos são encontrados. Este estudo teve por finalidade avaliar a repercussão da disjunção maxilar ortopédica no aspecto respiratório e rinológico dos pacientes submetidos a esse procedimento.Rapid maxillary...

  20. Rapid response to climate change in a marginal sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K; Chiggiato, J; Josey, S A; Borghini, M; Aracri, S; Sparnocchia, S

    2017-06-22

    The Mediterranean Sea is a mid-latitude marginal sea, particularly responsive to climate change as reported by recent studies. The Sicily Channel is a choke point separating the sea in two main basins, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Western Mediterranean Sea. Here, we report and analyse a long-term record (1993-2016) of the thermohaline properties of the Intermediate Water that crosses the Sicily Channel, showing increasing temperature and salinity trends much stronger than those observed at intermediate depths in the global ocean. We investigate the causes of the observed trends and in particular determine the role of a changing climate over the Eastern Mediterranean, where the Intermediate Water is formed. The long-term Sicily record reveals how fast the response to climate change can be in a marginal sea like the Mediterranean Sea compared to the global ocean, and demonstrates the essential role of long time series in the ocean.

  1. Rapid millennial-scale vegetation changes in the tropical Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urrego, D.H.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Rama-Corredor, O.; Martrat, B.; Grimalt, J.O.; Thompson, L.

    2015-01-01

    We compare eight pollen records reflecting climatic and environmental change from the tropical Andes. Our analysis focuses on the last 50 ka, with particular emphasis on the Pleistocene to Holocene transition. We explore ecological grouping and downcore ordination results as two approaches for

  2. Planetary health: protecting human health on a rapidly changing planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel S

    2018-12-23

    The impact of human activities on our planet's natural systems has been intensifying rapidly in the past several decades, leading to disruption and transformation of most natural systems. These disruptions in the atmosphere, oceans, and across the terrestrial land surface are not only driving species to extinction, they pose serious threats to human health and wellbeing. Characterising and addressing these threats requires a paradigm shift. In a lecture delivered to the Academy of Medical Sciences on Nov 13, 2017, I describe the scale of human impacts on natural systems and the extensive associated health effects across nearly every dimension of human health. I highlight several overarching themes that emerge from planetary health and suggest advances in the way we train, reward, promote, and fund the generation of health scientists who will be tasked with breaking out of their disciplinary silos to address this urgent constellation of health threats. I propose that protecting the health of future generations requires taking better care of Earth's natural systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alveolar bone changes after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Mehmet; Baka, Zeliha Muge; Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

    2015-09-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the effects of asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion (ARME) on cortical bone thickness and buccal alveolar bone height (BABH), and to determine the formation of dehiscence and fenestration in the alveolar bone surrounding the posterior teeth, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The CBCT records of 23 patients with true unilateral posterior skeletal crossbite (10 boys, 14.06 ± 1.08 years old, and 13 girls, 13.64 ± 1.32 years old) who had undergone ARME were selected from our clinic archives. The bonded acrylic ARME appliance, including an occlusal stopper, was used on all patients. CBCT records had been taken before ARME (T1) and after the 3-month retention period (T2). Axial slices of the CBCT images at 3 vertical levels were used to evaluate the buccal and palatal aspects of the canines, first and second premolars, and first molars. Paired samples and independent sample t-tests were used for statistical comparison. The results suggest that buccal cortical bone thickness of the affected side was significantly more affected by the expansion than was the unaffected side (P ARME significantly reduced the BABH of the canines (P ARME also increased the incidence of dehiscence and fenestration on the affected side. ARME may quantitatively decrease buccal cortical bone thickness and height on the affected side.

  4. Dynamic changes at the rapidly advancing Yahtse Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, William J.; Bartholomaus, Timothy C.; Willis, Michael J.; Pritchard, Matthew E.

    2017-03-01

    Since 1990, Yahtse Glacier in southern Alaska has advanced at an average rate of ˜100 m/yr despite of a negative mass balance, widespread thinning in its accumulation area, and a low accumulation-area ratio. To better understand the interannual and seasonal changes at Yahtse and the processes driving these changes, we construct velocity and ice surface elevation time series spanning the years 1985-2014 and 2000-2014, respectively, using satellite optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations. In terms of seasonal changes, we find contrasting dynamics above and below a steep (up to 18% slope) icefall located approximately 6 km from the terminus. Above the icefall, speeds peak in May and reach minima in October synchronous with the development of a calving embayment at the terminus. This may be caused by an efficient, channelized subglacial drainage system that focuses subglacial discharge into a plume, resulting in a local increase in calving and submarine melting. However, velocities near the terminus are fastest in the winter, following terminus retreat, possibly off of a terminal moraine resulting in decreased backstress. Between 1996-2014 the terminus decelerated by ˜40% at an average rate of ˜0.4 m/day/yr , transitioned from tensile to compressive longitudinal strain rates, and dynamically thickened at rates of 1-6 m/yr , which we hypothesize is in response to the development and advance of a terminal moraine. The described interannual changes decay significantly upstream of the icefall, indicating that the icefall may inhibit the upstream transmission of stress perturbations. We suggest that diminished stress transmission across the icefall could allow Yahtse’s upper basin to remain in a state of mass drawdown despite of moraine-enabled terminus advance. Our work highlights the importance of glacier geometry in controlling tidewater glacier re-advance, particularly in a climate favoring increasing equilibrium line altitudes.

  5. Rapid changes in the gut microbiome during human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Moeller, Andrew H.; Li, Yingying; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Pusey, Anne E.; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Ochman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Humans are ecosystems containing trillions of microorganisms, but the evolutionary history of this microbiome is obscured by a lack of knowledge about microbiomes of African apes. We sequenced the gut communities of hundreds of chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas and developed a phylogenetic approach to reconstruct how present-day human microbiomes have diverged from those of ancestral populations. Compositional change in the microbiome was slow and clock-like during African ape diversificatio...

  6. Rapid isotopic changes in groundwater, upper Rio Guanajuato catchment, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, Alejandra; Durazo, Jaime [Departamento de recursos naturales, Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Kralisch, Stefanie [Posgrado en Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-01-15

    Significant changes in the isotopic composition of groundwater in the upper catchment of Rio Guanajuato, Mexico, were detected in two independent sets of samplers for 3 % of the 1600 high-production wells in the area. Sampling was done in December 1998 (53 samples), and in July - August 2003 (41 samples). Average deuterium concentration did not change between 1998 and 2003 but the average oxygen-18 concentration suggested a generalized dilution from deep water from infiltrated local precipitation. This regional change occurred within 56 months, indicating a highly dynamic hydrogeologic system. Fast replenishment of aquifer storage, or non sustainable over-pumping of old aquifer reserves, are possible explanations. [Spanish] Cambios isotopicos significativos en el agua subterranea de la cuenca alta del Rio Guanajuato, Mexico, fueron detectados en dos conjuntos independientes de muestras que incluyeron al 3% de los 1600 pozos de alta produccion del area. Los muestreos se realizaron en diciembre de 1998 (53 muestras) y en julio - agosto del 2003 (41 muestras). La concentracion promedio del deuterio no cambio entre 1998 y 2003, pero la del oxigeno-18 sugiere una dilucion generalizada del agua profunda por infiltracion de la precipitacion local. Este cambio regional ocurrio dentro de 56 meses, indicando un sistema hidrogeologico muy dinamico. La rapida recuperacion del almacenamiento acuifero o el bombeo insostenible de reservas acuiferas viejas son explicaciones posibles.

  7. Muscle co-contraction in elderly people change due to postural stability during single-leg standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Makoto; Shinkoda, Koichi

    2017-12-16

    Muscle co-contraction is the simultaneous contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles crossing a joint, and it increases with age. This study primarily aimed to clarify the difference in the effect of a light fingertip contact to stationary surface on postural sway and muscle co-contraction during single-leg standing (SLS) between young and elderly groups; the secondary aim was to reveal the quantitative difference in the muscle co-contraction of the ankle joint among the three different support structure conditions in the elderly group. This study included eight young adults (age 23.4 ± 2.6 years) and nine community dwelling older adults (age 74.7 ± 3.4 years). The task was SLS under the following conditions: (1) no supporting structure, FR; (2) light index fingertip contact to a stationary supporting structure (to touch in force < 1 N), LT; and (3) dependence on a supporting structure for stabilization as desired, DO. Center of pressure (COP) variables [root-mean-square distance (RDIST), total excursion (TOTEX), mean velocity (MVELO), and standard deviation area (AREA-SD)] and the co-contraction index (CI) between the tibialis anterior and soleus were measured using surface electromyography. With regard to the effect of the light fingertip contact to stationary surface, in the young group, TOTEX, MVELO, AREA-SD, and CI during SLS were smaller under the LT condition than under the FR condition. However, in the elderly group, only AREA-SD and CI were smaller under the LT condition than under the FR condition. No significant difference was observed in COP variables and CI under the DO condition between the young and elderly groups. Both young and elderly groups could decrease muscle co-contraction using the light fingertip contact. On the other hand, in the elderly group, COP variables showed a limited effect from the light fingertip contact; only the "sway" domain measure (AREA-SD). Both young and elderly groups showed the smallest CI under the DO

  8. Rapid changes in gene expression direct rapid shifts in intestinal form and function in the Burmese python after feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Audra L; Card, Daren C; Ruggiero, Robert P; Schield, Drew R; Adams, Richard H; Pollock, David D; Secor, Stephen M; Castoe, Todd A

    2015-05-01

    Snakes provide a unique and valuable model system for studying the extremes of physiological remodeling because of the ability of some species to rapidly upregulate organ form and function upon feeding. The predominant model species used to study such extreme responses has been the Burmese python because of the extreme nature of postfeeding response in this species. We analyzed the Burmese python intestine across a time series, before, during, and after feeding to understand the patterns and timing of changes in gene expression and their relationship to changes in intestinal form and function upon feeding. Our results indicate that >2,000 genes show significant changes in expression in the small intestine following feeding, including genes involved in intestinal morphology and function (e.g., hydrolases, microvillus proteins, trafficking and transport proteins), as well as genes involved in cell division and apoptosis. Extensive changes in gene expression occur surprisingly rapidly, within the first 6 h of feeding, coincide with changes in intestinal morphology, and effectively return to prefeeding levels within 10 days. Collectively, our results provide an unprecedented portrait of parallel changes in gene expression and intestinal morphology and physiology on a scale that is extreme both in the magnitude of changes, as well as in the incredibly short time frame of these changes, with up- and downregulation of expression and function occurring in the span of 10 days. Our results also identify conserved vertebrate signaling pathways that modulate these responses, which may suggest pathways for therapeutic modulation of intestinal function in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Relationship between Muscle Function, Muscle Typology and Postural Performance According to Different Postural Conditions in Young and Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Paillard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although motor output of the postural function clearly influences postural performance in young and older subjects, no relationship has been formally established between them. However, the relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength/power and postural performance is often pointed out, especially in older subjects. In fact, the influence of motor output may vary according to the postural condition considered (e.g., static, dynamic, challenging, disturbing. In static postural condition, there may be a relationship between lower-extremity muscle strength and postural performance when the value of muscle strength is below a certain threshold in older subjects. Above this threshold of muscle strength, this relationship may disappear. In dynamic postural condition, lower-extremity muscle power could facilitate compensatory postural actions, limiting induced body imbalance likely to generate falls in older subjects. In young subjects, there could be a relationship between very early rapid torque of the leg extensor muscles and postural performance. In the case of postural reaction to (external perturbations, a high percentage of type II muscle fibers could be associated with the ability to react quickly to postural perturbations in young subjects, while it may enable a reduction in the risk of falls in older subjects. In practice, in older subjects, muscle strength and/or power training contributes to reducing the risk of falls, as well as slowing down the involution of muscle typology regarding type II muscle fibers.

  10. Simulation of rapid ecological change in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Dittman, Dawn E.; Watkins, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Lower trophic level processes are integral to proper functioning of large aquatic ecosystems and have been disturbed in Lake Ontario by various stressors including exotic species. The invasion of benthic habitats by dreissenid mussels has led to systemic changes and native faunal declines. Size-dependent physiological rates, spatial differences and connectivity, competition, and differential population dynamics among invertebrate groups contributed to the change and system complexity. We developed a spatially explicit, individual-based mechanistic model of the benthic ecosystem in Lake Ontario, with coupling to the pelagic system, to examine ecosystem dynamics and effects of dreissenid mussel invasion and native fauna losses. Benthic organisms were represented by functional groups; filter-feeders (i.e., dreissenid mussels), surface deposit-feeders (e.g., native amphipod Diporeia spp.), and deposit-feeders (e.g., oligochaetes and other burrowers). The model was stable, represented ecological structure and function effectively, and reproduced observed effects of the mussel invasion. Two hypotheses for causes of Diporeia loss, competition or disease-like mortality, were tested. Simple competition for food did not explain observed declines in native surface deposit-feeders during the filter-feeder invasion. However, the elevated mortality scenario supports a disease-like cause for loss of the native amphipod, with population changes in various lake areas and altered benthic biomass transfers. Stabilization of mussel populations and possible recovery of the native, surface-deposit feeding amphipod were predicted. Although further research is required on forcing functions, model parameters, and natural conditions, the model provides a valuable tool to help managers understand the benthic system and plan for response to future disruptions.

  11. M.I.T./Canadian vestibular experiments on the Spacelab-1 mission. V - Postural responses following exposure to weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, R. V.; Young, L. R.

    1986-01-01

    The four science crewmembers of Spacelab-1 were tested for postural control before and after a 10 day mission in weightlessness. Previous reports have shown changes in astronaut postural behavior following a return to earth's 1-g field. This study was designed to identify changes in EMG latency and amplitudes that might explain the instabilities observed post-flight. Erect posture was tested having the subject stand on a pneumatically driven posture platform which pitched rapidly and unexpectedly about the ankles causing dorsi- and plantarflexion. Electromyographic (EMG) activity from the tibialis anterior and the gastrocnemius-soleus muscles was measured during eyes open and eyes closed trials. The early (pre 500 ms) EMG response characteristics (latency, amplitude) in response to a disturbance in the posture of the subject were apparently unchanged by the 10 days of weightlessness. However, the late (post 500 ms) response showed higher amplitudes than was found pre-flight. General postural control was quantitatively measured pre- and post-flight by a 'sharpened Romberg Rails test'. This test showed decrements in standing stability with eyes closed for several days post-flight.

  12. Managing marine disease emergencies in an era of rapid change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, Maya L; Maynard, Jeffrey; Breyta, Rachel; Carnegie, Ryan B; Dobson, Andy; Friedman, Carolyn S; Froelich, Brett; Garren, Melissa; Gulland, Frances M D; Heron, Scott F; Noble, Rachel T; Revie, Crawford W; Shields, Jeffrey D; Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Weil, Ernesto; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Harvell, C Drew

    2016-03-05

    Infectious marine diseases can decimate populations and are increasing among some taxa due to global change and our increasing reliance on marine environments. Marine diseases become emergencies when significant ecological, economic or social impacts occur. We can prepare for and manage these emergencies through improved surveillance, and the development and iterative refinement of approaches to mitigate disease and its impacts. Improving surveillance requires fast, accurate diagnoses, forecasting disease risk and real-time monitoring of disease-promoting environmental conditions. Diversifying impact mitigation involves increasing host resilience to disease, reducing pathogen abundance and managing environmental factors that facilitate disease. Disease surveillance and mitigation can be adaptive if informed by research advances and catalysed by communication among observers, researchers and decision-makers using information-sharing platforms. Recent increases in the awareness of the threats posed by marine diseases may lead to policy frameworks that facilitate the responses and management that marine disease emergencies require. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Rapid adaptive responses to climate change in corals

    KAUST Repository

    Torda, Gergely

    2017-09-01

    Pivotal to projecting the fate of coral reefs is the capacity of reef-building corals to acclimatize and adapt to climate change. Transgenerational plasticity may enable some marine organisms to acclimatize over several generations and it has been hypothesized that epigenetic processes and microbial associations might facilitate adaptive responses. However, current evidence is equivocal and understanding of the underlying processes is limited. Here, we discuss prospects for observing transgenerational plasticity in corals and the mechanisms that could enable adaptive plasticity in the coral holobiont, including the potential role of epigenetics and coral-associated microbes. Well-designed and strictly controlled experiments are needed to distinguish transgenerational plasticity from other forms of plasticity, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and their relative importance compared with genetic adaptation.

  14. Rapid changes in the gut microbiome during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Andrew H; Li, Yingying; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne E; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H; Ochman, Howard

    2014-11-18

    Humans are ecosystems containing trillions of microorganisms, but the evolutionary history of this microbiome is obscured by a lack of knowledge about microbiomes of African apes. We sequenced the gut communities of hundreds of chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas and developed a phylogenetic approach to reconstruct how present-day human microbiomes have diverged from those of ancestral populations. Compositional change in the microbiome was slow and clock-like during African ape diversification, but human microbiomes have deviated from the ancestral state at an accelerated rate. Relative to the microbiomes of wild apes, human microbiomes have lost ancestral microbial diversity while becoming specialized for animal-based diets. Individual wild apes cultivate more phyla, classes, orders, families, genera, and species of bacteria than do individual humans across a range of societies. These results indicate that humanity has experienced a depletion of the gut flora since diverging from Pan.

  15. Complex interactions in Lake Michigan’s rapidly changing ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderploeg, Henry A.; Bunnell, David B.; Carrick, Hunter J.; Hook, Tomas O.

    2015-01-01

    For over 30 years, Lake Michigan’s food web has been in a constant state of transition from reductions in nutrient loading and proliferation of invasive species at multiple trophic levels. In particular, there has been concern about impacts from the invasive predatory cercopagids (Bythotrephes longimanus and Cercopagis pengoi) and expanding dreissenid mussel and round goby populations. This special issue brings together papers that explore the status of the Lake Michigan food web and the factors responsible for these changes, and suggests research paths that must be taken for understanding and predicting system behavior. This introductory paper describes the special issue origin, presents an overview of the papers, and draws overarching conclusions from the papers.

  16. Rapid maxillary expansion treatment could produce long-term dental arch changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin

    2005-01-01

    : Data Sources: Medline, Medline In-Process, LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), PUBMED, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched. Search terms were rapid palatal expansion or rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and tooth or dental changes. Reference

  17. Changes of postural control and muscle activation pattern in response to external perturbations after neck flexor fatigue in young subjects with and without chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Chien, Andy; Hsu, Wei-Li; Yen, Ling-Wei; Lin, Yang-Hua; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have identified sensorimotor disturbances and greater fatigability of neck muscles in patients with neck pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck pain and neck flexor fatigue on standing balance following postural perturbations. Twenty patients with chronic neck pain (CNP) (24.7±3.6 year-old) and 20 age-matched asymptomatic subjects (22.1±2.2 year-old) were recruited. Subjects stood barefoot on a force plate and experienced backward perturbations before and after neck flexor fatigue. Center of pressure, electromyography of cervical and lumbar muscles, and head/trunk accelerations were recorded. Two-way ANOVA (pain×fatigue) was used for statistical analysis. CNP group showed larger body sway during quiet standing but not during perturbed standing compared with asymptomatic adults. In both groups, neck flexor fatigue resulted in greater body sway during the quiet standing but smaller body sway during perturbed standing, increased neck muscle activations and decreased lumbar muscle activations, as well as increased time to maximal head acceleration. Disturbed balance control was observed in CNP patients during the quiet standing. However, a rigid strategy was used to minimize the postural sway and to protect the head against backward perturbations in both CNP and asymptomatic young adults after neck flexor fatigue. The results facilitate the understanding of how the subjects with chronic neck pain and with neck muscle fatigue deal with the challenging condition. Further studies are needed to verify if such phenomenon could be changed after the intervention of specific flexor muscle retraining and balance control exercises. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Mumby, P. J.; Hooten, A. J.; Steneck, R. S.; Greenfield, P.; Gomez, E.; Harvell, C. D.; Sale, P. F.; Edwards, A. J.; Caldeira, K.; Knowlton, N.; Eakin, C. M.; Iglesias-Prieto, R.; Muthiga, N.; Bradbury, R. H.; Dubi, A.; Hatziolos, M. E.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is expected to exceed 500 parts per million and global temperatures to rise by at least 2°C by 2050 to 2100, values that significantly exceed those of at least the past 420,000 years during which most extant marine organisms evolved. Under conditions expected in the 21st century, global warming and ocean acidification will compromise carbonate accretion, with corals becoming increasingly rare on reef systems. The result will be less diverse reef communities and carbonate reef structures that fail to be maintained. Climate change also exacerbates local stresses from declining water quality and overexploitation of key species, driving reefs increasingly toward the tipping point for functional collapse. This review presents future scenarios for coral reefs that predict increasingly serious consequences for reef-associated fisheries, tourism, coastal protection, and people. As the International Year of the Reef 2008 begins, scaled-up management intervention and decisive action on global emissions are required if the loss of coral-dominated ecosystems is to be avoided.

  19. Ethnobiology 5: Interdisciplinarity in an Era of Rapid Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Wolverton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobiology 5 stems from Eugene Hunn’s four phases of the history of ethnobiology and focuses on the relevance of ethnobiological research in the context of environmental and cultural change.  It refers to a contemporary phase of the field’s historical development.  In this paper, I argue that ethnobiology is preadapted to be a scholarly umbrella for a number of disciplines that concern human-environment interactions, suggesting that one goal of Ethnobiology 5 is to bridge traditional academic boundaries in order to broaden the community of ethnobiologists. Another goal of Ethnobiology 5 is to capitalize on and communicate the relevance of ethnobiological scholarship for solving problems related to contemporary environmental and cultural crises.  Indeed, ethnobiology is not a subfield of any traditional discipline and by the nature of its name bridges humanities, social science, and science.  Ethnobiology has always been interdisciplinary in terms of its subject matter, yet its community of scholars is relatively small compared to mission-driven disciplines, such as conservation biology.  Venues for publication and presentation of ethnobiological research, as well as how ethnobiologists portray their research, are critical to growing ethnobiology.

  20. Rapid response to changing environments during biological invasions: DNA methylation perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuena; Li, Shiguo; Ni, Ping; Gao, Yangchun; Jiang, Bei; Zhou, Zunchun; Zhan, Aibin

    2017-12-01

    Dissecting complex interactions between species and their environments has long been a research hot spot in the fields of ecology and evolutionary biology. The well-recognized Darwinian evolution has well-explained long-term adaptation scenarios; however, "rapid" processes of biological responses to environmental changes remain largely unexplored, particularly molecular mechanisms such as DNA methylation that have recently been proposed to play crucial roles in rapid environmental adaptation. Invasive species, which have capacities to successfully survive rapidly changing environments during biological invasions, provide great opportunities to study molecular mechanisms of rapid environmental adaptation. Here, we used the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique in an invasive model ascidian, Ciona savignyi, to investigate how species interact with rapidly changing environments at the whole-genome level. We detected quite rapid DNA methylation response: significant changes of DNA methylation frequency and epigenetic differentiation between treatment and control groups occurred only after 1 hr of high-temperature exposure or after 3 hr of low-salinity challenge. In addition, we detected time-dependent hemimethylation changes and increased intragroup epigenetic divergence induced by environmental stresses. Interestingly, we found evidence of DNA methylation resilience, as most stress-induced DNA methylation variation maintained shortly (~48 hr) and quickly returned back to the control levels. Our findings clearly showed that invasive species could rapidly respond to acute environmental changes through DNA methylation modifications, and rapid environmental changes left significant epigenetic signatures at the whole-genome level. All these results provide fundamental background to deeply investigate the contribution of DNA methylation mechanisms to rapid contemporary environmental adaptation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. POSTUR PADA WANITA HAMIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paryono .

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction: Pregnancy effects in changes on all body systems leading to a new balance women and maternal adaptation.Weight gain in pregnant women from both the uterus and breast development generally occurs at the front of the body, butwhen standing they were still able to maintain a posture that does not face. The purpose of this article is to examine thereasons why pregnant women do not fall to front and how the good attitude of the pregnant woman's body.Materials and Methods: Material of this article are literatures related to pregnancy and the pregnant woman's bodyp o s t u r e , a n d t h e y w e r e c o l l e c t e d b y l i t e r a t u r e ' s s t u d y a n d l i t e r a r y s t u d y .Discussion: Increased abdominal distension that makes tilting the pelvis forward, decreased abdominal muscle tone andincrease weight gain in late pregnancy requires a readjustment spinal curvature. Woman's center of gravity shifts forward.Lumbosakrum normal curve should be more curved and the curvature of the servikodorsal be formed to maintain balance.Assessment of anterior view, lateral and posterior body should include an understanding of the physical structures such asjoints and muscles as well as how the meridian pathways. To compensate for the anterior position of the enlarged uterus,lordosis shifting center of gravity to the back of the lower limbs. There is an increased sacroiliac joint mobility,sakrokoksigeal, and pubic joints during pregnancy, possibly due to hormonal changes. Individual assessments will berequired to determine the pattern of muscle for every person, especially for those who have musculoskeletal problems.Conclusions and Recommendations: The size of the stomach in a pregnant woman, then the gravity of the body changes.Body to be biased toward the rear, but this position makes your back hurt. Advice for pregnant women in order to maintainyour posture as follows: head upKeyword : Posture, Pregnancy, Women.

  2. KAJIAN POSTUR KERJA PADA PENGRAJIN TENUN SONGKET PANDAI SIKEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessi Mufti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Working position of Songket workers at Tenunan Antik Pusako Minang Pandai Sikek were not ergonomic. There were indicated by the presence of curvature, incompatibility machine dimension with operator anthropometric (artisans songket so that appear complaints on a worker’s limb. It required the assessment and review of work postures using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA. The results is that final score of each work posture and level of risk. There are 6 working posture is often performed by workers. Working posture has final score 7 and higher risk level is sitting hunched forward with his arms and legs on tiptoe, and sat with his arms held forward positions.

  3. The relationship between intermittent limit cycles and postural instability associated with Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    James R. Chagdes; Huber, Jessica E.; Saletta, Meredith; Darling-White, Meghan; Raman, Arvind; Rietdyk, Shirley; Howard N Zelaznik; Haddad, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many disease-specific factors such as muscular weakness, increased muscle stiffness, varying postural strategies, and changes in postural reflexes have been shown to lead to postural instability and fall risk in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, analytical techniques, inspired by the dynamical systems perspective on movement control and coordination, have been used to examine the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of postural declines and the emergence of postural in...

  4. Ergonomic intervention: its effect on working posture and musculoskeletal symptoms in female biomedical scientists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kilroy, N

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of ergonomic intervention on working posture and musculoskeletal symptoms in female biomedical scientists. The Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ), body discomfort chart (BDC) and rapid upper-limb assessment (RULA) are the tools for assessment. The study was conducted in three phases: pre-intervention, intervention and post-intervention. Pre-intervention, 79% of subjects reported a three-month prevalence of symptoms, and these were reported more frequently by those working in haematology\\/transfusion. Analysis by RULA showed that the majority (59%) of postures had a grand score of four. A further 24% had scores of five or six. The highest frequency of poor postures was seen in haematology\\/transfusion. Intervention comprised physical workplace changes, a seminar, and advice on risk factors. In the post-intervention phase, baseline measurements were repeated. Reporting of three-month prevalence of symptoms had decreased to 54%, and reports of body discomfort also had decreased. The majority (64%) had a RULA grand score of three. No observed postures had scores of five or six. In conclusion, ergonomic intervention resulted in an improvement in working postures, and a decrease in the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and body discomfort. Analysis of findings indicate that RULA scores generally corresponded with reporting of symptoms (NMQ) and discomfort (BDC).

  5. Postural Tachycardia Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sensitivity. Other NINDS-funded research is investigating the hypothesis that POTS is a syndrome of different subtypes, with different underlying mechanisms. ... Publications Definition Postural ...

  6. Integrated Ocean Management as a Strategy to Meet Rapid Climate Change: The Norwegian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, Alf Håkon; Olsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The prospects of rapid climate change and the potential existence of tipping points in marine ecosystems where nonlinear change may result from them being overstepped, raises the question of strategies for coping with ecosystem change. There is broad agreement that the combined forces of climate change, pollution and increasing economic activities necessitates more comprehensive approaches to oceans management, centering on the concept of ecosystem-based oceans management. This article addres...

  7. Curioser and Curioser: New Concepts in the Rapidly Changing Landscape of Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Frances C.

    1999-01-01

    The new "Handbook" assumes that society is changing rapidly and educational administration must change with it. This article critiques chapters on four concepts: ideology, the new consumerism, social capital, and the new institutionalism. Consumerism is pure 19th-century liberalism/individualism; social capital theory and…

  8. Rapid climate change did not cause population collapse at the end of the European Bronze Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armit, Ian; Swindles, Graeme T; Becker, Katharina; Plunkett, Gill; Blaauw, Maarten

    2014-12-02

    The impact of rapid climate change on contemporary human populations is of global concern. To contextualize our understanding of human responses to rapid climate change it is necessary to examine the archeological record during past climate transitions. One episode of abrupt climate change has been correlated with societal collapse at the end of the northwestern European Bronze Age. We apply new methods to interrogate archeological and paleoclimate data for this transition in Ireland at a higher level of precision than has previously been possible. We analyze archeological (14)C dates to demonstrate dramatic population collapse and present high-precision proxy climate data, analyzed through Bayesian methods, to provide evidence for a rapid climatic transition at ca. 750 calibrated years B.C. Our results demonstrate that this climatic downturn did not initiate population collapse and highlight the nondeterministic nature of human responses to past climate change.

  9. The Basic Cardiovascular Responses to Postural Changes, Exercise, and Cold Pressor Test: Do They Vary in Accordance with the Dual Constitutional Types of Ayurveda?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Kumar Tripathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Ayurveda, the native Indian system of healthcare, three Doshas, namely, Vata, Pitta, and Kapha, are the basic mutually reciprocal mechanisms that are responsible for the maintenance of homeostasis in human beings. Ayurveda classifies entire human population into seven constitutional types (Prakriti, based on the dominance of any single or a combination of two or three Doshas. Considering the fact that, in the recent past there have been several studies that have proposed some important genetic, biochemical and haematological bases for Prakriti, we conducted the present study in 90 randomly selected clinically healthy volunteers belonging to dual constitutional types (Dvandvaja Prakriti to evaluate the variability of heart rate and arterial blood pressure in response to specific postural changes, exercise, and cold pressor test. The results of this study, in general, suggest that these basic cardiovascular responses do not vary significantly as per the dual constitutional types. However, we noted a significant fall in the diastolic blood pressure immediately after performing the isotonic exercise for five minutes, in Vata-Kapha individuals in comparison to the other two groups, namely, Pitta-Kapha and Vata-Pitta.

  10. Rapid changes in the geomagnetic field: from global to regional scales

    OpenAIRE

    Mandea, M.; Olsen, N; Monika Korte; Verbanac, G.; Y. Yahiat

    2008-01-01

    A large part of the Earth's magnetic field is generated by fluid motion in the molten outer core. Its temporal change, called secular variation, is characterized by occasional rapid changes known as geomagnetic jerks, sudden change in the second time derivative of the magnetic field. For a while, detailed studies of these phenomena suffered from the sparse distribution of geomagnetic observatories over many parts of the Earth. Recent studies on magnetic data provided by magnetic satellites, w...

  11. Dynamic diagnostic relationism: a new diagnostic paradigm for complex rapidly changing clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Lawrence A

    2014-01-01

    Decades of large, apparently well-designed clinical trials have failed to generate reproducible results in the investigation of many complex rapidly evolving and changing conditions such as sepsis. One possibility for the failure is that 20th century threshold science may be too simplistic to apply to complex rapidly changing conditions, especially those with unknown times of onset. There is an acute need to reconsider the fundamental validity of the application of simple threshold science in the study of complex rapidly evolving and changing conditions. In this letter, four potential axioms are presented which define a new science which assesses the probability of disease as a function of motion images of all the available clinical data.

  12. Scapular Bracing and Alteration of Posture and Muscle Activity in Overhead Athletes With Poor Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Ashley K; McGrath, Melanie L; Harrington, Shana E; Padua, Darin A; Rucinski, Terri J; Prentice, William E

    2013-01-01

    Context Overhead athletes commonly have poor posture. Commercial braces are used to improve posture and function, but few researchers have examined the effects of shoulder or scapular bracing on posture and scapular muscle activity. Objective To examine whether a scapular stabilization brace acutely alters posture and scapular muscle activity in healthy overhead athletes with forward-head, rounded-shoulder posture (FHRSP). Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting Applied biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Thirty-eight healthy overhead athletes with FHRSP. Intervention(s) Participants were assigned randomly to 2 groups: compression shirt with no strap tension (S) and compression shirt with the straps fully tensioned (S + T). Posture was measured using lateral-view photography with retroreflective markers. Electromyography (EMG) of the upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) in the dominant upper extremity was measured during 4 exercises (scapular punches, W's, Y's, T's) and 2 glenohumeral motions (forward flexion, shoulder extension). Posture and exercise EMG measurements were taken with and without the brace applied. Main Outcome Measure(s) Head and shoulder angles were measured from lateral-view digital photographs. Normalized surface EMG was used to assess mean muscle activation of the UT, MT, LT, and SA. Results Application of the brace decreased forward shoulder angle in the S + T condition. Brace application also caused a small increase in LT EMG during forward flexion and Y's and a small decrease in UT and MT EMG during shoulder extension. Brace application in the S + T group decreased UT EMG during W's, whereas UT EMG increased during W's in the S group. Conclusions Application of the scapular brace improved shoulder posture and scapular muscle activity, but EMG changes were highly variable. Use of a scapular brace might improve shoulder posture and muscle activity in

  13. Clinical characteristics of patients with persistent postural-perceptual dizziness

    OpenAIRE

    Roseli Saraiva Moreira Bittar; Eliane Maria Dias von Söhsten Lins

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness is the dizziness that lasts for over three months with no clinical explanation for its persistence. The patient's motor response pattern presents changes and most patients manifest significant anxiety. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent postural and perceptual dizziness. METHODS: statistical analysis of clinical aspects of patients with persistent postural-perceptual dizziness. RESULTS: 81 pati...

  14. Time-of-day influences postural balance in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, M G; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Laessoe, U

    2012-01-01

    Postural balance assessments are performed in both clinical and basic research settings on a daily basis. During a 24-h time span our physiology and physical performance undergo radical changes as we are influenced by the circadian rhythm. The time-of-day interaction on postural balance is unknow...... in older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the time-of-day effect on postural balance in older adults....

  15. Postural assessment of girls between 7 and 10 years of age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrícia Jundi Penha; Sílvia Maria Amado João; Raquel Aparecida Casarotto; Carlos Junichiro Amino; Daniela Caielli Penteado

    2005-01-01

    Postural alterations are often found in children and teenagers. In this stage of development, the posture undergoes many adjustments and adaptations due to changes of the body and to demanding psychosocial factors. PURPOSE...

  16. Monitoring changes in seismic velocity related to an ongoing rapid inflation event at Okmok volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, Ninfa; Haney, Matt; De Angelis, Silvio; Thurber, Clifford; Freymueller, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Okmok is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc. In an effort to improve our ability to detect precursory activity leading to eruption at Okmok, we monitor a recent, and possibly ongoing, GPS-inferred rapid inflation event at the volcano using ambient noise interferometry (ANI). Applying this method, we identify changes in seismic velocity outside of Okmok’s caldera, which are related to the hydrologic cycle. Within the caldera, we observe decreases in seismic velocity that are associated with the GPS-inferred rapid inflation event. We also determine temporal changes in waveform decorrelation and show a continual increase in decorrelation rate over the time associated with the rapid inflation event. Themagnitude of relative velocity decreases and decorrelation rate increases are comparable to previous studies at Piton de la Fournaise that associate such changes with increased production of volatiles and/ormagmatic intrusion within the magma reservoir and associated opening of fractures and/or fissures. Notably, the largest decrease in relative velocity occurs along the intrastation path passing nearest to the center of the caldera. This observation, along with equal amplitude relative velocity decreases revealed via analysis of intracaldera autocorrelations, suggests that the inflation sourcemay be located approximately within the center of the caldera and represent recharge of shallow magma storage in this location. Importantly, there is a relative absence of seismicity associated with this and previous rapid inflation events at Okmok. Thus, these ANI results are the first seismic evidence of such rapid inflation at the volcano.

  17. Pontos marcados na superfície da pele representam os processos espinhosos quando a postura é modificada? Can skin markers represent spinous process when the posture is changed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tássia Silveira Furlanetto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi verificar radiograficamente se a posição dos marcadores de superfície, identificados por palpação em ortostase, é alterada com a modificação da postura para o decúbito lateral. Dez indivíduos foram: palpados e marcados com adesivos de superfície, os processos espinhosos das vértebras C7, T2, T4, T6, T8, T10, T12, L2, L4 e S2; submetidos a um exame radiológico da coluna vertebral na posição ortostática e em decúbito lateral direito para verificar se o marcador de superfície colocado sobre o processo espinhoso estava condizente com o processo espinhoso da imagem radiográfica. Uma ANOVA two-way mostrou diferenças significativas para o deslocamento do marcador de superfície entre as posições para as vértebras C7, T2, T4, T6, T8, T10, L2 e S2 (pThe objective was to radiographically verify if the position of skin markers, identified by palpation in orthostasis posture, changes when the subject position shifts to lying posture. Ten subjects underwent two X-ray tests, first, in orthostasis and right lying posture. Ten subjects were palpated and marked with skin markers in the orthostasis posture, in the spinous process of the vertebrae C7, T2, T4, T6, T8, T10, T12, L2, L4 and S2 . After palpation, subjects underwent X-ray exams in orthostasis and lying postures to verify if the surface marker matched the spinous process shown on X-ray. A two-way ANOVA indicated significant differences for the displacement of the skin markers, for the C7, T2, T4, T6, T8, T10, L2 and S2 spinous processes (p<0.001. The T12 and L4 spinous processes did not indicate significant differences. The skin markers locations were not consistent with the spinous processes identified in X-rays for both positions. The skin movement may have displaced the skin markers when the subject changed from orthostasis to lying posture.

  18. Computed tomographic demonstration of rapid changes in fatty infiltration of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashist, B. (Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York); Hecht, H.L.; Harely, W.D.

    1982-03-01

    Two alcoholic patients in whom computed tomography (CT) demonstrated reversal of fatty infiltration of the liver are described. The rapid reversibility of fatty infiltration can be useful in monitoring alcoholics with fatty livers. Focal fatty infiltration can mimic focal hepatic lesions and repeat scans can be utilized to assess changes in CT attenuation values when this condition is suspected.

  19. Rapidly changing mortality profiles in South Africa in its nine provinces

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    number from HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis combined by 2012.[1]. Cardiovascular ... diabetes and renal disease have increased.[1,7] Furthermore ... Creative Commons licence CC-BY-NC 4.0. Rapidly changing mortality profiles in South Africa in its nine provinces. Non-communicable disease. HIV/AIDS and TB. Other type 1.

  20. Engaging Chicago residents in climate change action: Results from Rapid Ethnographic Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne M. Westphal; Jennifer. Hirsch

    2010-01-01

    Addressing climate change requires action at all levels of society, from neighborhood to international levels. Using Rapid Ethnography rooted in Asset Based Community Development theory, we investigated climate-friendly attitudes and behaviors in two Chicago neighborhoods in order to assist the City with implementation of its Climate Action Plan. Our research suggests...

  1. Exercise and Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to lie flat in this position, place a pillow under your chest and a folded towel under ... bent resting posture at night. Avoid using a pillow, if possible, to prevent pain from over-extension ...

  2. Guide to Good Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when you are walking, running, or bending over to pick up something. Static posture is how you ... are sitting, standing, or sleeping. It is important to make sure that you have good dynamic and ...

  3. Exercise and Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Spondylitis › Treatment Information › Exercise & Posture Print Page Exercise Exercise is an integral part of any spondylitis ... For First Responders For Chiropractors Research Article Archive Exercise Guidelines Having an exercise program that accomplishes your ...

  4. Perceptions of sitting posture among members of the community, both with and without non-specific chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Kieran; O'Keeffe, Mary; O'Sullivan, Leonard; O'Sullivan, Peter; Dankaerts, Wim

    2013-12-01

    Physiotherapists perceive upright, lordotic sitting postures to be important in the management of non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). Little is known about the perceptions of the wider community about seated posture, despite this being an important consideration before attempting to change seated posture. This study investigated perceptions of the best and worst sitting postures among members of the community, both with (n = 120) and without (n = 235) NSCLBP. Participants with NSCLBP perceived posture to be more important (p posture significantly more frequently (p posture as their best posture, which was more frequent than any other posture (p postures which were "straight", and were perceived to keep the head, neck and shoulders in good alignment were preferred. However, what people considered "straight" varied considerably. 78% selected a slumped sitting posture as their worst posture, which was more frequent than any other posture (p postures was not significantly influenced by gender, the presence of NSCLBP, or measures of pain, disability or back pain beliefs. Interestingly, a very upright sitting posture was the second most popular selection as both the best (19%) and worst (15%) posture. Overall, lordotic lumbar postures were strongly favoured among members of the community, which is broadly in line with the previously reported perceptions of physiotherapists. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of postural muscle fatigue on the relation between segmental posture and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabran, E; Maton, B; Fourment, A

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether fatigue of postural muscles might influence the coordination between segmental posture and movement. Seven healthy adults performed series of fifteen fast wrist flexions and extensions while being instructed to keep a dominant upper limb posture as constant as possible. These series of voluntary movements were performed before and after a fatiguing submaximal isometric elbow flexion, and also with or without the help of an elbow support. Surface EMG from muscles Deltoïdeus anterior, Biceps brachii, Triceps brachii, Flexor carpi ulnaris, Extensor carpi radialis were recorded simultaneously with wrist, elbow and shoulder accelerations and wrist and elbow displacements. Fatigue was evidenced by a shift of the elbow and shoulder muscles EMG spectra towards low frequencies. Kinematics of wrist movements and corresponding activations of wrist prime-movers, as well as the background of postural muscle activation before wrist movement were not modified. There were only slight changes in timing of postural muscle activations. These data indicate that postural fatigue induced by a low-level isometric contraction has no effect on voluntary movement and requires no dramatic adaptation in postural control.

  6. [Changes in cell respiration of postural muscle fibers under long-term gravitational unloading after dietary succinate supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogneva, I V; Veselova, O M; Larina, I M

    2011-01-01

    The intensity of cell respiration of the rat m. soleus, m. gastrocnemius c.m. and tibialis anterior fibers during 35-day gravitational unloading, with the addition of succinate in the diet at a dosage rate of 50 mg per 1 kg animal weight has been investigated. The gravitational unloading was modeled by antiorthostatic hindlimb suspension. The intensity of cell respiration was estimated by polarography. It was shown that the rate of oxygen consumption by soleus and gastrocnemius fibers on endogenous and exogenous substrates and with the addition of ADP decreases after the discharge. This may be associated with the transition to the glycolytic energy path due to a decrease in the EMG-activity. At the same time, the respiration rate after the addition of exogenous substrates in soleus fibers did not increase, indicating a disturbance in the function of the NCCR-section of the respiratory chain and more pronounced changes in the structure of muscle fibers. In tibialis anterior fibers, no changes in oxygen consumption velocity were observed. The introduction of succinate to the diet of rats makes it possible to prevent the negative effects of hypokinesia, although it reduces the basal level of intensity of cell respiration.

  7. Monitoring of rapid land cover changes in eastern Japan using Terra/MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, I.; Hara, K.; Park, J.; Asanuma, I.; Tomita, M.; Hasegawa, D.; Short, K.; Fujihara, M.,

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation and land cover in Japan are rapidly changing. Abandoned farmland in 2010, for example, was 396,000 ha, or triple that of 1985. Efficient monitoring of changes in land cover is vital to both conservation of biodiversity and sustainable regional development. The Ministry of Environment is currently producing 1/25,000 scale vegetation maps for all of Japan, but the work is not yet completed. Traditional research is time consuming, and has difficulty coping with the rapid nature of change in the modern world. In this situation, classification of various scale remotely sensed data can be of premier use for efficient and timely monitoring of changes in vegetation.. In this research Terra/MODIS data is utilized to classify land cover in all of eastern Japan. Emphasis is placed on the Tohoku area, where large scale and rapid changes in vegetation have occurred in the aftermath of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011. Large sections of coastal forest and agricultural lands, for example, were directly damaged by the earthquake or inundated by subsequent tsunami. Agricultural land was also abandoned due to radioactive contamination from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. The classification results are interpreted within the framework of a Landscape Transformation Sere model developed by Hara et al (2010), which presents a multi-staged pattern for tracking vegetation changes under successively heavy levels of human interference. The results of the research will be useful for balancing conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems with the needs for regional redevelopment.

  8. Integrated ocean management as a strategy to meet rapid climate change: the Norwegian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, Alf Håkon; Olsen, Erik

    2012-02-01

    The prospects of rapid climate change and the potential existence of tipping points in marine ecosystems where nonlinear change may result from them being overstepped, raises the question of strategies for coping with ecosystem change. There is broad agreement that the combined forces of climate change, pollution and increasing economic activities necessitates more comprehensive approaches to oceans management, centering on the concept of ecosystem-based oceans management. This article addresses the Norwegian experience in introducing integrated, ecosystem-based oceans management, emphasizing how climate change, seen as a major long-term driver of change in ecosystems, is addressed in management plans. Understanding the direct effects of climate variability and change on ecosystems and indirect effects on human activities is essential for adaptive planning to be useful in the long-term management of the marine environment.

  9. Frightening music triggers rapid changes in brain monoamine receptors: a pilot PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Qiaozhen; Du, Fenglei; Hu, Yanni; Chao, Fangfang; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong

    2012-10-01

    Frightening music can rapidly arouse emotions in listeners that mimic those from actual life-threatening experiences. However, studies of the underlying mechanism for perceiving danger created by music are limited. We investigated monoamine receptor changes induced by frightening music using (11)C-N-methyl-spiperone ((11)C-NMSP) PET. Ten healthy male volunteers were included, and their psychophysiologic changes were evaluated. Compared with the baseline condition, listening to frightening music caused a significant decrease in (11)C-NMSP in the right and left caudate nuclei, right limbic region, and right paralimbic region; a particularly significant decrease in the right anterior cingulate cortex; but an increase in the right frontal occipital and left temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex. Transient fright triggers rapid changes in monoamine receptors, which decrease in the limbic and paralimbic regions but increase in the cerebral cortex.

  10. Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2012-06-01

    The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible.

  11. Posture and isokinetic shoulder strength in female water polo players

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Being overhead athletes, water polo players can present with muscular imbalances of the shoulder, between the internal rotators (IR) and external rotators (ER), leading to changes in posture and an increased risk of injury. Objectives: To assess posture and isokinetic shoulder strength of female club-level ...

  12. Influence of Functional Head Postures on the Dynamic Functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The dentist utilizes supine position during therapeutic procedures, while the patients assumes extended head posture during mastication. It is critical for the restorative dentist to evaluate and understand the possible effect of change in head posture on occlusal contacts. An understanding of the possible effect ...

  13. Posture, performance and discomfort in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, J A; Grieve, D W

    1992-04-01

    This study examined changes in posture, discomfort and performance during various stages of pregnancy. Twelve subjects performed a typing task in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Posture was measured using goniometry and comfort was assessed using body-mapping techniques. The subjects showed a marked increase in their angles of trunk inclination and a general increase in discomfort between the second and third trimesters of their pregnancies. All body parts were found to be more uncomfortable in the third trimester and the largest changes occurred in the low back and lower legs. Advancing pregnancy had no effect on typing performance.

  14. Rapid Hip Osteoarthritis Development in a Patient with Anterior Acetabular Cyst with Sagittal Alignment Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Homma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly destructive coxarthrosis (RDC is rare and develops unusual clinical course. Recent studies suggest multiple possible mechanisms of the development of RDC. However the exact mechanism of RDC is still not clear. The difficulty of the study on RDC is attributed to its rareness and the fact that the data before the onset of RDC is normally unavailable. In this report, we presented the patient having the radiographic data before the onset who had rapid osteoarthritis (OA development after contralateral THA, which meets the current criteria of RDC. We thought that the increased posterior tilt of the pelvis after THA reinforced the stress concentration at pre-existed anterior acetabular cyst, thereby the destruction of the cyst was occurred. As a result the rapid OA was developed. We think that there is the case of rapid osteoarthritis developing due to alternating load concentration by posterior pelvic tilt on preexisting anterior acetabular cyst such as our patient among the cases diagnosed as RDC without any identifiable etiology. The recognition of sagittal alignment changes and anterior acetabular cyst may play important role in prediction and prevention of the rapid hip osteoarthritis development similar to RDC.

  15. Recent changes in phytoplankton communities associated with rapid regional climate change along the western Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Hugo, Martin; Doney, Scott C; Ducklow, Hugh W; Fraser, William; Martinson, Douglas; Stammerjohn, Sharon E; Schofield, Oscar

    2009-03-13

    The climate of the western shelf of the Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is undergoing a transition from a cold-dry polar-type climate to a warm-humid sub-Antarctic-type climate. Using three decades of satellite and field data, we document that ocean biological productivity, inferred from chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), has significantly changed along the WAP shelf. Summertime surface Chl a (summer integrated Chl a approximately 63% of annually integrated Chl a) declined by 12% along the WAP over the past 30 years, with the largest decreases equatorward of 63 degrees S and with substantial increases in Chl a occurring farther south. The latitudinal variation in Chl a trends reflects shifting patterns of ice cover, cloud formation, and windiness affecting water-column mixing. Regional changes in phytoplankton coincide with observed changes in krill (Euphausia superba) and penguin populations.

  16. The Control of Posture in Newly Standing Infants is Task Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Laura J.; Melzer, Dawn K.; Ryu, Joong Hyun; Haddad, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    The postural sway patterns of newly standing infants were compared under two conditions: standing while holding a toy and standing while not holding a toy. Infants exhibited a lower magnitude of postural sway and more complex sway patterns when holding the toy. These changes suggest that infants adapt postural sway in a manner that facilitates…

  17. Combining Workstation Design and Performance Management to Increase Ergonomically Correct Computer Typing Postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culig, Kathryn M.; Dickinson, Alyce M.; Lindstrom-Hazel, Debra; Austin, John

    2008-01-01

    The effects of workstation changes and a performance management (PM) package on seven typing postures were examined for seven office workers. Workstation adjustments were implemented first. Two participants increased five safe postures by 50% or more. The effects of a PM package on postures that did not improve by 50% were then examined using a…

  18. Effects of high latitude protected areas on bird communities under rapid climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangeli, Andrea; Rajasärkkä, Ari; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2017-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is rapidly becoming one of the main threats to biodiversity, along with other threats triggered by human-driven land-use change. Species are already responding to climate change by shifting their distributions polewards. This shift may create a spatial mismatch between dynamic species distributions and static protected areas (PAs). As protected areas represent one of the main pillars for preserving biodiversity today and in the future, it is important to assess their contribution in sheltering the biodiversity communities, they were designated to protect. A recent development to investigate climate-driven impacts on biological communities is represented by the community temperature index (CTI). CTI provides a measure of the relative temperature average of a community in a specific assemblage. CTI value will be higher for assemblages dominated by warm species compared with those dominated by cold-dwelling species. We here model changes in the CTI of Finnish bird assemblages, as well as changes in species densities, within and outside of PAs during the past four decades in a large boreal landscape under rapid change. We show that CTI has markedly increased over time across Finland, with this change being similar within and outside PAs and five to seven times slower than the temperature increase. Moreover, CTI has been constantly lower within than outside of PAs, and PAs still support communities, which show colder thermal index than those outside of PAs in the 1970s and 1980s. This result can be explained by the higher relative density of northern species within PAs than outside. Overall, our results provide some, albeit inconclusive, evidence that PAs may play a role in supporting the community of northern species. Results also suggest that communities are, however, shifting rapidly, both inside and outside of PAs, highlighting the need for adjusting conservation measures before it is too late. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Motor-prediction improvements after virtual rehabilitation in geriatrics: frail patients reveal different learning curves for movement and postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, A; Bonnetblanc, F; Petrement, G; Mourey, F

    2014-01-01

    Postural control associated with self-paced movement is critical for balance in frail older adults. The present work aimed to investigate the effects of a 2D virtual reality-based program on postural control associated with rapid arm movement in this population. Participants in an upright standing position performed rapid arm-raising movements towards a target. Practice-related changes were assessed by pre- and post-test comparisons of hand kinematics and centre-of-pressure (CoP) displacement parameters measured in a training group and a control group. During these pre- and post-test sessions, patients have to reach towards yellow balls appearing on the screen, form a standardized upright position (with 15cm between the two malleoli). Training group patients took part in six sessions of virtual game. In this, patients were asked to reach their arm towards yellow balls appearing on the screen, from an upright position. After training, we observed improvements in arm movements and in the initial phase of CoP displacement, especially in the anticipatory postural adjustments. Learning curves for these two types of motor improvements showed different rates. These were continuous for the control of the arm movement, and discontinuous for the control of the CoP during the anticipatory postural adjustments. These results suggest that some level of motor (re)-learning is maintained in frail patients with low functional reserves. They also suggest that re-learning of anticipatory postural control (i.e. motor prediction) is less robust than explicit motor learning involved for the arm reaching. This last point should encourage clinicians to extend the training course duration, even if reaching movement improvements seems acquired, in order to automate these anticipatory postural activities. However, other studies should be done to measure the retention of these two types of learning on a longer-term period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [Postural control depends on testing situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbanski, Stephan; Schmidtbleicher, Ditmar

    2010-09-01

    Most often postural control is evaluated in posturography, i. e. in a static testing condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate correlations and differences between posturography and dynamic testing situations to get information about the informative value of static testing situations on dynamic conditions. 40 healthy subjects participated in this study (m=23; w=17; age: 23.8±2.9 years; height: 177.0±8.5 cm; weight: 71.5±10.5 kg). Subjects were tested on their ability to maintain postural stability on a force platform (posturography, static condition) and on a movable and instable plate (dynamic condition). Furthermore, we analyzed balance correcting responses to a standardised disturbance of postural stability. EMG-activity was recorded of the following muscles: m. tibialis anterior, m. gastrocnemius lateralis, m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps femoris, and m. erector spinae. Pearson's Correlations were used to examine the relationship between postural control in static and in dynamic testing situations. Student's t-tests were used to examine differences in several parameters between static and dynamic testing situations. Comparisons of postural control in static and in dynamic conditions lead to marginal correlations between performances in these test situations (r=-0.02 to r=0.45). Moreover, EMGactivity showed changes concerning quantitative parameters and coordination patterns. Regarding correlations and analyses of EMG-activity we hypothesised different postural control strategies depending on each testing situation. Therefore, postural control seems not to be a generalizable ability. These data suggest that there is doubt on the use of posturography in static condition to predict performance in dynamic situations that could induce falls in elderly people or injuries in athletes. It appears comprehensible that dynamic testing situations are more suitable.

  1. Rapid assessment of large scale vegetation change based on multi-temporal phenological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Danlu; Guan, Yanning; Guo, Shan; Yan, Baoping; Xing, Zhi; Zhang, Chunyan; Piao, Yingchao; An, Xudong; Kang, Lihua

    2011-11-01

    Detecting vegetation change is critical for earth system and sustainability science. The existing methods, however, show several limitations, including inevitable selection of imagery acquisition dates, affection from vegetation related noise on temporal trajectory analysis, and assumptions due to vegetation classification model. This paper presents a multitemporal phenological frequency analysis over a relatively short period (MTPFA-SP) methodology to detect vegetation changes. This MTPFA-SP methodology bases on the amplitude components of fast Fourier transforming (FFT) and is implemented with two steps. First, NDVI time series over two periods are transformed with FFT into frequency domain, separately. Second, amplitude components with phenological information from Step 1 are selected for further change comparison. In this methodology, component selection shows physical meanings of natural vegetation process in frequency domain. Comparisons among those selected components help enhance the ability to rapidly detect vegetation changes. To validate this MTPFA-SP methodology, we detect changes between two periods (2001-2005 and 2006-2010) in the eastern Tibet Plateau area and make two kinds of assessments. The first is for a larger scale, including statistic analysis of altitudinal zonality and latitudinal zonality. The second assessment is for rapid detection of vegetation change location. Landsat TM image were employed to validate the result.

  2. Rapid climate changes in the tropical Atlantic region during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughen, Konrad A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Peterson, Larry C.; Trumbore, Susan

    1996-03-01

    THE climate system is capable of changing abruptly from one stable mode to another1-3. Rapid climate oscillations-in particular the Younger Dryas cold period during the last deglaciation-have long been recognized from records throughout the North Atlantic region4-14, and the distribution of these records at mostly high latitudes suggests that the changes were caused by rapid reorganizations of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation6,8,10,15. But events far from the North Atlantic region that are synchronous with the Younger Dryas16-19 raise the possibility that a more global forcing mechanism was responsible20. Here we present high-resolution records of laminated sediments of the last deglaciation from the Cariaco basin (tropical Atlantic Ocean) which show many abrupt sub-decade to century-scale oscillations in surface-ocean biological productivity that are synchronous with climate changes at high latitudes. We attribute these productivity variations to changes in or duration of up-welling rate (and hence nutrient supply) caused by changes in trade-wind strength, which is in turn influenced by the thermo-haline circulation through its effect on sea surface temperature6,21. Abrupt climate changes in the tropical Atlantic during the last deglaciation are thus consistent with a North Atlantic circulation forcing mechanism.

  3. Changes in nasal air flow and school grades after rapid maxillary expansion in oral breathing children

    OpenAIRE

    Torre, Hilda; Alarcón, Jose Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the changes in nasal air flow and school grades after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in oral breathing children with maxillary constriction. Material and Methods: Forty-four oral breathing children (mean age 10.57 y) underwent orthodontic RME with a Hyrax screw. Forty-four age-matched children (mean age 10.64 y) with nasal physiological breathing and adequate transverse maxillary dimensions served as the control group. The maxillary widths, nasal air flow assessed via p...

  4. Environmental impacts of rapid water level changes; Miljoekonsekvenser av raske vannstandsendringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnekleiv, Jo Vegar; Bakken, Tor Haakon; Bogen, Jim; Boensnes, Truls Erik; Elster, Margrethe; Harby, Atle; Kutznetsova, Yulia; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Sauterleute, Julian; Stickler, Morten; Sundt, Haakon; Tjomsland, Torulv; Ugedal, Ola

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes the state of knowledge of the environmental impacts of power driving and rapid water level changes and describes possible mitigation measures. The report assesses the environmental effects of possible increased power installation in Mauranger and Tonstad power plants, based on existing data and knowledge. At Straumsmo plants in Barduelva there are collected some physical data and the environmental impact of existing power driving is considered. (eb)

  5. Relationship between posterior crossbite and postural alterations in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaqueline de Matos Lopes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the posture of individuals with functional posterior crossbite, malocclusion is one of the most in need of orthodontic treatment. Methods: This work presents an analysis of postural among children 6 to 12 years who present functional posterior cross bite of both genders who are in mixed dentition or no intervention prior orthodontic and orthopedic. Was obtained images in the plans: front and back where it was analyzed the asymmetry or symmetry of the individual in the image and in the lateral, anterior, a posterior or normality. Results: 100% had some kind of postural change, and the asymmetry between the scapulae (shoulder found the greatest change, as one of extreme importance in this age group represents a growing skeletal muscle. Conclusion: analyzes all of the children showed postural abnormalities and malocclusion are also of great importance not only to be treating the problem orally, but the postural problem with the help of a multidisciplinary team.

  6. Evaluation of rapid volume changes of substrate-adherent cells by conventional microscopy 3D imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreault, F; Grygorczyk, R

    2004-09-01

    Precise measurement of rapid volume changes of substrate-adherent cells is essential to understand many aspects of cell physiology, yet techniques to evaluate volume changes with sufficient precision and high temporal resolution are limited. Here, we describe a novel imaging method that surveys the rapid morphology modifications of living, substrate-adherent cells based on phase-contrast, digital video microscopy. Cells grown on a glass substrate are mounted in a custom-designed, side-viewing chamber and subjected to hypotonic swelling. Side-view images of the rapidly swelling cell, and at the end of the assay, an image of the same cell viewed from a perpendicular direction through the substrate, are acquired. Based on these images, off-line reconstruction of 3D cell morphology is performed, which precisely measures cell volume, height and surface at different points during cell volume changes. Volume evaluations are comparable to those obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy (DeltaVolume microscopy without the need for cell staining or intense illumination to monitor cell volume make this system a promising new tool to investigate the fundamentals of cell volume physiology.

  7. Postural deformities in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doherty, K.M.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Peralta, M.C.; Silveira-Moriyama, L.; Azulay, J.P.; Gershanik, O.S.; Bloem, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Postural deformities are frequent and disabling complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonism. These deformities include camptocormia, antecollis, Pisa syndrome, and scoliosis. Recognition of specific postural syndromes might have differential diagnostic value in patients

  8. Postural control in underachieving students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomaz, Andreza; Ganança, Maurício Malavasi; Garcia, Adriana Pontin; Kessler, Natalia; Caovilla, Heloisa Helena

    2014-01-01

    Postural balance is a sensory-motor function resulting from a learning process. To evaluate the postural control of underachieving students through static posturography together with virtual reality stimulation...

  9. Rapid and specific gray matter changes in M1 induced by balance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Marco; Mehnert, Jan; Pleger, Burkhard; Villringer, Arno

    2016-06-01

    Training-induced changes in cortical structure can be observed non-invasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). While macroscopic changes were found mainly after weeks to several months of training in humans, imaging of motor cortical networks in animals revealed rapid microstructural alterations after a few hours of training. We used MRI to test the hypothesis of immediate and specific training-induced alterations in motor cortical gray matter in humans. We found localized increases in motor cortical thickness after 1h of practice in a complex balancing task. These changes were specific to motor cortical effector representations primarily responsible for balance control in our task (lower limb and trunk) and these effects could be confirmed in a replication study. Cortical thickness changes (i) linearly increased across the training session, (ii) occurred independent of alterations in resting cerebral blood flow and (iii) were not triggered by repetitive use of the lower limbs. Our findings show that motor learning triggers rapid and specific gray matter changes in M1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Attentional demand for regulating postural sway: the effect of expertise in gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Nougier, Vincent

    2004-03-15

    A dual-task paradigm was used to investigate whether the expertise in motor skills requiring a fine postural control can modify the attentional demand necessary for regulating postural sway. Seven expert gymnasts and seven experts in other non-gymnastic sports were asked to respond as rapidly as possible to an unpredictable auditory stimulus while maintaining stable seated and in three upright postures of increasing difficulty: bipedal, unipedal, and unipedal on an unstable support (i.e. a 7 cm thick foam surface). RT values were used as an index of the attentional demand necessary for performing the postural tasks. Results showed that the attentional demand necessary for regulating postural sway increased as the postural task increased in difficulty. Interestingly, this effect was smaller for the gymnasts during unipedal stance. These findings suggest a decreased dependency on attentional processes for regulating postural sway during unipedal stance in gymnasts with respect to non-gymnasts.

  11. Rapid changes in brain structure predict improvements induced by perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Muggleton, Neil G; Rees, Geraint; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    Practice-dependent changes in brain structure can occur in task relevant brain regions as a result of extensive training in complex motor tasks and long-term cognitive training but little is known about the impact of visual perceptual learning on brain structure. Here we studied the effect of five days of visual perceptual learning in a motion-color conjunction search task using anatomical MRI. We found rapid changes in gray matter volume in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus, an area sensitive to coherently moving stimuli, that predicted the degree to which an individual's performance improved with training. Furthermore, behavioral improvements were also predicted by volumetric changes in an extended white matter region underlying the visual cortex. These findings point towards quick and efficient plastic neural mechanisms that enable the visual brain to deal effectively with changing environmental demands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed....... METHODS: Review of controlled, clinical trials evaluating postoperative pulmonary function in patients positioned in the supine vs. the sitting or standing position and patients positioned in the supine vs. the lateral position. Data were obtained from a search in the Medline and Cochrane databases (1966...

  13. Working postures: prediction and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delleman, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    To date, workstation designers cannot see the effects of a design on working posture before a mock-up/prototype is available. At that moment, usually the margin for creating the conditions required for adopting favourable working postures is still very limited. Posture prediction at an early design

  14. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered postural control has been observed in low back pain (LBP) patients. They seem to be more dependent on vision when standing. The objective of the study was to determine concurrent and predictive validity of measures of postural stability in LBP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS...... LBP patients were evaluated. The correlations between CoP measurements and pain, fear of pain, and physical function were poor. There were no significant differences in CoP measurements between patients with no change or deterioration and patients with improvement in pain and back-specific function......: Centre of Pressure (CoP) measurements were tested against pain, fear of pain, and physical function. Velocity, anterior-posterior displacement, and the Romberg Ratio obtained on a portable force platform were used as measures of postural stability. RESULTS: Baseline and 12-week follow-up results of 97...

  15. Immediate changes in masticatory mechanosensitivity, mouth opening, and head posture after myofascial techniques in pain-free healthy participants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Angel; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Piña-Pozo, Fernando; Luque-Carrasco, Antonio; Herrera-Monge, Patricia

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the immediate effects on masticatory muscle mechanosensitivity, maximal vertical mouth opening (VMO), and head posture in pain-free healthy participants after intervention with myofascial treatment in the temporalis and masseter muscles. A randomized, double-blind study was conducted. The sample group included 48 participants (n=48), with a mean age of 21±2.47 years (18-29). Two subgroups were defined: an intervention group (n=24), who underwent a fascial induction protocol in the masseter and temporalis muscles, and a control group (n=24), who underwent a sham (placebo) intervention. The pressure pain threshold in 2 locations in the masseter (M1, M2) and temporalis (T1, T2) muscles, maximal VMO, and head posture, by means of the craniovertebral angle, were all measured. Significant improvements were observed in the intragroup comparison in the intervention group for the craniovertebral angle with the participant in seated (P.05). Myofascial induction techniques in the masseter and temporalis muscles show no significant differences in maximal VMO, in the mechanical sensitivity of the masticatory muscles, and in head posture in comparison with a placebo intervention in which the therapist's hands are placed in the temporomandibular joint region without exerting any therapeutic pressure. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid emergence of climate change in environmental drivers of marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Stephanie A.; Beaulieu, Claudie; Ilyina, Tatiana; John, Jasmin G.; Long, Matthew; Séférian, Roland; Tjiputra, Jerry; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-03-01

    Climate change is expected to modify ecological responses in the ocean, with the potential for important effects on the ecosystem services provided to humankind. Here we address the question of how rapidly multiple drivers of marine ecosystem change develop in the future ocean. By analysing an ensemble of models we find that, within the next 15 years, the climate change-driven trends in multiple ecosystem drivers emerge from the background of natural variability in 55% of the ocean and propagate rapidly to encompass 86% of the ocean by 2050 under a `business-as-usual' scenario. However, we also demonstrate that the exposure of marine ecosystems to climate change-induced stress can be drastically reduced via climate mitigation measures; with mitigation, the proportion of ocean susceptible to multiple drivers within the next 15 years is reduced to 34%. Mitigation slows the pace at which multiple drivers emerge, allowing an additional 20 years for adaptation in marine ecological and socio-economic systems alike.

  17. The Relationship Between Therapist Approach Postures, Avoidance Postures and Posture Sharing, and Subjects' Experience of Rapport

    OpenAIRE

    Carcelli, Lawrence A.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between approach, avoidance and congruent postures and the experience of rapport was investigated. Sixty undergraduate college students (30 male, 30 female) were interviewed by a therapist who displayed either approach postures, avoidance postures or who posture shared. The degree of rapport experienced by the 20 subjects in the three groups was compared. In addition, the subjects' behaviors were divided into four groups (n = 11, or 19) along two orthogonal dimensions (high a...

  18. Rapid Detection of Land Cover Changes Using Crowdsourced Geographic Information: A Case Study of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Meng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Land cover change (LCC detection is a significant component of sustainability research including ecological economics and climate change. Due to the rapid variability of natural environment, effective LCC detection is required to capture sufficient change-related information. Although such information has been available through remotely sensed images, the complicated image processing and classification make it time consuming and labour intensive. In contrast, the freely available crowdsourced geographic information (CGI contains easily interpreted textual information, and thus has the potential to be applied for capturing effective change-related information. Therefore, this paper presents and evaluates a method using CGI for rapid LCC detection. As a case study, Beijing is chosen as the study area, and CGI is applied to monitor LCC information. As one kind of CGI which is generated from commercial Internet maps, points of interest (POIs with detailed textual information are utilised to detect land cover in 2016. Those POIs are first classified into land cover nomenclature based on their textual information. Then, a kernel density approach is proposed to effectively generate land cover regions in 2016. Finally, with GlobeLand30 in 2010 as baseline map, LCC is detected using the post-classification method in the period of 2010–2016 in Beijing. The result shows that an accuracy of 89.20% is achieved with land cover regions generated by POIs, indicating that POIs are reliable for rapid LCC detection. Additionally, an LCC detection comparison is proposed between remotely sensed images and CGI, revealing the advantages of POIs in terms of LCC efficiency. However, due to the uneven distribution, remotely sensed images are still required in areas with few POIs.

  19. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, A K; Garg, R; Ritch, A; Sarkar, P

    2007-01-01

    Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is an autonomic disturbance which has become better understood in recent years. It is now thought to encompass a group of disorders that have similar clinical features, such as orthostatic intolerance, but individual distinguishing parameters—for example, blood pressure and pulse rate. The clinical picture, diagnosis, and management of POTS are discussed.

  20. Development of Middle Stone Age innovation linked to rapid climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Martin; Simon, Margit H; Hall, Ian R; Barker, Stephen; Stringer, Chris; Zahn, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The development of modernity in early human populations has been linked to pulsed phases of technological and behavioural innovation within the Middle Stone Age of South Africa. However, the trigger for these intermittent pulses of technological innovation is an enigma. Here we show that, contrary to some previous studies, the occurrence of innovation was tightly linked to abrupt climate change. Major innovational pulses occurred at times when South African climate changed rapidly towards more humid conditions, while northern sub-Saharan Africa experienced widespread droughts, as the Northern Hemisphere entered phases of extreme cooling. These millennial-scale teleconnections resulted from the bipolar seesaw behaviour of the Atlantic Ocean related to changes in the ocean circulation. These conditions led to humid pulses in South Africa and potentially to the creation of favourable environmental conditions. This strongly implies that innovational pulses of early modern human behaviour were climatically influenced and linked to the adoption of refugia.

  1. Changing arctic ecosystems—What is causing the rapid increase of snow geese in northern Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Whalen, Mary E.; Pearce, John M.

    2015-09-10

    Through the Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) informs key resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information on current and future ecosystem response to a warming climate. The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska is a key study area within the USGS CAE initiative. This region has experienced a warming trend over the past decades, leading to decreased sea ice, permafrost thaw, and an advancement of spring phenology. The number of birds on the ACP also is changing, marked by increased populations of the four species of geese that nest in the region. The Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens) is the most rapidly increasing of these species. USGS CAE research is quantifying these changes and their implications for management agencies.

  2. [Evalution of body posture in women with breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Juliana de Assis Novais; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa; Zandonade, Eliana; Delaprane, Marina Lima

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the body posture of women submitted to treatment for breast cancer, to identify the postural changes in the first three months after surgery and to investigate the correlation of these findings with the woman's age and type and side of surgery. A longitudinal study that monitored the postural changes of 39 women who underwent mastectomy and quadrantectomy. Postural evaluation was performed using the technique of biophotogrammetry before surgery, after drain removal and three months after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using parametric and nonparametric tests, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. The average age of the women studied was 50±10.5 years, 48.8% underwent mastectomy and the left breast was operated in 61.5% of them . There was no statistically significant difference in the women's posture during the study period. However, the pelvis and trunk of women submitted to quadrantectomy showed better alignment (90°) compared to the women submitted to mastectomy (91.3°). The women submitted to surgery in the left breast had shoulder elevation and ipsilateral inclination of the trunk within a short period of time. Postural changes were correlated with the type and side of surgery. The follow-up of this group after completion of treatment is needed to clarify long-term postural changes.

  3. Disruption of postural readaptation by inertial stimuli following space flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, F O; Paloski, W H; Reschke, M F; Igarashi, M; Guedry, F; Anderson, D J

    1999-01-01

    Postural instability (relative to pre-flight) has been observed in all shuttle astronauts studied upon return from orbital missions. Postural stability was more closely examined in four shuttle astronaut subjects before and after an 8 day orbital mission. Results of the pre- and post-flight postural stability studies were compared with a larger (n = 34) study of astronauts returning from shuttle missions of similar duration. Results from both studies indicated that inadequate vestibular feedback was the most significant sensory deficit contributing to the postural instability observed post flight. For two of the four IML-1 astronauts, post-flight postural instability and rate of recovery toward their earth-normal performance matched the performance of the larger sample. However, post-flight postural control in one returning astronaut was substantially below mean performance. This individual, who was within normal limits with respect to postural control before the mission, indicated that recovery to pre-flight postural stability was also interrupted by a post-flight pitch plane rotation test. A similar, though less extreme departure from the mean recovery trajectory was present in another astronaut following the same post-flight rotation test. The pitch plane rotation stimuli included otolith stimuli in the form of both transient tangential and constant centripetal linear acceleration components. We inferred from these findings that adaptation on orbit and re-adaptation on earth involved a change in sensorimotor integration of vestibular signals most likely from the otolith organs.

  4. Rapid Holocene coastal change revealed by high-resolution micropaleontological analysis, Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Pre C.; Culver, S.J.; Mallinson, D.J.; Farrell, K.M.; Corbett, D.R.; Horton, B.P.; Hillier, C.; Riggs, S.R.; Snyder, S.W.; Buzas, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Foraminiferal analyses of 404 contiguous samples, supported by diatom, lithologic, geochronologic and seismic data, reveal both rapid and gradual Holocene paleoenvironmental changes in an 8.21-m vibracore taken from southern Pamlico Sound, North Carolina. Data record initial flooding of a latest Pleistocene river drainage and the formation of an estuary 9000. yr ago. Estuarine conditions were punctuated by two intervals of marine influence from approximately 4100 to 3700 and 1150 to 500. cal. yr BP. Foraminiferal assemblages in the muddy sand facies that accumulated during these intervals contain many well-preserved benthic foraminiferal species, which occur today in open marine settings as deep as the mid shelf, and significant numbers of well-preserved planktonic foraminifera, some typical of Gulf Stream waters. We postulate that these marine-influenced units resulted from temporary destruction of the southern Outer Banks barrier islands by hurricanes. The second increase in marine influence is coeval with increased rate of sea-level rise and a peak in Atlantic tropical cyclone activity during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. This high-resolution analysis demonstrates the range of environmental variability and the rapidity of coastal change that can result from the interplay of changing climate, sea level and geomorphology in an estuarine setting. ?? 2011 University of Washington.

  5. Specific changes in rapidly transported proteins during regeneration of the goldfish optic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, L I; Shashoua, V E; Yoon, M G

    1981-03-01

    Double labeling methods were used to identify changes in the complement of proteins synthesized in the retinal ganglion cells and transported down the optic nerve during the process of axonal regeneration. Eight to 62 days after goldfish underwent a unilateral optic nerve crush, one eye was labeled with [3H]-, the other with [14C]proline. Control and regenerating optic nerves were dissected out and homogenized together after 5 hr, a time which allowed us to examine selectively membrane-bound components which migrate in the rapid phase of axoplasmic transport. Proteins from the two sides were so-purified and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the 3H and 14C incorporation patterns along the gels revealed a radical shift away from the normal labeling spectrum during regeneration, with selective changes in labeling at particular molecular weights varying over a 3-fold range. Eight days after crushing the optic nerve, the greatest increases in labeling were seen for material with apparent molecular weights of 24,000 to 27,000, 44,000, and 210,000 daltons. These peaks declined thereafter, and on days 29 to 39, the most prominent increases were at 110,000 to 140,000 daltons. These studies indicate a continuously changing pattern in the synthesis and/or degradation of proteins that are rapidly transported down the optic nerve during regeneration and point to molecular species potential significance in the establishment of the visual map upon the brain.

  6. Modulators of mercury risk to wildlife and humans in the context of rapid global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Basu, Niladri; Bustamante, Paco; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Hopkins, William A.; Kidd, Karen A.; Nyland, Jennifer F.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental mercury (Hg) contamination is an urgent global health threat. The complexity of Hg in the environment can hinder accurate determination of ecological and human health risks, particularly within the context of the rapid global changes that are altering many ecological processes, socioeconomic patterns, and other factors like infectious disease incidence, which can affect Hg exposures and health outcomes. However, the success of global Hg-reduction efforts depends on accurate assessments of their effectiveness in reducing health risks. In this paper, we examine the role that key extrinsic and intrinsic drivers play on several aspects of Hg risk to humans and organisms in the environment. We do so within three key domains of ecological and human health risk. First, we examine how extrinsic global change drivers influence pathways of Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification through food webs. Next, we describe how extrinsic socioeconomic drivers at a global scale, and intrinsic individual-level drivers, influence human Hg exposure. Finally, we address how the adverse health effects of Hg in humans and wildlife are modulated by a range of extrinsic and intrinsic drivers within the context of rapid global change. Incorporating components of these three domains into research and monitoring will facilitate a more holistic understanding of how ecological and societal drivers interact to influence Hg health risks.

  7. Specific changes in rapidly transported proteins during regeneration of the goldfish optic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benowitz, L.I.; Shashoua, V.E.; Yoon, M.G.

    1981-03-01

    Double labeling methods were used to identify changes in the complement of proteins synthesized in the retinal ganglion cells and transported down the optic nerve during the process of axonal regeneration. Eight to 62 days after goldfish underwent a unilateral optic nerve crush, one eye was labeled with (3H)-, the other with (14C)proline. Control and regenerating optic nerves were dissected out and homogenized together after 5 hr, a time which allowed us to examine selectively membrane-bound components which migrate in the rapid phase of axoplasmic transport. Proteins from the two sides were so-purified and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the 3H and 14C incorporation patterns along the gels revealed a radical shift away from the normal labeling spectrum during regeneration, with selective changes in labeling at particular molecular weights varying over a 3-fold range. Eight days after crushing the optic nerve, the greatest increases in labeling were seen for material with apparent molecular weights of 24,000 to 27,000, 44,000, and 210,000 daltons. These peaks declined thereafter, and on days 29 to 39, the most prominent increases were at 110,000 to 140,000 daltons. These studies indicate a continuously changing pattern in the synthesis and/or degradation of proteins that are rapidly transported down the optic nerve during regeneration and point to molecular species potential significance in the establishment of the visual map upon the brain.

  8. Rapid transgenerational acclimation of a tropical reef fish to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelson, J. M.; Munday, P. L.; McCormick, M. I.; Pitcher, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the capacity of species to acclimate and adapt to expected temperature increases is critical for making predictions about the biological impacts of global warming, yet it is one of the least certain aspects of climate change science. Tropical species are considered to be especially sensitive to climate change because they live close to their thermal maximum and exhibit limited capacity for acclimation. Here, we demonstrate that a tropical reef fish is highly sensitive to small increases in water temperature, but can rapidly acclimate over multiple generations. Acute exposure to elevated temperatures (+1.5°C and +3.0°C) predicted to occur this century caused a 15% and 30% respective decrease in individual's maximum ability to perform aerobic activities such as swimming or foraging, known as aerobic scope. However, complete compensation in aerobic scope occurred when both parents and offspring were reared throughout their lives at elevated temperature. Such acclimation could reduce the impact of warming temperatures and allow populations to persist across their current range. This study reveals the importance of transgenerational acclimation as a mechanism for coping with rapid climate change and highlights that single generation studies risk underestimating the potential of species to cope.

  9. Comparing records to understand past rapid climate change: An INTIMATE database update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Rebecca; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Staff, Richard A.; Albert, Paul G.

    2017-04-01

    Integrating multi-proxy records from ice, terrestrial and marine records enhances the understanding of the temporal and spatial variation of past rapid climatic changes globally. By handling these records on their own individual timescales and linking them through known chronological relationships (e.g. tephra, 10Be and 14C), regional comparisons can be made for these past climatic events. Furthermore, the use of time-transfer functions enables the chronological uncertainties between different archives to be quantified. The chronological database devised by the working group 1 (WG1) of INTIMATE, exclusively uses this methodology to provide a means to visualise and compare palaeoclimate records. Development of this database is ongoing, with numerous additional records being added to the database with a particular focus on European archives spanning the Late Glacial period. Here we present a new phase of data collection. Through selected cases study sites across Europe, we aim to illustrate the database as a novel tool in understanding spatial and temporal variations in rapid climatic change. Preliminary results allow questions such as time transgression and regional expressions of rapid climate change to be investigated. The development of this database will continue through additional input of raw climate proxy data, linking to other relevant databases (e.g. Fossil Pollen Database) and providing output data that can be analysed in the statistical programming language of R. A major goal of this work to is not only provide a detailed database, but allow researchers to integrate their own climate proxy data with that on the database.

  10. Neurogenomics and the role of a large mutational target on rapid behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Craig E; Kulathinal, Rob J

    2016-11-08

    Behavior, while complex and dynamic, is among the most diverse, derived, and rapidly evolving traits in animals. The highly labile nature of heritable behavioral change is observed in such evolutionary phenomena as the emergence of converged behaviors in domesticated animals, the rapid evolution of preferences, and the routine development of ethological isolation between diverging populations and species. In fact, it is believed that nervous system development and its potential to evolve a seemingly infinite array of behavioral innovations played a major role in the successful diversification of metazoans, including our own human lineage. However, unlike other rapidly evolving functional systems such as sperm-egg interactions and immune defense, the genetic basis of rapid behavioral change remains elusive. Here we propose that the rapid divergence and widespread novelty of innate and adaptive behavior is primarily a function of its genomic architecture. Specifically, we hypothesize that the broad diversity of behavioral phenotypes present at micro- and macroevolutionary scales is promoted by a disproportionately large mutational target of neurogenic genes. We present evidence that these large neuro-behavioral targets are significant and ubiquitous in animal genomes and suggest that behavior's novelty and rapid emergence are driven by a number of factors including more selection on a larger pool of variants, a greater role of phenotypic plasticity, and/or unique molecular features present in large genes. We briefly discuss the origins of these large neurogenic genes, as they relate to the remarkable diversity of metazoan behaviors, and highlight key consequences on both behavioral traits and neurogenic disease across, respectively, evolutionary and ontogenetic time scales. Current approaches to studying the genetic mechanisms underlying rapid phenotypic change primarily focus on identifying signatures of Darwinian selection in protein-coding regions. In contrast

  11. Wiki management a revolutionary new model for a rapidly changing and collaborative world

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Rod

    2013-01-01

    We now live in a "wiki" world where mass collaboration is not only possible-it's often the best solution. Conventional management thought assumes that command-and-control is the most effective way to organize the efforts of large numbers of people, but rapid change and increasing complexity have rendered that model obsolete. As a result, most managers today lack the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in an age when networks are proving smarter and faster than hierarchies. Designing organizations for mass collaboration demands a new and very different model-wiki management.

  12. Experiences of Families Transmitting Values in a Rapidly Changing Society: Implications for Family Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyil, Yudum; Prouty, Anne; Blanchard, Amy; Lyness, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    Intergenerational value transmission affects parent-child relationships and necessitates constant negotiation in families. Families with adolescents from rapidly changing societies face unique challenges in balancing the traditional collectivistic family values that promote harmony with emerging values that promote autonomy. Using modern Turkey as an example of such a culture, the authors examine the transmission process in families that hold more traditional and collectivistic values than their adolescent children. Special consideration is given to generational and cultural differences in the autonomy and relatedness dimensions. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  13. Changes of pulp-chamber dimensions 1 year after rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratieri, Carolina; Alves, Matheus; Mattos, Cláudia Trindade; Souza, Margareth Maria Gomes de; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of orthopedic forces on maxillary first molars' and maxillary central incisors' pulp chambers in children having rapid maxillary expansion as the only intervention compared with children having no orthodontic intervention by using cone-beam computed tomography images. In this prospective controlled clinical study, we evaluated 60 maxillary first molars and 60 maxillary central incisors from 30 children (18 boys, 12 girls) in the mixed dentition and during the pubertal growth period. The treated group had rapid maxillary expansion with the Haas expander, followed by 6 months of retention and 6 months of follow-up out of retention; the control group had no intervention during the study. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were taken initially and 1 year after the rapid maxillary expansion active phase. Initially, a 3-dimensional scrolling in all pulp chambers of the evaluated teeth was performed with Dolphin Imaging software (version 11.0; Dolphin Imaging & Management Solutions, Chatsworth, Calif) to describe the incidence of pulp-chamber calcifications. The dimensions of the pulp chambers of the molars and incisors were also investigated. Cross-sectional and longitudinal slices were used for each molar (coronal and axial slices) and incisor (sagittal and axial slices). The area (mm(2)) was obtained from 3 slices of each kind (6 measurements for each tooth). The results suggest that rapid maxillary expansion did not induce new pulp-chamber calcification. Also, it did not interfere in normal pulp-chamber dimension changes of the anchorage molars. The pulp chamber of the central incisors can be expected to be minimally wider 1 year after the therapy. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Body posture recognition and turning recording system for the care of bed bound patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Rong-Shue; Mi, Zhenqiang; Yang, Bo-Ru; Kau, Lih-Jen; Bitew, Mekuanint Agegnehu; Li, Tzu-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes body posture recognition and turning recording system for assisting the care of bed bound patients in nursing homes. The system continuously detects the patient's body posture and records the length of time for each body posture. If the patient remains in the same body posture long enough to develop pressure ulcers, the system notifies caregivers to change the patient's body posture. The objective of recording is to provide the log of body turning for querying of patients' family members. In order to accurately detect patient's body posture, we developed a novel pressure sensing pad which contains force sensing resistor sensors. Based on the proposed pressure sensing pad, we developed a bed posture recognition module which includes a bed posture recognition algorithm. The algorithm is based on fuzzy theory. The body posture recognition algorithm can detect the patient's bed posture whether it is right lateral decubitus, left lateral decubitus, or supine. The detected information of patient's body posture can be then transmitted to the server of healthcare center by the communication module to perform the functions of recording and notification. Experimental results showed that the average posture recognition accuracy for our proposed module is 92%.

  15. Influence of pain on postural control in women with neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Soares

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pain on postural control in women with neck pain and the relationship with possible changes in sensory systems and posture. The neck pain group was composed of women, aged between 20 and 50years, complaining of neck pain for more than three months; the control group was composed of women without complaints of neck pain. For the characterization of the groups, we used anamnesis, neck disability index and Visual Analogue Scale. Postural balance was assessed on force platform. Postural balance with manipulation of the sensory systems was measured by Foam Laser Dynamic Posturography, exposing the individual to six sensory organization tests. Posture was assessed by the Postural Assessment Software. The normality of the variables were verified using Shapiro-Wilk test, Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney test for comparison between groups, with a significance level of5%. Groups were homogeneous in demographic variables. We observed higher amplitude and displacement velocity of the center of pressure in the neck pain group, showing greater postural balance. There were significant diferences incraniovertebral angle, showing forward head posture in symptomatic women. In dynamics posturography, we observed a difference between the groups: the score obtainedin the six sensory conditions showed that neck pain group presented greater balance impairment. Neck pain and forward head posture have a deleterious effect on postural control in symptomatic women, both in the static posture and dynamic posture.

  16. Impact of ankle muscle fatigue and recovery on the anticipatory postural adjustments to externally initiated perturbations in dynamic postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ashleigh; Guevel, Arnaud; Sveistrup, Heidi

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether and how young participants modulate their postural response to compensate for postural muscle fatigue during predictable but externally initiated continuous and oscillatory perturbations. Twelve participants performed ten postural trials before and after an ankle muscle fatigue protocol. Each postural trial was 1 min long and consisted of continuous backward and forward oscillations of the platform. Fatigue was induced by intermittent, bilateral isometric contractions of the ankle plantar- and dorsiflexors until the force production was reduced to 50 % of the pre-fatigue maximal voluntary contraction. Changes in the center of mass (COM) displacement, center of pressure (COP) displacement, and anterior-posterior location of the COP within the base of support were quantified as well as the activity of the tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), quadriceps, and hamstring. All participants demonstrated postural stability post-fatigue by maintaining the displacement of their COM. Everyone also demonstrated a general forward shift in the anterior-posterior location of the COP within the base of support; however, two distinct postural modifications, corresponding to either an immediate fatigue-induced increase or decrease in the COP displacement during the backward platform translation, were recorded immediately post-fatigue. The changes in muscle onset latencies lasted beyond the recovery of the force production of the fatigued postural muscles. By 10 min post-fatigue, the participants showed a decrease in the COP displacement as well as an earlier activation of the postural muscles and an increased TA/MG co-activation relative to pre-fatigue. Although different strategies were used, the participants were able to adjust to and overcome postural muscle fatigue and remain balanced during the postural perturbations regardless of the direction of the platform movement. These adjustments lasted beyond the recovery

  17. Pilot study comparing changes in postural control after training using a video game balance board program and 2 standard activity-based balance intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluchino, Alessandra; Lee, Sae Yong; Asfour, Shihab; Roos, Bernard A; Signorile, Joseph F

    2012-07-01

    To compare the impacts of Tai Chi, a standard balance exercise program, and a video game balance board program on postural control and perceived falls risk. Randomized controlled trial. Research laboratory. Independent seniors (N=40; 72.5±8.40) began the training, 27 completed. Tai Chi, a standard balance exercise program, and a video game balance board program. The following were used as measures: Timed Up & Go, One-Leg Stance, functional reach, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, force plate center of pressure (COP) and time to boundary, dynamic posturography (DP), Falls Risk for Older People-Community Setting, and Falls Efficacy Scale. No significant differences were seen between groups for any outcome measures at baseline, nor were significant time or group × time differences for any field test or questionnaire. No group × time differences were seen for any COP measures; however, significant time differences were seen for total COP, 3 of 4 anterior/posterior displacement and both velocity, and 1 displacement and 1 velocity medial/lateral measure across time for the entire sample. For DP, significant improvements in the overall score (dynamic movement analysis score), and in 2 of the 3 linear and angular measures were seen for the sample. The video game balance board program, which can be performed at home, was as effective as Tai Chi and the standard balance exercise program in improving postural control and balance dictated by the force plate postural sway and DP measures. This finding may have implications for exercise adherence because the at-home nature of the intervention eliminates many obstacles to exercise training. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ecological Pleiotropy Suppresses the Dynamic Feedback Generated by a Rapidly Changing Trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, John P

    2017-05-01

    Population dynamics may carry a signature of an ecology-evolution-ecology feedback, known as eco-evolutionary dynamics, when functionally important traits change. Given current theory, the absence of a feedback from a trait with strong links to species interactions should not occur. In a previous study with the Didinium-Paramecium predator-prey system, however, rapid and large-magnitude changes in predator cell volume occurred without any noticeable effect on the population dynamics. Here I resolve this theory-data conflict by showing that ecological pleiotropy-when a trait has more than one functional effect on an ecological process-suppresses shifts in dynamics that would arise, given the links between cell volume and the species interaction. Whether eco-evolutionary dynamics arise, therefore, depends not just on the ecology-evolution feedback but on the net effect that a trait has on different parts of the underlying interaction.

  19. Rapid directional change degrades GPS distance measurement validity during intermittent intensity running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Rawstorn

    Full Text Available Use of the Global Positioning System (GPS for quantifying athletic performance is common in many team sports. The effect of running velocity on measurement validity is well established, but the influence of rapid directional change is not well understood in team sport applications. This effect was systematically evaluated using multidirectional and curvilinear adaptations of a validated soccer simulation protocol that maintained identical velocity profiles. Team sport athletes completed 90 min trials of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle-running Test movement pattern on curvilinear, and multidirectional shuttle running tracks while wearing a 5 Hz (with interpolated 15 Hz output GPS device. Reference total distance (13 200 m was systematically over- and underestimated during curvilinear (2.61±0.80% and shuttle (-3.17±2.46% trials, respectively. Within-epoch measurement uncertainty dispersion was widest during the shuttle trial, particularly during the jog and run phases. Relative measurement reliability was excellent during both trials (Curvilinear r = 1.00, slope = 1.03, ICC = 1.00; Shuttle r = 0.99, slope = 0.97, ICC = 0.99. Absolute measurement reliability was superior during the curvilinear trial (Curvilinear SEM = 0 m, CV = 2.16%, LOA ± 223 m; Shuttle SEM = 119 m, CV = 2.44%, LOA ± 453 m. Rapid directional change degrades the accuracy and absolute reliability of GPS distance measurement, and caution is recommended when using GPS to quantify rapid multidirectional movement patterns.

  20. MRI evaluation of body composition changes in wrestlers undergoing rapid weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukidome, T; Shirai, K; Kubo, J; Matsushima, Y; Yanagisawa, O; Homma, T; Aizawa, K

    2008-10-01

    Changes in body composition of college wrestlers undergoing rapid weight reduction were evaluated over time using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study evaluated 12 wrestlers (male, 18-22 years of age) who participated in Japan's 2005 intercollegiate wrestling tournament. For this study, MRI (of the right femoral region and the trunk), as well as measurements of body weight, body fat percentage and body water content, were performed 1 month and 1 week prior to the weigh-in, on the day of the weigh-in, on the day of the match (after the match), and 1 week after the weigh-in. A survey of food and fluid intake was also conducted. Several variables were significantly lower on the day of the weigh-in than one month prior: body weight (pfat (pmuscle, and trunk fat; quadriceps muscle; lower subcutaneous; and food intake (pweight reduction reduced the wrestlers' cross-sectional areas of muscle and fat tissues, which tended to recover through rehydration after the weigh-in. These results suggest that rapid weight reduction of wrestlers induced changes in different regions of the body.

  1. Health Systems Research in a Complex and Rapidly Changing Context: Ethical Implications of Major Health Systems Change at Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Hayley; Bloom, Gerald

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses health policy and systems research in complex and rapidly changing contexts. It focuses on ethical issues at stake for researchers working with government policy makers to provide evidence to inform major health systems change at scale, particularly when the dynamic nature of the context and ongoing challenges to the health system can result in unpredictable outcomes. We focus on situations where 'country ownership' of HSR is relatively well established and where there is significant involvement of local researchers and close ties and relationships with policy makers are often present. We frame our discussion around two country case studies with which we are familiar, namely China and South Africa and discuss the implications for conducting 'embedded' research. We suggest that reflexivity is an important concept for health system researchers who need to think carefully about positionality and their normative stance and to use such reflection to ensure that they can negotiate to retain autonomy, whilst also contributing evidence for health system change. A research process informed by the notion of reflexive practice and iterative learning will require a longitudinal review at key points in the research timeline. Such review should include the convening of a deliberative process and should involve a range of stakeholders, including those most likely to be affected by the intended and unintended consequences of change. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Posture Screening. A Program that Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Sally A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A posture screening program for Portland State University students is described in terms of (1) program components and time requirements, (2) materials used, and (3) training of posture screeners. The article includes samples of posture analysis and evaluation forms, illustrations of posture enhancement exercises, and photos of the posture area.…

  3. Static body postural misalignment in individuals with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Thaís C.; Turci, Aline M.; Pinheiro, Carina F.; Sousa, Letícia M.; Grossi, Débora B.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between body postural changes and temporomandibular disorders (TMD) has been widely discussed in the literature, however, there is little evidence to support this association. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the evidence concerning the association between static body postural misalignment and TMD. METHOD: A search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane, and Scopus databases including studies published in English between 1950 and March 2012. Cross-sectional, cohort, case control, and survey studies that assessed body posture in TMD patients were selected. Two reviewers performed each step independently. A methodological checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles. RESULTS: Twenty studies were analyzed for their methodological quality. Only one study was classified as a moderate quality study and two were classified as strong quality studies. Among all studies considered, only 12 included craniocervical postural assessment, 2 included assessment of craniocervical and shoulder postures,, and 6 included global assessment of body posture. CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence of craniocervical postural changes in myogenous TMD, moderate evidence of cervical postural misalignment in arthrogenous TMD, and no evidence of absence of craniocervical postural misalignment in mixed TMD patients or of global body postural misalignment in patients with TMD. It is important to note the poor methodological quality of the studies, particularly those regarding global body postural misalignment in TMD patients. PMID:25590441

  4. Static body postural misalignment in individuals with temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís C. Chaves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The association between body postural changes and temporomandibular disorders (TMD has been widely discussed in the literature, however, there is little evidence to support this association. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the evidence concerning the association between static body postural misalignment and TMD. METHOD: A search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Cochrane, and Scopus databases including studies published in English between 1950 and March 2012. Cross-sectional, cohort, case control, and survey studies that assessed body posture in TMD patients were selected. Two reviewers performed each step independently. A methodological checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles. RESULTS: Twenty studies were analyzed for their methodological quality. Only one study was classified as a moderate quality study and two were classified as strong quality studies. Among all studies considered, only 12 included craniocervical postural assessment, 2 included assessment of craniocervical and shoulder postures,, and 6 included global assessment of body posture. CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence of craniocervical postural changes in myogenous TMD, moderate evidence of cervical postural misalignment in arthrogenous TMD, and no evidence of absence of craniocervical postural misalignment in mixed TMD patients or of global body postural misalignment in patients with TMD. It is important to note the poor methodological quality of the studies, particularly those regarding global body postural misalignment in TMD patients.

  5. Wildlife health in a rapidly changing North: focus on avian disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Pearce, John M.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Climate-related environmental changes have increasingly been linked to emerging infectious diseases in wildlife. The Arctic is facing a major ecological transition that is expected to substantially affect animal and human health. Changes in phenology or environmental conditions that result from climate warming may promote novel species assemblages as host and pathogen ranges expand to previously unoccupied areas. Recent evidence from the Arctic and subarctic suggests an increase in the spread and prevalence of some wildlife diseases, but baseline data necessary to detect and verify such changes are still lacking. Wild birds are undergoing rapid shifts in distribution and have been implicated in the spread of wildlife and zoonotic diseases. Here, we review evidence of current and projected changes in the abundance and distribution of avian diseases and outline strategies for future research. We discuss relevant climatic and environmental factors, emerging host–pathogen contact zones, the relationship between host condition and immune function, and potential wildlife and human health outcomes in northern regions.

  6. Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: Toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological risk of methylmercury exposure to juvenile birds is complex due to the highly transient nature of mercury concentrations as chicks age. We examined total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of 111 Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri), 69 black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and 43 American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) chicks as they aged from hatching through postfledging at wetlands that had either low or high mercury contamination in San Francisco Bay, California. For each waterbird species, internal tissue, and wetland, total mercury and methylmercury concentrations changed rapidly as chicks aged and exhibited a quadratic, U-shaped pattern from hatching through postfledging. Mercury concentrations were highest immediately after hatching, due to maternally deposited mercury in eggs, then rapidly declined as chicks aged and diluted their mercury body burden through growth in size and mercury depuration into growing feathers. Mercury concentrations then increased during fledging when mass gain and feather growth slowed, while chicks continued to acquire dietary mercury. In contrast to mercury in internal tissues, mercury concentrations in chick feathers were highly variable and declined linearly with age. For 58 recaptured Forster's tern chicks, the proportional change in blood mercury concentration was negatively related to the proportional change in body mass, but not to the amount of feathers or wing length. Thus, mercury concentrations declined more in chicks that gained more mass between sampling events. The U-shaped pattern of mercury concentrations from hatching to fledging indicates that juvenile birds may be at highest risk to methylmercury toxicity shortly after hatching when maternally deposited mercury concentrations are still high and again after fledging when opportunities for mass dilution and mercury excretion into feathers are limited.

  7. Rapid Changes in Cortical and Subcortical Brain Regions after Early Bilateral Enucleation in the Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga O Kozanian

    Full Text Available Functional sensory and motor areas in the developing mammalian neocortex are formed through a complex interaction of cortically intrinsic mechanisms, such as gene expression, and cortically extrinsic mechanisms such as those mediated by thalamic input from the senses. Both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms are believed to be involved in cortical patterning and the establishment of areal boundaries in early development; however, the nature of the interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic processes is not well understood. In a previous study, we used a perinatal bilateral enucleation mouse model to test some aspects of this interaction by reweighting sensory input to the developing cortex. Visual deprivation at birth resulted in a shift of intraneocortical connections (INCs that aligned with ectopic ephrin A5 expression in the same location ten days later at postnatal day (P 10. A prevailing question remained: Does visual deprivation first induce a change in gene expression, followed by a shift in INCs, or vice versa? In the present study, we address this question by investigating the neuroanatomy and patterns of gene expression in post-natal day (P 1 and 4 mice following bilateral enucleation at birth. Our results demonstrate a rapid reduction in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN size and ephrin A5 gene expression 24-hours post-enucleation, with more profound effects apparent at P4. The reduced nuclear size and diminished gene expression mirrors subtle changes in ephrin A5 expression evident in P1 and P4 enucleated neocortex, 11 and 8 days prior to natural eye opening, respectively. Somatosensory and visual INCs were indistinguishable between P1 and P4 mice bilaterally enucleated at birth, indicating that perinatal bilateral enucleation initiates a rapid change in gene expression (within one day followed by an alteration of sensory INCs later on (second postnatal week. With these results, we gain a deeper understanding of how gene

  8. Rapid characterisation of vegetation structure to predict refugia and climate change impacts across a global biodiversity hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.; Wardell-Johnson, G.W.; Yates, C.J.; Keppel, G.; Baran, I.; Franklin, S.E.; Hopper, S.D.; Niel, Van K.P.; Mucina, L.; Byrne, M.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of refugia is an increasingly important adaptation strategy in conservation planning under rapid anthropogenic climate change. Granite outcrops (GOs) provide extraordinary diversity, including a wide range of taxa, vegetation types and habitats in the Southwest Australian Floristic

  9. Rapid Land Cover Map Updates Using Change Detection and Robust Random Forest Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad J. Wessels

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluated the Landsat Automated Land Cover Update Mapping (LALCUM system designed to rapidly update a land cover map to a desired nominal year using a pre-existing reference land cover map. The system uses the Iteratively Reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection (IRMAD to identify areas of change and no change. The system then automatically generates large amounts of training samples (n > 1 million in the no-change areas as input to an optimized Random Forest classifier. Experiments were conducted in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa using a reference land cover map from 2008, a change mask between 2008 and 2011 and Landsat ETM+ data for 2011. The entire system took 9.5 h to process. We expected that the use of the change mask would improve classification accuracy by reducing the number of mislabeled training data caused by land cover change between 2008 and 2011. However, this was not the case due to exceptional robustness of Random Forest classifier to mislabeled training samples. The system achieved an overall accuracy of 65%–67% using 22 detailed classes and 72%–74% using 12 aggregated national classes. “Water”, “Plantations”, “Plantations—clearfelled”, “Orchards—trees”, “Sugarcane”, “Built-up/dense settlement”, “Cultivation—Irrigated” and “Forest (indigenous” had user’s accuracies above 70%. Other detailed classes (e.g., “Low density settlements”, “Mines and Quarries”, and “Cultivation, subsistence, drylands” which are required for operational, provincial-scale land use planning and are usually mapped using manual image interpretation, could not be mapped using Landsat spectral data alone. However, the system was able to map the 12 national classes, at a sufficiently high level of accuracy for national scale land cover monitoring. This update approach and the highly automated, scalable LALCUM system can improve the efficiency and update rate of regional land

  10. Posture and low back pain during pregnancy - 3D study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinkowski, Wojciech M; Tomasik, Paweł; Walesiak, Katarzyna; Głuszak, Michał; Krawczak, Karolina; Michoński, Jakub; Czyżewska, Anna; Żukowska, Agnieszka; Sitnik, Robert; Wielgoś, Mirosław

    2016-01-01

    Back pain is a common complaint of pregnant women. The posture, curvatures of the spine and the center of gravity changes are considered as the mechanisms leading to pain. The study aimed to assess spinal curvatures and static postural characteristics with three-dimensional surface topography and search for relationships with the occurrence of back pain complaints among pregnant women. The study was conducted from December 2012 to February 2014. Patients referred from University Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics were examined outpatient at the Posture Study Unit of Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Sixty-five women at 4-39 weeks of pregnancy were assessed and surveyed with Oswestry Disability Index; posture was evaluated using surface topography. The study confirmed that difficulties in sitting and standing are significant in the third trimester of the pregnancy. The overall tendency for significant lumbar curvature changes in pregnant women was not confirmed. Major changes in sagittal trunk inclination in relation to the plumb line were not observed in the study group. The issue regarding how the pregnancy causes changes in spinal curvature and posture remains open for further studies. Presented method of 3D surface topography can reveal postural changes, but that requires several exams of each subject and strict follow-up of the series of cases.

  11. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of dentoskeletal changes after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baka, Zeliha Muge; Akin, Mehmet; Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Ileri, Zehra

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to quantitatively evaluate the changes in arch widths and buccolingual inclinations of the posterior teeth after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion (ARME) and to compare the measurements between the crossbite and the noncrossbite sides with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). From our clinic archives, we selected the CBCT records of 30 patients with unilateral skeletal crossbite (13 boys, 14.2 ± 1.3 years old; 17 girls, 13.8 ± 1.3 years old) who underwent ARME treatment. A modified acrylic bonded rapid maxillary expansion appliance including an occlusal locking mechanism was used in all patients. CBCT records had been taken before ARME treatment and after a 3-month retention period. Fourteen angular and 80 linear measurements were taken for the maxilla and the mandible. Frontally clipped CBCT images were used for the evaluation. Paired sample and independent sample t tests were used for statistical comparisons. Comparisons of the before-treatment and after-retention measurements showed that the arch widths and buccolingual inclinations of the posterior teeth increased significantly on the crossbite side of the maxilla and on the noncrossbite side of the mandible (P ARME treatment, the crossbite side of the maxilla and the noncrossbite side of the mandible were more affected than were the opposite sides. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Managing children's postural risk when using mobile technology at home: Challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Marina; Chen, Janice D; Vaz, Sharmila; Cordier, Reinie; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2015-11-01

    Maintaining the musculoskeletal health of children using mobile information and communication technologies (ICT) at home presents a challenge. The physical environment influences postures during ICT use and can contribute to musculoskeletal complaints. Few studies have assessed postures of children using ICT in home environments. The present study investigated the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) scores determined by 16 novice and 16 experienced raters. Each rater viewed 11 videotaped scenarios of a child using two types of mobile ICT at home. The Grand Scores and Action Levels determined by study participants were compared to those of an ergonomist experienced in postural assessment. All postures assessed were rated with an Action Level of 2 or above; representing a postural risk that required further investigation and/or intervention. The sensitivity of RULA to assess some of the unconventional postures adopted by children in the home is questioned. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid change in the ciprofloxacin resistance pattern among Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains in Nuuk, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerbæk Rolskov, Anne; Bjorn-Mortensen, Karen; Mulvad, Gert

    2015-01-01

    ProbeTec). Monitoring of GC antibiotic susceptibility by culture was introduced in Nuuk in 2012. Until 2014, no cases of ciprofloxacin-resistant GC strains were reported. In this paper, we report the finding of ciprofloxacin-resistant GC and describe the most recent incidence of GC infections...... (9%) were positive, respectively. From January to August, 6 (15%) cultures from Nuuk were ciprofloxacin resistant while in September and October, 26 (59%) were ciprofloxacin resistant (presistance. GC incidence in Nuuk...... was 3,017 per 100,000 inhabitants per year, compared to 2,491 per 100,000 inhabitants per year in the rest of Greenland. CONCLUSION: Within a short period, a rapid and dramatic change in ciprofloxacin susceptibility among GC strains isolated in Nuuk was documented and recommendation for first line...

  14. Tracking Change in rapid and eXtreme Development: A Challenge to SCM-tools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2001-01-01

    Software configuration management (SCM) has proved to be an invaluable part of developing and maintaining high quality software. The benefits are not for free however: SCM tool operations often divert your attention from your development task, sometimes you have to endure a long waiting time while...... the tool does its job, change descriptions must be memorised until your next check-in, etc. This kind of overhead and disruption does not fit well with fast-paced development processes like rapid prototyping, explorative programming, and eXtreme Programming that favour creativity, speed, and communication...... more that managerial rigour. In the cost/benefit equation the balance may tip in favour of not using any SCM tool or only using a fraction of its potential. We think SCM has something to offer such projects, and present some proposals that may allow SCM tools to better suit the characteristics of fast...

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging zygapophyseal joint space changes (gapping) in low back pain patients following spinal manipulation and side-posture positioning: a randomized controlled mechanisms trial with blinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Gregory D; Cambron, Jerrilyn; Cantu, Joe A; Dexheimer, Jennifer M; Pocius, Judith D; Gregerson, Douglas; Fergus, Michael; McKinnis, Ray; Grieve, Thomas J

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify lumbar zygapophyseal (Z) joint space separation (gapping) in low back pain (LBP) subjects after spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) or side-posture positioning (SPP). This was a controlled mechanisms trial with randomization and blinding. Acute LBP subjects (N = 112; four n = 28 magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] protocol groups) had 2 MRI appointments (initial enrollment and after 2 weeks of chiropractic treatment, receiving 2 MRI scans of the L4/L5 and L5/S1 Z joints at each MRI appointment. After the first MRI scan of each appointment, subjects were randomized (initial enrollment appointment) or assigned (after 2 weeks of chiropractic treatment appointment) into SPP (nonmanipulation), SMT (manipulation), or control MRI protocol groups. After SPP or SMT, a second MRI was taken. The central anterior-posterior joint space was measured. Difference between most painful side anterior-posterior measurements taken postintervention and preintervention was the Z joint "gapping difference." Gapping differences were compared (analysis of variance) among protocol groups. Secondary measures of pain (visual analog scale, verbal numeric pain rating scale) and function (Bournemouth questionnaire) were assessed. Gapping differences were significant at the first (adjusted, P = .009; SPP, 0.66 ± 0.48 mm; SMT, 0.23 ± 0.86; control, 0.18 ± 0.71) and second (adjusted, P = .0005; SPP, 0.65 ± 0.92 mm; SMT, 0.89 ± 0.71; control, 0.35 ± 0.32) MRI appointments. Verbal numeric pain rating scale differences were significant at first MRI appointment (P = .04) with SMT showing the greatest improvement. Visual analog scale and Bournemouth questionnaire improved after 2 weeks of care in all groups (both P < .0001). Side-posture positioning showed greatest gapping at baseline. After 2 weeks, SMT resulted in greatest gapping. Side-posture positioning appeared to have additive therapeutic benefit to SMT. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health

  16. Comparison between rapid and mixed maxillary expansion through an assessment of arch changes on dental casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassia, Vincenzo; d'Apuzzo, Fabrizia; Jamilian, Abdolreza; Femiano, Felice; Favero, Lorenzo; Perillo, Letizia

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this retrospective observational study was to compare upper and lower dental changes in patients treated with Rapid Maxillary Expansion (RME) and Mixed Maxillary Expansion (MME), assessed by dental cast analysis. Treatment groups consisted of 42 patients: the RME group (n = 21) consisted of 13 female and 8 male subjects with the mean age of 8.8 years ± 1.37 at T0 and 9.6 years ± 1.45 at T1; the MME group (n = 21) consisted of 12 female and 9 male patients with a mean age of 8.9 years ± 2.34 at T0 and 10.5 years ± 2.08 at T1. The upper and lower arch analysis was performed on four dental bilateral landmarks, on upper and lower casts; also upper and lower arch depths were measured. The groups were compared using independent sample t-test to estimate dental changes in upper and lower arches. Before expansion treatment (T0), the groups were similar for all examined variables (p>0.05). In both RME and MME group, significant increments in all the variables for maxillary and mandibular arch widths were observed after treatment. No significant differences in maxillary and mandibular arch depths were observed at the end of treatment in both groups. An evaluation of the changes after RME and MME (T1) showed statistically significant differences in mandibular arch depth (plip bumper effects" observed in the MME protocol.

  17. Morphologic changes of the palate after rapid maxillary expansion: a 3-dimensional computed tomography evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatouros, Andriana; Goonewardene, Mithran S

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to estimate the area change of the palate after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in the early mixed dentition stage by using a 3-dimensional (3D) helical computed tomography (CT) scanning technique. In addition, linear changes in the maxillary arch were evaluated. The treated sample consisted of 43 children (mean age, 9 years 1 month) treated with a bonded RME appliance. The untreated control group consisted of 7 children (mean age, 9 years 3 months). Pretreatment and posttreatment dental casts were evaluated by using 3D helical CT scanning procedures. The Student t test was used to compare the linear, area, and angular differences between the treatment times. RME produced clinically significant increases in interdental widths across the canines, the deciduous first molars, and the permanent first molars in the maxillary arch. Significant increases in cross-sectional area were observed across the permanent first molars (15.3 mm(2)). There was marked variability in the buccal tipping of the permanent first molars. Three-dimensional helical CT scanning is an accurate and cost-effective method of assessing dental cast morphologic changes. It can also provide fast and accurate data acquisition and subsequent analysis.

  18. New insights from coral growth band studies in an era of rapid environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Janice M.; Cooper, Timothy F.

    2011-10-01

    The rapid formation of calcium carbonate coral skeletons (calcification) fuelled by the coral-algal symbiosis is the backbone of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, the efficacy of calcification is measurably influenced by the sea's physico-chemical environment, which is changing rapidly. Warming oceans have already led to increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching, and ocean acidification has a demonstrable potential to cause reduced rates of calcification. There is now general agreement that ocean warming and acidification are attributable to human activities increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, and the large part of the extra carbon dioxide (the main greenhouse gas) that is absorbed by oceans. Certain massive corals provide historical perspectives on calcification through the presence of dateable annual density banding patterns. Each band is a page in an environmental archive that reveals past responses of growth (linear extension, skeletal density and calcification rate) and provides a basis for prediction of future of coral growth. A second major line of research focuses on the measurement of various geochemical tracers incorporated into the growth bands, allowing the reconstruction of past marine climate conditions (i.e. palaeoclimatology). Here, we focus on the structural properties of the annual density bands themselves (viz. density; linear extension), exploring their utility in providing both perspectives on the past and pointers to the future of calcification on coral reefs. We conclude that these types of coral growth records, though relatively neglected in recent years compared to the geochemical studies, remain immensely valuable aids to unravelling the consequences of anthropogenic climate change on coral reefs. Moreover, an understanding of coral growth processes is an essential pre-requisite for proper interpretation of studies of geochemical tracers in corals.

  19. Rapid change in articulatory lip movement induced by preceding auditory feedback during production of bilabial plosives.

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    Mochida, Takemi; Gomi, Hiroaki; Kashino, Makio

    2010-11-08

    There has been plentiful evidence of kinesthetically induced rapid compensation for unanticipated perturbation in speech articulatory movements. However, the role of auditory information in stabilizing articulation has been little studied except for the control of voice fundamental frequency, voice amplitude and vowel formant frequencies. Although the influence of auditory information on the articulatory control process is evident in unintended speech errors caused by delayed auditory feedback, the direct and immediate effect of auditory alteration on the movements of articulators has not been clarified. This work examined whether temporal changes in the auditory feedback of bilabial plosives immediately affects the subsequent lip movement. We conducted experiments with an auditory feedback alteration system that enabled us to replace or block speech sounds in real time. Participants were asked to produce the syllable /pa/ repeatedly at a constant rate. During the repetition, normal auditory feedback was interrupted, and one of three pre-recorded syllables /pa/, /Φa/, or /pi/, spoken by the same participant, was presented once at a different timing from the anticipated production onset, while no feedback was presented for subsequent repetitions. Comparisons of the labial distance trajectories under altered and normal feedback conditions indicated that the movement quickened during the short period immediately after the alteration onset, when /pa/ was presented 50 ms before the expected timing. Such change was not significant under other feedback conditions we tested. The earlier articulation rapidly induced by the progressive auditory input suggests that a compensatory mechanism helps to maintain a constant speech rate by detecting errors between the internally predicted and actually provided auditory information associated with self movement. The timing- and context-dependent effects of feedback alteration suggest that the sensory error detection works in a

  20. Rapid change in articulatory lip movement induced by preceding auditory feedback during production of bilabial plosives.

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    Takemi Mochida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been plentiful evidence of kinesthetically induced rapid compensation for unanticipated perturbation in speech articulatory movements. However, the role of auditory information in stabilizing articulation has been little studied except for the control of voice fundamental frequency, voice amplitude and vowel formant frequencies. Although the influence of auditory information on the articulatory control process is evident in unintended speech errors caused by delayed auditory feedback, the direct and immediate effect of auditory alteration on the movements of articulators has not been clarified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work examined whether temporal changes in the auditory feedback of bilabial plosives immediately affects the subsequent lip movement. We conducted experiments with an auditory feedback alteration system that enabled us to replace or block speech sounds in real time. Participants were asked to produce the syllable /pa/ repeatedly at a constant rate. During the repetition, normal auditory feedback was interrupted, and one of three pre-recorded syllables /pa/, /Φa/, or /pi/, spoken by the same participant, was presented once at a different timing from the anticipated production onset, while no feedback was presented for subsequent repetitions. Comparisons of the labial distance trajectories under altered and normal feedback conditions indicated that the movement quickened during the short period immediately after the alteration onset, when /pa/ was presented 50 ms before the expected timing. Such change was not significant under other feedback conditions we tested. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The earlier articulation rapidly induced by the progressive auditory input suggests that a compensatory mechanism helps to maintain a constant speech rate by detecting errors between the internally predicted and actually provided auditory information associated with self movement. The timing- and context

  1. Interannual Change Detection of Mediterranean Seagrasses Using RapidEye Image Time Series

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    Dimosthenis Traganos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research studies have highlighted the decrease in the coverage of Mediterranean seagrasses due to mainly anthropogenic activities. The lack of data on the distribution of these significant aquatic plants complicates the quantification of their decreasing tendency. While Mediterranean seagrasses are declining, satellite remote sensing technology is growing at an unprecedented pace, resulting in a wealth of spaceborne image time series. Here, we exploit recent advances in high spatial resolution sensors and machine learning to study Mediterranean seagrasses. We process a multispectral RapidEye time series between 2011 and 2016 to detect interannual seagrass dynamics in 888 submerged hectares of the Thermaikos Gulf, NW Aegean Sea, Greece (eastern Mediterranean Sea. We assess the extent change of two Mediterranean seagrass species, the dominant Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa, following atmospheric and analytical water column correction, as well as machine learning classification, using Random Forests, of the RapidEye time series. Prior corrections are necessary to untangle the initially weak signal of the submerged seagrass habitats from satellite imagery. The central results of this study show that P. oceanica seagrass area has declined by 4.1%, with a trend of −11.2 ha/yr, while C. nodosa seagrass area has increased by 17.7% with a trend of +18 ha/yr throughout the 5-year study period. Trends of change in spatial distribution of seagrasses in the Thermaikos Gulf site are in line with reported trends in the Mediterranean. Our presented methodology could be a time- and cost-effective method toward the quantitative ecological assessment of seagrass dynamics elsewhere in the future. From small meadows to whole coastlines, knowledge of aquatic plant dynamics could resolve decline or growth trends and accurately highlight key units for future restoration, management, and conservation.

  2. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) changes in bariatric surgery patients undergoing rapid weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, D Alan; Proctor, Charles D; Richard, Robert

    2005-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition in morbidly obese patients, with the reported prevalence ranging from 12-78%. There is increasing recognition of the need to diagnose and treat/manage OSA both preoperatively and postoperatively. Nasal CPAP is the preferred treatment of OSA; however, weight loss is associated with a reduction in required pressures. We evaluated the CPAP pressure requirements in a group of patients undergoing rapid weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. 15 patients who had been diagnosed with OSA before surgery were retrospectively evaluated. All patients had demonstrated compliance on home CPAP therapy, were minimally 3 months post-surgery and had follow-up reports that their CPAP was less effective. We obtained data on age, sex, weight, BMI, and apnea/hypopnea index (AHI). Optimal CPAP pressure was obtained initially through attended in-laboratory complex polysomnography. Follow-up CPAP pressure was obtained using an auto-titrating PAP device at home. These data were used to evaluate the pressure changes that accompanied weight loss. This group of patients had lost an average of 44.5 +/- 19.4 kg. Four patients had achieved their goal weight. Their starting CPAP pressures averaged 11 +/- 3.0 cm H2O, with a range of 7-18 cm H2O. Follow-up CPAP pressures averaged 9 +/- 2.7 cm H2O, with a range of 4-12 cm H2O, representing an overall reduction of 18%. The subgroup of patients who had achieved goal weight had a pressure reduction of 22% (9 +/- 2.0 to 7 +/- 1.0 cm H2O). CPAP pressure requirements change considerably in bariatric surgery patients undergoing rapid weight loss. Auto-titrating PAP devices have promise for facilitating the management of CPAP therapy during this time. Consideration should also be given to the use of autotitrating PAP units as the treatment of choice in these patients.

  3. Postural habits of young adults and possibilities of modification.

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    Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Czupryna, Krzysztof; Bąk, Krzysztof; Wróblewska, Ewa; Rottermund, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess postural habits in young, healthy people, identify correlations between postural errors and pain and attempt to modify bad habits. 144 people, aged 18-23 were enrolled. The intervention consisted of 4 stages: Stage 1 - identification of postural habits, description of responses to stress, back pain frequency and intensity (Jackson & Moskowitz); Stage 2 - correction of habitual position with the help of a physiotherapist, briefing about ergonomic everyday behaviours and consequences of continued non-ergonomic behaviours, Stage 3 - follow-up examination: self-assessment of changes, evaluation of the effects of modifications, determination of causes for discontinuing the behaviour modification programme, where applicable; and Stage 4 - final examination, assessment of results. Correlations were sought between inappropriate postural behaviour in various positions and between non-ergonomic postural behaviour and pain location and response to stress. Statistical analysis was carried out with Excel and Statistica v. 7.1. A non-parametric χ(2) test was used at phabit. 3. An attempt to modify non-ergonomic postural behaviours usually results in pain, which may act as a demotivating factor. 4. Discomfort associated with the modification of habitual postural behaviours is reduced after 3-4 months of regular training.

  4. An invasive species induces rapid adaptive change in a native predator: cane toads and black snakes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ben L; Shine, Richard

    2006-06-22

    Rapid environmental change due to human activities has increased rates of extinction, but some species may be able to adapt rapidly enough to deal with such changes. Our studies of feeding behaviour and physiological resistance to toxins reveal surprisingly rapid adaptive responses in Australian black snakes (Pseudechis porphyriacus) following the invasion of a lethally toxic prey item, the cane toad (Bufo marinus). Snakes from toad-exposed localities showed increased resistance to toad toxin and a decreased preference for toads as prey. Separate laboratory experiments suggest that these changes are not attributable to learning (we were unable to teach naive snakes to avoid toxic prey) or to acquired resistance (repeated sub-lethal doses did not enhance resistance). These results strongly suggest that black snake behaviour and physiology have evolved in response to the presence of toads, and have done so rapidly. Toads were brought to Australia in 1935, so these evolved responses have occurred in fewer than 23 snake generations.

  5. A decade of rapid change: Biocultural influences on child growth in highland Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oths, Kathryn S; Smith, Hannah N; Stein, Max J; Lazo Landivar, Rodrigo J

    2017-10-30

    In the past decade many areas of Peru have been undergoing extreme environmental, economic, and cultural change. In the highland hamlet of Chugurpampa, La Libertad, climate change has ruined harvests and led to frequent periods of migration to the coast in search of livelihood. This biocultural research examines how the changes could be affecting the growth of children who maintain residence in the highlands. Clinical records from the early 2000s were compared to those from the early 2010s. Charts were randomly selected to record anthropometric data, netting a sample of 75 children ages 0-60 months of age. Analysis of covariance was run to compare mean stature, weight, and BMI between cohorts. Percentage of children who fall below the -2 threshold for z-scores for height and weight were compared by age and cohort. A significant secular trend in growth was found, with children born more recently larger than those born a decade before. The effect is most notable in the first year of life, with the growth advantage attenuated by the age of 3 for height and age 4 for weight. While children were unlikely to be stunted from 0 to 3 years of age, 44% of the later cohort were stunted and 11% were underweight from 4 to 5 years of age. Three possible explanations for the rapid shift are entertained: more time spent on the coast during gestation and early childhood, which may attenuate the effect of hypoxia on child growth; dietary change; and increased use of biomedicine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Body posture and syndromes of back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Janusz; Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Brzęk, Anna; Kowalczyk, Anna; Czupryna, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The effects of faulty postures include disturbances of the symmetric distribution of compressive and tensile forces acting on both sides of the body axis and the emergence of harmful shear forces. The torques of antigravity muscles also change unfavourably. This may lead to the development of a repetitive strain syndrome, stenosis of intervertebral foramina, compression of nerve roots and back pain. The development of back pain syndromes is significantly affected by the performance of various work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between back pain syndromes and the quality of body posture, especially in the context of work ergonomics. The study enrolled 125 persons: 39 adults with a childhood history of scoliosis, 39 midwives, and 47 physiotherapists. Body posture was assessed in all participants. In midwives and physiotherapists, body position during the performance of work-related tasks was also evaluated. The frequency and severity of pain was assessed with the Jackson-Moskowitz measure. The study revealed that over 80% of the participants suffered from spinal pain. In most cases, the pain was intermittent and was felt in the lumbar spine. The occurrence of pain among midwives and physiotherapists was not directly dependent on the predominant type of abnormal spinal position assumed during the performance of occupational tasks or the quality of body posture. The complaint was also reported by ca. 85% of persons with a history of scoliosis. An incorrect body posture (especially scoliosis) and performance of work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions increase the probability of back pain.

  7. Postural alignment of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    Márcia Aparecida Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, airflow resistance impairs respiratory mechanics that may compromise postural alignment. There is a lack of studies that have investigated compromised postures and their possible associations with pulmonary function. Objectives: To compare the postural alignment of COPD patients with apparently healthy individuals; To correlate pulmonary function with postural alignment in the COPD group. Methods: 20 COPD patients and 20 apparently healthy individuals performed: anthropometry, spirometry and postural evaluation. The following postural changes were assessed: lateral head tilt (LHT, shoulder asymmetry (SA1, anterior pelvic asymmetry (APA, lateral trunk tilt (LTT, scapular asymmetry (SA2, posterior pelvic asymmetry (PPA, head protrusion (HP, shoulder protrusion (SP, anterior pelvic tilt (APT and thoracic kyphosis (TK. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between COPD patients and apparently healthy individuals in the following variables: PPT (p= 0.021, APT (p=0.014 and TK (p=0.011. There was a correlation between pulmonary variables and postural alignment in the COPD group: Forced Volume in one second (FEV1% pred and HP (° (r=0.488, p=0.029, FEV1 (% pred and APT (° (r= -0.472, p= 0.036; Forced Vital Capacity (FVC % pred and HP (° (r=0.568, p=0.009; FVC (% pred and APT (° (r=-0.461, p=0.041. Conclusion: Postural alignment of the anterior tilt of the right and left pelvis and thoracic kyphosis is different when compared with COPD patients and healthy individuals. There is a relationship between pulmonary function and postural alignment in COPD patients.

  8. Late Quaternary Biosiliceous Laminated Marine Sediments From Antarctica: Seasonality During a Period of Rapid Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, J.; Stickley, C. E.; Maddison, E. J.; Leventer, A.; Brachfeld, S.; Domack, E. W.; Dunbar, R. B.; Manley, P. L.; McClennen, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Antarctic ice sheet plays a key role in global oceanic and atmosphere systems. One of the most dynamic regions of the continent is the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) where ecological and cryospheric systems respond rapidly to climate change, such as the last deglaciation ( ˜12-13 kyr BP). Here, deglacial laminated diatom-rich marine sediments are well known, e.g., Palmer Deep (64° S 64° W; ODP Hole 1098A) comprising a distinctive 3 m thick sequence of deglacial `couplet' laminations. The East Antarctic margin (EAM), however, has received less attention than the West Antarctic margin (WAM) in palaeoceanographic studies yet its role in deep ocean circulation and, therefore, the global ocean system is significant. Recent sediment cores recovered from EAM sites during NSF Polar Programs-funded cruise NBP0101 in February and March 2001 (e.g. Mertz Drift \\{66° S 143° E\\}, Svenner Channel \\{69° S 77° E\\} in Prydz Bay, Nielsen Basin \\{67° S 66° E\\} and Iceberg Alley \\{67° S 63° E\\}), reveal that a similar sedimentary facies was deposited along the EAM, in similar geomorphological settings to Palmer Deep, during the same timeframe. These rich sediment archives reveal clues about circum-Antarctic palaeoceanographic change during the last deglaciation, a time of both high silica flux and rapid climate change. Microfabrics and diatom assemblages from scanning electron microscope backscattered and secondary electron imagery analysis of coeval deglacial varves from Palmer Deep (WAM), Mertz-Ninnis Trough and Iceberg Alley (EAM) are presented and compared. The varves from these localities are characterised by laminae to thin beds of orange-brown diatom ooze up to ˜8cm thick alternating with blue-grey diatom-bearing terrigenous sediments up to ˜4cm thick. The orange-brown oozes are dominated by resting spores and vegetative valves of Hyalochaete Chaetoceros spp., resulting from spring sedimentation associated with stratified surface waters promoting exceptionally

  9. The Impact of Rapid Climate Change on Prehistoric Societies during the Holocene in the Eastern Mediterranean

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    Bernhard Weninger

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the impact of Rapid Climate Change (RCC on prehistoric communities in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Early and Middle Holocene. Our focus is on the social implications of the four major climate cold anomalies that have recently been identified as key time-windows for global RCC (Mayewski et al. 2004. These cooling anomalies are well-dated, with Greenland ice-core resolution, due to synchronicity between warm/cold foraminifera ratios in Mediterranean core LC21 as a proxy for surface water temperature, and Greenland GISP2 non sea-salt (nss [K+] ions as a proxy for the intensification of the Siberian High and for polar air outbreaks in the northeast Mediterranean (Rohling et al. 2002. Building on these synchronisms, the GISP2 agemodel supplies the following precise time-intervals for archaeological RCC research: (i 8.6–8.0 ka, (ii 6.0–5.2 ka, (iii 4.2–4.0 ka and (iv 3.1–2.9 ka calBP. For each of these RCC time intervals, based on detailed 14C-based chronological studies, we investigate contemporaneous cultural developments. From our studies it follows that RCC-related climatic deterioration is a major factor underlying social change, although always at work within a wide spectrum of social, cultural, economic and religious factors.

  10. Prevalência de alterações posturais em escolares do ensino médio em uma cidade no Sul do Brasil Prevalence of postural changes in high school students in a city in southern Brazil

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    Cíntia Detsch

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Estimar a prevalência de alterações posturais laterais e ântero-posteriores em adolescentes do sexo feminino e verificar se determinados fatores socioeconômicos, demográficos, antropométricos e comportamentais estão associados a essas alterações posturais. MÉTODOS: Inquérito epidemiológico com amostra representativa de 495 estudantes do ensino médio regular diurno, com idade de 14 a 18 anos na Cidade de São Leopoldo, Brasil. As estudantes foram avaliadas nos meses de outubro e novembro de 2004. As alterações posturais foram definidas como alterações nas curvas fisiológicas da coluna vertebral, identificadas através de avaliação postural não-invasiva. RESULTADOS: Observou-se uma prevalência de 66% (IC95%: 61,5 a 70,0 para as alterações laterais e de 70% (IC95%: 65,2 a 73,5 para as alterações ântero-posteriores. As alterações laterais foram mais prevalentes nas alunas com índice de massa corporal normal (razão de prevalência, ou RP = 1,32; IC95%: 1,09 a 1,59 e nas que assistiam à televisão por mais de 10 horas semanais (RP = 1,16; IC95%: 1,02 a 1,32. A prevalência de alterações ântero-posteriores foi maior nas alunas cujos responsáveis estudaram até o nível fundamental (responsáveis femininos, RP = 1,30; IC95%: 1,09 a 1,55; e responsáveis masculinos, RP = 1,20; IC95%: 1,02 a 1,40 e nas alunas com sobrepeso ou obesidade (RP = 1,33; IC95%: 1,19 a 1,48. CONCLUSÕES: Preocupa a alta prevalência de alterações na postura das adolescentes, uma vez que essas alterações podem gerar problemas na coluna vertebral a médio e longo prazo. É importante que profissionais da área da saúde, inclusive professores de educação física, estejam aptos a realizar avaliações posturais, e que esse procedimento seja realizado rotineiramente nas escolas.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of lateral and anteroposterior postural changes in female adolescents and to investigate whether these changes are

  11. Rapid change in drift of the Australian plate records collision with Ontong Java plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knesel, Kurt M; Cohen, Benjamin E; Vasconcelos, Paulo M; Thiede, David S

    2008-08-07

    The subduction of oceanic plateaux, which contain extraordinarily thick basaltic crust and are the marine counterparts of continental flood-basalt provinces, is an important factor in many current models of plate motion and provides a potential mechanism for triggering plate reorganization. To evaluate such models, it is essential to decipher the history of the collision between the largest and thickest of the world's oceanic plateaux, the Ontong Java plateau, and the Australian plate, but this has been hindered by poor constraints for the arrival of the plateau at the Melanesian trench. Here we present (40)Ar-(39)Ar geochronological data on hotspot volcanoes in eastern Australian that reveal a strong link between collision of the Greenland-sized Ontong Java plateau with the Melanesian arc and motion of the Australian plate. The new ages define a short-lived period of reduced northward plate motion between 26 and 23 Myr ago, coincident with an eastward offset in the contemporaneous tracks of seamount chains in the Tasman Sea east of Australia. These features record a brief westward deflection of the Australian plate as the plateau entered and choked the Melanesian trench 26 Myr ago. From 23 Myr ago, Australia returned to a rapid northerly trajectory at roughly the same time that southwest-directed subduction began along the Trobriand trough. The timing and brevity of this collisional event correlate well with offsets in hotspot seamount tracks on the Pacific plate, including the archetypal Hawaiian chain, and thus provide strong evidence that immense oceanic plateaux, like the Ontong Java, can contribute to initiating rapid change in plate boundaries and motions on a global scale.

  12. Subchondral Bone Plate Changes More Rapidly than Trabecular Bone in Osteoarthritis

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    Zaitunnatakhin Zamli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common joint disorder, characterised by focal loss of cartilage and increased subchondral bone remodelling at early OA stages of the disease. We have investigated the temporal and the spatial relationship between bone remodelling in subchondral bone plate (Sbp and trabecular bone (Tb in Dunkin Hartley (DH, develop OA early and the Bristol Strain 2 (BS2, control which develop OA late guinea pigs. Right tibias were dissected from six male animals of each strain, at 10, 16, 24 and 30 weeks of age. Micro-computed tomography was used to quantify the growth plate thickness (GpTh, subchondral bone plate thickness (SbpTh and trabecular bone thickness (TbTh, and bone mineral density (BMD in both Sbp and Tb. The rate of change was calculated for 10–16 weeks, 16–24 weeks and 24–30 weeks. The rate of changes in Sbp and Tb thickness at the earliest time interval (10–16 weeks were significantly greater in DH guinea pigs than in the growth-matched control strain (BS2. The magnitude of these differences was greater in the medial side than the lateral side (DH: 22.7 and 14.75 µm/week, BS2: 5.63 and 6.67 µm/week, respectively. Similarly, changes in the BMD at the earliest time interval was greater in the DH strain than the BS2, again more pronounced in the disease prone medial compartment (DH: 0.0698 and 0.0372 g/cm3/week, BS2: 0.00457 and 0.00772 g/cm3/week, respectively. These changes observed preceded microscopic and cellular signs of disease as previously reported. The rapid early changes in SbpTh, TbTh, Sbp BMD and Tb BMD in the disease prone DH guinea pigs compared with the BS2 control strain suggest a link to early OA pathology. This is corroborated by the greater relative changes in subchondral bone in the medial compared with the lateral compartment.

  13. Rapid Environmental Change Drives Increased Land Use by an Arctic Marine Predator.

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    Todd C Atwood

    Full Text Available In the Arctic Ocean's southern Beaufort Sea (SB, the length of the sea ice melt season (i.e., period between the onset of sea ice break-up in summer and freeze-up in fall has increased substantially since the late 1990s. Historically, polar bears (Ursus maritimus of the SB have mostly remained on the sea ice year-round (except for those that came ashore to den, but recent changes in the extent and phenology of sea ice habitat have coincided with evidence that use of terrestrial habitat is increasing. We characterized the spatial behavior of polar bears spending summer and fall on land along Alaska's north coast to better understand the nexus between rapid environmental change and increased use of terrestrial habitat. We found that the percentage of radiocollared adult females from the SB subpopulation coming ashore has tripled over 15 years. Moreover, we detected trends of earlier arrival on shore, increased length of stay, and later departure back to sea ice, all of which were related to declines in the availability of sea ice habitat over the continental shelf and changes to sea ice phenology. Since the late 1990s, the mean duration of the open-water season in the SB increased by 36 days, and the mean length of stay on shore increased by 31 days. While on shore, the distribution of polar bears was influenced by the availability of scavenge subsidies in the form of subsistence-harvested bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus remains aggregated at sites along the coast. The declining spatio-temporal availability of sea ice habitat and increased availability of human-provisioned resources are likely to result in increased use of land. Increased residency on land is cause for concern given that, while there, bears may be exposed to a greater array of risk factors including those associated with increased human activities.

  14. Rapid changes in cell physiology as a result of acute thermal stress house sparrows, Passer domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana G; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-12-01

    Given that our climate is rapidly changing, Physiological Ecologists have the critical task of identifying characteristics of species that make them either resilient or susceptible to changes in their natural air temperature regime. Because climate change models suggest that heat events will become more common, and in some places more extreme, it is important to consider how extreme heat events might affect the physiology of a species. The implications of more frequent heat wave events for birds have only recently begun to be addressed, however, the impact of these events on the cellular physiology of a species is difficult to assess. We have developed a novel approach using dermal fibroblasts to explore how short-term thermal stress at the whole animal level might affect cellular rates of metabolism. House sparrows, Passer domesticus were separated into a "control group" and a "heat shocked" group, the latter acclimated to 43°C for 24h. We determined the plasticity of cellular thermal responses by assigning a "recovery group" that was heat shocked as above, but then returned to room temperature for 24h. Primary dermal fibroblasts were grown from skin of all treatment groups and the pectoralis muscle was collected. We found that glycolysis (ECAR) and oxygen consumption rates (OCR), measured using a Seahorse XF 96 analyzer, were significantly higher in the fibroblasts from the heat shocked group of House sparrows compared with their control counterparts. Additionally, muscle fiber diameters decreased and, in turn, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase maximal activity in the muscle significantly increased in heat shocked sparrows compared with birds in the control group. All of these physiological alterations due to short-term heat exposure were reversible within 24h of recovery at room temperature. These results show that acute exposure to heat stress significantly alters the cellular physiology of sparrows, but that this species is plastic enough to recover from such a thermal

  15. Evidence for rapid climate change in the Mesozoic-Palaeogene greenhouse world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkyns, Hugh C

    2003-09-15

    The best-documented example of rapid climate change that characterized the so-called 'greenhouse world' took place at the time of the Palaeocene-Eocene boundary: introduction of isotopically light carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system, accompanied by global warming of 5-8 degrees C across a range of latitudes, took place over a few thousand years. Dissociation, release and oxidation of gas hydrates from continental-margin sites and the consequent rapid global warming from the input of greenhouses gases are generally credited with causing the abrupt negative excursions in carbon- and oxygen-isotope ratios. The isotopic anomalies, as recorded in foraminifera, propagated downwards from the shallowest levels of the ocean, implying that considerable quantities of methane survived upward transit through the water column to oxidize in the atmosphere. In the Mesozoic Era, a number of similar events have been recognized, of which those at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, in the early Toarcian (Jurassic) and in the early Aptian (Cretaceous) currently carry the best documentation for dramatic rises in temperature. In these three examples, and in other less well-documented cases, the lack of a definitive time-scale for the intervals in question hinders calculation of the rate of environmental change. However, comparison with the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) suggests that these older examples could have been similarly rapid. In both the early Toarcian and early Aptian cases, the negative carbon-isotope excursion precedes global excess carbon burial across a range of marine environments, a phenomenon that defines these intervals as oceanic anoxic events (OAEs). Osmium-isotope ratios ((187)Os/(188)Os) for both the early Toarcian OAE and the PETM show an excursion to more radiogenic values, demonstrating an increase in weathering and erosion of continental crust consonant with elevated temperatures. The more highly buffered strontium-isotope system ((87)Sr/(86)Sr

  16. Three dimensional evaluation of alveolar bone changes in response to different rapid palatal expansion activation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian LaBlonde

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this multi-center retrospective study was to quantify the changes in alveolar bone height and thickness after using two different rapid palatal expansion (RPE activation protocols, and to determine whether a more rapid rate of expansion is likely to cause more adverse effects, such as alveolar tipping, dental tipping, fenestration and dehiscence of anchorage teeth. Methods: The sample consisted of pre- and post-expansion records from 40 subjects (age 8-15 years who underwent RPE using a 4-banded Hyrax appliance as part of their orthodontic treatment to correct posterior buccal crossbites. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their RPE activation rates (0.5 mm/day and 0.8 mm/day; n = 20 each group. Three-dimensional images for all included subjects were evaluated using Dolphin Imaging Software 11.7 Premium. Maxillary base width, buccal and palatal cortical bone thickness, alveolar bone height, and root angulation and length were measured. Significance of the changes in the measurements was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and comparisons between groups were done using ANOVA. Significance was defined at p ≤ 0.05. Results: RPE activation rates of 0.5 mm per day (Group 1 and 0.8 mm per day (Group 2 caused significant increase in arch width following treatment; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Buccal alveolar height and width decreased significantly in both groups. Both treatment protocols resulted in significant increases in buccal-lingual angulation of teeth; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Both activation rates are associated with significant increase in intra-arch widths. However, 0.8 mm/day resulted in greater increases. The 0.8 mm/day activation rate also resulted in more increased dental tipping and decreased buccal alveolar bone thickness over 0.5 mm/day.

  17. Dental arch changes associated with rapid maxillary expansion: A retrospective model analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivor M D′Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transverse deficiency of the maxilla is a common clinical problem in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. Transverse maxillary deficiency, isolated or associated with other dentofacial deformities, results in esthetic and functional impairment giving rise to several clinical manifestations such as asymmetrical facial growth, positional and functional mandibular deviations, altered dentofacial esthetics, adverse periodontal responses, unstable dental tipping, and other functional problems. Orthopedic maxillary expansion is the preferred treatment approach to increase the maxillary transverse dimension in young patients by splitting of the mid palatal suture. This orthopedic procedure has lately been subject of renewed interest in orthodontic treatment mechanics because of its potential for increasing arch perimeter to alleviate crowding in the maxillary arch without adversely affecting facial profile. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to establish a correlation between transverse expansion and changes in the arch perimeter, arch width and arch length. Methods: For this purpose, 10 subjects (five males, five females were selected who had been treated by rapid maxillary expansion (RME using hyrax rapid palatal expander followed by fixed mechanotherapy (PEA. Pretreatment (T1, postexpansion (T2, and posttreatment (T3 dental models were compared for dental changes brought about by RME treatment and its stability at the end of fixed mechanotherapy. After model measurements were made, the changes between T1-T2, T2-T3 and T1-T3 were determined for each patient. The mean difference between T1-T2, T2-T3 and T1-T3 were compared to assess the effects of RME on dental arch measurements. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and are compared by repeated measures analysis of variance followed by a post-hoc test. Arch perimeter changes are correlated with changes in arch widths at the canine, premolar and molar

  18. Effects of hippotherapy on posture in individuals with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Espindula

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Individuals with Down syndrome (DS have alterations that affect the musculoskeletal system, causing abnormal patterns, and alter the morphological anatomical and mechanical axes that provide intrinsic stability to the skeleton, and can trigger misalignments and orthopedic disorders in adulthood. Objective: The objective of student to evaluate posture and postural alignment before and after the hippotherapyin individuals with DS. Methods: Posture of five individuals with DS was evaluated by the software SAPO before and after 27 sessions the hippotherapy. Data were subjected to qualitative descriptive analysis using cluster and statistical analysis with the aid of the software Sigma Stat 2.0, considering differences as statistically significant at p-value < 5%. Results: Improvements were achieved for the alignment of shoulder, head, hip, and lower limbs, in addition to decrease in kyphosis and head protrusion. Conclusion: Patients with DS demonstrated satisfactory changes in motor behavior reflected in improved static posture after treatment with hippotherapy.

  19. Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in temperature extremes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Shaffrey, Len; Buwen Dong

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of observations indicates that there was a rapid increase in summer (June-August, JJA) mean surface air temperature (SAT) since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Accompanying this rapid warming are significant increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, annual hottest day temperature and warmest night temperature, and an increase in frequency of summer days and tropical nights, while the change in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) is small. This ...

  20. Head posture influences low back muscle endurance tests in 11-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejanovic, Aleksandar; Balkovec, Christian; McGill, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Poor low back muscle endurance has been shown to be a predictor of chronic low back pain. While posture is a modulator of low back muscle endurance, it is unclear whether the phenomenon is neural or mechanical. This study examined low back muscle endurance with changing head and neck posture in a sample of 117 children using the Biering-Sørensen test. Each subject performed the test in a neutral posture followed by randomly selected flexed and extended head and neck positions. Head posture was found to significantly influence low back muscle endurance within subjects (p posture (boys = 171.3 ± 56.5 s; girls = 181.7 ± 57.3 s), and flexion (boys = 146.2 ± 63.8 s; girls = 159.8 ± 49.3 s). Given the minimal influence of changing moment from head and neck posture, it appears other mechanisms influence endurance score.

  1. Increased dynamic regulation of postural tone through Alexander Technique training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, T W; Gurfinkel, V S; Horak, F B; Cordo, P J; Ames, K E

    2011-02-01

    Gurfinkel and colleagues (2006) recently found that healthy adults dynamically modulate postural muscle tone in the body axis during anti-gravity postural maintenance and that this modulation is inversely correlated with axial stiffness. Our objective in the present study was to investigate whether dynamic modulation of axial postural tone can change through training. We examined whether teachers of the Alexander Technique (AT), who undergo "long-term" (3-year) training, have greater modulation of axial postural tone than matched control subjects. In addition, we performed a longitudinal study on the effect of "short-term" (10-week) AT training on the axial postural tone of individuals with low back pain (LBP), since short term AT training has previously been shown to reduce LBP. Axial postural tone was quantified by measuring the resistance of the neck, trunk and hips to small (±10°), slow (1°/s) torsional rotation during stance. Modulation of tone was determined by the torsional resistance to rotation (peak-to-peak, phase-advance, and variability of torque) and axial muscle activity (EMG). Peak-to-peak torque was lower (∼50%), while phase-advance and cycle-to-cycle variability were enhanced for AT teachers compared to matched control subjects at all levels of the axis. In addition, LBP subjects decreased trunk and hip stiffness following short-term AT training compared to a control intervention. While changes in static levels of postural tone may have contributed to the reduced stiffness observed with the AT, our results suggest that dynamic modulation of postural tone can be enhanced through long-term training in the AT, which may constitute an important direction for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A multiple-proxy approach to understanding rapid Holocene climate change in Southeast Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, S. H.; Bradley, R. S.; Balascio, N. L.; de Wet, G.

    2012-12-01

    The susceptibility of the Arctic to climate change has made it an excellent workshop for paleoclimatological research. Although there have been previous studies concerning climate variability carried out in the Arctic, there remains a critical dearth of knowledge due the limited number of high-resolution Holocene climate-proxy records available from this region. This gap skews our understanding of observed and predicted climate change, and fuels uncertainty both in the realms of science and policy. This study takes a comprehensive approach to tracking Holocene climate variability in the vicinity of Tasiilaq, Southeast Greenland using a ~5.6 m sediment core from Lower Sermilik Lake. An age-depth model for the core has been established using 8 radiocarbon dates, the oldest of which was taken at 4 m down core and has been been dated to approximately 6.2 kyr BP. The bottom meter of the core below the final radiocarbon date contains a transition from cobbles and coarse sand to organic-rich laminations, indicating the termination of direct glacial influence and therefore likely marking the end of the last glacial period in this region. The remainder of the core is similarly organic-rich, with light-to-dark brown laminations ranging from 0.5 -1 cm in thickness and riddled with turbidites. Using this core in tandem with findings from an on-site assessment of the geomorphic history of the locale we attempt to assess and infer the rapid climatic shifts associated with the Holocene on a sub-centennial scale. Such changes include the termination of the last glacial period, the Mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum, the Neoglacial Period, the Medieval Climatic Optimum, and the Little Ice Age. A multiple proxy approach including magnetic susceptibility, bulk organic geochemistry, elemental profiles acquired by XRF scanning, grain-size, and spectral data will be used to characterize the sediment and infer paleoclimate conditions. Additionally, percent biogenic silica by weight has been

  3. Modeling cavitation in a rapidly changing pressure field - application to a small ultrasonic horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žnidarčič, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Dular, Matevž

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e. below the acoustic driving frequency. The term "acoustic supercavitation" was proposed for this type of cavitation Žnidarčič et al. (2014) [1]. We tested several established hydrodynamic cavitation models on this problem, but none of them was able to correctly predict the flow features. As a specific characteristic of such acoustic cavitation problems lies in the rapidly changing driving pressures, we present an improved approach to cavitation modeling, which does not neglect the second derivatives in the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Comparison with measurements of acoustic supercavitation at an ultrasonic horn of 20kHz frequency revealed a good agreement in terms of cavity dynamics, cavity volume and emitted pressure pulsations. The newly developed cavitation model is particularly suited for simulation of cavitating flow in highly fluctuating driving pressure fields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention and Control of Cardiovascular Disease in the Rapidly Changing Economy of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yangfeng; Benjamin, Emelia J; MacMahon, Stephen

    2016-06-14

    With one-fifth of the world's total population, China's prevention and control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may affect the success of worldwide efforts to achieve sustainable CVD reduction. Understanding China's current cardiovascular epidemic requires awareness of the economic development in the past decades. The rapid economic transformations (industrialization, marketization, urbanization, globalization, and informationalization) contributed to the aging demography, unhealthy lifestyles, and environmental changes. The latter have predisposed to increasing cardiovascular risk factors and the CVD pandemic. Rising CVD rates have had a major economic impact, which has challenged the healthcare system and the whole society. With recognition of the importance of health, initial political steps and national actions have been taken to address the CVD epidemic. Looking to the future, we recommend that 4 priorities should be taken: pursue multisectorial government and nongovernment strategies targeting the underlying causes of CVD (the whole-of-government and whole-of-society policy); give priority to prevention; reform the healthcare system to fit the nature of noncommunicable diseases; and conduct research for evidence-based, low-cost, simple, sustainable, and scalable interventions. By pursuing the 4 priorities, the pandemic of CVD and other major noncommunicable diseases in China will be reversed and the global sustainable development goal achieved. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Dental and skeletal changes following surgically assisted rapid maxillary anterior-posterior expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Ting; Lo, Lun-Jou; Liou, Eric J W; Huang, Chiung Shing

    2008-01-01

    Lengthening the maxillary dental arch as a treatment approach for patients with maxillary deficiency and dental crowding is seldom reported. The purpose of this study was to assess dental and skeletal changes in the maxilla in the correction of maxillary deficiency associated with a retruded maxillary arch using a surgically assisted rapid maxillary anterior-posterior expansion appliance. Predistraction and postraction lateral cephalometric and periapical radiographs and maxillary dental casts of six young adolescents (four boys, two girls, mean age 11 years, 2 months) were examined. These patients received a maxillary anterior segmental osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis with an anteroposteriorly oriented Hyrax expansion appliance based on the biological principles of bone distraction. The retruded dental arch and dental crowding were successfully corrected. Significant forward movement of the point anterior nasal spine, point A, central incisors and first premolars was noted. The maxillary dental arch depth increased an average of 4.2 mm while the arch width remained unchanged. In total, 11.5 mm of dental space was created in the maxillary arch which was sufficient to resolve dental crowding. New bone formation along the distraction site was observed three months after distraction. The use of maxillary anterior segmental osteotomy combined with a Hyrax expansion distraction appliance was effective in arch lengthening and creation of dental space. An overcorrection in this interdental distraction osteogenesis could be a good treatment option for children with maxillary deficiency combined with crowded maxillary dentition.

  6. Rapid changes in genetic architecture of behavioural syndromes following colonization of a novel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson Green, K; Eroukhmanoff, F; Harris, S; Pettersson, L B; Svensson, E I

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural syndromes, that is correlated behaviours, may be a result from adaptive correlational selection, but in a new environmental setting, the trait correlation might act as an evolutionary constraint. However, knowledge about the quantitative genetic basis of behavioural syndromes, and the stability and evolvability of genetic correlations under different ecological conditions, is limited. We investigated the quantitative genetic basis of correlated behaviours in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus. In some Swedish lakes, A. aquaticus has recently colonized a novel habitat and diverged into two ecotypes, presumably due to habitat-specific selection from predation. Using a common garden approach and animal model analyses, we estimated quantitative genetic parameters for behavioural traits and compared the genetic architecture between the ecotypes. We report that the genetic covariance structure of the behavioural traits has been altered in the novel ecotype, demonstrating divergence in behavioural correlations. Thus, our study confirms that genetic correlations behind behaviours can change rapidly in response to novel selective environments. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Rapid morphological oscillation of mitochondrion-rich cell in estuarine mudskipper following salinity changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T; Yokota, S; Ando, M

    2000-05-01

    Morphological changes in the chloride cells or mitochondrion-rich (MR) cells in the skin under the pectoral fin of the estuarine mudskipper (Periophthalmus modestus) were examined in relation to intertidal salinity oscillation in river mouth. MR cells were distinguished between those in contact with the water (cells labeled with both mitochondrial probe DASPEI and Concanavalin-A, an apical surface marker of MR cells) and those that are not (DASPEI-positive only). After transfer of the fish from seawater to freshwater, no difference in the total MR cell density was observed, but the subpopulation of MR cells that are Concanavalin-A-positive decreased dramatically within 30 min. After 6 hr in freshwater, the fish were returned to seawater; the number of Con-A-positive MR cells increased to the initial levels rapidly. Thus, in seawater, mudskippers seem to open the apical crypts of the MR cells to secrete salt; in freshwater, they close the crypt of the MR cells tentatively, and tolerate hypotonicity until the rising tide. This unique response of chloride cells may also be seen in gills of other estuarine species.

  8. Qualification Testing Versus Quantitative Reliability Testing of PV - Gaining Confidence in a Rapidly Changing Technology: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hacke, Peter L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kempe, Michael D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitfield, Kent [Underwriters Laboratories; Phillips, Nancy [DuPont; Sample, Tony [European Commission; Monokroussos, Christos [TUV Rheinland; Hsi, Edward [Swiss RE; Wohlgemuth, John [PowerMark Corporation; Seidel, Peter [First Solar; Jahn, Ulrike [TUV Rheinland; Tanahashi, Tadanori [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology; Chen, Yingnan [China General Certification Center; Jaeckel, Bengt [Underwriters Laboratories; Yamamichi, Masaaki [RTS Corporation

    2017-10-05

    Continued growth of PV system deployment would be enhanced by quantitative, low-uncertainty predictions of the degradation and failure rates of PV modules and systems. The intended product lifetime (decades) far exceeds the product development cycle (months), limiting our ability to reduce the uncertainty of the predictions for this rapidly changing technology. Yet, business decisions (setting insurance rates, analyzing return on investment, etc.) require quantitative risk assessment. Moving toward more quantitative assessments requires consideration of many factors, including the intended application, consequence of a possible failure, variability in the manufacturing, installation, and operation, as well as uncertainty in the measured acceleration factors, which provide the basis for predictions based on accelerated tests. As the industry matures, it is useful to periodically assess the overall strategy for standards development and prioritization of research to provide a technical basis both for the standards and the analysis related to the application of those. To this end, this paper suggests a tiered approach to creating risk assessments. Recent and planned potential improvements in international standards are also summarized.

  9. Volumetric upper airway changes after rapid maxillary expansion: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Lloyd M; Dalci, Oyku; Darendeliler, M Ali; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Papadopoulou, Alexandra K

    2017-10-01

    Although Rapid Maxillary Expansion (RME) has been used for over a century, its effect on upper airways has not yet adequately been assessed in an evidence-based manner. To investigate the volumetric changes in the upper airway spaces following RME in growing subjects by means of acoustic rhinometry, three-dimensional radiography and digital photogrammetry. Literature search of electronic databases and additional manual searches up to February 2016. Randomized clinical trials, prospective or retrospective controlled clinical trials and cohort clinical studies of at least eight patients, where the RME appliance was left in place for retention, and a maximum follow-up of 8 months post-expansion. After duplicate data extraction and assessment of the risk of bias, the mean differences and 95 per cent confidence intervals (CIs) of upper airway volume changes were calculated with random-effects meta-analyses, followed by subgroup analyses, meta-regressions, and sensitivity analyses. Twenty studies were eligible for qualitative synthesis, of which 17 (3 controlled clinical studies and 14 cohort studies) were used in quantitative analysis. As far as total airway volume is concerned patients treated with RME showed a significant increase post-expansion (5 studies; increase from baseline: 1218.3mm3; 95 per cent CI: 702.0 to 1734.6mm3), which did not seem to considerably diminish after the retention period (11 studies; increase from baseline: 1143.9mm3; 95 per cent CI: 696.9 to 1590.9mm3). However, the overall quality of evidence was judged as very low, due to methodological limitations of the included studies, absence of untreated control groups, and inconsistency among studies. RME seems to be associated with an increase in the nasal cavity volume in the short and in the long term. However, additional well-conducted prospective controlled clinical studies are needed to confirm the present findings. None. Australian Society of Orthodontics Foundation for Research and

  10. An analysis of posture and back pain in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, M E; Conner-Kerr, T

    1998-09-01

    While the incidence of back pain during pregnancy has been shown to be high, few studies have investigated postural changes that occur during pregnancy and their relationship to back pain. The purpose of this study was to determine if posture and back pain changed from the first to the third trimester of pregnancy and whether there was a relationship between the two. Twelve healthy women who were having uncomplicated pregnancies participated in the study. During the first and third trimesters, each subject had their standing posture and back pain assessed by a Metrecom Skeletal Analysis System and a 0- to 10-cm line pain scale, respectively. Repeated measures analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated on or between back pain and nine posture variables and revealed significant increases in third trimester back pain and postures compared with first trimester back pain (p < .05) and postures for lumbar angle (p < .01), posterior head position (p < .01), right pelvic sagittal tilt (p < .01), and left pelvic sagittal tilt (p < .01). No significant relationships were found between magnitude of or change in posture and back pain. These results suggest that in the standing position the lumbar lordosis and sagittal pelvic tilt increased and head position become more posterior as women progressed from the first trimester to the last trimester of pregnancy. These postural changes, however, were not related to back pain. This suggests that many of the posture-correcting clinical exercise regimens given to pregnant women need to be investigated.

  11. Effects of posture on postoperative pulmonary function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Holte, Kathrine; Kehlet, H

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pulmonary morbidity is still a relevant complication to major surgery despite improvements in surgical technique and anaesthetic methods. Postoperative posture may be a pathogenic factor, but the effects of changes in postoperative posture on pulmonary function have not been reviewed....... METHODS: Review of controlled, clinical trials evaluating postoperative pulmonary function in patients positioned in the supine vs. the sitting or standing position and patients positioned in the supine vs. the lateral position. Data were obtained from a search in the Medline and Cochrane databases (1966...... effect on postoperative pulmonary function in the sitting or standing position compared with the supine. Thus, avoidance of the supine position may improve postoperative pulmonary function. Three of six studies showed a positive effect on postoperative pulmonary function of the lateral side compared...

  12. Impaired postural stability after laparoscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, K Z; Staehr-Rye, A K; Rasmussen, L S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early postoperative mobilisation may reduce patient morbidity and improve hospital efficiency by accelerated discharge. The aim of this study was to measure postural stability early after laparoscopic surgery in order to assess how early it is safe to mobilise and discharge patients....... METHODS: We included 25 women undergoing outpatient gynaecological laparoscopic surgery in the study. Patients received standardised anaesthesia with propofol, remifentanil and rocuronium. Postural stability was assessed preoperatively, at 30 min after tracheal extubation, and at discharge from the post......-anaesthesia care unit using a force platform where sway area, mean sway and sway velocity were determined. The assessments were done with eyes closed and with eyes open. The primary outcome was the change in sway area with eyes closed 30 min after extubation. Data are reported as median (25-75% range). RESULTS...

  13. A asma promove alterações na postura estática: Revisão sistemática Does asthma promote changes in static posture? - Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Albuquerque Baltar

    2010-06-01

    health problem, asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that induces an airflow obstruction, presenting clinical manifestations and heterogeneous therapeutic responses. That obstruction present in asthma patients leads to muscle shortening, which in compensation can promote postural changes, further impairing respiratory mechanics. Therefore, is necessary to synthesize the evidence available in the literature about changes in static posture in asthma patients in order to help guide clinical practice. Materials and methods: We performed a literature review in the databases MEDLINE, LILACS and Sci- ELO, covering the years 1980 to 2008, using the descriptors: “asthma” and “posture” and its correspondents in Portuguese; “asthma” and “spinal” and its correspondents in Portuguese, besides the manual search in the references of selected articles. Results: Four studies were identified of which two (2 found significant differences in static posture between asthmatic and non -asthmatics, while others, who evaluated only the spine, found no significant postural changes. Discussion: Some postural changes were identified in asthmatics: higher incidence of elevation and protraction of the scapular girdle, semi flexion of the arm, protraction of the head and rectification of the thoracic spine. However, the evidence is contradictory on the spine, which can be attri buted to methodological and sample differences, and other variables not found in all study how the performance of physical activity, physiotherapy treatment, frequency of seizures and hospitalizations, rhinitis, mouth breathing. Conclusion: The articles about this are still insufficient to reach a conclusion; carefully designed studies are needed to clarify these issues.

  14. Stakeholder perspectives on triage in wildlife monitoring in a rapidly changing Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen C Wheeler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring activities provide a core contribution to wildlife conservation in the Arctic. Effective monitoring which allows changes in population status to be detected early, provides opportunities to mitigate pressures driving declines. Monitoring triage involves decisions about how and where to prioritise activities in species and ecosystem based monitoring. In particular, monitoring triage examines whether to divert resources away from species where there is high likelihood of extinction in the near-future in favour of species where monitoring activities may produce greater conservation benefits. As a place facing both rapid change with a high likelihood of population extinctions, and serious logistic and financial challenges for field data acquisition, the Arctic provides a good context in which to examine attitudes toward triage in monitoring.For effective decision-making to emerge from monitoring, multiple stakeholders must be involved in defining aims and priorities. We conducted semi-structured interviews with stakeholders in arctic wildlife monitoring (either contributing to observation and recording of wildlife, using information from wildlife observation and recording, or using wildlife as a resource to elicit their perspectives on triage in wildlife monitoring in the Arctic.The majority (56% of our 23 participants were predominantly in opposition to triage, 26% were in support of triage and 17% were undecided. Representatives of Indigenous organisations were more likely to be opposed to triage than scientists and those involved in decision-making showed greatest support for triage amongst the scientist participants. Responses to the concept of triage included that: 1 The species-focussed approach associated with triage did not match their more systems-based view (5 participants, 2 Important information is generated through monitoring threatened species which advances understanding of the drivers of change, responses and ecosystem

  15. Stabilizing posture through imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Eleonora; Manzoni, Diego; Santarcangelo, Enrica L

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the general population, suppression of vision modulates body sway by increasing the center of pressure (CoP) velocity, while a light fingertip touch reduces the area of the CoP displacement in blindfolded subjects. This study assessed whether imagined fixation and fingertip touch differentially stabilize posture in subjects with high (highs) and low (lows) hypnotizability. Visual and tactile imageries were ineffective in lows. In highs, the effects of visual imagery could not be evaluated because the real information was ineffective; real tactile stimulation was effective only on velocity, but the imagery effects could not be definitely assessed owing to low effect size. The highs' larger variability could account for this and represents the most important finding.

  16. Postural control in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackeline Yumi Fukunaga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Postural instability is one of the most disabling features of Parkinson's disease. Objective: To evaluate postural balance in Parkinson's disease. Methods: Thirty patients with Parkinson's disease were compared with controls using Tetrax™ interactive balance system posturography. Results: For different positions, patients with Parkinson's disease showed a significantly higher weight distribution index, fall index, Fourier transformation at low-medium frequencies (F2–F4, and significantly lower right/left and toe/heel synchronization versus controls. Conclusion: Postural imbalance in Parkinson's disease patients is characterized by the abnormalities of weight distribution index, synchronization index, Fourier transformation index, and fall index as measured by Tetrax™ posturography.

  17. Effects of vehicle interior geometry and anthropometric variables on automobile driving posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M P; Manary, M A; Flannagan, C A; Schneider, L W

    2000-01-01

    The effects of vehicle package, seat, and anthropometric variables on posture were studied in a laboratory vehicle mockup. Participants (68 men and women) selected their preferred driving postures in 18 combinations of seat height, fore-aft steering wheel position, and seat cushion angle. Two seats differing in stiffness and seat back contour were used in testing. Driving postures were recorded using a sonic digitizer to measure the 3D locations of body landmarks. All test variables had significant independent effects on driving posture. Drivers were found to adapt to changes in the vehicle geometry primarily by changes in limb posture, whereas torso posture remained relatively constant. Stature accounts for most of the anthropometrically related variability in driving posture, and gender differences appear to be explained by body size variation. Large intersubject differences in torso posture, which are fairly stable across different seat and package conditions, are not closely related to standard anthropometric measures. The findings can be used to predict the effects of changes in vehicle and seat design on driving postures for populations with a wide range of anthropometric characteristics.

  18. Postural balance and the risk of falling during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Bulent; Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Inanir, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a physiological process and many changes occur in a woman's body during pregnancy. These changes occur in all systems to varying degrees, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, and musculoskeletal systems. The hormonal, anatomical, and physiological changes occurring during pregnancy result in weight gain, decreased abdominal muscle strength and neuromuscular control, increased ligamentous laxity, and spinal lordosis. These alterations shift the centre of gravity of the body, altering the postural balance and increasing the risk of falls. Falls during pregnancy can cause maternal and foetal complications, such as maternal bone fractures, head injuries, internal haemorrhage, abruption placenta, rupture of the uterus and membranes, and occasionally maternal death or intrauterine foetal demise. Preventative strategies, such as physical exercise and the use of maternity support belts, can increase postural stability and reduce the risk of falls during pregnancy. This article reviews studies that have investigated changes in postural balance and risk of falling during pregnancy.

  19. Body posture and postural stability of people practicing qigong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Correct and stable posture is essential for the implementation of the majority of voluntary movements and locomotion. The study of postural stability is an element of clinical trials evaluating physical activity in order to determine the optimal therapeutic procedures. Qigong exercises are not only a form of prevention, helpful in maintaining wellbeing, but also a means of therapy in many diseases, including disorders of postural stability. Aim of the research: To analyse the association between the quality of posture and postural stability of people practicing qigong. Material and methods : The study involved 32 people. The mean age of those tested was 54 years. Posture study used optoelectronic method Diers formetric III 4D. Postural stability was tested on the platform Biodex Balance System. The studies were performed at the Posture Laboratory of the Institute of Physiotherapy at Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce. Results and conclusions : Spearman rank order correlation showed a positive correlation of relative rotation of the spine area with a general indicator of stability (p = 0.0206 at an average level (R = 0.4075 and with the index of the stability A/P (p = 0.0310, although at a lower level (R = 0.3819. With the increase in the relative rotation of the spine area the overall stability indicator and stability indicator A/P also increased. Significant positive correlations were also seen for the surface rotation (+max and a general indication of the stability and the stability index A/P. With the increase of surface rotation (+max of the spine the overall stability indicator and stability indicator A/P also increased.

  20. Advantages and disadvantages of stiffness instructions when studying postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Cédrick T

    2016-05-01

    To understand the maintenance of upright stance, researchers try to discover the fundamental mechanisms and attentional resources devoted to postural control and eventually to the performance of other tasks (e.g., counting in the head). During their studies, some researchers require participants to stand as steady as possible and other simply ask participants to stand naturally. Surprisingly, a clear and direct explanation of the usefulness of the steadiness requirement seems to be lacking, both in experimental and methodological discussions. Hence, the objective of the present note was to provide advantages and disadvantages of this steadiness requirement in studies of postural control. The advantages may be to study fundamental postural control, to eliminate useless postural variability, to control spurious body motions and to control the participants' thoughts. As disadvantages, this steadiness requirement only leads to study postural control in unnatural upright stance, it changes the focus of attention (internal vs. external) and the nature of postural control (unconscious vs. conscious), it increases the difficulty of a supposedly easy control task and it eliminates or reduces the opportunity to record exploratory behaviors. When looking carefully at the four advantages of the steadiness requirement, one can believe that they are, in fact, more disadvantageous than advantageous. Overall therefore, this requirement seems illegitimate and it is proposed that researchers should not use it in the study of postural control. They may use this requirement only if they search to know the limit until which participants can consciously reduce their postural sway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Cuccia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing, oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system's proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus. If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss.

  2. The relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccia, Antonino; Caradonna, Carola

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have investigated the various factors that can influence body posture: mood states, anxiety, head and neck positions, oral functions (respiration, swallowing), oculomotor and visual systems, and the inner ear. Recent studies indicate a role for trigeminal afferents on body posture, but this has not yet been demonstrated conclusively. The present study aims to review the papers that have shown a relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. These studies suggest that tension in the stomatognathic system can contribute to impaired neural control of posture. Numerous anatomical connections between the stomatognathic system's proprioceptive inputs and nervous structures are implicated in posture (cerebellum, vestibular and oculomotor nuclei, superior colliculus). If the proprioceptive information of the stomatognathic system is inaccurate, then head control and body position may be affected. In addition, the present review discusses the role the myofascial system plays in posture. If confirmed by further research, these considerations can improve our understanding and treatment of muscular-skeletal disorders that are associated with temporomandibular joint disorders, occlusal changes, and tooth loss.

  3. Otolith and Vertical Canal Contributions to Dynamic Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, F. Owen

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine: 1) how do normal subjects adjust postural movements in response to changing or altered otolith input, for example, due to aging? and 2) how do patients adapt postural control after altered unilateral or bilateral vestibular sensory inputs such as ablative inner ear surgery or ototoxicity, respectively? The following hypotheses are under investigation: 1) selective alteration of otolith input or abnormalities of otolith receptor function will result in distinctive spatial, frequency, and temporal patterns of head movements and body postural sway dynamics. 2) subjects with reduced, altered, or absent vertical semicircular canal receptor sensitivity but normal otolith receptor function or vice versa, should show predictable alterations of body and head movement strategies essential for the control of postural sway and movement. The effect of altered postural movement control upon compensation and/or adaptation will be determined. These experiments provide data for the development of computational models of postural control in normals, vestibular deficient subjects and normal humans exposed to unusual force environments, including orbital space flight.

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Zygapophyseal Joint Space Changes (Gapping) in Low Back Pain Patients following Spinal Manipulation and Side Posture Positioning: A Randomized Controlled Mechanisms Trial with Blinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Gregory D.; Cambron, Jerrilyn; Cantu, Joe A; Dexheimer, Jennifer M.; Pocius, Judith D; Gregerson, Douglas; Fergus, Michael; McKinnis, Ray; Grieve, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to quantify lumbar zygapophyseal (Z) joint space separation (gapping) in low back pain (LBP) subjects after spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) or side-posture positioning (SPP). Methods This was a controlled mechanisms trial with randomization and blinding. Acute LBP subjects (N=112, four n=28 MRI protocol groups) had 2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appointments (initial enrollment [M1] and following 2 weeks of chiropractic treatment [M2]; receiving 2 MRI scans of the L4/L5 and L5/S1 Z joints at each MRI appointment. After the first MRI scan of each appointment, subjects were randomized (M1 appointment) or assigned (M2 appointment) into SPP (non-manipulation), SMT (manipulation), or control MRI protocol groups. After SPP or SMT, a second MRI was taken. The central anterior-posterior (A-P) joint space was measured. Difference between most painful side A-P measurements taken post- and pre-intervention was the Z joint “gapping difference.” Gapping differences were compared (ANOVA) among protocol groups. Secondary measures of pain visual analog scale (VAS), verbal numeric pain rating scale (VNPRS), and function Bournemouth questionnaire (BQ) were assessed. Results Gapping differences were significant at the first (adjusted, p=0.01; SPP=0.66 +0.48mm; SMT=0.23 +0.86; control=0.18 +0.71) and second (adjusted, p=0.0005; SPP=0.65 +0.92mm, SMT=0.89 +0.71; control=0.35 +0.32) MRI appointments. VNPRS differences were significant at first MRI appointment (p=0.04) with SMT showing the greatest improvement. VAS and BQ improved after two weeks of care in all groups (both p<0.0001). Conclusions SPP showed greatest gapping at baseline. After two weeks, SMT resulted in greatest gapping. SPP appeared to have additive therapeutic benefit to SMT. PMID:23648055

  5. Decorticate, decerebrate and opisthotonic posturing and seizures in Kenyan children with cerebral malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idro, Richard; Otieno, Godfrey; White, Steven; Kahindi, Anderson; Fegan, Greg; Ogutu, Bernhards; Mithwani, Sadik; Maitland, Kathryn; Neville, Brian G R; Newton, Charles R J C

    2005-12-07

    Abnormal motor posturing is often observed in children with cerebral malaria, but the aetiology and pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study examined the risk factors and outcome of posturing in Kenyan children with cerebral malaria. Records of children admitted to Kilifi district hospital with cerebral malaria from January, 1999 through December, 2001 were reviewed for posturing occurring on or after admission. The clinical characteristics, features of raised intracranial pressure, number of seizures and biochemical changes in patients that developed posturing was compared to patients who did not. Of the 417 children with complete records, 163 (39.1%) had posturing: 85 on admission and 78 after admission to hospital. Decorticate posturing occurred in 80, decerebrate in 61 and opisthotonic posturing in 22 patients. Posturing was associated with age > or = 3 years (48.1 vs 35.8%, p = 0.01) and features of raised intracranial pressure on funduscopy (adjusted OR 2.1 95%CI 1.2-3.7, p = 0.009) but not other markers of severity of disease. Unlike decorticate posturing, decerebrate (adjusted OR 1.9 95%CI 1.0-3.5) and opisthotonic posturing (adjusted OR 2.9 95%CI 1.0-8.1) were, in addition, independently associated with recurrence of seizures after admission. Opisthotonus was also associated with severe metabolic acidosis (OR 4.2 95%CI 3.2-5.6, p < 0.001). Thirty one patients with posturing died. Of these, 19 (61.3%) had features suggestive of transtentorial herniation. Mortality and neurological deficits on discharge were greatest in those developing posturing after admission. Abnormal motor posturing is a common feature of cerebral malaria in children. It is associated with features of raised intracranial pressure and recurrence of seizures, although intracranial hypertension may be the primary cause.

  6. Control of postural alignment in patients with Parkinsons disease: analysis through postural software (SAPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Martins Barbatto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the alignment of posture and postural control in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Fifty individuals, aged 60–80 years, were viewed in the anterior, posterior, right lateral, and left positions by software for postural assessment (SAPO. The individuals were grouped according to the disease stage and the stage of medication (i.e. “on” or “off” levodopa. In the intermediate to advanced stages, there was a significant standard deviation in the horizontal alignment acromions, in the horizontal alignment of the anterior superior iliac spines, and in the angle between the acromia and the two anterior superior iliac spines. The side view of the left and right relationships was statistically significant for all variables. The “on” stage and the “off” stage groups showed no significant deviation. There was no statistically significant correlation between the center of gravity in the frontal and sagittal planes of the dominant hand and the side of symptom onset. In PD, individuals have increased cervical lordosis and thoracic kyphosis; an anteriorized head; reduced lumbar curvature; increased valgus, increased knee flexion angle; a decline in the support base; zero step; reduced postural stability; anteriorized center of gravity; and changes in the base of support.

  7. Diverse multi-decadal changes in streamflow within a rapidly urbanizing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Jeremy E.; Hill, T. Chee; Milligan, Richard A.

    2018-01-01

    The impact of urbanization on streamflow depends on a variety of factors (e.g., climate, initial land cover, inter-basin transfers, water withdrawals, wastewater effluent, etc.). The purpose of this study is to examine trends in streamflow from 1986 to 2015 in a range of watersheds within the rapidly urbanizing Atlanta, GA metropolitan area. This study compares eight watersheds over three decades, while minimizing the influence of inter-annual precipitation variability. Population and land-cover data were used to analyze changes over approximately twenty years within the watersheds. Precipitation totals for the watersheds were estimated using precipitation totals at nearby weather stations. Multiple streamflow variables, such as annual streamflow, frequencies of high-flow days (HFDs), flashiness, and precipitation-adjusted streamflow, for the eight streams were calculated using daily streamflow data. Variables were tested for significant trends from 1986 to 2015 and significant differences between 1986-2000 and 2001-2015. Flashiness increased for all streams without municipal water withdrawals, and the four watersheds with the largest increase in developed land had significant increases in flashiness. Significant positive trends in precipitation-adjusted mean annual streamflow and HFDs occurred for the two watersheds (Big Creek and Suwanee Creek) that experienced the largest increases in development, and these were the only watersheds that went from majority forest land in 1986 to majority developed land in 2015. With a disproportionate increase in HFD occurrence during summer, Big Creek and Suwannee Creek also had a reduction in intra-annual variability of HFD occurrence. Watersheds that were already substantially developed at the beginning of the period and did not have wastewater discharge had declining streamflow. The most urbanized watershed (Peachtree Creek) had a significant decrease in streamflow, and a possible cause of the decrease was increasing

  8. Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS Shapes the Processing of Rapidly Changing Auditory Information

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    Katharina S. Rufener

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural oscillations in the gamma range are the dominant rhythmic activation pattern in the human auditory cortex. These gamma oscillations are functionally relevant for the processing of rapidly changing acoustic information in both speech and non-speech sounds. Accordingly, there is a tight link between the temporal resolution ability of the auditory system and inherent neural gamma oscillations. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS has been demonstrated to specifically increase gamma oscillation in the human auditory cortex. However, neither the physiological mechanisms of tRNS nor the behavioral consequences of this intervention are completely understood. In the present study we stimulated the human auditory cortex bilaterally with tRNS while EEG was continuously measured. Modulations in the participants’ temporal and spectral resolution ability were investigated by means of a gap detection task and a pitch discrimination task. Compared to sham, auditory tRNS increased the detection rate for near-threshold stimuli in the temporal domain only, while no such effect was present for the discrimination of spectral features. Behavioral findings were paralleled by reduced peak latencies of the P50 and N1 component of the auditory event-related potentials (ERP indicating an impact on early sensory processing. The facilitating effect of tRNS was limited to the processing of near-threshold stimuli while stimuli clearly below and above the individual perception threshold were not affected by tRNS. This non-linear relationship between the signal-to-noise level of the presented stimuli and the effect of stimulation further qualifies stochastic resonance (SR as the underlying mechanism of tRNS on auditory processing. Our results demonstrate a tRNS related improvement in acoustic perception of time critical auditory information and, thus, provide further indices that auditory tRNS can amplify the resonance frequency of the auditory system.

  9. Traps as treats: a traditional sticky rice snack persisting in rapidly changing Asian kitchens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwallier, Rachel; de Boer, Hugo J; Visser, Natasja; van Vugt, Rogier R; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2015-03-24

    An accessory to modern developing economies includes a shift from traditional, laborious lifestyles and cuisine to more sedentary careers, recreation and convenience-based foodstuffs. Similar changes in the developed western world have led to harmful health consequences. Minimization of this effect in current transitional cultures could be met by placing value on the maintenance of heritage-rich food. Vitally important to this is the preservation and dissemination of knowledge of these traditional foods. Here, we investigate the history and functionality of a traditional rice snack cooked in Nepenthes pitchers, one of the most iconic and recognizable plants in the rapidly growing economic environment of Southeast Asia. Social media was combined with traditional ethnobotanical surveys to conduct investigations throughout Malaysian Borneo. Interviews were conducted with 25 market customers, vendors and participants from various ethnical groups with an in-depth knowledge of glutinous rice cooked in pitcher plants. The acidity of pitcher fluid was measured during experimental cooking to analyze possible chemical avenues that might contribute to rice stickiness. Participants identifying the snack were almost all (96%) from indigenous Bidayuh or Kadazandusun tribal decent. They prepare glutinous rice inside pitcher traps for tradition, vessel functionality and because they thought it added fragrance and taste to the rice. The pH and chemical activity of traps analyzed suggest there is no corresponding effect on rice consistency. Harvest of pitchers does not appear to decrease the number of plants in local populations. The tradition of cooking glutinous rice snacks in pitcher plants, or peruik kera in Malay, likely carries from a time when cooking vessels were more limited, and persists only faintly in tribal culture today because of value placed on maintaining cultural heritage. Social media proved a valuable tool in our research for locating research areas and in

  10. Extremely rapid directional change during Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic polarity reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scardia, Giancarlo; Giaccio, Biagio; Liddicoat, Joseph C.; Nomade, Sebastien; Renne, Paul R.; Sprain, Courtney J.

    2014-11-01

    We report a palaeomagnetic investigation of the last full geomagnetic field reversal, the Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) transition, as preserved in a continuous sequence of exposed lacustrine sediments in the Apennines of Central Italy. The palaeomagnetic record provides the most direct evidence for the tempo of transitional field behaviour yet obtained for the M-B transition. 40Ar/39Ar dating of tephra layers bracketing the M-B transition provides high-accuracy age constraints and indicates a mean sediment accumulation rate of about 0.2 mm yr-1 during the transition. Two relative palaeointensity (RPI) minima are present in the M-B transition. During the terminus of the upper RPI minimum, a directional change of about 180 ° occurred at an extremely fast rate, estimated to be less than 2 ° per year, with no intermediate virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) documented during the transit from the southern to northern hemisphere. Thus, the entry into the Brunhes Normal Chron as represented by the palaeomagnetic directions and VGPs developed in a time interval comparable to the duration of an average human life, which is an order of magnitude more rapid than suggested by current models. The reported investigation therefore provides high-resolution integrated palaeomagnetic and radioisotopic data that document the fine details of the anatomy and tempo of the M-B transition in Central Italy that in turn are crucial for a better understanding of Earth's magnetic field, and for the development of more sophisticated models that are able to describe its global structure and behaviour.

  11. Rapid Changes in CB1 Receptor Availability in Cannabis Dependent Males after Abstinence from Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Deepak Cyril; Cortes-Briones, Jose A; Ranganathan, Mohini; Thurnauer, Halle; Creatura, Gina; Surti, Toral; Planeta, Beata; Neumeister, Alexander; Pittman, Brian; Normandin, Marc; Kapinos, Michael; Ropchan, Jim; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E; Skosnik, Patrick D

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of cannabis, the increasing legalization of "medical" cannabis, the increasing potency of cannabis and the growing recreational use of synthetic cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) full agonists underscores the importance of elucidating the effects of cannabinoids on the CB1R system. Exposure to cannabinoids is known to result in CB1R downregulation. However, the precise time course of changes in CB1R availability in cannabis dependent subjects (CDs) following short and intermediate term abstinence has not been determined. Using High Resolution Research Tomography (HRRT) and [(11)C]OMAR, CB1R availability as indexed by the volume of distribution (VT) [(11)C]OMAR was measured in male CDs (n=11) and matched healthy controls (HCs) (n=19). CDs were scanned at baseline (while they were neither intoxicated nor in withdrawal), and after 2 days and 28 days of monitored abstinence. HCs were scanned at baseline and a subset (n=4) was rescanned 28 days later. Compared to HCs, [(11)C]OMAR VT was 15% lower in CDs (effect size Cohen's d=-1.11) at baseline in almost all brain regions. However, these group differences in CB1R availability were no longer evident after just 2 days of monitored abstinence from cannabis. There was a robust negative correlation between CB1R availability and withdrawal symptoms after 2 days of abstinence. Finally, there were no significant group differences in CB1R availability in CDs after 28 days of abstinence. Cannabis dependence is associated with CB1R downregulation, which begins to reverse surprisingly rapidly upon termination of cannabis use and may continue to increase over time.

  12. Competition for cognitive resources during rapid serial processing: changes across childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eHeim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to direct cognitive resources to target objects despite distraction by competing information plays an important role for the development of mental aptitudes and skills. We examined developmental changes of this ability in a cross-sectional design, using the attentional blink (AB paradigm. The AB is a pronounced impairment of T2 report, which occurs when a first (T1 and second target (T2 embedded in a rapid stimulus sequence are separated by at least one distractor and occur within 500 ms of each other. Two groups of children (6 to 7 year-olds and 10 to 11 year-olds; ns = 21 and 24, respectively were asked to identify green targets in two AB tasks: one using non-linguistic symbols and the other letters or words. The temporal distance or stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA between T1 and T2 varied between no intervening distractor (Lag 1, 116-ms SOA and up to 7 intervening distractors (Lag 8, 928-ms SOA. In the symbol task, younger children linearly increased T2 identification with increasing lag. Older children, however, displayed a hook-shaped pattern as typically seen in adults, with lowest identification reports in T2 symbols at the critical blink interval (Lag 2, 232-ms SOA, and a slight performance gain for the Lag-1 condition. In the verbal task, the older group again exhibited a prominent drop in T2 identification at Lag 2, whereas the younger group showed a more alleviated and temporally diffuse AB impairment. Taken together, this pattern of results suggests that the control of attention allocation and/or working memory consolidation of targets among distractors represents a cognitive skill that emerges during primary school age.

  13. Corticospinal Excitability of Trunk Muscles during Different Postural Tasks.

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    Shin-Yi Chiou

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that the primary motor cortex (M1 is involved in both voluntary, goal-directed movements and in postural control. Trunk muscles are involved in both tasks, however, the extent to which M1 controls these muscles in trunk flexion/extension (voluntary movement and in rapid shoulder flexion (postural control remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate this question by examining excitability of corticospinal inputs to trunk muscles during voluntary and postural tasks. Twenty healthy adults participated. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered to the M1 to examine motor evoked potentials (MEPs in the trunk muscles (erector spinae (ES and rectus abdominis (RA during dynamic shoulder flexion (DSF, static shoulder flexion (SSF, and static trunk extension (STE. The level of background muscle activity in the ES muscles was matched across tasks. MEP amplitudes in ES were significantly larger in DSF than in SSF or in STE; however, this was not observed for RA. Further, there were no differences in levels of muscle activity in RA between tasks. Our findings reveal that corticospinal excitability of the ES muscles appears greater during dynamic anticipatory posture-related adjustments than during static tasks requiring postural (SSF and goal-directed voluntary (STE activity. These results suggest that task-oriented rehabilitation of trunk muscles should be considered for optimal transfer of therapeutic effect to function.

  14. Development and initial validation of the Seated Posture Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barks, Lelia; Luther, Stephen L; Brown, Lisa M; Schulz, Brian; Bowen, Mary Elizabeth; Powell-Cope, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Literature shows that some health outcomes (e.g., eating, breathing, and speaking) are directly related to posture. Evidence of outcomes mediated by wheelchair seated posture is limited to interface pressure, physical function, and wheelchair skills and safety. This study's purpose was to develop and validate a rapid, low-burden, paper-pencil assessment of wheelchair seated posture for research use and to test feasibility of its use with a sample of older adults. We used a prospective design and a convenience sample of older adults who were receiving rehabilitation services in a community living center. Forty-nine older wheelchair users participated. Main measures were the Seated Posture Scale (SPS), Modified Ashworth Scale, Barthel Index, Visual Descriptor Scale, scale-content validity index (S-CVI), Cronbach alpha, and test-retest reliability. Rating by six experts yielded the overall content validity score (S-CVI) of 0.744. Total SPS score correlated positively with physical function (Barthel Index, r = 0.46, p validity. Internal consistency was 0.66 (Cronbach alpha). Test-retest reliability yielded Pearson product-moment correlations of 0.89 to 0.99. We conclude that the SPS has sufficient preliminary validity and reliability to support its use as an evaluation of wheelchair seated posture in outcomes research.

  15. Dual-energy synchrotron X ray measurements of rapid soil density and water content changes in swelling soils during infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Patricia; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; DiCarlo, David A.; Bauters, Tim W. J.; Darnault, Christophe J. G.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Parlange, J.-Yves; Baveye, Philippe

    1998-11-01

    Understanding soil swelling is hampered by the difficulty of simultaneously measuring water content and bulk density. A number of studies have used dual-energy gamma rays to investigate soil swelling. The long counting time of this technique makes it impracticable for studying the rapid changes in moisture content and soil swelling shortly after infiltration is initiated. In this paper, we use the dual-energy synchrotron X ray to measure, for the first time, the water content and bulk density changes during the fast, initial phase of the swelling process. Ponded infiltration experiments were performed with two soils: a bentonite-sand mixture and a vertisol. Swelling curves and hydraulic diffusivity were determined. Deformation was very rapid immediately after water application and then became progressively slower. The hydraulic diffusivity decreased with time, which can partially explain the very rapid decrease in infiltration rates observed in the field.

  16. Classic ballet dancers postural patterns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseani Paulini Neves Simas; Sebastião Iberes Lopes Melo

    2008-01-01

    ...; the other, causal comparative in which 50 dancers participated; and (a) questionnaire; (b) a checkerboard; (c) postural chart; (d) measure tape; (e) camera and (f) pedoscope were used as instrument...

  17. Organizational Adaptation to the Rapidly Changing External Environment: A Case Study of Strategic Marketing at Notre Dame College in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shawn M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examined the role of strategic marketing in organizational adaptation to a rapidly changing and competitive external environment among institutions of higher education. Colleges and universities adapt to external pressures as open systems operating within a broader external environment (Bess & Dee, 2008; Keller, 1983). How does…

  18. MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging Detects Rapid Microstructural Changes in Amygdala and Hippocampus Following Fear Conditioning in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Abby Y.; Li, Qi; Zhou, Iris Y.; Ma, Samantha J.; Tong, Gehua; McAlonan, Grainne M.; Wu, Ed X.

    2013-01-01

    Background Following fear conditioning (FC), ex vivo evidence suggests that early dynamics of cellular and molecular plasticity in amygdala and hippocampal circuits mediate responses to fear. Such altered dynamics in fear circuits are thought to be etiologically related to anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Consistent with this, neuroimaging studies of individuals with established PTSD in the months after trauma have revealed changes in brain regions responsible for processing fear. However, whether early changes in fear circuits can be captured in vivo is not known. Methods We hypothesized that in vivo magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) would be sensitive to rapid microstructural changes elicited by FC in an experimental mouse PTSD model. We employed a repeated measures paired design to compare in vivo DTI measurements before, one hour after, and one day after FC-exposed mice (n = 18). Results Using voxel-wise repeated measures analysis, fractional anisotropy (FA) significantly increased then decreased in amygdala, decreased then increased in hippocampus, and was increasing in cingulum and adjacent gray matter one hour and one day post-FC respectively. These findings demonstrate that DTI is sensitive to early changes in brain microstructure following FC, and that FC elicits distinct, rapid in vivo responses in amygdala and hippocampus. Conclusions Our results indicate that DTI can detect rapid microstructural changes in brain regions known to mediate fear conditioning in vivo. DTI indices could be explored as a translational tool to capture potential early biological changes in individuals at risk for developing PTSD. PMID:23382811

  19. Imaging Posture Veils Neural Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T Thibault

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Whereas modern brain imaging often demands holding body positions incongruent with everyday life, posture governs both neural activity and cognitive performance. Humans commonly perform while upright; yet, many neuroimaging methodologies require participants to remain motionless and adhere to non-ecological comportments within a confined space. This inconsistency between ecological postures and imaging constraints undermines the transferability and generalizability of many a neuroimaging assay.Here we highlight the influence of posture on brain function and behavior. Specifically, we challenge the tacit assumption that brain processes and cognitive performance are comparable across a spectrum of positions. We provide an integrative synthesis regarding the increasingly prominent influence of imaging postures on autonomic function, mental capacity, sensory thresholds, and neural activity. Arguing that neuroimagers and cognitive scientists could benefit from considering the influence posture wields on both general functioning and brain activity, we examine existing imaging technologies and the potential of portable and versatile imaging devices (e.g., functional near infrared spectroscopy. Finally, we discuss ways that accounting for posture may help unveil the complex brain processes of everyday cognition.

  20. Computer-Related Posture and Discomfort in Primary School Children: The Effects of a School-Based Ergonomic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockrell, Sara; Earle, Deirdre; Galvin, Rose

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a school-based ergonomic intervention on childrens' posture and discomfort while using computers using a pre/post test study design. The sample comprised 23 children age 9 and 10 years. Posture was assessed with Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and a workstation assessment was completed using a Visual…

  1. Dynamic postural stability is not impaired by moderate-intensity physical activity in healthy or balance-impaired older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Thorlene; Brauer, Sandra G; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2010-12-01

    Older people are increasingly being encouraged to be more physically active but this may lead to physiological fatigue, tiredness and other effects, which, at high levels, can adversely alter postural stability. However, older adults rarely perform physical activity at high intensities. This study aimed to determine whether a single bout of moderate-intensity physical activity, similar to that experienced during daily living, alters dynamic postural stability, particularly among those at risk of falling. Thirty-one healthy young, 33 healthy older and 21 balance-impaired older, adults performed a rapid, voluntary step-up task before and immediately after a 14 min, self-paced, moderate-intensity physical activity protocol. Timing of step components from vertical ground reaction forces, mediolateral displacement of center of pressure, and onset and amplitude of hip abductor muscle activity were recorded during the step task. All groups demonstrated the same changes after the activity, with slightly shorter weight-shift phase duration, smaller displacement of the center of pressure towards the stance leg during weight shifting, and earlier onset of stance leg gluteus medius activity. These changes indicate improved coordination of the step task after activity. Thus this study showed that dynamic postural stability is not adversely affected immediately following moderate-intensity physical activity, even among balance-impaired elderly. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Does a crouched leg posture enhance running stability and robustness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Yvonne; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra; Daley, Monica A; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-07-21

    Humans and birds both walk and run bipedally on compliant legs. However, differences in leg architecture may result in species-specific leg control strategies as indicated by the observed gait patterns. In this work, control strategies for stable running are derived based on a conceptual model and compared with experimental data on running humans and pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). From a model perspective, running with compliant legs can be represented by the planar spring mass model and stabilized by applying swing leg control. Here, linear adaptations of the three leg parameters, leg angle, leg length and leg stiffness during late swing phase are assumed. Experimentally observed kinematic control parameters (leg rotation and leg length change) of human and avian running are compared, and interpreted within the context of this model, with specific focus on stability and robustness characteristics. The results suggest differences in stability characteristics and applied control strategies of human and avian running, which may relate to differences in leg posture (straight leg posture in humans, and crouched leg posture in birds). It has been suggested that crouched leg postures may improve stability. However, as the system of control strategies is overdetermined, our model findings suggest that a crouched leg posture does not necessarily enhance running stability. The model also predicts different leg stiffness adaptation rates for human and avian running, and suggests that a crouched avian leg posture, which is capable of both leg shortening and lengthening, allows for stable running without adjusting leg stiffness. In contrast, in straight-legged human running, the preparation of the ground contact seems to be more critical, requiring leg stiffness adjustment to remain stable. Finally, analysis of a simple robustness measure, the normalized maximum drop, suggests that the crouched leg posture may provide greater robustness to changes in terrain height

  3. Neurons in red nucleus and primary motor cortex exhibit similar responses to mechanical perturbations applied to the upper-limb during posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Michael Herter

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary motor cortex (M1 and red nucleus (RN are brain regions involved in limb motor control. Both structures are highly interconnected with the cerebellum and project directly to the spinal cord, although the contribution of RN is smaller than M1. It remains uncertain whether RN and M1 serve similar or distinct roles during posture and movement. Many neurons in M1 respond rapidly to mechanical disturbances of the limb, but it remains unclear whether RN neurons also respond to such limb perturbations. We have compared discharges of single neurons in RN (n = 49 and M1 (n = 109 of one monkey during a postural perturbation task. Neural responses to whole-limb perturbations were examined by transiently applying (300 ms flexor or extensor torques to the shoulder and/or elbow while the monkeys attempted to maintain a static hand posture. Relative to baseline discharges before perturbation onset, perturbations evoked rapid (<100 ms changes of neural discharges in many RN (28 of 49, 57% and M1 (43 of 109, 39% neurons. In addition to exhibiting a greater proportion of perturbation-related neurons, RN neurons also tended to exhibit higher peak discharge frequencies in response to perturbations than M1 neurons. Importantly, neurons in both structures exhibited similar response latencies and tuning properties (preferred torque directions and tuning widths in joint-torque space. Proximal arm muscles also displayed similar tuning properties in joint-torque space. These results suggest that RN is more sensitive than M1 to mechanical perturbations applied during postural control but both structures may play a similar role in feedback control of posture.

  4. Cephalometric evaluation of the hyoid triangle before and after maxillary rapid expansion in patients with skeletal class II, mixed dentition, and infantile swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisella, Valeria; Vozza, Iole; Capasso, Francesca; Luzzi, Valeria; Ierardo, Gaetano; Nofroni, Italo; Polimeni, Antonella

    2012-07-01

    Rocabado's hyoid triangle is the only cephalometric parameter that can assess the effects of orthodontic treatment on tongue posture. To evaluate the restoration of tongue posture and function by conducting a cephalometric assessment of the hyoid triangle before and after rapid maxillary expansion. Sixty-four healthy patients aged 6-11 years with skeletal class II malocclusion, mixed dentition, and infantile swallowing took part in this study. They submitted to lateral cephalometric radiography before and after orthodontic maxillary rapid expansion, in order to assess the resulting changes in the proportions of the hyoid triangle (following Rocabado's parameters). The cephalometric findings were compared according to sex, age, and divergence using the chi-square McNemar test at the 5% significance level (ptriangle was modified by the orthodontic maxillary expansion, reconditioning of tongue posture and function particularly among male, aged 6-7 years old with skeletal class II malocclusion, mixed dentition, and infantile swallowing.

  5. Effects of variation in posture and respiration on RSA and pre-ejection period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtveen, J.H.; Groot, P.F.C.; de Geus, J.C.N.

    2005-01-01

    The extent to which variation in posture and respiration can confound pre-ejection period and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) as indices of cardiac sympatho-vagal activity was examined. Within-subjects changes in these measures were assessed in 36 subjects during different postures and (paced)

  6. Pedunculopontine network dysfunction in Parkinson's disease with postural control and sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallea, Cecile; Ewenczyk, Claire; Degos, Bertrand; Welter, Marie-Laure; Grabli, David; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Valabregue, Romain; Berroir, Pierre; Yahia-Cherif, Lydia; Bertasi, Eric; Fernandez-Vidal, Sara; Bardinet, Eric; Roze, Emmanuel; Benali, Habib; Poupon, Cyril; François, Chantal; Arnulf, Isabelle; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Vidailhet, Marie

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate pedunculopontine nucleus network dysfunctions that mediate impaired postural control and sleep disorder in Parkinson's disease. We examined (1) Parkinson's disease patients with impaired postural control and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (further abbreviated as sleep disorder), (2) Parkinson's disease patients with sleep disorder only, (3) Parkinson's disease patients with neither impaired postural control nor sleep disorder, and (4) healthy volunteers. We assessed postural control with clinical scores and biomechanical recordings during gait initiation. Participants had video polysomnography, daytime sleepiness self-evaluation, and resting-state functional MRIs. Patients with impaired postural control and sleep disorder had longer duration of anticipatory postural adjustments during gait initiation and decreased functional connectivity between the pedunculopontine nucleus and the supplementary motor area in the locomotor network that correlated negatively with the duration of anticipatory postural adjustments. Both groups of patients with sleep disorder had decreased functional connectivity between the pedunculopontine nucleus and the anterior cingulate cortex in the arousal network that correlated with daytime sleepiness. The degree of dysfunction in the arousal network was related to the degree of connectivity in the locomotor network in all patients with sleep disorder, but not in patients without sleep disorder or healthy volunteers. These results shed light on the functional neuroanatomy of pedunculopontine nucleus networks supporting the clinical manifestation and the interdependence between sleep and postural control impairments in Parkinson's disease. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  7. How experienced alpine-skiers cope with restrictions of ankle degrees-of-freedom when wearing ski-boots in postural exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, Frédéric; Amarantini, David; Paillard, Thierry

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigates the mechanisms underlying changes in postural strategy that occur to compensate for mechanical ankle joint restrictions induced by wearing ski-boots during postural exercises. Fourteen experienced skiers were asked to stand as still as possible in a stable (STA) posture and in 2 postures with instability in the medio/lateral and antero/posterior (ML and AP postures) direction. Postural tasks were performed with eyes open or closed and while wearing or not wearing ski-boots. The electromyographic (EMG) activity of representative lower limb muscles and positions of centre-of-foot pressure (COP) were recorded and analyzed. Our results illustrated enhanced postural performances with ski-boots in the STA posture, whereas postural performances remained unchanged when wearing ski-boots in the ML and AP postures. Analysis of COP sways in the frequency domain did not illustrate any modification in the contribution of different neuronal loops when the study subjects wore ski-boots. EMG showed that the mechanical effects of wearing ski-boots were compensated by changes in postural strategy through the reorganization of muscle coordination, made possible by inherent redundancies in the human body. The preservation of postural performances, despite restrictions of ankle degrees-of-freedom induced by ski-boots, emphasizes the subjects' capacity to exploit the additional support provided by ski-boots by adequately adjusting muscle coordination to control posture in different balance conditions.

  8. Rapid land cover map updates using change detection and robust random forest classifiers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluated the Landsat Automated Land Cover Update Mapping (LALCUM) system designed to rapidly update a land cover map to a desired nominal year using a pre-existing reference land cover map. The system uses the Iteratively Reweighted...

  9. Tropical rodents change rapidly germinating seeds into long-term food supplies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.A.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2006-01-01

    Seed-hoarding vertebrates may survive yearly periods of food scarcity by storing seeds during the preceding fruiting season. It is poorly understood why rodents creating long-term reserves, especially those in the tropics, incorporate seeds from plant species that germinate rapidly and hence seem

  10. Light and heavy touch reduces postural sway and modifies axial tone in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzén, Erika; Paquette, Caroline; Gurfinkel, Victor; Horak, Fay

    2012-10-01

    Light touch with a stable object reduces postural sway by increasing axial postural tone in healthy subjects. However, it is unknown whether subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD), who have more postural sway and higher axial postural tone than healthy subjects, can benefit from haptic touch. To investigate the effect of light and heavy touch on postural stability and hip tone in subjects with PD. Fourteen subjects with mid-stage PD and 14 healthy control subjects were evaluated during quiet standing with eyes closed with their arms (a) crossed, (b) lightly touching a fixed rigid bar in front of them, and (c) firmly gripping the bar. Postural sway was measured with a forceplate, and axial hip tone was quantified using a unique device that measures the resistance of the hips to yaw rotation while maintaining active stance. Subjects with PD significantly decreased their postural sway with light or heavy touch (P touch, hip tone was larger in PD subjects. With touch, however, tone values were similar in both groups. This change in hip tone with touch was highly correlated with the initial amount of tone (PD, r = -.72 to -.95; controls, r = -.74 to -.85). The authors showed, for the first time, that subjects with PD benefit from touch similarly to control subjects and that despite higher axial postural tone, PD subjects are able to modulate their tone with touch. Future studies should investigate the complex relationship between touch and postural tone.

  11. Postural instability and motion sickness in a virtual moving room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, Sébastien J; Flanagan, Moira B; Albanese, Gina M; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2008-04-01

    We examined motion sickness in an oscillating virtual environment presented via a video projector system. Visible oscillation of the physical environment is known to induce both postural instability and motion sickness, but it cannot be assumed that the same phenomena will occur in a virtual simulation of such motion. Standing participants (3 men and 9 women, 20-22 years of age) were exposed to oscillation of a virtual room. The stimulus was a computer-generated simulation of a laboratory device that is known to induce postural instability and motion sickness. Participants viewed the simulation for up to 40 min and were instructed to discontinue if they experienced symptoms of motion sickness. Motion sickness incidence (42%) did not differ from that in studies using the corresponding physical moving room. Prior to motion sickness onset, the sick group exhibited changes in movement, relative to the well group, as predicted by the postural instability theory of motion sickness. Differences in movement between the sick and well groups developed over time, in contrast with previous studies using physical moving rooms, in which such movement differences have not evolved. The results indicate that changes in postural activity precede motion sickness that is induced by an oscillating virtual environment, but they also reveal differences in postural responses to virtual and physical motion environments. Potential applications of this research include recommendations for the use of virtual environments as models for perception and action in physical environments.

  12. Altered postural sway following fatiguing foot muscle exercises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Koyama

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of fatiguing foot muscle exercises on the maximum muscle strength of the foot and postural control ability. Eighteen healthy young individuals performed fatiguing foot muscle strength exercises, and their toe flexor and ankle plantar flexor strength and postural control ability were measured before and after the exercises. Postural control ability was evaluated using the path of the center of pressure (COP during three balance tasks: double-leg standing with eyes open; double-leg standing with eyes closed; and single-leg standing with eyes open. After the exercises, the muscle strength of both the toe and ankle plantar flexor significantly decreased. Under all of the conditions, most COP variables did not significantly differ before and after the exercises; however, the total length and mean velocity in the single-leg standing with eyes open significantly decreased after the exercises. Postural sway velocities in the anteroposterior direction of double-leg standing with eyes closed and in both anteroposterior and mediolateral directions of single-leg standing with eyes open significantly decreased after the exercises. The associations between relative changes in muscle strength after the exercise and relative changes in COP variables after the exercise were not found. These results indicate that postural control while standing could be maintained even though foot muscle strength is decreased after fatiguing foot muscle exercises.

  13. Altered postural sway following fatiguing foot muscle exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Keiji; Yamauchi, Junichiro

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of fatiguing foot muscle exercises on the maximum muscle strength of the foot and postural control ability. Eighteen healthy young individuals performed fatiguing foot muscle strength exercises, and their toe flexor and ankle plantar flexor strength and postural control ability were measured before and after the exercises. Postural control ability was evaluated using the path of the center of pressure (COP) during three balance tasks: double-leg standing with eyes open; double-leg standing with eyes closed; and single-leg standing with eyes open. After the exercises, the muscle strength of both the toe and ankle plantar flexor significantly decreased. Under all of the conditions, most COP variables did not significantly differ before and after the exercises; however, the total length and mean velocity in the single-leg standing with eyes open significantly decreased after the exercises. Postural sway velocities in the anteroposterior direction of double-leg standing with eyes closed and in both anteroposterior and mediolateral directions of single-leg standing with eyes open significantly decreased after the exercises. The associations between relative changes in muscle strength after the exercise and relative changes in COP variables after the exercise were not found. These results indicate that postural control while standing could be maintained even though foot muscle strength is decreased after fatiguing foot muscle exercises.

  14. Assessing surface albedo change and its induced radiation budget under rapid urbanization with Landsat and GLASS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo; Pohl, Christine; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; van Genderen, John

    2016-02-01

    Radiative forcing (RF) induced by land use (mainly surface albedo) change is still not well understood in climate change science, especially the effects of changes in urban albedo due to rapid urbanization on the urban radiation budget. In this study, a modified RF derivation approach based on Landsat images was used to quantify changes in the solar radiation budget induced by variations in surface albedo in Beijing from 2001 to 2009. Field radiation records from a Beijing meteorological station were used to identify changes in RF at the local level. There has been rapid urban expansion over the last decade, with the urban land area increasing at about 3.3 % annually from 2001 to 2009. This has modified three-dimensional urban surface properties, resulting in lower albedo due to complex building configurations of urban centers and higher albedo on flat surfaces of suburban areas and cropland. There was greater solar radiation (6.93 × 108 W) in the urban center in 2009 than in 2001. However, large cropland and urban fringe areas caused less solar radiation absorption. RF increased with distance from the urban center (less than 14 km) and with greater urbanization, with the greatest value being 0.41 W/m2. The solar radiation budget in urban areas was believed to be mainly influenced by urban structural changes in the horizontal and vertical directions. Overall, the results presented herein indicate that cumulative urbanization impacts on the natural radiation budget could evolve into an important driver of local climate change.

  15. Investigating the Effects of Different Working Postures on Cognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Mohammadi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion This study demonstrates that cognitive performance is affected by working postures. This study demonstrates that standard sitting posture is the best posture. Therefore, it is recommended that sitting posture can help in increasing cognitive performance in the workplace.

  16. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    associated to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture. This shows an evolutionaryresponse to realistic climate change happening over short-time scale, and calls for incorporating evolution into modelspredicting future response of species to climate change. It also shows that designed climate change...... experiments coupled with genome sequencing offer great potential to test for the occurrence (or lack) of an evolutionary response.......Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out innatural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response...

  17. One month of contemporary dance modulates fractal posture in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier A. Coubard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the human aging of postural control and how physical or motor activity improves balance and gait is challenging for both clinicians and researchers. Previous studies have evidenced that physical and sporting activity focusing on cardiovascular and strength conditioning help older adults develop their balance and gait and/or decrease their frequency of falls. Motor activity based on motor-skill learning has also been put forward as an alternative to develop balance and/or prevent falls in aging. Specifically dance has been advocated as a promising program to boost motor control. In this study, we examined the effects of contemporary dance (CD on postural control of older adults. Upright stance posturography was performed in 38 participants aged 54-89 years before and after the intervention period, during which one half of the randomly assigned participants was trained to CD and the other half was not trained at all (no dance, ND. CD training lasted 4 weeks, 3 times a week. We performed classical statistic scores of postural signal and dynamic analyses, namely signal diffusion analysis (SDA, recurrence quantification analysis (RQA and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA. CD modulated postural control in older trainees, as revealed in the eyes closed condition by a decrease in fractal dimension and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. The ND group showed an increase in length and mean velocity of postural signal, and the eyes open a decrease in RQA maximal diagonal line in the anteroposterior plane and an increase in DFA alpha component in the mediolateral plane. No change was found in SDA in either group. We suggest that such a massed practice of CD reduced the quantity of exchanges between the subject and the environment by increasing their postural confidence. Since CD has low-physical but high-motor impact, we conclude that it may be recommended as a useful program to rehabilitate posture in aging.

  18. Ankle and hip postural strategies defined by joint torques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, C. F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Zajac, F. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have identified two discrete strategies for the control of posture in the sagittal plane based on EMG activations, body kinematics, and ground reaction forces. The ankle strategy was characterized by body sway resembling a single-segment-inverted pendulum and was elicited on flat support surfaces. In contrast, the hip strategy was characterized by body sway resembling a double-segment inverted pendulum divided at the hip and was elicited on short or compliant support surfaces. However, biomechanical optimization models have suggested that hip strategy should be observed in response to fast translations on a flat surface also, provided the feet are constrained to remain in contact with the floor and the knee is constrained to remain straight. The purpose of this study was to examine the experimental evidence for hip strategy in postural responses to backward translations of a flat support surface and to determine whether analyses of joint torques would provide evidence for two separate postural strategies. Normal subjects standing on a flat support surface were translated backward with a range of velocities from fast (55 cm/s) to slow (5 cm/s). EMG activations and joint kinematics showed pattern changes consistent with previous experimental descriptions of mixed hip and ankle strategy with increasing platform velocity. Joint torque analyses revealed the addition of a hip flexor torque to the ankle plantarflexor torque during fast translations. This finding indicates the addition of hip strategy to ankle strategy to produce a continuum of postural responses. Hip torque without accompanying ankle torque (pure hip strategy) was not observed. Although postural control strategies have previously been defined by how the body moves, we conclude that joint torques, which indicate how body movements are produced, are useful in defining postural control strategies. These results also illustrate how the biomechanics of the body can transform discrete control

  19. Systemic range shift lags among a pollinator species assemblage following rapid climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedford, Felicity E.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Kerr, Jeremy T.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary climate change is driving widespread geographical range shifts among many species. If species are tracking changing climate successfully, then leading populations should experience similar climatic conditions through time as new populations establish beyond historical range margins. ...

  20. Rapid transformation of two libraries using Kotter?s Eight Steps of Change

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Terrie R.; Holmes, Kristi L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Two new directors were each charged by their institutions to catalyze transformational change in their libraries and to develop dynamic and evolving information ecosystems ready for the information challenges of the future. The directors approached this transformational change using a strategic, forward-looking approach. Results This paper presents examples of actions that served as catalysts for change at the two libraries using Kotter?s Eight Steps of Change as a framework. Small...

  1. Systemic range shift lags among a pollinator species assemblage following rapid climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedford, Felicity E.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Kerr, Jeremy T.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary climate change is driving widespread geographical range shifts among many species. If species are tracking changing climate successfully, then leading populations should experience similar climatic conditions through time as new populations establish beyond historical range margins. ...... species assemblage in responses to recent climate change. Even among the most mobile species and without anthropogenic barriers to dispersal, these pollinators have been unable to extend their ranges as fast as required to keep pace with climate change....

  2. Molar changes with cervical headgear alone or in combination with rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori Farret, Marcel; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli S; Pereira Araújo, Vanessa; Deon Rizzatto, Susana Maria; Macedo de Menezes, Luciane; Lima Grossi, Marcio

    2008-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the distal movement of the maxillary first permanent molars when cervical headgear is used alone or in combination with rapid maxillary expansion. The sample was composed of 36 subjects (aged 9 to 13 years), treated in the Faculty of Dentistry, Pontifícia Universidade Cat;aaolica, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The individuals were in good health and in their pubertal growth period. All had Class II division 1 malocclusion. The patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (22 subjects), Class II, with a normal transverse maxilla treated with cervical traction headgear (HG) 400 g 12 h/d, and group 2 (14 subjects), Class II maxillary transverse deficiency treated with rapid maxillary expansion plus cervical traction headgear (RME + HG). An additional group 3 (17 subjects) served as a control group and included individuals with the same characteristics. All subjects had two lateral cephalograms: initial (T1) and progress (T2), taken 6 months later. Differences between T1 and T2 were compared with the Student's t-test, and three groups were compared by the analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparison test. Results showed greater distal tipping and greater distal movement of the first permanent molars in group 1 (HG) than in group 2 (RME + HG), P .05). The hypothesis was rejected. Cervical traction headgear alone produced greater distal movement effects in maxillary first permanent molars when compared with rapid maxillary expansion associated with cervical headgear.

  3. Cardiovascular function in pregnancy: effects of posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bene, R; Barletta, G; Mello, G; Lazzeri, C; Mecacci, F; Parretti, E; Martini, E; Vecchiarino, S; Franchi, F; La Villa, G

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the cardiovascular response to active postural changes in pregnancy. Prospective study. Outpatient Clinic, Fetal Maternity Unit. Sixteen healthy women referred prior to pregnancy. Heart rate, arterial pressure, echocardiographic end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes (Teichholz' s formula) were measured in the three months before pregnancy, at the end of the first and second trimester, at mid third trimester, and six months after delivery in the supine and standing position, in thirteen women (mean age 33, range 25-38 years). Cardiac output (supine position) significantly increased (28%): it reached its maximum at the second trimester, remained steadily elevated in the mid third trimester, and returned to baseline after delivery. Cardiac output increased during pregnancy also in the active orthostatic position, the percentage increase being greater (70%) since the standing pre-conception value was lower. The postural stress induced similar changes in heart rate, arterial pressure and left ventricular ejection fraction before, during and after pregnancy. However, the reduction in cardiac output associated with early standing attenuated significantly at the second trimester and it was absent at mid third trimester (F = 3.13, P = 0.021). This was due to the interplay between the significantly lesser increase in systemic vascular resistance, occurring since the first trimester, and the significantly lesser decrease in left ventricular end-diastolic volume which was observed in the mid third trimester. These data indicate that the elevated cardiac output is adequately maintained in pregnancy during the postural challenge, due to optimisation of the responses of preload and afterload.

  4. Rapid analysis of time series data to identify changes in electricity consumption patterns in UK secondary schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, Graeme; Fleming, Paul; Ferreira, Vasco [Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Harris, Peter [Cheriton Technology Management Ltd., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    This paper presents a methodology for energy professionals to identify potential electricity saving opportunities in buildings from the analysis of half-hourly electricity consumption data. The technique recommended in UK government good practice guidance for use with monthly gas data has been applied to half-hourly electricity data from 37 secondary schools. The technique monitors consumption over time, identifying any changes in patterns and quantifying their effects. It has the advantage of being both high resolution and quick to employ. The analysis produces results that allow energy professionals to rapidly detect changes in electricity consumption. (author)

  5. Clinical characteristics of patients with persistent postural-perceptual dizziness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Saraiva Moreira Bittar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness is the dizziness that lasts for over three months with no clinical explanation for its persistence. The patient's motor response pattern presents changes and most patients manifest significant anxiety. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent postural and perceptual dizziness. METHODS: statistical analysis of clinical aspects of patients with persistent postural-perceptual dizziness. RESULTS: 81 patients, average age: 50.06 ± 12.16 years; female/male ratio: 5.7/1; main reasons for dizziness: visual stimuli (74%, body movements (52%, and sleep deprivation (38%. The most prevalent comorbidities were hypercholesterolemia (31%, migraine headaches (26%, carbohydrate metabolism disorders (22% and cervical syndrome (21%. DHI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait, Beck Depression Inventory, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaires were statistically different (p < 0.05 when compared to controls. 68% demonstrated clinical improvement after treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. CONCLUSION: Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness affects more women than men, with a high associated prevalence of metabolic disorders and migraine. Questionnaires help to identify the predisposition to persistent postural-perceptual dizziness. The prognosis is good with adequate treatment.

  6. Effects of immersion in virtual reality on postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizuki, Hironori; Uno, Atsuhiko; Arai, Kouichi; Morioka, Soukichi; Ohyama, Seizo; Nishiike, Suetaka; Tamura, Koichi; Takeda, Noriaki

    2005-04-29

    In the present study, we examined the effects of the time lag between visual scene and the head movement in the virtual reality (VR) world on motion sickness and postural control in healthy volunteers. After immersion in VR with additional time lags (from 0 to 0.8 s) to the inherent delay (about 250 ms), the visual-vestibular conflict induced a slight motion sickness in experimental subjects, but no change was noticed in the body sway path with eyes open and closed. However, Romberg ratio of body sway path with eyes closed divided by that with eyes open after immersion in VR was significantly decreased in comparison with that before immersion in VR. Since Romberg ratio is an index of visual dependency on postural control, this finding indicates that the immersion in VR decreases the visual dependency on postural control. It is suggested that adaptation to visual-vestibular conflict in VR immersion increases the contribution of vestibular and somatosensory inputs to postural control by ignoring the conflicting delayed visual input in the VR world. VR may be a promising treatment for visual vertigo in vestibular patients with unsuccessful compensation by its ability to induce vestibular and somatosensory reweighing for postural control.

  7. Trunk Accelerometry Reveals Postural Instability in Untreated Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Martina; Horak, Fay B.; Zampieri, Cris; Carlson-Kuhta, Patricia; Nutt, John G.; Chiari, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    While several studies have shown that subjects with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit abnormalities in sway parameters during quiet standing, abnormalities of postural sway associated with untreated PD have not been reported. Although not clinically apparent, we hypothesized that spontaneous sway in quiet stance is abnormal in people with untreated PD. We examined 13 subjects, recently diagnosed with PD, who were not yet taking any anti-parkinsonian medications and 12 healthy, age-matched control subjects. Postural sway was measured with a linear accelerometer on the posterior trunk (L5 level) and compared with traditional forceplate measures of sway. Subjects stood for two minutes under two conditions: eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). One of the most discriminative measures of postural changes in subjects with untreated PD was the increased ‘JERK’ of lower trunk in the EO condition, measured with the accelerometer. Root mean square and the frequency dispersion of postural sway in the EO condition also discriminated sway in untreated PD subjects compared to controls subjects. We conclude that accelerometer-based sway metrics could be used as objective measures of postural instability in untreated PD. Accelerometer-based analysis of spontaneous sway may provide a powerful tool for early clinical trials and for monitoring the effects of treatment of balance disorders in subjects with PD. PMID:21641263

  8. Gait, posture and cognition in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Alessandra Ferreira; Chen, Janini; Freitag, Fernanda; Valente, Debora; Souza, Carolina Oliveira de; Voos,Mariana Callil; Chien, Hsin Fen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gait disorders and postural instability are the leading causes of falls and disability in Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognition plays an important role in postural control and may interfere with gait and posture assessment and treatment. It is important to recognize gait, posture and balance dysfunctions by choosing proper assessment tools for PD. Patients at higher risk of falling must be referred for rehabilitation as early as possible, because antiparkinsonian drugs and surgery do n...

  9. Automatic change detection in RapidEye data using the combined MAD and kernel MAF methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hecheltjen, Antje; Thonfeld, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The IR-MAD components show changes for a large part of the entire subset. Especially phenological changes in the agricultural fields surrounding the open pit are predominant. As opposed to this, kMAF components focus more on changes in the open-cast mine (and changes due to the two clouds...... and their shadows, not visible in the zoom). Ground data were available from bucket-wheel excavators on the extraction side (to the northwest in the open pit) in terms of elevation data for both dates. No ground data were available for changes due to backfill (southeastern part of the open pit) or changes due...... to mining machines other than the bucket-wheels....

  10. Measuring Postural Sway in Sitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek John; Hansen, Lisbeth; Luun, Malene

    2015-01-01

    and younger than 10 years old, participated in this study. The children sat unsupported for 30 s while their posture and sway were quantified using stereophotogrammetry. The tendency in both age groups was to sit with a backward tilted pelvis and a kyphotic trunk. The sitting position was most varied...... group appeared to result from an equally stable trunk supported on a less stable pelvis. Mediolateral marker sway and intersegmental angular sway showed a clearer age dependency. Trunk postural control does not appear to differ between children older and younger than 10 years old, but sagittal plane...

  11. Effects of rapid temperature changes on HK, PK and HSP70 of Litopenaeus vannamei in different seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Biao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Chunqiang

    2010-09-01

    Activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and levels of HSP70 were measured to evaluate the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to rapid temperature changes under controlled laboratory conditions. Shrimps were subjected to a quick temperature change from 27°C to 17°C for the summer case (Cold temperature treatment), or from 17°C to 27°C for the winter case (Warm temperature treatment). After 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure time, shrimps were sampled and prepared for further analysis. The results showed that the effect of acute temperature changes on activities of HK was significant. Patterns of variations of the two glycolytic enzymes suggested that enzymes in the glycolysis cycle could adjust their activities to meet the acute temperature change. The HSP70 level increased in both cold and warm temperature treatments, suggesting that the rapid temperature changes activated the process of body’s self-protection. But the difference in expression peak of HSP70 might be related to the different body size and the higher thermal sensitivity to temperature increase than to temperature decrease of L. vannamei.

  12. Rapid transformation of two libraries using Kotter's Eight Steps of Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terrie R Wheeler; Kristi L Holmes

    2017-01-01

    Two new directors were each charged by their institutions to catalyze transformational change in their libraries and to develop dynamic and evolving information ecosystems ready for the information...

  13. Molar changes with cervical headgear alone or in combination with rapid maxillary expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Lima, Eduardo Martinelli Santayana de; Araújo, Vanessa Pereira de; Rizzatto, Susana Maria Deon; Menezes, Luciane Macedo de; Grossi, Márcio Lima

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the distal movement of the maxillary first permanent molars when cervical headgear is used alone or in combination with rapid maxillary expansion. Materials and Methods: The sample was composed of 36 subjects (aged 9 to 13 years), treated in the Faculty of Dentistry, Pontifícia Universidade Católica, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The individuals were in good health and in their pubertal growth period. All had Class II division 1 ma...

  14. Rapid change in the defense of flightless young by a mourning dove parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdeen, James; Otis, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    We report that an adult-sized Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove), presumably a parent, rapidly decreased risk taken in defense of a juvenile as the likelihood of predation to the juvenile increased. We attribute this decrease in risk taken to (1) the parent's perception that the risk of predation had increased to the extent that a continuation of defensive behaviors would not prevent the death of the juvenile, and (2) its attempt to minimize its own risk of death. It may be that there is a threshold beyond which Mourning Dove parents will forgo the risk of additional defense of offspring in favor of making another reproductive attempt.

  15. The effect of training on lumbar spine posture and intervertebral disc degeneration in active-duty Marines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Soto, Ana E; Berry, David B; Jaworski, Rebecca; Jensen, Andrew; Chung, Christine B; Niederberger, Brenda; Qadir, Aziza; Kelly, Karen R; Ward, Samuel R

    2017-08-01

    Military training aims to improve load carriage performance and reduce risk of injuries. Data describing the lumbar spine (LS) postural response to load carriage throughout training are limited. We hypothesised that training would reduce the LS postural response to load. The LS posture of 27 Marines was measured from upright MR images: with and without load (22.6 kg) at the beginning, middle, and end of School of Infantry (SOI) training. Disc degeneration was graded at L5-S1. No changes in posture and disc degeneration were found throughout training. During load carriage the LS became less lordotic and the sacrum more horizontal. Marines with disc degeneration had larger sacral postural perturbations in response to load. Our findings suggest that the postural response to load is defined more by the task needs than by the physical condition of the Marine. Practitioner Summary: The effect of military training on lumbar spine posture is unknown. The lumbar posture of 27 Marines was measured from upright MR images, with and without load throughout infantry training. No changes in posture or IVD degeneration were found across training. Marines with degeneration at the L5-S1 level had larger sacral postural perturbations in response to load.

  16. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....

  17. A pinned polymer model of posture control

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, C C; Chow, Carson C; Collins, J J

    1995-01-01

    A phenomenological model of human posture control is posited. The dynamics are modelled as an elastically pinned polymer under the influence of noise. The model accurately reproduces the two-point correlation functions of experimental posture data and makes predictions for the response function of the postural control system. The physiological and clinical significance of the model is discussed.

  18. Short-term stream water temperature observations permit rapid assessment of potential climate change impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Caldwell; Catalina Segura; Shelby Gull Laird; Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Maria Sandercock; Johnny Boggs; James M. Vose

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of potential climate change impacts on stream water temperature (Ts) across large scales remains challenging for resource managers because energy exchange processes between the atmosphere and the stream environment are complex and uncertain, and few long-term datasets are available to evaluate changes over time. In this study, we...

  19. RAPID PENUMBRA AND LORENTZ FORCE CHANGES IN AN X1.0 SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhe; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayang; Yang, Bo; Bi, Yi, E-mail: xuzhe6249@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2016-03-20

    We present observations of the violent changes in photospheric magnetic structures associated with an X1.1 flare, which occurred in a compact δ-configuration region in the following part of AR 11890 on 2013 November 8. In both central and peripheral penumbra regions of the small δ sunspot, these changes took place abruptly and permanently in the reverse direction during the flare: the inner/outer penumbra darkened/disappeared, where the magnetic fields became more horizontal/vertical. Particularly, the Lorentz force (LF) changes in the central/peripheral region had a downward/upward and inward direction, meaning that the local pressure from the upper atmosphere was enhanced/released. It indicates that the LF changes might be responsible for the penumbra changes. These observations can be well explained as the photospheric response to the coronal field reconstruction within the framework of the magnetic implosion theory and the back reaction model of flares.

  20. Rapid transformation of two libraries using Kotter's Eight Steps of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Terrie R; Holmes, Kristi L

    2017-07-01

    Two new directors were each charged by their institutions to catalyze transformational change in their libraries and to develop dynamic and evolving information ecosystems ready for the information challenges of the future. The directors approached this transformational change using a strategic, forward-looking approach. This paper presents examples of actions that served as catalysts for change at the two libraries using Kotter's Eight Steps of Change as a framework. Small and large changes are critical for successfully transforming library services, resources, and personnel. Libraries are faced with incredible pressure to adapt to meet emerging and intensifying information needs on today's academic medical campuses. These pressures offer an opportunity for libraries to accelerate their evolution at the micro and macro levels. This commentary reports the expansion of new services and areas of support, enhancement of professional visibility of the libraries on their campuses, and overall, a more positive and productive environment at the respective institutions.

  1. Microstructure Formation and Resistivity Change in CuCr during Rapid Solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Hauf

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the surface-near microstructure after a current interruption of CuCr contact materials in a vacuum interrupter is characterized by a fast heating and subsequently rapid solidification process. In the present article, we reveal and analyse the formation of two distinct microstructural regions that result from the heat, which is generated and dissipated during interruption. In the topmost region, local and global texture, as well as the resulting microstructure, indicate that both Cu and Cr were melted during rapid heating and solidification whereas in the region underneath, only Cu was melted and elongated Cu-grains solidified with the <001>-direction perpendicularly aligned to the surface. By analysing the lattice parameter of the Cu solid solution, a supersaturation of the solid solution with about 2.25 at % Cr was found independent if Cu was melted solely or together with the Cr. The according reduction of electrical conductivity in the topmost region subsequent to current interruption and the resulting heat distribution are discussed based on these experimental results.

  2. Dynamic posture analysis of Spacelab-1 crew members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Homick, J. E.; Werness, S. A.

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic posture testing was conducted on the science crew of the Spacelab-1 mission on a single axis linear motion platform. Tests took place in pre- and post-flight sessions lasting approximately 20 min each. The pre-flight tests were widely spaced over the several months prior to the mission while the post-flight tests were conducted over the first, second, fourth, and sixth days after landing. Two of the crew members were also tested on the day of landing. Consistent with previous postural testing conducted on flight crews, these crew members were able to complete simple postural tasks to an acceptable level even in the first few hours after landing. Our tests were designed to induce dynamic postural responses using a variety of stimuli and from these responses, evaluate subtle changes in the postural control system which had occurred over the duration of the flight. Periodic sampling post-flight allowed us to observe the time course of readaptation to terrestrial life. Our observations of hip and shoulder position, when subjected to careful analysis, indicated modification of the postural response from pre- to post-flight and that demonstrable adjustments in the dynamic control of their postural systems were taking place in the first few days after flight. For transient stimuli where the platform on which they were asked to stand quickly moved a few centimeters fore or aft then stopped, ballistic or open loop 'programs' would closely characterize the response. During these responses the desired target position was not always achieved and of equal importance not always properly corrected some 15 seconds after the platform ceased to move. The persistent observation was that the subjects had a much stronger dependence on visual stabilization post-flight than pre-flight. This was best illustrated by a slow or only partial recovery to an upward posture after a transient base-of-support movement with eyes open. Postural responses to persistent wideband pseudorandom

  3. BODY POSTURE IN FEMALE VOLLEYBALL PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Andrašić

    2015-05-01

    addition, during the performance of certain technical elements (forearm play, digging where kyphotic body posture is emphasized, it can lead to a negative impact on the correct posture in such children. This study included children of different age with changes in shoulder-spatula region, but the percentage of those children was very small and negligible.

  4. The Fulfillment of Others' Needs Elevates Children's Body Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepach, Robert; Vaish, Amrisha; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Much is known about young children's helping behavior, but little is known about the underlying motivations and emotions involved. In 2 studies we found that 2-year-old children showed positive emotions of similar magnitude--as measured by changes in their postural elevation using depth sensor imaging technology--after they achieved a goal for…

  5. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...

  6. Decorticate, decerebrate and opisthotonic posturing and seizures in Kenyan children with cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogutu Bernhards

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal motor posturing is often observed in children with cerebral malaria, but the aetiology and pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study examined the risk factors and outcome of posturing in Kenyan children with cerebral malaria. Methods Records of children admitted to Kilifi district hospital with cerebral malaria from January, 1999 through December, 2001 were reviewed for posturing occurring on or after admission. The clinical characteristics, features of raised intracranial pressure, number of seizures and biochemical changes in patients that developed posturing was compared to patients who did not. Results Of the 417 children with complete records, 163 (39.1% had posturing: 85 on admission and 78 after admission to hospital. Decorticate posturing occurred in 80, decerebrate in 61 and opisthotonic posturing in 22 patients. Posturing was associated with age ≥ 3 years (48.1 vs 35.8%, p = 0.01 and features of raised intracranial pressure on funduscopy (adjusted OR 2.1 95%CI 1.2–3.7, p = 0.009 but not other markers of severity of disease. Unlike decorticate posturing, decerebrate (adjusted OR 1.9 95%CI 1.0–3.5 and opisthotonic posturing (adjusted OR 2.9 95%CI 1.0–8.1 were, in addition, independently associated with recurrence of seizures after admission. Opisthotonus was also associated with severe metabolic acidosis (OR 4.2 95%CI 3.2–5.6, p Conclusion Abnormal motor posturing is a common feature of cerebral malaria in children. It is associated with features of raised intracranial pressure and recurrence of seizures, although intracranial hypertension may be the primary cause.

  7. Television, disordered eating, and young women in Fiji: negotiating body image and identity during rapid social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anne E

    2004-12-01

    Although the relationship between media exposure and risk behavior among youth is established at a population level, the specific psychological and social mechanisms mediating the adverse effects of media on youth remain poorly understood. This study reports on an investigation of the impact of the introduction of television to a rural community in Western Fiji on adolescent ethnic Fijian girls in a setting of rapid social and economic change. Narrative data were collected from 30 purposively selected ethnic Fijian secondary school girls via semi-structured, open-ended interviews. Interviews were conducted in 1998, 3 years after television was first broadcast to this region of Fiji. Narrative data were analyzed for content relating to response to television and mechanisms that mediate self and body image in Fijian adolescents. Data in this sample suggest that media imagery is used in both creative and destructive ways by adolescent Fijian girls to navigate opportunities and conflicts posed by the rapidly changing social environment. Study respondents indicated their explicit modeling of the perceived positive attributes of characters presented in television dramas, but also the beginnings of weight and body shape preoccupation, purging behavior to control weight, and body disparagement. Response to television appeared to be shaped by a desire for competitive social positioning during a period of rapid social transition. Understanding vulnerability to images and values imported with media will be critical to preventing disordered eating and, potentially, other youth risk behaviors in this population, as well as other populations at risk.

  8. Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in temperature extremes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Shaffrey, Len

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of observations indicates that there was a rapid increase in summer (June-August) mean surface air temperature (SAT) since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Accompanying this rapid warming are significant increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, annual hottest day temperature and warmest night temperature, and an increase in frequency of summer days and tropical nights, while the change in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) is small. This study focuses on understanding causes of the rapid summer warming and associated temperature extreme changes. A set of experiments using the atmospheric component of the state-of-the-art HadGEM3 global climate model have been carried out to quantify relative roles of changes in sea surface temperature (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), and anthropogenic aerosols (AAer). Results indicate that the model forced by changes in all forcings reproduces many of the observed changes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Changes in SST/SIE explain 62.2 ± 13.0 % of the area averaged seasonal mean warming signal over Western Europe, with the remaining 37.8 ± 13.6 % of the warming explained by the direct impact of changes in GHGs and AAer. Results further indicate that the direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe, mainly through aerosol-radiation interaction with additional contributions from aerosol-cloud interaction and coupled atmosphere-land surface feedbacks, is a key factor for increases in annual hottest day temperature and in frequency of summer days. It explains 45.5 ± 17.6 % and 40.9 ± 18.4 % of area averaged signals for these temperature extremes. The direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe acts to increase DTR locally, but the change in DTR is countered by the direct impact of GHGs forcing. In the next few decades, greenhouse gas concentrations will continue to rise and AAer precursor

  9. The implication of upright posture on pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, K T; Deckardt, R

    1991-01-01

    Pregnant women spend more than half of the day in an upright position. The physiological effects of this posture on the mother and the fetus are evaluated. Changes in vascular autoregulation and anatomy lead to maternal fainting in about 8% of women during early pregnancy. The immediate effects of such episodes on the fetus are unknown. There is a positive correlation of orthostatic dysregulations and abortions. In late pregnancy we found a significant increase in functional residual capacity in the upright posture. Minute volume and oxygen consumption were also significantly increase (p less than 0.001). Regarding the cardiovascular changes we detected a rhythmic change of the maternal heart rate with the change to upright position, which had not been published before. Change from the left lateral position to unsupported standing increased maternal heart rate by a mean of 27 beats per minute and a mean duration of 105 seconds in two thirds of the women. This was accompanied by a decreased cardiac output, systolic blood pressure and an increased oxygen consumption. The gravid uterus is responsible for these changes. During the upright position, the venous flow to the right ventricle is inhibited by the relaxed uterus. Contractions, leaning forward and the muscle pump improve the venous return. The phenomenon reached its maximum during the 38th week, where 71% of pregnant women displayed a cyclic change in heart rate. The fetal heart rate baseline is significantly increased in the upright position with a significantly reduced acceleration frequency (p less than 0.001). Combined with the data from epidemiologic studies, prolonged standing during late pregnancy may signal potential risks for the fetus such as low birth weight, prematurity and stillbirths because of an 'uterovascular syndrome'. Maternal standing possibly may be used as a physiological fetal stress test.

  10. Rapid land-use change and its impacts on tropical biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurance, William F.

    Rates of forest conversion are extremely high in most tropical regions and these changes are known to have important impacts on biotas and ecosystems. I summarize available information on responses of wildlife and plant communities to habitat fragmentation, selective logging, surface fires, and hunting, which are four of the most widespread types of tropical land-use change. These changes alter forest ecosystems in complex ways and have varying impacts on different animal and plant species. In most human-dominated landscapes, forests are subjected to not one change but to two or more simultaneous alterations, the effects of which can be particularly destructive to tropical biotas. I illustrate this concept by describing the synergistic interactions between habitat fragmentation and surface fires, and between logging, fires, and hunting.

  11. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Terrestrial Intactness and Potential For Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows current and near-term terrestrial intactness, as well as long term potential for development and climate change. These datasets are the results of a...

  12. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Terrestrial Intactness and Potential For Change (HUC5)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows current and near-term terrestrial intactness, as well as long term potential for development and climate change. These datasets are the results of a...

  13. The effects of prolonged running on foot posture: a repeated measures study of half marathon runners using the foot posture index and navicular height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Emma; Marsden, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Different foot postures are associated with alterations in foot function, kinetics and the subsequent occurrence of injury. Little is known about changes in foot posture following prolonged weightbearing exercise. This study aimed to identify changes in foot posture after running a half marathon. Foot posture was measured using the Foot Posture Index (FPI-6) and navicular height in thirty volunteer participants before and after running a half marathon. FPI-6 scores were converted to Rasch logit values and means compared for these and navicular height using an ANOVA. There was a 5 mm drop in navicular height in both feet when measured after the half marathon (P marathon. The apparent differences between the FPI-6 and navicular height on the right foot may be because the FPI-6 takes soft tissue contour changes into consideration whilst the navicular height focuses on skeletal changes. The changes in foot posture towards a more pronated position may have implications for foot function, and therefore risk of injury; shoe fit and comfort and also the effect of therapeutic orthoses worn during prolonged running.

  14. People On The Move: Some Thoughts On Human Dispersal In Relation To Rapid Climatic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, W.

    It is still generally assumed that the default situation for past humans must have been to be sedentary. That is to say, given a chance people would have settled in one area (with a good supply of resources) and established clearly-defined territories. Such concepts presuppose that much of human existence was conducted in climatic conditions sim- ilar to the relatively stable ones seen in the Holocene. What effects do rapid climatic fluctuations have upon environmental carrying capacity, and thus upon human mobil- ity and exploitation patterns? Such an approach could be called 'non-analogue', as it does not seek to impose [current] Holocene patterns upon the Pleistocene, in the same way that 'non-analogue' animal and plant communities are now routinely described for the same period. If one adopts non-analogue perspectives, perhaps one could also argue that in many cases mobility was the rule and not the exception. Turning the conventional wisdom around, we can ask why people should remain in an area. What are the characteristics of that area which could have encouraged people to become less mobile? I do not argue that all groups were mobile: some cannot have been, and not every member of other groups would have been equally mobile (differentiation on grounds of age and sex). In addition, mobility patterns must also have varied over time, although we should not necessarily expect a discernible linear trend either towards or away from greater mobility, because such behaviour operates within a climatic and environmental framework as well as a socio-economic one. If climate oscillated rapidly, it is feasible to suggest that such fluctuations affected environmental stability and thus carrying capacity. The resource species present and their availability would therefore affect the possibilities for human mobility. When discussing the possibilities for human dispersal into new regions, we essentially have a choice between two competing models: the Wave of Advance (sensu

  15. Evidence from phylogenetic and genome fingerprinting analyses suggests rapidly changing variation in Halorubrum and Haloarcula populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Mohan, Nikhil; Fullmer, Matthew S.; Makkay, Andrea M.; Wheeler, Ryan; Ventosa, Antonio; Naor, Adit; Gogarten, J. Peter; Papke, R. Thane

    2014-01-01

    Halobacteria require high NaCl concentrations for growth and are the dominant inhabitants of hypersaline environments above 15% NaCl. They are well-documented to be highly recombinogenic, both in frequency and in the range of exchange partners. In this study, we examine the genetic and genomic variation of cultured, naturally co-occurring environmental populations of Halobacteria. Sequence data from multiple loci (~2500 bp) identified many closely and more distantly related strains belonging to the genera Halorubrum and Haloarcula. Genome fingerprinting using a random priming PCR amplification method to analyze these isolates revealed diverse banding patterns across each of the genera and surprisingly even for isolates that are identical at the nucleotide level for five protein coding sequenced loci. This variance in genome structure even between identical multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) haplotypes indicates that accumulation of genomic variation is rapid: faster than the rate of third codon substitutions. PMID:24782838

  16. Evidence from phylogenetic and genome fingerprinting analyses suggests rapidly changing variation in Halorubrum and Haloarcula populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil eRam Mohan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Halobacteria require high NaCl concentrations for growth and are the dominant inhabitants of hypersaline environments above 15% NaCl. They are well documented to be highly recombinogenic, both in frequency and in the range of exchange partners. In this study, we examine the genetic and genomic variation of cultured, naturally co-occurring environmental populations of Halobacteria. Sequence data from multiple loci (~2500bp identified closely related strains belonging to the genera Halorubrum and Haloarcula. Genome fingerprinting using a random priming PCR amplification method to analyze these isolates revealed diverse banding patterns within and across each of the genera and surprisingly even for isolates that are identical at the nucleotide level for five protein coding sequenced loci. This variance in genome structure even between identical multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA haplotypes suggests that accumulation of variation is rapid, perhaps occurring every generation.

  17. Methodology for benzodiazepine receptor binding assays at physiological temperature. Rapid change in equilibrium with falling temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, R.M.

    1986-12-01

    Benzodiazepine receptors of rat cerebellum were assayed with (/sup 3/H)-labeled flunitrazepam at 37/sup 0/C, and assays were terminated by filtration in a cold room according to one of three protocols: keeping each sample at 37 degrees C until ready for filtration, taking the batch of samples (30) into the cold room and filtering sequentially in the order 1-30, and taking the batch of 30 samples into the cold room and filtering sequentially in the order 30-1. the results for each protocol were substantially different from each other, indicating that rapid disruption of equilibrium occurred as the samples cooled in the cold room while waiting to be filtered. Positive or negative cooperativity of binding was apparent, and misleading effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid on the affinity of diazepam were observed, unless each sample was kept at 37/sup 0/C until just prior to filtration.

  18. Postural Hand Synergies during Environmental Constraint Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosimo Della Santina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Humans are able to intuitively exploit the shape of an object and environmental constraints to achieve stable grasps and perform dexterous manipulations. In doing that, a vast range of kinematic strategies can be observed. However, in this work we formulate the hypothesis that such ability can be described in terms of a synergistic behavior in the generation of hand postures, i.e., using a reduced set of commonly used kinematic patterns. This is in analogy with previous studies showing the presence of such behavior in different tasks, such as grasping. We investigated this hypothesis in experiments performed by six subjects, who were asked to grasp objects from a flat surface. We quantitatively characterized hand posture behavior from a kinematic perspective, i.e., the hand joint angles, in both pre-shaping and during the interaction with the environment. To determine the role of tactile feedback, we repeated the same experiments but with subjects wearing a rigid shell on the fingertips to reduce cutaneous afferent inputs. Results show the persistence of at least two postural synergies in all the considered experimental conditions and phases. Tactile impairment does not alter significantly the first two synergies, and contact with the environment generates a change only for higher order Principal Components. A good match also arises between the first synergy found in our analysis and the first synergy of grasping as quantified by previous work. The present study is motivated by the interest of learning from the human example, extracting lessons that can be applied in robot design and control. Thus, we conclude with a discussion on implications for robotics of our findings.

  19. Rapid spread of complex change: a case study in inpatient palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipski Marta I

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on positive findings from a randomized controlled trial, Kaiser Permanente's national executive leadership group set an expectation that all Kaiser Permanente and partner hospitals would implement a consultative model of interdisciplinary, inpatient-based palliative care (IPC. Within one year, the number of IPC consultations program-wide increased almost tenfold from baseline, and the number of teams nearly doubled. We report here results from a qualitative evaluation of the IPC initiative after a year of implementation; our purpose was to understand factors supporting or impeding the rapid and consistent spread of a complex program. Methods Quality improvement study using a case study design and qualitative analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 36 national, regional, and local leaders. Results Compelling evidence of impacts on patient satisfaction and quality of care generated 'pull' among adopters, expressed as a remarkably high degree of conviction about the value of the model. Broad leadership agreement gave rise to sponsorship and support that permeated the organization. A robust social network promoted knowledge exchange and built on an existing network with a strong interest in palliative care. Resource constraints, pre-existing programs of a different model, and ambiguous accountability for implementation impeded spread. Conclusions A complex, hospital-based, interdisciplinary intervention in a large health care organization spread rapidly due to a synergy between organizational 'push' strategies and grassroots-level pull. The combination of push and pull may be especially important when the organizational context or the practice to be spread is complex.

  20. Multimodal imaging documentation of rapid evolution of retinal changes in handheld laser-induced maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhrami-Gavazi, Elona; Lee, Winston; Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; Kayserman, Larisa; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Freund, K Bailey

    2015-01-01

    To use multimodal imaging to document the relatively rapid clinical evolution of handheld laser-induced maculopathy (HLIM). To demonstrate that inadvertent ocular injury can result from devices mislabeled with respect to their power specifications. The clinical course of a 17-year-old male who sustained self-inflicted, central macular damage from a 20-25 s direct stare at a red-spectrum, handheld laser pointer ordered from an internet retailer is provided. Retrospective review of multimodal imaging that includes fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, MultiColor reflectance, eye-tracked spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence, and microperimetry is used to describe the evolving clinical manifestations of HLIM in the first 3 months. Curvilinear bands of dense hyperreflectivity extending from the outer retina and following the Henle fibers were seen on SD-OCT immediately after injury. This characteristic appearance had largely resolved by 2 weeks. There was significant non-uniformity in the morphological characteristics of HLIM lesions between autofluorescence and reflectance images. The pattern of lesion evolution was also significantly different between imaging modalities. Analysis of the laser device showed its wavelength to be correctly listed, but the power was found to be 102.5-105 mW, as opposed to the laser -induced maculopathy, this finding can undergo rapid resolution in the span of several days. In the absence of this finding, other multimodal imaging clues and a careful history may aid in recognizing this diagnosis. A greater awareness regarding inaccurate labeling on some of these devices could help reduce the frequency of this preventable entity.

  1. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities Actively Correct Abnormal Standing Posture with a Nintendo Wii Balance Board through Controlling Environmental Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chu, Chiung-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The latest researches adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance change of standing posture (CSP) detector, and assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture). This study extends Wii Balance Board…

  2. Visual Vection does not Perturb Squatting Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Gilles

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vision contributes fundamentally to the control of the standing posture. The illusion of self motion falsely perceived (vection increases postural sway while standing. In this paper we examine the effect of vection on both standing and deep squatting with the hypothesis that the squatting posture should not be disturbed by the conflict of sensory information due to vection. The results show that standing posture only was affected by the visual stimuli. The widespread use of squatting for work as well as rest could be due in part to this lack of effect of sensory perturbation on postural stability.

  3. Postural loading assessment in assembly workers of an Iranian telecommunication manufacturing company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalinia, Mojtaba; Nasl Saraji, Gebreal; Kee, Dohyung; Hosseini, Mostafa; Choobineh, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Changes in industries and work practices have coincided with work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of MSDs and to assess postural loading in assembly workers of an Iranian telecommunication manufacturing company. Data were collected from 193 randomly selected workers in 4 units of the company. The Nordic musculoskeletal disorders questionnaire and the UBC ergonomic checklist were used as data collection tools. Loading on the upper body assessment (LUBA) was used to assess postural loading. Lower back symptoms were the most prevalent problems among the workers (67.9%). LUBA showed that most assembly workers (94.3%) had experienced considerable and high postural loading (postural load index, PLI > 5). Regression analyses revealed that lighting, rotation, contact stress, repetition, gender and age were factors associated with symptoms. Work-related MSDs occurred at a high rate among workers. Postural loading requires consideration. Any ergonomic intervention should focus on eliminating ergonomic factors associated with symptoms.

  4. Human adaptation responses to a rapidly changing Arctic: A research context for building system resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, T.; Brinkman, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    Although human behavior accounts for more uncertainty in future trajectories in climate change than do biophysical processes, most climate-change research fails to include human actions in research design and implementation. This is well-illustrated in the Arctic. At the global scale, arctic processes strongly influence the strength of biophysical feedbacks between global human emissions and the rate of climate warming. However, most human actions in the arctic have little effect on these feedbacks, so research can contribute most effectively to reduction in arctic warming through improved understanding of the strength of arctic-global biophysical feedbacks, as in NASA's ABoVE program, and its effective communication to policy makers and the public. In contrast, at the local to regional scale within the arctic, human actions may influence the ecological and societal consequences of arctic warming, so research benefits from active stakeholder engagement in research design and implementation. Human communities and other stakeholders (government and NGOs) respond heterogeneously to socioeconomic and environmental change, so research that documents the range of historical and current adaptive responses to change provides insights on the resilience (flexibility of future options) of social-ecological processes in the arctic. Alaskan communities have attempted a range of adaptive responses to coastal erosion (e.g., seasonal migration, protection in place, relocation), wildfire (fire suppression to use of fire to manage wildlife habitat or landscape heterogeneity), declining sea ice (e.g., new hunting technology, sea ice observations and predictions), and changes in wildlife and fish availability (e.g., switch to harvest of alternative species, harvest times, or harvest locations). Research that draws on both traditional and western knowledge facilitates adaptation and predictions of the likely societal consequences of climate change in the Arctic. Effective inclusion of

  5. Rapid transformation of two libraries using Kotter’s Eight Steps of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Terrie R.; Holmes, Kristi L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Two new directors were each charged by their institutions to catalyze transformational change in their libraries and to develop dynamic and evolving information ecosystems ready for the information challenges of the future. The directors approached this transformational change using a strategic, forward-looking approach. Results This paper presents examples of actions that served as catalysts for change at the two libraries using Kotter’s Eight Steps of Change as a framework. Small and large changes are critical for successfully transforming library services, resources, and personnel. Conclusions Libraries are faced with incredible pressure to adapt to meet emerging and intensifying information needs on today’s academic medical campuses. These pressures offer an opportunity for libraries to accelerate their evolution at the micro and macro levels. This commentary reports the expansion of new services and areas of support, enhancement of professional visibility of the libraries on their campuses, and overall, a more positive and productive environment at the respective institutions. PMID:28670217

  6. Ultrasound evaluation of muscle thickness changes in the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles considering the influence of posture and muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Tomoaki; Abe, Yota; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate muscle thickness changes in the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles between the neutral position and trunk rotation, under a state of rest without voluntary contractions, and isometric contractions to both sides with resistance of 50% of the maximum trunk rotation strength. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 21 healthy young men. [Methods] Muscle thickness changes in the EO, IO, and TrA in each position and state were evaluated by ultrasound. The range of motion at maximum trunk rotation and the maximum strength of trunk rotation were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] In the neutral position and at 50% trunk rotation to the right side, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased with resistance. In both states, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased at 50% trunk rotation to the right side. [Conclusion] The muscular contractions of the IO and TrA were stronger during ipsilateral rotation than in the neutral position and with resistance than at rest. Moreover, the muscular contraction was strongest in the resistive state during ipsilateral rotation.

  7. Differences in muscle coactivation during postural control between healthy older and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Koutatsu; Yamada, Minoru; Uemura, Kazuki; Yamada, Yosuke; Ichihashi, Noriaki; Tsuboyama, Tadao

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference in muscle coactivation during postural control between older and young adults and to identify the characteristics of postural control strategies in older adults by investigating the relationship between muscle coactivation and postural control ability. Forty-six healthy older adults (82.0±7.5 years) and 34 healthy young adults (22.1±2.3 years) participated. The postural tasks selected consisted of static standing, functional reach, functional stability boundary and gait. Coactivation of the ankle joint was recorded during each task via electromyography (EMG). The older adults showed significantly higher coactivation than the young adults during the tasks of standing, functional reach, functional stability boundary (forward), and gait (pPostural sway area (ρ=0.42, polder adults, i.e., muscle coactivation was significantly higher in the elderly with low postural control ability than in the elderly with high balance ability. Increased muscle coactivation could be a necessary change to compensate for a deterioration in postural control accompanying healthy aging. Further research is needed to clarify in greater detail positive and negative effects of muscle coactivation on postural control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Implications of rapid environmental change for polar bear behavior and sociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Todd C.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, the Arctic sea ice has functioned as a structural barrier that has limited the nature and extent of interactions between humans and polar bears (Ursus maritimus). However, declining sea ice extent, brought about by global climate change, is increasing the potential for human-polar bear interactions. Loss of sea ice habitat is driving changes to both human and polar bear behavior—it is facilitating increases in human activities (e.g., offshore oil and gas exploration and extraction, trans-Arctic shipping, recreation), while also causing the displacement of bears from preferred foraging habitat (i.e., sea ice over biologically productive shallow) to land in some portions of their range. The end result of these changes is that polar bears are spending greater amounts of time in close proximity to people. Coexistence between humans and polar bears will require imposing mechanisms to manage further development, as well as mitigation strategies that reduce the burden to local communities.

  9. Unbounded boundaries and shifting baselines: Estuaries and coastal seas in a rapidly changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, S.; Spencer, K. L.; Schuttelaars, H. M.; Millward, G. E.; Elliott, M.

    2017-11-01

    This Special Issue of Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science presents contributions from ECSA 55; an international symposium organised by the Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association (ECSA) and Elsevier on the broad theme of estuaries and coastal seas in times of intense change. The objectives of the SI are to synthesise, hypothesise and illustrate the impacts of global change on estuaries and coastal seas through learning lessons from the past, discussing the current and forecasting for the future. It is highlighted here that establishing impacts and assigning cause to the many pressures of global change is and will continue to be a formidable challenge in estuaries and coastal seas, due in part to: (1) their complexity and unbounded nature; (2) difficulties distinguishing between human-induced changes and natural variations and; (3) multiple pressures and effects. The contributing authors have explored a number of these issues over a range of disciplines. The complexity and connectivity of estuaries and coastal seas have been investigated through studies of physicochemical and ecological components, whilst the human imprint on the environment has been identified through a series of predictive, contemporary, historical and palaeo approaches. The impact of human activities has been shown to occur over a range of spatial and temporal scales, requiring the development of integrated management approaches. These 30 articles provide an important contribution to our understanding and assessment of the impacts of global change. The authors highlight methods for essential management/mitigation of the consequences of global change and provide a set of directions, ideas and observations for future work. These include the need to consider: (1) the cumulative, synergistic and antagonistic effects of multiple pressures; (2) the importance of unbounded boundaries and connectivity across the aquatic continuum; (3) the value of combining cross-disciplinary palaeo, contemporary and

  10. A rapid change in the low energy cut-off of Scorpius X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W. E.; Cordova, F.; Garmire, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    Sco X-1 was observed on June 10, 1972 near 04 hr 33 min U.T. simultaneously in the optical (B) the soft X-ray (0.1 to 2.4 keV) and the X-ray (1.5 to 20 keV) bands of the spectrum. It is believed that a change of short duration in the absorbing medium associated with Sco X-1 was observed. The medium attenuating the low energy X-ray flux from Sco X-1 has apparently changed by more than 40% on a time scale of less than 45 sec.

  11. Rapid change of atmosphere on the Hadean Earth: Beyond Habitable Trinity on a tightrope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, T.; Maruyama, S.

    2014-12-01

    Surface environment of Hadean Earth is a key to bear life on the Earth. All of previous works assumed that high pCO2 has been decreased to a few bars in the first a few hundreds millions of years (e.g., Zhanle et al., 2011). However, this process is not easy because of material and process barriers as shown below. Four barriers are present. First, the ultra-acidic pH (<0.1) of 4.4Ga ocean prevented the precipitation of carbonates at mid-oceanic ridge through water-rock interaction after the birth of primordial ocean driven by plate tectonics or pseudo-plate tectonics system. To overcome this barrier, primordial (anorthosite + KREEP) continents must have been above sea-level to increase pH rapidly through hydrological process. Second, major cap rocks on the Hadean oceanic crust must have been komatiite with minor basaltic rocks to precipitate carbonates through water-rock interaction and transport them into mantle through subduction at higher than the intermediate P/T geotherm on the Benioff plane. If not, carbonate minerals are all decarbonated at shallower depths than the Moho plane. Komatiite production depends on mantle potential temperature which must have been rapidly decreased to yield only Fe-enriched MORB by 3.8Ga. Third, the primordial continents composed of anorthosite with subordinate amounts of KREEP basalts must have been annihilated by 4.0Ga to alter pH to be possible to precipitate carbonates by hydrothermal process. The value of pCO2 must have been decreased down to a few bars from c.a. 50 bars at TSI (total surface irradiance) = 75% under the restricted time limit. If failed, the Earth must have been Venus state which is impossible to bear life on the planet. Fourth is the role of tectonic erosion to destroy and transport the primordial continent of anorthosite into deep mantle by subduction. Anorthosite + KREEP was the mother's milk grow life on the Earth, but disappeared by 4.0Ga or even earlier, but alternatively granites were formed and

  12. Postural-induced changes in intracranial pressure evaluated non-invasively using the MMS-10 tympanic displacement analyser in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, N; Walsted, A

    2000-01-01

    Inner ear pressure reflects intracranial pressure (ICP) primarily because of the direct communication of perilymph and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through the cochlear aqueduct (CA). The MMS-10 tympanic displacement analyser (TDA) is a relatively new device for measuring perilymphatic pressure non-invasively, and thereby also indirectly measuring intracranial pressure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of the TDA in a daily clinical setting. Other aims were to investigate changes in perilymphatic pressure from sitting to lying position in healthy volunteers in two age groups (mean age: 33 years and 50 years) and to compare the patency of the CA in these groups using the MMS-10 TDA. Tympanic membrane displacement (TMD) analyses were performed in the test subjects initially twice in sitting position (test-retest) and then in sitting and supine positions. We found that the MMS-10 TDA is easy to use, and that it gives reproducible values in repeated tests, but with large inter-subject differences. The TMD test showed curves, which, in the whole test group, were more negative in supine position, in accordance with an increasing intracranial and inner ear pressure when lying down. The change from sitting to lying position was larger in the younger group than in the older group. In 11% of the younger group (males) and in 30% of the older group (females), the CA was considered to be non-patent, although the difference was not statistically significant. However, the finding is in keeping with the hypothesis of a greater proportion of patent CA in younger than in older individuals.

  13. Rapid evolution of phenology during range expansion with recent climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lustenhouwer, N.; Wilschut, R.A.; Williams, J.L.; van der Putten, W.H.; Levine, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Although climate warming is expected to make habitat beyond species’ current cold range edge suitable for future colonization, this new habitat may present an array of biotic or abiotic conditions not experienced within the current range. Species’ ability to shift their range with climate change may

  14. Rapid species responses to changes in climate require stringent climate protection targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van A.J.H.; Leemans, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change book consolidates the scientific findings of the Exeter conference and gives an account of the most recent developments on critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, emission pathways and

  15. Extended Services in Schools: Developing Resources to Prepare Student Teachers for a Rapidly Changing Working Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Sue; Smith, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The role of schools in providing extended services to their communities continues to undergo change and development. This has raised issues regarding the training of student teachers who are increasingly likely to take up appointments in schools offering extended services. This research project investigated the development of resources to prepare…

  16. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    to climate change in a common annelid worm using a controlled replicated experiment where climatic conditions were manipulated in a natural setting. Analyzing the transcribed genome of 15 local populations, we found that about 12% of the genetic polymorphisms exhibit differences in allele frequencies...

  17. Evolution and behavioural responses to human-induced rapid environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Ferrari, Maud C O; Harris, David J

    2011-01-01

    Almost all organisms live in environments that have been altered, to some degree, by human activities. Because behaviour mediates interactions between an individual and its environment, the ability of organisms to behave appropriately under these new conditions is crucial for determining their immediate success or failure in these modified environments. While hundreds of species are suffering dramatically from these environmental changes, others, such as urbanized and pest species, are doing better than ever. Our goal is to provide insights into explaining such variation. We first summarize the responses of some species to novel situations, including novel risks and resources, habitat loss/fragmentation, pollutants and climate change. Using a sensory ecology approach, we present a mechanistic framework for predicting variation in behavioural responses to environmental change, drawing from models of decision-making processes and an understanding of the selective background against which they evolved. Where immediate behavioural responses are inadequate, learning or evolutionary adaptation may prove useful, although these mechanisms are also constrained by evolutionary history. Although predicting the responses of species to environmental change is difficult, we highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of evolutionary history in shaping individuals’ responses to their environment and provide suggestion for future work. PMID:25567979

  18. Challenge and Response, Strategies for Survival in a Rapidly Changing Forest Products Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Schuler; Craig Adair; Paul Winistorfer

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. has long been the world's largest market for wood and wood products, fueled by its demand for wood-frame housing. But forest product markets are changing, both in terns of where the products originate (domestically or abroad),and what products are being produced and consumed.

  19. Effect of posture on hip joint moment during pregnancy, while performing a standing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, J A; Sallé, H; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    1996-03-01

    In this paper the combined effect on reactive hip joint moment due to changes in (1) segment mass, (2) trunk centre of mass, and (3) working posture during pregnancy was estimated, and the relative contributions of these three changes to the change in the moment were assessed. The situation studied concerned standing work at a table. Sixteen women were studied monthly during pregnancy. The working posture was assessed by two-dimensional photographic posture recording and description. Body dimensions were measured to assess segment characteristics. A two-dimensional static model was used to estimate the reactive hip joint moment at 10, 20, 30 and 40 weeks of pregnancy. Between 10 and 40 weeks of pregnancy the moment increase was 52 Nm, i.e. the load at 40 weeks of pregnancy is 2.8 times the load at 10 weeks of pregnancy. On average half of this increase was due to postural changes. Changes in segment mass, trunk centre of mass, and the interaction between the three changes accounted for rougly 10, 20 and 15% of the load increase respectively. The increase in reactive hip joint moment may be minimized by preventing adverse postural changes, and optimizing the posture to reduce the contribution of changes in body weight (distribution).

  20. Role of Western Hemisphere Warm Pool in Rapid Climate Changes over the Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jae-Heung; An, Soon-Il

    2017-04-01

    Oceanic states over the western North Pacific (WNP), which is surrounded by heavily populated countries, are closely tied to the lives of the people in East Asia in regards to both climate and socioeconomics. As global warming continues, remarkable increases in sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH) have been observed in the WNP in recent decades. Here, we show that the SST increase in the western hemisphere warm pool (WHWP), which is the second largest warm pool on the globe, has contributed considerably to the rapid surface warming and sea level rise in the WNP via its remote teleconnection along the Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). State-of-the-art climate models strongly support the role of the WHWP not only on interannual time sales but also in long-term climate projections. We expect that understanding the processes initiated by the WHWP-SST could permit better forecasts of western North Pacific climate and the further development of the socioeconomics of East Asia.

  1. Rapid characterisation of vegetation structure to predict refugia and climate change impacts across a global biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius G T Schut

    Full Text Available Identification of refugia is an increasingly important adaptation strategy in conservation planning under rapid anthropogenic climate change. Granite outcrops (GOs provide extraordinary diversity, including a wide range of taxa, vegetation types and habitats in the Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR. However, poor characterization of GOs limits the capacity of conservation planning for refugia under climate change. A novel means for the rapid identification of potential refugia is presented, based on the assessment of local-scale environment and vegetation structure in a wider region. This approach was tested on GOs across the SWAFR. Airborne discrete return Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR data and Red Green and Blue (RGB imagery were acquired. Vertical vegetation profiles were used to derive 54 structural classes. Structural vegetation types were described in three areas for supervised classification of a further 13 GOs across the region. Habitat descriptions based on 494 vegetation plots on and around these GOs were used to quantify relationships between environmental variables, ground cover and canopy height. The vegetation surrounding GOs is strongly related to structural vegetation types (Kappa = 0.8 and to its spatial context. Water gaining sites around GOs are characterized by taller and denser vegetation in all areas. The strong relationship between rainfall, soil-depth, and vegetation structure (R(2 of 0.8-0.9 allowed comparisons of vegetation structure between current and future climate. Significant shifts in vegetation structural types were predicted and mapped for future climates. Water gaining areas below granite outcrops were identified as important putative refugia. A reduction in rainfall may be offset by the occurrence of deeper soil elsewhere on the outcrop. However, climate change interactions with fire and water table declines may render our conclusions conservative. The LiDAR-based mapping approach presented

  2. Quantifying and Reducing Posture-Dependent Distortion in Ballistocardiogram Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Abdul Q.; Wiens, Andrew D.; Fesmire, N. Forrest; Weitnauer, Mary A.; Inan, Omer T.

    2015-01-01

    Ballistocardiography is a non-invasive measurement of the mechanical movement of the body caused by cardiac ejection of blood. Recent studies have demonstrated that ballistocardiogram (BCG) signals can be measured using a modified home weighing scale, and used to track changes in myocardial contractility and cardiac output. With this approach, the BCG can potentially be used both for preventive screening and for chronic disease management applications. However, for achieving high signal quality, subjects are required to stand still on the scale in an upright position for the measurement; the effects of intentional (for user comfort) or unintentional (due to user error) modifications in the position or posture of the subject during the measurement have not been investigated in the existing literature. In this study, we quantified the effects of different standing and seated postures on the measured BCG signals, and on the most salient BCG-derived features compared to reference standard measurements (e.g., impedance cardiography). We determined that the standing upright posture led to the least distorted signals as hypothesized, and that the correlation between BCG-derived timing interval features (R-J interval) and the pre-ejection period, PEP (measured using ICG), decreased significantly with impaired posture or sitting position. We further implemented two novel approaches to improve the PEP estimates from other standing and sitting postures, using system identification and improved J-wave detection methods. These approaches can improve the usability of standing BCG measurements in unsupervised settings (i.e. the home), by improving the robustness to non-ideal posture, as well as enabling high quality seated BCG measurements. PMID:26058064

  3. Longitudinal Study Evaluating Postural Balance of Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Nili; Nemet, Dan; Pantanowitz, Michal; Zeev, Aviva; Hallumi, Monder; Sindiani, Mahmood; Meckel, Yoav; Eliakim, Alon

    2016-02-01

    Repeated anaerobic conditions during athletic performance may cause general and local fatigue that result in postural balance deficit. Evidence suggests that improved postural balance during athletic training may decrease the risk for fallings and traumatic injuries among athletes. Twenty athletes (12 girls, 8 boys) and 20 controls (12 girls, 8 boys) ages 10-15 years participated in the current study. All athletes were active in an 8-month physical activity program, 3 times per week for 90 min., specific to basketball, soccer, or athletic training. The control children participated in physical education at school only, with no involvement in organized extracurricular sports. All participants were evaluated for postural balance in three assessments over one year (at 4-mo intervals); the Interactive Balance System machine (Tetrax device) was used to assess balance at three test times (pre-, post-, and 10 min) after a session of a repeated sprint anaerobic test, consisting of 12 × 20 m run starting every 20 sec. The athletes had better postural balance than controls. There were different group patterns of change over the sessions; a significant interaction of session and group indicated that postural balance of the groups differed. The contribution of low sway frequencies (F1) and high sway frequencies (F6) differed between the controls and the athletes group. Results suggested that although athletes had better postural balance, improvement should be encouraged during training over the sessions and seasons, with special awareness of the balance deficit that occurs immediately after anaerobic stress and at the end of the season, to decrease the risk of injuries. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Postural control in horizontal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, S; Ottaviani, F; Scarano, E; Picciotti, P; Di Nardo, W

    2000-01-01

    Sixteen patients affected by benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of the horizontal semicircular canal (BPPV-HSC) were investigated by means of dynamic posturography (DP) and during bithermal caloric stimulation. Data were compared to data from 40 patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of the posterior semicircular canal (BPPV-PSC) and 20 healthy controls. No postural deficit was observed before or after a liberative Lempert's manoeuvre when patients were compared to control subjects. BPPV-PSC postural scores were significantly impaired compared to scores from the BPPV-HSC group. A residual significant postural impairment was also observed after a successful liberative manoeuvre in the BPPV-PSC group. Electronystagmographic recordings before recovery revealed significant hypoexcitability of the affected ear in 8/16 patients of the BPPV-HSC group. After the liberative manoeuvre, a symmetric bilateral response to caloric stimulation was recorded in all patients. Three main conclusions can be drawn from the present data. First, disorders of the horizontal semicircular canal do not change postural control. Second, dynamic posturography can detect the postural imbalance due to posterior semicircular canal dysfunction even after resolution of paroxysmal vertigo attacks. Third, utricular dysfunction can be ruled out as a cause of the residual postural deficit observed in BPPV-PSC patients. Therefore the recovery delay observed even 1 month after the liberative manoeuvre in the BPPV-PSC-group might be due to the persistence of small amounts of residual debris in the canal, to paralysis of ampullar receptors, or to the time needed for central vestibular re-adaptation.

  5. Postural health in women: the role of physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britnell, S J; Cole, J V; Isherwood, L; Sran, M M; Britnell, N; Burgi, S; Candido, G; Watson, L

    2005-05-01

    To advise obstetric and gynaecology care providers of the physical, psychological, and environmental factors that affect women's posture throughout their lifespan, from adolescence to menopause. To outline the physiotherapy management of obstetrics, osteoporosis, and urinary incontinence in women and to identify recommendations for referral to a physiotherapist. Knowledge of abnormal postures, contributing factors and recommendations for physiotherapy management. MEDLINE, PEDro, and Cochrane Library Search from 1992 to 2003 for English-language articles and references from current textbooks related to posture and women's health conditions that are managed by physiotherapists. The evidence collected was reviewed by the authors and quantified using the evaluation of evidence guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Exam. 1. Pelvic floor muscle training with a physiotherapist is recommended to prevent urinary incontinence during pregnancy and after delivery (I-A). 2. Core stability training with a physiotherapist is recommended to prevent and treat back and pelvic pain during and following pregnancy (I-B). 3. Physiotherapist-prescribed exercises are recommended for women to elicit positive changes in bone mass and to reduce fall and fracture risk (I-A). 4. Pelvic floor muscle training with a physiotherapist is recommended for women with stress urinary incontinence (I-A). The Canadian Physiotherapy Association and Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada have developed this joint policy statement regarding posture in women's health that highlights the physical, psychological, and environmental factors that affect women's posture throughout their lifespan, from adolescence to menopause. This statement outlines the role of physiotherapy in the assessment and treatment of women's posture; outlines the physiotherapy management of obstetrics, osteoporosis, and urinary incontinence; and identifies recommendations for referral to a

  6. Rapid geochemical changes at Mawrth Vallis as observed through the mineralogical record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    The thick and widespread phyllosilicate outcrops observed in the Mawrth Vallis region indicate that abundant water was present here during the Noachian period. Factors shaping the formation and alteration of the observed phyllosilicates include aqueous processes, chemistry, and perhaps biology. The expansive phyllosilicate outcrops at Mawrth Vallis exhibit a consistent general trend of Al-phyllosilicates and amorphous Al/Si species at the top of the clay profile and Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates on the bottom. This implies either a change in water chemistry, a change in material being altered, or an alteration profile where the upper clays were leached and altered more significantly than those below. Localized variations in Al/Si-rich species [1,2] indicate pockets of acidic and neutral environments, likely formed through changes in the geochemical environment over a geologically short time period at the end of the Noachian. A change in iron in the phyllosilicate units is also observed such that an Fe2+-bearing unit is frequently observed between the Fe3+- and Mg-rich phyllosilicates below and the Al/Si-rich materials above [2]. Changes in oxidation state are often indicative of biogeochemical activity on Earth. CRISM spectra are shown in Figure 1 across a transect from an Al/Si-rich region to an Fe2+-bearing region to an Fe3+/Mg-phyllosilicate region. Phyllosilicate-bearing rocks may have been an ideal place on Mars for pre-biotic chemistry and possibly the development of life as well. Phyllosilicates, especially smectites, can serve as reaction surfaces that bind molecules and catalyze chemical reactions. Experiments have shown excellent survival of microbes in clay environments under extreme Mars-like temperature and humidity conditions. If microbes were present on Mars, the ancient Fe-smectite-bearing rocks could have been a favorable environment for them to evolve and possibly thrive. The Mawrth Vallis phyllosilicate outcrops are colored by changes in phyllosilicate

  7. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of dental, skeletal, and alveolar bone changes associated with bonded rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Dogra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To evaluate skeletal changes in maxilla and its surrounding structures, changes in the maxillary dentition and maxillary alveolar bone changes produced by bonded rapid maxillary expansion (RME using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 10 patients (6 males and 4 females with age range 12 to 15 years treated with bonded RME. CBCT scans were performed at T1 (pretreatment and at T2 (immediately after expansion to evaluate the dental, skeletal, and alveolar bone changes. Results: RME treatment increased the overall skeletal parameters such as interorbital, zygomatic, nasal, and maxillary widths. Significant increases in buccal maxillary width was observed at first premolar, second premolar, and first molar level. There was a significant increase in arch width both on the palatal side and on the buccal side. Significant tipping of right and left maxillary first molars was seen. There were significant reductions in buccal bone plate thickness and increase in palatal bone plate thickness. Conclusions: Total expansion achieved with RME was a combination of dental, skeletal and alveolar bone changes. At the first molar level, 28.45% orthopedic, 16.03% alveolar bone bending, and 55.5% orthodontic changes were observed.

  8. Rapid language-related plasticity: microstructural changes in the cortex after a short session of new word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Shir; Friedmann, Naama; Assaf, Yaniv

    2017-04-01

    Human brain imaging revealed that the brain can undergo structural plasticity following new learning experiences. Most magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uncovered morphometric alternation in cortical density after the long-term training of weeks to months. A recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study has found changes in diffusion indices after 2 h of training, primarily in the hippocampus. However, whether a short learning experience can induce microstructural changes in the neocortex is still unclear. Here, we used diffusion MRI, a method sensitive to tissue microstructure, to study cortical plasticity. To attain cortical involvement, we used a short language task (under 1 h) of introducing new lexical items (flower names) to the lexicon. We have found significant changes in diffusivity in cortical regions involved in language and reading (inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule). In addition, the difference in the values of diffusivity correlated with the lexical learning rate in the task. Moreover, significant changes were found in white matter tracts near the cortex, and the extent of change correlated with behavioral measures of lexical learning rate. These findings provide first evidence of short-term cortical plasticity in the human brain after a short language learning task. It seems that short training of less than an hour of high cognitive demand can induce microstructural changes in the cortex, suggesting a rapid time scale of neuroplasticity and providing additional evidence of the power of MRI to investigate the temporal and spatial progressions of this process.

  9. Object-based change detection in rapid urbanization regions with remotely sensed observations: a case study of Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lihuang; Dong, Guihua; Wang, Wei-Min; Yang, Lijun; Liang, Hong

    2013-10-01

    China, the most populous country on Earth, has experienced rapid urbanization which is one of the main causes of many environmental and ecological problems. Therefore, the monitoring of rapid urbanization regions and the environment is of critical importance for their sustainable development. In this study, the object-based classification is employed to detect the change of land cover in Shenzhen, which is located in South China and has been urbanized rapidly in recent three decades. First, four Landsat TM images, which were acquired on 1990, 2000 and 2010, respectively, are selected from the image database. Atmospheric corrections are conducted on these images with improved dark-object subtraction technique and surface meteorological observations. Geometric correction is processed with ground control points derived from topographic maps. Second, a region growing multi-resolution segmentation and a soft nearest neighbour classifier are used to finish object-based classification. After analyzing the fraction of difference classes over time series, we conclude that the comparison of derived land cover classes with socio-economic statistics demonstrates the strong positive correlation between built-up classes and urban population as well as gross GDP and GDPs in second and tertiary industries. Two different mechanisms of urbanization, namely new land development and redevelopment, are revealed. Consequently, we found that, the districts of Shenzhen were urbanized through different mechanisms.

  10. A new approach for assessing sleep duration and postures from ambulatory accelerometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Wrzus

    Full Text Available Interest in the effects of sleeping behavior on health and performance is continuously increasing-both in research and with the general public. Ecologically valid investigations of this research topic necessitate the measurement of sleep within people's natural living contexts. We present evidence that a new approach for ambulatory accelerometry data offers a convenient, reliable, and valid measurement of both people's sleeping duration and quality in their natural environment. Ninety-two participants (14-83 years wore acceleration sensors on the sternum and right thigh while spending the night in their natural environment and following their normal routine. Physical activity, body posture, and change in body posture during the night were classified using a newly developed classification algorithm based on angular changes of body axes. The duration of supine posture and objective indicators of sleep quality showed convergent validity with self-reports of sleep duration and quality as well as external validity regarding expected age differences. The algorithms for classifying sleep postures and posture changes very reliably distinguished postures with 99.7% accuracy. We conclude that the new algorithm based on body posture classification using ambulatory accelerometry data offers a feasible and ecologically valid approach to monitor sleeping behavior in sizable and heterogeneous samples at home.

  11. EMG analysis of human postural responses during parabolic flight microgravity episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Charles S.; Spooner, Brian S.

    1990-01-01

    Anticipatory postural activity in the trunk and legs precedes rapid shoulder flexion in unit gravity. The hypothesis that anticipatory activity is a component of a single neural command for arm movement was tested by monitoring the surface electromyographic activity of the biceps femoris, paraspinals, and deltoid muscles of three subjects during the microgravity phase of parabolic flight. If part of a single command, anticipatory postural activity would be expected to remain intact despite the absence of the body's center of gravity in a reduced gravity environment. However, in at least 75 percent of the microgravity trials anticipatory biceps femoris activity was absent, indicating a separation of postural and agonist muscle activity. Such a finding suggests that anticipatory postural biceps femoris activity may be initiated independently of agonist (deltoid) activity.

  12. Rapid changes in corticospinal excitability during force field adaptation of human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Alain, S; Grey, Michael James

    2012-01-01

    Force field adaptation of locomotor muscle activity is one way of studying the ability of the motor control networks in the brain and spinal cord to adapt in a flexible way to changes in the environment. Here, we investigate whether the corticospinal tract is involved in this adaptation. We...... measured changes in motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle before, during, and after subjects adapted to a force field applied to the ankle joint during treadmill walking. When the force field assisted dorsiflexion during...... the swing phase of the step cycle, subjects adapted by decreasing TA EMG activity. In contrast, when the force field resisted dorsiflexion, they increased TA EMG activity. After the force field was removed, normal EMG activity gradually returned over the next 5 min of walking. TA MEPs elicited in the early...

  13. Rapid behavioural gregarization in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria entails synchronous changes in both activity and attraction to conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephen M; Cullen, Darron A; Anstey, Michael L; Burrows, Malcolm; Despland, Emma; Dodgson, Tim; Matheson, Tom; Ott, Swidbert R; Stettin, Katja; Sword, Gregory A; Simpson, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    Desert Locusts can change reversibly between solitarious and gregarious phases, which differ considerably in behaviour, morphology and physiology. The two phases show many behavioural differences including both overall levels of activity and the degree to which they are attracted or repulsed by conspecifics. Solitarious locusts perform infrequent bouts of locomotion characterised by a slow walking pace, groom infrequently and actively avoid other locusts. Gregarious locusts are highly active with a rapid walking pace, groom frequently and are attracted to conspecifics forming cohesive migratory bands as nymphs and/or flying swarms as adults. The sole factor driving the onset of gregarization is the presence of conspecifics. In several previous studies concerned with the mechanism underlying this transformation we have used an aggregate measure of behavioural phase state, Pgreg, derived from logistic regression analysis, which combines and weights several behavioural variables to characterise solitarious and gregarious behaviour. Using this approach we have analysed the time course of behavioural change, the stimuli that induce gregarization and the key role of serotonin in mediating the transformation. Following a recent critique that suggested that using Pgreg may confound changes in general activity with genuine gregarization we have performed a meta-analysis examining the time course of change in the individual behaviours that we use to generate Pgreg. We show that the forced crowding of solitarious locusts, tactile stimulation of the hind femora, and the short-term application of serotonin each induce concerted changes in not only locomotion-related variables but also grooming frequency and attraction to other locusts towards those characteristic of long-term gregarious locusts. This extensive meta-analysis supports and extends our previous conclusions that solitarious locusts undergo a rapid behavioural gregarization upon receiving appropriate stimulation for

  14. Rapid behavioural gregarization in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria entails synchronous changes in both activity and attraction to conspecifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephen M.; Cullen, Darron A.; Anstey, Michael L.; Burrows, Malcolm; Despland, Emma; Dodgson, Tim; Matheson, Tom; Ott, Swidbert R.; Stettin, Katja; Sword, Gregory A.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Desert Locusts can change reversibly between solitarious and gregarious phases, which differ considerably in behaviour, morphology and physiology. The two phases show many behavioural differences including both overall levels of activity and the degree to which they are attracted or repulsed by conspecifics. Solitarious locusts perform infrequent bouts of locomotion characterised by a slow walking pace, groom infrequently and actively avoid other locusts. Gregarious locusts are highly active with a rapid walking pace, groom frequently and are attracted to conspecifics forming cohesive migratory bands as nymphs and/or flying swarms as adults. The sole factor driving the onset of gregarization is the presence of conspecifics. In several previous studies concerned with the mechanism underlying this transformation we have used an aggregate measure of behavioural phase state, Pgreg, derived from logistic regression analysis, which combines and weights several behavioural variables to characterise solitarious and gregarious behaviour. Using this approach we have analysed the time course of behavioural change, the stimuli that induce gregarization and the key role of serotonin in mediating the transformation. Following a recent critique that suggested that using Pgreg may confound changes in general activity with genuine gregarization we have performed a meta-analysis examining the time course of change in the individual behaviours that we use to generate Pgreg. We show that the forced crowding of solitarious locusts, tactile stimulation of the hind femora, and the short-term application of serotonin each induce concerted changes in not only locomotion-related variables but also grooming frequency and attraction to other locusts towards those characteristic of long-term gregarious locusts. This extensive meta-analysis supports and extends our previous conclusions that solitarious locusts undergo a rapid behavioural gregarization upon receiving appropriate stimulation for

  15. Rapid change of multiplicity fluctuations in system size dependence at SPS energies arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Recent preliminary results on multiplicity fluctuations in p+p, Be+Be and Ar+Sc collisions from the NA61/SHINE collaboration are presented. The scaled variance of charged hadron multiplicity changes little when going from p+p to Be+Be collisions and drops dramatically from Be+Be to Ar+Sc interactions. The centrality selection procedure and the influence of volume fluctuations are discussed. Comparisons with the EPOS event generator are shown.

  16. Rapid response of a marine mammal species to holocene climate and habitat change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark de Bruyn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental change drives demographic and evolutionary processes that determine diversity within and among species. Tracking these processes during periods of change reveals mechanisms for the establishment of populations and provides predictive data on response to potential future impacts, including those caused by anthropogenic climate change. Here we show how a highly mobile marine species responded to the gain and loss of new breeding habitat. Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, remains were found along the Victoria Land Coast (VLC in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, 2,500 km from the nearest extant breeding site on Macquarie Island (MQ. This habitat was released after retreat of the grounded ice sheet in the Ross Sea Embayment 7,500-8,000 cal YBP, and is within the range of modern foraging excursions from the MQ colony. Using ancient mtDNA and coalescent models, we tracked the population dynamics of the now extinct VLC colony and the connectivity between this and extant breeding sites. We found a clear expansion signal in the VLC population approximately 8,000 YBP, followed by directional migration away from VLC and the loss of diversity at approximately 1,000 YBP, when sea ice is thought to have expanded. Our data suggest that VLC seals came initially from MQ and that some returned there once the VLC habitat was lost, approximately 7,000 years later. We track the founder-extinction dynamics of a population from inception to extinction in the context of Holocene climate change and present evidence that an unexpectedly diverse, differentiated breeding population was founded from a distant source population soon after habitat became available.

  17. Next Generation of Renewable Electricity Policy: How Rapid Change is Breaking Down Conventional Policy Categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, T. D. [E3 Analytics, Berlin (Germany); Jacobs, D. [International Energy Transition (IET), Boston, MA (United States); Rickerson, W. [Meister Consultants Group, Boston, MA (United States); Healey, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A number of policies have been used historically in order to stimulate the growth of the renewable electricity sector. This paper examines four of these policy instruments: competitive tendering, sometimes called renewable electricity auctions, feed-in tariffs, net metering and net billing, and tradable renewable energy certificates. In recent years, however, a number of changes to both market circumstances and to policy priorities have resulted in numerous policy innovations, including the emergence of policy hybrids. With no common language for these evolving policy mechanisms, policymakers have generally continued to use the same traditional policy labels, occasionally generating confusion as many of these new policies no longer look, or act, like their traditional predecessors. In reviewing these changes, this paper makes two separate but related claims: first, policy labels themselves are breaking down and evolving. As a result, policy comparisons that rely on the conventional labels may no longer be appropriate, or advisable. Second, as policymakers continue to adapt, we are in effect witnessing the emergence of the next generation of renewable electricity policies, a change that could have significant impacts on investment, as well as on market growth in both developed and developing countries.

  18. Experimental studies of instantaneous color constancy: dynamic color matching under rapid changes of illuminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbur, John L.; de Cunha, Darryl; Williams, Cristyn B.; Plant, Gordon

    2002-06-01

    We have extended the experiments of McCann et al., (1976) by incorporating the Mondrian stimulus into a dynamic colour matching (DCM) technique that allows the subject to match accurately the colour of any test patch under sequential changes of illuminant. We have also studied how scattered light affects the measured instantaneous colour constancy (ICC) index. The results show that correction for forward light scatter in the eye can increase significantly the measured ICC index. The changes in the perceived colour of a central test stimulus as a result of surround illuminant changes was investigated in a number of successful binocular and dichoptic experiments. The contribution made by distant patches to ICC was found to be small with the immediate surround (i.e., less than 2 degree(s) separation) contributing over 50% of the constancy effect. A number of subjects with partial loss of ability to see and discriminate colours caused by damage to ventromedial pre-striate visual cortex were also investigated. In order to establish the site of ICC mechanisms, the dynamic colour matching technique was modified to make it suitable for studies in patients with unilateral damage to the primary visual cortex.

  19. Somatosensory Space Abridged: Rapid Change in Tactile Localization Using a Motion Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seizova-Cajic, Tatjana; Taylor, Janet L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Organization of tactile input into somatotopic maps enables us to localize stimuli on the skin. Temporal relationships between stimuli are important in maintaining the maps and influence perceived locations of discrete stimuli. This points to the spatiotemporal stimulation sequences experienced as motion as a potential powerful organizing principle for spatial maps. We ask whether continuity of the motion determines perceived location of areas in the motion path using a novel tactile stimulus designed to ‘convince’ the brain that a patch of skin does not exist by rapidly skipping over it. Method Two brushes, fixed 9 cm apart, moved back and forth along the forearm (at 14.5 cm s−1), crossing a 10-cm long ‘occluder’, which prevented skin stimulation in the middle of the motion path. Crucially, only one brush contacted the skin at any one time, and the occluder was traversed almost instantaneously. Participants pointed with the other arm towards the felt location of the brush when it was briefly halted during repetitive motion, and also reported where they felt they had been brushed. Results Participants did not report the 10-cm gap in stimulation – the motion path was perceptually completed. Pointing results showed that brush path was ‘abridged’: locations immediately on either side of the occluder, as well as location at the ends of the brush path, were perceived to be >3 cm closer to each other than in the control condition (F(1,9) = 7.19; p = .025 and F(1,9) = 6.02, p = .037 respectively). This bias increased with prolonged stimulation. Conclusions An illusion of completion induced by our Abridging stimulus is accompanied by gross mislocalization, suggesting that motion determines perceived locations. The effect reveals the operation of Gestalt principles in touch and suggests the existence of dynamic maps that quickly adjust to the current input pattern. PMID:24603595

  20. Pleistocene climate change promoted rapid diversification of aquatic invertebrates in Southeast Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawlitschek Oliver

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pleistocene Ice Ages were the most recent geohistorical event of major global impact, but their consequences for most parts of the Southern hemisphere remain poorly known. We investigate a radiation of ten species of Sternopriscus, the most species-rich genus of epigean Australian diving beetles. These species are distinct based on genital morphology but cannot be distinguished readily by mtDNA and nDNA because of genotype sharing caused by incomplete lineage sorting. Their genetic similarity suggests a Pleistocene origin. Results We use a dataset of 3858 bp of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to reconstruct a phylogeny of Sternopriscus using gene and species trees. Diversification analyses support the finding of a recent rapid speciation event with estimated speciation rates of up to 2.40 species per MY, which is considerably higher than the proposed average rate of 0.16 species per MY for insects. Additionally, we use ecological niche modeling and analyze data on habitat preferences to test for niche divergence between species of the recent Sternopriscus radiation. These analyses show that the species can be characterized by a set of ecological variables referring to habitat, climate and altitude. Conclusions Our results suggest that the repeated isolation of populations in glacial refugia might have led to divergent ecological adaptations and the fixation of morphological traits supporting reproductive isolation and therefore may have promoted speciation. The recent Sternopriscus radiation fulfills many characteristics of a species flock and would be the first described example of an aquatic insect species flock. We argue that the species of this group may represent a stage in speciation past the species flock condition because of their mostly broad and often non-overlapping ranges and preferences for different habitat types.

  1. Pleistocene climate change promoted rapid diversification of aquatic invertebrates in Southeast Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawlitschek, Oliver; Hendrich, Lars; Espeland, Marianne; Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Genner, Martin J; Balke, Michael

    2012-08-09

    The Pleistocene Ice Ages were the most recent geohistorical event of major global impact, but their consequences for most parts of the Southern hemisphere remain poorly known. We investigate a radiation of ten species of Sternopriscus, the most species-rich genus of epigean Australian diving beetles. These species are distinct based on genital morphology but cannot be distinguished readily by mtDNA and nDNA because of genotype sharing caused by incomplete lineage sorting. Their genetic similarity suggests a Pleistocene origin. We use a dataset of 3858 bp of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to reconstruct a phylogeny of Sternopriscus using gene and species trees. Diversification analyses support the finding of a recent rapid speciation event with estimated speciation rates of up to 2.40 species per MY, which is considerably higher than the proposed average rate of 0.16 species per MY for insects. Additionally, we use ecological niche modeling and analyze data on habitat preferences to test for niche divergence between species of the recent Sternopriscus radiation. These analyses show that the species can be characterized by a set of ecological variables referring to habitat, climate and altitude. Our results suggest that the repeated isolation of populations in glacial refugia might have led to divergent ecological adaptations and the fixation of morphological traits supporting reproductive isolation and therefore may have promoted speciation. The recent Sternopriscus radiation fulfills many characteristics of a species flock and would be the first described example of an aquatic insect species flock. We argue that the species of this group may represent a stage in speciation past the species flock condition because of their mostly broad and often non-overlapping ranges and preferences for different habitat types.

  2. Changes in pharyngeal aerobic microflora in oral breathers after palatal rapid expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripa Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate in oral breathing children the qualitative and quantitative effects on aerobic and facultatively anaerobic oropharyngeal microflora of respiratory function improved by rapid palatal expansion (RPE. Methods In an open clinical trial, we studied 50 oral breathers, aged 8 to 14 years and suffering from both maxillary constriction and posterior cross-bite. At baseline, patients were examined by a single otorhinolaryngologist (ENT, confirming nasal obstruction in all subjects by posterior rhino-manometric test. Patients were evaluated three times by oropharyngeal swabs:1 at baseline (T = 0; 2 after palatal spreading out (T = 1; and 3 at the end of RPE treatment (T = 2. With regard to the microbiological aspect, the most common and potentially pathogenic oral microrganisms (i.e. Streptococcus pyogenes, Diplococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus spp, Branhamella catarrhalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans were specifically detected in proper culture plates, isolated colonies were identified by means of biochemical tests and counted by calibrated loop. The data were analyzed by means of the following tests: Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon's test. Results After the use of RME there was a statistically significant decrease of Staphylococcus aureus stock at CFU/mLat T1(P = 0.0005; Z = -3,455 by Wilcoxon Rank test and T2 (P Conclusion Our data suggest that RPE therapy in oral breathers ma