WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid optical screen

  1. Rapid antibiotic efficacy screening with aluminum oxide nanoporous membrane filter-chip and optical detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Pei-Hsiang; Sreenivasappa, Harini; Hong, Sungmin; Yasuike, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Nakano, Keiyo; Misawa, Takeyuki; Kameoka, Jun

    2010-09-15

    We have developed a filter-chip and optical detection system for rapid antibiotic efficacy screening. The filter-chip consisted of a 1-mL reservoir and an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous membrane. Sample solution with liquid growth media, bacteria, and antibiotics was incubated in the reservoir for a specific period of time. The number of live bacteria on the surface of membrane was counted after the incubation with antibiotics and filtration. Using this biosensing system, we have demonstrated a 1-h antibiotic screening for patients' clinical samples, significantly faster than the conventional antibiotic susceptibility tests that typically take more than 24h. This rapid screening nature makes the filter-chip and detection system ideal for tailoring antibiotic treatment to individual patients by reducing the microbial antibiotic resistance, and improving the survival rate for patients suffering from postoperative infections. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Touch screens go optical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Pedersen, Henrik Chresten

    2012-01-01

    A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide.......A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide....

  3. Synthetic optical holography for rapid nanoimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, M; Carney, P S; Hillenbrand, R

    2014-03-20

    Holography has paved the way for phase imaging in a variety of wide-field techniques, including electron, X-ray and optical microscopy. In scanning optical microscopy, however, the serial fashion of image acquisition seems to challenge a direct implementation of traditional holography. Here we introduce synthetic optical holography (SOH) for quantitative phase-resolved imaging in scanning optical microscopy. It uniquely combines fast phase imaging, technical simplicity and simultaneous operation at visible and infrared frequencies with a single reference arm. We demonstrate SOH with a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) where it enables reliable quantitative phase-resolved near-field imaging with unprecedented speed. We apply these capabilities to nanoscale, non-invasive and rapid screening of grain boundaries in CVD-grown graphene, by recording 65 kilopixel near-field images in 26 s and 2.3 megapixel images in 13 min. Beyond s-SNOM, the SOH concept could boost the implementation of holography in other scanning imaging applications such as confocal microscopy.

  4. Parallel, Rapid Diffuse Optical Tomography of Breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yodh, Arjun

    2001-01-01

    During the last year we have experimentally and computationally investigated rapid acquisition and analysis of informationally dense diffuse optical data sets in the parallel plate compressed breast geometry...

  5. Parallel, Rapid Diffuse Optical Tomography of Breast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yodh, Arjun

    2002-01-01

    During the last year we have experimentally and computationally investigated rapid acquisition and analysis of informationally dense diffuse optical data sets in the parallel plate compressed breast geometry...

  6. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  7. Optical touch screen based on waveguide sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Chresten; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2011-01-01

    We disclose a simple, optical touch screen technique based on a planar injection molded polymer waveguide, a single laser, and a small linear detector array. The solution significantly reduces the complexity and cost as compared to existing optical touch technologies. Force detection of a touching...

  8. Rapid Parallel Screening for Strain Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    fermentation yields of industrially relevant biological compounds. Screening of the desired chemicals was completed previously. Microbes that can...reporter, and, 2) a yeast TAR cloning shuttle vector for transferring catabolic clusters to E. coli. 15. SUBJECT TERMS NA 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF... fermentation yields of industrially relevant biological compounds. Screening of the desired chemicals was completed previously. Microbes that can utilize

  9. Fluoroscopic screen which is optically homogeneous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A high efficiency fluoroscopic screen for X-ray examination consists of an optically homogeneous crystal plate of fluorescent material such as activated cesium iodide, supported on a transparent protective plate, with the edges of the assembly beveled and optically coupled to a light absorbing compound. The product is dressed to the desired thickness and provided with an X-ray-transparent light-opaque cover. (Auth.)

  10. Rapid screening assay for calcium bioavailability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhrsen, K.R.; Hudepohl, G.R.; Smith, K.T.

    1986-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability has been studied by numerous techniques. The authors report here the use of the gamma emitting isotope of calcium ( 47 Ca) in a whole body retention assay system. In this system, calcium sources are administered by oral gavage and subsequent counts are determined and corrected for isotopic decay. Unlike iron and zinc retention curves, which exhibit a 2-3 day equilibration period, calcium reaches equilibration after 24 hours. Autoradiographic analysis of the femurs indicate that the newly absorbed calcium is rapidly distributed to the skeletal system. Moreover, the isotope is distributed along the entire bone. Comparisons of calcium bioavailability were made using intrinsic/extrinsic labeled milk from two species i.e. rat and goat as well as CaCO 3 . In addition, extrinsic labeled cow milk was examined. In the rat, the extrinsic labeled calcium from milk was better absorbed than the intrinsic calcium. This was not the case in goat milk or the calcium carbonate which exhibited no significant differences. Chromatographic analysis of the labeled milk indicates a difference in distribution of the 47 Ca. From these data, the authors recommend the use of this assay system in calcium bioavailability studies. The labeling studies and comparisons indicate caution should be used, however, in labeling techniques and species milk comparison

  11. Rapid screening of radioactivity in food for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, A.; Khan, A.J.; Semkow, T.M.; Syed, U.-F.; Roselan, A.; Haines, D.K.; Roth, G.; West, L.; Arndt, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed for spiking of matrices with 241 Am (alpha radioactivity), 90 Sr/ 90 Y (beta radioactivity), and 60 Co, 137 Cs, and 241 Am (gamma radioactivity). Matrix stability studies were performed for 43 days after spiking. The method for liquid foods is based upon rapid digestion, evaporation, and flaming, followed by gas proportional (GP) counting. For the apple matrix, surface radioactivity was acid-leached, followed by GP counting and/or gamma spectrometry. The average leaching recoveries from four different apple brands were between 63% and 96%, and have been interpreted on the basis of ion transport through the apple cuticle. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) were calculated from either the background or method-blank (MB) measurements. They were found to satisfy the required U.S. FDA's Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) in all but one case. The newly developed methods can perform radioactivity screening in foods within a few hours and have the potential to capacity with further automation. They are especially applicable to emergency response following accidental or intentional contamination of food with radioactivity.

  12. Rapid screening of radioactivity in food for emergency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, A; Khan, A J; Semkow, T M; Syed, U-F; Roselan, A; Haines, D K; Roth, G; West, L; Arndt, M

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the development of methods for the rapid screening of gross alpha (GA) and gross beta (GB) radioactivity in liquid foods, specifically, Tang drink mix, apple juice, and milk, as well as screening of GA, GB, and gamma radioactivity from surface deposition on apples. Detailed procedures were developed for spiking of matrices with (241)Am (alpha radioactivity), (90)Sr/(90)Y (beta radioactivity), and (60)Co, (137)Cs, and (241)Am (gamma radioactivity). Matrix stability studies were performed for 43 days after spiking. The method for liquid foods is based upon rapid digestion, evaporation, and flaming, followed by gas proportional (GP) counting. For the apple matrix, surface radioactivity was acid-leached, followed by GP counting and/or gamma spectrometry. The average leaching recoveries from four different apple brands were between 63% and 96%, and have been interpreted on the basis of ion transport through the apple cuticle. The minimum detectable concentrations (MDCs) were calculated from either the background or method-blank (MB) measurements. They were found to satisfy the required U.S. FDA's Derived Intervention Levels (DILs) in all but one case. The newly developed methods can perform radioactivity screening in foods within a few hours and have the potential to capacity with further automation. They are especially applicable to emergency response following accidental or intentional contamination of food with radioactivity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Rapid screening test for porphyria diagnosis using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, A.; Stepp, H.; Homann, C.; Hennig, G.; Brittenham, G. M.; Vogeser, M.

    2015-07-01

    Porphyrias are rare genetic metabolic disorders, which result from deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the enzyme defect, different types of porphyrins and heme precursors accumulate for the different porphyria diseases in erythrocytes, liver, blood plasma, urine and stool. Patients with acute hepatic porphyrias can suffer from acute neuropathic attacks, which can lead to death when undiagnosed, but show only unspecific clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Therefore, in addition to chromatographic methods, a rapid screening test is required to allow for immediate identification and treatment of these patients. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were conducted on blood plasma and phantom material, mimicking the composition of blood plasma of porphyria patients. Hydrochloric acid was used to differentiate the occurring porphyrins (uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III) spectroscopically despite their initially overlapping excitation spectra. Plasma phantom mixtures were measured using dual wavelength excitation and the corresponding concentrations of uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III were determined. Additionally, three plasma samples of porphyria patients were examined and traces of coproporphyrin-III and uroporphyrin-III were identified. This study may therefore help to establish a rapid screening test method with spectroscopic differentiation of the occurring porphyrins, which consequently allows for the distinction of different porphyrias. This may be a valuable tool for clinical porphyria diagnosis and rapid or immediate treatment.

  14. Rapidly solidified aluminium for optical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, G.P.H.; Venrooy, B.W.H. van; Bosch, A.J.; Senden, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper present the results of a diamond turning study of a rapidly solidified aluminium 6061 alloy grade, known as RSA6061. It is shown that this small grain material can be diamond turned to smaller roughness values than standard AA6061 aluminium grades. Also, the results are nearly as good as

  15. A rapid screen for four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Karan; Ebel, Joseph G; Bischoff, Karyn

    2014-06-01

    Most antidoping method development in the equine industry has been for plasma and urine, though there has been recent interest in the analysis of synovial fluid for evidence of doping by intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Published methods for corticosteroid analysis in synovial fluid are primarily singleplex methods, do not screen for all corticosteroids of interest and are not adequately sensitive. The purpose of this study is to develop a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) screening method for the detection of four of the most common intra-articularly administered corticosteroids--betamethasone, methylprednisolone, methylprednisolone acetate and triamcinolone acetonide. Sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation followed by a basified liquid-liquid extraction. LC-MS-MS experiments consisted of a six-min isocratic separation using a Phenomenex Polar-RP stationary phase and a mobile phase consisting of 35% acetonitrile, 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in nanopure water. The detection system used was a triple quadrupole mass analyzer with thermospray ionization, and compounds were identified using selective reaction monitoring. The method was validated to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard, and real synovial fluid samples were analyzed to demonstrate the application of the method in an antidoping context. The method was highly selective for the four corticosteroids with limits of detection of 1-3 ng/mL. The extraction efficiency was 50-101%, and the matrix effects were 14-31%. These results indicate that the method is a rapid and sensitive screen for the four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid, fit for purpose for equine antidoping assays.

  16. A fluorescence-based rapid screening assay for cytotoxic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Jessica; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Estrada, Abril; Martinez, Luis E.; Garza, Kristine; Aguilera, Renato J.

    2004-01-01

    A simple fluorescence-based assay was developed for the rapid screening of potential cytotoxic compounds generated by combinatorial chemistry. The assay is based on detection of nuclear green fluorescent protein (GFP) staining of a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) carrying an integrated histone H2B-GFP fusion gene. Addition of a cytotoxic compound to the HeLa-GFP cells results in the eventual degradation of DNA and loss of the GFP nuclear fluorescence. Using this assay, we screened 11 distinct quinone derivatives and found that several of these compounds were cytotoxic. These compounds are structurally related to plumbagin an apoptosis-inducing naphthoquinone isolated from Black Walnut. In order to determine the mechanism by which cell death was induced, we performed additional experiments with the most cytotoxic quinones. These compounds were found to induce morphological changes (blebbing and nuclear condensation) consistent with induction of apoptosis. Additional tests revealed that the cytotoxic compounds induce both necrotic and apoptotic modes of death

  17. Novel technique for rapid screening of tinnitus in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jeremy G.; Brozoski, Thomas J.; Parrish, Jennifer L.; Bauer, Carol A.; Hughes, Larry F.; Caspary, Donald M.

    2005-04-01

    Measuring tinnitus in laboratory animals is difficult, involving weeks or months of operant training. Preliminary data suggest that rapid screening for tinnitus in rats can be accomplished using an unconditioned acoustic startle reflex. In control animals, a gap in an otherwise constant acoustic background inhibits a subsequent startle response to a sound impulse. If, however, the background signal is qualitatively similar to the animal's tinnitus, poorer detection of the gap and less inhibition of the startle might be expected. Fourteen animals with putative tinnitus at 10 kHz and 13 control animals were tested for gap detection using three different background signals: broadband noise, and filtered bandpass noise centered either at 16 kHz (15.5-16.5 kHz) or at their suspected tinnitus locus of 10 kHz (9.5-10.5 kHz). As predicted, animals with evidence of tinnitus exhibited significantly worse gap detection at 10 kHz, and were not significantly different than control animals at 16 kHz and broadband noise. These results suggest a new methodology for rapidly detecting tinnitus in individual animals. Equipment donated by Hamilton-Kinder Inc Behavioral Testing Systems in the memory of SIU graduate Dorothy Jean Kinder (Walker). [Work supported by NIH grants AG023910-01 (JT), DC4830 (TB & CB), and DC00151 (DC).

  18. Evolution of optic nerve photography for glaucoma screening: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jonathan S; Fudemberg, Scott J; Lee, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Visual evaluation of the optic nerve has been one of the earliest and most widely used methods to evaluate patients for glaucoma. Photography has proven very useful for documentation of the nerve's appearance at a given time, allowing more detailed scrutiny then, and later comparison for change. Photography serves as the basis for real-time or non-simultaneous review in telemedicine and screening events allowing fundus and optic nerve evaluation by experts elsewhere. Expert evaluation of disc photographs has shown diagnostic performance similar to other methods of optic nerve evaluation for glaucoma. Newer technology has made optic nerve photography simpler, cheaper and more portable creating opportunities for broader utilization in screening in underserved populations by non-physicians. Recent investigations suggest that non-physicians or software algorithms for disc photograph evaluation have promise to allow more screening to be done with fewer experts. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  19. Photoprotection in Plants Optical Screening-based Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Solovchenko, Alexei

    2010-01-01

    Optical screening of excessive and potentially harmful solar radiation is an important photoprotective mechanism, though it has received much less attention in comparison with other systems preventing photooxidative damage to photoautotrophic organisms. This photoprotection in the form of screening appears to be especially important for juvenile and senescing plants as well as under environmental stresses—i.e. in situations where the efficiency of enzymatic ROS elimination, DNA repair and other ‘classical’ photoprotective systems could be impaired. This book represents an attempt to develop an integral view of optical screening-based photoprotection in microalgae and higher plants. Towards this end, the key groups of pigments involved in the screening of ultraviolet and visible components of solar radiation in microalgae and higher plants, and the patterns of their accumulation and distribution within plant cells and tissues, are described. Special attention is paid to the manifestations of screening pi...

  20. Rapid screening method for plutonium in mixed waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somers, W.; Culp, T.; Miller, R.

    1987-01-01

    A waste stream sampling program was undertaken to determine those waste streams which contained hazardous constituents, and would therefore be regulated as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The waste streams also had the potential of containing radioactive material, either plutonium, americium, or depleted uranium. Because of the potential for contamination with radioactive material, a method of rapidly screening the liquid samples for radioactive material was required. A counting technique was devised to count a small aliquot of a sample, determine plutonium concentration, and allow the sample to be shipped the same day they were collected. This technique utilized the low energy photons (x-rays) that accompany α decay. This direct, non-destructive x-ray analysis was applied to quantitatively determine Pu-239 concentrations in industrial samples. Samples contained a Pu-239, Am-241 mixture; the ratio and/or concentrations of these two radionuclides was not constant. A computer program was designed and implemented to calculate Pu-239 activity and concentration (g/ml) using the 59.5 keV Am-241 peak to determine Am-241's contribution to the 17 keV region. Am's contribution was subtracted, yielding net counts in the 17 keV region due to Pu. 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. MASS SPECTROMETRY PROTEOMICS METHOD AS A RAPID SCREENING TOOL FOR BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF FOOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    MASS SPECTROMETRY PROTEOMICS METHOD AS A RAPID SCREENING TOOL FOR BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF FOOD ECBC-TR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mass Spectrometry Proteomics Method as a Rapid Screening Tool for Bacterial Contamination of Food 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...the MSPM to correctly classify whether or not food samples were contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Newport in this blinded pilot study

  2. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  3. Rapidly reconfigurable all-optical universal logic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Lynford L.; Bond, Tiziana C.; Kallman, Jeffrey S.

    2010-09-07

    A new reconfigurable cascadable all-optical on-chip device is presented. The gate operates by combining the Vernier effect with a novel effect, the gain-index lever, to help shift the dominant lasing mode from a mode where the laser light is output at one facet to a mode where it is output at the other facet. Since the laser remains above threshold, the speed of the gate for logic operations as well as for reprogramming the function of the gate is primarily limited to the small signal optical modulation speed of the laser, which can be on the order of up to about tens of GHz. The gate can be rapidly and repeatedly reprogrammed to perform any of the basic digital logic operations by using an appropriate analog optical or electrical signal at the gate selection port. Other all-optical functionality includes wavelength conversion, signal duplication, threshold switching, analog to digital conversion, digital to analog conversion, signal routing, and environment sensing. Since each gate can perform different operations, the functionality of such a cascaded circuit grows exponentially.

  4. Rapid screening of operational freshwater availability using global models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatsma, M.W.; Vermeulen, P.; Kuijper, Marijn; Bonte, Matthijs; Niele, Frank; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    Freshwater shortage already affects large parts of the world, and is expected to increase rapidly over the coming decades as a result of increased water demands and the impacts of climate change. Global-scale water risk or stress maps are available online, but these lack quantitative information on

  5. Evaluation of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests in screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by the protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. Infection of individual is through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. This study evaluated the performance of microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in diagnosing malaria. A total of 400 clinically suspected malaria ...

  6. A single-question screen for rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, Ronald B; Arnulf, Isabelle; Hogl, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia that is an important risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia. Its prevalence is unknown. One barrier to determining prevalence is that current screening tools are too long for large......-scale epidemiologic surveys. Therefore, we designed the REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Single-Question Screen (RBD1Q), a screening question for dream enactment with a simple yes/no response....

  7. Rapid screening of monoclonal antibodies: new 'microstick' radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheinberg, D.A.; Strand, M.; Wilsnack, R.

    1983-01-01

    A new system for assaying monoclonal antibodies consisting of an 8 x 12 array of sticks which fits into a 96-well microtiter plate is described. Tests using virus specific monoclonal antibodies and virus proteins demonstrated sensitivity equivalent to the conventional microtiter plate assay. Antibody production, antigen specific antibody, and immunoglobulin isotypes could be measured under sterile conditions directly in the original fusion mixture wells and much greater rapidity than with the microtiter plate assay. (Auth.)

  8. Field demonstration of rapid turnaround, multilevel groundwater screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingle, A.R.; Baker, L.; Long, D.D.

    1994-01-01

    A combined technology approach to rapidly characterizing source area and downgradient groundwater associated with a past fuel spill has been field tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the presence and extent of fuel-related compounds or indications of their biodegradation in groundwater. The distance from the source area to be investigated was established by calculating the potential extent of a plume based only on groundwater flow velocities. To accomplish this objective, commercially available technologies were combined and used to rapidly assess the source area and downgradient groundwater associated with the fuel discharge. The source of contamination that was investigated overlies glacial sand and gravel outwash deposits. Historical data suggest that from 1955 to 1970 as many as 1 to 6 million pi of aviation gasoline (AVGAS) were god at the study area. Although the remedial investigation (RI) for this study area indicated fuel-related groundwater contamination at the source area, fuel-related contamination was not detected in downgradient monitoring wells. Rapid horizontal groundwater velocities and the 24-year time span from the last reported spill farther suggest that a plume of contaminated groundwater could extend several thousand feet downgradient. The lack of contamination downgradient from the source suggests two possibilities: (1) monitoring wells installed during the RI did not intersect the plume or (2) fuel-related compounds had naturally degraded

  9. Rapid optical determination of β-lactamase and antibiotic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The absence of rapid tests evaluating antibiotic susceptibility results in the empirical prescription of antibiotics. This can lead to treatment failures due to escalating antibiotic resistance, and also furthers the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. This study reports a rapid optical method to detect β-lactamase and thereby assess activity of β-lactam antibiotics, which could provide an approach for targeted prescription of antibiotics. The methodology is centred on a fluorescence quenching based probe (β-LEAF – β-Lactamase Enzyme Activated Fluorophore) that mimics the structure of β-lactam antibiotics. Results The β-LEAF assay was performed for rapid determination of β-lactamase production and activity of β-lactam antibiotic (cefazolin) on a panel of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC strains and clinical isolates. Four of the clinical isolates were determined to be lactamase producers, with the capacity to inactivate cefazolin, out of the twenty-five isolates tested. These results were compared against gold standard methods, nitrocefin disk test for β-lactamase detection and disk diffusion for antibiotic susceptibility, showing results to be largely consistent. Furthermore, in the sub-set of β-lactamase producers, it was demonstrated and validated that multiple antibiotics (cefazolin, cefoxitin, cefepime) could be assessed simultaneously to predict the antibiotic that would be most active for a given bacterial isolate. Conclusions The study establishes the rapid β-LEAF assay for β-lactamase detection and prediction of antibiotic activity using S. aureus clinical isolates. Although the focus in the current study is β-lactamase-based resistance, the overall approach represents a broad diagnostic platform. In the long-term, these studies form the basis for the development of assays utilizing a broader variety of targets, pathogens and drugs. PMID:24708478

  10. Validation of rapid suicidality screening in epilepsy using the NDDIE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mula, Marco; McGonigal, Aileen; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; May, Theodor W; Labudda, Kirsten; Brandt, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Standard mortality ratio for suicide in patients with epilepsy is three times higher than in the general population, and such a risk remains high even after adjusting for clinical and socioeconomic factors. It is thus important to have suitable screening instruments and to implement care pathways for suicide prevention in every epilepsy center. The aim of this study is to validate the use of the Neurological Disorder Depression Inventory for Epilepsy (NDDIE) as a suicidality-screening instrument. The study sample included adult patients with epilepsy assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the NDDIE. A high suicidality risk according to the Suicidality Module of the MINI was considered the gold standard. Receiver operating characteristic analyses for NDDIE total and individual item scores were computed and subsequently compared using a nonparametric approach. The best possible cutoff was identified with the highest Youden index (J). Likelihood ratios were then computed, and specificity, sensitivity, positive, and negative predictive values calculated. The study sample consisted of 380 adult patients with epilepsy: 46.3% male; mean age was 39.4 ± 14.6; 76.7% had a diagnosis of focal epilepsy; mean age at onset of the epilepsy was 23.3 ± 17.5. According to the MINI, 74 patients (19.5%) fulfilled criteria for a major depressive episode and 19 (5%) presented a high suicidality risk. A score >2 (J = 0.751) for item 4 "I'd be better off dead" of the NDDIE displayed excellent psychometric properties with a good to excellent validity (area under the curve [AUC] 0.906; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.820-0.992; p < 0.001), sensitivity 84.21% (95% CI 60.4-96.6), specificity 90.86% (95% CI 87.4-93.6), likelihood ratio+ 9.21 (95% CI 6.3-13.5), likelihood ratio- 0.17 (95% CI 0.06-0.50). Item 4 of the NDDIE has shown to be an excellent suicidality screening instrument allowing the development of further care pathways for suicide prevention in

  11. Rapid optical determination of topological insulator nanoplate thickness and oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The stability of 2D antimony telluride (Sb2Te3 nanoplates in ambient conditions is elucidated. These materials exhibit an anisotropic oxidation mode, and CVD synthesized samples oxidize at a much faster rate than exfoliated samples investigated in previous studies. Optical measurement techniques are introduced to rapidly measure the oxidation modes and thickness of 2D materials. Auger characterization were conducted to confirm that oxygen replaces tellurium as opposed to antimony under ambient conditions. No surface morphology evolution was detected in AFM before and after exposure to air. These techniques were employed to determine the origin of the thickness dependent color change effect in Sb2Te3. It is concluded that this effect is a combination of refractive index change due to oxidation and Fresnel effects.

  12. Rapid microcantilever-thickness determination by optical interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, Andrew R; Capener, Matthew J; Elliott, Stephen R; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2014-01-01

    Silicon microcantilevers are widely used in scanning-probe microscopy and in cantilever-sensing applications. However, the cantilever thickness is not well controlled in conventional lithography and, since it is also difficult to measure, it is the most important undefined factor in mechanical variability. An accurate method to measure this parameter is thus essential. We demonstrate the capability to measure microcantilever thicknesses rapidly (>1 Hz) and accurately (±2 nm) by optical interferometry. This is achieved with standard microscopy equipment and so can be implemented as a standard technique in both research and in batch control for commercial microfabrication. In addition, we show how spatial variations in the thickness of individual microcantilevers can be mapped, which has applications in the precise mechanical calibration of cantilevers for force spectroscopy. (paper)

  13. Rapid Assessment of Contrast Sensitivity with Mobile Touch-screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of low-cost high-quality touch-screen displays in modern mobile devices has created opportunities for new approaches to routine visual measurements. Here we describe a novel method in which subjects use a finger swipe to indicate the transition from visible to invisible on a grating which is swept in both contrast and frequency. Because a single image can be swiped in about a second, it is practical to use a series of images to zoom in on particular ranges of contrast or frequency, both to increase the accuracy of the measurements and to obtain an estimate of the reliability of the subject. Sensitivities to chromatic and spatio-temporal modulations are easily measured using the same method. We will demonstrate a prototype for Apple Computer's iPad-iPod-iPhone family of devices, implemented using an open-source scripting environment known as QuIP (QUick Image Processing,

  14. Optical Whole-Genome Restriction Mapping as a Tool for Rapidly Distinguishing and Identifying Bacterial Contaminants in Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Article 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) Oct 2011 – Aug 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optical Whole-Genome Restriction Mapping as a Tool for Rapidly...multiple bacteria could be uniquely identified within mixtures. In the first set of experiments, three unique organisms ( Bacillus subtilis subsp. globigii...be useful in monitoring nosocomial outbreaks in neonatal and intensive care wards, or even as an initial screen for antibiotic resistant strains

  15. A rapid method for screening arrayed plasmid cDNA library by PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yingchun; Zhang Kaitai; Wu Dechang; Li Gang; Xiang Xiaoqiong

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To develop a PCR-based method for rapid and effective screening of arrayed plasmid cDNA library. Methods: The plasmid cDNA library was arrayed and screened by PCR with a particular set of primers. Results: Four positive clones were obtained through about one week. Conclusion: This method can be applied to screening not only normal cDNA clones, but also cDNA clones-containing small size fragments. This method offers significant advantages over traditional screening method in terms of sensitivity, specificity and efficiency

  16. Differential Rapid Screening of Phytochemicals by Leaf Spray Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thomas; Graham Cooks, R. [Univ. of Innsbruck, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2014-03-15

    Ambient ionization can be achieved by generating an electrospray directly from plant tissue ('leaf spray'). The resulting mass spectra are characteristic of ionizable phytochemicals in the plant material. By subtracting the leaf spray spectra recorded from the petals of two hibiscus species H. moscheutos and H. syriacus one gains rapid access to the metabolites that differ most in the two petals. One such compound was identified as the sambubioside of quercitin (or delphinidin) while others are known flavones. Major interest centered on a C{sub 19}H{sub 29}NO{sub 5} compound that occurs only in the large H. moscheutos bloom. Attempts were made to characterize this compound by mass spectrometry alone as a test of such an approach. This showed that the compound is an alkaloid, assigned to the polyhydroxylated pyrrolidine class, and bound via a C{sub 3} hydrocarbon unit to a monoterpene.

  17. Differential Rapid Screening of Phytochemicals by Leaf Spray Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Thomas; Graham Cooks, R.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient ionization can be achieved by generating an electrospray directly from plant tissue ('leaf spray'). The resulting mass spectra are characteristic of ionizable phytochemicals in the plant material. By subtracting the leaf spray spectra recorded from the petals of two hibiscus species H. moscheutos and H. syriacus one gains rapid access to the metabolites that differ most in the two petals. One such compound was identified as the sambubioside of quercitin (or delphinidin) while others are known flavones. Major interest centered on a C 19 H 29 NO 5 compound that occurs only in the large H. moscheutos bloom. Attempts were made to characterize this compound by mass spectrometry alone as a test of such an approach. This showed that the compound is an alkaloid, assigned to the polyhydroxylated pyrrolidine class, and bound via a C 3 hydrocarbon unit to a monoterpene

  18. ScreenCube: A 3D Printed System for Rapid and Cost-Effective Chemical Screening in Adult Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monstad-Rios, Adrian T; Watson, Claire J; Kwon, Ronald Y

    2018-02-01

    Phenotype-based small molecule screens in zebrafish embryos and larvae have been successful in accelerating pathway and therapeutic discovery for diverse biological processes. Yet, the application of chemical screens to adult physiologies has been relatively limited due to additional demands on cost, space, and labor associated with screens in adult animals. In this study, we present a 3D printed system and methods for intermittent drug dosing that enable rapid and cost-effective chemical administration in adult zebrafish. Using prefilled screening plates, the system enables dosing of 96 fish in ∼3 min, with a 10-fold reduction in drug quantity compared to that used in previous chemical screens in adult zebrafish. We characterize water quality kinetics during immersion in the system and use these kinetics to rationally design intermittent dosing regimens that result in 100% fish survival. As a demonstration of system fidelity, we show the potential to identify two known chemical inhibitors of adult tail fin regeneration, cyclopamine and dorsomorphin. By developing methods for rapid and cost-effective chemical administration in adult zebrafish, this study expands the potential for small molecule discovery in postembryonic models of development, disease, and regeneration.

  19. Rapid screening for anthocyanins in cane sugars using ESR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamaphat, Kheamrutai; Goodman, Bernard A; Limsuwan, Pichet; Smith, Siwaporn Meejoo

    2015-03-15

    Anthocyanin, which is soluble in water and released into sugar steam during extraction, was investigated in this study. The anthocyanin content in refined sugar, plantation white sugar, soft brown sugar and raw sugar was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, which was operated at room temperature, and compared with spectra from standard anthocyanin. The ESR spectra of red and violet anthocyanins was predominantly g ≈ 2.0055, which corresponded to an unpaired electron located in the pyrylium ring. Signals for Fe(III) and Mn(II), which naturally occur in plants, were found in raw sugar, soft brown sugar and standard anthocyanin but were absent from refined sugar and plantation white sugar due to the refining process. In addition, the ESR results were correlated with the apparent colour of the sugar, which was determined using the method of the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid screening for aluminum tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Daniel Giaveno

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant decrease in maize grain yield due to aluminum toxicity is considered to be one of the most important agricultural problems for tropical regions. Genetic improvement is a useful approach to increase maize yield in acid soils, but this requires a rapid and reliable method to discriminate between genotypes. In our work we investigated the feasibility of using hematoxylin staining (HS to detect Al-tolerant plants at the seedling stage. The original population along with two populations obtained after one cycle of divergent selection were evaluated by net root growth (NRG and HS after 7 days in nutrient solution. Results showed a negative correlation between NRG and HS in all populations, in which sensitive plants, characterized by low NRG, exhibited more intense staining than tolerant plants. These results indicate that HS is a useful procedure for selecting Al-tolerant maize seedlings.A importante diminuição nos rendimentos de milho causados pela toxidez produzida pelo alumínio é considerada um dos mais importantes problemas nas regiões tropicais. O melhoramento genético é uma metodologia útil para aumentar os rendimentos do milho em solos ácidos, requerendo um método rápido e seguro que permita diferenciar os diferentes genótipos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a possibilidade de utilizar a técnica da coloração com hematoxilina (HS na detecção de plântulas tolerantes ao alumínio. Duas populações obtidas de um ciclo de seleção divergente e a original, foram avaliadas depois de sete dias em solução nutritiva utilizando os parâmetros NRG (crescimento líquido da raiz principal e HS. Os resultados apresentaram uma correlação negativa entre NRG e HS em todas as populações devido ao fato de que as plântulas suscetíveis, caracterizadas por um baixo NRG, apresentaram uma coloração mais intensa do que as tolerantes. Nossos resultados permitem concluir que a técnica de coloração com hematoxilina

  1. Screen-printed fluorescent sensors for rapid and sensitive anthrax biomarker detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Inkyu; Oh, Wan-Kyu; Jang, Jyongsik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We fabricated flexible anthrax sensors with a simple screen-printing method. •The sensors selectively detected B. anthracis biomarker. •The sensors provide the visible alarm against anthrax attack. -- Abstract: Since the 2001 anthrax attacks, efforts have focused on the development of an anthrax detector with rapid response and high selectivity and sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate a fluorescence sensor for detecting anthrax biomarker with high sensitivity and selectivity using a screen-printing method. A lanthanide–ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid complex was printed on a flexible polyethersulfone film. Screen-printing deposition of fluorescent detecting moieties produced fluorescent patterns that acted as a visual alarm against anthrax

  2. Optical method for the screening of doping substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Shevtsova, J.; Patzelt, A.; Richter, H.; Gladkowa, N. D.; Gelikonov, V. M.; Gonchukov, S. A.; Sterry, W.; Blume-Peytavi, U.

    2008-12-01

    During the last years, an increased misuse of doping substances in sport has been observed. The action of doping substances characterized by the stimulation of blood flow and metabolic processes is also reflected in the hair structure. In the present study it was demonstrated that optical coherent tomography is well suited for the analysis of hair parameters influenced by doping. Analyzing 20 patients, systemically treated with steroids which also represent doping substances, it was found that in all cases a significant increase in the cross-section of the hairs could be detected. The results obtained in the study are not only important for the screening of doping substances but also for medical diagnostics and control of compliance of patients.

  3. Optical method for the screening of doping substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lademann, J; Patzelt, A; Richter, H; Sterry, W; Shevtsova, J; Gladkowa, N D; Gelikonov, V M; Gonchukov, S A; Blume-Peytavi, U

    2008-01-01

    During the last years, an increased misuse of doping substances in sport has been observed. The action of doping substances characterized by the stimulation of blood flow and metabolic processes is also reflected in the hair structure. In the present study it was demonstrated that optical coherent tomography is well suited for the analysis of hair parameters influenced by doping. Analyzing 20 patients, systemically treated with steroids which also represent doping substances, it was found that in all cases a significant increase in the cross-section of the hairs could be detected. The results obtained in the study are not only important for the screening of doping substances but also for medical diagnostics and control of compliance of patients

  4. Rapid in vivo screening method for the evaluation of new anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid in vivo screening method for the evaluation of new anti helicobacter ... Six to eight week-old mice pre-treated (7 days) with Amoxicillin/Metronidazole (25 ... These findings were used as a mouse model of Helicobacter pylori infection to ...

  5. Analytical workflow for rapid screening and purification of bioactives from venom proteomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otvos, R.A.; Heus, F.A.M.; Vonk, F.J.; Halff, J.; Bruynzeel, B.; Paliukhovich, I.; Smit, A.B.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Kool, J.

    2013-01-01

    Animal venoms are important sources for finding new pharmaceutical lead molecules. We used an analytical platform for initial rapid screening and identification of bioactive compounds from these venoms followed by fast and straightforward LC-MS only guided purification to obtain bioactives for

  6. Note: Non-invasive optical method for rapid determination of alignment degree of oriented nanofibrous layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokorny, M.; Rebicek, J. [R& D Department, Contipro Biotech s.r.o., 561 02 Dolni Dobrouc (Czech Republic); Klemes, J. [R& D Department, Contipro Pharma a.s., 561 02 Dolni Dobrouc (Czech Republic); Kotzianova, A. [R& D Department, Contipro Pharma a.s., 561 02 Dolni Dobrouc (Czech Republic); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, CZ-62500 Brno (Czech Republic); Velebny, V. [R& D Department, Contipro Biotech s.r.o., 561 02 Dolni Dobrouc (Czech Republic); R& D Department, Contipro Pharma a.s., 561 02 Dolni Dobrouc (Czech Republic)

    2015-10-15

    This paper presents a rapid non-destructive method that provides information on the anisotropic internal structure of nanofibrous layers. A laser beam of a wavelength of 632.8 nm is directed at and passes through a nanofibrous layer prepared by electrostatic spinning. Information about the structural arrangement of nanofibers in the layer is directly visible in the form of a diffraction image formed on a projection screen or obtained from measured intensities of the laser beam passing through the sample which are determined by the dependency of the angle of the main direction of polarization of the laser beam on the axis of alignment of nanofibers in the sample. Both optical methods were verified on Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibrous layers (fiber diameter of 470 nm) with random, single-axis aligned and crossed structures. The obtained results match the results of commonly used methods which apply the analysis of electron microscope images. The presented simple method not only allows samples to be analysed much more rapidly and without damaging them but it also makes possible the analysis of much larger areas, up to several square millimetres, at the same time.

  7. Note: Non-invasive optical method for rapid determination of alignment degree of oriented nanofibrous layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokorny, M.; Rebicek, J.; Klemes, J.; Kotzianova, A.; Velebny, V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a rapid non-destructive method that provides information on the anisotropic internal structure of nanofibrous layers. A laser beam of a wavelength of 632.8 nm is directed at and passes through a nanofibrous layer prepared by electrostatic spinning. Information about the structural arrangement of nanofibers in the layer is directly visible in the form of a diffraction image formed on a projection screen or obtained from measured intensities of the laser beam passing through the sample which are determined by the dependency of the angle of the main direction of polarization of the laser beam on the axis of alignment of nanofibers in the sample. Both optical methods were verified on Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibrous layers (fiber diameter of 470 nm) with random, single-axis aligned and crossed structures. The obtained results match the results of commonly used methods which apply the analysis of electron microscope images. The presented simple method not only allows samples to be analysed much more rapidly and without damaging them but it also makes possible the analysis of much larger areas, up to several square millimetres, at the same time

  8. Rapidly reconfigurable high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation in heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shaoqi; Qin, Chuan; Shang, Kuanping; Pathak, Shibnath; Lai, Weicheng; Guan, Binbin; Clements, Matthew; Su, Tiehui; Liu, Guangyao; Lu, Hongbo; Scott, Ryan P; Ben Yoo, S J

    2017-04-17

    This paper demonstrates rapidly reconfigurable, high-fidelity optical arbitrary waveform generation (OAWG) in a heterogeneous photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The heterogeneous PIC combines advantages of high-speed indium phosphide (InP) modulators and low-loss, high-contrast silicon nitride (Si3N4) arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) so that high-fidelity optical waveform syntheses with rapid waveform updates are possible. The generated optical waveforms spanned a 160 GHz spectral bandwidth starting from an optical frequency comb consisting of eight comb lines separated by 20 GHz channel spacing. The Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) values of the generated waveforms were approximately 16.4%. The OAWG module can rapidly and arbitrarily reconfigure waveforms upon every pulse arriving at 2 ns repetition time. The result of this work indicates the feasibility of truly dynamic optical arbitrary waveform generation where the reconfiguration rate or the modulator bandwidth must exceed the channel spacing of the AWG and the optical frequency comb.

  9. Comparison of a rational vs. high throughput approach for rapid salt screening and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collman, Benjamin M; Miller, Jonathan M; Seadeek, Christopher; Stambek, Julie A; Blackburn, Anthony C

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, high throughput (HT) screening has become the most widely used approach for early phase salt screening and selection in a drug discovery/development setting. The purpose of this study was to compare a rational approach for salt screening and selection to those results previously generated using a HT approach. The rational approach involved a much smaller number of initial trials (one salt synthesis attempt per counterion) that were selected based on a few strategic solubility determinations of the free form combined with a theoretical analysis of the ideal solvent solubility conditions for salt formation. Salt screening results for sertraline, tamoxifen, and trazodone using the rational approach were compared to those previously generated by HT screening. The rational approach produced similar results to HT screening, including identification of the commercially chosen salt forms, but with a fraction of the crystallization attempts. Moreover, the rational approach provided enough solid from the very initial crystallization of a salt for more thorough and reliable solid-state characterization and thus rapid decision-making. The crystallization techniques used in the rational approach mimic larger-scale process crystallization, allowing smoother technical transfer of the selected salt to the process chemist.

  10. Rapid 3D µ-printing of polymer optical whispering-gallery mode resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jushuai; Guo, Xin; Zhang, A Ping; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2015-11-16

    A novel microfabrication method for rapid printing of polymer optical whispering-gallery mode (WGM) resonators is presented. A 3D micro-printing technology based on high-speed optical spatial modulator (SLM) and high-power UV light source is developed to fabricate suspended-disk WGM resonator array using SU-8 photoresist. The optical spectral responses of the fabricated polymer WGM resonators were measured with a biconically tapered optical fiber. Experimental results reveal that the demonstrated method is very flexible and time-saving for rapid fabrication of complex polymer WGM resonators.

  11. Rapid screening of pharmaceutical drugs using thermal desorption – SALDI mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechnikov, A A; Kubasov, A E; Borodkov, A S; Georgieva, V B; Nikiforov, S M; Simanovsky, Ya O; Alimpiev, S S

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach to the rapid screening of pharmaceutical drugs by surface assisted laser desorption-ionization (SALDI) mass spectrometry with the rotating ball interface coupled with temperature programmed thermal desorption has been developed. Analytes were thermally desorbed and deposited onto the surface of amorphous silicon substrate attached to the rotating ball. The ball was rotated and the deposited analytes were analyzed using SALDI. The effectiveness of coupling SALDI mass spectrometry with thermal desorption was evaluated by the direct and rapid analysis of tablets containing lidocaine, diphenhydramine and propranolol without any sample pretreatment. The overall duration of the screening procedure was 30÷40 sec. Real urine samples were studied for drug analysis. It is shown that with simple preparation steps, urine samples can be quantitatively analyzed using the proposed technique with the detection limits in the range of 0.2÷0.5 ng/ml.

  12. Rapid Recombination Mapping for High-Throughput Genetic Screens in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Sapiro, Anne L.; Ihry, Robert J.; Buhr, Derek L.; Konieczko, Kevin M.; Ives, Sarah M.; Engstrom, Anna K.; Wleklinski, Nicholas P.; Kopish, Kristin J.; Bashirullah, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Mutagenesis screens are a staple of classical genetics. Chemical-induced mutations, however, are often difficult and time-consuming to identify. Here, we report that recombination analysis with pairs of dominant visible markers provides a rapid and reliable strategy to map mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. This method requires only two generations and a total of six crosses in vials to estimate the genetic map position of the responsible lesion with high accuracy. This genetic map positio...

  13. A novel screening method based on menadione mediated rapid reduction of tetrazolium salt for testing of anti-mycobacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upasana; Akhtar, Shamim; Mishra, Abhishek; Sarkar, Dhiman

    2011-02-01

    A microplate-based rapid, inexpensive and robust technique is developed by using tetrazolium salt 2,3-bis[2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) and menadione to determine the viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium smegmatis bacilli in microplate format. In general, XTT reduction is an extremely slow process which takes almost 24 h to produce a detectable signal. Menadione could drastically induce this reduction to an almost equal extent within a few minutes in a dose dependent manner. The reduction of XTT is directly proportional to the cell concentration in the presence of menadione. The standardized protocol used 200 μM of XTT and 60 μM of menadione in 250 μl of cell suspension grown either in aerobic or anaerobic conditions. The cell suspension of M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis were incubated for 40 min before reading the optical density at 470 nm whereas M. smegmatis was incubated for 20 min. Calculated Signal/Noise (S/N) ratios obtained by applying this protocol were 5.4, 6.4 and 9.4 using M. bovis BCG, M. tuberculosis and M. smegmatis respectively. The calculated Z' factors were >0.8 for all mycobacterium bacilli indicating the robustness of the XTT Reduction Menadione Assay (XRMA) for rapid screening of inhibitors. The assay protocol was validated by applying 10 standard anti-tubercular agents on M. tuberculosis, M. bovis BCG and M. smegmatis. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values were found to be similar to reported values from Colony Forming Unit (CFU) and REMA (resazurin microplate assay) assays. Altogether, XRMA is providing a novel anti-tubercular screening protocol which could be useful in high throughput screening programs against different physiological stages of the bacilli. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. High-Throughput and Rapid Screening of Low-Mass Hazardous Compounds in Complex Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Qian; Gao, Yan; Wang, Yawei; Guo, Liangqia; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-07-07

    Rapid screening and identification of hazardous chemicals in complex samples is of extreme importance for public safety and environmental health studies. In this work, we report a new method for high-throughput, sensitive, and rapid screening of low-mass hazardous compounds in complex media without complicated sample preparation procedures. This method is achieved based on size-selective enrichment on ordered mesoporous carbon followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis with graphene as a matrix. The ordered mesoporous carbon CMK-8 can exclude interferences from large molecules in complex samples (e.g., human serum, urine, and environmental water samples) and efficiently enrich a wide variety of low-mass hazardous compounds. The method can work at very low concentrations down to part per trillion (ppt) levels, and it is much faster and more facile than conventional methods. It was successfully applied to rapidly screen and identify unknown toxic substances such as perfluorochemicals in human serum samples from athletes and workers. Therefore, this method not only can sensitively detect target compounds but also can identify unknown hazardous compounds in complex media.

  15. Improving the screening of blood donors with syphilis rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkodie, F.; Hassall, O.; Owusu-Dabo, E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Syphilis testing conventionally relies on a combination of non-treponemal and treponemal tests. The primary objective of this study was to describe the positive predictive value (PPV) of a screening algorithm in a combination of a treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma...

  16. Rapid screening for human-pathogenic Mucorales using rolling circle amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, S; Najafzadeh, M J; de Hoog, G S

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis has emerged as a relatively common severe mycosis in patients with haematological and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Source of transmission is from unidentified sources in the environment. Early diagnosis of infection and its source of contamination are paramount for rapid and appropriate therapy. In this study, rolling circle amplification (RCA) is introduced as a sensitive, specific and reproducible isothermal DNA amplification technique for rapid molecular identification of six of the most virulent species (Rhizopus microsporus, R. arrhizus var. arrhizus, R. arrhizus var. delemar, Mucor irregularis, Mucor circinelloides, Lichtheimia ramosa, Lichtheimia corymbifera). DNAs of target species were successfully amplified, with no cross reactivity between species. RCA can be considered as a rapid detection method with high specificity and sensitivity, suitable for large screening. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. A rapid colorimetric screening method for vanillic acid and vanillin-producing bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzuri, N A; Abd-Aziz, S; Rahim, R A; Phang, L Y; Alitheen, N B; Maeda, T

    2014-04-01

    To isolate a bacterial strain capable of biotransforming ferulic acid, a major component of lignin, into vanillin and vanillic acid by a rapid colorimetric screening method. For the production of vanillin, a natural aroma compound, we attempted to isolate a potential strain using a simple screening method based on pH change resulting from the degradation of ferulic acid. The strain Pseudomonas sp. AZ10 UPM exhibited a significant result because of colour changes observed on the assay plate on day 1 with a high intensity of yellow colour. The biotransformation of ferulic acid into vanillic acid by the AZ10 strain provided the yield (Yp/s ) and productivity (Pr ) of 1·08 mg mg(-1) and 53·1 mg L(-1) h(-1) , respectively. In fact, new investigations regarding lignin degradation revealed that the strain was not able to produce vanillin and vanillic acid directly from lignin; however, partially digested lignin by mixed enzymatic treatment allowed the strain to produce 30·7 mg l(-1) and 1·94 mg l(-1) of vanillic acid and biovanillin, respectively. (i) The rapid colorimetric screening method allowed the isolation of a biovanillin producer using ferulic acid as the sole carbon source. (ii) Enzymatic treatment partially digested lignin, which could then be utilized by the strain to produce biovanillin and vanillic acid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the use of a rapid colorimetric screening method for bacterial strains producing vanillin and vanillic acid from ferulic acid. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Rapid screening for targeted genetic variants via high-resolution melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Allison B; Resnick, Molly; Petrides, Athena K; Clarke, William A; Marzinke, Mark A

    2017-03-01

    Current methods for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with aberrant drug-metabolizing enzyme function are hindered by long turnaround times and specialized techniques and instrumentation. In this study, we describe the development and validation of a high-resolution melting (HRM) curve assay for the rapid screening of variant genotypes for targeted genetic polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A5. Sequence-specific primers were custom-designed to flank nine SNPs within the genetic regions of aforementioned drug metabolizing enzymes. PCR amplification was performed followed by amplicon denaturation by precise temperature ramping in order to distinguish genotypes by melting temperature (Tm). A standardized software algorithm was used to assign amplicons as 'reference' or 'variant' as compared to duplicate reference sequence DNA controls for each SNP. Intra-assay (n=5) precision of Tms for all SNPs was ≤0.19%, while inter-assay (n=20) precision ranged from 0.04% to 0.21%. When compared to a reference method of Sanger sequencing, the HRM assay produced no false negative results, and overcall frequency ranged from 0% to 26%, depending on the SNP. Furthermore, HRM genotyping displayed accuracy over input DNA concentrations ranging from 10 to 200 ng/μL. The presented assay provides a rapid method for the screening for genetic variants in targeted CYP450 regions with a result of 'reference' or 'variant' available within 2 h from receipt of extracted DNA. The method can serve as a screening approach to rapidly identify individuals with variant sequences who should be further investigated by reflexed confirmatory testing for aberrant cytochrome P450 enzymatic activity. Rapid knowledge of variant status may aid in the avoidance of adverse clinical events by allowing for dosing of normal metabolizer patients immediately while identifying the need to wait for confirmatory testing in those patients who are

  19. Rapid recombination mapping for high-throughput genetic screens in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiro, Anne L; Ihry, Robert J; Buhr, Derek L; Konieczko, Kevin M; Ives, Sarah M; Engstrom, Anna K; Wleklinski, Nicholas P; Kopish, Kristin J; Bashirullah, Arash

    2013-12-09

    Mutagenesis screens are a staple of classical genetics. Chemical-induced mutations, however, are often difficult and time-consuming to identify. Here, we report that recombination analysis with pairs of dominant visible markers provides a rapid and reliable strategy to map mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. This method requires only two generations and a total of six crosses in vials to estimate the genetic map position of the responsible lesion with high accuracy. This genetic map position can then be reliably used to identify the mutated gene through complementation testing with an average of nine deficiencies and Sanger sequencing. We have used this approach to successfully map a collection of mutations from an ethyl methanesulfonate-based mutagenesis screen on the third chromosome. We propose that this method also may be used in conjunction with whole-genome sequencing, particularly when multiple independent alleles of the mutated locus are not available. By facilitating the rapid identification of mutated genes, our mapping strategy removes a primary obstacle to the widespread use of powerful chemical mutagenesis screens to understand fundamental biological phenomena.

  20. Rapid determination of Faraday rotation in optical glasses by means of secondary Faraday modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronie, M; Elisa, M; Sava, B A; Boroica, L; Valeanu, M; Kuncser, V

    2015-05-01

    A rapid high sensitive method for determining the Faraday rotation of optical glasses is proposed. Starting from an experimental setup based on a Faraday rod coupled to a lock-in amplifier in the detection chain, two methodologies were developed for providing reliable results on samples presenting low and large Faraday rotations. The proposed methodologies were critically discussed and compared, via results obtained in transmission geometry, on a new series of aluminophosphate glasses with or without rare-earth doping ions. An example on how the method can be used for a rapid examination of the optical homogeneity of the sample with respect to magneto-optical effects is also provided.

  1. Optical characterization of display screens by speckle patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, José J.; Rubiño, Manuel

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, flat-panel display (FPD) technology has undergone great development, and now FPDs appear in many devices. A significant element in FPD manufacturing is the display front surface. Manufacturers sell FPDs with different types of front surfaces, which can be matte (also called anti-glare) or glossy screens. Users who prefer glossy screens consider these displays to show more vivid colors compared with matte-screen displays. However, on the glossy screens, external light sources may cause unpleasant reflections that can be reduced by a matte treatment in the front surface. In this work, we present a method to characterize FPD screens using laser-speckle patterns. We characterize three FPDs: a Samsung XL2370 LCD monitor of 23 in. with matte screen, a Toshiba Satellite A100 LCD laptop of 15.4 in. with glossy screen, and a Grammata Papyre 6.1 electronic book reader of 6 in. with ePaper screen (E-ink technology). The results show great differences in speckle-contrast values for the three screens characterized and, therefore, this work shows the feasibility of this method for characterizing and comparing FPDs that have different types of front surfaces.

  2. Development of a New Decision Tree to Rapidly Screen Chemical Estrogenic Activities of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Weiying; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Lin, Zhifen; Kong, Deyang

    2014-02-01

    During the last past decades, there is an increasing number of studies about estrogenic activities of the environmental pollutants on amphibians and many determination methods have been proposed. However, these determination methods are time-consuming and expensive, and a rapid and simple method to screen and test the chemicals for estrogenic activities to amphibians is therefore imperative. Herein is proposed a new decision tree formulated not only with physicochemical parameters but also a biological parameter that was successfully used to screen estrogenic activities of the chemicals on amphibians. The biological parameter, CDOCKER interaction energy (Ebinding ) between chemicals and the target proteins was calculated based on the method of molecular docking, and it was used to revise the decision tree formulated by Hong only with physicochemical parameters for screening estrogenic activity of chemicals in rat. According to the correlation between Ebinding of rat and Xenopus laevis, a new decision tree for estrogenic activities in Xenopus laevis is finally proposed. Then it was validated by using the randomly 8 chemicals which can be frequently exposed to Xenopus laevis, and the agreement between the results from the new decision tree and the ones from experiments is generally satisfactory. Consequently, the new decision tree can be used to screen the estrogenic activities of the chemicals, and combinational use of the Ebinding and classical physicochemical parameters can greatly improves Hong's decision tree. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Study on a noninvasive method for rapid screening Human Serum albumin injectables by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human serum albumin (HSA injectable product is a severely afflicted area on drug safety due to its high price and restricted supply. Raman spectroscopy performances high specificity on HSA detection and it is even possible to determine HSA injectable products noninvasively. In this study, we developed a noninvasive rapid screening method for of HSA injectable products by using portable Raman spectrometer. Qualitative models were established by using principal component analysis combined with classical least squares (PCA-CLS algorithm, while quantitative model was established by using partial least squares (PLS algorithm. Model transfer in different instruments of both the same and different apparatus modules was further discussed in this paper. A total of 34 HSA injectable samples collected from markets were used for verification. The identification results showed 100% accuracy and the predicted concentrations of those identified as true HSA were consistent with their labeled concentrations. The quantitative results also indicated that model transfer was excellent in the same apparatus modules of Raman spectrometer at all concentration levels, and still good enough in the different apparatus modules although the relative standard deviation (RSD value showed a little increasing trend at low HSA concentration level. In conclusion, the method was proved to be feasible and efficient for screening HSA injections, especially on its screening speed and the consideration of glass containers. Moreover, with inspiring results on the model transfer, the method could be used as a universal screening mean to different Raman instruments.

  4. Optical tools for high-throughput screening of abrasion resistance of combinatorial libraries of organic coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Chisholm, Bret J.; Olson, Daniel R.; Brennan, Michael J.; Molaison, Chris A.

    2002-02-01

    Design, validation, and implementation of an optical spectroscopic system for high-throughput analysis of combinatorially developed protective organic coatings are reported. Our approach replaces labor-intensive coating evaluation steps with an automated system that rapidly analyzes 8x6 arrays of coating elements that are deposited on a plastic substrate. Each coating element of the library is 10 mm in diameter and 2 to 5 micrometers thick. Performance of coatings is evaluated with respect to their resistance to wear abrasion because this parameter is one of the primary considerations in end-use applications. Upon testing, the organic coatings undergo changes that are impossible to quantitatively predict using existing knowledge. Coatings are abraded using industry-accepted abrasion test methods at single-or multiple-abrasion conditions, followed by high- throughput analysis of abrasion-induced light scatter. The developed automated system is optimized for the analysis of diffusively scattered light that corresponds to 0 to 30% haze. System precision of 0.1 to 2.5% relative standard deviation provides capability for the reliable ranking of coatings performance. While the system was implemented for high-throughput screening of combinatorially developed organic protective coatings for automotive applications, it can be applied to a variety of other applications where materials ranking can be achieved using optical spectroscopic tools.

  5. A rapid screening with direct sequencing from blood samples for the diagnosis of Leigh syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Shimbo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large numbers of genes are responsible for Leigh syndrome (LS, making genetic confirmation of LS difficult. We screened our patients with LS using a limited set of 21 primers encompassing the frequently reported gene for the respiratory chain complexes I (ND1–ND6, and ND4L, IV(SURF1, and V(ATP6 and the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α-subunit. Of 18 LS patients, we identified mutations in 11 patients, including 7 in mDNA (two with ATP6, 4 in nuclear (three with SURF1. Overall, we identified mutations in 61% of LS patients (11/18 individuals in this cohort. Sanger sequencing with our limited set of primers allowed us a rapid genetic confirmation of more than half of the LS patients and it appears to be efficient as a primary genetic screening in this cohort.

  6. Investigating rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in Parkinson's disease using the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolitho, Samuel J; Naismith, Sharon L; Terpening, Zoe; Grunstein, Ron R; Melehan, Kerri; Yee, Brendon J; Coeytaux, Alessandra; Gilat, Moran; Lewis, Simon J G

    2014-05-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is frequently observed in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Accurate diagnosis is essential for managing this condition. Furthermore, the emergence of idiopathic RBD in later life can represent a premotor feature, heralding the development of PD. Reliable, accurate methods for identifying RBD may offer a window for early intervention. This study sought to identify whether the RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ) and three questionnaires focused on dream enactment were able to correctly identify patients with REM without atonia (RWA), the neurophysiological hallmark of RBD. Forty-six patients with PD underwent neurological and sleep assessment in addition to completing the RBDSQ, the RBD single question (RBD1Q), and the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ). The REM atonia index was derived for all participants as an objective measure of RWA. Patients identified to be RBD positive on the RBDSQ did not show increased RWA on polysomnography (80% sensitivity and 55% specificity). However, patients positive for RBD on questionnaires specific to dream enactment correctly identified higher degrees of RWA and improved the diagnostic accuracy of these questionnaires. This study suggests that the RBDSQ does not accurately identify RWA, essential for diagnosing RBD in PD. Furthermore, the results suggest that self-report measures of RBD need to focus questions on dream enactment behavior to better identify RWA and RBD. Further studies are needed to develop accurate determination and quantification of RWA in RBD to improve management of patients with PD in the future. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Risk stratification and rapid geriatric screening in an emergency department - a quasi-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Chik Loon; Siu, Vivan Wing Yin; Ang, Hou; Phuah, Madeline Wei Ling; Ooi, Chee Kheong

    2014-08-30

    To determine if risk stratification followed by rapid geriatric screening in an emergency department (ED) reduced functional decline, ED reattendance and hospitalisation. This was a quasi-randomised controlled trial. Patients were randomised by the last digit of their national registration identity card (NRIC). Odd number controls received standard ED care; even number patients received geriatric screening, followed by intervention and/or onward referrals. Patients were followed up for 12 months. There were 500 and 280 patients in the control and intervention groups. The intervention group had higher Triage Risk Screening Tool (TRST) scores (34.3% vs 25.4% TRST ≥3, p = 0.01) and lower baseline Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) scores (22.84 vs 24.18, p fall risk (65.0%), vision (61.4%), and footwear (58.2%). 28.2% were referred to a geriatric clinic and 11.8% were admitted. 425 (85.0%) controls and 234 (83.6%) in the intervention group completed their follow-up. After adjusting for TRST and baseline IADL, the intervention group had significant preservation in function (Basic ADL -0.99 vs -0.24, p geriatric screening at the request of the ED doctor. A major limitation was that a large proportion of patients who were randomized to the intervention group either refused (18.8%) or left the ED before being approached (32.0%). These two groups were not followed up, and hence were excluded in our analysis. Risk stratification and focused geriatric screening in ED resulted in significant preservation of patients' function at 12 months. National Healthcare Group (NHG) Domain Specific Review Board (DSRB) C/09/023. Registered 5th March 2009.

  8. Influence of screening on longitudinal-optical phonon scattering in quantum cascade lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezhov, Ivan; Jirauschek, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the influence of screening on electron-longitudinal optical phonon scattering in quantum cascade lasers. By employing ensemble Monte Carlo simulations, an advanced screening model based on the random-phase approximation is compared to the more elementary Thomas-Fermi and Debye models. For mid-infrared structures, and to a lesser extent also for terahertz designs, the inclusion of screening is shown to affect the simulated current and optical output power. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that by using the electron temperature rather than the lattice temperature, the Debye model can be significantly improved

  9. Rapid thyroid dysfunction screening based on serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering and multivariate statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dayong; Lü, Guodong; Zhai, Zhengang; Du, Guoli; Mo, Jiaqing; Lü, Xiaoyi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering and multivariate statistical analysis are used to investigate a rapid screening technique for thyroid function diseases. At present, the detection of thyroid function has become increasingly important, and it is urgently necessary to develop a rapid and portable method for the detection of thyroid function. Our experimental results show that, by using the Silmeco-based enhanced Raman signal, the signal strength greatly increases and the characteristic peak appears obviously. It is also observed that the Raman spectra of normal and anomalous thyroid function human serum are significantly different. Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to diagnose thyroid dysfunction, and the diagnostic accuracy was 87.4%. The use of serum surface-enhanced Raman scattering technology combined with PCA-LDA shows good diagnostic performance for the rapid detection of thyroid function. By means of Raman technology, it is expected that a portable device for the rapid detection of thyroid function will be developed.

  10. Rapid screening for entry inhibitors of highly pathogenic viruses under low-level biocontainment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Talekar

    Full Text Available Emerging viruses including Nipah, Hendra, Lujo, and Junin viruses have enormous potential to spread rapidly. Nipah virus, after emerging as a zoonosis, has also evolved the capacity for human-to-human transmission. Most of the diseases caused by these pathogens are untreatable and require high biocontainment conditions. Universal methods for rapidly identifying and screening candidate antivirals are urgently needed. We have developed a modular antiviral platform strategy that relies on simple bioinformatic and genetic information about each pathogen. Central to this platform is the use of envelope glycoprotein cDNAs to establish multi-cycle replication systems under BSL2 conditions for viral pathogens that normally require BSL3 and BSL4 facilities. We generated monoclonal antibodies against Nipah G by cDNA immunization in rats, and we showed that these antibodies neutralize both Nipah and Hendra live viruses. We then used these effective Henipavirus inhibitors to validate our screening strategy. Our proposed strategy should contribute to the response capability for emerging infectious diseases, providing a way to initiate antiviral development immediately upon identifying novel viruses.

  11. Implementation of broad screening with Ebola rapid diagnostic tests in Forécariah, Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantz Jean Louis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory-enhanced surveillance is critical for rapidly detecting the potential re-emergence of Ebola virus disease. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for Ebola antigens could expand diagnostic capacity for Ebola virus disease. Objectives: The Guinean National Coordination for Ebola Response conducted a pilot implementation to determine the feasibility of broad screening of patients and corpses with the OraQuick® Ebola RDT. Methods: The implementation team developed protocols and trained healthcare workers to screen patients and corpses in Forécariah prefecture, Guinea, from 15 October to 30 November 2015. Data collected included number of consultations, number of fevers reported or measured, number of tests performed for patients or corpses and results of confirmatory RT-PCR testing. Data on malaria RDT results were collected for comparison. Feedback from Ebola RDT users was collected informally during supervision visits and forums. Results: There were 3738 consultations at the 15 selected healthcare facilities; 74.6% of consultations were for febrile illness. Among 2787 eligible febrile patients, 2633 were tested for malaria and 1628 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were performed. A total of 322 OraQuick® Ebola RDTs were conducted on corpses. All Ebola tests on eligible patients were negative. Conclusions: Access to Ebola testing was expanded by the implementation of RDTs in an emergency situation. Feedback from Ebola RDT users and lessons learned will contribute to improving quality for RDT expansion.

  12. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-09

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A rapid screening-level method to optimize location of infiltration ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennemore, G G; Davis, A; Goss, L; Warrick, A W

    2001-01-01

    A rapid-screening technique was developed to identify lithologies that best disperse artificial recharge via surface infiltration and minimize effects on ground water chemistry. The technique prospectively evaluates basin infiltration rates and water chemistry influences by integrating geotechnical, hydraulic, and water quality data with column test data and numerical modeling. The technique was validated using field data collected from surface infiltration basins designed to recharge ground water pumped from the Pipeline pit gold mine in Nevada. Observed recharge rates at these infiltration sites correlated most significantly with depth to groundwater, with basins in coarse-grained lithologies performing better (0.45 to 0.85 m/day) than those with fine-grained layers ( 2000 mg/L) than coarse-grained soils (infiltration basins for a variety of lithologies. Sites for infiltration basins can be rapidly screened to include areas with greatest depth to groundwater and in coarsest alluvial sediments, and impact to ground water chemistry can be reliably predicted using computer modeling and column test results.

  14. The DNA 'comet assay' as a rapid screening technique to control irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerda, H.; Delincee, H.; Haine, H.; Rupp, H.

    1997-01-01

    The exposure of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests, and to extend shelf-life, thereby contributing to a safer and more plentiful food supply. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labelled as such, and to enforce labelling, analytical methods to detect the irradiation treatment in the food product itself are desirable. In particular, there is a need for simple and rapid screening methods for the control of irradiated food. The DNA comet assay offers great potential as a rapid tool to detect whether a wide variety of foodstuffs have been radiation processed. In order to simplify the test, the agarose single-layer set-up has been chosen, using a neutral protocol. Interlaboratory blind trials have been successfully carried out with a number of food products, both of animal and plant origin. This paper presents an overview of the hitherto obtained results and in addition the results of an intercomparison test with seeds, dried fruits and spices are described. In this intercomparison, an identification rate of 95% was achieved. Thus, using this novel technique, an effective screening of radiation-induced DNA fragmentation is obtained. Since other food treatments also may cause DNA fragmentation, samples with fragmented DNA suspected to have been irradiated should be analyzed by other validated methods for irradiated food, if such treatments which damage DNA cannot be excluded

  15. Rapid and prodium iodide-compatible optical clearing method for brain tissue based on sugar/sugar-alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Wang, Jianru; Feng, Wei; Xu, Jianyi; Zhu, Jingtan; Yao, Yingtao; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2016-08-01

    The developed optical clearing methods show great potential for imaging of large-volume tissues, but these methods present some nonnegligible limitations such as complexity of implementation and long incubation times. In this study, we tried to screen out rapid optical clearing agents by means of molecular dynamical simulation and experimental demonstration. According to the optical clearing potential of sugar and sugar-alcohol, we further evaluated the improvement in the optical clearing efficacy of mouse brain samples, imaging depth, fluorescence preservation, and linear deformation. The results showed that drops of sorbitol, sucrose, and fructose could quickly make the mouse brain sample transparent within 1 to 2 min, and induce about threefold enhancement in imaging depth. The former two could evidently enhance the fluorescence intensity of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and prodium iodide (PI) nuclear dye. Fructose could significantly increase the fluorescence intensity of PI, but slightly decrease the fluorescence intensity of GFP. Even though the three agents caused some shrinkage in samples, the contraction in horizontal and longitudinal directions are almost the same.

  16. Rapid directed evolution of stabilized proteins with cellular high-throughput encapsulation solubilization and screening (CHESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, K J; Scott, D J

    2015-03-01

    Directed evolution is a powerful method for engineering proteins towards user-defined goals and has been used to generate novel proteins for industrial processes, biological research and drug discovery. Typical directed evolution techniques include cellular display, phage display, ribosome display and water-in-oil compartmentalization, all of which physically link individual members of diverse gene libraries to their translated proteins. This allows the screening or selection for a desired protein function and subsequent isolation of the encoding gene from diverse populations. For biotechnological and industrial applications there is a need to engineer proteins that are functional under conditions that are not compatible with these techniques, such as high temperatures and harsh detergents. Cellular High-throughput Encapsulation Solubilization and Screening (CHESS), is a directed evolution method originally developed to engineer detergent-stable G proteins-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for structural biology. With CHESS, library-transformed bacterial cells are encapsulated in detergent-resistant polymers to form capsules, which serve to contain mutant genes and their encoded proteins upon detergent mediated solubilization of cell membranes. Populations of capsules can be screened like single cells to enable rapid isolation of genes encoding detergent-stable protein mutants. To demonstrate the general applicability of CHESS to other proteins, we have characterized the stability and permeability of CHESS microcapsules and employed CHESS to generate thermostable, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resistant green fluorescent protein (GFP) mutants, the first soluble proteins to be engineered using CHESS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly eDatukishvili

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  18. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  19. A rapid in vitro screening system for the identification and evaluation of anticancer drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, J.W.; Collins, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    We report the development of an in vitro screening system that can be used to identify new anticancer drugs that are specifically cytotoxic for dividing cells. The screening system takes advantage of the potential of many cell lines, including tumor cells, to stop dividing when they are plated at high cell density. The cytotoxic effects of anticancer drugs on dividing (i.e., cells plated at low cell density) and nondividing cells (i.e., cells plated at high cell density) is measured by the incorporation of 51Cr. This in vitro system was evaluated by measuring the cytotoxic effects of the anticancer drugs cisplatin, thiotepa, doxorubicin, methotrexate, and vinblastine on the cell lines B/C-N, ME-180, and MCF-7. In this in vitro system the concentrations of the anticancer drugs that produced significant cytotoxicity on only dividing cells are similar to the concentrations that are used clinically. The fact that this in vitro system is rapid, simple, applicable to many cell types, and able to predict effective concentrations of anticancer drugs should make it useful for the screening of new anticancer drugs and for the design of preclinical studies

  20. Rapid Screening for α-Glucosidase Inhibitors from Gymnema sylvestre by Affinity Ultrafiltration–HPLC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingquan Guo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae has been known to posses potential anti-diabetic activity, and the gymnemic acids were reported as the main bioactive components in this plant species. However, the specific components responsible for the hypoglycemic effect still remain unknown. In the present study, the in vitro study revealed that the extract of G. sylvestre exhibited significant inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase with IC50 at 68.70 ± 1.22 μg/mL compared to acarbose (positive control at 59.03 ± 2.30 μg/mL, which further indicated the potential anti-diabetic activity. To this end, a method based on affinity ultrafiltration coupled with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UF-HPLC-MS was established to rapidly screen and identify the α-glucosidase inhibitors from G. sylvestre. In this way, 9 compounds with higher enrichment factors (EFs were identified according to their MS/MS spectra. Finally, the structure-activity relationships revealed that glycosylation could decrease the potential antisweet activity of sapogenins, and other components except gymnemic acids in G. sylvestre could also be good α-glucosidase inhibitors due to their synergistic effects. Taken together, the proposed method combing α-glucosidase and UF-HPLC-MS presents high efficiency for rapidly screening and identifying potential inhibitors of α-glucosidase from complex natural products, and could be further explored as a valuable high-throughput screening (HTS platform in the early anti-diabetic drug discovery stage.

  1. Newborn Bilirubin Screening for Preventing Severe Hyperbilirubinemia and Bilirubin Encephalopathy: A Rapid Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Kalpana; Locke, Tiffany; Biringer, Anne; Booth, Allyson; Darling, Elizabeth K; Dougan, Shelley; Harrison, Jane; Hill, Stephen; Johnson, Ana; Makin, Susan; Potter, Beth; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry; Little, Julian

    2017-01-01

    According to the 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics guideline on the management of hyperbilirubinemia, every newborn should be assessed for the risk of developing severe hyperbilirubinemia with the help of predischarge total serum bilirubin or transcutaneous bilirubin measurements and/or assessments of clinical risk factors. The aim of this rapid review is 1) to review the evidence for 1) predicting and preventing severe hyperbilirubinemia and bilirubin encephalopathy, 2) determining the efficacy of home/community treatments (home phototherapy) in the prevention of severe hyperbilirubinemia, and 3) non-invasive/transcutaneous methods for estimating serum bilirubin level. In this rapid review, studies were identified through the Medline database. The main outcomes of interest were severe hyperbilirubinemia and encephalopathy. A subset of articles was double screened and all articles were critically appraised using the SIGN and AMSTAR checklists. This review investigated if systems approach is likely to reduce the occurrence of severe hyperbilirubinemia. Fifty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Included studies assessed the association between bilirubin measurement early in neonatal life and the subsequent development of severe hyperbilirubinemia and chronic bilirubin encephalopathy/kernicterus. It was observed that, highest priority should be given to (i) universal bilirubin screening programs; (ii) implementation of community and midwife practice; (iii) outreach to communities for education of prospective parents; and (iv) development of clinical pathways to monitor, evaluate and track infants with severe hyperbilirubinemia. We found substantial observational evidence that severe hyperbilirubinemia can be accurately predicted and prevented through universal bilirubin screening. So far, there is no evidence of any harm. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Rapid assessment of nonlinear optical propagation effects in dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyo, J. Del; de La Cruz, A. Ruiz; Grace, E.; Ferrer, A.; Siegel, J.; Pasquazi, A.; Assanto, G.; Solis, J.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrafast laser processing applications need fast approaches to assess the nonlinear propagation of the laser beam in order to predict the optimal range of processing parameters in a wide variety of cases. We develop here a method based on the simple monitoring of the nonlinear beam shaping against numerical prediction. The numerical code solves the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with nonlinear absorption under simplified conditions by employing a state-of-the art computationally efficient approach. By comparing with experimental results we can rapidly estimate the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients of the material. The validity of this approach has been tested in a variety of experiments where nonlinearities play a key role, like spatial soliton shaping or fs-laser waveguide writing. The approach provides excellent results for propagated power densities for which free carrier generation effects can be neglected. Above such a threshold, the peculiarities of the nonlinear propagation of elliptical beams enable acquiring an instantaneous picture of the deposition of energy inside the material realistic enough to estimate the effective nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients that can be used for predicting the spatial distribution of energy deposition inside the material and controlling the beam in the writing process.

  3. A novel method of rapidly modeling optical properties of actual photonic crystal fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Wen, Wang; Shu-Qin, Lou; Wei-Guo, Chen; Hong-Lei, Li

    2010-01-01

    The flexible structure of photonic crystal fibre not only offers novel optical properties but also brings some difficulties in keeping the fibre structure in the fabrication process which inevitably cause the optical properties of the resulting fibre to deviate from the designed properties. Therefore, a method of evaluating the optical properties of the actual fibre is necessary for the purpose of application. Up to now, the methods employed to measure the properties of the actual photonic crystal fibre often require long fibre samples or complex expensive equipments. To our knowledge, there are few studies of modeling an actual photonic crystal fibre and evaluating its properties rapidly. In this paper, a novel method, based on the combination model of digital image processing and the finite element method, is proposed to rapidly model the optical properties of the actual photonic crystal fibre. Two kinds of photonic crystal fibres made by Crystal Fiber A/S are modeled. It is confirmed from numerical results that the proposed method is simple, rapid and accurate for evaluating the optical properties of the actual photonic crystal fibre without requiring complex equipment. (rapid communication)

  4. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for rapid screening and live-cell monitoring: application to nanotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, S K; Sacksteder, Colette A; Weber, Thomas J; Riley, Brian J; Addleman, R Shane; Harrer, Bruce J; Peterman, John W

    2013-01-01

    A significant challenge to realize the full potential of nanotechnology for therapeutic and diagnostic applications is to understand and evaluate how live cells interact with an external stimulus, such as a nanosized particle, and the toxicity and broad risk associated with these stimuli. It is difficult to capture the complexity and dynamics of these interactions by following omics-based approaches exclusively, which can be expensive and time-consuming. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to provide noninvasive live-cell monitoring of cellular responses to potentially toxic nanosized particles or other stimuli. This alternative approach provides the ability to carry out rapid toxicity screenings and nondisruptive monitoring of live-cell cultures. We review the technical basis of the approach, the instrument configuration and interface with the biological media, the various effects that impact the data, subsequent data analysis and toxicity, and present some preliminary results on live-cell monitoring.

  5. Super: a web server to rapidly screen superposable oligopeptide fragments from the protein data bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, James H.; Lesk, Arthur M.; Garcia de la Banda, Maria; Konagurthu, Arun S.

    2012-01-01

    Searching for well-fitting 3D oligopeptide fragments within a large collection of protein structures is an important task central to many analyses involving protein structures. This article reports a new web server, Super, dedicated to the task of rapidly screening the protein data bank (PDB) to identify all fragments that superpose with a query under a prespecified threshold of root-mean-square deviation (RMSD). Super relies on efficiently computing a mathematical bound on the commonly used structural similarity measure, RMSD of superposition. This allows the server to filter out a large proportion of fragments that are unrelated to the query; >99% of the total number of fragments in some cases. For a typical query, Super scans the current PDB containing over 80 500 structures (with ∼40 million potential oligopeptide fragments to match) in under a minute. Super web server is freely accessible from: http://lcb.infotech.monash.edu.au/super. PMID:22638586

  6. Development of a Bacterial Biosensor for Rapid Screening of Yeast p-Coumaric Acid Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siedler, Solvej; Khatri, Narendar K.; Zsohar, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    device, rapidly sort droplets containing yeast cells producing high amounts of extracellular p-coumaric acid using the fluorescent E. coli biosensor signal. As additional biosensors become available, such approaches will find broad applications for screening of an extracellular product.......Transcription factor-based biosensors are used to identify producer strains, a critical bottleneck in cell factory engineering. Here, we address two challenges with this methodology: transplantation of heterologous transcriptional regulators into new hosts to generate functional biosensors...... and biosensing of the extracellular product concentration that accurately reflects the effective cell factory production capacity. We describe the effects of different translation initiation rates on the dynamic range of a p-coumaric acid biosensor based on the Bacillus subtilis transcriptional repressor Pad...

  7. Rapid Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YanHong Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study sought to establish the discriminant validity of a rapid cognitive screen, that is, the National Institute of Neurological Disease and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol, and compare its discriminant validity to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE in detecting cognitive impairment (CI in PD patients. Methods. One hundred and one PD patients were recruited from a movement disorders clinic in Singapore and they received the NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol, MoCA, and MMSE. No cognitive impairment (NCI was defined as Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR = 0 and CI was defined as CDR ≥ 0.5. Results. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol was statistically equivalent to MoCA and larger than MMSE (0.86 versus 0.90, P=0.07; 0.86 versus 0.76, P=0.03. The sensitivity of NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol (<9 was statistically equivalent to MoCA (<22 (0.77 versus 0.85, P=0.13 and superior to MMSE (<24 (0.77 versus 0.52, P<0.01 in detecting CI, while the specificity of NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol (<9 was statistically equivalent to MoCA (<22 and MMSE (<24 (0.78 versus 0.88, P=0.34. Conclusion. The NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol is time expeditious while remaining statistically equivalent to MoCA and superior to MMSE and therefore is suitable for rapid cognitive screening of CI in PD patients.

  8. Rapidly tunable continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, M.E.; Gross, P.; Boller, Klaus J.; Auerbach, M.; Wessels, P.; Fallnich, C.

    2003-01-01

    We report on rapid, all-electronically controlled wavelength tuning of a continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by an ytterbium fiber laser. The OPO is singly resonant for the signal wave and consists of a 40-mm-long periodically poled lithium niobate crystal in a

  9. Colorimetry and SERS dual-mode detection of telomerase activity: combining rapid screening with high sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Shenfei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Chen, Hui; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Min; Chen, Peng; Cui, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted considerable attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Here, we present a colorimetry and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dual-mode telomerase activity detection method, which has several distinctive advantages. First, colorimetric functionality allows rapid preliminary discrimination of telomerase activity by the naked eye. Second, the employment of SERS technique results in greatly improved detection sensitivity. Third, the combination of colorimetry and SERS into one detection system can ensure highly efficacious and sensitive screening of numerous samples. Besides, the avoidance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures further guarantees fine reliability and simplicity. Generally, the presented method is realized by an "elongate and capture" procedure. To be specific, gold nanoparticles modified with Raman molecules and telomeric repeat complementary oligonucleotide are employed as the colorimetric-SERS bifunctional reporting nanotag, while magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with telomerase substrate oligonucleotide are used as the capturing substrate. Telomerase can synthesize and elongate telomeric repeats onto the capturing substrate. The elongated telomeric repeats subsequently facilitate capturing of the reporting nanotag via hybridization between telomeric repeat and its complementary strand. The captured nanotags can cause a significant difference in the color and SERS intensity of the magnetically separated sediments. Thus both the color and SERS can be used as indicators of the telomerase activity. With fast screening ability and outstanding sensitivity, we anticipate that this method would greatly promote practical application of telomerase-based early-stage cancer diagnosis.

  10. A rapid enzymatic assay for high-throughput screening of adenosine-producing strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huina; Zu, Xin; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a major local regulator of tissue function and industrially useful as precursor for the production of medicinal nucleoside substances. High-throughput screening of adenosine overproducers is important for industrial microorganism breeding. An enzymatic assay of adenosine was developed by combined adenosine deaminase (ADA) with indophenol method. The ADA catalyzes the cleavage of adenosine to inosine and NH3, the latter can be accurately determined by indophenol method. The assay system was optimized to deliver a good performance and could tolerate the addition of inorganic salts and many nutrition components to the assay mixtures. Adenosine could be accurately determined by this assay using 96-well microplates. Spike and recovery tests showed that this assay can accurately and reproducibly determine increases in adenosine in fermentation broth without any pretreatment to remove proteins and potentially interfering low-molecular-weight molecules. This assay was also applied to high-throughput screening for high adenosine-producing strains. The high selectivity and accuracy of the ADA assay provides rapid and high-throughput analysis of adenosine in large numbers of samples. PMID:25580842

  11. Rapid screening for nuclear genes mutations in isolated respiratory chain complex I defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagniez-Mammeri, Hélène; Lombes, Anne; Brivet, Michèle; Ogier-de Baulny, Hélène; Landrieu, Pierre; Legrand, Alain; Slama, Abdelhamid

    2009-04-01

    Complex I or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH): ubiquinone oxydoreductase deficiency is the most common cause of respiratory chain defects. Molecular bases of complex I deficiencies are rarely identified because of the dual genetic origin of this multi-enzymatic complex (nuclear DNA and mitochondrial DNA) and the lack of phenotype-genotype correlation. We used a rapid method to screen patients with isolated complex I deficiencies for nuclear genes mutations by Surveyor nuclease digestion of cDNAs. Eight complex I nuclear genes, among the most frequently mutated (NDUFS1, NDUFS2, NDUFS3, NDUFS4, NDUFS7, NDUFS8, NDUFV1 and NDUFV2), were studied in 22 cDNA fragments spanning their coding sequences in 8 patients with a biochemically proved complex I deficiency. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and missense mutations were detected in 18.7% of the cDNA fragments by Surveyor nuclease treatment. Molecular defects were detected in 3 patients. Surveyor nuclease screening is a reliable method for genotyping nuclear complex I deficiencies, easy to interpret, and limits the number of sequence reactions. Its use will enhance the possibility of prenatal diagnosis and help us for a better understanding of complex I molecular defects.

  12. Performance of rapid tests and algorithms for HIV screening in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukou, Y G; Cabran, M A; Yessé, Zinzendorf Nanga; Adouko, B M O; Lathro, S J; Agbessi-Kouassi, K B T

    2014-01-01

    Seven rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs) of HIV were evaluated by a panel group who collected serum samples from patients in Abidjan (HIV-1 = 203, HIV-2 = 25, HIV-dual = 25, HIV = 305). Kit performances were recorded after the reference techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following RDTs showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity higher than 99%: Determine, Oraquick, SD Bioline, BCP, and Stat-Pak. These kits were used to establish infection screening strategies. The combination with 2 or 3 of these tests in series or parallel algorithms showed that series combinations with 2 tests (Oraquick and Bioline) and 3 tests (Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak) gave the best performances (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%). However, the combination with 2 tests appeared to be more onerous than the combination with 3 tests. The combination with Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak tests serving as a tiebreaker could be an alternative to the HIV/AIDS serological screening in Abidjan.

  13. A Rapid and Efficient Screening Method for Antibacterial Compound-Producing Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiarachchi, Sachithra; Lee, Su-Jin; Lee, Youngdeuk; Kwon, Young-Kyung; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Moon, Song; Jo, Eunyoung; Kim, Taeho; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Soo-Jin; Oh, Chulhong

    2017-08-28

    Antibacterial compounds are widely used in the treatment of human and animal diseases. The overuse of antibiotics has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria, making the development of new antibacterial compounds essential. This study focused on developing a fast and easy method for identifying marine bacteria that produce antibiotic compounds. Eight randomly selected marine target bacterial species ( Agrococcus terreus, Bacillus algicola, Mesoflavibacter zeaxanthinifaciens, Pseudoalteromonas flavipulchra, P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida, P. rubra , and Zunongwangia atlantica ) were tested for production of antibacterial compounds against four strains of test bacteria ( B. cereus, B. subtilis, Halomonas smyrnensis , and Vibrio alginolyticus ). Colony picking was used as the primary screening method. Clear zones were observed around colonies of P. flavipulchra, P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida , and P. rubra tested against B. cereus, B. subtilis , and H. smyrnensis . The efficiency of colony scraping and broth culture methods for antimicrobial compound extraction was also compared using a disk diffusion assay. P. peptidolytica, P. piscicida , and P. rubra showed antagonistic activity against H. smyrnensis, B. cereus , and B. subtilis , respectively, only in the colony scraping method. Our results show that colony picking and colony scraping are effective, quick, and easy methods of screening for antibacterial compound-producing bacteria.

  14. Rapid screening method for male DNA by using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Kubo, Seiji; Tanaka, Jin; Adachi, Tatsushi

    2017-08-12

    Screening for male-derived biological material from collected samples plays an important role in criminal investigations, especially those involving sexual assaults. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting multi-repeat sequences of the Y chromosome for detecting male DNA. Successful amplification occurred with 0.5 ng of male DNA under isothermal conditions of 61 to 67 °C, but no amplification occurred with up to 10 ng of female DNA. Under the optimized conditions, the LAMP reaction initiated amplification within 10 min and amplified for 20 min. The LAMP reaction was sensitive at levels as low as 1-pg male DNA, and a quantitative LAMP assay could be developed because of the strong correlation between the reaction time and the amount of template DNA in the range of 10 pg to 10 ng. Furthermore, to apply the LAMP assay to on-site screening for male-derived samples, we evaluated a protocol using a simple DNA extraction method and a colorimetric intercalating dye that allows detection of the LAMP reaction by evaluating the change in color of the solution. Using this protocol, samples of male-derived blood and saliva stains were processed in approximately 30 min from DNA extraction to detection. Because our protocol does not require much hands-on time or special equipment, this LAMP assay promises to become a rapid and simple screening method for male-derived samples in forensic investigations.

  15. Rapid recognition of volatile organic compounds with colorimetric sensor arrays for lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xianhua; Li, Dan; Du, Wei; Yan, Mengqiu; Wang, You; Huo, Danqun; Hou, Changjun

    2018-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath can be used as biomarkers to identify early stages of lung cancer. Herein, we report a disposable colorimetric array that has been constructed from diverse chemo-responsive colorants. Distinguishable difference maps were plotted within 4 min for specifically targeted VOCs. Through the consideration of various chemical interactions with VOCs, the arrays successfully discriminate between 20 different volatile organic compounds in breath that are related to lung cancer. VOCs were identified either with the visualized difference maps or through pattern recognition with an accuracy of at least 90%. No uncertainties or errors were observed in the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Finally, good reproducibility and stability of the array was achieved against changes in humidity. Generally, this work provides fundamental support for construction of simple and rapid VOC sensors. More importantly, this approach provides a hypothesis-free array method for breath testing via VOC profiling. Therefore, this small, rapid, non-invasive, inexpensive, and visualized sensor array is a powerful and promising tool for early screening of lung cancer. Graphical abstract A disposable colorimetric array has been developed with broadly chemo-responsive dyes to incorporate various chemical interactions, through which the arrays successfully discriminate 20 VOCs that are related to lung cancer via difference maps alone or chemometrics within 4 min. The hydrophobic porous matrix provides good stability against changes in humidity.

  16. A method of rapidly evaluating image quality of NED optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Qiu, Chuankai; Yang, Huan

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, with the development of technology of micro-display, advanced optics and the software and hardware, near-to-eye display ( NED) optical system will have a wide range of potential applications in the fields of amusement and virtual reality. However, research on the evaluating image quality of this kind optical system is comparatively lagging behind. Although now there are some methods and equipment for evaluation, they can't be applied in commercial production because of their complex operation and inaccuracy. In this paper, an academic method is proposed and a Rapid Evaluation System (RES) is designed to evaluate the image of optical system rapidly and exactly. Firstly, a set of parameters that eyes are sensitive to and also express the quality of system should be extracted and quantized to be criterion, so the evaluation standards can be established. Then, some parameters can be detected by RES consisted of micro-display, CCD camera and computer and so on. By process of scaling, the measuring results of the RES are exact and creditable, relationship between object measurement, subjective evaluation and the RES will be established. After that, image quality of optical system can be evaluated just by detecting parameters of that. The RES is simple and the results of evaluation are exact and keeping with human vision. So the method can be used not only for optimizing design of optical system, but also for evaluation in commercial production.

  17. A comparison of U/Th and rapid-screen 14C dates from Line Island fossil corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothe, Pamela R.; Cobb, Kim M.; Bush, Shari L.; Cheng, Hai; Santos, Guaciara M.; Southon, John R.; Lawrence Edwards, R.; Deocampo, Daniel M.; Sayani, Hussein R.

    2016-03-01

    Time-consuming and expensive radiometric dating techniques limit the number of dates available to construct absolute chronologies for high-resolution paleoclimate reconstructions. A recently developed rapid-screen 14C dating technique reduces sample preparation time and per sample costs by 90%, but its accuracy has not yet been tested on shallow-water corals. In this study, we test the rapid-screen 14C dating technique on shallow-water corals by comparing 44 rapid-screen 14C dates to both high-precision 14C dates and U/Th dates from mid- to late-Holocene fossil corals collected from the central tropical Pacific (2-4°N, 157-160°W). Our results show that 42 rapid-screen 14C and U/Th dates agree within uncertainties, confirming closed-system behavior and ensuring chronological accuracy. However, two samples that grew ˜6500 years ago have calibrated 14C ages ˜1000 years younger than the corresponding U/Th ages, consistent with diagenetic alteration as indicated by the presence of 15-23% calcite. Mass balance calculations confirm that the observed dating discrepancies are consistent with 14C addition and U removal, both of which occur during diagenetic calcite recrystallization. Under the assumption that aragonite-to-calcite replacement is linear through time, we estimate the samples' true ages using the measured 14C and U/Th dates and percent calcite values. Results illustrate that the rapid-screen 14C dates of Holocene-aged fossil corals are accurate for samples with less than 2% calcite. Application of this rapid-screen 14C method to the fossil coral rubble fields from Kiritimati Island reveal significant chronological clustering of fossil coral across the landscape, with older ages farther from the water's edge.

  18. Rapid infrared and optical variability in the bright quasar 3C273

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courvoisier, T.J.-L.; Robson, E.I.; Hughes, D.H.; Bouchet, P.; Schwarz, H.E.; Krisciunas, K.

    1988-01-01

    We have observed variations by a factor of two in the infrared flux from the bright quasar 3C273 on a timescale as short as one day. In February 1988, the behaviour of the source changed from having a stable infrared flux and slow optical variations to a state characterized by recurrent infrared and optical flaring. The optical variations were of several per cent per day, changing from increase to decrease approximately every week. The amplitude of the repeated optical flares was 30-40%. The data are consistent with re-injection/acceleration of electrons followed by rapid cooling. The inferred magnetic field is 0.7 gauss and the data are marginally consistent with no relativistic beaming. (author)

  19. Rapid, sensitive and reproducible method for point-of-collection screening of liquid milk for adulterants using a portable Raman spectrometer with novel optimized sample well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Michel K.; Holroyd, Steve E.; McGoverin, Cushla M.; Simpson, M. Cather; Williams, David E.

    2017-02-01

    Point-of-care diagnostics are of interest in the medical, security and food industry, the latter particularly for screening food adulterated for economic gain. Milk adulteration continues to be a major problem worldwide and different methods to detect fraudulent additives have been investigated for over a century. Laboratory based methods are limited in their application to point-of-collection diagnosis and also require expensive instrumentation, chemicals and skilled technicians. This has encouraged exploration of spectroscopic methods as more rapid and inexpensive alternatives. Raman spectroscopy has excellent potential for screening of milk because of the rich complexity inherent in its signals. The rapid advances in photonic technologies and fabrication methods are enabling increasingly sensitive portable mini-Raman systems to be placed on the market that are both affordable and feasible for both point-of-care and point-of-collection applications. We have developed a powerful spectroscopic method for rapidly screening liquid milk for sucrose and four nitrogen-rich adulterants (dicyandiamide (DCD), ammonium sulphate, melamine, urea), using a combined system: a small, portable Raman spectrometer with focusing fibre optic probe and optimized reflective focusing wells, simply fabricated in aluminium. The reliable sample presentation of this system enabled high reproducibility of 8% RSD (residual standard deviation) within four minutes. Limit of detection intervals for PLS calibrations ranged between 140 - 520 ppm for the four N-rich compounds and between 0.7 - 3.6 % for sucrose. The portability of the system and reliability and reproducibility of this technique opens opportunities for general, reagentless adulteration screening of biological fluids as well as milk, at point-of-collection.

  20. Hydroxyapatite screen-printed thick films: optical and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.C.; Rocha, H.H.B.; Freire, F.N.A.; Santos, M.R.P.; Saboia, K.D.A.; Goes, J.C.; Sombra, A.S.B.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we did a study on the structural and electrical properties of bioceramic hydroxiapatite (HA) thick films. The films were prepared in two layers using the screen-printing technique on Al 2 O 3 substrates. Mechanical alloying has been used successfully to produce nanocrystalline powders of hydroxyapatite to be used in the films. We also look for the effect of the grain size of the HA in the final properties of the film. The samples were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), infrared and Raman scattering spectroscopy and electrical measurements. We did a study of the dielectric permittivity and the loss of the films in the radio-frequency of the spectra. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the films indicate that all the peaks associated to HA phase is present in the films. One can notice that, for all the films there is a decrease of the DC (dielectric constant) with the increase of the frequency. The values of the dielectric constant of the films are in between 4 and 9 (at 1 kHz), as a function of the flux concentration. The loss is decreasing as we increase the frequency for all the films. These results strongly suggest that the screen-printing HA thick films are good candidates for applications in biocompatible coatings of implant materials

  1. Hydroxyapatite screen-printed thick films: optical and electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C.C. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicaco-tilde es e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Rocha, H.H.B. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicaco-tilde es e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Freire, F.N.A. [Departamento de Quimica Orga-circumflex nica e Inorga-circumflex nica-UFC, Caixa Postal 6030, CEP 60455-760, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Santos, M.R.P. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicaco-tilde es e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Saboia, K.D.A. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicaco-tilde es e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Goes, J.C. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicaco-tilde es e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Sombra, A.S.B. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicaco-tilde es e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)]. E-mail: sombra@fisica.ufc.br

    2005-07-15

    In this paper, we did a study on the structural and electrical properties of bioceramic hydroxiapatite (HA) thick films. The films were prepared in two layers using the screen-printing technique on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates. Mechanical alloying has been used successfully to produce nanocrystalline powders of hydroxyapatite to be used in the films. We also look for the effect of the grain size of the HA in the final properties of the film. The samples were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), infrared and Raman scattering spectroscopy and electrical measurements. We did a study of the dielectric permittivity and the loss of the films in the radio-frequency of the spectra. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the films indicate that all the peaks associated to HA phase is present in the films. One can notice that, for all the films there is a decrease of the DC (dielectric constant) with the increase of the frequency. The values of the dielectric constant of the films are in between 4 and 9 (at 1 kHz), as a function of the flux concentration. The loss is decreasing as we increase the frequency for all the films. These results strongly suggest that the screen-printing HA thick films are good candidates for applications in biocompatible coatings of implant materials.

  2. Authenticity screening of stained glass windows using optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulebroeck, Wendy; Wouters, Hilde; Nys, Karin; Thienpont, Hugo

    2016-11-01

    Civilized societies should safeguard their heritage as it plays an important role in community building. Moreover, past technologies often inspire new technology. Authenticity is besides conservation and restoration a key aspect in preserving our past, for example in museums when exposing showpieces. The classification of being authentic relies on an interdisciplinary approach integrating art historical and archaeological research complemented with applied research. In recent decades analytical dating tools are based on determining the raw materials used. However, the traditional applied non-portable, chemical techniques are destructive and time-consuming. Since museums oftentimes only consent to research actions which are completely non-destructive, optical spectroscopy might offer a solution. As a case-study we apply this technique on two stained glass panels for which the 14th century dating is nowadays questioned. With this research we were able to identify how simultaneous mapping of spectral signatures measured with a low cost optical spectrum analyser unveils information regarding the production period. The significance of this research extends beyond the re-dating of these panels to the 19th century as it provides an instant tool enabling immediate answering authenticity questions during the conservation process of stained glass, thereby providing the necessary data for solving deontological questions about heritage preservation.

  3. Specific changes in rapidly transported proteins during regeneration of the goldfish optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benowitz, L.I.; Shashoua, V.E.; Yoon, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Double labeling methods were used to identify changes in the complement of proteins synthesized in the retinal ganglion cells and transported down the optic nerve during the process of axonal regeneration. Eight to 62 days after goldfish underwent a unilateral optic nerve crush, one eye was labeled with [3H]-, the other with [14C]proline. Control and regenerating optic nerves were dissected out and homogenized together after 5 hr, a time which allowed us to examine selectively membrane-bound components which migrate in the rapid phase of axoplasmic transport. Proteins from the two sides were so-purified and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the 3H and 14C incorporation patterns along the gels revealed a radical shift away from the normal labeling spectrum during regeneration, with selective changes in labeling at particular molecular weights varying over a 3-fold range. Eight days after crushing the optic nerve, the greatest increases in labeling were seen for material with apparent molecular weights of 24,000 to 27,000, 44,000, and 210,000 daltons. These peaks declined thereafter, and on days 29 to 39, the most prominent increases were at 110,000 to 140,000 daltons. These studies indicate a continuously changing pattern in the synthesis and/or degradation of proteins that are rapidly transported down the optic nerve during regeneration and point to molecular species potential significance in the establishment of the visual map upon the brain

  4. Presenting Symptoms and Dysphagia Screen Predict Outcome in Mild and Rapidly Improving Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadodia, Gaurav; Rizk, Nibal; Camp, Deborah; Bryant, Katja; Zimmerman, Susan; Brasher, Cynthia; Connelly, Kerrin; Dunn, Joshua; Frankel, Michael; Ido, Moges Seymour; Lugtu, James; Nahab, Fadi

    2016-12-01

    There are limited data on which patients not treated with intravenous (IV) tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) due to mild and rapidly improving stroke symptoms (MaRISS) have unfavorable outcomes. Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients not treated with IV tPA due to MaRISS from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013 were identified as part of the Georgia Coverdell Acute Stroke Registry. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with a lower likelihood of favorable outcome, defined as discharge to home. There were 1614 AIS patients who did not receive IV tPA due to MaRISS (median National Institutes of Health stroke scale [NIHSS] 1], of which 305 (19%) did not have a favorable outcome. Factors associated with lower likelihood of favorable outcome included Medicare insurance status (odds ratio [OR]: .53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .34-.84), arrival by emergency medical services (OR: .46, 95% CI: .29-.73), increasing NIHSS score (per unit OR: .89, 95% CI: .84-.93), weakness as the presenting symptom (OR: .50, 95% CI: .30-.84), and a failed dysphagia screen (OR: .43, 95% CI: .23-.80). During the study period, dysphagia screen identify a subgroup of patients who are more likely to have an unfavorable outcome. Whether IV tPA treatment can improve the outcome in this subgroup of patients needs to be evaluated in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic screening strategy for rapid access to polyether ionophore producers and products in actinomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Ning; Xi, Lijun; Rong, Xiaoying; Ruan, Jisheng; Huang, Ying

    2011-05-01

    Polyether ionophores are a unique class of polyketides with broad-spectrum activity and outstanding potency for the control of drug-resistant bacteria and parasites, and they are produced exclusively by actinomycetes. A special epoxidase gene encoding a critical tailoring enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds has been found in all five of the complete gene clusters of polyether ionophores published so far. To detect potential producer strains of these antibiotics, a pair of degenerate primers was designed according to the conserved regions of the five known polyether epoxidases. A total of 44 putative polyether epoxidase gene-positive strains were obtained by the PCR-based screening of 1,068 actinomycetes isolated from eight different habitats and 236 reference strains encompassing eight major families of Actinomycetales. The isolates spanned a wide taxonomic diversity based on 16S rRNA gene analysis, and actinomycetes isolated from acidic soils seemed to be a promising source of polyether ionophores. Four genera were detected to contain putative polyether epoxidases, including Micromonospora, which has not previously been reported to produce polyether ionophores. The designed primers also detected putative epoxidase genes from diverse known producer strains that produce polyether ionophores unrelated to the five published gene clusters. Moreover, phylogenetic and chemical analyses showed a strong correlation between the sequence of polyether epoxidases and the structure of encoded polyethers. Thirteen positive isolates were proven to be polyether ionophore producers as expected, and two new analogues were found. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using this epoxidase gene screening strategy to aid the rapid identification of known products and the discovery of unknown polyethers in actinomycetes.

  6. Genetic Screening Strategy for Rapid Access to Polyether Ionophore Producers and Products in Actinomycetes ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Ning; Xi, Lijun; Rong, Xiaoying; Ruan, Jisheng; Huang, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Polyether ionophores are a unique class of polyketides with broad-spectrum activity and outstanding potency for the control of drug-resistant bacteria and parasites, and they are produced exclusively by actinomycetes. A special epoxidase gene encoding a critical tailoring enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds has been found in all five of the complete gene clusters of polyether ionophores published so far. To detect potential producer strains of these antibiotics, a pair of degenerate primers was designed according to the conserved regions of the five known polyether epoxidases. A total of 44 putative polyether epoxidase gene-positive strains were obtained by the PCR-based screening of 1,068 actinomycetes isolated from eight different habitats and 236 reference strains encompassing eight major families of Actinomycetales. The isolates spanned a wide taxonomic diversity based on 16S rRNA gene analysis, and actinomycetes isolated from acidic soils seemed to be a promising source of polyether ionophores. Four genera were detected to contain putative polyether epoxidases, including Micromonospora, which has not previously been reported to produce polyether ionophores. The designed primers also detected putative epoxidase genes from diverse known producer strains that produce polyether ionophores unrelated to the five published gene clusters. Moreover, phylogenetic and chemical analyses showed a strong correlation between the sequence of polyether epoxidases and the structure of encoded polyethers. Thirteen positive isolates were proven to be polyether ionophore producers as expected, and two new analogues were found. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using this epoxidase gene screening strategy to aid the rapid identification of known products and the discovery of unknown polyethers in actinomycetes. PMID:21421776

  7. Rapid, convenient method for screening imidazole-containing compounds for heme oxygenase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahakis, Jason Z; Rahman, Mona N; Roman, Gheorghe; Jia, Zongchao; Nakatsu, Kanji; Szarek, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    Sensitive assays for measuring heme oxygenase activity have been based on the gas-chromatographic detection of carbon monoxide using elaborate, expensive equipment. The present study describes a rapid and convenient method for screening imidazole-containing candidates for inhibitory activity against heme oxygenase using a plate reader, based on the spectroscopic evaluation of heme degradation. A PowerWave XS plate reader was used to monitor the absorbance (as a function of time) of heme bound to purified truncated human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) in the individual wells of a standard 96-well plate (with or without the addition of a test compound). The degradation of heme by heme oxygenase-1 was initiated using l-ascorbic acid, and the collected relevant absorbance data were analyzed by three different methods to calculate the percent control activity occurring in wells containing test compounds relative to that occurring in control wells with no test compound present. In the cases of wells containing inhibitory compounds, significant shifts in λ(max) from 404 to near 412 nm were observed as well as a decrease in the rate of heme degradation relative to that of the control. Each of the three methods of data processing (overall percent drop in absorbance over 1.5h, initial rate of reaction determined over the first 5 min, and estimated pseudo first-order reaction rate constant determined over 1.5h) gave similar and reproducible results for percent control activity. The fastest and easiest method of data analysis was determined to be that using initial rates, involving data acquisition for only 5 min once reactions have been initiated using l-ascorbic acid. The results of the study demonstrate that this simple assay based on the spectroscopic detection of heme represents a rapid, convenient method to determine the relative inhibitory activity of candidate compounds, and is useful in quickly screening a series or library of compounds for heme oxygenase inhibition

  8. A High Optical Transmittance and Low Cost Touch Screen without Patterning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMADZAMINI, K.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Transparent Conducting Oxide (TCO materials such as Fluorine Tin Oxide (FTO and Indium Tin Oxide (ITO due to their optical and electrical properties are used in touch screens as electrodes and wires. This paper proposes a novel technique of using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT method in order to produce touch screens without pattering. Unlike existing techniques, the proposed methodology employs a uniform TCO coated screen with a maximum optical transmittance to convert the touch point coordinates into side electrodes voltages. The performance of the proposed method is tested experimentally on a FTO coated glass with a sheet resistance of 20 ohms/sq. The proposed methodology is found to be less complicated and low cost, since no pattern or electrodes are implemented in the display area.

  9. High-Throughput Lipolysis in 96-Well Plates for Rapid Screening of Lipid-Based Drug Delivery Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Mette D; Sassene, Philip J; Mu, Huiling

    2017-01-01

    The high-throughput in vitro intestinal lipolysis model (HTP) applicable for rapid and low-scale screening of lipid-based drug delivery systems (LbDDSs) was optimized and adjusted as to be conducted in 96-well plates (HTP-96). Three different LbDDSs (I-III) loaded with danazol or cinnarizine were...

  10. Rapid Screening Assay for the Detection of Nivalenol and Deoxynivalenol using Monoclonal Antibody and Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivalenol (NIV) and Deoxynivalenol (DON) are trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp that contaminate mainly cereal crops, such as wheat, barley, and maize. These mycotoxins are serious health hazards to human and domestic animals. The study reports a rapid screening method of NIV and DO...

  11. Rapid Screening of Natural Plant Extracts with Calcium Diacetate for Differential Effects Against Foodborne Pathogens and a Probiotic Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonna, William; Brehm-Stecher, Byron; Shetty, Kalidas; Pometto, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    This study focused on advancing a rapid turbidimetric bioassay to screen antimicrobials using specific cocktails of targeted foodborne bacterial pathogens. Specifically, to show the relevance of this rapid screening tool, the antimicrobial potential of generally recognized as safe calcium diacetate (DAX) and blends with cranberry (NC) and oregano (OX) natural extracts was evaluated. Furthermore, the same extracts were evaluated against beneficial lactic acid bacteria. The targeted foodborne pathogens evaluated were Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus using optimized initial cocktails (∼10 8 colony-forming unit/mL) containing strains isolated from human food outbreaks. Of all extracts evaluated, 0.51% (w/v) DAX in ethanol was the most effective against all four pathogens. However, DAX when reduced to 0.26% and with added blends from ethanol extractions consisting of DAX:OX (3:1), slightly outperformed or was equal to same levels of DAX alone. Subculture of wells in which no growth occurred after 1 week indicated that all water and ethanol extracts were bacteriostatic against the pathogens tested. All the targeted antimicrobials had no effect on the probiotic organism Lactobacillus plantarum. The use of such rapid screening methods combined with the use of multistrain cocktails of targeted foodborne pathogens from outbreaks will allow rapid large-scale screening of antimicrobials and enable further detailed studies in targeted model food systems.

  12. A Method for Rapid Measurement of Contrast Sensitivity on Mobile Touch-Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Touch-screen displays in cell phones and tablet computers are now pervasive, making them an attractive option for vision testing outside of the laboratory or clinic. Here we de- scribe a novel method in which subjects use a finger swipe to indicate the transition from visible to invisible on a grating which is swept in both contrast and frequency. Because a single image can be swiped in about a second, it is practical to use a series of images to zoom in on particular ranges of contrast or frequency, both to increase the accuracy of the measurements and to obtain an estimate of the reliability of the subject. Sensitivities to chromatic and spatio-temporal modulations are easily measured using the same method. A proto- type has been developed for Apple Computer's iPad/iPod/iPhone family of devices, implemented using an open-source scripting environment known as QuIP (QUick Image Processing, http://hsi.arc.nasa.gov/groups/scanpath/research.php). Preliminary data show good agreement with estimates obtained from traditional psychophysical methods as well as newer rapid estimation techniques. Issues relating to device calibration are also discussed.

  13. Depression and self-esteem: rapid screening for depression in black, low literacy, hospitalized tuberculosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westaway, M S; Wolmarans, L

    1992-11-01

    One hundred black hospitalized tuberculosis (TB) patients (75 males and 25 females) were interviewed to ascertain levels of depression and self-esteem. The standard of literacy for 65% of the sample was such that they were unable to complete a self-report inventory. Reliability (internal consistency) was good for the 21-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI: r = 0.79), the 13-item shortened BDI (ABDI: r = 0.76) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (RSE: r = 0.78). There was a significant positive relationship between the BDI and the ABDI (r = 0.92, P = 0.0001). The recommended ABDI cut-off scores established no depression for 32 patients, mild depression for 22 patients, moderate depression for 38 patients and severe depression for 8 patients. There were significant negative relationships between the BDI and the RSE (r = -0.54, P = 0.0001), and between the ABDI and the RSE (r = -0.56, P = 0.0001). Self-esteem scores dropped in accordance with category of depression, revealing that low self-esteem is a characteristic feature of depression. It was concluded that the ABDI was a reliable, rapid, initial screening device for depression in black persons with low literacy levels.

  14. Validation of the Greek Version of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zis, Panagiotis; Brozou, Vassiliki; Stavropoulou, Evmorfia; Argyra, Erifilli; Siafaka, Ioanna; Kararizou, Evangelia; Bouhassira, Didier; Perrot, Serge; Zis, Vassileios; Vadalouca, Athina

    2017-09-01

    The Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool (FiRST) is a brief, simple, and straightforward self-administered questionnaire that was developed by Perrot et al. for the detection of fibromyalgia syndrome in patients with diffuse chronic pain. The aim of our study was to develop and validate the Greek version of FiRST. The study was set up as a prospective observational study. The original French version of FiRST was adapted into Greek using forward and backward translation. Patients with chronic diffuse pain with a clinical diagnosis of fibromyalgia and osteoarthritis based on the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology were invited to participate to the study. Of the 101 patients who met our inclusion criteria, 42 were diagnosed with fibromyalgia and 59 with osteoarthritis. The 2 groups did not differ significantly regarding gender and pain characteristics (duration, intensity). Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.79. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 89% (95% confidence interval = 83 to 95%; SE: 0.032, P fibromyalgia in daily practice. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  15. Gas evolution as a rapid screening method for detection of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.; Chambers, D.M.; Brailsford, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    A number of detection methods for irradiated foods are in advanced state of development. No single method is likely to be universally applicable but a battery of tests such as thermoluminescence, electron spin resonance and analysis of lipid radiolytic products may soon be available for most foods and technical uses of irradiation. Most of these proposed tests require relatively sophisticated equipment or technical skills and are often time consuming and costly. There would be value in relatively simple tests which could be used as a rapid screening system or confirmatory method. The literature on the use of radiolytic gases as a detection method is limited and this paper extends the above studies. In particular, it extends the work to frozen shellfish, for which irradiation has been used as a commercial decontaminant technique for many years, and considers the effect of storage temperature. Work on poultry is also reported as a cross-reference to earlier work and because irradiated poultry has recently been released into the US retail trade. (author)

  16. Detailed analysis of the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test, revised version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Yasushi; Yoshino, Aihide; Muramatsu, Taro; Mimura, Masaru

    2017-11-01

    The number-transcoding task on the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test (RDST-J) requires mutual conversion between Arabic and Chinese numerals (209 to , 4054 to , to 681, to 2027). In this task, question and answer styles of Chinese numerals are written horizontally. We investigated the impact of changing the task so that Chinese numerals are written vertically. Subjects were 211 patients with very mild to severe Alzheimer's disease and 42 normal controls. Mini-Mental State Examination scores ranged from 26 to 12, and Clinical Dementia Rating scores ranged from 0.5 to 3. Scores of all four subtasks of the transcoding task significantly improved in the revised version compared with the original version. The sensitivity and specificity of total scores ≥9 on the RDST-J original and revised versions for discriminating between controls and subjects with Clinical Dementia Rating scores of 0.5 were 63.8% and 76.6% on the original and 60.1% and 85.8% on revised version. The revised RDST-J total score had low sensitivity and high specificity compared with the original RDST-J for discriminating subjects with Clinical Dementia Rating scores of 0.5 from controls. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  17. A rapid echocardiographic screening protocol for rheumatic heart disease in Samoa: a high prevalence of advanced disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marvin; Allen, John; Naseri, Take; Gardner, Rebecca; Tolley, Dennis; Allen, Lori

    2017-10-01

    Echocardiography has been proposed as a method to screen children for rheumatic heart disease. The World Heart Federation has established guidelines for echocardiographic screening. In this study, we describe a rapid echocardiogram screening protocol according to the World Heart Federation guidelines in Samoa, endemic for rheumatic heart disease. We performed echocardiogram screening in schoolchildren in Samoa between 2013 and 2015. A brief screening echocardiogram was performed on all students. Children with predefined criteria suspicious for rheumatic hear diseases were referred for a more comprehensive echocardiogram. Complete echocardiograms were classified according to the World Heart Federation guidelines and severity of valve disease. Echocardiographic screening was performed on 11,434 children, with a mean age of 10.2 years; 51% of them were females. A total of 558 (4.8%) children underwent comprehensive echocardiography, including 49 students who were randomly selected as controls. Definite rheumatic heart disease was observed in 115 students (10.0 per 1000): 92 students were classified as borderline (8.0 per 1000) and 23 with CHD. Advanced disease was identified in 50 students (4.4 per 1000): 15 with severe mitral regurgitation, five with severe aortic regurgitation, 11 with mitral stenoses, and 19 with mitral and aortic valve disease. We successfully applied a rapid echocardiographic screening protocol to a large number of students over a short time period - 28 days of screening over a 3-year time period - to identify a high prevalence of rheumatic heart disease. We also reported a significantly higher rate of advanced disease compared with previously published echocardiographic screening programmes.

  18. Assessment of stereoscopic optic disc images using an autostereoscopic screen – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaideanu Daniella

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stereoscopic assessment of the optic disc morphology is an important part of the care of patients with glaucoma. The aim of this study was to assess stereoviewing of stereoscopic optic disc images using an example of the new technology of autostereoscopic screens compared to the liquid shutter goggles. Methods Independent assessment of glaucomatous disc characteristics and measurement of optic disc and cup parameters whilst using either an autostereoscopic screen or liquid crystal shutter goggles synchronized with a view switching display. The main outcome measures were inter-modality agreements between the two used modalities as evaluated by the weighted kappa test and Bland Altman plots. Results Inter-modality agreement for measuring optic disc parameters was good [Average kappa coefficient for vertical Cup/Disc ratio was 0.78 (95% CI 0.62–0.91 and 0.81 (95% CI 0.6–0.92 for observer 1 and 2 respectively]. Agreement between modalities for assessing optic disc characteristics for glaucoma on a five-point scale was very good with a kappa value of 0.97. Conclusion This study compared two different methods of stereo viewing. The results of assessment of the different optic disc and cup parameters were comparable using an example of the newly developing autostereoscopic display technologies as compared to the shutter goggles system used. The Inter-modality agreement was high. This new technology carries potential clinical usability benefits in different areas of ophthalmic practice.

  19. Optical Coherence Tomography in the UK Biobank Study - Rapid Automated Analysis of Retinal Thickness for Large Population-Based Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearse A Keane

    Full Text Available To describe an approach to the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging in large, population-based studies, including methods for OCT image acquisition, storage, and the remote, rapid, automated analysis of retinal thickness.In UK Biobank, OCT images were acquired between 2009 and 2010 using a commercially available "spectral domain" OCT device (3D OCT-1000, Topcon. Images were obtained using a raster scan protocol, 6 mm x 6 mm in area, and consisting of 128 B-scans. OCT image sets were stored on UK Biobank servers in a central repository, adjacent to high performance computers. Rapid, automated analysis of retinal thickness was performed using custom image segmentation software developed by the Topcon Advanced Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (TABIL. This software employs dual-scale gradient information to allow for automated segmentation of nine intraretinal boundaries in a rapid fashion.67,321 participants (134,642 eyes in UK Biobank underwent OCT imaging of both eyes as part of the ocular module. 134,611 images were successfully processed with 31 images failing segmentation analysis due to corrupted OCT files or withdrawal of subject consent for UKBB study participation. Average time taken to call up an image from the database and complete segmentation analysis was approximately 120 seconds per data set per login, and analysis of the entire dataset was completed in approximately 28 days.We report an approach to the rapid, automated measurement of retinal thickness from nearly 140,000 OCT image sets from the UK Biobank. In the near future, these measurements will be publically available for utilization by researchers around the world, and thus for correlation with the wealth of other data collected in UK Biobank. The automated analysis approaches we describe may be of utility for future large population-based epidemiological studies, clinical trials, and screening programs that employ OCT imaging.

  20. Mobile phone based mini-spectrometer for rapid screening of skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anshuman; Swedish, Tristan; Wahi, Akshat; Moufarrej, Mira; Noland, Marie; Gurry, Thomas; Aranda-Michel, Edgar; Aksel, Deniz; Wagh, Sneha; Sadashivaiah, Vijay; Zhang, Xu; Raskar, Ramesh

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a highly sensitive mobile phone based spectrometer that has potential to detect cancerous skin lesions in a rapid, non-invasive manner. Earlier reports of low cost spectrometers utilize the camera of the mobile phone to image the field after moving through a diffraction grating. These approaches are inherently limited by the closed nature of mobile phone image sensors and built in optical elements. The system presented uses a novel integrated grating and sensor that is compact, accurate and calibrated. Resolutions of about 10 nm can be achieved. Additionally, UV and visible LED excitation sources are built into the device. Data collection and analysis is simplified using the wireless interfaces and logical control on the smart phone. Furthermore, by utilizing an external sensor, the mobile phone camera can be used in conjunction with spectral measurements. We are exploring ways to use this device to measure endogenous fluorescence of skin in order to distinguish cancerous from non-cancerous lesions with a mobile phone based dermatoscope.

  1. Fast localization of optic disc and fovea in retinal images for eye disease screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Barriga, S.; Agurto, C.; Echegaray, S.; Pattichis, M.; Zamora, G.; Bauman, W.; Soliz, P.

    2011-03-01

    Optic disc (OD) and fovea locations are two important anatomical landmarks in automated analysis of retinal disease in color fundus photographs. This paper presents a new, fast, fully automatic optic disc and fovea localization algorithm developed for diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening. The optic disc localization methodology comprises of two steps. First, the OD location is identified using template matching and directional matched filter. To reduce false positives due to bright areas of pathology, we exploit vessel characteristics inside the optic disc. The location of the fovea is estimated as the point of lowest matched filter response within a search area determined by the optic disc location. Second, optic disc segmentation is performed. Based on the detected optic disc location, a fast hybrid level-set algorithm which combines the region information and edge gradient to drive the curve evolution is used to segment the optic disc boundary. Extensive evaluation was performed on 1200 images (Messidor) composed of 540 images of healthy retinas, 431 images with DR but no risk of macular edema (ME), and 229 images with DR and risk of ME. The OD location methodology obtained 98.3% success rate, while fovea location achieved 95% success rate. The average mean absolute distance (MAD) between the OD segmentation algorithm and "gold standard" is 10.5% of estimated OD radius. Qualitatively, 97% of the images achieved Excellent to Fair performance for OD segmentation. The segmentation algorithm performs well even on blurred images.

  2. Mass spectrometric-based stable isotopic 2-aminobenzoic acid glycan mapping for rapid glycan screening of biotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prien, Justin M; Prater, Bradley D; Qin, Qiang; Cockrill, Steven L

    2010-02-15

    Fast, sensitive, robust methods for "high-level" glycan screening are necessary during various stages of a biotherapeutic product's lifecycle, including clone selection, process changes, and quality control for lot release testing. Traditional glycan screening involves chromatographic or electrophoretic separation-based methods, and, although reproducible, these methods can be time-consuming. Even ultrahigh-performance chromatographic and microfluidic integrated LC/MS systems, which work on the tens of minute time scale, become lengthy when hundreds of samples are to be analyzed. Comparatively, a direct infusion mass spectrometry (MS)-based glycan screening method acquires data on a millisecond time scale, exhibits exquisite sensitivity and reproducibility, and is amenable to automated peak annotation. In addition, characterization of glycan species via sequential mass spectrometry can be performed simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate a quantitative high-throughput MS-based mapping approach using stable isotope 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA) for rapid "high-level" glycan screening.

  3. Opportunistic detection of glaucomatous optic discs within a diabetic retinopathy screening service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treacy, Maxwell P; O'Neill, Evelyn C; Murphy, Melissa; O'Toole, Louise; Delaney, Yvonne; O'Brien, Colm; Connell, Paul P

    2016-06-10

    To determine the prevalence of glaucoma among patients referred to a glaucoma service with suspicious disc photographs from the diabetic retinopathy (DR) screening program. A clinical audit of all patients attending a single-center DR screening program in the Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, between July 2010 and October 2011 was conducted with a minimum follow-up of 30 months. The DR screening service uses trained technician graders to assess 2-field color retinal photographs for the features of DR. Recently, the service was enhanced so that optic discs are also assessed for signs of glaucoma. In the 16-month study period, 3,697 diabetic patients were photographed. Following photograph grading, 91 (2.46%) were judged to require referral for assessment at the glaucoma clinic. Of these, 63 (69.23%) presented for assessment. Thirteen patients (20.63%) were diagnosed with glaucoma, comprising 7 cases of low-tension glaucoma and 6 cases of primary open-angle glaucoma. Thirty-six patients (57.14%) were classified as glaucoma suspects and 14 patients (22.22%) were discharged back to the DR screening program following normal ocular examination. Only 6 (9.52%) of the 63 patients examined had an intraocular pressure greater than 21 mm Hg. The assessment of DR screening photographs for signs of glaucomatous optic nerve damage should be considered as part of a strategy to improve glaucoma case detection and to reduce the burden of this disease on society.

  4. Towards the development of rapid screening techniques for shale gas core properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Mark R.; Vane, Christopher; Kemp, Simon; Harrington, Jon; Cuss, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Shale gas has been produced for many years in the U.S.A. and forms around 8% of total their natural gas production. Recent testing for gas on the Fylde Coast in Lancashire UK suggests there are potentially large reserves which could be exploited. The increasing significance of shale gas has lead to the need for deeper understanding of shale behaviour. There are many factors which govern whether a particular shale will become a shale gas resource and these include: i) Organic matter abundance, type and thermal maturity; ii) Porosity-permeability relationships and pore size distribution; iii) Brittleness and its relationship to mineralogy and rock fabric. Measurements of these properties require sophisticated and time consuming laboratory techniques (Josh et al 2012), whereas rapid screening techniques could provide timely results which could improve the efficiency and cost effectiveness of exploration. In this study, techniques which are portable and provide rapid on-site measurements (X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Infra-red (IR) spectroscopy) have been calibrated against standard laboratory techniques (Rock-Eval 6 analyser-Vinci Technologies) and Powder whole-rock XRD analysis was carried out using a PANalytical X'Pert Pro series diffractometer equipped with a cobalt-target tube, X'Celerator detector and operated at 45kV and 40mA, to predict properties of potential shale gas material from core material from the Bowland shale Roosecote, south Cumbria. Preliminary work showed that, amongst various mineralogical and organic matter properties of the core, regression models could be used so that the total organic carbon content could be predicted from the IR spectra with a 95 percentile confidence prediction error of 0.6% organic carbon, the free hydrocarbons could be predicted with a 95 percentile confidence prediction error of 0.6 mgHC/g rock, the bound hydrocarbons could be predicted with a 95 percentile confidence prediction error of 2.4 mgHC/g rock, mica content

  5. Cryogenic optical systems for the rapid infrared imager/spectrometer (RIMAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, John I.; Content, David A.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Robinson, Frederick D.; Lotkin, Gennadiy N.; Toy, Vicki L.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Moseley, Samuel H.; Gehrels, Neil A.; Vogel, Stuart N.

    2014-07-01

    The Rapid Infrared Imager/Spectrometer (RIMAS) is designed to perform follow-up observations of transient astronomical sources at near infrared (NIR) wavelengths (0.9 - 2.4 microns). In particular, RIMAS will be used to perform photometric and spectroscopic observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows to compliment the Swift satellite's science goals. Upon completion, RIMAS will be installed on Lowell Observatory's 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) located in Happy Jack, Arizona. The instrument's optical design includes a collimator lens assembly, a dichroic to divide the wavelength coverage into two optical arms (0.9 - 1.4 microns and 1.4 - 2.4 microns respectively), and a camera lens assembly for each optical arm. Because the wavelength coverage extends out to 2.4 microns, all optical elements are cooled to ~70 K. Filters and transmission gratings are located on wheels prior to each camera allowing the instrument to be quickly configured for photometry or spectroscopy. An athermal optomechanical design is being implemented to prevent lenses from loosing their room temperature alignment as the system is cooled. The thermal expansion of materials used in this design have been measured in the lab. Additionally, RIMAS has a guide camera consisting of four lenses to aid observers in passing light from target sources through spectroscopic slits. Efforts to align these optics are ongoing.

  6. Accurate Rapid Lifetime Determination on Time-Gated FLIM Microscopy with Optical Sectioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana F; Domingues, José Paulo; Morgado, António Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Time-gated fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is a powerful technique to assess the biochemistry of cells and tissues. When applied to living thick samples, it is hampered by the lack of optical sectioning and the need of acquiring many images for an accurate measurement of fluorescence lifetimes. Here, we report on the use of processing techniques to overcome these limitations, minimizing the acquisition time, while providing optical sectioning. We evaluated the application of the HiLo and the rapid lifetime determination (RLD) techniques for accurate measurement of fluorescence lifetimes with optical sectioning. HiLo provides optical sectioning by combining the high-frequency content from a standard image, obtained with uniform illumination, with the low-frequency content of a second image, acquired using structured illumination. Our results show that HiLo produces optical sectioning on thick samples without degrading the accuracy of the measured lifetimes. We also show that instrument response function (IRF) deconvolution can be applied with the RLD technique on HiLo images, improving greatly the accuracy of the measured lifetimes. These results open the possibility of using the RLD technique with pulsed diode laser sources to determine accurately fluorescence lifetimes in the subnanosecond range on thick multilayer samples, providing that offline processing is allowed.

  7. Fiber-optic surface-enhanced Raman system for field screening of hazardous compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, T.L.; Goudonnet, J.P.; Arakawa, E.T.; Reddick, R.C.; Gammage, R.B.; Haas, J.W.; James, D.R.; Wachter, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering permits identification of compounds adsorbed onto a metal microbase that is microlithographically produced with submicron resolution. Less than one percent of a monolayer of a Raman Active target compound offers a high signal-to-noise ratio. By depositing the microbase on the exterior of a fiber optic cable, convenient field screening or monitoring is permitted. By using highly effective microbases, it is possible to reduce laser power requirements sufficiently to allow an economical, but complete, system to be housed in a suitcase. We shall present details of SERS system of this type and shall show data on samples of interest in the screening of hazardous compounds

  8. A standard screening test for the early and rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekaran S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE : To perform dark field microscopy (DFM for detection of Leptospira and to validate the results using Leptospira IgM antibody SERION ELISA test. METHODS : After differential centrifugation of Ruys, DFM was done to demonstrate Leptospira in the blood and SERION ELISA was done for Leptospira IgM antibody in single or paired serum samples. One hundred and eleven cases (39 adults and 72 children of suspected leptospirosis were included in the study. RESULTS : Anicteric cases accounted for 66.7% (26/39 of adults and complications involving brain, liver, kidney and eyes were seen in 33.3% (13/39. In children, 90.3% (65/72 were anicteric and involvement of brain and liver was seen in 9.7% (7/72 cases. On testing 60 single samples of blood from 23 adults and 37 children, DFM exhibited greater sensitivity of 93.3% (56/60 than that of SERION ELISA for Leptospira IgM antibody (33.3%, 20/60. It was observed that the positivity of DFM decreased from 100% (15/15 to 90.9% (10/11 with increase in the duration of infection for more than one week. ELISA for Leptospira IgM, done on 51 paired blood samples, was positive in 64.7% (33/51 cases when both (first and second samples were tested while in 45.1% (23/51 cases was positive with first sample alone. 58.8%(30/51 cases were positive by testing second sample. DFM results on paired blood samples showed persistence of Leptospira in 92.9% of cases. CONCLUSION : This study shows the validation of DFM results by SERION ELISA for Leptospira IgM antibody, based on which we recommend that DFM can serve as a standard screening test for early and rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis.

  9. Optical layout of autostereoscopic display that simultaneously reproduces two views each with full-screen resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhov, Vasily

    2014-12-20

    Traditional 60 Hz autostereoscopic displays with static amplitude parallax barriers have a half of full-screen resolution in each of the two displayed views of a 3D scene. The known 120 Hz autostereoscopic displays with dynamic amplitude parallax barriers have full-screen resolution but are characterized by essential light intensity losses and crosstalk in each of displayed views. The recently proposed autostereoscopic displays with simultaneous reproducing two image elements in each display pixel and with a polarization parallax barrier have full-screen resolution. However, the existing optical layout of these displays does not provide optimum operating conditions for the polarization parallax barrier creating a tendency to degrade the contrast and color characteristics. This paper presents a new optical layout characterized by the rearrangement of optical components of the previous layout. In this approach, the highlighted problems are addressed without any trade-offs. Through informal subjective visual tests, this proposal is found to provide good contrast and good color balance in the output image.

  10. Screening and rapid molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis in prisons in Russia and Eastern Europe: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Winetsky

    Full Text Available Prisons of the former Soviet Union (FSU have high rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and are thought to drive general population tuberculosis (TB epidemics. Effective prison case detection, though employing more expensive technologies, may reduce long-term treatment costs and slow MDR-TB transmission.We developed a dynamic transmission model of TB and drug resistance matched to the epidemiology and costs in FSU prisons. We evaluated eight strategies for TB screening and diagnosis involving, alone or in combination, self-referral, symptom screening, mass miniature radiography (MMR, and sputum PCR with probes for rifampin resistance (Xpert MTB/RIF. Over a 10-y horizon, we projected costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs, and TB and MDR-TB prevalence. Using sputum PCR as an annual primary screening tool among the general prison population most effectively reduced overall TB prevalence (from 2.78% to 2.31% and MDR-TB prevalence (from 0.74% to 0.63%, and cost US$543/QALY for additional QALYs gained compared to MMR screening with sputum PCR reserved for rapid detection of MDR-TB. Adding sputum PCR to the currently used strategy of annual MMR screening was cost-saving over 10 y compared to MMR screening alone, but produced only a modest reduction in MDR-TB prevalence (from 0.74% to 0.69% and had minimal effect on overall TB prevalence (from 2.78% to 2.74%. Strategies based on symptom screening alone were less effective and more expensive than MMR-based strategies. Study limitations included scarce primary TB time-series data in FSU prisons and uncertainties regarding screening test characteristics.In prisons of the FSU, annual screening of the general inmate population with sputum PCR most effectively reduces TB and MDR-TB prevalence, doing so cost-effectively. If this approach is not feasible, the current strategy of annual MMR is both more effective and less expensive than strategies using self-referral or symptom screening alone

  11. Understanding Transgender Men's Experiences with and Preferences for Cervical Cancer Screening: A Rapid Assessment Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seay, Julia; Ranck, Atticus; Weiss, Roy; Salgado, Christopher; Fein, Lydia; Kobetz, Erin

    2017-08-01

    Transgender men are less likely than cisgender women to receive cervical cancer screening. The purpose of the current study was to understand experiences with and preferences for cervical cancer screening among transgender men. Ninety-one transgender men ages 21-63 completed the survey. The survey evaluated experiences with and preferences for screening, including opinions regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling as a primary cervical cancer screening. Half (50.5%) of participants did not have Pap smear screening within the past 3 years. The majority (57.1%) of participants preferred HPV self-sampling over provider-collected Pap smear screening. Participants who reported discrimination were more likely to prefer HPV self-sampling (odds ratio = 3.29, 95% confidence interval 1.38-7.84, P = 0.007). Primary HPV testing via HPV self-sampling may improve cervical cancer screening uptake among transgender men. Future work should pilot this innovative cervical cancer screening method within this population.

  12. Assessment of Arteriovenous Shunt Pathway Function and Hypervolemia for Hemodialysis Patients by Using Integrated Rapid Screening System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ling Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the hemodialysis patients received body weight measurement by themselves, vital sign checking by nursing staffs before dialysis. Whenever, the arteriovenous routes with problems doubted, the patients needed to be referred to surgeon for vascular echography checking and then to be corrected. How to integrate these three tasks in one time is a very important issue. The project proposes to combine our previous study of audio-phono angiographic technology in detecting vascular stenosis with rapid screening system to evaluate dialysis patients’ arteriovenous routes function and their status of excess body fluids: inspecting and integrating the blood pressure, body weight, and fistula function work into a rapid screening system, and using the quantization of fistula phono angiography pitch to achieve assessing arteriovenous routes. Future hoping is developed a complete integrated intelligence system by combining the arteriovenous fistula signal processing with feature extraction with wireless sensor network technology.

  13. Fiber-optic sensors for rapid, inexpensive characterization of soil and ground water contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanovich, F.P.; Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    The extent and complexity of worldwide environmental contamination are great enough that characterization, remediation, and performance monitoring will be extremely costly and lengthy. Characterization techniques that are rapid, inexpensive, and simple and that do not generate waste are urgently needed. Towards this end LLNL is developing a fiber-optic chemical sensor technology for use in groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring. We use a colorimetric detection technique, based on an irreversible chemical reaction between a specific reagent and the target compound. The accuracy and sensitivity of the sensor (<5 ppb by weight in water, determined by comparison with gas chromatographic standard measurements) are sufficient for environmental monitoring of trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform

  14. Optical code division multiple access secure communications systems with rapid reconfigurable polarization shift key user code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kaiqiang; Wu, Chongqing; Sheng, Xinzhi; Shang, Chao; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    An optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) secure communications system scheme with rapid reconfigurable polarization shift key (Pol-SK) bipolar user code is proposed and demonstrated. Compared to fix code OCDMA, by constantly changing the user code, the performance of anti-eavesdropping is greatly improved. The Pol-SK OCDMA experiment with a 10 Gchip/s user code and a 1.25 Gb/s user data of payload has been realized, which means this scheme has better tolerance and could be easily realized.

  15. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on the optical and electrical properties of InN epilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, G W; Wu, P F; Liu, Y W; Wang, J S; Shen, J L; Lin, T Y; Pong, P J; Chi, G C; Chang, H J; Chen, Y F; Lee, Y C

    2006-01-01

    We studied the optical and electrical properties of InN epilayers with rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The intensity of the photoluminescence (PL) and the carrier mobility were found to increase as the temperature of RTA was increased. We suggest that the formation of compensating acceptors (indium vacancies) after RTA is responsible for the improvement of the quality in InN. The dependence of the PL emission peak on carrier concentration provides a possible method for estimating the carrier concentration in degenerate InN. (letter to the editor)

  16. Case report: lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis-from rapid screening to molecular confirmation of a masked sexually transmitted disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowicz, Mateusz; Grilnberger, Evelyn; Huber, Florian; Leibl, Gabriele; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Gartner, Manfred; Huber, Monika; Chott, Andreas; Reiter, Michael; Stanek, Gerold

    2013-08-01

    Proctitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis L2b can manifest with very mild, nonspecific symptoms, and appropriate diagnostic evaluation is crucial. The case report demonstrates that rapid screening test, detection of specific antibodies in serum, and direct pathogen identification by PCR performed on tissue sample or rectal swab allow successful diagnosis of the still emerging sexually transmitted disease among homosexual patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid feedback control and stabilization of an optical tweezers with a budget microcontroller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nino, Daniel; Wang, Haowei; N Milstein, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Laboratories ranging the scientific disciplines employ feedback control to regulate variables within their experiments, from the flow of liquids within a microfluidic device to the temperature within a cell incubator. We have built an inexpensive, yet fast and rapidly deployed, feedback control system that is straightforward and flexible to implement from a commercially available Arduino Due microcontroller. This is in comparison with the complex, time-consuming and often expensive electronics that are commonly implemented. As an example of its utility, we apply our feedback controller to the task of stabilizing the main trapping laser of an optical tweezers. The feedback controller, which is inexpensive yet fast and rapidly deployed, was implemented from hacking an open source Arduino Due microcontroller. Our microcontroller based feedback system can stabilize the laser intensity to a few tenths of a per cent at 200 kHz, which is an order of magnitude better than the laser's base specifications, illustrating the utility of these devices. (paper)

  18. Rapid feedback control and stabilization of an optical tweezers with a budget microcontroller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nino, Daniel; Wang, Haowei; N Milstein, Joshua, E-mail: josh.milstein@utoronto.ca [Department of Chemical and Physical Sciences, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, ON L5L 1C6 (Canada)

    2014-09-01

    Laboratories ranging the scientific disciplines employ feedback control to regulate variables within their experiments, from the flow of liquids within a microfluidic device to the temperature within a cell incubator. We have built an inexpensive, yet fast and rapidly deployed, feedback control system that is straightforward and flexible to implement from a commercially available Arduino Due microcontroller. This is in comparison with the complex, time-consuming and often expensive electronics that are commonly implemented. As an example of its utility, we apply our feedback controller to the task of stabilizing the main trapping laser of an optical tweezers. The feedback controller, which is inexpensive yet fast and rapidly deployed, was implemented from hacking an open source Arduino Due microcontroller. Our microcontroller based feedback system can stabilize the laser intensity to a few tenths of a per cent at 200 kHz, which is an order of magnitude better than the laser's base specifications, illustrating the utility of these devices. (paper)

  19. Screens

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This Sixth volume in the series The Key Debates. Mutations and Appropriations in European Film Studies investigates the question of screens in the context both of the dematerialization due to digitalization and the multiplication of media screens. Scholars offer various infomations and theories of topics such as the archeology of screen, film and media theories, contemporary art, pragmatics of new ways of screening (from home video to street screening).

  20. Improving the screening of blood donors with syphilis rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkodie, F; Hassall, O; Owusu-Dabo, E; Owusu-Ofori, S; Bates, I; Bygbjerg, I C; Owusu-Ofori, A; Harritshøj, L H; Ullum, H

    2017-02-01

    Syphilis testing conventionally relies on a combination of non-treponemal and treponemal tests. The primary objective of this study was to describe the positive predictive value (PPV) of a screening algorithm in a combination of a treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. From February 2014 to January 2015, 5 mL of venous blood samples were taken from 16 016 blood donors and tested with a treponemal RDT; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from 526 consenting initial syphilis sero-reactive blood donors. These RDT reactive samples were confirmed with an algorithm, applying the Vitros ® /Abbott-Architect ® algorithm as gold standard. A total of 478 of 526 RDT reactive donors were confirmed positive for syphilis, making a PPV of 90·9%. Of the 172 (32·7%) donors who were also RPR positive, 167 were confirmed, resulting in a PPV of 97·1%. The PPV of the combined RDT and RPR (suspected active syphilis) testing algorithm was highest among donors at an enhanced risk of syphilis, family/replacement donors (99·9%), and among voluntary donors above 25 years (98·6%). Screening of blood donors by combining syphilis RDT and RPR with relatively good PPV may provide a reasonable technology for LMIC that has a limited capacity for testing and can contribute to the improvement of blood safety with a minimal loss of donors. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  1. A deep learning and novelty detection framework for rapid phenotyping in high-content screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Christoph; Hoefler, Rudolf; Samwer, Matthias; Gerlich, Daniel W.

    2017-01-01

    Supervised machine learning is a powerful and widely used method for analyzing high-content screening data. Despite its accuracy, efficiency, and versatility, supervised machine learning has drawbacks, most notably its dependence on a priori knowledge of expected phenotypes and time-consuming classifier training. We provide a solution to these limitations with CellCognition Explorer, a generic novelty detection and deep learning framework. Application to several large-scale screening data sets on nuclear and mitotic cell morphologies demonstrates that CellCognition Explorer enables discovery of rare phenotypes without user training, which has broad implications for improved assay development in high-content screening. PMID:28954863

  2. Developing a novel fiber optic fluorescence device for multiplexed high-throughput cytotoxic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dennis; Barnes, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The need for new pharmacological agents is unending. Yet the drug discovery process has changed substantially over the past decade and continues to evolve in response to new technologies. There is presently a high demand to reduce discovery time by improving specific lab disciplines and developing new technology platforms in the area of cell-based assay screening. Here we present the developmental concept and early stage testing of the Ab-Sniffer, a novel fiber optic fluorescence device for high-throughput cytotoxicity screening using an immobilized whole cell approach. The fused silica fibers are chemically functionalized with biotin to provide interaction with fluorescently labeled, streptavidin functionalized alginate-chitosan microspheres. The microspheres are also functionalized with Concanavalin A to facilitate binding to living cells. By using lymphoma cells and rituximab in an adaptation of a well-known cytotoxicity protocol we demonstrate the utility of the Ab-Sniffer for functional screening of potential drug compounds rather than indirect, non-functional screening via binding assay. The platform can be extended to any assay capable of being tied to a fluorescence response including multiple target cells in each well of a multi-well plate for high-throughput screening.

  3. Integrated microfluidic system for rapid screening of CRP aptamers utilizing systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao-June; Lin, Hsin-I; Shiesh, Shu-Chu; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2010-03-15

    The systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) is an experimental procedure that allows screening of given molecular targets by desired binding affinities from an initial random pool of oligonucleotides and oligomers. The final products of SELEX are usually referred as aptamers, which are recognized as promising molecules for a variety of biomedical applications. However, SELEX is an iterative process requiring multiple rounds of extraction and amplification that demands significant time and labor. Therefore, this study presents a novel, automatic, miniature SELEX platform. As a demonstration, the rapid screening of C-reactive protein (CRP) aptamers was performed. By utilizing microfluidic technologies and magnetic beads conjugated with CRP, aptamers with a high affinity to CRP were extracted from a random single-strand deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) pool. These aptamers were further amplified by an on-chip polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. After five consecutive extraction and amplification cycles, a specific aptamer with the highest affinity was screened automatically. The screened aptamers were used as a recognition molecule for the detection of CRP. The developed microsystem demonstrated fast screening of CRP aptamers and can be used as a powerful tool to select analyte-specific aptamers for biomedical applications. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid, all-optical crystal orientation imaging of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Sabrina N.; Zhai, Yao; Zande, Arend M. van der; O'Brien, Kevin; Huang, Pinshane Y.; Chenet, Daniel A.; Hone, James C.; Zhang, Xiang; Yin, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted significant research and industrial interest for their electronic, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. While large-area crystal growth techniques such as chemical vapor deposition have been demonstrated, the presence of grain boundaries and orientation of grains arising in such growths substantially affect the physical properties of the materials. There is currently no scalable characterization method for determining these boundaries and orientations over a large sample area. We here present a second-harmonic generation based microscopy technique for rapidly mapping grain orientations and boundaries of 2D TMDCs. We experimentally demonstrate the capability to map large samples to an angular resolution of ±1° with minimal sample preparation and without involved analysis. A direct comparison of the all-optical grain orientation maps against results obtained by diffraction-filtered dark-field transmission electron microscopy plus selected-area electron diffraction on identical TMDC samples is provided. This rapid and accurate tool should enable large-area characterization of TMDC samples for expedited studies of grain boundary effects and the efficient characterization of industrial-scale production techniques

  5. Rapid genetically modified organism (GMO screening of various food products and animal feeds using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha, V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available modified crops which brought up a controversy on the safety usage of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. It has been implemented globally that all GMO products and its derived ingredients should have regulations on the usage and labelling. Thus, it is necessary to develop methods that allow rapid screening of GMO products to comply with the regulations. This study employed a reliable and flexible multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR method for the rapid detection of transgenic elements in genetically modified soy and maize along with the soybean LECTIN gene and maize ZEIN gene respectively. The selected four common transgenic elements were 35S promoter (35S; Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase terminator (NOS; 5-enolypyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (epsps gene; and Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab gene. Optimization of the multiplex PCR methods were carried out by using 1% Roundup ReadyTM Soybean (RRS as the certified reference material for soybean that produced fourplex PCR method detecting 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene and soybean LECTIN gene and by using 1% MON810 as the certified reference material for maize that produced triplex PCR method detecting 35S promoter, cry1Ab gene and maize ZEIN gene prior to screening of the GMO traits in various food products and animal feeds. 1/9 (11.1% of the animal feed contained maize and 1/15 (6.7% of the soybean food products showed positive results for the detection of GMO transgenic gene. None of the maize food products showed positive results for GMO transgenic gene. In total, approximately 4% of the food products and animal feed were positive as GMO. This indicated GMOs have not widely entered the food chain. However, it is necessary to have an appropriate screening method due to GMOs’ unknown potential risk to humans and to animals. This rapid screening method will provide leverage in terms of being economically wise, time saving and reliable.

  6. Application of Optical Biosensors in Small-Molecule Screening Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Knecht

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades have seen remarkable progress and improvements in optical biosensor systems such that those are currently seen as an important and value-adding component of modern drug screening activities. In particular the introduction of microplate-based biosensor systems holds the promise to match the required throughput without compromising on data quality thus representing a sought-after complement to traditional fluidic systems. This article aims to highlight the application of the two most prominent optical biosensor technologies, namely surface plasmon resonance (SPR and optical waveguide grating (OWG, in small-molecule screening and will present, review and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different assay formats on these platforms. A particular focus will be on the specific advantages of the inhibition in solution assay (ISA format in contrast to traditional direct binding assays (DBA. Furthermore we will discuss different application areas for both fluidic as well as plate-based biosensor systems by considering the individual strength of the platforms.

  7. Effect of rapid oxidation on optical and electrical properties of silicon nanowires obtained by chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyaoui, M.; Bardaoui, A.; Ben Rabha, M.; Harmand, J. C.; Amlouk, M.

    2012-05-01

    In the present work, we report the investigation of passivated silicon nanowires (SiNWs) having an average radius of 3.7 μm, obtained by chemical etching of p-type silicon (p-Si). The surface passivation of the SiNWs was performed through a rapid oxidation conducted under a controlled atmosphere at different temperatures and durations. The morphology of the SiNWs was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) that revealed a wave-like structure of dense and vertically aligned one-dimensional silicon nanostructures. On the other hand, optical and electrical characterizations of the SiNWs were studied using a UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and I-V measurements. The reflectance of SiNWs has been dropped to approximately 2% in comparison to that of bare p-Si. This low reflectance slightly increased after carrying out the rapid thermal annealing. The observed behavior was attributed to the formation of a SiO2 layer, as confirmed by FTIR measurements. Finally, the electrical measurements have shown that the rapid oxidation, at certain conditions, contributes to the improvement of the electrical responses of the SiNWs, which can be of great interest for photovoltaic applications.

  8. Rapid Detection of Food Allergens by Microfluidics ELISA-Based Optical Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Weng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The risks associated with the presence of hidden allergens in food have increased the need for rapid, sensitive, and reliable methods for tracing food allergens in commodities. Conventional enzyme immunosorbent assay (ELISA has usually been performed in a centralized lab, requiring considerable time and sample/reagent consumption and expensive detection instruments. In this study, a microfluidic ELISA platform combined with a custom-designed optical sensor was developed for the quantitative analysis of the proteins wheat gluten and Ara h 1. The developed microfluidic ELISA biosensor reduced the total assay time from hours (up to 3.5 h to 15–20 min and decreased sample/reagent consumption to 5–10 μL, compared to a few hundred microliters in commercial ELISA kits, with superior sensitivity. The quantitative capability of the presented biosensor is a distinctive advantage over the commercially available rapid methods such as lateral flow devices (LFD and dipstick tests. The developed microfluidic biosensor demonstrates the potential for sensitive and less-expensive on-site determination for rapidly detecting food allergens in a complex sample system.

  9. Rapid screening of aquatic toxicity of several metal-based nanoparticles using the MetPLATE™ bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhrel, Lok R.; Silva, Thilini; Dubey, Brajesh; El Badawy, Amro M.; Tolaymat, Thabet M.; Scheuerman, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Current understanding of potential toxicity of engineered nanomaterials to aquatic microorganisms is limited for risk assessment and management. Here we evaluate if the MetPLATE™ test can be used as an effective and rapid screening tool to test for potential aquatic toxicity of various metal-based nanoparticles (NPs). The MetPLATE bioassay is a heavy metal sensitive test based on β-galactosidase activity in Escherichia coli. Five different types of metal-based NPs were screened for toxicity: (1) citrate coated nAg (Citrate-nanosilver), (2) polyvinylpyrrolidone coated nAg (PVP-nAg), (3) uncoated nZnO, (4) uncoated nTiO 2 and (5) 1-Octadecylamine coated CdSe Quantum Dots (CdSe QDs); and compared with their corresponding ionic salt toxicity. Citrate-nAg was further fractionated into clean Citrate-nAg, unclean Citrate-nAg and permeate using a tangential flow filtration (TFF) system to eliminate residual ions and impurities from the stock Citrate-nAg suspension and also to differentiate between ionic- versus nano-specific toxicity. Our results showed that nAg, nZnO and CdSe QDs were less toxic than their corresponding ionic salts tested, while nano- or ionic form of TiO 2 was not toxic as high as 2.5 g L −1 to the MetPLATE™ bacteria. Although coating-dependent toxicity was noticeable between two types of Ag NPs evaluated, particle size and surface charge were not adequate to explain the observed toxicity; hence, the toxicity appeared to be material-specific. Overall, the toxicity followed the trend: CdCl 2 > AgNO 3 > PVP-nAg > unclean Citrate-nAg > clean Citrate-nAg > ZnSO 4 > nZnO > CdSe QDs > nTiO 2 /TiO 2 . These results indicate that an evaluation of β-galactosidase inhibition in MetPLATE™ E. coli can be an important consideration for rapid screening of metal-based NP toxicity, and should facilitate ecological risk assessment of these emerging contaminants. - Highlights: ► MetPLATE bioassay was evaluated as a rapid screening tool for nanotoxicity.

  10. Rapidly Rising Optical Transients from the Birth of Binary Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotokezaka, Kenta; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Murase, Kohta

    2017-11-01

    We study optical counterparts of a new-born pulsar in a double neutron star system like PSR J0737-3039A/B. This system is believed to have ejected a small amount of mass of { O }(0.1 {M}⊙ ) at the second core-collapse supernova. We argue that the initial spin of the new-born pulsar can be determined by the orbital period at the time when the second supernova occurs. The spin angular momentum of the progenitor is expected to be similar to that of the He-burning core, which is tidally synchronized with the orbital motion, and then the second remnant may be born as a millisecond pulsar. If the dipole magnetic field strength of the nascent pulsar is comparable with that inferred from the current spin-down rate of PSR J0737-3039B, the initial spin-down luminosity is comparable to the luminosity of super-luminous supernovae. We consider thermal emission arising from the supernova ejecta driven by the relativistic wind from such a new-born pulsar. The resulting optical light curves have a rise time of ˜10 days and a peak luminosity of ˜1044 erg s-1. The optical emission may last for a month to several months, due to the reprocessing of X-rays and UV photons via photoelectric absorption. These features are broadly consistent with those of the rapidly rising optical transients. The high spin-down luminosity and small ejecta mass are favorable for the progenitor of the repeating fast radio burst, FRB 121102. We discuss a possible connection between new-born double pulsars and fast radio bursts.

  11. Screening-induced surface polar optical phonon scattering in dual-gated graphene field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bo, E-mail: hubo2011@semi.ac.cn

    2015-03-15

    The effect of surface polar optical phonons (SOs) from the dielectric layers on electron mobility in dual-gated graphene field effect transistors (GFETs) is studied theoretically. By taking into account SO scattering of electron as a main scattering mechanism, the electron mobility is calculated by the iterative solution of Boltzmann transport equation. In treating scattering with the SO modes, the dynamic dielectric screening is included and compared to the static dielectric screening and the dielectric screening in the static limit. It is found that the dynamic dielectric screening effect plays an important role in the range of low net carrier density. More importantly, in-plane acoustic phonon scattering and charged impurity scattering are also included in the total mobility for SiO{sub 2}-supported GFETs with various high-κ top-gate dielectric layers considered. The calculated total mobility results suggest both Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and AlN are the promising candidate dielectric layers for the enhancement in room temperature mobility of graphene in the future.

  12. Participant recruitment and motivation for participation in optical technology for cervical cancer screening research trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhatovich, Olga M; Sharman, Mathilde P; Mirabal, Yvette N; Earle, Nan R; Follen, Michele; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2005-12-01

    In order to improve recruitment for cervical cancer screening trials, it is necessary to analyze the effectiveness of recruitment strategies used in current trials. A trial to test optical spectroscopy for the diagnosis of cervical neoplasia recruited 1000 women from the community; the trial evaluated the emerging technology against Pap smears and colposcopically directed biopsies for cervical dysplasia. We have examined women's reasons for participating as well as the effectiveness and efficiency for each recruitment strategy. Reasons for participation were identified and compared between trials. The recruitment method that resulted in the most contacts was newspaper reportorial coverage and advertising, followed by family and friends, then television news coverage. The most cost-effective method for finding eligible women who attend the research appointment is word of mouth from a family member or friend. Recommendations are given for maximizing the efficiency of recruitment for cervical cancer screening trials.

  13. Rapid Screening of In-Vitro Regenerated Plantlets of Four Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Tissue culture technique provides a rapid means of studying plant-pathogen interaction in a controlled ... Keywords: cowpea, in-vitro regeneration, hormones, Fusarium wilt, protocols. .... solanacearum and evaluation of tomato in Nepal.

  14. Evaluation of the Specificity and Sensitivity of a Potential Rapid Influenza Screening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    misuse of antibiotic therapy for treatment of influenza infections. Rapid identification of influenza infections would further reduce transmission of...amplification tests in combination with Type I BESt™ Cassette have been developed and used to rapidly detect other pathogenic microorgan- isms including herpes ... simplex virus types 1 and 2 (Kim et al., 2011), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Motre et al., 2011), human immunode- ficiency virus (Tang et al., 2010), and

  15. LC-ESI/MS/MS method for rapid screening and confirmation of 44 exogenous anabolic steroids in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byoung Wook; Yoo, Hye Hyun; Jeong, Eun Sook; Kim, Ho Jun; Jin, Changbae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Lee, Jaeick

    2011-09-01

    A sensitive and rapid method based on liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) has been developed and validated for the screening and confirmation of 44 exogenous anabolic steroids (29 parent steroids and 15 metabolites) in human urine. The method involves an enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, and detection by LC-MS/MS. A triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in positive ESI mode with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode for the screening and product ion scan mode for the confirmation. The protonated molecular ions were used as precursor ions for the SRM analysis and product ion scan. The intraday and interday precisions of the target analytes at concentrations of the minimum required performance levels for the screening were 2-14% and 2-15%, respectively. The limits of detection for the screening and confirmation method were 0.1-10 ng/mL and 0.2-10 ng/mL, respectively, for 44 steroids. This method was successfully applied to analysis of urine samples from suspected anabolic steroid abusers.

  16. Ultra-rapid auxin metabolite profiling for high-throughput mutant screening in Arabidopsis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pěnčík, Aleš; Casanova-Sáez, R.; Pilařová, V.; Žukauskaitė, Asta; Pinto, R.; Micol, J.L.; Ljung, K.; Novák, Ondřej

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 10 (2018), s. 2569-2579 ISSN 0022-0957 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-21581Y Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Arabidopsis thaliana * auxin * metabolite profiling * multivariate data analysis * mutant * screening Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  17. Optical pre-screening in breast screening programs: Can we identify women who benefit most from limited mammography resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jane; Loshchenov, Maxim; Zhilkin, Vladimir; Peake, Rachel; Stone, Jennifer; Lilge, Lothar

    2017-04-01

    Background: In excess of 60% of all cancers are detected in low and middle-income countries, with breast cancer (BC) the dominant malignancy for women. Incidence rates continue to climb, most noticeably in the less than 50-year-old population. Expansion of mammography infrastructure and resources is lacking, resulting in over 60% of women diagnosed with stage III/IV BC in the majority of these countries. Optical Breast Spectroscopy (OBS) was shown to correlate well with mammographic breast density (MBD). OBS could aid breast screening programs in low- and middle-income countries by lowering the number of mammographs required for complete population coverage. However, its performance needs to be tested in large population trails to ensure high sensitivity and acceptable specificity. Methods: For the planned studies in low- and middle-income countries in different continents, online methods need to be implemented to monitor the performance and data collection by these devices, operated by trained nurses. Based on existing datasets, procedures were developed to validate an individual woman's data integrity and to identify operator errors versus system malfunctions. Results: Using a dataset comprising spectra from 360 women collected by 2 instruments in different locations and with 3 different trained operators, automated methods were developed to identify 100% of the source or photodetector malfunctions as well as incorrect calibrations and 96% of instances of insufficient tissue contact. Conclusions: Implementing the dataset validation locally in each instrument and tethered to a cloud database will allow the planned clinical trials to proceed.

  18. Rapid screening for drugs of abuse in biological fluids by ultra high performance liquid chromatography/Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagerdeo, Eshwar; Schaff, Jason E

    2016-08-01

    We present a UPLC(®)-High Resolution Mass Spectrometric method to simultaneously screen for nineteen benzodiazepines, twelve opiates, cocaine and three metabolites, and three "Z-drug" hypnotic sedatives in both blood and urine specimens. Sample processing consists of a high-speed, high-temperature enzymatic hydrolysis for urine samples followed by a rapid supported liquid extraction (SLE). The combination of ultra-high resolution chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry allows all 38 analytes to be uniquely detected with a ten minute analytical run. Limits of detection for all target analytes are 3ng/mL or better, with only 0.3mL of specimen used for analysis. The combination of low sample volume with fast processing and analysis makes this method a suitable replacement for immunoassay screening of the targeted drug classes, while providing far superior specificity and better limits of detection than can routinely be obtained by immunoassay. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Effect of the phosphor screen optics on the Swank noise performance in indirect-conversion x-ray imaging detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C H; Moon, M-K; Kam, S; Han, J C; Yun, S; Youn, H; Kim, H K; Jeon, H

    2014-01-01

    The optics between the scintillators and photodiode arrays of indirect-conversion x-ray imaging systems requires careful design because it can be a cause of secondary quantum sink, which reduces the detective quantum efficiency at high spatial frequencies. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of the optical properties of granular phosphor screens — including optical coupling materials and passivation layers in photodiode arrays — on the imaging performance of indirect-conversion x-ray imaging detectors using the Monte Carlo technique. In the Monte Carlo simulations, various design parameters were considered, such as the refractive index of the optical coupler and the passivation layer, the reflection coefficient at the screen backing, and the thickness of the optical coupler. We developed a model that describes the optical pulse-height distributions based on the depth-dependent collection efficiency obtained from the simulations. We used the model to calculate the optical Swank noise. A loss in the number of collected optical photons was inevitable owing to the introduction of intermediate optics and mismatches in the optical design parameters. However, the collection efficiency marginally affected the optical Swank factor performance. The results and methodology of this study will facilitate better designs and optimization of indirect-conversion x-ray detectors

  20. Rapid bioassay-guided screening of toxic substances in vegetable oils that shorten the life of SHRSP rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowski Paul

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been consistently reported that vegetable oils including canola oil have a life shortening effect in Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRSP and this toxic effect is not due to the fatty acid composition of the oil. Although it is possible that the phytosterol content or type of phytosterol present in vegetable oils may play some role in the life shortening effect observed in SHRSP rats this is still not completely resolved. Furthermore supercritical CO2 fractionation of canola oil with subsequent testing in SHRSP rats identified safe and toxic fractions however, the compounds responsible for life shortening effect were not characterised. The conventional approach to screen toxic substances in oils using rats takes more than six months and involves large number of animals. In this article we describe how rapid bioassay-guided screening could be used to identify toxic substances derived from vegetable oils and/or processed foods fortified with vegetable oils. The technique incorporates sequential fractionation of oils/processed foods and subsequent treatment of human cell lines that can be used in place of animal studies to determine cytotoxicity of the fractions with structural elucidation of compounds of interest determined via HPLC-MS and GC-MS. The rapid bioassay-guided screening proposed would require two weeks to test multiple fractions from oils, compared with six months if animal experiments were used to screen toxic effects. Fractionation of oil before bio-assay enhances the effectiveness of the detection of active compounds as fractionation increases the relative concentration of minor components.

  1. [The significance of pedigree genetic screening and rapid immunological parameters in the diagnosis of primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Wang, Y N; Wang, J S; Wu, L; Wei, N; Fu, L; Gao, Z; Chen, J H; Pei, R J; Wang, Z

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the significance of pedigree genetic screening and rapid immunological parameters in the diagnosis of primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Four cases of primary HLH patients with PRF1, UNC13D and SH2D1A gene mutations were conducted pedigree investigation, including family genetic screening and detections of immunological parameters (NK cell activity, CD107a degranulation and expression of HLH related defective protein), to evaluate the significance of these different indicators in the diagnosis of primary HLH and explore their correlations. The DNA mutations of the four families included missense mutation c.T172C (p.S58P) and non- frameshift deletions c.1083_1094del (p.361_365del), missense mutation c.C1349T (p.T450M) and frameshift mutation c.1090_1091delCT (p.T364fsX93) in PRF1 gene, missense mutation c.G2588A (p.G863D) in UNC13D gene and hemizygous mutation c.32T>G (p.I11S) in SH2D1A gene. The patients and their family members presented decreased NK cell activities. Individuals who carried mutations of PRF1 gene and SH2D1A gene showed low expression of perforin (PRF1) and signaling lymphocytic activation molecule associated protein (SAP). And the patient with UNC13D gene mutation and his family member with identical mutation showed significant reducing cytotoxic degranulation function (expression of CD107a). Pedigree genetic screening and rapid detection of immunological parameters might play an important role in the diagnosis of primary HLH, and both of them had good consistency. As an efficient detection means, the rapid immunological detection indicators would provide reliable basis for the early diagnosis of the primary HLH.

  2. A new fiber-optic sensor technology for rapid and inexpensive characterization of soil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanovich, F.P.; Brown, S.B.; Colston, B.W. Jr.; Daley, P.F.; Rossabi, J.

    1993-04-01

    The extent and complexity of worldwide environmental contamination are great enough that remediation will be extremely costly and lengthy. There is an urgent need for characterization techniques that are rapid, inexpensive, and simple and that do not generate waste. Towards this end LLNL is developing a fiber-optic chemical sensor technology for use in groundwater and vadose-zone monitoring. We use a colorimetric detection technique, based on an irreversible chemical reaction between a specific reagent and the target compound. The accuracy and sensitivity of the sensor (<5 ppb by weight in water, determined by comparison with gas chromatographic standard measurements) are sufficient for environmental monitoring of at least trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform

  3. Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: Optical and electrochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeiro, Fernanda C.; Marinho, Juliane Z.; Lemos, Samantha C.S. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Moura, Ana P. de [LIEC, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Freire, Poliana G. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Silva, Luis F. da; Longo, Elson [LIEC, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14800-900 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Munoz, Rodrigo A.A. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil); Lima, Renata C., E-mail: rclima@iqufu.ufu.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, 38400-902 Uberlândia, MG (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    We report for the first time a rapid preparation of Zn{sub 1−2x}Co{sub x}Ni{sub x}O nanoparticles via a versatile and environmentally friendly route, microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) method. The Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles present an effect on photoluminescence and electrochemical properties, exhibiting excellent electrocatalytic performance compared to undoped ZnO sample. Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements indicated the reduction of the green–orange–red visible emission region after adding Co and Ni ions, revealing the formation of alternative pathways for the generated recombination. The presence of these metallic ions into ZnO creates different defects, contributing to a local structural disorder, as revealed by Raman spectra. Electrochemical experiments revealed that the electrocatalytic oxidation of dopamine on ZnO attached to multi-walled carbon nanotubes improved significantly in the Co, Ni co-doped ZnO samples when compared to pure ZnO. - Graphical abstract: Rapid synthesis of Co, Ni co-doped ZnO nanoparticles: optical and electrochemical properties. Co, Ni co-doped ZnO hexagonal nanoparticles with optical and electrocatalytic properties were successfully prepared for the first time using a microwave hydrothermal method at mild conditions. - Highlights: • Co{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} into ZnO lattice obtained a mild and environmentally friendly process. • The heating method strongly influences in the growth and shape of the particles. • Short-range defects generated by the ions insertion affects the photoluminescence. • Doped ZnO nanoparticles improve the electrocatalytic properties of pure oxide.

  4. Multicomponent mixed dopant optimization for rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sioud, Salim; Amad, Maan H.; Al-Talla, Zeyad

    2012-01-01

    with water-soluble organic solvents. In order to achieve a more efficient and less toxic dopant, a multicomponent mixed dopant was explored. METHODS A multicomponent mixed dopant for non-targeted rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs

  5. A microfluidic device for rapid screening of E. coli O157:H7 based on IFAST and ATP bioluminescence assay for water analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngamsom, B

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple microfluidic system for rapid screening of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 employing the specificity of immunomagnetic separation (IMS) via immiscible filtration assisted by surface tension (IFAST), and the sensitivity...

  6. Characterization of a Reconfigurable Free-Space Optical Channel for Embedded Computer Applications with Experimental Validation Using Rapid Prototyping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gil-Otero

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Free-space optical interconnects (FSOIs are widely seen as a potential solution to current and future bandwidth bottlenecks for parallel processors. In this paper, an FSOI system called optical highway (OH is proposed. The OH uses polarizing beam splitter-liquid crystal plate (PBS/LC assemblies to perform reconfigurable beam combination functions. The properties of the OH make it suitable for embedding complex network topologies such as completed connected mesh or hypercube. This paper proposes the use of rapid prototyping technology for implementing an optomechanical system suitable for studying the reconfigurable characteristics of a free-space optical channel. Additionally, it reports how the limited contrast ratio of the optical components can affect the attenuation of the optical signal and the crosstalk caused by misdirected signals. Different techniques are also proposed in order to increase the optical modulation amplitude (OMA of the system.

  7. Characterization of a Reconfigurable Free-Space Optical Channel for Embedded Computer Applications with Experimental Validation Using Rapid Prototyping Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Theodore

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-space optical interconnects (FSOIs are widely seen as a potential solution to current and future bandwidth bottlenecks for parallel processors. In this paper, an FSOI system called optical highway (OH is proposed. The OH uses polarizing beam splitter-liquid crystal plate (PBS/LC assemblies to perform reconfigurable beam combination functions. The properties of the OH make it suitable for embedding complex network topologies such as completed connected mesh or hypercube. This paper proposes the use of rapid prototyping technology for implementing an optomechanical system suitable for studying the reconfigurable characteristics of a free-space optical channel. Additionally, it reports how the limited contrast ratio of the optical components can affect the attenuation of the optical signal and the crosstalk caused by misdirected signals. Different techniques are also proposed in order to increase the optical modulation amplitude (OMA of the system.

  8. Application of a rapid screening method to detect irradiated meat in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Delincee, H.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Based on the enormous potential for food irradiation in Brazil, and to ensure free consumer choice, there is a need to find a convenient and rapid method for detection of irradiated food. Since treatment with ionizing radiation causes DNA fragmentation, the analysis of DNA damage might be promising. In fact, DNA fragmentation measured in single cells by agarose gel electrophoresis - DNA Comet Assay - has shown to offer great potential as a rapid tool to detect whether a wide variety of foodstuffs has been radiation processed. However, more work is needed to exploit the full potential of this promising technique. In this paper, the DNA Comet Assay was used to identify exotic meat (boar, jacare and capybara), irradiated with 60 Co gamma-rays. The applied radiation doses were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy. Analysis of the DNA migration enable a rapid identification of the radiation treatment

  9. Comparing different methods for fast screening of microbiological quality of beach sand aimed at rapid-response remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testolin, Renan C; Almeida, Tito C M; Polette, Marcus; Branco, Joaquim O; Fischer, Larissa L; Niero, Guilherme; Poyer-Radetski, Gabriel; Silva, Valéria C; Somensi, Cleder A; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Corrêa, Rogério; Rörig, Leonardo R; Itokazu, Ana Gabriela; Férard, Jean-François; Cotelle, Sylvie; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-05-15

    There is scientific evidence that beach sands are a significant contributor to the pathogen load to which visitors are exposed. To develop beach quality guidelines all beach zones must be included in microbiological evaluations, but monitoring methods for beach sand quality are relatively longstanding, expensive, laborious and require moderate laboratory infrastructure. This paper aimed to evaluate the microorganism activity in different beach zones applying and comparing a classical method of membrane filtration (MF) with two colorimetric screening methods based on fluorescein (FDA) and tetrazolium (TTC) salt biotransformation to evaluate a new rapid and low-cost method for beach sand microbiological contamination assessments. The colorimetric results can help beach managers to evaluate rapidly and at low cost the microbiological quality of different beach zones in order to decide whether remedial actions need to be adopted to prevent exposure of the public to microbes due to beach sand and/or water contamination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Application of a rapid screening method to detect irradiated meat in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Delincee, H.

    2000-01-01

    Based on the enormous potential for food irradiation in Brazil, and to ensure free consumer choice, there is a need to find a convenient and rapid method for detection of irradiated food. Since treatment with ionising radiation causes DNA fragmentation, the analysis of DNA damage might be promising. In this paper, the DNA Comet Assay was used to identify exotic meat (boar, jacare and capybara), irradiated with 60 Co gamma rays. The applied radiation doses were 0, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 kGy. Analysis of the DNA migration enabled a rapid identification of the radiation treatment

  11. Rapid 2,2'-bicinchoninic-based xylanase assay compatible with high throughput screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Kenealy; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2003-01-01

    High-throughput screening requires simple assays that give reliable quantitative results. A microplate assay was developed for reducing sugar analysis that uses a 2,2'-bicinchoninic-based protein reagent. Endo-1,4-â-D-xylanase activity against oat spelt xylan was detected at activities of 0.002 to 0.011 IU ml−1. The assay is linear for sugar...

  12. Feasibility and acceptability of rapid HIV screening in a labour ward in Togo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekouevi, Didier K; Kariyiare, Benjamin G; Coffie, Patrick A; Jutand, Marthe-Aline; Akpadza, Koffi; Lawson-Evi, Annette; Tatagan, Albert; Dabis, François; Sibe, Mathieu; Pitche, Vincent P; Becquet, Renaud; David, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV screening in a labour ward is the last opportunity to initiate an antiretroviral prophylaxis among pregnant women living with HIV to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. Little is known about the feasibility and acceptability of HIV screening during labour in West Africa. Findings A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the labour ward at the Tokoin Teaching Hospital in Lomé (Togo) between May and August 2010. Pregnant women admitted for labour were randomly selected to enter the study and were interviewed on the knowledge of their HIV status. Clinical and biological data were collected from the individual maternal health chart. HIV testing or re-testing was systematically proposed to all pregnant women. Among 1530 pregnant women admitted for labour, 508 (32.2%) were included in the study. Information on HIV screening was available in the charts of 359 women (71%). Overall, 467 women accepted HIV testing in the labour ward (92%). The HIV prevalence was 8.8% (95% confidence interval: 6.4 to 11.7%). Among the 41 women diagnosed as living with HIV during labour, 34% had not been tested for HIV during pregnancy and were missed opportunities. Antiretroviral prophylaxis had been initiated antenatally for 24 women living with HIV and 17 in the labour room. Conclusions This study is the first to show in West Africa that HIV testing in a labour room is feasible and well accepted by pregnant women. HIV screening in labour rooms needs to be routinely implemented to reduce missed opportunities for intervention aimed at HIV care and prevention, especially PMTCT. PMID:22905362

  13. Differentially pumped spray deposition as a rapid screening tool for organic and perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Scholes, Fiona H.; Watkins, Scott E.; Kim, Dong-Yu; Vak, Doojin

    2016-01-01

    We report a spray deposition technique as a screening tool for solution processed solar cells. A dual-feed spray nozzle is introduced to deposit donor and acceptor materials separately and to form blended films on substrates in situ. Using a differential pump system with a motorised spray nozzle, the effect of film thickness, solution flow rates and the blend ratio of donor and acceptor materials on device performance can be found in a single experiment. Using this method, polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) are fabricated with numerous combinations of thicknesses and blend ratios. Results obtained from this technique show that the optimum ratio of materials is consistent with previously reported values confirming this technique is a very useful and effective screening method. This high throughput screening method is also used in a single-feed configuration. In the single-feed mode, methylammonium iodide solution is deposited on lead iodide films to create a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Devices featuring a perovskite layer fabricated by this spray process demonstrated a power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9%. PMID:26853266

  14. Virtual target screening to rapidly identify potential protein targets of natural products in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Pevzner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inherent biological viability and diversity of natural products make them a potentially rich source for new therapeutics. However, identification of bioactive compounds with desired therapeutic effects and identification of their protein targets is a laborious, expensive process. Extracts from organism samples may show desired activity in phenotypic assays but specific bioactive compounds must be isolated through further separation methods and protein targets must be identified by more specific phenotypic and in vitro experimental assays. Still, questions remain as to whether all relevant protein targets for a compound have been identified. The desire is to understand breadth of purposing for the compound to maximize its use and intellectual property, and to avoid further development of compounds with insurmountable adverse effects. Previously we developed a Virtual Target Screening system that computationally screens one or more compounds against a collection of virtual protein structures. By scoring each compound-protein interaction, we can compare against averaged scores of synthetic drug-like compounds to determine if a particular protein would be a potential target of a compound of interest. Here we provide examples of natural products screened through our system as we assess advantages and shortcomings of our current system in regards to natural product drug discovery.

  15. Rapid screening of guar gum using portable Raman spectral identification methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Hirsch K; Wolfgang, Steven; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2016-01-25

    Guar gum is a well-known inactive ingredient (excipient) used in a variety of oral pharmaceutical dosage forms as a thickener and stabilizer of suspensions and as a binder of powders. It is also widely used as a food ingredient in which case alternatives with similar properties, including chemically similar gums, are readily available. Recent supply shortages and price fluctuations have caused guar gum to come under increasing scrutiny for possible adulteration by substitution of cheaper alternatives. One way that the U.S. FDA is attempting to screen pharmaceutical ingredients at risk for adulteration or substitution is through field-deployable spectroscopic screening. Here we report a comprehensive approach to evaluate two field-deployable Raman methods--spectral correlation and principal component analysis--to differentiate guar gum from other gums. We report a comparison of the sensitivity of the spectroscopic screening methods with current compendial identification tests. The ability of the spectroscopic methods to perform unambiguous identification of guar gum compared to other gums makes them an enhanced surveillance alternative to the current compendial identification tests, which are largely subjective in nature. Our findings indicate that Raman spectral identification methods perform better than compendial identification methods and are able to distinguish guar gum from other gums with 100% accuracy for samples tested by spectral correlation and principal component analysis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Differentially pumped spray deposition as a rapid screening tool for organic and perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yen-Sook; Hwang, Kyeongil; Scholes, Fiona H; Watkins, Scott E; Kim, Dong-Yu; Vak, Doojin

    2016-02-08

    We report a spray deposition technique as a screening tool for solution processed solar cells. A dual-feed spray nozzle is introduced to deposit donor and acceptor materials separately and to form blended films on substrates in situ. Using a differential pump system with a motorised spray nozzle, the effect of film thickness, solution flow rates and the blend ratio of donor and acceptor materials on device performance can be found in a single experiment. Using this method, polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) are fabricated with numerous combinations of thicknesses and blend ratios. Results obtained from this technique show that the optimum ratio of materials is consistent with previously reported values confirming this technique is a very useful and effective screening method. This high throughput screening method is also used in a single-feed configuration. In the single-feed mode, methylammonium iodide solution is deposited on lead iodide films to create a photoactive layer of perovskite solar cells. Devices featuring a perovskite layer fabricated by this spray process demonstrated a power conversion efficiencies of up to 7.9%.

  17. Virtual target screening to rapidly identify potential protein targets of natural products in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Pevzner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inherent biological viability and diversity of natural products make them a potentially rich source for new therapeutics. However, identification of bioactive compounds with desired therapeutic effects and identification of their protein targets is a laborious, expensive process. Extracts from organism samples may show desired activity in phenotypic assays but specific bioactive compounds must be isolated through further separation methods and protein targets must be identified by more specific phenotypic and in vitro experimental assays. Still, questions remain as to whether all relevant protein targets for a compound have been identified. The desire is to understand breadth of purposing for the compound to maximize its use and intellectual property, and to avoid further development of compounds with insurmountable adverse effects. Previously we developed a Virtual Target Screening system that computationally screens one or more compounds against a collection of virtual protein structures. By scoring each compound-protein interaction, we can compare against averaged scores of synthetic drug-like compounds to determine if a particular protein would be a potential target of a compound of interest. Here we provide examples of natural products screened through our system as we assess advantages and shortcomings of our current system in regards to natural product drug discovery.

  18. Rapid screening for human-pathogenic Mucorales using rolling circle amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolatabadi, S; Najafzadeh, M J; de Hoog, G S

    2014-01-01

    Mucormycosis has emerged as a relatively common severe mycosis in patients with haematological and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Source of transmission is from unidentified sources in the environment. Early diagnosis of infection and its source of contamination are paramount for rapid and

  19. Facile screening of potential xenoestrogens by an estrogen receptor-based reusable optical biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanhua; Zhou, Xiaohong; Lu, Yun; Shan, Didi; Xu, Bi; He, Miao; Shi, Hanchang; Qian, Yi

    2017-11-15

    The apparent increase in hormone-induced cancers and disorders of the reproductive tract has led to a growing demand for new technologies capable of screening xenoestrogens. We reported an estrogen receptor (ER)-based reusable fiber biosensor for facile screening estrogenic compounds in environment. The bioassay is based on the competition of xenoestrogens with 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) for binding to the recombinant receptor of human estrogen receptor α (hERα) protein, leaving E 2 free to bind to fluorophore-labeled anti-E 2 monoclonal antibody. Unbound anti-E 2 antibody then binds to the immobilized E 2 -protein conjugate on the fiber surface, and is detected by fluorescence emission induced by evanescent field. As expected, the stronger estrogenic activity of xenoestrogen would result in the weaker fluorescent signal. Three estrogen-agonist compounds, diethylstilbestrol (DES), 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-n-octylphenol (OP), were chosen as a paradigm for validation of this assay. The rank order of estrogenic potency determined by this biosensor was DES>OP>NP, which were consistent with the published results in numerous studies. Moreover, the E 2 -protein conjugate modified optical fiber was robust enough for over 300 sensing cycles with the signal recoveries ranging from 90% to 100%. In conclusion, the biosensor is reusable, reliable, portable and amenable to on-line operation, providing a facile, efficient and economical alternative to screen potential xenoestrogens in environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry and chemometrics for high-throughput screening of growth promoters in meat producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitton, Yann; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Jandova, Renata; Stead, Sara; Takats, Zoltan; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2018-01-17

    In a proof of concept perspective, Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS) was explored for the direct analysis of meat samples from β-agonist treated livestock. In this context, the combination of REIMS with untargeted metabolomics was investigated to identify carcasses from treated animals on the basis of a modification of indirect metabolites profile. The REIMS analysis generated specific lipid profiles which enabled the differentiation of meat samples collected from pigs treated with ractopamine via their feeding regime. Furthermore, the strategy was found successful when tested on different muscle types (loin, shoulder and thigh), which further expands its applicability. Classification performances were greater than 95% accurate which fully answers requirements of a screening strategy. This research indicates that REIMS implemented in an untargeted-metabolomics workflow can be considered as a high-throughput and accurate strategy for real-time meat classification in relation to ractopamine (and wider β-agonists) treatment in pig production. This approach may subsequently be implemented as a rapid screening test, at the slaughterhouse or at border inspection points, to detect such practice.

  1. Rapid screening test for gestational diabetes: public health need, market requirement, initial product design, and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Zwisler, Greg; Peck, Roger; Abu-Haydar, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Gestational diabetes is a global epidemic where many urban areas in Southeast Asia have found prevalence rates as high as 20%, exceeding the highest prevalence rates in the developed world. It can have serious and life-threatening consequences for mothers and babies. We are developing two variants of a new, simple, low-cost rapid test for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus for use primarily in low-resource settings. The pair of assays, both semiquantitative rapid diagnostic strip tests for glycated albumin, require neither fasting nor an oral glucose challenge test. One variant is an extremely simple strip test to estimate the level of total glycated albumin in blood. The other, which is slightly more complex and expensive, is a test that determines the ratio of glycated albumin to total albumin. The screening results can be used to refer women to receive additional care during delivery to avoid birth complications as well as counseling on diet and exercise during and after pregnancy. Results with the latter test may also be used to start treatment with glucose-lowering drugs. Both assays will be read visually. We present initial results of a preliminary cost-performance comparison model evaluating the proposed test versus existing alternatives. We also evaluated user needs and schematic paper microfluidics-based designs aimed at overcoming the challenge of visualizing relatively narrow differences between normal and elevated levels of glycated albumin in blood.

  2. Detailed analysis of the supermarket task included on the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Yasushi; Yoshino, Aihide; Muramatsu, Taro; Mimura, Masaru

    2017-05-01

    The supermarket task, which is included in the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test, requires the quick (1 min) generation of words for things that can be bought in a supermarket. Cluster size and switches are investigated during this task. We investigated how the severity of dementia related to cluster size and switches on the supermarket task in patients with Alzheimer's disease. We administered the Japanese version of the Rapid Dementia Screening Test to 250 patients with very mild to severe Alzheimer's disease and to 49 healthy volunteers. Patients had Mini-Mental State Examination scores from 12 to 26 and Clinical Dementia Rating scale scores from 0.5 to 3. Patients were divided into four groups based on their Clinical Dementia Rating score (0.5, 1, 2, 3). We performed statistical analyses between the four groups and control subjects based on cluster size and switch scores on the supermarket task. The score for cluster size and switches deteriorated according to the severity of dementia. Moreover, for subjects with a Clinical Dementia Rating score of 0.5, cluster size was impaired, but switches were intact. Our findings indicate that the scores for cluster size and switches on the supermarket task may be useful for detecting the severity of symptoms of dementia in patients with Alzheimer's disease. © 2016 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2016 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  3. Discovery of a cosmological, relativistic outburst via its rapidly fading optical emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenko, S. Bradley; Nugent, Peter E.; Miller, Adam A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Horesh, Assaf; Carpenter, John; Perley, Daniel A.; Groot, Paul J.; Hallinan, G.; Corsi, Alessandra; Fox, Derek B.; Frail, Dale A.; Gruber, D.; Rau, Arne; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ofek, Eran O.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) of the transient source PTF11agg, which is distinguished by three primary characteristics: (1) bright (R peak = 18.3 mag), rapidly fading (ΔR = 4 mag in Δt = 2 days) optical transient emission; (2) a faint (R = 26.2 ± 0.2 mag), blue (g' – R = 0.17 ± 0.29 mag) quiescent optical counterpart; and (3) an associated year-long, scintillating radio transient. We argue that these observed properties are inconsistent with any known class of Galactic transients (flare stars, X-ray binaries, dwarf novae), and instead suggest a cosmological origin. The detection of incoherent radio emission at such distances implies a large emitting region, from which we infer the presence of relativistic ejecta. The observed properties are all consistent with the population of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), marking the first time such an outburst has been discovered in the distant universe independent of a high-energy trigger. We searched for possible high-energy counterparts to PTF11agg, but found no evidence for associated prompt emission. We therefore consider three possible scenarios to account for a GRB-like afterglow without a high-energy counterpart: an 'untriggered' GRB (lack of satellite coverage), an 'orphan' afterglow (viewing-angle effects), and a 'dirty fireball' (suppressed high-energy emission). The observed optical and radio light curves appear inconsistent with even the most basic predictions for off-axis afterglow models. The simplest explanation, then, is that PTF11agg is a normal, on-axis long-duration GRB for which the associated high-energy emission was simply missed. However, we have calculated the likelihood of such a serendipitous discovery by PTF and find that it is quite small (≈2.6%). While not definitive, we nonetheless speculate that PTF11agg may represent a new, more common (>4 times the on-axis GRB rate at 90% confidence) class of relativistic

  4. Discovery of a cosmological, relativistic outburst via its rapidly fading optical emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenko, S. Bradley; Nugent, Peter E.; Miller, Adam A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Filippenko, Alexei V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Kulkarni, S. R.; Horesh, Assaf; Carpenter, John; Perley, Daniel A.; Groot, Paul J.; Hallinan, G. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Corsi, Alessandra [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-36, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fox, Derek B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Frail, Dale A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Gruber, D.; Rau, Arne [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, Postfach 1312, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); MacLeod, Chelsea L. [Physics Department, United States Naval Academy, 572c Holloway Road, Annapolis, MD 21402 (United States); Kasliwal, Mansi M., E-mail: cenko@astro.berkeley.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others

    2013-06-01

    We report the discovery by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) of the transient source PTF11agg, which is distinguished by three primary characteristics: (1) bright (R {sub peak} = 18.3 mag), rapidly fading (ΔR = 4 mag in Δt = 2 days) optical transient emission; (2) a faint (R = 26.2 ± 0.2 mag), blue (g' – R = 0.17 ± 0.29 mag) quiescent optical counterpart; and (3) an associated year-long, scintillating radio transient. We argue that these observed properties are inconsistent with any known class of Galactic transients (flare stars, X-ray binaries, dwarf novae), and instead suggest a cosmological origin. The detection of incoherent radio emission at such distances implies a large emitting region, from which we infer the presence of relativistic ejecta. The observed properties are all consistent with the population of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), marking the first time such an outburst has been discovered in the distant universe independent of a high-energy trigger. We searched for possible high-energy counterparts to PTF11agg, but found no evidence for associated prompt emission. We therefore consider three possible scenarios to account for a GRB-like afterglow without a high-energy counterpart: an 'untriggered' GRB (lack of satellite coverage), an 'orphan' afterglow (viewing-angle effects), and a 'dirty fireball' (suppressed high-energy emission). The observed optical and radio light curves appear inconsistent with even the most basic predictions for off-axis afterglow models. The simplest explanation, then, is that PTF11agg is a normal, on-axis long-duration GRB for which the associated high-energy emission was simply missed. However, we have calculated the likelihood of such a serendipitous discovery by PTF and find that it is quite small (≈2.6%). While not definitive, we nonetheless speculate that PTF11agg may represent a new, more common (>4 times the on-axis GRB rate at 90% confidence) class of relativistic

  5. A tree based method for the rapid screening of chemical fingerprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Greve; Nielsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Christian Nørgaard Storm

    2009-01-01

    The fingerprint of a molecule is a bitstring based on its structure, constructed such that structurally similar molecules will have similar fingerprints. Molecular fingerprints can be used in an initial phase for identifying novel drug candidates by screening large databases for molecules......: the kD grid and the Multibit tree. The kD grid is based on splitting the fingerprints into k shorter bitstrings and utilising these to compute bounds on the similarity of the complete bitstrings. The Multibit tree uses hierarchical clustering and similarity within each cluster to compute similar bounds...

  6. Numerical and experimental flow analysis in centifluidic systems for rapid allergy screening tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dethloff Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available For the development of the automated processing of a membrane-based rapid allergy test, the flow characteristics in one part of the test, the reagents module, are analysed. This module consists of a multichannel system with several inputs and one output. A return flow from one input channel into another should be avoided. A valveless module with pointed channels at an angle of 12° is analysed with numerical and experimental methods with regard to the flow characteristics.

  7. A simple, rapid and inexpensive screening method for the identification of Pythium insidiosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondolo, Juliana Simoni Moraes; Loreto, Erico Silva; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Mario, Débora Alves Nunes; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Santurio, Janio Morais

    2013-04-01

    Growth of Pythium insidiosum mycelia around minocycline disks (30μg) did not occur within 7days of incubation at 35°C when the isolates were grown on Sabouraud, corn meal, Muller-Hinton or RPMI agar. This technique offers a simple and rapid method for the differentiation of P. insidiosum from true filamentous fungi. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A rapid quantification method for the screening indicator for β-thalassemia with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiemei; Peng, Lijun; Han, Yun; Yao, Lijun; Zhang, Jing; Pan, Tao

    2018-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was applied to rapidly analyse haemoglobin A2 (HbA2) for β-thalassemia screening in human haemolysate samples. The relative content indicator HbA2 was indirectly quantified by simultaneous analysis of two absolute content indicators (Hb and Hb • HbA2). According to the comprehensive prediction effect of the multiple partitioning of calibration and prediction sets, the parameters were optimized to achieve modelling stability, and the preferred models were validated using the samples not involved in modelling. Savitzky-Golay smoothing was firstly used for the spectral pretreatment. The absorbance optimization partial least squares (AO-PLS) was used to eliminate high-absorption wave-bands appropriately. The equidistant combination PLS (EC-PLS) was further used to optimize wavelength models. The selected optimal models were I = 856 nm, N = 16, G = 1 and F = 6 for Hb and I = 988 nm, N = 12, G = 2 and F = 5 for Hb • HbA2. Through independent validation, the root-mean-square errors and correlation coefficients for prediction (RMSEP, RP) were 3.50 g L- 1 and 0.977 for Hb and 0.38 g L- 1 and 0.917 for Hb • HbA2, respectively. The predicted values of relative percentage HbA2 were further calculated, and the calculated RMSEP and RP were 0.31% and 0.965, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for β-thalassemia both reached 100%. Therefore, the prediction of HbA2 achieved high accuracy for distinguishing β-thalassemia. The local optimal models for single parameter and the optimal equivalent model sets were proposed, providing more models to match possible constraints in practical applications. The NIR analysis method for the screening indicator of β-thalassemia was successfully established. The proposed method was rapid, simple and promising for thalassemia screening in a large population.

  9. Rapid Gamma Screening of Shipments of Analytical Samples to Meet DOT Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtaszek, P.A.; Remington, D.L.; Ideker-Mulligan, V.

    2006-01-01

    The accelerated closure program at Rocky Flats required the capacity to ship up to 1000 analytical samples per week to off-site commercial laboratories, and to conduct such shipment within 24 hours of sample collection. During a period of near peak activity in the closure project, a regulatory change significantly increased the level of radionuclide data required for shipment of each package. In order to meet these dual challenges, a centralized and streamlined sample management program was developed which channeled analytical samples through a single, high-throughput radiological screening facility. This trailerized facility utilized high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometers to conduct screening measurements of entire packages of samples at once, greatly increasing throughput compared to previous methods. The In Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) was employed to calibrate the HPGe systems to accommodate the widely varied sample matrices and packing configurations encountered. Optimum modeling and configuration parameters were determined. Accuracy of the measurements of grouped sample jars was confirmed with blind samples in multiple configurations. Levels of radionuclides not observable by gamma spectroscopy were calculated utilizing a spreadsheet program that can accommodate isotopic ratios for large numbers of different waste streams based upon acceptable knowledge. This program integrated all radionuclide data and output all information required for shipment, including the shipping class of the package. (authors)

  10. A novel screen-printed electrode array for rapid high-throughput detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Shuai; Wang, Xiao; Li, Yuan-Ting; Wang, Yang; Li, Da-Wei; Long, Yi-Tao

    2012-07-21

    A novel multi-channel electrode array sensing device was fabricated by screen-printing techniques using 96-well plate as the template. To confirm its practical value, we developed a one-step preparation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) doped electrode array by an ink containing MWCNTs, which was applied to the simultaneous detection of a variety of biological samples and environmental pollutants. Results demonstrated that the designed sensing device could carry out the multiple measurements of different analytes at the same time, while MWCNTs enhanced the electrocatalytic activity of electrodes toward electroactive molecules. The required amount of each sample was only ∼200 μL. Moreover, the excellent differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) response toward dopamine, hydroquinone and catechol was obtained and the detection limits was determined to be 0.337, 0.289 and 0.369 μM, respectively. Comparing it with the traditional screen-printed electrode (SPE), this sensing device possesses the advantages of high-throughput, fast electron transfer rate for electrodes, short-time analysis and low sample consumption.

  11. Method for rapid screening analysis of Sr-90 in edible plant samples collected near Fukushima, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hikaru; Sakamoto, Hideaki; Shiga, Norikatsu; Suzuki, Kaori

    2016-01-01

    A screening method for measuring 90 Sr in edible plant samples by focusing on 90 Y in equilibrium with 90 Sr is reported. 90 Y was extracted from samples with acid, co-precipitated with iron hydroxide, and precipitated with oxalic acid. The dissolved oxalate precipitate was loaded on an extraction chromatography resin, and the 90 Y-enriched eluate was analyzed by Cherenkov counting with a TDCR liquid scintillation counter. 90 Sr ( 90 Y) concentration was determined in plant samples collected near the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants with this method. - Highlights: • A screening method for measuring 90 Sr in edible plant samples by focusing on 90 Y in equilibrium with 90 Sr is reported. • 90 Y was extracted from samples with acid, co-precipitated with iron hydroxide, and precipitated with oxalic acid. • The dissolved oxalate precipitate was loaded on an extraction chromatography resin. • 90 Y-enriched eluate was analyzed by Cherenkov counting with a TDCR liquid scintillation counter. • 90 Sr ( 90 Y) concentration was determined in edible plant samples collected near the damaged Fukushima Daiichi NPPs with this method.

  12. Optically Based Rapid Screening Method for Proven Optimal Treatment Strategies Before Treatment Begins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    understanding of the complex behavior of tumors, and could aid in the development of more effective anti- cancer drugs. This technology has not yet been...therapies in human breast cancer cells and xeno- grafts. OMI was validated by measuring metabolic inhibition by cyanide , and in comparison with standard...Table S1). Cyanide experiment NADH and FAD fluorescence lifetime images of three loca- tions of three dishes were acquired. Media of two of the MCF10A

  13. Realization of rapid debugging for detection circuit of optical fiber gas sensor: Using an analog signal source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Changbin; Chang, Jun; Wang, Qiang; Wei, Wei; Zhu, Cunguang

    2015-03-01

    An optical fiber gas sensor mainly consists of two parts: optical part and detection circuit. In the debugging for the detection circuit, the optical part usually serves as a signal source. However, in the debugging condition, the optical part can be easily influenced by many factors, such as the fluctuation of ambient temperature or driving current resulting in instability of the wavelength and intensity for the laser; for dual-beam sensor, the different bends and stresses of the optical fiber will lead to the fluctuation of the intensity and phase; the intensity noise from the collimator, coupler, and other optical devices in the system will also result in the impurity of the optical part based signal source. In order to dramatically improve the debugging efficiency of the detection circuit and shorten the period of research and development, this paper describes an analog signal source, consisting of a single chip microcomputer (SCM), an amplifier circuit, and a voltage-to-current conversion circuit. It can be used to realize the rapid debugging detection circuit of the optical fiber gas sensor instead of optical part based signal source. This analog signal source performs well with many other advantages, such as the simple operation, small size, and light weight.

  14. Evaluation of three rapid oral fluid test devices on the screening of multiple drugs of abuse including ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Magdalene H Y; Ching, C K; Poon, Simon; Chan, Suzanne S S; Ng, W Y; Lam, M; Wong, C K; Pao, Ronnie; Lau, Angus; Mak, Tony W L

    2018-05-01

    Rapid oral fluid testing (ROFT) devices have been extensively evaluated for their ability to detect common drugs of abuse; however, the performance of such devices on simultaneous screening for ketamine has been scarcely investigated. The present study evaluated three ROFT devices (DrugWipe ® 6S, Ora-Check ® and SalivaScreen ® ) on the detection of ketamine, opiates, methamphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and MDMA. A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS) assay was firstly established and validated for confirmation analysis of the six types of drugs and/or their metabolites. In the field test, the three ROFT devices were tested on subjects recruited from substance abuse clinics/rehabilitation centre. Oral fluid was also collected using Quantisal ® for confirmation analysis. A total of 549 samples were collected in the study. LCMS analysis on 491 samples revealed the following drugs: codeine (55%), morphine (49%), heroin (40%), methamphetamine (35%), THC (8%), ketamine (4%) and cocaine (2%). No MDMA-positive cases were observed. Results showed that the overall specificity and accuracy were satisfactory and met the DRUID standard of >80% for all 3 devices. Ora-Check ® had poor sensitivities (ketamine 36%, methamphetamine 63%, opiates 53%, cocaine 60%, THC 0%). DrugWipe ® 6S showed good sensitivities in the methamphetamine (83%) and opiates (93%) tests but performed relatively poorly for ketamine (41%), cocaine (43%) and THC (22%). SalivaScreen ® also demonstrated good sensitivities in the methamphetamine (83%) and opiates (100%) tests, and had the highest sensitivity for ketamine (76%) and cocaine (71%); however, it failed to detect any of the 28 THC-positive cases. The test completion rate (proportion of tests completed with quality control passed) were: 52% (Ora-Check ® ), 78% (SalivaScreen ® ) and 99% (DrugWipe ® 6S). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Use of Guided Waves for Rapid Screening of Chemical Plant Pipework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alleyne, D. N.; Pavlakovic, B.; Lowe, M. J. S.; Cawley, P.

    2002-01-01

    The safe operation of petrochemical plant requires screening of the pipework to ensure that there are no unacceptable levels of corrosion. Unfortunately, each plant has many thousands of metres of pipe, much of which is insulated or inaccessible. Conventional methods such as visual inspection and ultrasonic thickness gauging require access to each point of the pipe which is time consuming and very expensive to achieve. Extensional or torsional ultrasonic guided waves in the pipe wall provide an attractive solution to this problem because they can be excited at one location on the pipe and will propagate many metres along the pipe, returning echoes indicating the presence of corrosion or other pipe features. Guided Ultrasonics Ltd. have now commercialised the technique and this paper describes the basis of the method, together with examples of practical test results and typical application areas

  16. A rapid screening method for heavy metals in biological materials by emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacklock, E C; Sadler, P A

    1981-06-02

    A semi-quantitative screening method for heavy metals in biological material is described. The metals are complexed with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate and potassium sodium tartrate. The solutions are adjusted to pH 4 and then extracted into chloroform. The chloroform phase is evaporated onto a matrix mixture of lithium fluoride and graphite. The sample is analysed by direct current arc emission spectroscopy using a 3 metre grating spectrograph. The spectra are recorded on a photographic plate. The method is developed on aqueous and spiked samples and then applied to in vivo samples containing toxic levels of heavy metals. Atomic absorption spectroscopy is used to check standard concentrations and to monitor the efficiency of the extraction procedure.

  17. Rapid screening of nuclear grade zirconium silicate without separation of hafnium from the bulk matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, Manisha; Sharma, P.K.; Avhad, D.K.; Basu, H.; Singhal, R.K.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2014-01-01

    Zirconium silicate, also zirconium orthosilicate, (ZrSiO 4 ) is a chemical compound, and occurs in nature as zircon, a silicate mineral. The concentration of Hafnium in nuclear grade Zirconium must be less than 0.2% w/w of Zr. In view of this it must be accurately chemically characterized before issuing a certification for export under non nuclear category. As the chemistry of Zr and Hf is similar, it is difficult to separate Hf by direct wet chemical method. During this work, concentration of Hf in zirconium silicate was measured by Field Portable X-ray Fluorescence (FPXRF) and results obtained were validated by using detailed chemical method. FPXRF spectrometry has become a common analytical technique for on-site screening and fast turnaround analysis of contaminant elements in environmental samples

  18. A rapid and simple screening test to detect the radiation treatment of fat-containing foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delincee, H.

    1993-01-01

    In recent years several international efforts have been made to develop analytical detection methods for the radiation treatment of foods. A number of methods has indeed been developed. Particularly, for fat-containing foods several methods are already in an advanced stage. In addition to the sophisticated techniques such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry which require relatively expensive equipment and/or extended sample preparation time, it would be desirable to have quick and simple screening tests, which immediately on-the-spot give some indication whether a food product has been irradiated or not. A solution to this problem for lipid-containing foods has been put forward by Furuta and co-workers (1991, 1992), who estimated the amount of carbon monoxide originating from the lipid fraction in poultry meat after irradiation. The carbon monoxide was expelled from the frozen meat by quick microwave heating and in the head space of the sample, the formed carbon monoxide was determined by gas chromatography. In order to speed up time of analysis, we have used an electrochemical CO sensor, as also is being used to estimate CO in ambient air in workplaces, to determine the CO content in the vapor expelled from the irradiated samples. This CO test is very simple, cheap and easy to perform. It takes only a few minutes to screen food samples for evidence of their having been radiation processed. If doubts concerning the radiation treatment of a sample arise, the more sophisticated - and expensive -methods for analyzing lipid-containing foods can be applied. Certainly the test is limited to food products which contain a certain amount of fat. A preliminary test with lean shrimps showed practically no difference between irradiated (2.5 and 5 kGy) and non-irradiated samples. By relating CO production to the fat content, possibly a better parameter for classification can be obtained. (orig./vhe)

  19. Convergent Polishing: A Simple, Rapid, Full Aperture Polishing Process of High Quality Optical Flats & Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratwala, Tayyab; Steele, Rusty; Feit, Michael; Dylla-Spears, Rebecca; Desjardin, Richard; Mason, Dan; Wong, Lana; Geraghty, Paul; Miller, Phil; Shen, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Convergent Polishing is a novel polishing system and method for finishing flat and spherical glass optics in which a workpiece, independent of its initial shape (i.e., surface figure), will converge to final surface figure with excellent surface quality under a fixed, unchanging set of polishing parameters in a single polishing iteration. In contrast, conventional full aperture polishing methods require multiple, often long, iterative cycles involving polishing, metrology and process changes to achieve the desired surface figure. The Convergent Polishing process is based on the concept of workpiece-lap height mismatch resulting in pressure differential that decreases with removal and results in the workpiece converging to the shape of the lap. The successful implementation of the Convergent Polishing process is a result of the combination of a number of technologies to remove all sources of non-uniform spatial material removal (except for workpiece-lap mismatch) for surface figure convergence and to reduce the number of rogue particles in the system for low scratch densities and low roughness. The Convergent Polishing process has been demonstrated for the fabrication of both flats and spheres of various shapes, sizes, and aspect ratios on various glass materials. The practical impact is that high quality optical components can be fabricated more rapidly, more repeatedly, with less metrology, and with less labor, resulting in lower unit costs. In this study, the Convergent Polishing protocol is specifically described for fabricating 26.5 cm square fused silica flats from a fine ground surface to a polished ~λ/2 surface figure after polishing 4 hr per surface on a 81 cm diameter polisher. PMID:25489745

  20. Rapid multi-wavelength optical assessment of circulating blood volume without a priori data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginova, Ekaterina V.; Zhidkova, Tatyana V.; Proskurnin, Mikhail A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of circulating blood volume (CBV) is crucial in various medical conditions including surgery, iatrogenic problems, rapid fluid administration, transfusion of red blood cells, or trauma with extensive blood loss including battlefield injuries and other emergencies. Currently, available commercial techniques are invasive and time-consuming for trauma situations. Recently, we have proposed high-speed multi-wavelength photoacoustic/photothermal (PA/PT) flow cytometry for in vivo CBV assessment with multiple dyes as PA contrast agents (labels). As the first step, we have characterized the capability of this technique to monitor the clearance of three dyes (indocyanine green, methylene blue, and trypan blue) in an animal model. However, there are strong demands on improvements in PA/PT flow cytometry. As additional verification of our proof-of-concept of this technique, we performed optical photometric CBV measurements in vitro. Three label dyes—methylene blue, crystal violet and, partially, brilliant green—were selected for simultaneous photometric determination of the components of their two-dye mixtures in the circulating blood in vitro without any extra data (like hemoglobin absorption) known a priori. The tests of single dyes and their mixtures in a flow system simulating a blood transfusion system showed a negligible difference between the sensitivities of the determination of these dyes under batch and flow conditions. For individual dyes, the limits of detection of 3×10-6 M‒3×10-6 M in blood were achieved, which provided their continuous determination at a level of 10-5 M for the CBV assessment without a priori data on the matrix. The CBV assessment with errors no higher than 4% were obtained, and the possibility to apply the developed procedure for optical photometric (flow cytometry) with laser sources was shown.

  1. A rapid and simple chemiluminescence method for screening levels of inosine and hypoxanthine in non-traumatic chest pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, Don E; Sica, Domenic; Hindle, Michael; Edinboro, Les; Xi, Lei; Gehr, Todd W B; Gehr, Lynne; Farthing, Christine A; Larus, Terri L; Fakhry, Itaf; Karnes, H Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and simple chemiluminescence method was developed for detection of inosine and hypoxanthine in human plasma. The method utilized a microplate luminometer with direct injectors to automatically dispense reagents during sample analysis. Enzymatic conversions of inosine to hypoxanthine, followed by hypoxanthine to xanthine to uric acid, generated superoxide anion radicals as a useful metabolic by-product. The free radicals react with Pholasin(®) , a sensitive photoprotein used for chemiluminescence detection, to produce measurable blue-green light. The use of Pholasin(®) and a chemiluminescence signal enhancer, Adjuvant-K™, eliminated the need for plasma clean-up steps prior to analysis. The method used 20 μL of heparinized plasma, with complete analysis of total hypoxanthine levels (inosine is metabolized to hypoxanthine using purine nucleoside phosphorylase) in approximately 3.7 min. The rapid chemiluminescence method demonstrated the capability of differentiating total hypoxanthine levels between healthy individuals, and patients presenting with non-traumatic chest pain and potential acute cardiac ischemia. The results support the potential use of chemiluminescence methodology as a diagnostic tool to rapidly screen for elevated levels of inosine and hypoxanthine in human plasma, potential biomarkers of acute cardiac ischemia. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Facile and Sensitive Epifluorescent Silica Nanoparticles for the Rapid Screening of EHEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravate Tuitemwong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to develop antibodies conjugated fluorescent dye-doped silica nanoparticles (FDS-NPs aiming to increase signals for the rapid detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with glass slide method. The FDS-NPs were produced with microemulsion/sol-gel techniques resulting in spherical in shape with 47 ± 6 nm in diameter. The particles showed high intensity and stable orange color Rubpy luminescent dye. The XRD spectrum showed a broad diffraction peak in the range of – (centered at indicating an amorphous structure. Surface modifications for bioconjugation with affinity chromatography purified (IgGs antibodies were successful. The properties were evident from FTIR spectra at 1631.7 . Results indicated that nanoparticles could attach onto cells of E. coli O157:H7 coated on a glass slide, and give distinctively bright color under epifluorescence microscope (400x. It was shown that FDS-NPs could detect a very low amount of cells of E. coli O157:H7 (16 CFU in 10 ml in 60 min. The phosphate buffered saline (PBS with ionic strength of 1.70 gave zeta potential of good particle dispersion (−40 mV. This work demonstrated that highly sensitive bioconjugated E. coli O157:H7 FDS-NPs were successfully developed with a potential to be used for the rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 in foods.

  3. Rapid and sensitive trace gas detection with continuous wave Optical Parametric Oscillator-based Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arslanov, D.D.; Spunei, M.; Ngai, A.K.Y.; Cristescu, S.M.; Lindsay, I.D.; Lindsay, I.D.; Boller, Klaus J.; Persijn, S.T.; Harren, F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A fiber-amplified Distributed Bragg Reflector diode laser is used to pump a continuous wave, singly resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO). The output radiation covers the 3–4 μm with ability of rapid (100 THz/s) and broad mode-hop-free tuning (5 cm−1). Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy is

  4. A New Instrument for the IRTF: the MIT Optical Rapid Imaging System (MORIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbis, Amanda A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Rojas, F. E.; Bus, S. J.; Rayner, J. T.; Stahlberger, W. E.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Adams, E. R.; Person, M. J.

    2010-10-01

    NASA's 3-m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, HI plays a leading role in obtaining planetary science observations. However, there has been no capability for high-speed, visible imaging from this telescope. Here we present a new IRTF instrument, MORIS, the MIT Optical Rapid Imaging System. MORIS is based on POETS (Portable Occultation Eclipse and Transit Systems; Souza et al., 2006, PASP, 118, 1550). Its primary component is an Andor iXon camera, a 512x512 array of 16-micron pixels with high quantum efficiency, low read noise, low dark current, and full-frame readout rates of between 3.5 Hz (6 e /pixel read noise) and 35 Hz (49 e /pixel read noise at electron-multiplying gain=1). User-selectable binning and subframing can increase the cadence to a few hundred Hz. An electron-multiplying mode can be employed for photon counting, effectively reducing the read noise to sub-electron levels at the expense of dynamic range. Data cubes, or individual frames, can be triggered to nanosecond accuracy using a GPS. MORIS is mounted on the side-facing widow of SpeX (Rayner et al. 2003, PASP, 115, 362), allowing simultaneous near-infrared and visible observations. The mounting box contains 3:1 reducing optics to produce a 60 arcsec x 60 arcsec field of view at f/12.7. It hosts a ten-slot filter wheel, with Sloan g×, r×, i×, and z×, VR, Johnson V, and long-pass red filters. We describe the instrument design, components, and measured characteristics. We report results from the first science observations, a 24 June 2008 stellar occultation by Pluto. We also discuss a recent overhaul of the optical path, performed in order to eliminate scattered light. This work is supported in part by NASA Planetary Major Equipment grant NNX07AK95G. We are indebted to the University of Hawai'i Institute for Astronomy machine shop, in particular Randy Chung, for fabricating instrument components.

  5. Viral hepatitis and rapid diagnostic test based screening for HBsAg in HIV-infected patients in rural Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian C Franzeck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV is highly prevalent in people living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. Screening for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg before initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART is recommended. However, it is not part of diagnostic routines in HIV programs in many resource-limited countries although patients could benefit from optimized antiretroviral therapy covering both infections. Screening could be facilitated by rapid diagnostic tests for HBsAg. Operating experience with these point of care devices in HIV-positive patients in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely lacking. We determined the prevalence of HBV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection as well as the diagnostic accuracy of the rapid test device Determine HBsAg in an HIV cohort in rural Tanzania. METHODS: Prospectively collected blood samples from adult, HIV-1 positive and antiretroviral treatment-naïve patients in the Kilombero and Ulanga antiretroviral cohort (KIULARCO in rural Tanzania were analyzed at the point of care with Determine HBsAg, a reference HBsAg EIA and an anti-HCV EIA. RESULTS: Samples of 272 patients were included. Median age was 38 years (interquartile range [IQR] 32-47, 169/272 (63% subjects were females and median CD4+ count was 250 cells/µL (IQR 97-439. HBsAg was detected in 25/272 (9.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.2-13.0% subjects. Of these, 7/25 (28% were positive for HBeAg. Sensitivity of Determine HBsAg was rated at 96% (95% CI 82.8-99.6% and specificity at 100% (95% CI, 98.9-100%. Antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV were found in 10/272 (3.7%, 95% CI 2.0-6.4% of patients. CONCLUSION: This study reports a high prevalence of HBV in HIV-positive patients in a rural Tanzanian setting. The rapid diagnostic test Determine HBsAg is an accurate assay for screening for HBsAg in HIV-1 infected patients at the point of care and may further help to guide cART in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  6. Optical properties of flexible fluorescent films prepared by screen printing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we prepared a fluorescent film comprised phosphors and silicone on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate using a screen printing technology. The effects of mesh number and weight ratio of phosphors to silicone on the optical properties of the flexible films were investigated. The results indicate that the emission intensity of the film increase as the mesh decreased from 400 to 200, but the film surface gradually becomes uneven. The fluorescent film with high emission intensity and smooth surface can be obtained when the weight ratio of phosphor to gel is 2:1, and mesh number is 300. The luminous efficiency of the fabricated LEDs combined the fluorescent films with 460 nm Ga(InN chip module can reach 75 lm/W. The investigation indicates that the approach can be applied in the remote fluorescent film conversion and decreases the requirements of the particle size and the dispersion state of fluorescent materials.

  7. Optical properties of flexible fluorescent films prepared by screen printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Ke, Taiyan; Chen, Shuijin; He, Xin; Zhang, Mei; Li, Dong; Deng, Jinfeng; Zeng, Qingguang

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we prepared a fluorescent film comprised phosphors and silicone on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate using a screen printing technology. The effects of mesh number and weight ratio of phosphors to silicone on the optical properties of the flexible films were investigated. The results indicate that the emission intensity of the film increase as the mesh decreased from 400 to 200, but the film surface gradually becomes uneven. The fluorescent film with high emission intensity and smooth surface can be obtained when the weight ratio of phosphor to gel is 2:1, and mesh number is 300. The luminous efficiency of the fabricated LEDs combined the fluorescent films with 460 nm Ga(In)N chip module can reach 75 lm/W. The investigation indicates that the approach can be applied in the remote fluorescent film conversion and decreases the requirements of the particle size and the dispersion state of fluorescent materials.

  8. Rapid strategy for screening by pyrosequencing of influenza virus reassortants--candidates for live attenuated vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbik, Svetlana V; Pearce, Nicholas C; Levine, Marnie L; Klimov, Alexander I; Villanueva, Julie M; Bousse, Tatiana L

    2014-01-01

    Live attenuated influenza vaccine viruses (LAIVs) can be generated by classical reassortment of gene segments between a cold adapted, temperature sensitive and attenuated Master Donor Virus (MDV) and a seasonal wild-type (wt) virus. The vaccine candidates contain hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from the circulating wt viruses and the remaining six genes derived from the MDV strains. Rapid, efficient selection of the viruses with 6∶2 genome compositions from the large number of genetically different viruses generated during reassortment is essential for the biannual production schedule of vaccine viruses. This manuscript describes a new approach for the genotypic analysis of LAIV reassortant virus clones based on pyrosequencing. LAIV candidate viruses were created by classical reassortment of seasonal influenza A (H3N2) (A/Victoria/361/2011, A/Ohio/02/2012, A/Texas/50/2012) or influenza A (H7N9) (A/Anhui/1/2013) wt viruses with the MDV A/Leningrad/134/17/57(H2N2). Using strain-specific pyrosequencing assays, mixed gene variations were detected in the allantoic progenies during the cloning procedure. The pyrosequencing analysis also allowed for estimation of the relative abundance of segment variants in mixed populations. This semi-quantitative approach was used for selecting specific clones for the subsequent cloning procedures. The present study demonstrates that pyrosequencing analysis is a useful technique for rapid and reliable genotyping of reassortants and intermediate clones during the preparation of LAIV candidates, and can expedite the selection of vaccine virus candidates.

  9. Rapid strategy for screening by pyrosequencing of influenza virus reassortants--candidates for live attenuated vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Shcherbik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Live attenuated influenza vaccine viruses (LAIVs can be generated by classical reassortment of gene segments between a cold adapted, temperature sensitive and attenuated Master Donor Virus (MDV and a seasonal wild-type (wt virus. The vaccine candidates contain hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes derived from the circulating wt viruses and the remaining six genes derived from the MDV strains. Rapid, efficient selection of the viruses with 6∶2 genome compositions from the large number of genetically different viruses generated during reassortment is essential for the biannual production schedule of vaccine viruses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This manuscript describes a new approach for the genotypic analysis of LAIV reassortant virus clones based on pyrosequencing. LAIV candidate viruses were created by classical reassortment of seasonal influenza A (H3N2 (A/Victoria/361/2011, A/Ohio/02/2012, A/Texas/50/2012 or influenza A (H7N9 (A/Anhui/1/2013 wt viruses with the MDV A/Leningrad/134/17/57(H2N2. Using strain-specific pyrosequencing assays, mixed gene variations were detected in the allantoic progenies during the cloning procedure. The pyrosequencing analysis also allowed for estimation of the relative abundance of segment variants in mixed populations. This semi-quantitative approach was used for selecting specific clones for the subsequent cloning procedures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study demonstrates that pyrosequencing analysis is a useful technique for rapid and reliable genotyping of reassortants and intermediate clones during the preparation of LAIV candidates, and can expedite the selection of vaccine virus candidates.

  10. Biconically Tapered Fiber Optic Probes for Rapid Label-Free Immunoassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Miller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We report use of U-shaped biconically tapered optical fibers (BTOF as probes for label-free immunoassays. The tapered regions of the sensors were functionalized by immobilization of immunoglobulin-G (Ig-G and tested for detection of anti-IgG at concentrations of 50 ng/mL to 50 µg/mL. Antibody-antigen reaction creates a biological nanolayer modifying the waveguide structure leading to a change in the sensor signal, which allows real-time monitoring. The kinetics of the antibody (mouse Ig-G-antigen (rabbit anti-mouse IgG reactions was studied. Hydrofluoric acid treatment makes the sensitive region thinner to enhance sensitivity, which we confirmed by experiments and simulations. The limit of detection for the sensor was estimated to be less than 50 ng/mL. Utilization of the rate of the sensor peak shift within the first few minutes of the antibody-antigen reaction is proposed as a rapid protein detection method.

  11. Deep Rapid Optical Follow-Up of Gravitational Wave Sources with the Dark Energy Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowperthwaite, Philip

    2018-01-01

    The detection of an electromagnetic counterpart associated with a gravitational wave detection by the Advanced LIGO and VIRGO interferometers is one of the great observational challenges of our time. The large localization regions and potentially faint counterparts require the use of wide-field, large aperture telescopes. As a result, the Dark Energy Camera, a 3.3 sq deg CCD imager on the 4-m Blanco telescope at CTIO in Chile is the most powerful instrument for this task in the Southern Hemisphere. I will report on the results from our joint program between the community and members of the dark energy survey to conduct rapid and efficient follow-up of gravitational wave sources. This includes systematic searches for optical counterparts, as well as developing an understanding of contaminating sources on timescales not normally probed by traditional untargeted supernova surveys. I will additionally comment on the immense science gains to be made by a joint detection and discuss future prospects from the standpoint of both next generation wide-field telescopes and next generation gravitational wave detectors.

  12. Effect of rapid thermal treatment on optical properties of porous silicon surface doped lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddadi, Ikbel, E-mail: haded.ikbel@yahoo.fr; Slema, Sonia Ben; Amor, Sana Ben; Bousbih, Rabaa; Bardaoui, Afrah; Dimassi, Wissem; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2015-04-15

    In this paper, we have studied the effect of rapid thermal annealing on the optical properties of porous silicon layers doped with lithium (Li/PS). Surface modification of As-deposited Li/PS samples through thermal annealing were investigated by varying the temperature from 100 °C to 800 °C in an infrared (IR) heated belt furnace. A decrease in the reflectivity to about 6% for Li/PS annealed at 200 °C was obtained. From Photoluminescence (PL) spectra, a blue-shift of the gap was observed when the temperature is increased to 800 °C; we correlate these results to the change in chemical composition of the layers in order to find the optimized conditions for a potential application in silicon solar cells. - Highlights: • We have varied the annealing temperature of PS doped with Li. • PL intensity shows significant variation as function of temperature. • We observe reduce of Si–O–Li bands with increasing temperature. • Concurrent with the loss of Li we observe a decrease of the PL.

  13. A Rapid and Convenient Procedure to Evaluate Optical Performance of Intraocular Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Schaeffel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A new portable lens scanner was developed and tested for measuring focal lengths and relative contrast transfer of mono- and multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs. A photograph of a natural scene was imaged in white light through an IOL in a water-filled cuvette, with their +21D base power largely neutralized by a −20D trial lens, using a USB monochrome video camera that could be focused via a laptop-controlled stepping motor from −8.5 to + 8.0D. The output of 10000 ON-OFF antagonistic “receptive fields” measuring the video image with adjustable diameter was continuously recorded by custom written software to quantify focus and relative contrast. Six monofocal and four multifocal IOLs, as well as two radial refractive gradient (RRG lenses were measured. After calibration with trial lenses the optical powers and relative contrast transfer of mono- and multifocal IOLs were readily measured. Refractive power profiles measured in RRG lenses closely matched data obtained from the manufacturer. The lens scanner uses a rapidly operating procedure, is portable and can be used to verify positions of the focal planes of mono- and multifocal IOLs in less than 3 s.

  14. Generation and characterization of neurogenin1-GFP transgenic medaka with potential for rapid developmental neurotoxicity screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Chunyang; Simmons, Steven O.; Law, Sheran H.W.; Jensen, Karl; Cowden, John; Hinton, David; Padilla, Stephanie; Ramabhadran, Ram

    2011-01-01

    Fish models such as zebrafish and medaka are increasingly used as alternatives to rodents in developmental and toxicological studies. These developmental and toxicological studies can be facilitated by the use of transgenic reporters that permit the real-time, noninvasive observation of the fish. Here we report the construction and characterization of transgenic medaka lines expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the zebrafish neurogenin 1 (ngn1) gene promoter. Neurogenin (ngn1) is a helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in proliferating neuronal progenitor cells early in neuronal differentiation and plays a crucial role in directing neurogenesis. GFP expression was detected from 24 h post-fertilization until hatching, in a spatial pattern consistent with the previously reported zebrafish ngn1 expression. Temporal expression of the transgene parallels the expression profile of the endogenous medaka ngn1 transcript. Further, we demonstrate that embryos from the transgenic line permit the non-destructive, real-time screening of ngn1 promoter-directed GFP expression in a 96-well format, enabling higher throughput studies of developmental neurotoxicants. This strain has been deposited with and maintained by the National BioResource Project and is available on request ( (http://www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/medaka/strainDetailAction.do?quickSearch=true and strainId=5660)).

  15. Validation of rapid dioxin screening by GC-FID in fish products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassompierre, M.; Munck, L.; Bro, R.; Tomasi, G.; Engelsen, S.B. [Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., Copenhagen (Denmark). Food Technology, Institute of Food Science, Centre for Advanced Food Studies

    2004-09-15

    A novel, cost- and time-effective dioxin screening method was developed and validated for fish product. The method is based on multivariate covariance between fatty acid composition monitored by GC-FID and dioxin content as teq WHO pg/ g fat. A dioxin range varying from 1.1 to 47.1 pg TEQ-WHO/ g fat using 65 fish meal samples was accessible for model calibration. An optimal multivariate dioxin prediction model was developed based on automatic peak integration, thereby enabling extraction of the area of 140 peaks from the gas chromatogramms. Models were produced employing partial least squares regression (PLS) based upon the duplicate GC-FID run and 46 specific peaks, selected after variable selection from the 140 investigated. The best results were yielded by local pls modelling employing three latent variables based upon the 12 nearest neighbors. For each prediction sample, the neighbors, yielding the 12 smallest sum of squares of differences to the test sample using the 140 peaks, were extracted from the whole calibration set and a local model built using these 12 chromatograms and related dioxin content. Prediction performance was thereafter validated for 10 fully independent samples. The performance of this model, yielded a correlation of 0.85 (r{sup 2}) and a root mean square error of prediction of 2.3 pg PCDD/F TEQWHO/ g fat.

  16. Rapid screening of fatty acid alkyl esters in olive oils by time domain reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardinelli, Annachiara; Ragni, Luigi; Bendini, Alessandra; Valli, Enrico; Conte, Lanfranco; Guarnieri, Adriano; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2013-11-20

    The main aim of the present research is to assess the possibility of quickly screening fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) in olive oils using time domain reflectometry (TDR) and partial least-squares (PLS) multivariate statistical analysis. Eighteen virgin olive oil samples with fatty acid alkyl ester contents and fatty acid ethyl ester/methyl ester ratios (FAEE/FAME) ranging from 3 to 100 mg kg(-1) and from 0.3 to 2.6, respectively, were submitted to tests with time domain resolution of 1 ps. The results obtained in test set validation demonstrated that this new and fast analytical approach is able to predict FAME, FAEE, and FAME + FAEE contents with R(2) values of 0.905, 0.923, and 0.927, respectively. Further measurements on mixtures between olive oil and FAAE standards confirmed that the prediction is based on a direct influence of fatty acid alkyl esters on the TDR signal. The suggested technique appeared potentially suitable for monitoring one of the most important quality attribute of the olive oil in the extraction process.

  17. NMD Microarray Analysis for Rapid Genome-Wide Screen of Mutated Genes in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija Wolf

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene mutations play a critical role in cancer development and progression, and their identification offers possibilities for accurate diagnostics and therapeutic targeting. Finding genes undergoing mutations is challenging and slow, even in the post-genomic era. A new approach was recently developed by Noensie and Dietz to prioritize and focus the search, making use of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD inhibition and microarray analysis (NMD microarrays in the identification of transcripts containing nonsense mutations. We combined NMD microarrays with array-based CGH (comparative genomic hybridization in order to identify inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in cancer. Such a “mutatomics” screening of prostate cancer cell lines led to the identification of inactivating mutations in the EPHB2 gene. Up to 8% of metastatic uncultured prostate cancers also showed mutations of this gene whose loss of function may confer loss of tissue architecture. NMD microarray analysis could turn out to be a powerful research method to identify novel mutated genes in cancer cell lines, providing targets that could then be further investigated for their clinical relevance and therapeutic potential.

  18. A rapid sample screening method for authenticity control of whiskey using capillary electrophoresis with online preconcentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Melina; Vitali, Luciano; Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Costa, Ana Carolina O; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2011-07-13

    The present study aimed to develop a methodology using capillary electrophoresis for the determination of sinapaldehyde, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, and vanillin in whiskey samples. The main objective was to obtain a screening method to differentiate authentic samples from seized samples suspected of being false using the phenolic aldehydes as chemical markers. The optimized background electrolyte was composed of 20 mmol L(-1) sodium tetraborate with 10% MeOH at pH 9.3. The study examined two kinds of sample stacking, using a long-end injection mode: normal sample stacking (NSM) and sample stacking with matrix removal (SWMR). In SWMR, the optimized injection time of the samples was 42 s (SWMR42); at this time, no matrix effects were observed. Values of r were >0.99 for the both methods. The LOD and LOQ were better than 100 and 330 mg mL(-1) for NSM and better than 22 and 73 mg L(-1) for SWMR. The CE-UV reliability in the aldehyde analysis in the real sample was compared statistically with LC-MS/MS methodology, and no significant differences were found, with a 95% confidence interval between the methodologies.

  19. A High-Sensitivity Potentiometric 65-nm CMOS ISFET Sensor for Rapid E. coli Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Liu, Xu; Dang, Tran Chien; Huang, Xiwei; Feng, Hao; Zhang, Qing; Yu, Hao

    2018-04-01

    Foodborne bacteria, inducing outbreaks of infection or poisoning, have posed great threats to food safety. Potentiometric sensors can identify bacteria levels in food by measuring medium's pH changes. However, most of these sensors face the limitation of low sensitivity and high cost. In this paper, we developed a high-sensitivity ion-sensitive field-effect transistor sensor. It is small sized, cost-efficient, and can be massively fabricated in a standard 65-nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process. A subthreshold pH-to-time-to-voltage conversion scheme was proposed to improve the sensitivity. Furthermore, design parameters, such as chemical sensing area, transistor size, and discharging time, were optimized to enhance the performance. The intrinsic sensitivity of passivation membrane was calculated as 33.2 mV/pH. It was amplified to 123.8 mV/pH with a 0.01-pH resolution, which greatly exceeded 6.3 mV/pH observed in a traditional source-follower based readout structure. The sensing system was applied to Escherichia coli (E. coli) detection with densities ranging from 14 to 140 cfu/mL. Compared to the conventional direct plate counting method (24 h), more efficient sixfold smaller screening time (4 h) was achieved to differentiate samples' E. coli levels. The demonstrated portable, time-saving, and low-cost prescreen system has great potential for food safety detection.

  20. Optical Encoding Technology for Viral Screening Panels Final Report CRADA No TC02132.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhoff, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haushalter, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Parallel Synthesis Technologies, Inc. (PSTI), to develop Optical Encoding Technology for Viral Screening Panels. The goal for this effort was to prepare a portable bead reader system that would enable the development of viral and bacterial screening panels which could be used for the detection of any desired set of bacteria or viruses in any location. The main objective was to determine if the combination of a bead-based, PCR suspension array technology, formulated from Parallume encoded beads and PSTI’s multiplex assay reader system (MARS), could provide advantages in terms of the number of simultaneously measured samples, portability, ruggedness, ease of use, accuracy, precision or cost as compared to the Luminexbased system developed at LLNL. The project underwent several no cost extensions however the overall goal of demonstrating the utility of this new system was achieved. As a result of the project a significant change to the type of bead PSTI used for the suspension system was implemented allowing better performance than the commercial Luminex system.

  1. Characterization of optically stimulated luminescence for assessment of breast doses in mammography screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alothmany, N.; Jiman, A.; Molla, N.I.; Natto, H.; Tayeb, M.; Nadwi, F.; Yusuf, M.; Alothmany, D.; Kinsara, A.A.; Saoudi, A.; Mail, N.; Khafaji, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Landauer optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technology nanoDot dosimeters (OSLDs) are characterized for use in mammography screening at various tube voltages, mAs values and target/filter combinations. The average glandular dose (AGD) for a 50-mm breast, based on the representative compressed breast thickness of a 45-mm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom, is assessed using OSLDs with different beam conditions. Further, the linearity of the OSLD response is measured and angular dependence tests are performed for various tube potentials, mAs and target/filter combinations. The breast-absorbed doses are measured at various depths for a 32-kVp X-ray beam at 100 mAs, with a Mo/Rh target/filter combination. The measured incident air kerma values at different lateral positions exhibit a maximum deviation of 6%, and the average relative response of the OSLDs at the reference point (center) with respect to various lateral positions is found to be 1.001 ± 0.09%. The calculated AGD values are in the 1.3 ± 0.1-3.5 ± 0.2 mGy range, depending on the tube potential, tube loading and target/filter combinations. An exposure setup featuring the auto-exposure control (AEC) mode, 28 kVp, 73.8 mAs, and a Mo/Rh target/filter combination may be preferred for mammography screening for a compressed breast thickness of 45 mm. (authors)

  2. Screening for transfusion transmissible infections using rapid diagnostic tests in Africa: a potential hazard to blood safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prugger, C.; Laperche, S.; Murphy, E. L.; Bloch, E. M.; Kaidarova, Z.; Tafflet, M.; Lefrère, J.-J.; Jouven, X.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are routinely used in African blood centres. We analysed data from two cross-sectional studies representing 95 blood centres in 29 African countries. Standardized panels of sera containing varying concentrations of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies (Ab), hepatitis B virus antigen (HBsAg) and antihepatitis C virus (HCV) Ab were screened using routine operational testing procedures at the centres. Sensitivity of detection using RDTs was high for HIV Ab-positive samples, but low for intermediately HBsAg (51·5%) and HCV Ab (40·6%)-positive samples. These findings suggest that current RDT use in Africa could pose a hazard to blood safety. PMID:26646317

  3. A rapid and simple screening method for methamphetamine in urine by radioimmunoassay using a 125I-labeled metahmphetamine derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inayama, Seiichi; Tokunaga, Yukiko; Hosoya, Eikichi; Nakadate, Teruo; Niwaguchi, Tetsukichi.

    1980-01-01

    N-Carboxymethylmethamphetamine, a derivative of methamphetamine, was prepared through a new synthetic pathway from ephedrine. Specific antiserum was obtained by immunization of rabbits with the conjugate of N-carboxymethylmethamphetamine with bovine serum albumin. A radioimmunoassay procedure was established using this antibody (specific for methamphetamine) and a 125 I-methamphetamine derivative. A high degree of specificity of the antibody was confirmed by testing for cross-reaction with several methamphetamine analogs, and the sensitivity was found to be 1 ng/tube. The present micro method using radioimmunoassay is highly sensitive, rapid, simple and may be useful as a micro-scale primary screening test for methamphetamine excreted in human urine, for forensic and medical purposes. (author)

  4. A novel approach for rapid screening of mitochondrial D310 polymorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aral, Cenk; Kaya, Handan; Ataizi-Çelikel, Çiğdem; Akkiprik, Mustafa; Sönmez, Özgür; Güllüoğlu, Bahadır M; Özer, Ayşe

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been reported in a wide variety of human neoplasms. A polynucleotide tract extending from 303 to 315 nucleotide positions (D310) within the non-coding region of mtDNA has been identified as a mutational hotspot of primary tumors. This region consists of two polycytosine stretches interrupted by a thymidine nucleotide. The number of cytosines at the first and second stretches are 7 and 5 respectively, according to the GeneBank sequence. The first stretch exhibits a polymorphic length variation (6-C to 9-C) among individuals and has been investigated in many cancer types. Large-scale studies are needed to clarify the relationship between cytosine number and cancer development/progression. However, time and money consuming methods such as radioactivity-based gel electrophoresis and sequencing, are not appropriate for the determination of this polymorphism for large case-control studies. In this study, we conducted a rapid RFLP analysis using a restriction enzyme, BsaXI, for the single step simple determination of 7-C carriers at the first stretch in D310 region. 25 colorectal cancer patients, 25 breast cancer patients and 41 healthy individuals were enrolled into the study. PCR amplification followed by restriction enzyme digestion of D310 region was performed for RFLP analysis. Digestion products were analysed by agarose gel electrophoresis. Sequencing was also applied to samples in order to confirm the RFLP data. Samples containing 7-C at first stretch of D310 region were successfully determined by the BsaXI RFLP method. Heteroplasmy and homoplasmy for 7-C content was also determined as evidenced by direct sequencing. Forty-one percent of the studied samples were found to be BsaXI positive. Furthermore, BsaXI status of colorectal cancer samples were significantly different from that of healthy individuals. In conclusion, BsaXI RFLP analysis is a simple and rapid approach for the single step determination of D310

  5. Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Tsz-Tsun; So, Pui-Kin; Zheng, Bo [Food Safety and Technology Research Centre, State Key Laboratory of Chirosciences and Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Food Biological Safety Control and State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen Research Institute of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen (China); Yao, Zhong-Ping, E-mail: zhongping.yao@polyu.edu.hk [Food Safety and Technology Research Centre, State Key Laboratory of Chirosciences and Department of Applied Biology and Chemical Technology, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Food Biological Safety Control and State Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine and Molecular Pharmacology (Incubation), Shenzhen Research Institute of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Shenzhen (China)

    2015-07-16

    Highlights: • Simplified sample preparation method for direct analysis of edible oils by MALDI-MS. • Establishment of a preliminary MALDI-MS spectral database of edible oils. • Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils. - Abstract: Authentication of edible oils is a long-term issue in food safety, and becomes particularly important with the emergence and wide spread of gutter oils in recent years. Due to the very high analytical demand and diversity of gutter oils, a high throughput analytical method and a versatile strategy for authentication of mixed edible oils and gutter oils are highly desirable. In this study, an improved matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method has been developed for direct analysis of edible oils. This method involved on-target sample loading, automatic data acquisition and simple data processing. MALDI-MS spectra with high quality and high reproducibility have been obtained using this method, and a preliminary spectral database of edible oils has been set up. The authenticity of an edible oil sample can be determined by comparing its MALDI-MS spectrum and principal component analysis (PCA) results with those of its labeled oil in the database. This method is simple and the whole process only takes several minutes for analysis of one oil sample. We demonstrated that the method was sensitive to change in oil compositions and can be used for measuring compositions of mixed oils. The capability of the method for determining mislabeling enables it for rapid screening of gutter oils since fraudulent mislabeling is a common feature of gutter oils.

  6. Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Tsz-Tsun; So, Pui-Kin; Zheng, Bo; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simplified sample preparation method for direct analysis of edible oils by MALDI-MS. • Establishment of a preliminary MALDI-MS spectral database of edible oils. • Rapid screening of mixed edible oils and gutter oils. - Abstract: Authentication of edible oils is a long-term issue in food safety, and becomes particularly important with the emergence and wide spread of gutter oils in recent years. Due to the very high analytical demand and diversity of gutter oils, a high throughput analytical method and a versatile strategy for authentication of mixed edible oils and gutter oils are highly desirable. In this study, an improved matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) method has been developed for direct analysis of edible oils. This method involved on-target sample loading, automatic data acquisition and simple data processing. MALDI-MS spectra with high quality and high reproducibility have been obtained using this method, and a preliminary spectral database of edible oils has been set up. The authenticity of an edible oil sample can be determined by comparing its MALDI-MS spectrum and principal component analysis (PCA) results with those of its labeled oil in the database. This method is simple and the whole process only takes several minutes for analysis of one oil sample. We demonstrated that the method was sensitive to change in oil compositions and can be used for measuring compositions of mixed oils. The capability of the method for determining mislabeling enables it for rapid screening of gutter oils since fraudulent mislabeling is a common feature of gutter oils

  7. Evaluation of the rapid plasma reagin "teardrop" card test for screening of syphilis in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, E; Van de Velden, L; Ndoye, I; Piot, P; Meheus, A

    1993-01-01

    The availability of simple diagnostic methods may contribute to more efficient control of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in developing countries. For the detection of syphilis, a simple rapid plasma reagin (RPR) "teardrop" assay for finger-prick blood samples was developed in 1962. The reliability of this test is compared with RPR, Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA), and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-Abs) assays performed on venous blood samples. To evaluate the potential usefulness of the finger-stick RPR teardrop assay for diagnosis of syphilis in settings with poor medical resources. Pregnant women evaluated at two health centers in Pikine, Senegal were tested for STDs. The RPR teardrop assay was performed on plasma from blood samples obtained by finger prick, and standard RPR, TPHA, and FTA-Abs procedures were performed on serum obtained by vein puncture. The sensitivity and specificity of the finger-prick RPR teardrop assay were 69.7% and 96.5%, respectively, and its reactivity was correlated with RPR serum antibody titer. The finger-prick RPR teardrop assay is not a reliable alternative to the classic serum RPR test.

  8. Implementation of universal rapid human immunodeficiency virus screening on labor and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crochet, Stacia; Huang, Chun-Chih; Fries, Melissa; Scott, Rachel K

    2018-03-01

    A case of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV at a medical center in Washington, DC, resulted in the implementation of universal opt-out rapid testing of patients admitted for delivery. This article evaluates the policy's efficacy and implementation. We evaluated the implementation using the Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. We could not evaluate decrease in MTCT rate secondary to low sample size ( n  = 3324) and no true-positive results. Patients not tested ( n  = 458) were predominately secondary to physician omission (93.7%) and were more likely to be White ( p  < 0.01) and older ( p  < 0.01). There was a negative relationship with physician omission over time. The policy was successfully implemented with decreasing proportions of patients not tested. Earlier inclusion of testing into standard admission orders and nurse-based approach may have expedited adoption. Given the low incidence of new HIV diagnosis in labor, we were unable to assess decrease in MTCT.

  9. Prospecting fungal parasites of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida using a rapid screening technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooliyottil, Rinu; Dandurand, Louise-Marie; Knudsen, Guy R

    2017-05-01

    Seven filamentous fungal species were isolated from individual eggs of Globodera pallida cysts collected from infested fields in Shelley Idaho, USA and identified as Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium tricinctum, Microdochium bolleyi, Purpureocillium lilacinum, and Plectosphaerella cucumerina. Their ability to reduce infection by G. pallida in planta were assessed in simple, reproducible micro-rhizosphere chambers (micro-ROCs). All fungi reduced G. pallida infection in potato, but greatest reduction was observed with C. globosum at an average reduction of 76%. Further non-destructive methods were developed to rapidly assess biological control potential of putative fungal strains by staining the infectious second stage juveniles of G. pallida with the live fluorescent stain PKH26. In comparisons between the standard, invasive acid fuchsin method and use of the live stain PKH26, no significant difference in infection level of G. pallida was observed whether roots were stained with PKH26 or acid fuchsin. For both methods, a similar reduction (77% for acid fuchsin, and 78% for PKH26 stain) in invasion of infectious stage of G. pallida was observed when potato plants were inoculated with C. globosum compared to non-inoculated potato. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Screening test for rapid food safety evaluation by menadione-catalysed chemiluminescent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashoji, Shiro; Yoshikawa, Naoko; Kirihara, Masayuki; Tsuneyoshi, Toshihiro

    2013-06-15

    The chemiluminescent assay of menadione-catalysed H2O2 production by living mammalian cells was proposed to be useful for rapid food safety evaluation. The tested foods were extracted with water, ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide, and each extract was incubated with NIH3T3, Neuro-2a and HepG2 cells for 4h. Menadione-catalysed H2O2 production by living mammalian cells exposed to each extract was determined by the chemiluminescent assay requiring only 10 min, and the viability of the cells was estimated as percentage based on H2O2 production by intact cells. In this study the cytotoxicity of food was rated in order of inhibitory effect on H2O2 production by intact cells. The well known natural toxins such as Fusarium mycotoxin, tomato toxin tomatine, potato toxin solanine and marine toxins terodotoxin and brevetoxin could be detected by the above chemiluminescent assay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-equiatomic high entropy alloys: Approach towards rapid alloy screening and property-oriented design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradeep, K.G. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-str.1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Materials Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Kopernikusstr.10, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Tasan, C.C., E-mail: c.tasan@mpie.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-str.1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Yao, M.J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-str.1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Deng, Y. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-str.1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Department of Engineering Design and Materials, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, No-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Springer, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-str.1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Raabe, D., E-mail: d.raabe@mpie.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-str.1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2015-11-11

    The high entropy alloy (HEA) concept has triggered a renewed interest in alloy design, even though some aspects of the underlying thermodynamic concepts are still under debate. This study addresses the short-comings of this alloy design strategy with the aim to open up new directions of HEA research targeting specifically non-equiatomic yet massively alloyed compositions. We propose that a wide range of massive single phase solid solutions could be designed by including non-equiatomic variants. It is demonstrated by introducing a set of novel non-equiatomic multi-component CoCrFeMnNi alloys produced by metallurgical rapid alloy prototyping. Despite the reduced configurational entropy, detailed characterization of these materials reveals a strong resemblance to the well-studied equiatomic single phase HEA: The microstructure of these novel alloys exhibits a random distribution of alloying elements (confirmed by Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy and Atom Probe Tomography) in a single face-centered-cubic phase (confirmed by X-ray Diffraction and Electron Backscatter Diffraction), which deforms through planar slip (confirmed by Electron-Channeling Contrast Imaging) and leads to excellent ductility (confirmed by uniaxial tensile tests). This approach widens the field of HEAs to non-equiatomic multi-component alloys since the concept enables to tailor the stacking fault energy and associated transformation phenomena which act as main mechanisms to design useful strain hardening behavior.

  12. Application of rapid microbiological screening methods for detection of irradiated frozen foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.A.; Rady, A.H.; ElBary, N.A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The exposure of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to, inactivate food pathogens, eradicate pests and extend shelf-life. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food. The direct epi fluorescent filter technique (DEFT) was applied as recent and rapid technique for determination of total bacterial count in irradiated minced chicken (2,4,6, and 8 kGy) as well as non-irradiated samples. Also aerobic plate count (APC) was used to determine the viable bacterial cells. A large significant differences between the profiteered DEFT and APC counts were obtained with the irradiated samples of each chicken and fish where the conventional plating gives a much lower values than the (DEFT) technique compared with non-irradiated samples. A highly correlation (r=0.99 and 1.00) were detected at 8 and 6 kGy with irradiated minced chicken and fish respectively. The Gram-negative bacteria belonging to (Enterobacteriaceae and fluorescence pseudomonas) showed very low count in the irradiated selected fish samples compared with control while the endotoxin selected fish samples compared with control while the endotoxin levels did not affect under the same conditions. Micro-gel electrophoresis indicated that gamma irradiation at 8 kGy can induce DNA damage in the cells of both minced chicken and fish where, some bands disappeared compared with the non-irradiated samples

  13. Non-equiatomic high entropy alloys: Approach towards rapid alloy screening and property-oriented design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, K.G.; Tasan, C.C.; Yao, M.J.; Deng, Y.; Springer, H.; Raabe, D.

    2015-01-01

    The high entropy alloy (HEA) concept has triggered a renewed interest in alloy design, even though some aspects of the underlying thermodynamic concepts are still under debate. This study addresses the short-comings of this alloy design strategy with the aim to open up new directions of HEA research targeting specifically non-equiatomic yet massively alloyed compositions. We propose that a wide range of massive single phase solid solutions could be designed by including non-equiatomic variants. It is demonstrated by introducing a set of novel non-equiatomic multi-component CoCrFeMnNi alloys produced by metallurgical rapid alloy prototyping. Despite the reduced configurational entropy, detailed characterization of these materials reveals a strong resemblance to the well-studied equiatomic single phase HEA: The microstructure of these novel alloys exhibits a random distribution of alloying elements (confirmed by Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy and Atom Probe Tomography) in a single face-centered-cubic phase (confirmed by X-ray Diffraction and Electron Backscatter Diffraction), which deforms through planar slip (confirmed by Electron-Channeling Contrast Imaging) and leads to excellent ductility (confirmed by uniaxial tensile tests). This approach widens the field of HEAs to non-equiatomic multi-component alloys since the concept enables to tailor the stacking fault energy and associated transformation phenomena which act as main mechanisms to design useful strain hardening behavior.

  14. Rapid, computer vision-enabled murine screening system identifies neuropharmacological potential of two new mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L Roberds

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The lack of predictive in vitro models for behavioral phenotypes impedes rapid advancement in neuropharmacology and psychopharmacology. In vivo behavioral assays are more predictive of activity in human disorders, but such assays are often highly resource-intensive. Here we describe the successful application of a computer vision-enabled system to identify potential neuropharmacological activity of two new mechanisms. The analytical system was trained using multiple drugs that are used clinically to treat depression, schizophrenia, anxiety, and other psychiatric or behavioral disorders. During blinded testing the PDE10 inhibitor TP-10 produced a signature of activity suggesting potential antipsychotic activity. This finding is consistent with TP-10’s activity in multiple rodent models that is similar to that of clinically used antipsychotic drugs. The CK1ε inhibitor PF-670462 produced a signature consistent with anxiolytic activity and, at the highest dose tested, behavioral effects similar to that of opiate analgesics. Neither TP-10 nor PF-670462 was included in the training set. Thus, computer vision-based behavioral analysis can facilitate drug discovery by identifying neuropharmacological effects of compounds acting through new mechanisms.

  15. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: A rapid screening tool for veterinary drug preparations and forensic samples from hormone crime investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Hooijerink, H.; Claassen, F.C.; Engelen, M.C. van; Beek, T.A. van

    2009-01-01

    Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS instrument both full-scan and data-dependent collision-induced dissociation MS n spectra were acquired in seconds without sample preparation. Preliminary data are presented for the rapid screening of (pro)hormone supplement samples, an illegal steroid cocktail and forensic samples from veterinary drug investigations. The potential of this DESI approach is clearly demonstrated since compounds observed could be independently confirmed by liquid chromatography/TOFMS with accurate mass measurement, and/or proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specific concerns related to false-positive and false-negative findings due to limitations in quantification and memory-effects are briefly discussed. It is envisaged that DESI will achieve a prominent role in hormone and veterinary drug analysis in the near future

  16. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: A rapid screening tool for veterinary drug preparations and forensic samples from hormone crime investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielen, M.W.F. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: michel.nielen@wur.nl; Hooijerink, H. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Claassen, F.C. [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands); Engelen, M.C. van [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Beek, T.A. van [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2009-04-01

    Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS instrument both full-scan and data-dependent collision-induced dissociation MS{sup n} spectra were acquired in seconds without sample preparation. Preliminary data are presented for the rapid screening of (pro)hormone supplement samples, an illegal steroid cocktail and forensic samples from veterinary drug investigations. The potential of this DESI approach is clearly demonstrated since compounds observed could be independently confirmed by liquid chromatography/TOFMS with accurate mass measurement, and/or proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specific concerns related to false-positive and false-negative findings due to limitations in quantification and memory-effects are briefly discussed. It is envisaged that DESI will achieve a prominent role in hormone and veterinary drug analysis in the near future.

  17. Can the Bruckner test be used as a rapid screening test to detect significant refractive errors in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Mihir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the suitability of Brückner test as a screening test to detect significant refractive errors in children. Materials and Methods: A pediatric ophthalmologist prospectively observed the size and location of pupillary crescent on Brückner test as hyperopic, myopic or astigmatic. This was compared with the cycloplegic refraction. Detailed ophthalmic examination was done for all. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Brückner test were determined for the defined cutoff levels of ametropia. Results: Ninety-six subjects were examined. Mean age was 8.6 years (range 1 to 16 years. Brückner test could be completed for all; the time taken to complete this test was 10 seconds per subject. The ophthalmologist identified 131 eyes as ametropic, 61 as emmetropic. The Brückner test had sensitivity 91%, specificity 72.8%, positive predictive value 85.5% and negative predictive value 83.6%. Of 10 false negatives four had compound hypermetropic astigmatism and three had myopia. Conclusions: Brückner test can be used to rapidly screen the children for significant refractive errors. The potential benefits from such use may be maximized if programs use the test with lower crescent measurement cutoffs, a crescent measurement ruler and a distance fixation target.

  18. Rapid risk household screening by neonatal arm circumference: results from a cohort study in rural Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzler, J; Sauerborn, R

    1998-12-01

    Neonatal arm circumference (NAC) and other attributes of the newborn and its household were analysed as potential predictors of child death in a cohort of 1367 newborn children representing the majority of births in a rural area of Burkina Faso from 1992 to 1994. During 3872 person years observed 264 children died, resulting in an average mortality rate of 6.8% per year. 90 mm was chosen as the best cut-off to differentiate low NAC associated with high mortality from normal NAC. The hazard ratio of children with low NAC (15.7%) compared to others was 1.7 (P cash crop production. We propose a simple risk score for rapid household screening in rural Burkina Faso and comparable settings elsewhere for identifying households at risk of experiencing child death. As much of the other variables' contribution to the explanation of survival pattern is absorbed by NAC in more parsimonious models, even simpler screening strategies based on NAC make sense. In the study area risk households will be offered periodical home visits by the local nurse promoting immunization, treatment of illness and strengthening the mothers' competence to recognize and manage frequent health problems of their children as part of a 'Shared Care' concept.

  19. Validation of the 4AT, a new instrument for rapid delirium screening: a study in 234 hospitalised older people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellelli, Giuseppe; Morandi, Alessandro; Davis, Daniel H.J.; Mazzola, Paolo; Turco, Renato; Gentile, Simona; Ryan, Tracy; Cash, Helen; Guerini, Fabio; Torpilliesi, Tiziana; Del Santo, Francesco; Trabucchi, Marco; Annoni, Giorgio; MacLullich, Alasdair M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the performance of the 4 ‘A’s Test (4AT) in screening for delirium in older patients. The 4AT is a new test for rapid screening of delirium in routine clinical practice. Design: prospective study of consecutively admitted elderly patients with independent 4AT and reference standard assessments. Setting: an acute geriatrics ward and a department of rehabilitation. Participants: two hundred and thirty-six patients (aged ≥70 years) consecutively admitted over a period of 4 months. Measurements: in each centre, the 4AT was administered by a geriatrician to eligible patients within 24 h of admission. Reference standard delirium diagnosis (DSM-IV-TR criteria) was obtained within 30 min by a different geriatrician who was blind to the 4AT score. The presence of dementia was assessed using the Alzheimer's Questionnaire and the informant section of the Clinical Dementia Rating scale. The main outcome measure was the accuracy of the 4AT in diagnosing delirium. Results: patients were 83.9 ± 6.1 years old, and the majority were women (64%). Delirium was detected in 12.3% (n = 29), dementia in 31.2% (n = 74) and a combination of both in 7.2% (n = 17). The 4AT had a sensitivity of 89.7% and specificity 84.1% for delirium. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for delirium diagnosis were 0.93 in the whole population, 0.92 in patients without dementia and 0.89 in patients with dementia. Conclusions: the 4AT is a sensitive and specific method of screening for delirium in hospitalised older people. Its brevity and simplicity support its use in routine clinical practice. PMID:24590568

  20. Testing tubewell platform color as a rapid screening tool for arsenic and manganese in drinking water wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Ashis; Nath, Bibhash; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Halder, Dipti; Kundu, Amit K; Mandal, Ujjal; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Chatterjee, Debashis; Jacks, Gunnar

    2012-01-03

    A low-cost rapid screening tool for arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in groundwater is urgently needed to formulate mitigation policies for sustainable drinking water supply. This study attempts to make statistical comparison between tubewell (TW) platform color and the level of As and Mn concentration in groundwater extracted from the respective TW (n = 423), to validate platform color as a screening tool for As and Mn in groundwater. The result shows that a black colored platform with 73% certainty indicates that well water is safe from As, while with 84% certainty a red colored platform indicates that well water is enriched with As, compared to WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 79%, 77%, and 81%, respectively. However, the certainty values become 93% and 38%, respectively, for black and red colored platforms at 50 μg/L, the drinking water standards for India and Bangladesh. The respective efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity are 65%, 85%, and 59%. Similarly for Mn, black and red colored platform with 78% and 64% certainty, respectively, indicates that well water is either enriched or free from Mn at the Indian national drinking water standard of 300 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 71%, 67%, and 76%, respectively. Thus, this study demonstrates that TW platform color can be potentially used as an initial screening tool for identifying TWs with elevated dissolved As and Mn, to make further rigorous groundwater testing more intensive and implement mitigation options for safe drinking water supplies.

  1. Optical satellite data volcano monitoring: a multi-sensor rapid response system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kenneth A.; Ramsey, Michael; Wessels, Rick L.; Dehn, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    of the ASTER Urgent Request Protocol (URP) for natural disaster monitoring and scientific analysis, has expanded the project to other volcanoes around the world and is in progress through 2011. The focus on ASTER data is due to the suitability of the sensor for natural disaster monitoring and the availability of data. The instrument has several unique facets that make it especially attractive for volcanic observations (Ramsey and Dehn, 2004). Specifically, ASTER routinely collects data at night, it has the ability to generate digital elevation models using stereo imaging, it can collect data in various gain states to minimize data saturation, it has a cross-track pointing capability for faster targeting, and it collects data up to ±85° latitude for better global coverage. As with any optical imaging-based remote sensing, the viewing conditions can negatively impact the data quality. This impact varies across the optical and thermal infrared wavelengths as well as being a function of the specific atmospheric window within a given wavelength region. Water vapor and cloud formation can obscure surface data in the visible and near infrared (VNIR)/shortwave infrared (SWIR) region due mainly to non-selective scattering of the incident photons. In the longer wavelengths of the thermal infrared (TIR), scattering is less of an issue, but heavy cloud cover can still obscure the ground due to atmospheric absorption. Thin clouds can be optically-transparent in the VNIR and TIR regions, but can cause errors in the extracted surface reflectance or derived surface temperatures. In regions prone to heavy cloud cover, optical remote sensing can be improved through increased temporal resolution. As more images are acquired in a given time period the chances of a clear image improve dramatically. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) routine monitoring, which commonly collects 4-6 images per day of any north Pacific volcano, takes advantage of this fact. The rapid

  2. Oral rapid test: an alternative to traditional HIV screening in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette Paola Irarrazábal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of an Oral Rapid Test (ORT to that of the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA for HIV testing in Santiago, Chile; to track the number of study participants returning for ELISA testing results; and to analyze the participants' perceptions of the ORT compared to the ELISA. METHODS: A total of 497 people were recruited in Santiago, Chile: 153 had previously tested positive for HIV, and 344 were of unknown status. Participants were tested for HIV using both the ELISA and the ORT to examine and compare specificity and sensitivity. Qualitative data were collected from 22 participants to compare perceptions of the testing experience with ORT versus ELISA. RESULTS: The ELISA reported 184 (37% of the 497 participants as being "positive" for HIV antibodies; the ORT showed 181 (36.4% as being "reactive" for HIV. The ORT showed a sensitivity of 98.4% (95.7%-99.9%, 95% Confidence Interval and specificity of 100%. The Kappa test produced K = 0.983 (P < 0.0001. Of the 344 participants whose HIV status was unknown at the start of the study, 55 failed to return for their ELISA results. Participants positively perceived ORT as having reduced both waiting time and anxiety over obtaining their test results. ORT oral swabbing appeared more practical and less invasive than drawing blood for the ELISA. CONCLUSIONS: The ORT and ELISA were statistically equal in specificity and sensitivity. ORT provides quicker results, potentially ensuring that more people receive them, and does not require handling of or exposure to potentially hazardous blood products. Trial number: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01733927.

  3. Collaborative, Rapid Mapping of Water Extents During Hurricane Harvey Using Optical and Radar Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, R.; Jones, M.; Herndon, K. E.; Bell, J. R.; Anderson, E. R.; Markert, K. N.; Molthan, A.; Adams, E. C.; Shultz, L.; Cherrington, E. A.; Flores, A.; Lucey, R.; Munroe, T.; Layne, G.; Pulla, S. T.; Weigel, A. M.; Tondapu, G.

    2017-12-01

    On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall between Port Aransas and Port O'Connor, Texas, bringing with it unprecedented amounts of rainfall and flooding. In times of natural disasters of this nature, emergency responders require timely and accurate information about the hazard in order to assess and plan for disaster response. Due to the extreme flooding impacts associated with Hurricane Harvey, delineations of water extent were crucial to inform resource deployment. Through the USGS's Hazards Data Distribution System, government and commercial vendors were able to acquire and distribute various satellite imagery to analysts to create value-added products that can be used by these emergency responders. Rapid-response water extent maps were created through a collaborative multi-organization and multi-sensor approach. One team of researchers created Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) water extent maps using modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2017), processed by ESA. This group used backscatter images, pre-processed by the Alaska Satellite Facility's Hybrid Pluggable Processing Pipeline (HyP3), to identify and apply a threshold to identify water in the image. Quality control was conducted by manually examining the image and correcting for potential errors. Another group of researchers and graduate student volunteers derived water masks from high resolution DigitalGlobe and SPOT images. Through a system of standardized image processing, quality control measures, and communication channels the team provided timely and fairly accurate water extent maps to support a larger NASA Disasters Program response. The optical imagery was processed through a combination of various band thresholds by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified Normalized Water Index (MNDWI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and cloud masking. Several aspects of the pre-processing and image access were run on internal servers to expedite the provision of images to

  4. Collaborative, Rapid Mapping of Water Extents During Hurricane Harvey Using Optical and Radar Satellite Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muench, Rebekke; Jones, Madeline; Herndon, Kelsey; Schultz, Lori; Bell, Jordan; Anderson, Eric; Markert, Kel; Molthan, Andrew; Adams, Emily; Cherrington, Emil; hide

    2017-01-01

    On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall between Port Aransas and Port O'Connor, Texas, bringing with it unprecedented amounts of rainfall and record flooding. In times of natural disasters of this nature, emergency responders require timely and accurate information about the hazard in order to assess and plan for disaster response. Due to the extreme flooding impacts associated with Hurricane Harvey, delineations of water extent were crucial to inform resource deployment. Through the USGS's Hazards Data Distribution System, government and commercial vendors were able to acquire and distribute various satellite imagery to analysts to create value-added products that can be used by these emergency responders. Rapid-response water extent maps were created through a collaborative multi-organization and multi-sensor approach. One team of researchers created Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) water extent maps using modified Copernicus Sentinel data (2017), processed by ESA. This group used backscatter images, pre-processed by the Alaska Satellite Facility's Hybrid Pluggable Processing Pipeline (HyP3), to identify and apply a threshold to identify water in the image. Quality control was conducted by manually examining the image and correcting for potential errors. Another group of researchers and graduate student volunteers derived water masks from high resolution DigitalGlobe and SPOT images. Through a system of standardized image processing, quality control measures, and communication channels the team provided timely and fairly accurate water extent maps to support a larger NASA Disasters Program response. The optical imagery was processed through a combination of various band thresholds and by using Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified Normalized Water Index (MNDWI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and cloud masking. Several aspects of the pre-processing and image access were run on internal servers to expedite the provision of

  5. Rapid screening of N-oxides of chemical warfare agents degradation products by ESI-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, L; Karthikraj, R; Lakshmi, V V S; Raju, N Prasada; Prabhakar, S

    2014-08-01

    Rapid detection and identification of chemical warfare agents and related precursors/degradation products in various environmental matrices is of paramount importance for verification of standards set by the chemical weapons convention (CWC). Nitrogen mustards, N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides, N,N-dialkylaminoethanols, N-alkyldiethanolamines, and triethanolamine, which are listed CWC scheduled chemicals, are prone to undergo N-oxidation in environmental matrices or during decontamination process. Thus, screening of the oxidized products of these compounds is also an important task in the verification process because the presence of these products reveals alleged use of nitrogen mustards or precursors of VX compounds. The N-oxides of aminoethanols and aminoethylchlorides easily produce [M + H](+) ions under electrospray ionization conditions, and their collision-induced dissociation spectra include a specific neutral loss of 48 u (OH + CH2OH) and 66 u (OH + CH2Cl), respectively. Based on this specific fragmentation, a rapid screening method was developed for screening of the N-oxides by applying neutral loss scan technique. The method was validated and the applicability of the method was demonstrated by analyzing positive and negative samples. The method was useful in the detection of N-oxides of aminoethanols and aminoethylchlorides in environmental matrices at trace levels (LOD, up to 500 ppb), even in the presence of complex masking agents, without the use of time-consuming sample preparation methods and chromatographic steps. This method is advantageous for the off-site verification program and also for participation in official proficiency tests conducted by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the Netherlands. The structure of N-oxides can be confirmed by the MS/MS experiments on the detected peaks. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed for the separation of isomeric N-oxides of aminoethanols and

  6. Development of a Novel, Bicombinatorial Approach to Alloy Development, and Application to Rapid Screening of Creep Resistant Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brian

    Combinatorial approaches have proven useful for rapid alloy fabrication and optimization. A new method of producing controlled isothermal gradients using the Gleeble Thermomechanical simulator has been developed, and demonstrated on the metastable beta-Ti alloy beta-21S, achieving a thermal gradient of 525-700 °C. This thermal gradient method has subsequently been coupled with existing combinatorial methods of producing composition gradients using the LENS(TM) additive manufacturing system, through the use of elemental blended powders. This has been demonstrated with a binary Ti-(0-15) wt% Cr build, which has subsequently been characterized with optical and electron microscopy, with special attention to the precipitate of TiCr2 Laves phases. The TiCr2 phase has been explored for its high temperature mechanical properties in a new oxidation resistant beta-Ti alloy, which serves as a demonstration of the new bicombinatorial methods developed as applied to a multicomponent alloy system.

  7. Rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry for high-throughput screening in food analysis: The case of boar taint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanken, Kaat; Stead, Sara; Jandova, Renata; Poucke, Christof Van; Claereboudt, Jan; Bussche, Julie Vanden; Saeger, Sarah De; Takats, Zoltan; Wauters, Jella; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2017-07-01

    Boar taint is a contemporary off-odor present in meat of uncastrated male pigs. As European Member States intend to abandon surgical castration of pigs by 2018, this off-odor has gained a lot of research interest. In this study, rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) was explored for the rapid detection of boar taint in neck fat. Untargeted screening of samples (n=150) enabled discrimination between sow, tainted and untainted boars. The obtained OPLS-DA models showed excellent classification accuracy, i.e. 99% and 100% for sow and boar samples or solely boar samples, respectively. Furthermore, the obtained models demonstrated excellent validation characteristics (R 2 (Y)=0.872-0.969; Q 2 (Y)=0.756-0.917), which were confirmed by CV-ANOVA (phighly accurate and high-throughput (<10s) classification of tainted and untainted boar samples was achieved, rendering REIMS a promising technique for predictive modelling in food safety and quality applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. DEPIVIH 2: Use of three HIV testing methods in French primary care settings - ELISA laboratory screening versus two rapid point-of-care HIV tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadima, D; Gauthier, R; Prévoteau du Clary, F; Bouée, S; Conort, G; Livrozet, J-M; Taulera, O; Wajsbrot, A; Majerholc, C; Peter, J-M; Aubert, J-P

    2018-03-01

    The primary endpoint was to evaluate the use of HIV testing methods by French primary care providers: Elisa laboratory screening, instant result HIV diagnostic test and rapid result HIV diagnostic test. The secondary endpoints were the population screening rate of unknown HIV status consulting during the study period, reasons for screening and for choosing the specific screening method, the investigators' satisfaction with the rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and problems encountered. National prospective interventional study with French family physicians (FP) from December 2013 to December 2014. FPs enrolled all consenting adults consulting for an HIV screening test during a 6-month period: the choice was an Elisa laboratory test or one of the two RDTs. During the study period, 43 FPs included 981 patients. HIV screening was performed for the first time for 31.6% of patients; 767 (78.2%) Elisa laboratory test prescriptions and 214 (21.8%) RDTs were performed, leading to a screening rate of 1.3%. For 120 (15.7%) of the Elisa laboratory tests, the result was not reported and six RDTs were not valid. Nine patients were diagnosed as HIV-infected (0.9%): five with Elisa laboratory test and four with RDT. Almost 90% of FPs were willing to keep on using RDTs in their daily practice. In general practice, RDTs may be an important additional tool to traditional HIV screening. They could account for one in five tests prescribed in this context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular screening of 980 cases of suspected hereditary optic neuropathy with a report on 77 novel OPA1 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferré, Marc; Bonneau, Dominique; Milea, Dan

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of molecular screening in 980 patients carried out as part of their work-up for suspected hereditary optic neuropathies. All the patients were investigated for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), by searching for the ten...... and OPA3 mutations in cases of suspected hereditary optic neuropathy, even in absence of a family history of the disease....... novel OPA1 mutations reported here. The statistical analysis of this large set of mutations has led us to propose a diagnostic strategy that should help with the molecular work-up of optic neuropathies. Our results highlight the importance of investigating LHON-causing mtDNA mutations as well as OPA1...

  10. Rapid Screening of MDR-TB in Cases of Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis Using Geno Type MTBDRplus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Kumari

    should be given. Routine use of Geno Type MTBDRplus assay for the diagnosis of MDR-EPTB can substantially reduce the time between diagnosis and drug therapy. Culture along with Geno Type MTBDRplus assay could be a solution for rapid and accurate diagnosis of MDR-TB in low bacillary non sputum specimens.

  11. Novel immune-modulator identified by a rapid, functional screen of the parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of new sequencing technologies and informatic methods for identifying genes has made establishing gene product function a critical rate limiting step in progressing the molecular sciences. We present a method to functionally mine genomes for useful activities in vivo, using an unusual property of a member of the poxvirus family to demonstrate this screening approach. Results The genome of Parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus was sequenced, annotated, and then used to PCR-amplify its open-reading-frames. Employing a cloning-independent protocol, a viral expression-library was rapidly built and arrayed into sub-library pools. These were directly delivered into mice as expressible cassettes and assayed for an immune-modulating activity associated with parapoxvirus infection. The product of the B2L gene, a homolog of vaccinia F13L, was identified as the factor eliciting immune cell accumulation at sites of skin inoculation. Administration of purified B2 protein also elicited immune cell accumulation activity, and additionally was found to serve as an adjuvant for antigen-specific responses. Co-delivery of the B2L gene with an influenza gene-vaccine significantly improved protection in mice. Furthermore, delivery of the B2L expression construct, without antigen, non-specifically reduced tumor growth in murine models of cancer. Conclusion A streamlined, functional approach to genome-wide screening of a biological activity in vivo is presented. Its application to screening in mice for an immune activity elicited by the pathogen genome of Parapoxvirus ovis yielded a novel immunomodulator. In this inverted discovery method, it was possible to identify the adjuvant responsible for a function of interest prior to a mechanistic study of the adjuvant. The non-specific immune activity of this modulator, B2, is similar to that associated with administration of inactivated particles to a host or to a live viral infection. Administration

  12. Rapid Screening and Characterization of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors from Yinhuang Oral Liquid Using Ultrafiltration-liquid Chromatography-electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haomin; Guo, Yinan; Meng, Lingwen; Sun, Hui; Yang, Yinping; Gao, Ying; Sun, Jiaming

    2018-01-01

    At present, approximately 17-25 million people in the world suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD). The most efficacious and acceptable therapeutic drug clinically are the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). Yinhuang oral liquid is a Chinese medicine preparation which contains AChEIs according to the literatures. However, no strategy has been presented for rapid screening and identification of AChEIs from Yinhuang oral liquid. To develop a method for rapid screening and identification of AChEIs from Yinhuang oral liquid using ultrafiltration-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UF-LC-ESI-MS/MS). In this study, UF incubation conditions such as enzyme concentration, incubation time, and incubation temperature were optimized so as to get better screening results. The AChEIs from Yinhuang oral liquid were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-ESI-MS and the improved Ellman method was used for the AChE inhibitory activity test in vitro . The results showed that Yinhuang oral liquid can inhibit the activity of AChE. We screened and identified seven compounds with potential AChE inhibitory activity from Yinhuang oral liquid, which provided experimental basis for the treatment and prevention of AD. The current technique was used to directly screen the active ingredients with acetylcholinesterase inhibition from complex traditional Chinese medicine, which was simple, rapid, accurate, and suitable for high-throughput screening of AChEI from complex systems. A UF-LC-ESI-MS/MS method for rapid screening and identification of AChEIs from Yinhuang oral liquid was developedSeven compounds were screened and identified with potential AChE inhibitory activity from Yinhuang oral liquidIt provided experimental basis of Yinhuang oral liquid for the treating and preventing AD. Abbreviations used: (AD): Alzheimer's disease; (UF-LC-ESI-MS/MS): ultrafiltration-liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry; (ACh

  13. The effect of rapid screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on the identification and earlier isolation of MRSA-positive patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Creamer, Eilish

    2010-04-01

    (1) To determine whether rapid screening with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays leads to the earlier isolation of patients at risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization, (2) to assess compliance with routine MRSA screening protocols, (3) to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MRSA real-time PCR assay (Cepheid) by comparison with culture, and (4) to compare turnaround times for PCR assay results with those for culture results.

  14. Rapid Screening and Characterization of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors from Yinhuang Oral Liquid Using Ultrafiltration-liquid Chromatography-electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haomin; Guo, Yinan; Meng, Lingwen; Sun, Hui; Yang, Yinping; Gao, Ying; Sun, Jiaming

    2018-01-01

    Background: At present, approximately 17–25 million people in the world suffer from Alzheimer's disease (AD). The most efficacious and acceptable therapeutic drug clinically are the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). Yinhuang oral liquid is a Chinese medicine preparation which contains AChEIs according to the literatures. However, no strategy has been presented for rapid screening and identification of AChEIs from Yinhuang oral liquid. Objective: To develop a method for rapid screening and identification of AChEIs from Yinhuang oral liquid using ultrafiltration–liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UF-LC-ESI-MS/MS). Materials and Methods: In this study, UF incubation conditions such as enzyme concentration, incubation time, and incubation temperature were optimized so as to get better screening results. The AChEIs from Yinhuang oral liquid were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-ESI-MS and the improved Ellman method was used for the AChE inhibitory activity test in vitro. Results: The results showed that Yinhuang oral liquid can inhibit the activity of AChE. We screened and identified seven compounds with potential AChE inhibitory activity from Yinhuang oral liquid, which provided experimental basis for the treatment and prevention of AD. Conclusion: The current technique was used to directly screen the active ingredients with acetylcholinesterase inhibition from complex traditional Chinese medicine, which was simple, rapid, accurate, and suitable for high-throughput screening of AChEI from complex systems. SUMMARY A UF-LC-ESI-MS/MS method for rapid screening and identification of AChEIs from Yinhuang oral liquid was developedSeven compounds were screened and identified with potential AChE inhibitory activity from Yinhuang oral liquidIt provided experimental basis of Yinhuang oral liquid for the treating and preventing AD. Abbreviations used: (AD): Alzheimer's disease; (UF

  15. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on the optical properties of strain-free quantum ring solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Strain-free GaAs/Al0.33Ga0.67As quantum rings are fabricated by droplet epitaxy. Both photoresponse and photoluminescence spectra confirm optical transitions in quantum rings, suggesting that droplet epitaxial nanomaterials are applicable to intermediate band solar cells. The effects of post-growth annealing on the quantum ring solar cells are investigated, and the optical properties of the solar cells with and without thermal treatment are characterized by photoluminescence technique. Rapid thermal annealing treatment has resulted in the significant improvement of material quality, which can be served as a standard process for quantum structure solar cells grown by droplet epitaxy. PMID:23281811

  16. Optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance for rapid detection of avian influenza virus subtype H6: Initial studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xihong; Tsao, Yu-Chia; Lee, Fu-Jung; Tsai, Woo-Hu; Wang, Ching-Ho; Chuang, Tsung-Liang; Wu, Mu-Shiang; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2016-07-01

    A side-polished fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor was fabricated to expose the core surface and then deposited with a 40 nm thin gold film for the near surface sensing of effective refractive index changes with surface concentration or thickness of captured avian influenza virus subtype H6. The detection surface of the SPR optical fiber sensor was prepared through the plasma modification method for binding a self-assembled monolayer of isopropanol chemically on the gold surface of the optical fiber. Subsequently, N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide was activated to enable EB2-B3 monoclonal antibodies to capture A/chicken/Taiwan/2838V/00 (H6N1) through a flow injection system. The detection limit of the fabricated optical fiber sensor for A/chicken/Taiwan/2838V/00 was 5.14 × 10(5) EID50/0.1 mL, and the response time was 10 min on average. Moreover, the fiber optic sensor has the advantages of a compact size and low cost, thus rendering it suitable for online and remote sensing. The results indicated that the optical fiber sensor can be used for epidemiological surveillance and diagnosing of avian influenza subtype H6 rapidly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid screening and identification of ACE inhibitors in snake venoms using at-line nanofractionation LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladic, Marija; de Waal, Tessa; Burggraaff, Lindsey; Slagboom, Julien; Somsen, Govert W; Niessen, Wilfried M A; Manjunatha Kini, R; Kool, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    This study presents an analytical method for the screening of snake venoms for inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and a strategy for their rapid identification. The method is based on an at-line nanofractionation approach, which combines liquid chromatography (LC), mass spectrometry (MS), and pharmacology in one platform. After initial LC separation of a crude venom, a post-column flow split is introduced enabling parallel MS identification and high-resolution fractionation onto 384-well plates. The plates are subsequently freeze-dried and used in a fluorescence-based ACE activity assay to determine the ability of the nanofractions to inhibit ACE activity. Once the bioactive wells are identified, the parallel MS data reveals the masses corresponding to the activities found. Narrowing down of possible bioactive candidates is provided by comparison of bioactivity profiles after reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and after hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) of a crude venom. Additional nanoLC-MS/MS analysis is performed on the content of the bioactive nanofractions to determine peptide sequences. The method described was optimized, evaluated, and successfully applied for screening of 30 snake venoms for the presence of ACE inhibitors. As a result, two new bioactive peptides were identified: pELWPRPHVPP in Crotalus viridis viridis venom with IC 50  = 1.1 μM and pEWPPWPPRPPIPP in Cerastes cerastes cerastes venom with IC 50  = 3.5 μM. The identified peptides possess a high sequence similarity to other bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs), which are known ACE inhibitors found in snake venoms.

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cervical cancer prevention based on a rapid human papillomavirus screening test in a high-risk region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Carol E; Sellors, John; Shi, Ju-Fang; Ma, Li; Qiao, You-lin; Ortendahl, Jesse; O'Shea, Meredith K H; Goldie, Sue J

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of a new, rapid human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA screening test for cervical cancer prevention in the high-risk region of Shanxi, China. Using micro-costing methods, we estimated the resources needed to implement preventive strategies using cervical cytology or HPV-DNA testing, including the Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2) test (QIAGEN Corp., Gaithersburg, MD) and the rapid HPV-DNA careHPV test (QIAGEN). Data were used in a previously published model and empirically calibrated to country-specific epidemiological data. Strategies differed by initial test, targeted age, frequency of screening, number of clinic visits required (1, 2 or 3) and service delivery setting (national, county and township levels). Outcomes included lifetime risk of cancer, years of life saved (YLS), lifetime costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (cost per YLS). For all screening frequencies, the most efficient strategy used 2-visit rapid HPV-DNA testing at the county level, including screening and diagnostics in the first visit, and treatment in the second visit. Screening at ages 35, 40 and 45 reduced cancer risk by 50% among women compliant with all 3 screening rounds, and was US$ 150 per YLS, compared with this same strategy applied twice per lifetime. This would be considered very cost-effective evaluated against China's per-capita gross domestic product (US$ 1,702). By enhancing the linkage between screening and treatment through a reduced number of visits, rapid HPV-DNA testing 3 times per lifetime is more effective than traditional cytology, and is likely to be cost-effective in high-risk regions of China.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL CERAMIC NANOFILM-FIBER INTEGRATED OPTICAL SENSORS FOR RAPID DETECTION OF COAL DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junhang Dong; Hai Xiao; Xiling Tang; Hongmin Jiang; Kurtis Remmel; Amardeep Kaur

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of this project is to conduct fundamental studies on advanced ceramic materials and fiber optic devices for developing new types of high temperature (>500{degree}C) fiber optic chemical sensors (FOCS) for monitoring fossil (mainly coal) and biomass derived gases in power plants. The primary technical objective is to investigate and demonstrate the nanocrystalline doped-ceramic thin film enabled FOCS that possess desired stability, sensitivity and selectivity for in-situ, rapid gas detection in the syngas streams from gasification and combustion flue gases. This report summarizes research works of two integrated parts: (1) development of metal oxide solid thin films as sensing materials for detection and measurement of important gas components relevant to the coal- and biomass-derived syngas and combustion gas streams at high temperatures; and (2) development of fiber optic devices that are potentially useful for constructing FOCS in combination with the solid oxide thin films identified in this program.

  20. Rapid Diagnosis of 83 Patients with Niemann Pick Type C Disease and Related Cholesterol Transport Disorders by Cholestantriol Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Reunert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Niemann Pick type C (NP-C is a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by an impairment of intracellular lipid transport. Due to the heterogeneous clinical phenotype and the lack of a reliable blood test, diagnosis and therapy are often delayed for years. In the cell, accumulating cholesterol leads to increased formation of oxysterols that can be used as a powerful screening parameter for NP-C. In a large scale study, we evaluated the oxysterol cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (c-triol as potential biomarker for a rapid diagnosis of NP-C. Using GC/MS, c-triol has been analyzed in 1902 plasma samples of patients with the suspicion for NP-C. Diagnosis in patients with elevated oxysterols was confirmed by genetic analysis. 71 new NP-C patients (69 NP-C1 and two NP-C2 and 12 Niemann Pick type A/B patients were identified. 24 new mutations in NPC1, one new mutation in NPC2 and three new mutations in the SMPD1 gene were found. Cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol was elevated in Niemann Pick type C1, type C2, type A/B and in CESD disease. No other study has ever identified so many NP-C patients, proving that c-triol is a rapid and reliable biomarker to detect patients with NP-C disease and related cholesterol transport disorders. It should replace the filipin test as the first-line diagnostic assay.

  1. Protocol for validation of the 4AT, a rapid screening tool for delirium: a multicentre prospective diagnostic test accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkin, Susan D; Fox, Christopher; Godfrey, Mary; Siddiqi, Najma; Goodacre, Steve; Young, John; Anand, Atul; Gray, Alasdair; Smith, Joel; Ryan, Tracy; Hanley, Janet; MacRaild, Allan; Steven, Jill; Black, Polly L; Boyd, Julia; Weir, Christopher J; MacLullich, Alasdair Mj

    2018-02-10

    Delirium is a severe neuropsychiatric syndrome of rapid onset, commonly precipitated by acute illness. It is common in older people in the emergency department (ED) and acute hospital, but greatly under-recognised in these and other settings. Delirium and other forms of cognitive impairment, particularly dementia, commonly coexist. There is a need for a rapid delirium screening tool that can be administered by a range of professional-level healthcare staff to patients with sensory or functional impairments in a busy clinical environment, which also incorporates general cognitive assessment. We developed the 4 'A's Test (4AT) for this purpose. This study's primary objective is to validate the 4AT against a reference standard. Secondary objectives include (1) comparing the 4AT with another widely used test (the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM)); (2) determining if the 4AT is sensitive to general cognitive impairment; (3) assessing if 4AT scores predict outcomes, including (4) a health economic analysis. 900 patients aged 70 or over in EDs or acute general medical wards will be recruited in three sites (Edinburgh, Bradford and Sheffield) over 18 months. Each patient will undergo a reference standard delirium assessment and will be randomised to assessment with either the 4AT or the CAM. At 12 weeks, outcomes (length of stay, institutionalisation and mortality) and resource utilisation will be collected by a questionnaire and via the electronic patient record. Ethical approval was granted in Scotland and England. The study involves administering tests commonly used in clinical practice. The main ethical issues are the essential recruitment of people without capacity. Dissemination is planned via publication in high impact journals, presentation at conferences, social media and the website www.the4AT.com. ISRCTN53388093; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial

  2. Interplay of Cu and oxygen vacancy in optical transitions and screening of excitons in ZnO:Cu films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darma, Yudi; Rusydi, Andrivo; Seng Herng, Tun; Marlina, Resti; Fauziah, Resti; Ding, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We study room temperature optics and electronic structures of ZnO:Cu films as a function of Cu concentration using a combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry, photoluminescence, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Mid-gap optical states, interband transitions, and excitons are observed and distinguishable. We argue that the mid-gap states are originated from interactions of Cu and oxygen vacancy (Vo). They are located below conduction band (Zn4s) and above valence band (O2p) promoting strong green emission and narrowing optical band gap. Excitonic states are screened and its intensities decrease upon Cu doping. Our results show the importance of Cu and Vo driving the electronic structures and optical transitions in ZnO:Cu films

  3. Interplay of Cu and oxygen vacancy in optical transitions and screening of excitons in ZnO:Cu films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darma, Yudi; Seng Herng, Tun; Marlina, Resti; Fauziah, Resti; Ding, Jun; Rusydi, Andrivo

    2014-02-01

    We study room temperature optics and electronic structures of ZnO:Cu films as a function of Cu concentration using a combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry, photoluminescence, and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Mid-gap optical states, interband transitions, and excitons are observed and distinguishable. We argue that the mid-gap states are originated from interactions of Cu and oxygen vacancy (Vo). They are located below conduction band (Zn4s) and above valence band (O2p) promoting strong green emission and narrowing optical band gap. Excitonic states are screened and its intensities decrease upon Cu doping. Our results show the importance of Cu and Vo driving the electronic structures and optical transitions in ZnO:Cu films.

  4. Robust high-throughput batch screening method in 384-well format with optical in-line resin quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelmann, Jörg; Ottens, Marcel; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2015-04-15

    High-throughput batch screening technologies have become an important tool in downstream process development. Although continuative miniaturization saves time and sample consumption, there is yet no screening process described in the 384-well microplate format. Several processes are established in the 96-well dimension to investigate protein-adsorbent interactions, utilizing between 6.8 and 50 μL resin per well. However, as sample consumption scales with resin volumes and throughput scales with experiments per microplate, they are limited in costs and saved time. In this work, a new method for in-well resin quantification by optical means, applicable in the 384-well format, and resin volumes as small as 0.1 μL is introduced. A HTS batch isotherm process is described, utilizing this new method in combination with optical sample volume quantification for screening of isotherm parameters in 384-well microplates. Results are qualified by confidence bounds determined by bootstrap analysis and a comprehensive Monte Carlo study of error propagation. This new approach opens the door to a variety of screening processes in the 384-well format on HTS stations, higher quality screening data and an increase in throughput. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A SIMPLE AND RAPID MATRIX-ASSISTED LASER DESORPTION/IONIZATION TIME OF FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD TO SCREEN FISH PLASMA SAMPLES FOR ESTROGEN-RESPONSIVE BIOMARKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we describe and evaluate the performance of a simple and rapid mass spectral method for screening fish plasma for estrogen-responsive biomarkers using matrix assisted laster desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) couopled with a short...

  6. A colorimetric assay of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) based on ninhydrin reaction for rapid screening of bacteria containing ACC deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Chang, S; Lin, L; Li, Y; An, Q

    2011-08-01

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity is an efficient marker for bacteria to promote plant growth by lowering ethylene levels in plants. We aim to develop a method for rapidly screening bacteria containing ACC deaminase, based on a colorimetric ninhydrin assay of ACC. A reliable colorimetric ninhydrin assay was developed to quantify ACC using heat-resistant polypropylene chimney-top 96-well PCR plates, having the wells evenly heated in boiling water, preventing accidental contamination from boiling water and limiting evaporation. With this method to measure bacterial consumption of ACC, 44 ACC-utilizing bacterial isolates were rapidly screened out from 311 bacterial isolates that were able to grow on minimal media containing ACC as the sole nitrogen source. The 44 ACC-utilizing bacterial isolates showed ACC deaminase activities and belonged to the genus Burkholderia, Pseudomonas or Herbaspirillum. Determination of bacterial ACC consumption by the PCR-plate ninhydrin-ACC assay is a rapid and efficient method for screening bacteria containing ACC deaminase from a large number of bacterial isolates. The PCR-plate ninhydrin-ACC assay extends the utility of the ninhydrin reaction and enables a rapid screening of bacteria containing ACC deaminase from large numbers of bacterial isolates. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction combined with on-chip electrophoresis as a rapid screening tool for candidate gene sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittig, Rainer; Salowsky, Rüdiger; Blaich, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Combining multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) with microfluidic amplicon analysis, we developed an assay for the rapid and reliable semiquantitative expression screening of 11 candidate genes for drug resistance in human malignant melanoma. The functionality of thi...

  8. Vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction for the rapid screening of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Chung, Wu-Hsun; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    The rapid screening of trace levels of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in various aqueous samples was performed by a simple and reliable procedure based on vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction combined with gas chromatography and electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry. The optimal vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction conditions for 20 mL water sample were as follows: extractant 400 μL of dichloromethane; vortex extraction time of 1 min at 2500 × g; centrifugation of 3 min at 5000 × g; and no ionic strength adjustment. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of quantitation was 0.05 μg/L. Precision, as indicated by relative standard deviations, was less than 9% for both intra- and inter-day analysis. Accuracy, expressed as the mean extraction recovery, was above 91%. The vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with gas chromatography and electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry method was successfully applied to quantitatively extract short-chain chlorinated paraffins from samples of river water and the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant, and the concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 1.6 μg/L. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Rapid determination of nitrophenol isomers in polluted water based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essy Kouadio Fodjo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive screen-printed electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs/SPE was applied to determine simultaneously m-nitrophenol, o-nitrophenol and p-nitrophenol. The electrochemical response showed that o-nitrophenol, m-nitrophenol and p-nitrophenol were entirely separated at the MWCNTs/SPE interface. Under the optimized conditions, it was found that the detection limits were 8.1×10-8 , 5.5×10-7 and 2.0×10-7 M and the linear calibration ranges were 1.0×10-6 ~1.9×10-5 M, 2.5×10-6 ~2.1×10-5 M and 2.0×10-6 ~2.0×10-5 M for m-nitrophenol, o-nitrophenol and p-nitrophenol respectively, proving that the electrode presented here could be easily used to determine nitrophenol isomers simultaneously with high sensitivity within pH range from 4.8 to 8.0. The applications in water samples showed that no interferences appeared with deviations below 5% to the determination of nitrophenol isomers with 1000 fold excess, indicating a good response of this method for nitrophenol isomers detection. This disposable modified SPE combining with a portable electrochemical device were performed for wastewater samples on-field rapid determination.

  10. A rapid method to screen for cell-wall mutants using discriminant analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen LiMei; Carpita, N.C.; Reiter, W.D.; Wilson, R.H.; Jeffries, C.; McCann, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a rapid method to screen large numbers of mutant plants for a broad range of cell wall phenotypes using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy of leaves. We established and validated a model that can discriminate between the leaves of wild-type and a previously defined set of cell-wall mutants of Arabidopsis. Exploratory principal component analysis indicated that mutants deficient in different cell-wall sugars can be distinguished from each other. Discrimination of cell-wall mutants from wild-type was independent of variability in starch content or additional unrelated mutations that might be present in a heavily mutagenised population. We then developed an analysis of FTIR spectra of leaves obtained from over 1000 mutagenised flax plants, and selected 59 plants whose spectral variation from wild-type was significantly out of the range of a wild-type population, determined by Mahalanobis distance. Cell wall sugars from the leaves of selected putative mutants were assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 42 showed significant differences in neutral sugar composition. The FTIR spectra indicated that six of the remaining 17 plants have altered ester or protein content. We conclude that linear discriminant analysis of FTIR spectra is a robust method to identify a broad range of structural and architectural alterations in cell walls, appearing as a consequence of developmental regulation, environmental adaptation or genetic modification. (author)

  11. Further Validation of a Rapid Screening Semiquantitative Thin-Layer Chromatographic Method for Marketed Antimalarial Medicines for Adoption in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorcas Osei-Safo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed semiquantitative thin-layer chromatographic (SQ-TLC assay has been employed in postmarketing surveillance of antimalarial medicines used in Malawi prior to HPLC assay. Both methods gave analogous results in a significant majority of the samples, with a good correlation (r = 0.9012 for the active pharmaceutical ingredients of the dosage forms assayed. Artemether-containing medicines had the highest percentage (92.67% of samples with comparable results for both assays. The lowest percentage (66.67% was observed in artesunate-containing medicines. The SQ-TLC method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, and stability according to the International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines, with the results falling within acceptable limits. For specificity, retention factor values of the test samples and reference standards were comparable, while accuracy and precision of 91.1 ± 5.7% were obtained for all samples. The method was linear in the range 1.0–2.0 µg/spot with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.9783. Stability tests also fell within acceptable limits. In this study, we present the validation of the SQ-TLC method and propose its adoption as a rapid screening tool for field estimation of the quality of antimalarial and other essential medicines in Malawi and other parts of the developing world prior to a more accurate HPLC assay.

  12. Deep Proton Writing for the rapid prototyping of polymer micro-components for optical interconnects and optofluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Vervaeke, Michael; Ottevaere, Heidi; Hermanne, Alex; Thienpont, Hugo

    2013-07-01

    The use of photonics in data communication and numerous other industrial applications brought plenty of prospects for innovation and opened up different unexplored market opportunities. This is a major driving force for the fabrication of micro-optical and micro-mechanical structures and their accurate alignment and integration into opto-mechanical modules and systems. To this end, we present Deep Proton Writing (DPW) as a powerful rapid prototyping technology for such micro-components. The DPW process consists of bombarding polymer samples (PMMA or SU-8) with swift protons, which results after chemical processing steps in high-quality micro-optical components. One of the strengths of the DPW micro-fabrication technology is the ability to fabricate monolithic building blocks that include micro-optical and mechanical functionalities which can be precisely integrated into more complex photonic systems. In this paper we comment on how we shifted from using 8.3 to 16.5 MeV protons for DPW and give some examples of micro-optical and micro-mechanical components recently fabricated through DPW, targeting applications in optical interconnections and in optofluidics.

  13. Deep Proton Writing for the rapid prototyping of polymer micro-components for optical interconnects and optofluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Erps, Jürgen, E-mail: jurgen.van.erps@vub.ac.be; Vervaeke, Michael; Ottevaere, Heidi; Hermanne, Alex; Thienpont, Hugo

    2013-07-15

    The use of photonics in data communication and numerous other industrial applications brought plenty of prospects for innovation and opened up different unexplored market opportunities. This is a major driving force for the fabrication of micro-optical and micro-mechanical structures and their accurate alignment and integration into opto-mechanical modules and systems. To this end, we present Deep Proton Writing (DPW) as a powerful rapid prototyping technology for such micro-components. The DPW process consists of bombarding polymer samples (PMMA or SU-8) with swift protons, which results after chemical processing steps in high-quality micro-optical components. One of the strengths of the DPW micro-fabrication technology is the ability to fabricate monolithic building blocks that include micro-optical and mechanical functionalities which can be precisely integrated into more complex photonic systems. In this paper we comment on how we shifted from using 8.3 to 16.5 MeV protons for DPW and give some examples of micro-optical and micro-mechanical components recently fabricated through DPW, targeting applications in optical interconnections and in optofluidics.

  14. Rapid screening for lipid storage disorders using biochemical markers. Expert center data and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorink-Moret, M; Goorden, S M I; van Kuilenburg, A B P; Wijburg, F A; Ghauharali-van der Vlugt, J M M; Beers-Stet, F S; Zoetekouw, A; Kulik, W; Hollak, C E M; Vaz, F M

    2018-02-01

    In patients suspected of a lipid storage disorder (sphingolipidoses, lipidoses), confirmation of the diagnosis relies predominantly on the measurement of specific enzymatic activities and genetic studies. New UPLC-MS/MS methods have been developed to measure lysosphingolipids and oxysterols, which, combined with chitotriosidase activity may represent a rapid first tier screening for lipid storage disorders. A lysosphingolipid panel consisting of lysoglobotriaosylceramide (LysoGb3), lysohexosylceramide (LysoHexCer: both lysoglucosylceramide and lysogalactosylceramide), lysosphingomyelin (LysoSM) and its carboxylated analogue lysosphingomyelin-509 (LysoSM-509) was measured in control subjects and plasma samples of predominantly untreated patients affected with lipid storage disorders (n=74). In addition, the oxysterols cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol and 7-ketocholesterol were measured in a subset of these patients (n=36) as well as chitotriosidase activity (n=43). A systematic review of the literature was performed to assess the usefulness of these biochemical markers. Specific elevations of metabolites, i.e. without overlap between controls and other lipid storage disorders, were found for several lysosomal storage diseases: increased LysoSM levels in acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (Niemann-Pick disease type A/B), LysoGb3 levels in males with classical phenotype Fabry disease and LysoHexCer (i.e. lysoglucosylceramide/lysogalactosylceramide) in Gaucher and Krabbe diseases. While elevated levels of LysoSM-509 and cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol did not discriminate between Niemann Pick disease type C and acid sphingomyelinase deficiency, LysoSM-509/LysoSM ratio was specifically elevated in Niemann-Pick disease type C. In Gaucher disease type I, mild increases in several lysosphingolipids were found including LysoGb3 with levels in the range of non-classical Fabry males and females. Chitotriosidase showed specific elevations in symptomatic Gaucher disease, and was mildly

  15. Screening of HIV-1 Protease Using a Combination of an Ultra-High-Throughput Fluorescent-Based Assay and RapidFire Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Juncai; Lai, Ming-Tain; Munshi, Vandna; Grobler, Jay; McCauley, John; Zuck, Paul; Johnson, Eric N; Uebele, Victor N; Hermes, Jeffrey D; Adam, Gregory C

    2015-06-01

    HIV-1 protease (PR) represents one of the primary targets for developing antiviral agents for the treatment of HIV-infected patients. To identify novel PR inhibitors, a label-free, high-throughput mass spectrometry (HTMS) assay was developed using the RapidFire platform and applied as an orthogonal assay to confirm hits identified in a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based primary screen of > 1 million compounds. For substrate selection, a panel of peptide substrates derived from natural processing sites for PR was evaluated on the RapidFire platform. As a result, KVSLNFPIL, a new substrate measured to have a ~ 20- and 60-fold improvement in k cat/K m over the frequently used sequences SQNYPIVQ and SQNYPIV, respectively, was identified for the HTMS screen. About 17% of hits from the FRET-based primary screen were confirmed in the HTMS confirmatory assay including all 304 known PR inhibitors in the set, demonstrating that the HTMS assay is effective at triaging false-positives while capturing true hits. Hence, with a sampling rate of ~7 s per well, the RapidFire HTMS assay enables the high-throughput evaluation of peptide substrates and functions as an efficient tool for hits triage in the discovery of novel PR inhibitors. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  16. Sources of optical distortion in rapidly grown crystals of KH2PO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Yoreo, J.J.; Zaitseva, N.P.; Woods, B.W.; Land, T.A.; Rek, Z.U.

    1995-01-01

    We report results of x-ray topographic and optical measurements on KH 2 PO 4 crystals grown at rates of 5 to 30mm/day. We show that optical distortion in these crystals is caused primarily by 3 sources: dislocations, differences in composition between adjacent growth sectors of the crystal, and differences in composition between adjacent sectors of vicinal growth hillocks within a single growth sector of the crystal. We find that the compositional heterogeneities cause spatial variations in the refractive index and induced distortion of the transmitted wave front while large groups of dislocations are responsible for strain induced birefringence which leads to beam depolarization

  17. Trapping, manipulation and rapid rotation of NBD-C8 fluorescent single microcrystals in optical tweezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GALAUP, Jean-Pierre; RODRIGUEZ-OTAZO, Mariela; AUGIER-CALDERIN, Angel; LAMERE; Jean-Francois; FERY-FORGUES, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    We have built an optical tweezers experiment based on an inverted microscope to trap and manipulate single crystals of micro or sub-micrometer size made from fluorescent molecules of 4-octylamino-7-nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD-C8). These single crystals have parallelepiped shapes and exhibit birefringence properties evidenced through optical experiments between crossed polarizers in a polarizing microscope. The crystals are uniaxial with their optical axis oriented along their largest dimension. Trapped in the optical trap, the organic micro-crystals are oriented in such a way that their long axis is along the direction of the beam propagation, and their short axis follows the direction of the linear polarization. Therefore, with linearly polarized light, simply rotating the light polarization can orient the crystal. When using circularly or only elliptically polarized light, the crystal can spontaneously rotate and reach rotation speed of several hundreds of turns per second. A surprising result has been observed: when the incident power is growing up, the rotation speed increases to reach a maximum value and then decreases even when the power is still growing up. Moreover, this evolution is irreversible. Different possible explanations can be considered. The development of a 3D control of the crystals by dynamical holography using liquid crystal spatial modulators will be presented and discussed on the basis of the most recent results obtained. (Author)

  18. Rapid detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates by the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); C. van Pelt (Cindy); A. Luijendijk (Ad); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The MRSA-Screen test detected the penicillin-binding protein 2a

  19. [Rapid screening the alkaloids of poppy shell in hot pot condiment, beef noodle soup and seasoning by direct analysis in real time-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baile; Gao, Lihong; Xie, Yingshuang; Zhou, Wei; Chen, Xiaofeng; Lei, Chunni; Zhang, Huan

    2017-07-08

    A direct analysis in real time tandem mass spectrometry (DART-MS/MS) method was established for quickly screening five illegally added alkaloids of poppy shell from the hot pot condiment, beef noodle soup and seasoning. The samples were extracted and purified by acetonitrile, and then injected under the conditions of ionization temperature of 300℃, grid electrode voltage of 150 V and sampling rate of 0.8 mm/s using DART in the positive ion mode. The determination was conducted by tandem mass spectrometry in positive ESI mode under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method is simple and rapid, and can meet the requirement of rapid screening and analysis of large quantities of samples.

  20. Rapid Computer Aided Ligand Design and Screening of Precious Metal Extractants from TRUEX Raffinate with Experimental Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Aurora Sue; Wall, Nathalie; Benny, Paul

    2015-01-01

    design of a software program that uses state-of-the-art computational combinatorial chemistry, and is developed and validated with experimental data acquisition; the resulting tool allows for rapid design and screening of new ligands for the extraction of precious metals from SNF. This document describes the software that has been produced, ligands that have been designed, and fundamental new understandings of the extraction process of Rh(III) as a function of solution phase conditions (pH, nature of acid, etc.).

  1. Rapid Computer Aided Ligand Design and Screening of Precious Metal Extractants from TRUEX Raffinate with Experimental Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Aurora Sue [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Wall, Nathalie [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Benny, Paul [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2015-11-16

    through the design of a software program that uses state-of-the-art computational combinatorial chemistry, and is developed and validated with experimental data acquisition; the resulting tool allows for rapid design and screening of new ligands for the extraction of precious metals from SNF. This document describes the software that has been produced, ligands that have been designed, and fundamental new understandings of the extraction process of Rh(III) as a function of solution phase conditions (pH, nature of acid, etc.).

  2. Validation of the Spanish version of the fibromyalgia rapid screening tool to detect fibromyalgia in primary care health centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Benigno; Belenguer, Rafael; Moreno-Muelas, José V; Urtiaga, Javier; Urtiaga, Blanca; Hernández, José L; Pina, Trinitario; González-Gay, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool (FiRST), a brief questionnaire for the detection of fibromyalgia (FM) in patients with diffuse chronic pain seen at primary care health centres. The original FiRST French questionnaire was adapted to a Spanish version following the guidelines of the Rheumatology Spanish Society Study Group of FM, and the help provided by professors of French and Spanish Language. In a prospective and multicentre study, patients with chronic pain were initially divided into two groups: a group that included patients that had been diagnosed with FM according to the 1990 ACR criteria and the 2010 ACR preliminary criteria (n=404), and a non-FM (control) group composed of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n=147) and osteoarthritis (OA) (n=219) patients. Patients from the FM group were evaluated by assessing tender point assessment, Widespread Pain Index (WPI), Symptom Severity Scale (SSS), FiRST questionnaire and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). The non-FM group was evaluated by means of FiRST, WPI and SSS. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive value as well as the correlation between the global score and other parameters were assessed. 356 of 404 FM (88.1%) patients who met the 1990 ACR criteria and the ACR 2010 preliminary criteria had a positive FiRST. In the control group (AR plus OA), only 16 (4.4%) subjects had a positive FiRST. The sensitivity value was 92% (95% confidence interval CI: 88.9-95.1), specificity 87.4% (95% CI: 80.8-94.0), positive predictive value 95.7% (95% CI: 93.3-98.1), and negative predictive value 78.2% (95% CI: 70.6-85.9). A significant correlation between the total FiRST score (patients with score 5 or 6) and WPI (pFIQ (p<0.0001) was found. FiRST questionnaire is a useful tool for the detection of FM in primary care health centres.

  3. Ag screen contacts to sintered YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/ powder for rapid superconductor characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreland, J.; Goodrich, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have developed a new method for making current contacts and voltage taps to YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/ sintered pellets for rapid superconductor characterization. Ag wire screens are interleaved between calcined powder sections and then fired at 930 0 C to form a composite pellet for resistivity and critical current measurements. The Ag diffuses into the powder during the sintering process forming a proximity contact that is permeable to O/sub 2/. Contact surface resistivities (area-resistance product) range from 1 to 10μΩ-cm/sup 2/ at 77 K for the Ag-powder interface. In this configuration, current can be uniformly injected into the ends of the pellet through the bonded Ag screen electrodes. Also, Ag screen voltage contacts, which span a cross section of the pellet, may provide an ideal geometry for detecting voltage drops along the pellet, minimizing current transfer effects

  4. Rapid screening of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs illegally added in anti-rheumatic herbal supplements and herbal remedies by portable ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengjiao; Ma, Haiyan; Gao, Jinglin; Zhang, Lina; Wang, Xinyu; Liu, Di; Bian, Jing; Jiang, Ye

    2017-10-25

    In this work, for the first time, a high-performance ion mobility spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI-HPIMS) method has been employed as a rapid screening tool for the detection of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac sodium and indomethacin illegally added in anti-rheumatic herbal supplements and herbal remedies. Samples were dissolved and filtered through a 0.45μm microporous membrane, then the filtrate was directly injected into the high-performance ion mobility spectrometry for analysis. Using this approach, the screening of illegal additions can be accomplished in as rapid as two to three minutes with no pretreatment required. The proposed method provided a LOD of 0.06-0.33μgmL -1 , as well as a good seperation of the five NSAIDs. The precision of the method was 0.1-0.4% (repeatability, n=6) and 0.9-3.3% (reproducibility, n=3). The proposed method appeared to be simple, rapid and highly specific, thus could be effective for the in-situ screening of NSAIDs in anti-rheumatic herbal supplements and herbal remedies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A rapid excitation-emission matrix fluorometer utilizing supercontinuum white light and acousto-optic tunable filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenbo [Imaging Unit, Integrative Oncology Department, BC Cancer Agency Research Center, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3 (Canada); Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, 835 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E8 (Canada); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of British Columbia, KAIS 5500, 2332 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Wu, Zhenguo; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan, E-mail: hzeng@bccrc.ca [Imaging Unit, Integrative Oncology Department, BC Cancer Agency Research Center, 675 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 1L3 (Canada); Department of Dermatology and Skin Science, University of British Columbia, 835 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E8 (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Scanning speed and coupling efficiency of excitation light to optic fibres are two major technical challenges that limit the potential of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectrometer for on-line applications and in vivo studies. In this paper, a novel EEM system, utilizing a supercontinuum white light source and acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs), was introduced and evaluated. The supercontinuum white light, generated by pumping a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with an 800 nm femtosecond laser, was efficiently coupled into a bifurcated optic fiber bundle. High speed EEM spectral scanning was achieved using AOTFs both for selecting excitation wavelength and scanning emission spectra. Using calibration lamps (neon and mercury argon), wavelength deviations were determined to vary from 0.18 nm to −0.70 nm within the spectral range of 500–850 nm. Spectral bandwidth for filtered excitation light broadened by twofold compared to that measured with monochromatic light between 650 nm and 750 nm. The EEM spectra for methanol solutions of laser dyes were successfully acquired with this rapid fluorometer using an integration time of 5 s.

  6. A rapid excitation-emission matrix fluorometer utilizing supercontinuum white light and acousto-optic tunable filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenbo; Wu, Zhenguo; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2016-01-01

    Scanning speed and coupling efficiency of excitation light to optic fibres are two major technical challenges that limit the potential of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectrometer for on-line applications and in vivo studies. In this paper, a novel EEM system, utilizing a supercontinuum white light source and acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs), was introduced and evaluated. The supercontinuum white light, generated by pumping a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with an 800 nm femtosecond laser, was efficiently coupled into a bifurcated optic fiber bundle. High speed EEM spectral scanning was achieved using AOTFs both for selecting excitation wavelength and scanning emission spectra. Using calibration lamps (neon and mercury argon), wavelength deviations were determined to vary from 0.18 nm to −0.70 nm within the spectral range of 500–850 nm. Spectral bandwidth for filtered excitation light broadened by twofold compared to that measured with monochromatic light between 650 nm and 750 nm. The EEM spectra for methanol solutions of laser dyes were successfully acquired with this rapid fluorometer using an integration time of 5 s.

  7. Rapid exchange ultra-thin microcatheter using fibre-optic sensing technology for measurement of intracoronary fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diletti, Roberto; Van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Valgimigli, Marco; Karanasos, Antonis; Everaert, Bert R C; Daemen, Joost; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; de Jaegere, Peter P; Zijlstra, Felix; Regar, Evelyn

    2015-08-01

    The present report describes a novel coronary fractional flow reserve (FFR) system which allows FFR assessment using a rapid exchange microcatheter (RXi). The RXi microcatheter is compatible with standard 0.014" coronary guidewires facilitating lesion negotiation and FFR assessment in a wide range of coronary anatomies. In case of serial lesions, a microcatheter would have the important advantage of allowing multiple pullbacks while maintaining wire access to the vessel. The RXi is a fibre-optic sensor technology-based device. This technology might allow reduction in signal drift. The RXi microcatheter's fibre-optic sensor is located 5 mm from the distal tip. The microcatheter profile at the sensor site is 0.027"0.036". The segment of the catheter which is intended to reside within the target lesion is proximal to the sensor and has dimensions decreased to 0.020"0.025"; these dimensions are comparable to a 0.022" circular-shaped wire. The RXi microcatheter FFR system represents a novel technology that could allow easier lesion negotiation, maintaining guidewire position, facilitating pullbacks for assessment of serial lesions and simplifying the obtainment of post-intervention FFR measurements. The optical sensing technology could additionally result in less signal drift. Further investigations are required to evaluate the clinical value of this technology fully.

  8. Rapid screening of natually occurring radioactive nuclides({sup 2}'3{sup 8}U, {sup 232}Th) in raw materials and by-products samples using XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Young; Lim, Chung Sup [Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioiostope Science, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Myoung; Ji, Young Yong; Chung, Kun Ho; Lee, Wan No; Kang, Mun Ja [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Byung Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    As new legislation has come into force implementing radiation safety management for the use of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), it is necessary to establish a rapid and accurate measurement technique. Measurement of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th using conventional methods encounter the most significant difficulties for pretreatment (e.g., purification, speciation, and dilution/enrichment) or require time-consuming processes. Therefore, in this study, the applicability of ED-XRF as a non-destructive and rapid screening method was validated for raw materials and by-product samples. A series of experiments was conducted to test the applicability for rapid screening of XRF measurement to determine activity of {sup 238}U and {sup 23{sup 2}}Th based on certified reference materials (e.g., soil, rock, phosphorus rock, bauxite, zircon, and coal ash) and NORM samples commercially used in Korea. Statistical methods were used to compare the analytical results of ED-XRF to those of certified values of certified reference materials (CRM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results of the XRF measurement for {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th showed under 20% relative error and standard deviation. The results of the U-test were statistically significant except for the case of U in coal fly ash samples. In addition, analytical results of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in the raw material and by-product samples using XRF and the analytical results of those using ICP-MS (R{sup 2}≥0.95) were consistent with each other. Thus, the analytical results rapidly derived using ED-XRF were fairly reliable. Based on the validation results, it can be concluded that the ED-XRF analysis may be applied to rapid screening of radioactivities ({sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th) in NORM samples.

  9. Repetitive patterns in rapid optical variations in the nearby black-hole binary V404 Cygni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Mariko; Isogai, Keisuke; Kato, Taichi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Nakahira, Satoshi; Shidatsu, Megumi; Enoto, Teruaki; Hori, Takafumi; Nogami, Daisaku; Littlefield, Colin; Ishioka, Ryoko; Chen, Ying-Tung; King, Sun-Kun; Wen, Chih-Yi; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Lehner, Matthew J; Schwamb, Megan E; Wang, Jen-Hung; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Alcock, Charles; Axelrod, Tim; Bianco, Federica B; Byun, Yong-Ik; Chen, Wen-Ping; Cook, Kem H; Kim, Dae-Won; Lee, Typhoon; Marshall, Stuart L; Pavlenko, Elena P; Antonyuk, Oksana I; Antonyuk, Kirill A; Pit, Nikolai V; Sosnovskij, Aleksei A; Babina, Julia V; Baklanov, Aleksei V; Pozanenko, Alexei S; Mazaeva, Elena D; Schmalz, Sergei E; Reva, Inna V; Belan, Sergei P; Inasaridze, Raguli Ya; Tungalag, Namkhai; Volnova, Alina A; Molotov, Igor E; de Miguel, Enrique; Kasai, Kiyoshi; Stein, William L; Dubovsky, Pavol A; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Miller, Ian; Richmond, Michael; Goff, William; Andreev, Maksim V; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Kojiguchi, Naoto; Sugiura, Yuki; Takeda, Nao; Yamada, Eiji; Matsumoto, Katsura; James, Nick; Pickard, Roger D; Tordai, Tamás; Maeda, Yutaka; Ruiz, Javier; Miyashita, Atsushi; Cook, Lewis M; Imada, Akira; Uemura, Makoto

    2016-01-07

    How black holes accrete surrounding matter is a fundamental yet unsolved question in astrophysics. It is generally believed that matter is absorbed into black holes via accretion disks, the state of which depends primarily on the mass-accretion rate. When this rate approaches the critical rate (the Eddington limit), thermal instability is supposed to occur in the inner disk, causing repetitive patterns of large-amplitude X-ray variability (oscillations) on timescales of minutes to hours. In fact, such oscillations have been observed only in sources with a high mass-accretion rate, such as GRS 1915+105 (refs 2, 3). These large-amplitude, relatively slow timescale, phenomena are thought to have physical origins distinct from those of X-ray or optical variations with small amplitudes and fast timescales (less than about 10 seconds) often observed in other black-hole binaries-for example, XTE J1118+480 (ref. 4) and GX 339-4 (ref. 5). Here we report an extensive multi-colour optical photometric data set of V404 Cygni, an X-ray transient source containing a black hole of nine solar masses (and a companion star) at a distance of 2.4 kiloparsecs (ref. 8). Our data show that optical oscillations on timescales of 100 seconds to 2.5 hours can occur at mass-accretion rates more than ten times lower than previously thought. This suggests that the accretion rate is not the critical parameter for inducing inner-disk instabilities. Instead, we propose that a long orbital period is a key condition for these large-amplitude oscillations, because the outer part of the large disk in binaries with long orbital periods will have surface densities too low to maintain sustained mass accretion to the inner part of the disk. The lack of sustained accretion--not the actual rate--would then be the critical factor causing large-amplitude oscillations in long-period systems.

  10. Rapid screening and identification of chemical hazards in surface and drinking water using high resolution mass spectrometry and a case-control filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaserzon, Sarit L; Heffernan, Amy L; Thompson, Kristie; Mueller, Jochen F; Gomez Ramos, Maria Jose

    2017-09-01

    Access to clean, safe drinking water poses a serious challenge to regulators, and requires analytical strategies capable of rapid screening and identification of potentially hazardous chemicals, specifically in situations when threats to water quality or security require rapid investigations and potential response. This study describes a fast and efficient chemical hazard screening strategy for characterising trace levels of polar organic contaminants in water matrices, based on liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry with post-acquisition 'case-control' data processing. This method allowed for a rapid response time of less than 24 h for the screening of target, suspect and non-target unknown chemicals via direct injection analysis, and a second, more sensitive analysis option requiring sample pre-concentration. The method was validated by fortifying samples with a range of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (n = 46); with >90% of target compounds positively screened in samples at 1 ng mL -1 , and 46% at 0.1 ng mL -1 when analysed via direct injection. To simulate a contamination event samples were fortified with compounds not present in the commercial library (designated 'non-target compounds'; fipronil and fenitrothion), tentatively identified at 0.2 and 1 ng mL -1 , respectively; and a compound not included in any known commercial library or public database (designated 'unknown' compounds; 8Cl - perfluorooctanesulfonic acid), at 0.8 ng mL -1 . The method was applied to two 'real-case' scenarios: (1) the assessment of drinking water safety during a high-profile event in Brisbane, Australia; and (2) to screen treated, re-circulated drinking water and pre-treated (raw) water. The validated workflow was effective for rapid prioritisation and screening of suspect and non-target potential hazards at trace levels, and could be applied to a wide range of matrices and investigations where comparison of organic contaminants

  11. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography as an effective screening test for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy (the “flying saucer” sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eric Chen, David M Brown, Matthew S Benz, Richard H Fish, Tien P Wong, Rosa Y Kim, James C MajorRetina Consultants of Houston, The Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, USAPurpose: While the long-term incidence of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ retinopathy is low, there remains no definitive clinical screening test to recognize HCQ toxicity before ophthalmoscopic fundus changes or visual symptoms. Patients receiving HCQ were evaluated with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT to assess the feasibility of identifying HCQ retinopathy at an early stage.Methods: Twenty-five patients referred for the evaluation of hydroxychloroquine toxicity underwent a comprehensive ocular examination, Humphrey visual field (HVF perimetry, time domain OCT, and SD OCT. Some patients with screening abnormalities also underwent further diagnostic testing at the discretion of the treating providers.Results: Five patients were found to have SD OCT findings corresponding to HCQ toxicity and retinal damage as seen by clinical exam and/or HVF perimetry. Two patients with advanced toxicity were found to have significant outer retina disruption in the macula on SD OCT. Three patients with early HCQ toxicity and HVF 10-2 perifoveal defects were found to have loss of the perifoveal photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS junction with intact outer retina directly under the fovea, creating the “flying saucer” sign. While two of these three patients had early ophthalmoscopic fundus changes, one had none.Conclusion: Outer retinal abnormalities including perifoveal photoreceptor IS/OS junction disruption can be identified by SD OCT in early HCQ toxicity, sometimes even before ophthalmoscopic fundus changes are apparent. SD OCT may have a potential complementary role in screening for HCQ retinopathy due to its quick acquisition and because it is more objective than automated perimetry.Keywords: drug toxicity, hydroxychloroquine, photoreceptors, screening test

  12. Rapid analysis of mixed waste samples via the optical emission from laser initiated microplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barefield, J.E. II; Ferran, M.D.; Cremers, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Wavelength resolved optical emission from laser initiated microplasmas in samples containing Pu, Am, Pb, Cr, and Be was used to determine elemental compositions. Traditionally, samples of this type are analyzed by neutron activation, X-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption (AA), inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Analysis via the traditional analytical spectroscopic techniques involves extensive sample separation and preparation which results in the generation of significant quantities of additional waste. In the laser based method, little to no sample preparation is required. The method is essentially waste free since only a few micrograms of material is removed from the sample in the generation of the microplasma. Detection limits of the laser based method typically range between subppm to tens of ppM. In this report, the optical emission from samples containing Pu, Am, Pb, Cr, and Be will be discussed. we will also discuss the essential elements of the analysis method

  13. Laser electro-optic system for rapid three-dimensional /3-D/ topographic mapping of surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, M. D.; Altschuler, B. R.; Taboada, J.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the generic utility of a robot in a factory/assembly environment could be substantially enhanced by providing a vision capability to the robot. A standard videocamera for robot vision provides a two-dimensional image which contains insufficient information for a detailed three-dimensional reconstruction of an object. Approaches which supply the additional information needed for the three-dimensional mapping of objects with complex surface shapes are briefly considered and a description is presented of a laser-based system which can provide three-dimensional vision to a robot. The system consists of a laser beam array generator, an optical image recorder, and software for controlling the required operations. The projection of a laser beam array onto a surface produces a dot pattern image which is viewed from one or more suitable perspectives. Attention is given to the mathematical method employed, the space coding technique, the approaches used for obtaining the transformation parameters, the optics for laser beam array generation, the hardware for beam array coding, and aspects of image acquisition.

  14. A portable cell-based optical detection device for rapid detection of Listeria and Bacillus toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pratik; Banada, Padmapriya P.; Rickus, Jenna L.; Morgan, Mark T.; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2005-11-01

    A mammalian cell-based optical biosensor was built to detect pathogenic Listeria and Bacillus species. This sensor measures the ability of the pathogens to infect and induce cytotoxicity on hybrid lymphocyte cell line (Ped-2E9) resulting in the release of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) that can be detected optically using a portable spectrophotometer. The Ped-2E9 cells were encapsulated in collagen gel matrices and grown in 48-well plates or in specially designed filtration tube units. Toxin preparations or bacterial cells were introduced and ALP release was assayed after 3-5 h. Pathogenic L. monocytogenes strains or the listeriolysin toxins preparation showed cytotoxicity ranging from 55% - 92%. Toxin preparations (~20 μg/ml) from B. cereus strains showed 24 - 98% cytotoxicity. In contrast, a non-pathogenic L. innocua (F4247) and a B. substilis induced only 2% and 8% cytotoxicity, respectively. This cell-based detection device demonstrates its ability to detect the presence of pathogenic Listeria and Bacillus species and can potentially be used onsite for food safety or in biosecurity application.

  15. Exploring procedures for the rapid assessment of optically stimulated luminescence range-finder ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Helen M.; Durcan, Julie A.; Duller, Geoff A.T.

    2009-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of sediments is a lengthy, labour-intensive, and time-consuming procedure. However, in some situations a rough approximation of the OSL age is all that is necessary e.g. for a pilot field campaign, to plan a sampling strategy, or to determine the resolution required for a dating campaign. Thus, it would be useful to establish an approximate OSL age without the lengthy and involved processes normally used. This paper explores how the standard procedures involved in OSL age determinations can be simplified to yield range-finder ages. Three areas are examined, namely, laboratory preparation, D e estimation, and dose-rate determination. The consequences of circumventing some of the preparation and measurement steps of conventional OSL dating are examined for a variety of sediments, by comparing the OSL range-finder ages to those obtained using full quartz OSL preparation and measurement procedures.

  16. Electrical and optical spectroscopy for quantitative screening of hepatic steatosis in donor livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, B L; Wilkinson, T D; Robertson, P A [Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 OFA (United Kingdom); Wells, A C; Watson, C J E [University Department of Surgery, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Box 202, Level 9, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 OCQ (United Kingdom); Virtue, S; Vidal-Puig, A, E-mail: mclaugb@gmail.co [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 2QR (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-21

    Macro-steatosis in deceased donor livers is increasingly prevalent and is associated with poor or non-function of the liver upon reperfusion. Current assessment of the extent of steatosis depends upon the macroscopic assessment of the liver by the surgeon and histological examination, if available. In this paper we demonstrate electrical and optical spectroscopy techniques which quantitatively characterize fatty infiltration in liver tissue. Optical spectroscopy showed a correlation coefficient of 0.85 in humans when referenced to clinical hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) sections in 20 human samples. With further development, an optical probe may provide a comprehensive measure of steatosis across the liver at the time of procurement.

  17. Toward the integration of optical sensors in smartphone screens using femtosecond laser writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Jerome; Parent, Francois; de Lima Filho, Elton Soares; Loranger, Sébastien; Kashyap, Raman

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate a new type of sensor incorporated directly into Corning Gorilla glass, an ultraresistant glass widely used in the screen of popular devices such as smartphones, tablets, and smart watches. Although physical space is limited in portable devices, the screens have been so far neglected in regard to functionalization. Our proof-of-concept shows a new niche for photonics device development, in which the screen becomes an active component integrated into the device. The sensor itself is a near-surface waveguide, sensitive to refractive index changes, enabling the analysis of liquids directly on the screen of a smartphone, without the need for any add-ons, thus opening this part of the device to advanced functionalization. The primary function of the screen is unaffected, since the sensor and waveguide are effectively invisible to the naked eye. We fabricated a waveguide just below the glass surface, directly written without any surface preparation, in which the change in refractive index on the surface-air interface changes the light guidance, thus the transmission of light. This work reports on sensor fabrication, using a femtosecond pulsed laser, and the light-interaction model of the beam propagating at the surface is discussed and compared with experimental measurement for refractive indexes in the range 1.3-1.7. A new and improved model, including input and output reflections due to the effective mode index change, is also proposed and yields a better match with our experimental measurements and also with previous measurements reported in the literature.

  18. A Rapid Screen for Host-Encoded miRNAs with Inhibitory Effects against Ebola Virus Using a Transcription- and Replication-Competent Virus-Like Particle System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyi Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs may become efficient antiviral agents against the Ebola virus (EBOV targeting viral genomic RNAs or transcripts. We previously conducted a genome-wide search for differentially expressed miRNAs during viral replication and transcription. In this study, we established a rapid screen for miRNAs with inhibitory effects against EBOV using a tetracistronic transcription- and replication-competent virus-like particle (trVLP system. This system uses a minigenome comprising an EBOV leader region, luciferase reporter, VP40, GP, VP24, EBOV trailer region, and three noncoding regions from the EBOV genome and can be used to model the life cycle of EBOV under biosafety level (BSL 2 conditions. Informatic analysis was performed to select up-regulated miRNAs targeting the coding regions of the minigenome with the highest binding energy to perform inhibitory effect screening. Among these miRNAs, miR-150-3p had the most significant inhibitory effect. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, Western blot, and double fluorescence reporter experiments demonstrated that miR-150-3p inhibited the reproduction of trVLPs via the regulation of GP and VP40 expression by directly targeting the coding regions of GP and VP40. This novel, rapid, and convenient screening method will efficiently facilitate the exploration of miRNAs against EBOV under BSL-2 conditions.

  19. Rapid and label-free separation of Burkitt's lymphoma cells from red blood cells by optically-induced electrokinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Liang

    Full Text Available Early stage detection of lymphoma cells is invaluable for providing reliable prognosis to patients. However, the purity of lymphoma cells in extracted samples from human patients' marrow is typically low. To address this issue, we report here our work on using optically-induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP force to rapidly purify Raji cells' (a type of Burkitt's lymphoma cell sample from red blood cells (RBCs with a label-free process. This method utilizes dynamically moving virtual electrodes to induce negative ODEP force of varying magnitudes on the Raji cells and RBCs in an optically-induced electrokinetics (OEK chip. Polarization models for the two types of cells that reflect their discriminate electrical properties were established. Then, the cells' differential velocities caused by a specific ODEP force field were obtained by a finite element simulation model, thereby established the theoretical basis that the two types of cells could be separated using an ODEP force field. To ensure that the ODEP force dominated the separation process, a comparison of the ODEP force with other significant electrokinetics forces was conducted using numerical results. Furthermore, the performance of the ODEP-based approach for separating Raji cells from RBCs was experimentally investigated. The results showed that these two types of cells, with different concentration ratios, could be separated rapidly using externally-applied electrical field at a driven frequency of 50 kHz at 20 Vpp. In addition, we have found that in order to facilitate ODEP-based cell separation, Raji cells' adhesion to the OEK chip's substrate should be minimized. This paper also presents our experimental results of finding the appropriate bovine serum albumin concentration in an isotonic solution to reduce cell adhesion, while maintaining suitable medium conductivity for electrokinetics-based cell separation. In short, we have demonstrated that OEK technology could be a promising tool for

  20. [Rapid measurement of trace mercury in aqueous solutions with optical-electrical dual pulse LIBS technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Xiong, Wei; Chen, Yu-Qi; Li, Run-Hua

    2011-02-01

    A wood slice was used as absorber to transfer liquid sample to solid sample in order to solve the problems existing in directly analyzing aqueous solutions with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). An optical-electrical dual pulse LIBS (OEDP-LIBS) technique was first used to enhance atomic emission of mercury in laser-induced plasma. The calibration curves of mercury were obtained by typical single pulse LIBS and OEDP-LIBS techniques. The limit of detection (LOD) of mercury in these two techniques reaches 2.4 and 0.3 mg x L(-1), respectively. Under current experimental conditions, the time-integrated a tomic emission of mercury at 253.65 nm was enhanced 50 times and the LOD of mercury was improved by one order, if comparing OEDP-LIBS to single pulse LIBS. The required time for a whole analysis process is less than 5 minutes. As the atomic emission of mercury decays slowly while increasing the delay time between electrical pulse and laser pulse, increasing the electrical pulse width can further enhance the time integrated intensity of mercury emission and improve the detection sensitivity of mercury by OEDP-LIBS technique.

  1. Physical and optical characterisation of carbon-silicon layers produced by rapid thermal chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, G.M.

    1994-04-01

    The Quplas II reactor is a novel chemical vapour deposition (CVD) system, which was recently designed and built at The Queen's University of Belfast. The system was intended to produce layers of Silicon (Si) for application in advanced bipolar transistor manufacture. It became clear that the system was capable of depositing novel materials such as Silicon-Carbon (Si-C) films which could have application as the emitter material in heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT's) formed on silicon substrates. This work focuses mainly on the development of analytical techniques to allow characterisation of the deposited layers of Si-C and permit optimisation of both the process conditions and the deposition system. The techniques that were developed to characterise the Si-C films in terms of their physical and optical properties included: Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS), X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD), Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy (TEM and SEM), Near Infrared (NIR) and Ultraviolet/Visible/Near Infrared (UV/VIS/NIR) Spectroscopy. From assessing the data obtained from the analysis of the samples using the techniques mentioned above, it was possible to characterise the Si-C films in terms of: stoichiometry, crystallinity, degree of oxygen contamination, thickness, optical roughness of the film/air and film/substrate interfaces, and energy bandgap. In the fabrication of Si-C films it was found to be necessary to use low process pressures in order to ensure that the film deposition was slow enough to allow for a more ordered growth process. This led to the formation of polycrystalline Si-C films which had greatly reduced levels of oxygen compared to earlier amorphous films. In addition the polycrystalline Si-C films tended to have optically rough film/air and film/substrate interfaces. For most samples it was possible to obtain the thickness of their Si-C films from their SIMS profiles. Based on the method of interferometry, the thickness of the Si-C films

  2. [Rapid discriminating hogwash oil and edible vegetable oil using near infrared optical fiber spectrometer technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Fang; Yuan, Li-Bo; Kong, Qing-Ming; Shen, Wei-Zheng; Zhang, Bing-Xiu; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, a new method using near infrared spectroscopy combined with optical fiber sensing technology was applied to the analysis of hogwash oil in blended oil. The 50 samples were a blend of frying oil and "nine three" soybean oil according to a certain volume ratio. The near infrared transmission spectroscopies were collected and the quantitative analysis model of frying oil was established by partial least squares (PLS) and BP artificial neural network The coefficients of determina- tion of calibration sets were 0.908 and 0.934 respectively. The coefficients of determination of validation sets were 0.961 and 0.952, the root mean square error of calibrations (RMSEC) was 0.184 and 0.136, and the root mean square error of predictions (RMSEP) was all 0.111 6. They conform to the model application requirement. At the same time, frying oil and qualified edible oil were identified with the principal component analysis (PCA), and the accurate rate was 100%. The experiment proved that near infrared spectral technology not only can quickly and accurately identify hogwash oil, but also can quantitatively detect hog- wash oil. This method has a wide application prospect in the detection of oil.

  3. Study on rapid valid acidity evaluation of apple by fiber optic diffuse reflectance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yande; Ying, Yibin; Fu, Xiaping; Jiang, Xuesong

    2004-03-01

    Some issues related to nondestructive evaluation of valid acidity in intact apples by means of Fourier transform near infrared (FTNIR) (800-2631nm) method were addressed. A relationship was established between the diffuse reflectance spectra recorded with a bifurcated optic fiber and the valid acidity. The data were analyzed by multivariate calibration analysis such as partial least squares (PLS) analysis and principal component regression (PCR) technique. A total of 120 Fuji apples were tested and 80 of them were used to form a calibration data set. The influence of data preprocessing and different spectra treatments were also investigated. Models based on smoothing spectra were slightly worse than models based on derivative spectra and the best result was obtained when the segment length was 5 and the gap size was 10. Depending on data preprocessing and multivariate calibration technique, the best prediction model had a correlation efficient (0.871), a low RMSEP (0.0677), a low RMSEC (0.056) and a small difference between RMSEP and RMSEC by PLS analysis. The results point out the feasibility of FTNIR spectral analysis to predict the fruit valid acidity non-destructively. The ratio of data standard deviation to the root mean square error of prediction (SDR) is better to be less than 3 in calibration models, however, the results cannot meet the demand of actual application. Therefore, further study is required for better calibration and prediction.

  4. Rapid and highly integrated FPGA-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Pin; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2018-02-01

    In this study, a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) programmed on LabVIEW can be highly integrated into customized applications such as adaptive optics system (AOS) for performing real-time wavefront measurement. Further, a Camera Link frame grabber embedded with FPGA is adopted to enhance the sensor speed reacting to variation considering its advantage of the highest data transmission bandwidth. Instead of waiting for a frame image to be captured by the FPGA, the Shack-Hartmann algorithm are implemented in parallel processing blocks design and let the image data transmission synchronize with the wavefront reconstruction. On the other hand, we design a mechanism to control the deformable mirror in the same FPGA and verify the Shack-Hartmann sensor speed by controlling the frequency of the deformable mirror dynamic surface deformation. Currently, this FPGAbead SHWS design can achieve a 266 Hz cyclic speed limited by the camera frame rate as well as leaves 40% logic slices for additionally flexible design.

  5. A fibre optic oxygen sensor that detects rapid PO2 changes under simulated conditions of cyclical atelectasis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, Federico; Chen, Rongsheng; McPeak, Hanne; Matejovic, Martin; Farmery, Andrew D; Hahn, Clive E W

    2014-01-15

    Two challenges in the management of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome are the difficulty in diagnosing cyclical atelectasis, and in individualising mechanical ventilation therapy in real-time. Commercial optical oxygen sensors can detect [Formula: see text] oscillations associated with cyclical atelectasis, but are not accurate at saturation levels below 90%, and contain a toxic fluorophore. We present a computer-controlled test rig, together with an in-house constructed ultra-rapid sensor to test the limitations of these sensors when exposed to rapidly changing [Formula: see text] in blood in vitro. We tested the sensors' responses to simulated respiratory rates between 10 and 60 breaths per minute. Our sensor was able to detect the whole amplitude of the imposed [Formula: see text] oscillations, even at the highest respiratory rate. We also examined our sensor's resistance to clot formation by continuous in vivo deployment in non-heparinised flowing animal blood for 24h, after which no adsorption of organic material on the sensor's surface was detectable by scanning electron microscopy. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid screening of oxytetracycline residue in catfish muscle by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and europium-sensitized luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) residue in catfish muscle was screened by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and europium-sensitized luminescence (ESL). After extraction in EDTA, HCl, and acetonitrile, cleanup was carried out by DLLME, and ESL was measured at microgram = 385 nm and wavelength = ...

  7. Development of a rapid screening protocol for selection of strains resistant to spray drying and storage in dry powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, S; Grattepanche, F; Baggenstos, C; Rezzonico, E; Berger, B; Arigoni, F; Lacroix, C

    2010-06-01

    An efficient screening method for selection of Bifidobacterium longum strains resistant to spray drying and storage was developed based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) for identification of the best survivors in mixed strains bacterial preparations. Three different primers were used to generate RAPD profiles of 22 B. longum strains. All strains were distinguished according to their RAPD profiles except for the strain NCC2705 and its H(2)O(2) resistant derivative variant. The 22 strains were grouped in 3 batches of 7, 7 and 8 strains and subjected to spray drying and storage at 30 and 37 °C under anaerobic conditions. Batch survival rates after spray drying reached 17.1±4.4%. Strains showing the highest prevalence and/or resistance to storage at 37 °C were selected from individual batches for subsequent spray drying and storage testing. After 67 days of storage, NCC572 was identified as the dominant strain in powder. The stability of strain NCC572 was confirmed by performing single spray drying and storage tests. Out of 22 B. longum strains, a robust strain was identified by combining RAPD with a simultaneous screening test for survival under spray drying and storage. The method allowed a fast screening of B. longum strains in mixture for resistance to spray drying and storage compared to traditional screening procedures carried out with individual strains, in the same conditions. This approach could be applied to other stress conditions.

  8. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: A rapid screening tool for veterinary drug preparations and forensic samples from hormone crime investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Hooijerink, H.; Claassen, F.C.; Engelen, M.C.; Beek, van T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS

  9. Real-time in vivo diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma with rapid fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kan; Zheng, Wei; Lim, Chwee Ming; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    We assess the clinical utility of a unique simultaneous fingerprint (FP) (i.e., 800-1800 cm−1) and high-wavenumber (HW) (i.e., 2800-3600 cm−1) fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy for in vivo diagnosis of laryngeal cancer at endoscopy. A total of 2124 high-quality in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra (normal = 1321; cancer = 581) were acquired from 101 tissue sites (normal = 71; cancer = 30) of 60 patients (normal = 44; cancer = 16) undergoing routine endoscopic examination. FP/HW Raman spectra differ significantly between normal and cancerous laryngeal tissue that could be attributed to changes of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and the bound water content in the larynx. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis and leave-one tissue site-out, cross-validation were employed on the in vivo FP/HW tissue Raman spectra acquired, yielding a diagnostic accuracy of 91.1% (sensitivity: 93.3% (28/30); specificity: 90.1% (64/71)) for laryngeal cancer identification, which is superior to using either FP (accuracy: 86.1%; sensitivity: 86.7% (26/30); specificity: 85.9% (61/71)) or HW (accuracy: 84.2%; sensitivity: 76.7% (23/30); specificity: 87.3% (62/71)) Raman technique alone. Further receiver operating characteristic analysis reconfirms the best performance of the simultaneous FP/HW Raman technique for laryngeal cancer diagnosis. We demonstrate for the first time that the simultaneous FP/HW Raman spectroscopy technique can be used for improving real-time in vivo diagnosis of laryngeal carcinoma during endoscopic examination. PMID:27699131

  10. Implementation of an optical diagnosis strategy saves costs and does not impair clinical outcomes of a fecal immunochemical test-based colorectal cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleugels, Jasper L A; Greuter, Marjolein J E; Hazewinkel, Yark; Coupé, Veerle M H; Dekker, Evelien

    2017-12-01

     In an optical diagnosis strategy, diminutive polyps that are endoscopically characterized with high confidence are removed without histopathological analysis and distal hyperplastic polyps are left in situ. We evaluated the effectiveness and costs of optical diagnosis.  Using the Adenoma and Serrated pathway to Colorectal CAncer (ASCCA) model, we simulated biennial fecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening in individuals aged 55 - 75 years. In this program, we compared an optical diagnosis strategy with current histopathology assessment of all diminutive polyps. Base-case assumptions included 76 % high-confidence predictions and sensitivities of 88 %, 91 %, and 88 % for endoscopically characterizing adenomas, sessile serrated polyps, and hyperplastic polyps, respectively. Outcomes were colorectal cancer burden, number of colonoscopies, life-years, and costs.  Both the histopathology strategy and the optical diagnosis strategy resulted in 21 life-days gained per simulated individual compared with no screening. For optical diagnosis, €6 per individual was saved compared with the current histopathology strategy. These cost savings were related to a 31 % reduction in colonoscopies in which histopathology was needed for diminutive polyps. Projecting these results onto the Netherlands (17 million inhabitants), assuming a fully implemented FIT-based screening program, resulted in an annual undiscounted cost saving of € 1.7 - 2.2 million for optical diagnosis.  Implementation of optical diagnosis in a FIT-based screening program saves costs without decreasing program effectiveness when compared with current histopathology analysis of all diminutive polyps. Further work is required to evaluate how endoscopists participating in a screening program should be trained, audited, and monitored to achieve adequate competence in optical diagnosis.

  11. Are Treponema pallidum specific rapid and point-of-care tests for syphilis accurate enough for screening in resource limited settings? Evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Jafari

    Full Text Available Rapid and point-of-care (POC tests for syphilis are an invaluable screening tool, yet inadequate evaluation of their diagnostic accuracy against best reference standards limits their widespread global uptake. To fill this gap, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of rapid and POC tests in blood and serum samples against Treponema pallidum (TP specific reference standards.Five electronic databases (1980-2012 were searched, data was extracted from 33 articles, and Bayesian hierarchical models were fit.In serum samples, against a TP specific reference standard point estimates with 95% credible intervals (CrI for the sensitivities of popular tests were: i Determine, 90.04% (80.45, 95.21, ii SD Bioline, 87.06% (75.67, 94.50, iii VisiTect, 85.13% (72.83, 92.57, and iv Syphicheck, 74.48% (56.85, 88.44, while specificities were: i Syphicheck, 99.14% (96.37, 100, ii Visitect, 96.45% (91.92, 99.29, iii SD Bioline, 95.85% (89.89, 99.53, and iv Determine, 94.15% (89.26, 97.66. In whole blood samples, sensitivities were: i Determine, 86.32% (77.26, 91.70, ii SD Bioline, 84.50% (78.81, 92.61, iii Syphicheck, 74.47% (63.94, 82.13, and iv VisiTect, 74.26% (53.62, 83.68, while specificities were: i Syphicheck, 99.58% (98.91, 99.96, ii VisiTect, 99.43% (98.22, 99.98, iii SD Bioline, 97.95%(92.54, 99.33, and iv Determine, 95.85% (92.42, 97.74.Rapid and POC treponemal tests reported sensitivity and specificity estimates comparable to laboratory-based treponemal tests. In resource limited settings, where access to screening is limited and where risk of patients lost to follow up is high, the introduction of these tests has already been shown to improve access to screening and treatment to prevent stillbirths and neonatal mortality due to congenital syphilis. Based on the evidence, it is concluded that rapid and POC tests are useful in resource limited settings with poor access to laboratories or screening

  12. Development of a Rapid Fluorescence-Based High-Throughput Screening Assay to Identify Novel Kynurenine 3-Monooxygenase Inhibitor Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, K R; Guillemin, G J; Lovejoy, D B

    2018-02-01

    Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is a well-validated therapeutic target for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Huntington's disease (HD). This work reports a facile fluorescence-based KMO assay optimized for high-throughput screening (HTS) that achieves a throughput approximately 20-fold higher than the fastest KMO assay currently reported. The screen was run with excellent performance (average Z' value of 0.80) from 110,000 compounds across 341 plates and exceeded all statistical parameters used to describe a robust HTS assay. A subset of molecules was selected for validation by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography, resulting in the confirmation of a novel hit with an IC 50 comparable to that of the well-described KMO inhibitor Ro-61-8048. A medicinal chemistry program is currently underway to further develop our novel KMO inhibitor scaffolds.

  13. A gas/liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the rapid screening of 250 pesticides in aqueous matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandramouli, B.; Harvan, D.; Brittain, S.; Hass, R. [Eno River Labs, LLC. Durham, NC (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Pesticide residues in food present a potentially serious and significant cause for concern. Many pesticides have been associated with significant health effects to the nervous and endocrine systems and some have been deemed carcinogenic. There are many well-established techniques for pesticide analysis. However, commercial pesticide methods have traditionally only been available for specific pesticide families, such as chlorinated pesticides or herbicides, and at detection limits ranging from 0.05 ppb to 1 ppm in aqueous matrices. Techniques that can quickly screen for the presence/absence of pesticide residues in food matrices are critical in ensuring the safety of food and water. This paper outlines a combined Gas Chromatographic-High Resolution Mass Spectrometric (GC-HRMS) and Liquid Chromatographic Tandem Mass Spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) screening assay for 250 pesticides that was developed for use in water, and soda samples at screening levels ranging from 0.1-5 ppb. The pesticides selected have been identified by the European Union as being of concern and the target of possible legislation. The list encompasses a variety of pesticide classes and compound groupings.

  14. Potential of cross-priming amplification and DNA-based lateral-flow strip biosensor for rapid on-site GMO screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Zhai, Congcong; You, Qimin; Chen, Hongjun

    2014-07-01

    The requirement to monitor the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in a variety of marked products has generated an increasing demand for reliable, rapid, and time and cost-effective analytical methods. Here we report an on-site method for rapid detection of cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV 35S), a common element present in most GMO, using cross-priming amplification (CPA) technology. Detection was achieved using a DNA-based contamination-proof strip biosensor. The limit of detection was 30 copies for the pBI121 plasmid containing the CaMV 35S gene. The certified reference sample of GM maize line MON810 was detectable even at the low relative mass concentration of 0.05%. The developed CPA method had high specificity for the CaMV 35S gene, as compared with other GM lines not containing this gene and non-GM products. The method was further validated using nine real-world samples, and the results were confirmed by real-time PCR analysis. Because of its simplicity, rapidity, and high sensitivity, this method of detecting the CaMV 35S gene has great commercial prospects for rapid GMO screening of high-consumption food and agriculture products.

  15. Evaluation of the HB&L carbapenemase and extended spectrum beta lactamase-AmpC automated screening kits for the rapid detection of resistant Enterobacteriaceae in rectal swabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Marani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the past two decades, a rapid increase of infections due to multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae was reported worldwide, including in Italy. These bacteria express genes encoding for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL or bear a plasmid-mediated AmpC that induce phenotypically a resistance to the last-generation cephalosporins; even more worrying is the rapid increase of Enterobacteriaceae carrying genes conferring resistance to carbapenems (CPE. Materials and methods. The gut may serve as reservoir for these antibiotic drug-resistant bacteria: as a consequence, the rapid detection of drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae from rectal swabs is an important tool to identify rectal carriage of resistant bacteria. This procedure is the basic tool to successfully implement the infection control measures in the hospital wards. The study evaluated the capability of the HB&L ESBL/AmpC and CARBAPENEMASE screening kit (Alifax, Padua, Italy to rapidly identify the drug resistant enterobacteriaceae from rectal swabs: the performance was compared with the conventional method. Results and conclusions. The overall agreement was very good (91% for the detection of ESBL-AmpC, and 96.2% for the identification of CPE; this method is thus an efficient tool to quickly report positive multidrug resistant bacteria in rectal swabs.

  16. Portable optical fiber probe-based spectroscopic scanner for rapid cancer diagnosis: a new tool for intraoperative margin assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyom Lue

    Full Text Available There continues to be a significant clinical need for rapid and reliable intraoperative margin assessment during cancer surgery. Here we describe a portable, quantitative, optical fiber probe-based, spectroscopic tissue scanner designed for intraoperative diagnostic imaging of surgical margins, which we tested in a proof of concept study in human tissue for breast cancer diagnosis. The tissue scanner combines both diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS and intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy (IFS, and has hyperspectral imaging capability, acquiring full DRS and IFS spectra for each scanned image pixel. Modeling of the DRS and IFS spectra yields quantitative parameters that reflect the metabolic, biochemical and morphological state of tissue, which are translated into disease diagnosis. The tissue scanner has high spatial resolution (0.25 mm over a wide field of view (10 cm × 10 cm, and both high spectral resolution (2 nm and high spectral contrast, readily distinguishing tissues with widely varying optical properties (bone, skeletal muscle, fat and connective tissue. Tissue-simulating phantom experiments confirm that the tissue scanner can quantitatively measure spectral parameters, such as hemoglobin concentration, in a physiologically relevant range with a high degree of accuracy (<5% error. Finally, studies using human breast tissues showed that the tissue scanner can detect small foci of breast cancer in a background of normal breast tissue. This tissue scanner is simpler in design, images a larger field of view at higher resolution and provides a more physically meaningful tissue diagnosis than other spectroscopic imaging systems currently reported in literatures. We believe this spectroscopic tissue scanner can provide real-time, comprehensive diagnostic imaging of surgical margins in excised tissues, overcoming the sampling limitation in current histopathology margin assessment. As such it is a significant step in the development of a

  17. Screening for Electrophysiological Abnormalities in Chronic Hepatitis C Infection: Peripheral Neuropathy and Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köşkderelioğlu, Aslı; Ortan, Pınar; Ari, Alpay; Gedizlioğlu, Muhteşem

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the existence of peripheral and optic neuropathies in asymptomatic individuals with hepatitis C infection. Thirty consecutive patients who were followed in a hepatitis C outpatient clinic were recruited for electrophysiological evaluation together with 30 age- and gender-compatible healthy controls. All patients had a detailed neurological examination. The information regarding the disease duration and management with interferons were collected. Nerve conduction studies and visual evoked potentials (VEP) were recorded in all subjects. The results of the patient and control groups were statistically compared. Of the patients with hepatitis C infection, 16 were females and 14 males. The mean age was 57.5 years, and the average disease duration was 6.43 years. The P100 latencies in the patient group were within normal limits, while the amplitudes were meaningfully small by comparison with the controls. There were some abnormalities in the nerve conduction studies of 15 patients. Sensorial neuropathy was detected in two patients, sensorimotor polyneuropathy in four, carpal tunnel syndrome in seven, and carpal tunnel syndrome and sensorimotor polyneuropathy as comorbid states in another two patients. The nerve conduction studies and VEP parameters were entirely normal in the control group. Hepatitis C-related neurological abnormalities may occur both in the central and peripheral nervous system. Mononeuritis multiplex, sensorial axonal neuropathy, and multiple mononeuropathies are some of the presentations of the peripheral nervous system involvement. The mode of infection is considered to be via vasculitic mechanisms. In addition, optic neuropathy is a known complication of interferon treatment. Autoantibodies, cytokines, chemokines, and cryoglobulins are accused to play roles in the pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the peripheral nervous system and optic nerves in a group of patients with hepatitis C. The results were in

  18. Rapid Screening of Carboxylic Acids from Waste and Surface Waters by ESI-MS/MS Using Barium Ion Chemistry and On-Line Membrane Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kyle D.; Volmer, Dietrich A.; Gill, Chris G.; Krogh, Erik T.

    2016-03-01

    Negative ion tandem mass spectrometric analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids often yields only non-diagnostic ([M - H]-) ions with limited selective fragmentation. However, carboxylates cationized with Ba2+ have demonstrated efficient dissociation in positive ion mode, providing structurally diagnostic product ions. We report the application of barium adducts followed by collision induced dissociation (CID), to improve selectivity for rapid screening of carboxylic acids in complex aqueous samples. The quantitative MS/MS method presented utilizes common product ions of [M - H + Ba]+ precursor ions. The mechanism of product ion formation is investigated using isotopically labeled standards and a series of structurally related carboxylic acids. The results suggest that hydrogen atoms in the β and γ positions yield common product ions ([BaH]+ and [BaOH]+). Furthermore, the diagnostic product ion at m/z 196 serves as a qualifying ion for carboxylate species. This methodology has been successfully used in conjunction with condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS), with barium acetate added directly to the methanol acceptor phase. The combination enables rapid screening of carboxylic acids directly from acidified water samples (wastewater effluent, spiked natural waters) using a capillary hollow fiber PDMS membrane immersion probe. We have applied this technique for the direct analysis of complex naphthenic acid mixtures spiked into natural surface waters using CP-MIMS. Selectivity at the ionization and tandem mass spectrometry level eliminate isobaric interferences from hydroxylated species present within the samples, which have been observed in negative electrospray ionization.

  19. Rapid Screening of Carboxylic Acids from Waste and Surface Waters by ESI-MS/MS Using Barium Ion Chemistry and On-Line Membrane Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kyle D; Volmer, Dietrich A; Gill, Chris G; Krogh, Erik T

    2016-03-01

    Negative ion tandem mass spectrometric analysis of aliphatic carboxylic acids often yields only non-diagnostic ([M - H](-)) ions with limited selective fragmentation. However, carboxylates cationized with Ba(2+) have demonstrated efficient dissociation in positive ion mode, providing structurally diagnostic product ions. We report the application of barium adducts followed by collision induced dissociation (CID), to improve selectivity for rapid screening of carboxylic acids in complex aqueous samples. The quantitative MS/MS method presented utilizes common product ions of [M - H + Ba](+) precursor ions. The mechanism of product ion formation is investigated using isotopically labeled standards and a series of structurally related carboxylic acids. The results suggest that hydrogen atoms in the β and γ positions yield common product ions ([BaH](+) and [BaOH](+)). Furthermore, the diagnostic product ion at m/z 196 serves as a qualifying ion for carboxylate species. This methodology has been successfully used in conjunction with condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry (CP-MIMS), with barium acetate added directly to the methanol acceptor phase. The combination enables rapid screening of carboxylic acids directly from acidified water samples (wastewater effluent, spiked natural waters) using a capillary hollow fiber PDMS membrane immersion probe. We have applied this technique for the direct analysis of complex naphthenic acid mixtures spiked into natural surface waters using CP-MIMS. Selectivity at the ionization and tandem mass spectrometry level eliminate isobaric interferences from hydroxylated species present within the samples, which have been observed in negative electrospray ionization.

  20. Highly sensitive capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for rapid screening and accurate quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Isabelle; Schappler, Julie; Rudaz, Serge

    2013-05-30

    The combination of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and mass spectrometry (MS) is particularly well adapted to bioanalysis due to its high separation efficiency, selectivity, and sensitivity; its short analytical time; and its low solvent and sample consumption. For clinical and forensic toxicology, a two-step analysis is usually performed: first, a screening step for compound identification, and second, confirmation and/or accurate quantitation in cases of presumed positive results. In this study, a fast and sensitive CE-MS workflow was developed for the screening and quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine samples. A CE with a time-of-flight MS (CE-TOF/MS) screening method was developed using a simple urine dilution and on-line sample preconcentration with pH-mediated stacking. The sample stacking allowed for a high loading capacity (20.5% of the capillary length), leading to limits of detection as low as 2 ng mL(-1) for drugs of abuse. Compound quantitation of positive samples was performed by CE-MS/MS with a triple quadrupole MS equipped with an adapted triple-tube sprayer and an electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The CE-ESI-MS/MS method was validated for two model compounds, cocaine (COC) and methadone (MTD), according to the Guidance of the Food and Drug Administration. The quantitative performance was evaluated for selectivity, response function, the lower limit of quantitation, trueness, precision, and accuracy. COC and MTD detection in urine samples was determined to be accurate over the range of 10-1000 ng mL(-1) and 21-1000 ng mL(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tandem mass spectrometry-based newborn screening strategy could be used to facilitate rapid and sensitive lung cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ting Huang,1,* Yunfeng Cao,1,* Jia Zeng,1 Jun Dong,2 Xiaoyu Sun,2 Jianxing Chen,1 Peng Gao2,3 1Key Laboratory of Contraceptives and Devices Research (NPFPC, Shanghai Engineer and Technology Research Center of Reproductive Health Drug and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, Shanghai, 2Clinical Laboratory, Dalian Sixth People’s Hospital, 3CASKey Laboratory of Separation Science for Analytical Chemistry, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Newborn screening (NBS helps in the early detection of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM. The most effective NBS strategy prevailing in clinics is tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS analysis using dried blood spot (DBS samples. Taking lung cancer (LC as an example, this study tried to explore if this technique could be of any assistance for the discovery of tumor metabolite markers.Materials and methods: Twenty-six acylcarnitines and 23 amino acids, which are commonly used in IEM screening, were quantified using DBS samples from 222 LC patients, 118 benign lung disease (LD patients, and 96 healthy volunteers (CONT. Forty-four calculated ratios based on the abovementioned metabolites were also included using MS/MS quantification results.Results: This pilot study led to the findings of 65 significantly changed amino acids, acylcarnitines, and some of their ratios for the LC, LD, and CONT groups. Among the differential parameters, 12 items showed reverse changing trends between the LC and LD groups compared to the CONT group. Regression analysis demonstrated that six of them – Arg, Pro, C10:1, Arg/Orn, Cit/Arg, and C5-OH/C0 – could be used to diagnose LC with a sensitivity of 91.3% and a specificity of 92.7%.Conclusion: This study demonstrated the DBS-based MS/MS strategy was a promising tool for the discovery of tumor metabolite markers. Remarkably, this MS

  2. [Application of precursor ion scanning method in rapid screening of illegally added phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and their unknown derivatives in Chinese traditional patent medicines and health foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Cao, Ling; Feng, Youlong; Tan, Li

    2014-11-01

    The compounds with similar structure often have similar pharmacological activities. So it is a trend for illegal addition that new derivatives of effective drugs are synthesized to avoid the statutory test. This bring challenges to crack down on illegal addition behavior, however, modified derivatives usually have similar product ions, which allow for precursor ion scanning. In this work, precursor ion scanning mode of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was first applied to screen illegally added drugs in complex matrix such as Chinese traditional patent medicines and healthy foods. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors were used as experimental examples. Through the analysis of the structure and mass spectrum characteristics of the compounds, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors were classified, and their common product ions were screened by full scan of product ions of typical compounds. Then high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method with precursor ion scanning mode was established based on the optimization of MS parameters. The effect of mass parameters and the choice of fragment ions were also studied. The method was applied to determine actual samples and further refined. The results demonstrated that this method can meet the need of rapid screening of unknown derivatives of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors in complex matrix, and prevent unknown derivatives undetected. This method shows advantages in sensitivity, specificity and efficiency, and is worth to be further investigated.

  3. A sensitive, rapid, and simple DR-EcoScreen bioassay for the determination of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in environmental and food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Iida, Mitsuru; Nakayama, Shoji F; Shiozaki, Takuya

    2018-03-01

    In developing countries in Asia, such as China, Vietnam, and Thailand, there is a strong need for the development of relatively rapid and low-cost bioassays for the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in environmental and food samples. These compounds are known to induce a variety of toxic and biological effects through their ligand-specific binding of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Indeed, several AhR-mediated reporter gene assays are widely used as prescreening tools for high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) analysis, which individually measures 17 PCDD/Fs and 12 DL-PCBs. In 2008, we have developed a new sensitive and rapid reporter gene assay using a genetically engineered stable cell line, designated DR-EcoScreen cells. The DR-EcoScreen assay using these cells has a number of great advantages of its sensitivity to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and its simple procedure, which shows little variance in the data (within CV 10 %) compared to other reporter gene assays. In this review, we summarize the application of the DR-EcoScreen assay to the determination of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in ambient air samples, in fish and shellfish samples, and in flue gas samples from incinerators and provide potential usefulness of this bioassay for the determination of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in various matrices.

  4. Proposal of a simple screening method for a rapid preliminary evaluation of ''heavy metals'' mobility in soils of contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Valentina; Chiusolo, Francesca; Cremisini, Carlo [ENEA - Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment, Rome (Italy). Section PROTCHIM

    2010-09-15

    Risks associated to ''heavy metals'' (HM) soil contamination depend not only on their total content but, mostly, on their mobility. Many extraction procedures have been developed to evaluate HM mobility in contaminated soils, but they are generally time consuming (especially the sequential extraction procedures (SEPs)) and consequently applicable on a limited number of samples. For this reason, a simple screening method, applicable even ''in field'', has been proposed in order to obtain a rapid evaluation of HM mobility in polluted soils, mainly focused on the fraction associated to Fe and Mn oxide/hydroxides. A buffer solution of trisodium citrate and hydroxylamine hydrochloride was used as extractant for a single-step leaching test. The choice of this buffered solution was strictly related to the possibility of directly determining, via titration with dithizone (DZ), the content of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd, which are among the most representative contaminants in highly mineralised soils. Moreover, the extraction solution is similar, aside from for the pH value, which is the one used in the BCR SEP second step. The analysis of bivalents ions through DZ titration was exploited in order to further simplify and quicken the whole procedure. The proposed method generically measures, in few minutes, the concentration of total extractable ''heavy metals'' expressed as molL{sup -1} without distinguishing between elements. The proposed screening method has been developed and applied on soil samples collected from rural, urban and mining areas, representing different situation of soil contamination. Results were compared with data obtained from the BCR procedure. The screening method demonstrated to be a reliable tool for a rapid evaluation of metals mobility. Therefore, it could be very useful, even ''in field'', both to guide the sampling activity on site and to monitor the efficacy of the subsequent

  5. Commercial herbal medicines used as African traditional medicines: Ngoma Herbal Tonic Immune Booster interferes with a rapid urine drug screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothibe, M E; Osuch, E; Kahler-Venter, C P

    2017-08-25

    The prevalent use of African traditional medicine by the general public has been reported. With commercialisation and marketing, some of the herbal medicines (HMs) used are readily available over the counter, most of them promoted as immune boosters. These commercial HMs have not been taken through clinical trials and other tests that would validate their composition and safety, and other properties such as their effect on laboratory diagnostic tests. To investigate the cross-reactivity of selected HMs with commonly tested drugs of abuse (DoA) using a qualitative rapid urinalysis assay. The six HMs selected were bought from local pharmacies. A rapid urinalysis screening test was performed with the Instant View Multi-Drug of Abuse Test kit from Labstix Diagnostics. Drug-free urine (DFU) was pooled from samples donated by healthy volunteers. Urine samples that had tested positive for DoA were obtained from a pharmacology laboratory. Aliquots of the urine samples were spiked with the HMs in neat and diluted form, and tested at various time intervals. The results for the DFU samples spiked with the HMs remained negative. There were no significant changes in pH or specific gravity of the samples. The results of samples that had tested positive for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were not altered by five of the HMs when spiked at 40% v/v. The HM Ngoma Herbal Tonic Immune Booster caused false-negative results for the THC test. An important finding is that the herbal mixture Ngoma Herbal Tonic Immune Booster caused false-negative results for the cannabinoid screening test. It adds to the list of substances that may be potential adulterants of urine for screening tests.

  6. Development toward rapid and efficient screening for high performance hydrolysate lots in a recombinant monoclonal antibody manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ying; Pierce, Karisa M

    2012-07-01

    Plant-derived hydrolysates are widely used in mammalian cell culture media to increase yields of recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). However, these chemically varied and undefined raw materials can have negative impact on yield and/or product quality in large-scale cell culture processes. Traditional methods that rely on fractionation of hydrolysates yielded little success in improving hydrolysate quality. We took a holistic approach to develop an efficient and reliable method to screen intact soy hydrolysate lots for commercial recombinant mAb manufacturing. Combined high-resolution (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS) analysis led to a prediction model between product titer and NMR fingerprinting of soy hydrolysate with cross-validated correlation coefficient R(2) of 0.87 and root-mean-squared-error of cross-validation RMSECV% of 11.2%. This approach screens for high performance hydrolysate lots, therefore ensuring process consistency and product quality in the mAb manufacturing process. Furthermore, PLS analysis was successful in discerning multiple markers (DL-lactate, soy saccharides, citrate and succinate) among hydrolysate components that positively and negatively correlate with titer. Interestingly, these markers correlate to the metabolic characteristics of some strains of taxonomically diverse lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Thus our findings indicate that LAB strains may exist during hydrolysate manufacturing steps and their biochemical activities may attribute to the titer enhancement effect of soy hydrolysates. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  7. Rapid screening of basic colorants in processed vegetables through mass spectrometry using an interchangeable thermal desorption electrospray ionization source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Ying; Chen, Yen-Ling; Lin, Hong-Yi; Huang, Yeou-Lih

    2018-06-20

    Thermal desorption electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (TD-ESI-MS) employing a quickly interchangeable ionization source is a relatively new ambient ionization mass spectrometric technique that has had, to date, only a limited number of applications related to food safety control. With reallocation of resources, this direct-analysis technique has had wider use in food analysis when operated in dual-working mode (pretreatment-free qualitative screening and conventional quantitative confirmation) after switching to an ambient ionization source from a traditional atmospheric pressure ionization source. Herein, we describe the benefits and challenges associated with the use of a TD-ESI source to detect adulterants in processed vegetables (PVs), as a proof-of-concept for the detection of basic colorants. While TD-ESI can offer direct qualitative screening analyses for PVs with detection capabilities lower than those provided with liquid chromatography/UV detection within 30 s, the use of TD-ESI for semi-quantification is applicable only for homogeneous food matrices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of the Optical Properties of Screen-Printed and Aerosol-Printed and Plated Fingers of Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Woehl

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One main efficiency loss in industrial solar cells is the shading of the cell caused by the metal front side contacts. With the aerosol-printing technique plus an additional light-induced plating (LIP step, not only is the geometrical contact width narrowed compared to screen-printed contacts but also the shape of the finger changes. In this work, the effective shading of different finger types is analysed with two different measurement methods. The essential parameter for characterising the finger is the effective width which can be reduced drastically compared to the geometrical width due to total internal reflection at the glass-air layer and the reflection from the roundish edges of the contact fingers into the cell. This parameter was determined with different methods. It could be shown that for aerosol-printed fingers the effective (optical width is only 38% of its geometrical width, while for standard screen-printed fingers it is 47%. The measured values are compared to a theoretical model for an aerosol-printed and plated finger and are in good agreement.

  9. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography as an effective screening test for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy (the "flying saucer" sign).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eric; Brown, David M; Benz, Matthew S; Fish, Richard H; Wong, Tien P; Kim, Rosa Y; Major, James C

    2010-10-21

    While the long-term incidence of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy is low, there remains no definitive clinical screening test to recognize HCQ toxicity before ophthalmoscopic fundus changes or visual symptoms. Patients receiving HCQ were evaluated with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) to assess the feasibility of identifying HCQ retinopathy at an early stage. Twenty-five patients referred for the evaluation of hydroxychloroquine toxicity underwent a comprehensive ocular examination, Humphrey visual field (HVF) perimetry, time domain OCT, and SD OCT. Some patients with screening abnormalities also underwent further diagnostic testing at the discretion of the treating providers. Five patients were found to have SD OCT findings corresponding to HCQ toxicity and retinal damage as seen by clinical exam and/or HVF perimetry. Two patients with advanced toxicity were found to have significant outer retina disruption in the macula on SD OCT. Three patients with early HCQ toxicity and HVF 10-2 perifoveal defects were found to have loss of the perifoveal photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction with intact outer retina directly under the fovea, creating the "flying saucer" sign. While two of these three patients had early ophthalmoscopic fundus changes, one had none. Outer retinal abnormalities including perifoveal photoreceptor IS/OS junction disruption can be identified by SD OCT in early HCQ toxicity, sometimes even before ophthalmoscopic fundus changes are apparent. SD OCT may have a potential complementary role in screening for HCQ retinopathy due to its quick acquisition and because it is more objective than automated perimetry.

  10. Use of high throughput qPCR screening to rapidly clone low frequency tumour specific T-cells from peripheral blood for adoptive immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano Oscar K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adoptive transfer of autologous tumor reactive lymphocytes can mediate significant tumor regression in some patients with refractory metastatic cancer. However, a significant obstacle for this promising therapy has been the availability of highly efficient methods to rapidly isolate and expand a variety of potentially rare tumor reactive lymphocytes from the natural repertoire of cancer patients. Methods We developed a novel in vitro T cell cloning methodology using high throughput quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR assay as a rapid functional screen to detect and facilitate the limiting dilution cloning of a variety of low frequency T cells from bulk PBMC. In preclinical studies, this strategy was applied to the isolation and expansion of gp100 specific CD8+ T cell clones from the peripheral blood of melanoma patients. Results In optimization studies, the qPCR assay could detect the reactivity of 1 antigen specific T cell in 100,000 background cells. When applied to short term sensitized PBMC microcultures, this assay could detect T cell reactivity against a variety of known melanoma tumor epitopes. This screening was combined with early limiting dilution cloning to rapidly isolate gp100154–162 reactive CD8+ T cell clones. These clones were highly avid against peptide pulsed targets and melanoma tumor lines. They had an effector memory phenotype and showed significant proliferative capacity to reach cell numbers appropriate for adoptive transfer trials (~1010 cells. Conclusion This report describes a novel high efficiency strategy to clone tumor reactive T cells from peripheral blood for use in adoptive immunotherapy.

  11. Rapid Screening of Active Components with an Osteoclastic Inhibitory Effect in Herba epimedii Using Quantitative Pattern–Activity Relationships Based on Joint-Action Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Yuan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Screening of bioactive components is important for modernization and quality control of herbal medicines, while the traditional bioassay-guided phytochemical approach is time-consuming and laborious. The presented study proposes a strategy for rapid screening of active components from herbal medicines. As a case study, the quantitative pattern–activity relationship (QPAR between compounds and the osteoclastic inhibitory effect of Herba epimedii, a widely used herbal medicine in China, were investigated based on joint models. For model construction, standard mixtures data showed that the joint-action models are better than the partial least-squares (PLS model. Then, the Good2bad value, which could reflect components’ importance based on Monte Carlo sampling, was coupled with the joint-action models for screening of active components. A compound (baohuoside I and a component composed of compounds with retention times in the 6.9–7.9 min range were selected by our method. Their inhibition rates were higher than icariin, the key bioactive compound in Herba epimedii, which could inhibit osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in a previous study. Meanwhile, the half-maximal effective concentration, namely, EC50 value of the selected component was 7.54 μg/mL, much smaller than that of baohuoside I—77 μg/mL—which indicated that there is synergistic action between compounds in the selected component. The results clearly show our proposed method is simple and effective in screening the most-bioactive components and compounds, as well as drug-lead components, from herbal medicines.

  12. Retinal and Optic Nerve Hemorrhages in the Newborn Infant: One-Year Results of the Newborn Eye Screen Test Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Natalia F; Ludwig, Cassie A; Blumenkranz, Mark S; Jones, Jennifer Michelle; Fredrick, Douglas R; Moshfeghi, Darius M

    2016-05-01

    To report the birth prevalence, risk factors, characteristics, and location of fundus hemorrhages (FHs) of the retina and optic nerve present in newborns at birth. Prospective cohort study at Stanford University School of Medicine. All infants who were 37 weeks postmenstrual age or older and stable were eligible for screening. Infants with known or suspected infectious conjunctivitis were excluded. Infants born at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (LPCH) from July 25, 2013, through July 25, 2014, were offered universal newborn screening via wide-angle digital retinal photography in the Newborn Eye Screen Test study. Maternal, obstetric, and neonatal factors were obtained from hospital records. The location, retinal layer, and laterality of FH were recorded by 1 pediatric vitreoretinal specialist. Birth prevalence of FH. Secondary outcomes included rate of adverse events, risk factors for FH, hemorrhage characteristics, and adverse events. The birth prevalence of FH in this study was 20.3% (41/202 infants). Ninety-five percent of FHs involved the periphery, 83% involved the macula, and 71% involved multiple layers of the retina. The fovea was involved in 15% of FH cases (birth prevalence, 3.0%). No cases of bilateral foveal hemorrhage were found. Fundus hemorrhages were more common in the left eye than the right. Fundus hemorrhages were most commonly optic nerve flame hemorrhages (48%) and white-centered retinal hemorrhages (30%). Retinal hemorrhages were found most frequently in all 4 quadrants (35%) and more often were multiple than solitary. Macular hemorrhages most often were intraretinal (40%). Among the risk factors examined in this study, vaginal delivery compared with cesarean section (odds ratio [OR], 9.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-33.97) showed the greatest level of association with FH. Self-identified ethnicity as Hispanic or Latino showed a protective effect (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20-0.94). Other study factors were not significant. Fundus

  13. A rapid fluorimetric screening method for the 1,4-benzodiazepines: Determination of their metabolite oxazepam in urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Tejedor, A.M. [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, c/Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez Hernando, P. [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, c/Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: pfhernando@ccia.uned.es; Durand Alegria, J.S. [Departamento de Ciencias Analiticas, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, c/Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    Oxazepam is the major metabolite screened in urine samples for the evidence of the use of benzodiazepine drugs. The methods currently used, however, are laborious and time consuming. This paper proposes an oxazepam detection method based on its hydrolysis and cyclization - a reaction catalysed by cerium (IV) in an ortho-phosphoric acid-containing medium - to form 2-chloro-9(10H)-acridinone, a strongly fluorescent molecule. The variables involved in the hydrolysis and cyclization stages were optimised. Oxazepam was detectable in the 5-900 ng mL{sup -1} range, with a detection limit of 4.15 ng mL{sup -1} for k = 3. The method was successfully used for the determination of oxazepam in urine samples collected at different times after the oral administration of Valium[reg] and Tranxilium[reg].

  14. A rapid fluorimetric screening method for the 1,4-benzodiazepines: Determination of their metabolite oxazepam in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Tejedor, A.M.; Fernandez Hernando, P.; Durand Alegria, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Oxazepam is the major metabolite screened in urine samples for the evidence of the use of benzodiazepine drugs. The methods currently used, however, are laborious and time consuming. This paper proposes an oxazepam detection method based on its hydrolysis and cyclization - a reaction catalysed by cerium (IV) in an ortho-phosphoric acid-containing medium - to form 2-chloro-9(10H)-acridinone, a strongly fluorescent molecule. The variables involved in the hydrolysis and cyclization stages were optimised. Oxazepam was detectable in the 5-900 ng mL -1 range, with a detection limit of 4.15 ng mL -1 for k = 3. The method was successfully used for the determination of oxazepam in urine samples collected at different times after the oral administration of Valium[reg] and Tranxilium[reg

  15. Rapid screening and structural elucidation of a novel sibutramine analogue in a weight loss supplement: 11-desisobutyl-11-benzylsibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Daniel J; Gucinski, Ashley C; Dunn, Jamie D; Gryniewicz-Ruzicka, Connie M; Mecker-Pogue, Laura C; Kao, Jeff L-F; Ge, Xia

    2013-09-01

    A novel analogue of sibutramine, 11-desisobutyl-11-benzylsibutramine, has been discovered. During routine ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) screening of a weight loss supplement collected at an US FDA import operation facility an unknown peak was observed. Further analysis of the supplement by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry revealed an unknown peak with a relative retention time of 1.04 with respect to sibutramine and a predicted formula of C20H24NCl. In order to elucidate the analogue's structure, it was isolated from the supplement and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), which revealed the analogue possessed a benzyl moiety at the 11 position in place of the isobutyl group associated with sibutramine. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effect of immunomodulators and cytostatics in 125I-deoxyuridine and tumor catabolism (a rapid method of antitumour immunomodulators screening)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obernikhin, S.S.; Fuks, B.B.

    1992-01-01

    E1-4 and P-815 murine tumor cells labelled by 125 I-deoxyuridine or 51 Cr were administered in 7-day subcutaneous syngeneic tumors or subcutaneosly. At the same time different groups of mice were treated by immunomodulators and cytostatics. It was shown that cytostatics and immunomodulators significantly delayed catabolism and withdrawing of 125 I-deoxyuridine (that has not been incorporated in DNA) from tumor cells. This delay was correlated with the inhibition of tumor nodes growth rate. It is concluded that influence of cytostatics and immunomodulators on catabolism and withdrawing rate of 125 I-deoxyuridine from tumor cells relates to their cytostatic effect and may be used at the earliest screening step of immunomodulator analysis

  17. Nontargeted, Rapid Screening of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Products for Authenticity Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Combination with Conformity Index and Multivariate Statistical Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R; Kia, Ali-Reza Fardin; Srigley, Cynthia; Chung, Jin Kyu; Mossoba, Magdi M

    2016-10-01

    A rapid tool for evaluating authenticity was developed and applied to the screening of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) retail products by using Fourier-transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy in combination with univariate and multivariate data analysis methods. Using disposable glass tubes, spectra for 62 reference EVOO, 10 edible oil adulterants, 20 blends consisting of EVOO spiked with adulterants, 88 retail EVOO products and other test samples were rapidly measured in the transmission mode without any sample preparation. The univariate conformity index (CI) and the multivariate supervised soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification tool were used to analyze the various olive oil products which were tested for authenticity against a library of reference EVOO. Better discrimination between the authentic EVOO and some commercial EVOO products was observed with SIMCA than with CI analysis. Approximately 61% of all EVOO commercial products were flagged by SIMCA analysis, suggesting that further analysis be performed to identify quality issues and/or potential adulterants. Due to its simplicity and speed, FT-NIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analysis can be used as a complementary tool to conventional official methods of analysis to rapidly flag EVOO products that may not belong to the class of authentic EVOO. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Rapid screening of aquatic toxicity of several metal-based nanoparticles using the MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhrel, Lok R.; Silva, Thilini [Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Dubey, Brajesh, E-mail: bdubey@uoguelph.ca [Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); El Badawy, Amro M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tolaymat, Thabet M. [USEPA, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Laboratory, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45224 (United States); Scheuerman, Phillip R. [Department of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Current understanding of potential toxicity of engineered nanomaterials to aquatic microorganisms is limited for risk assessment and management. Here we evaluate if the MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign test can be used as an effective and rapid screening tool to test for potential aquatic toxicity of various metal-based nanoparticles (NPs). The MetPLATE bioassay is a heavy metal sensitive test based on {beta}-galactosidase activity in Escherichia coli. Five different types of metal-based NPs were screened for toxicity: (1) citrate coated nAg (Citrate-nanosilver), (2) polyvinylpyrrolidone coated nAg (PVP-nAg), (3) uncoated nZnO, (4) uncoated nTiO{sub 2} and (5) 1-Octadecylamine coated CdSe Quantum Dots (CdSe QDs); and compared with their corresponding ionic salt toxicity. Citrate-nAg was further fractionated into clean Citrate-nAg, unclean Citrate-nAg and permeate using a tangential flow filtration (TFF) system to eliminate residual ions and impurities from the stock Citrate-nAg suspension and also to differentiate between ionic- versus nano-specific toxicity. Our results showed that nAg, nZnO and CdSe QDs were less toxic than their corresponding ionic salts tested, while nano- or ionic form of TiO{sub 2} was not toxic as high as 2.5 g L{sup -1} to the MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign bacteria. Although coating-dependent toxicity was noticeable between two types of Ag NPs evaluated, particle size and surface charge were not adequate to explain the observed toxicity; hence, the toxicity appeared to be material-specific. Overall, the toxicity followed the trend: CdCl{sub 2} > AgNO{sub 3} > PVP-nAg > unclean Citrate-nAg > clean Citrate-nAg > ZnSO{sub 4} > nZnO > CdSe QDs > nTiO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2}. These results indicate that an evaluation of {beta}-galactosidase inhibition in MetPLATE Trade-Mark-Sign E. coli can be an important consideration for rapid screening of metal-based NP toxicity, and should facilitate ecological risk assessment of these emerging contaminants. - Highlights

  19. Influence of platform screen doors on energy consumption of the environment control system of a mass rapid transit system: case study of the Taipei MRT [mass rapid transit] system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih-Cheng Hu; Jen-Ho Lee [National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei (China). Dept. of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering

    2004-03-01

    This investigation studies how platform screen doors (PSD) affect the energy consumption of the environmental control system of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system in Taipei. The environmental parameter simulation was conducted using the subway environmental simulation (SES) program, while the associated air conditioning (A/C) cooling load was predicted with the carrier E20-II program. Results show that PSD can significantly decrease average and peak cooling load, thus reducing the capacity/size of cooling equipment and allowing the chiller cooling load to be abridged. However, electricity consumption by ventilation equipment increases notably when PSD are used, particularly the electricity consumption by the under platform exhaust (UPE) fan, and thus, ultimately, little difference exists in the overall energy consumption with and without UPE. (author)

  20. An in vitro transport model for rapid screening and predicting the permeability of candidate compounds at blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Xiao; Mei, Chao; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Qi

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to design and develop a simple in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation model for elementarily and rapidly predicting the permeability of candidate compounds at BBB and further evaluating whether P-glycoprotein (P-gp) affects them across BBB. The model was mainly composed of cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (rBMECs), glass contraption, and micropore membrane. First, we evaluated the model by morphological observation. Second, the restriction effects of paracellular transport were verified by measuring marker probes transport, and monitoring transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and leakage. Finally, protein expression and activity of P-gp were confirmed by carrying out Western blot analysis and polarized transport of rhodamine-123 (Rho123) in rBMECs. The rBMECs retained both endothelial cells and BBB features. The rBMECs model reproducibly attained approximately 130 Ω cm² on the steady-state TEER value, and displayed a barrier function to marker probes transport by decreasing the permeability. Protein band of 170 kDa manifested the existence of P-gp in the rBMECs, and the findings of cyclosporin A-sensitive decrease of Rho123 efflux confirmed the presence of P-gp activity. A simple, rapid, and convenient in vitro BBB permeation model was successfully established and applied to evaluate the BBB transport profiles of three natural flavonoids: quercetin, naringenin, and rutin.

  1. A flowing liquid test system for assessing the linearity and time-response of rapid fibre optic oxygen partial pressure sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R; Hahn, C E W; Farmery, A D

    2012-08-15

    The development of a methodology for testing the time response, linearity and performance characteristics of ultra fast fibre optic oxygen sensors in the liquid phase is presented. Two standard medical paediatric oxygenators are arranged to provide two independent extracorporeal circuits. Flow from either circuit can be diverted over the sensor under test by means of a system of rapid cross-over solenoid valves exposing the sensor to an abrupt change in oxygen partial pressure, P O2. The system is also capable of testing the oxygen sensor responses to changes in temperature, carbon dioxide partial pressure P CO2 and pH in situ. Results are presented for a miniature fibre optic oxygen sensor constructed in-house with a response time ≈ 50 ms and a commercial fibre optic sensor (Ocean Optics Foxy), when tested in flowing saline and stored blood. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Crowdsourcing as a screening tool to detect clinical features of glaucomatous optic neuropathy from digital photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitry, Danny; Peto, Tunde; Hayat, Shabina; Blows, Peter; Morgan, James; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Crowdsourcing is the process of simplifying and outsourcing numerous tasks to many untrained individuals. Our aim was to assess the performance and repeatability of crowdsourcing in the classification of normal and glaucomatous discs from optic disc images. Optic disc images (N = 127) with pre-determined disease status were selected by consensus agreement from grading experts from a large cohort study. After reading brief illustrative instructions, we requested that knowledge workers (KWs) from a crowdsourcing platform (Amazon MTurk) classified each image as normal or abnormal. Each image was classified 20 times by different KWs. Two study designs were examined to assess the effect of varying KW experience and both study designs were conducted twice for consistency. Performance was assessed by comparing the sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Overall, 2,540 classifications were received in under 24 hours at minimal cost. The sensitivity ranged between 83-88% across both trials and study designs, however the specificity was poor, ranging between 35-43%. In trial 1, the highest AUC (95%CI) was 0.64(0.62-0.66) and in trial 2 it was 0.63(0.61-0.65). There were no significant differences between study design or trials conducted. Crowdsourcing represents a cost-effective method of image analysis which demonstrates good repeatability and a high sensitivity. Optimisation of variables such as reward schemes, mode of image presentation, expanded response options and incorporation of training modules should be examined to determine their effect on the accuracy and reliability of this technique in retinal image analysis.

  3. Feasibility of electrospray deposition for rapid screening of the cocrystal formation and single step, continuous production of pharmaceutical nanococrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Shahram; Siahi-Shadbad, Mohammadreza; Barzegar-Jalali, Mohammad; Adibkia, Khosro

    2018-06-01

    This study employed electrospray deposition (ESD) for simultaneous synthesis and particle engineering of cocrystals. Exploring new methods for the efficient production of cocrystals with desired particle properties is an essential demand. The possibility of cocrystal formation by ESD was examined for indomethacin-saccharin, indomethacin-nicotinamide, naproxen-nicotinamide, and naproxen-iso-nicotinamide cocrystals. Solutions of the drug and coformer at stoichiometric ratios were sprayed to a high electric field which caused rapid evaporation of the solvent and the formation of fine particles. The phase purity, size, and morphology of products were compared with reference cocrystals. Experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of stoichiometric ratio, concentration and solvent type on the cocrystal formation. Physical stability and dissolution properties of the electrosprayed cocrystals were also compared with reference cocrystals. ESD was found to be an efficient and rapid method to produce cocrystals for all studied systems other than indomethacin-nicotinamide. Pure cocrystals only formed at a specific drug:coformer ratio. The solvent type has a weak effect on the cocrystal formation and morphology. Electrosprayed cocrystals exhibited nano to micrometer sizes with distinct morphologies with comparable physical stability with reference cocrystals. Nanococrystals of indomethacin-saccharin with a mean size of 219 nm displayed a threefold higher dissolution rate than solvent evaporated cocrystal. ESD successfully was utilized to produce pure cocrystals of poorly soluble drugs with different morphologies and sizes ranging from nano to micrometer sizes in one step. This study highlighted the usefulness of ESD for simultaneous preparation and particle engineering of pharmaceutical cocrystals.

  4. Barriers and Facilitators to Implementing the HEADS-ED: A Rapid Screening Tool for Pediatric Patients in Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWilliams, Kate; Curran, Janet; Racek, Jakub; Cloutier, Paula; Cappelli, Mario

    2017-12-01

    This study sought to identify barriers and facilitators to the implementation of the HEADS-ED, a screening tool appropriate for use in the emergency department (ED) that facilitates standardized assessments, discharge planning, charting, and linking pediatric mental health patients to appropriate community resources. A qualitative theory-based design was used to identify barriers and facilitators to implementing the HEADS-ED tool. Focus groups were conducted with participants recruited from 6 different ED settings across 2 provinces (Ontario and Nova Scotia). The Theoretical Domains Framework was used as a conceptual framework to guide data collection and to identify themes from focus group discussions. The following themes spanning 12 domains were identified as reflective of participants' beliefs about the barriers and facilitators to implementing the HEADS-ED tool: knowledge, skills, beliefs about capabilities, social professional role and identity, optimism, beliefs about consequences, reinforcement, environmental context and resources, social influences, emotion, behavioral regulation and memory, and attention and decision process. The HEADS-ED has the potential to address the need for better discharge planning, complete charting, and standardized assessments for the increasing population of pediatric mental health patients who present to EDs. This study has identified potential barriers and facilitators, which should be considered when developing an implementation plan for adopting the HEADS-ED tool into practice within EDs.

  5. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid mass-screening of sand flies for Leishmania infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Gomez, Eduardo A; Cáceres, Abraham G; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Martini-Robles, Luiggi; Uezato, Hiroshi; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Katakura, Ken; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2014-04-01

    Entomological monitoring of Leishmania infection in leishmaniasis endemic areas offers epidemiologic advantages for predicting the risk and expansion of the disease, as well as evaluation of the effectiveness of control programs. In this study, we developed a highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the mass screening of sand flies for Leishmania infection based on the 18S rRNA gene. The LAMP technique could detect 0.01 parasites, which was more sensitive than classical PCR. The method was robust and could amplify the target DNA within 1h from a crude sand fly template without DNA purification. Amplicon detection could be accomplished by the newly developed colorimetric malachite green (MG)--mediated naked eye visualization. Pre-addition of MG to the LAMP reaction solution did not inhibit amplification efficiency. The field applicability of the colorimetric MG-based LAMP assay was demonstrated with 397 field-caught samples from the endemic areas of Ecuador and eight positive sand flies were detected. The robustness, superior sensitivity, and ability to produce better visual discriminatory reaction products than existing LAMP fluorescence and turbidity assays indicated the field potential usefulness of this new method for surveillance and epidemiological studies of leishmaniasis in developing countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Screening method for the detection of a range of nitrofurans in avian eyes by optical biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Colin S., E-mail: colin.thompson@afbini.gov.uk [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Veterinary Sciences Division, Stormont, Belfast BT4 3SD, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Traynor, Imelda M.; Fodey, Terence L.; Crooks, Steven R.H.; Kennedy, D. Glenn [Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute, Veterinary Sciences Division, Stormont, Belfast BT4 3SD, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-26

    An immunobiosensor assay was developed for the multi-residue screening of a range of nitrofuran compounds in avian eyes. A polyclonal antibody which binds at least 5 of the major parent nitrofurans was raised in a rabbit after inoculation with a nitrofuran mimic-protein conjugate. Sample homogenates were extracted into 0.1 M hydrochloric acid and subjected to clean-up by solid phase extraction and micro-centrifugation prior to biosensor analysis. Validation data obtained from the analysis of 21 fortified samples has shown that the method has a detection capability (CC{beta}) of less than 1 ng eye{sup -1} for nitrofurazone (NFZ). In addition, cross-reactivity data and the analysis of a smaller number of fortified samples have shown that the method will also detect a range of other major parent nitrofurans including furazolidone (FZD), furaltadone (FTD), nitrofurantoin (NFA) and nifursol (NFS). Intra-assay variation (n = 10) was calculated at 12.9% and 10.1% at concentrations of 1 ng eye{sup -1} and 2 ng eye{sup -1} NFZ respectively. Inter-assay variation (n = 3) was determined to be 10.8% and 4.7% at the same NFZ concentrations respectively. The cross-reactivity profile and validation data for the detection of these nitrofurans are presented together with the results obtained following the analysis of a small number of incurred samples using the developed method.

  7. Rapid screening of spontaneous and radiation-induced structural changes at the vestigial gene of Drosophila melanogaster by polymerase chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, I.D.; Lapidus, I.L.; Aleksandrova, M.V.; Karpovskij, A.L.; Korablinova, S.V.; Levkovich, N.V.

    1998-01-01

    A total of 27 independent isolated spontaneous and gamma-ray-induced heritable mutations at the vestigial gene of Drosophila melanogaster were analysed by a rapid deletion screening method with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. According to the results obtained 36.4% (4 of 11) of spontaneous mutants and 62.5% (10 of 16) of gamma-ray-induced ones have revealed deficiency of one or more fragments studied. The rest of spontaneous and radiation mutants showed no alterations in the PCR patterns, indicating possible small scale changes (point mutations) inside the gene region studied or, probably, the gross lesions situated elsewhere. The distribution of the mutation damages in the gene region studied are discussed

  8. Influence of platform screen doors on energy consumption of the environment control system of a mass rapid transit system: case study of the Taipei MRT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.-C.; Lee, J.-H.

    2004-01-01

    This investigation studies how platform screen doors (PSD) affect the energy consumption of the environmental control system of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system in Taipei. The environmental parameter simulation was conducted using the subway environmental simulation (SES) program, while the associated air conditioning (A/C) cooling load was predicted with the carrier E20-II program. Results show that PSD can significantly decrease average and peak cooling load, thus reducing the capacity/size of cooling equipment and allowing the chiller cooling load to be abridged. However, electricity consumption by ventilation equipment increases notably when PSD are used, particularly the electricity consumption by the under platform exhaust (UPE) fan, and thus, ultimately, little difference exists in the overall energy consumption with and without UPE

  9. Development and validation of a rapid resolution liquid chromatography method for the screening of dietary plant isoprenoids: carotenoids, tocopherols and chlorophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinco, Carla M; Benítez-González, Ana M; Hernanz, Dolores; Vicario, Isabel M; Meléndez-Martínez, Antonio J

    2014-11-28

    A rapid resolution liquid chromatography (RRLC) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of nine carotenoids compounds (violaxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene), four tocopherols and four chlorophylls and derivates (chlorophylls and pheophytins). The methodology consisted in a micro-extraction procedure with or without saponification and subsequent analysis by RRLC. The limits of detection were saponification step was performed. The recovery of the method without the saponification step ranged from 92% to 107%, whilst that when saponification was carried out ranged from 60% for α-tocopherol to 82% for β-carotene. Finally, the applicability of the method was demonstrated by the identification and quantification of isoprenoids in different samples. The methodology is appropriate for the high-throughput screening of dietary isoprenoids in fruits and vegetables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of platform screen doors on energy consumption of the environment control system of a mass rapid transit system: case study of the Taipei MRT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, S.-C. E-mail: f10870@ntut.edu.tw; Lee, J.-H

    2004-03-01

    This investigation studies how platform screen doors (PSD) affect the energy consumption of the environmental control system of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system in Taipei. The environmental parameter simulation was conducted using the subway environmental simulation (SES) program, while the associated air conditioning (A/C) cooling load was predicted with the carrier E20-II program. Results show that PSD can significantly decrease average and peak cooling load, thus reducing the capacity/size of cooling equipment and allowing the chiller cooling load to be abridged. However, electricity consumption by ventilation equipment increases notably when PSD are used, particularly the electricity consumption by the under platform exhaust (UPE) fan, and thus, ultimately, little difference exists in the overall energy consumption with and without UPE.

  11. A protein microarray for the rapid screening of patients suspected of infection with various food-borne helminthiases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Xu Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food-borne helminthiases (FBHs have become increasingly important due to frequent occurrence and worldwide distribution. There is increasing demand for developing more sensitive, high-throughput techniques for the simultaneous detection of multiple parasitic diseases due to limitations in differential clinical diagnosis of FBHs with similar symptoms. These infections are difficult to diagnose correctly by conventional diagnostic approaches including serological approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, antigens obtained from 5 parasite species, namely Cysticercus cellulosae, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Paragonimus westermani, Trichinella spiralis and Spirometra sp., were semi-purified after immunoblotting. Sera from 365 human cases of helminthiasis and 80 healthy individuals were assayed with semi-purified antigens by both a protein microarray and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The sensitivity, specificity and simplicity of each test for the end-user were evaluated. The specificity of the tests ranged from 97.0% (95% confidence interval (CI: 95.3-98.7% to 100.0% (95% CI: 100.0% in the protein microarray and from 97.7% (95% CI: 96.2-99.2% to 100.0% (95% CI: 100.0% in ELISA. The sensitivity varied from 85.7% (95% CI: 75.1-96.3% to 92.1% (95% CI: 83.5-100.0% in the protein microarray, while the corresponding values for ELISA were 82.0% (95% CI: 71.4-92.6% to 92.1% (95% CI: 83.5-100.0%. Furthermore, the Youden index spanned from 0.83 to 0.92 in the protein microarray and from 0.80 to 0.92 in ELISA. For each parasite, the Youden index from the protein microarray was often slightly higher than the one from ELISA even though the same antigen was used. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The protein microarray platform is a convenient, versatile, high-throughput method that can easily be adapted to massive FBH screening.

  12. A rapid and effective method for screening, sequencing and reporter verification of engineered frameshift mutations in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Prykhozhij

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas-based adaptive immunity against pathogens in bacteria has been adapted for genome editing and applied in zebrafish (Danio rerio to generate frameshift mutations in protein-coding genes. Although there are methods to detect, quantify and sequence CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations, identifying mutations in F1 heterozygous fish remains challenging. Additionally, sequencing a mutation and assuming that it causes a frameshift does not prove causality because of possible alternative translation start sites and potential effects of mutations on splicing. This problem is compounded by the relatively few antibodies available for zebrafish proteins, limiting validation at the protein level. To address these issues, we developed a detailed protocol to screen F1 mutation carriers, and clone and sequence identified mutations. In order to verify that mutations actually cause frameshifts, we created a fluorescent reporter system that can detect frameshift efficiency based on the cloning of wild-type and mutant cDNA fragments and their expression levels. As proof of principle, we applied this strategy to three CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations in pycr1a, chd7 and hace1 genes. An insertion of seven nucleotides in pycr1a resulted in the first reported observation of exon skipping by CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations in zebrafish. However, of these three mutant genes, the fluorescent reporter revealed effective frameshifting exclusively in the case of a two-nucleotide deletion in chd7, suggesting activity of alternative translation sites in the other two mutants even though pycr1a exon-skipping deletion is likely to be deleterious. This article provides a protocol for characterizing frameshift mutations in zebrafish, and highlights the importance of checking mutations at the mRNA level and verifying their effects on translation by fluorescent reporters when antibody detection of protein loss is not possible.

  13. Investigation of storage-phosphor autoradiography for the rapid quantitative screening of air filters for emergency response purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Athena Marie

    Past nuclear accidents, such as Chernobyl, resulted in a large release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Radiological assessment of the vicinity of the site of the incident is vital to assess the exposure levels and dose received by the population and workers. Therefore, it is critical to thoroughly understand the situation and risks associated with a particular event in a timely manner in order to properly manage the event. Current atmospheric radiological assessments of alpha emitting radioisotopes include acquiring large quantities of air samples, chemical separation of radionuclides, sample mounting, counting through alpha spectrometry, and analysis of the data. The existing methodology is effective, but time consuming and labor intensive. Autoradiography, and the properties of phosphor imaging films, may be used as an additional technique to facilitate and expedite the alpha analysis process in these types of situations. Although autoradiography is not as sensitive to alpha radiation as alpha spectrometry, autoradiography may benefit alpha analysis by providing information about the activity as well as the spatial distribution of radioactivity in the sample under investigation. The objective for this research was to develop an efficient method for quantification and visualization of air filter samples taken in the aftermath of a nuclear emergency through autoradiography using 241Am and 239Pu tracers. Samples containing varying activities of either 241Am or 239Pu tracers were produced through microprecipitation and assayed by alpha spectroscopy. The samples were subsequently imaged and an activity calibration curve was produced by comparing the digital light units recorded from the image to the known activity of the source. The usefulness of different phosphor screens was examined by exposing each type of film to the same standard nuclide for varying quantities of time. Unknown activity samples created through microprecipiation containing activities of

  14. Multicomponent mixed dopant optimization for rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Sioud, Salim

    2012-05-04

    RATIONALE To enhance the ionization efficiencies in atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry a dopant with favorable ionization energy such as chlorobenzene is typically used. These dopants are typically toxic and difficult to mix with water-soluble organic solvents. In order to achieve a more efficient and less toxic dopant, a multicomponent mixed dopant was explored. METHODS A multicomponent mixed dopant for non-targeted rapid screening of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was developed and optimized using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry. Various single and multicomponent mixed dopants consisting of ethanol, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, anisole and toluene were evaluated. RESULTS Fourteen out of eighteen PAHs were successfully separated and detected at low pg/μL levels within 5 min with high mass accuracy ≤4 ppm. The optimal mixed multicomponent dopant consisted of ethanol/chlorobenzene/bromobenzene/anisole (98.975:0.1:0.9:0.025, v/v %) and it improved the limit of detection (LOD) by 2- to 10-fold for the tested PAHs compared to those obtained with pure chlorobenzene. CONCLUSIONS A novel multicomponent dopant that contains 99% ethanol and 1% mixture of chlorobenzene, bromobenzene and anisole was found to be an effective dopant mixture to ionize PAHs. The developed UPLC multicomponent dopant assisted atmospheric pressure photoionization high-resolution mass spectrometry offered a rapid non targeted screening method for detecting the PAHs at low pg/;μL levels within a 5 min run time with high mass accuracy a;circ4 ppm. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. FTIR microspectroscopy for rapid screening and monitoring of polyunsaturated fatty acid production in commercially valuable marine yeasts and protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsvivut, Jitraporn; Heraud, Philip; Gupta, Adarsha; Puri, Munish; McNaughton, Don; Barrow, Colin J

    2013-10-21

    The increase in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption has prompted research into alternative resources other than fish oil. In this study, a new approach based on focal-plane-array Fourier transform infrared (FPA-FTIR) microspectroscopy and multivariate data analysis was developed for the characterisation of some marine microorganisms. Cell and lipid compositions in lipid-rich marine yeasts collected from the Australian coast were characterised in comparison to a commercially available PUFA-producing marine fungoid protist, thraustochytrid. Multivariate classification methods provided good discriminative accuracy evidenced from (i) separation of the yeasts from thraustochytrids and distinct spectral clusters among the yeasts that conformed well to their biological identities, and (ii) correct classification of yeasts from a totally independent set using cross-validation testing. The findings further indicated additional capability of the developed FPA-FTIR methodology, when combined with partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis, for rapid monitoring of lipid production in one of the yeasts during the growth period, which was achieved at a high accuracy compared to the results obtained from the traditional lipid analysis based on gas chromatography. The developed FTIR-based approach when coupled to programmable withdrawal devices and a cytocentrifugation module would have strong potential as a novel online monitoring technology suited for bioprocessing applications and large-scale production.

  16. An evaluation of the Oxoid Biochemical Identification System Campy rapid screening test for Campylobacteraceae and Helicobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoosain, N; Lastovica, A J

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the Oxoid Biochemical Identification System (OBIS) Campy test (ID0800M) against Campylobacter; Arcobacter; and other micro-organisms, with similar colonial morphology, for the detection of l-alanine aminopeptidase (l-ALA). The KOH and l-ALA (OBIS and Fluka) tests were carried out on every isolate. The procedures were followed as indicated in the OBIS and Fluka kit instructions. A total of 146 strains of 19 species of Campylobacter, seven strains of Arcobacter butzleri, four Arcobacter butzleri-like strains, 42 strains of 10 species of Helicobacter, 96 Gram-negative and 49 Gram-positive clinical isolates were tested. As expected, Campylobacter and Arcobacter strains were negative, while other Gram-negative bacteria were positive for the l-ALA test. An unexpected finding was that Helicobacter strains, although Gram-negative, were all negative for the l-ALA tests suggesting the absence of l-ALA within this genus. This is a novel finding. The absence of l-ALA was confirmed upon comparison with the available full genomic sequences of Helicobacter on the NCBI database. The OBIS Campy (ID0800M) test kit proved to be rapid and accurate for the presumptive characterization of Campylobacter and Arcobacter. A novel finding was that Helicobacter species also did not have the l-ALA enzyme. The OBIS kit will be useful in diagnostic laboratories for the presumptive diagnosis of Campylobacter, Arcobacter and Helicobacter strains.

  17. Protein tethering enables rapid and label-free SERS platform for screening drugs of abuse (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddhanta, Soumik; Wróbel, Maciej S.; Barman, Ishan

    2017-02-01

    A quick, cost-effective method for detection of drugs of abuse in biological fluids would be of great value in healthcare, law enforcement, and home testing applications. The alarming rise in narcotics abuse has led to considerable focus on developing potent and versatile analytical tools that can address this societal problem. While laboratory testing plays a key role in the current detection of drug misuse and the evaluation of patients with drug induced intoxication, these typically require expensive reagents and trained personnel, and may take hours to complete. Thus, a significant unmet need is to engineer a facile method that can rapidly detect drugs with little sample preparation, especially the bound fraction that is typically dominant in the blood stream. Here we report an approach that combines the exquisite sensitivity of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and a facile protein tethering mechanism to reliably detect four different classes of drugs, barbiturate, benzodiazepine, amphetamine and benzoylecgonine. The proposed approach harnesses the reliable and specific attachment of proteins to both drugs and nanoparticle to facilitate the enhancement of spectral markers that are sensitive to the presence of the drugs. In conjunction with chemometric tools, we have shown the ability to quantify these drugs lower than levels achievable by existing clinical immunoassays. Through molecular docking simulations, we also probe the mechanistic underpinnings of the protein tethering approach, opening the door to detection of a broad class of narcotics in biological fluids within a few minutes as well as for groundwater analysis and toxin detection.

  18. [Rapid screening and confirmation of 205 pesticide residues in rice by QuEChERS and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Cheng, Lei; Qu, Shichao; Huang, Daliang; Liu, Jiacheng; Cui, Han; Jia, Yanbo; Ji, Mingshan

    2015-10-01

    A method for rapid screening and confirmation of 205 pesticide residues in rice was developed by combining QuEChERS and high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TRAP/MS). The rice samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and then cleaned up with primary secondary amine (PSA), anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and C18 adsorbent. Finally, the samples were detected by LC-Q-TRAP/MS in multiple reaction monitoring with information-dependent acquisition of enhanced product ion (MRM-IDA-EPI) mode followed with database searching. A total of 205 pesticide residues were confirmed by retention times, ion pairs and the database searching using EPI library, and quantified by external standard method. All the pesticides showed good linearities with linear correlation coefficients all above 0.995. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for the 205 pesticides were 0.5-10.0 μg/kg. The average recoveries of the 205 pesticides ranged from 62.4% to 127.1% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.0% - 20.0% at spiked levels of 10 μg/kg and 50 μg/kg, and only 20 min were needed for the analysis of an actual rice sample. In brief, the method is fast, accurate and highly sensitive, and is suitable for the screening and confirmation of pesticide residues in rice.

  19. The Discriminatory Ability of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool (FiRST): An International Study in Spain and Four Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Antonio; Torres, Xavier; Messina, Osvaldo D; Vidal, Luis F; Clark, Patricia; Ríos, Carlos; Solé, Emília; Arias, Anna; Perrot, Serge; Salomon, Patricia A

    2016-05-01

    To assess the transcultural equivalency of the Spanish version of the Fibromyalgia Rapid Screening Tool (FiRST) and its discriminatory ability in different Latin American samples. Validation study. Departments of Rheumatology in general hospitals and private centers; fibromyalgia unit in a university hospital. 350 chronic pain patients from Spain, Argentina, Mexico, Peru, and Ecuador. The cultural relevance of the Spanish version of the FiRST was evaluated. The ability of the FiRST as a screening tool for fibromyalgia was assessed by logistic regression analysis. To determine the degree to which potential confounders, such as differences in demographics, pain, affective distress, catastrophizing, and disability, might affect the discriminatory ability, the tool was reassessed by hierarchical multivariate logistic regression. Slightly different versions of the FiRST were recommended for use in each Latin American subsample. The FiRST showed acceptable criterion validity and was able to discriminate between fibromyalgia and non-fibromyalgia patients even after controlling for the effect of potential confounders. However, low specificities were observed in samples from Spain and Mexico. The Spanish version of the FiRST may be used as a screening tool for fibromyalgia in several Latin American subsamples, even in those patients with high scores on potential confounders. In Spain and Mexico, the low specificity of the FiRST suggests, however, that it would be best used to support a suspected diagnosis of fibromyalgia, rather than to exclude the diagnosis. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Rapid screening for cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloids in crude extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jie; Yang, Zijuan; Lv, Beibei; Xiang, Lan

    2008-05-01

    A simple and rapid qualitative liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed and validated for screening cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloids in crude extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. at sub-ppm levels. An electrospray ionization orbitrap mass spectrometer, which provides accurate full scan MS and MS/MS data, was used in this study. After simple extraction with ethanol and purification by AB-8 resin, the extracts were subjected to LC/MS/MS analysis. A high mass tolerance (10 ppm) was used in the initial screening to filter the full scan MS data. The cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloid standards gave limits of detection (LODs) at or below 5 ng/mL. The results also indicated that the method had an acceptable precision for day-to-day use in the identification of compounds. The alkaloids could be identified based on their MS/MS data, elemental compositions, and retention behavior. This system was used to assay trace amounts of cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloids in crude extracts of Portulaca oleracea L., leading to the identification of 5/2 confirmed/unconfirmed cyclo-dopa and 7/6 confirmed/unconfirmed diketopiperazine alkaloids, respectively. The screening method considerably reduces the time and cost involved in the identification of cyclo-dopa and diketopiperazine alkaloids in Portulaca oleracea L., as well as being a simple and convenient approach to the identification of other structural families of natural products. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Serum allergen-specific immunoglobulin E in atopic and healthy cats: comparison of a rapid screening immunoassay and complete-panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Alison; DeBoer, Douglas J

    2011-02-01

    Feline and canine atopic dermatitis are thought to have a similar immunopathogenesis. As with dogs, detection of allergen-specific IgE in cat serum merely supports a diagnosis of feline atopy based on compatible history, clinical signs and elimination of other pruritic dermatoses. In this study, a rapid screening immunoassay (Allercept(®) E-Screen 2nd Generation; Heska AG, Fribourg, Switzerland; ES2G) was compared with a complete-panel serum allergen-specific IgE assay (Allercept(®); Heska AG; CP) in healthy cats with no history of skin disease and in atopic cats. The latter had no diagnosis of external parasitism, infection, food hypersensitivity or other skin disease explaining their pruritus, and expressed cutaneous reaction patterns typically associated with feline allergic skin disease (head, neck or pinnal pruritus, miliary dermatitis, self-induced alopecia, eosinophilic granuloma complex). The proportion of cats positive on either the ES2G or the CP assays was not significantly different between the atopic and healthy cat groups. There was, however, strong agreement between the results of the ES2G and CP assay; overall, the two tests were in agreement for 43 of 49 (88%) serum samples. There was also strong agreement when individual allergen groups were evaluated (agreement noted: indoor, 41 of 49 samples; grasses/weeds, 37 of 49 samples; and trees, 41 of 49 samples). These results indicate that although neither test is diagnostic for feline atopic dermatitis, the screening assay is beneficial for predicting the results of a complete-panel serum allergen-specific IgE assay in cats. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  2. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  3. Will gay and bisexually active men at high risk of infection use over-the-counter rapid HIV tests to screen sexual partners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Frasca, Timothy; Dolezal, Curtis; Balan, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration may license OraQuick™, a rapid HIV test, for over-the-counter (OTC) sale. This study investigated whether HIV-uninfected, non-monogamous, gay and bisexual men who never or rarely use condoms would use the test with partners as a harm-reduction approach. Sixty participants responded to two computer-assisted self-interviews, underwent an in-depth interview, and chose whether to test themselves with OraQuick. Over 80% of the men said they would use the kit to test sexual partners or themselves if it became available OTC. Most participants understood that antibody tests have a window period in which the virus is undetectable, yet saw advantages to using the test to screen partners; 74% tested themselves in our offices. Participants offered several possible strategies to introduce the home-test idea to partners, frequently endorsed mutual testing, and highlighted that home testing could stimulate greater honesty in serostatus disclosure. Participants drew distinctions between testing regular versus occasional partners. Non-monogamous men who have sex with men, who never or rarely use condoms, may nevertheless seek to avoid HIV. Technologies that do not interfere with sexual pleasure are likely to be used when available. Studies are needed to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using OTC rapid HIV tests as one additional harm-reduction tool.

  4. Rapid screening of pyogenic Staphylococcus aureus for confirmation of genus and species, methicillin resistance and virulence factors by using two novel multiplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Abdul; Haque, Asma; Saeed, Muhammad; Azhar, Aysha; Rasool, Samreen; Shan, Sidra; Ehsan, Beenish; Nisar, Zohaib

    2017-01-01

    Emergence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major medical problem of current era. These bacteria are resistant to most drugs and rapid diagnosis can provide a clear guideline to clinicians. They possess specific virulence factors and relevant information can be very useful. We designed this study to develop multiplex PCRs to provide rapid information. We studied 60 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and detected methicillin resistance by cefoxitin sensitivity and targeting of mecA gene. After initial studies with uniplex PCRs we optimized two multiplex PCRs with highly reproducible results. The first multiplex PCR was developed to confirm genus, species and methicillin resistance simultaneously, and the second multiplex PCR was for screening of virulence factors. We found 38.33% isolates as methicillin resistant. α -toxin, the major cytotoxic factor, was detected in 40% whereas β-hemolysin was found in 25% cases. Panton Valentine leucocidin was detected in 8.33% and toxic shock syndrome toxin in5% cases. The results of uniplex and multiplex PCRs were highly compatible. These two multiplex PCRs when run simultaneously can provide vital information about methicillin resistance and virulence status of the isolate within a few hours as compared to several days needed by routine procedures.

  5. Rapid Screening of Bovine Milk Oligosaccharides in a Whey Permeate Product and Domestic Animal Milks by Accurate Mass Database and Tandem Mass Spectral Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeyoung; Cuthbertson, Daniel J.; Otter, Don E.; Barile, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    A bovine milk oligosaccharide (BMO) library, prepared from cow colostrum, with 34 structures was generated and used to rapidly screen oligosaccharides in domestic animal milks and a whey permeate powder. The novel library was entered into a custom Personal Compound Database and Library (PCDL) and included accurate mass, retention time, and tandem mass spectra. Oligosaccharides in minute-sized samples were separated using nanoliquid chromatography (nanoLC) coupled to a high resolution and sensitive quadrupole-Time of Flight (Q-ToF) MS system. Using the PCDL, 18 oligosaccharides were found in a BMO-enriched product obtained from whey permeate processing. The usefulness of the analytical system and BMO library was further validated using milks from domestic sheep and buffaloes. Through BMO PCDL searching, 15 and 13 oligosaccharides in the BMO library were assigned in sheep and buffalo milks, respectively, thus demonstrating significant overlap between oligosaccharides in bovine (cow and buffalo) and ovine (sheep) milks. This method was shown to be an efficient, reliable, and rapid tool to identify oligosaccharide structures using automated spectral matching. PMID:27428379

  6. Rapid screening and quantification of residual pesticides and illegal adulterants in red wine by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tianyang; Fang, Pingping; Jiang, Juanjuan; Zhang, Feng; Yong, Wei; Liu, Jiahui; Dong, Yiyang

    2016-11-04

    A rapid method to screen and quantify multi-class analytic targets in red wine has been developed by direct analysis in real time (DART) coupled with triple quadruple tandem mass spectrometry (QqQ-MS). A modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) procedure was used for increasing analytical speed and reducing matrix effect, and the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in DART-MS/MS ensured accurate analysis. One bottle of wine containing 50 pesticides and 12 adulterants, i.e., preservatives, antioxidant, sweeteners, and azo dyes, could be totally determined less than 12min. This method exhibited proper linearity (R 2 ≥0.99) in the range of 1-1000ng/mL for pesticides and 10-5000ng/mL for adulterants. The limits of detection (LODs) were obtained in a 0.5-50ng/mL range for pesticides and 5-50ng/mL range for adulterants, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in a 1-100ng/mL range for pesticides and 10-250ng/mL range for adulterants. Three spiked levels for each analyte in wine were evaluated, and the recoveries were in a scope of 75-120%. The results demonstrated DART-MS/MS was a rapid and simple method, and could be applied to rapid analyze residual pesticides and illegal adulterants in a large quantities of red wine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Mean curvature and texture constrained composite weighted random walk algorithm for optic disc segmentation towards glaucoma screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rashmi; Puhan, N B; Panda, Ganapati

    2018-02-01

    Accurate optic disc (OD) segmentation is an important step in obtaining cup-to-disc ratio-based glaucoma screening using fundus imaging. It is a challenging task because of the subtle OD boundary, blood vessel occlusion and intensity inhomogeneity. In this Letter, the authors propose an improved version of the random walk algorithm for OD segmentation to tackle such challenges. The algorithm incorporates the mean curvature and Gabor texture energy features to define the new composite weight function to compute the edge weights. Unlike the deformable model-based OD segmentation techniques, the proposed algorithm remains unaffected by curve initialisation and local energy minima problem. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified with DRIVE, DIARETDB1, DRISHTI-GS and MESSIDOR database images using the performance measures such as mean absolute distance, overlapping ratio, dice coefficient, sensitivity, specificity and precision. The obtained OD segmentation results and quantitative performance measures show robustness and superiority of the proposed algorithm in handling the complex challenges in OD segmentation.

  8. Influence of Pore Size on the Optical and Electrical Properties of Screen Printed TiO2 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinfa Luka Domtau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of pore size on the optical and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films was studied. TiO2 thin films with different weight percentages (wt% of carbon black were deposited by screen printing method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO coated on glass substrate. Carbon black decomposed on annealing and artificial pores were created in the films. All the films were 3.2 µm thick as measured by a surface profiler. UV-VIS-NIR spectrophotometer was used to study transmittance and reflectance spectra of the films in the photon wavelength of 300–900 nm while absorbance was studied in the range of 350–900 nm. Band gaps and refractive index of the films were studied using the spectra. Reflectance, absorbance, and refractive index were found to increase with concentrations of carbon black. There was no significant variation in band gaps of films with change in carbon black concentrations. Transmittance reduced as the concentration of carbon black in TiO2 increased (i.e., increase in pore size. Currents and voltages (I-V characteristics of the films were measured by a 4-point probe. Resistivity (ρ and conductivity (σ of the films were computed from the I-V values. It was observed that resistivity increased with carbon black concentrations while conductivity decreased as the pore size of the films increased.

  9. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  10. An evaluation of four rare-earth film-screen combinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nettle, J.R.L.; Ritchings, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    Objective and subjective assessments were made on four film-screen combinations at 140 kV for use on an EMI body scanner. The combinations used were: 3M XD film + Trimax Alpha 8 screens; Agfa Gevaert RP film + MR600 screens; Kodak Ortho G film + Lanex regular screens and Ilford type S film + rare earth rapid R screens. The objective assessment is based on the optical density of the image of a test object on a radiograph. Receiver operating characteristic techniques are used in the subjective assessment. The best results in each assessment were obtained using the Kodak Ortho G film + Lanex regular screens. (author)

  11. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  12. Combining thermodynamic modeling and 3D printing of elemental powder blends for high-throughput investigation of high-entropy alloys – Towards rapid alloy screening and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, Christian; Tang, Florian; Wilms, Markus B.; Weisheit, Andreas; Hallstedt, Bengt

    2017-01-01

    High-entropy alloys have gained high interest of both academia and industry in recent years due to their excellent properties and large variety of possible alloy systems. However, so far prediction of phase constitution and stability is based on empirical rules that can only be applied to selected alloy systems. In the current study, we introduce a methodology that enables high-throughput theoretical and experimental alloy screening and design. As a basis for thorough thermodynamic calculations, a new database was compiled for the Co–Cr–Fe–Mn–Ni system and used for Calphad and Scheil simulations. For bulk sample production, laser metal deposition (LMD) of an elemental powder blend was applied to build up the equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi Cantor alloy as a first demonstrator. This production approach allows high flexibility in varying the chemical composition and, thus, renders itself suitable for high-throughput alloy production. The microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties of the material processed were characterized using optical microscopy, EBSD, EDX, XRD, hardness and compression testing. The LMD-produced alloy revealed full density, strongly reduced segregation compared to conventionally cast material, pronounced texture, and excellent mechanical properties. Phase constitution and elemental distribution were correctly predicted by simulations. The applicability of the introduced methodology to high-entropy alloys and extension to compositionally complex alloys is discussed.

  13. Combining thermodynamic modeling and 3D printing of elemental powder blends for high-throughput investigation of high-entropy alloys – Towards rapid alloy screening and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Christian, E-mail: christian.haase@iehk.rwth-aachen.de [Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen University, 52072 Aachen (Germany); Tang, Florian [Institute for Materials Applications in Mechanical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, 52062 Aachen (Germany); Wilms, Markus B.; Weisheit, Andreas [Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Hallstedt, Bengt [Institute for Materials Applications in Mechanical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, 52062 Aachen (Germany)

    2017-03-14

    High-entropy alloys have gained high interest of both academia and industry in recent years due to their excellent properties and large variety of possible alloy systems. However, so far prediction of phase constitution and stability is based on empirical rules that can only be applied to selected alloy systems. In the current study, we introduce a methodology that enables high-throughput theoretical and experimental alloy screening and design. As a basis for thorough thermodynamic calculations, a new database was compiled for the Co–Cr–Fe–Mn–Ni system and used for Calphad and Scheil simulations. For bulk sample production, laser metal deposition (LMD) of an elemental powder blend was applied to build up the equiatomic CoCrFeMnNi Cantor alloy as a first demonstrator. This production approach allows high flexibility in varying the chemical composition and, thus, renders itself suitable for high-throughput alloy production. The microstructure, texture, and mechanical properties of the material processed were characterized using optical microscopy, EBSD, EDX, XRD, hardness and compression testing. The LMD-produced alloy revealed full density, strongly reduced segregation compared to conventionally cast material, pronounced texture, and excellent mechanical properties. Phase constitution and elemental distribution were correctly predicted by simulations. The applicability of the introduced methodology to high-entropy alloys and extension to compositionally complex alloys is discussed.

  14. Rapid screening of rpoB and katG mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates by high-resolution melting curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Haeili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is essential to prevent its transmission in the community and initiate effective anti-TB treatment regimen. Materials and Methods: High-resolution melting curve (HRM analysis was evaluated for rapid detection of resistance conferring mutations in rpoB and katG genes. We screened 95 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates including 20 rifampin resistant (RIF-R, 21 isoniazid resistant (INH-R and 54 fully susceptible (S isolates determined by proportion method of drug susceptibility testing. Nineteen M. tuberculosis isolates with known drug susceptibility genotypes were used as references for the assay validation. The nucleotide sequences of the target regions rpoB and katG genes were determined to investigate the frequency and type of mutations and to confirm HRM results. Results: HRM analysis of a 129-bp fragment of rpoB allowed correct identification of 19 of the 20 phenotypically RIF-R and all RIF-S isolates. All INH-S isolates generated wild-type HRM curves and 18 out of 21 INH-R isolates harboured any mutation in 109-bp fragment of katG exhibited mutant type HRM curves. However, 1 RIF-R and 3 INH-R isolates were falsely identified as susceptible which were confirmed for having no mutation in their target regions by sequencing. The main mutations involved in RIF and INH resistance were found at codons rpoB531 (60% of RIF-R isolates and katG315 (85.7% of INH-R isolates, respectively. Conclusion: HRM was found to be a reliable, rapid and low cost method to characterise drug susceptibility of clinical TB isolates in resource-limited settings.

  15. SUPERPOLISHED SI COATED SIC OPTICS FOR RAPID MANUFACTURE OF LARGE APERTURE UV AND EUV TELESCOPES, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SSG/Tinsley proposes an innovative optical manufacturing process that will allow the advancement of state-of-the-art Silicon Carbide (SiC) mirrors for large aperture...

  16. Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Shangyuan; Li, Zhihua; Chen, Guannan; Huang, Shaohua; Huang, Zufang; Li, Yongzeng; Lin, Juqiang; Chen, Rong; Lin, Duo; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful technology for providing finger-printing information of cells. A big challenge has been the long time duration and inefficient uptake of metal nano-particles into living cells as substrate for SERS analysis. Herein, a simple method (based on ultrasound) for the rapid transfer of silver nanoparticles (NPs) into living cells for intracellular SERS spectroscopy was presented. In this study, the ultrasound-mediated method for NP delivery overcame the shortcoming of ‘passive uptake’, and achieved quick acquisition of reproducible SERS spectra from living human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines (C666 and CNE1) and normal nasopharyngeal cell line (NP69). Tentative assignment of the Raman bands in the measured SERS spectra showed cancer cell specific biomolecular differences, including significantly lower DNA concentrations and higher protein concentrations in cancerous nasopharyngeal cells as compared to those of normal cells. Combined with PCA–LDA multivariate analysis, ultrasound-mediated cell SERS spectroscopy differentiated the cancerous cells from the normal nasopharyngeal cells with high diagnostic accuracy (98.7%), demonstrating great potential for high-throughput cancer cell screening applications. (paper)

  17. Electrochemical behaviour of polyphenol rich fruit juices using disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes: towards a rapid sensor for antioxidant capacity and individual antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaba, Jordi Giné; Terry, Leon A

    2012-02-15

    The analysis of antioxidants in different foodstuffs and especially fruits has become an active area of research which has lead to numerous antioxidant-assays being recently developed. Many antioxidants exhibit inherent electroactivity, and hence employing electrochemical methods could be a viable approach for evaluating the overall antioxidant capacity of a fresh produce matrix without the need for added reactive species. This work shows the possibility of using square wave voltammetry (SWV) and other electrochemical methods with disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes, to quantify and assess antioxidant activity and abundance of specific antioxidants, mainly polyphenols in selected soft fruit juices. Freshly squeezed black currant and strawberry juices of different cultivars and maturity stages were chosen according to known differences in their antioxidant profile. As a result of the increasing applied potential (0-1000 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) the electroactive compounds present in the juices were oxidised leading to a characteristic voltammetric profile for each of the samples analysed. Generally, black currant juices had greater oxidation peaks at lower potentials (<400 mV) which were indicators of higher antioxidant capacities. The relationship between sensor cumulative responses at different applied potentials and total or individual antioxidants, as determined by conventional spectrophotometric methods (FRAP, Folin-Ciocalteu) and HPLC (individual anthocyanins and ascorbate), respectively, are discussed in the context of the development of a rapid sensor for antioxidants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid Biochemical Mixture Screening by Three-Dimensional Patterned Multifunctional Substrate with Ultra-Thin Layer Chromatography (UTLC) and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bi-Shen; Lin, Pi-Chen; Lin, Ding-Zheng; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2018-01-11

    We present a three-dimensional patterned (3DP) multifunctional substrate with the functions of ultra-thin layer chromatography (UTLC) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), which simultaneously enables mixture separation, target localization and label-free detection. This multifunctional substrate is comprised of a 3DP silicon nanowires array (3DP-SiNWA), decorated with silver nano-dendrites (AgNDs) atop. The 3DP-SiNWA is fabricated by a facile photolithographic process and low-cost metal assisted chemical etching (MaCE) process. Then, the AgNDs are decorated onto 3DP-SiNWA by a wet chemical reduction process, obtaining 3DP-AgNDs@SiNWA multifunctional substrates. With various patterns designed on the substrates, the signal intensity could be maximized by the excellent confinement and concentrated effects of patterns. By using this 3DP-AgNDs@SiNWA substrate to scrutinize the mixture of two visible dyes, the individual target could be recognized and further boosted the Raman signal of target 15.42 times comparing to the un-patterned AgNDs@SiNWA substrate. Therefore, such a three-dimensional patterned multifunctional substrate empowers rapid mixture screening, and can be readily employed in practical applications for biochemical assays, food safety and other fields.

  19. Rapid and selective screening of melamine in bovine milk using molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion coupled with liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongyuan; Cheng, Xiaoling; Sun, Ning; Cai, Tianyu; Wu, Ruijun; Han, Kun

    2012-11-01

    A simple, convenient and high selective molecularly imprinted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MI-MSPD) using water-compatible cyromazine-imprinted polymer as adsorbent was proposed for the rapid screening of melamine from bovine milk coupled with liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) synthesized by cyromazine as dummy template and reformative methanol-water system as reaction medium showed higher affinity and selectivity to melamine, and so they were applied as the specific dispersant of MSPD to extraction of melamine and simultaneously eliminate the effect of template leakage on quantitative analysis. Under the optimized conditions, good linearity was obtained in a range of 0.24-60.0μgg(-1) with the correlation coefficient of 0.9994. The recoveries of melamine at three spiked levels were ranged from 86.0 to 96.2% with the relative standard deviation (RSD)≤4.0%. This proposed MI-MSPD method combined the advantages of MSPD and MIPs, and could be used as an alternative tool for analyzing the residues of melamine in complex milk samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Probable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, nocturnal disturbances and quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease: a case-controlled study using the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Keisuke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence provides a clear association between rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorders (RBD and Parkinson’s disease (PD, but the clinical features that determine the co-morbidity of RBD and PD are not yet fully understood. Methods We evaluated the characteristics of nocturnal disturbances and other motor and non-motor features related to RBD in patients with PD and the impact of RBD on their quality of life. Probable RBD (pRBD was evaluated using the Japanese version of the RBD screening questionnaire (RBDSQ-J. Results A significantly higher frequency of pRBD was observed in PD patients than in the controls (RBDSQ-J ≥ 5 or ≥ 6: 29.0% vs. 8.6%; 17.2% vs. 2.2%, respectively. After excluding restless legs syndrome and snorers in the PD patients, the pRBD group (RBDSQ-J≥5 showed higher scores compared with the non-pRBD group on the Parkinson’s disease sleep scale-2 (PDSS-2 total and three-domain scores. Early morning dystonia was more frequent in the pRBD group. The Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39 domain scores for cognition and emotional well-being were higher in the patients with pRBD than in the patients without pRBD. There were no differences between these two groups with respect to the clinical subtype, disease severity or motor function. When using a cut-off of RBDSQ-J = 6, a similar trend was observed for the PDSS-2 and PDQ-39 scores. Patients with PD and pRBD had frequent sleep onset insomnia, distressing dreams and hallucinations. The stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the PDSS-2 domain “motor symptoms at night”, particularly the PDSS sub-item 6 “distressing dreams”, was the only predictor of RBDSQ-J in PD. Conclusion Our results indicate a significant impact of RBD co-morbidity on night-time disturbances and quality of life in PD, particularly on cognition and emotional well-being. RBDSQ may be a useful tool for not only screening RBD in PD patients

  1. Effects of Rapid Thermal Annealing on the Structural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Zr-Doped ZnO Thin Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjin Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The 4 at. % zirconium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Zr films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD were annealed at various temperatures ranging from 350 to 950 °C. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of rapid thermal annealing (RTA treated ZnO:Zr films have been evaluated to find out the stability limit. It was found that the grain size increased at 350 °C and decreased between 350 and 850 °C, while creeping up again at 850 °C. UV–vis characterization shows that the optical band gap shifts towards larger wavelengths. The Hall measurement shows that the resistivity almost keeps constant at low annealing temperatures, and increases rapidly after treatment at 750 °C due to the effect of both the carrier concentration and the Hall mobility. The best annealing temperature is found in the range of 350–550 °C. The ZnO:Zr film-coated glass substrates show good optical and electrical performance up to 550 °C during superstrate thin film solar cell deposition.

  2. 110 GHz rapid, continous tuning from an optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber-amplified DBR diode laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindsay, I.D.; Adhimoolam, B.; Gross, P.; Klein, M.E.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2005-01-01

    A singly-resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator (cw-OPO) pumped by a fiber-amplified diode laser is described. Tuning of the pump source allowed the OPO output to be tuned continuously, without mode-hops, over 110 GHz in 29 ms. Discontinuous pump tuning over 20 nm in the region of

  3. Identification of nodal tissue in the living heart using rapid scanning fiber-optics confocal microscopy and extracellular fluorophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Kaza, Aditya K; Hitchcock, Robert W; Sachse, Frank B

    2013-09-01

    Risks associated with pediatric reconstructive heart surgery include injury of the sinoatrial node (SAN) and atrioventricular node (AVN), requiring cardiac rhythm management using implantable pacemakers. These injuries are the result of difficulties in identifying nodal tissues intraoperatively. Here we describe an approach based on confocal microscopy and extracellular fluorophores to quantify tissue microstructure and identify nodal tissue. Using conventional 3-dimensional confocal microscopy we investigated the microstructural arrangement of SAN, AVN, and atrial working myocardium (AWM) in fixed rat heart. AWM exhibited a regular striated arrangement of the extracellular space. In contrast, SAN and AVN had an irregular, reticulated arrangement. AWM, SAN, and AVN tissues were beneath a thin surface layer of tissue that did not obstruct confocal microscopic imaging. Subsequently, we imaged tissues in living rat hearts with real-time fiber-optics confocal microscopy. Fiber-optics confocal microscopy images resembled images acquired with conventional confocal microscopy. We investigated spatial regularity of tissue microstructure from Fourier analysis and second-order image moments. Fourier analysis of fiber-optics confocal microscopy images showed that the spatial regularity of AWM was greater than that of nodal tissues (37.5 ± 5.0% versus 24.3 ± 3.9% for SAN and 23.8 ± 3.7% for AVN; Pfiber-optics confocal microscopy. Application of the approach in pediatric reconstructive heart surgery may reduce risks of injuring nodal tissues.

  4. Rapid Multiwaveband Polarization Variability in the Quasar PKS 0420-014: Optical Emission from the Compact Radio Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcangelo, Francesca D.; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Smith, Paul S.; Larionov, Valeri M.; Hagen-Thorn, Vladimir A.; Kopatskaya, Eugenia N.; Williams, G. Grant; Gear, Walter K.

    2007-04-01

    An 11 day monitoring campaign in late 2005 reveals clear correlation in polarization between the optical emission and the region of the intensity peak (the ``pseudocore'') at the upstream end of the jet in 43 GHz VLBA (Very Long Baseline Array) images in the highly variable quasar PKS 0420-014. The electric-vector position angle (EVPA) of the pseudocore rotated by about 80° in four VLBA observations over a period of 9 days, matching the trend of the optical EVPA. In addition, the 43 GHz EVPAs agree well with the optical values when we correct the former for Faraday rotation. Fluctuations in the polarization at both wave bands are consistent with the variable emission arising from a standing conical shock wave that compresses magnetically turbulent plasma in the ambient jet. The volume of the variable component is the same at both wave bands, although only ~20% of the total 43 GHz emission arises from this site. The remainder of the 43 GHz flux density must originate in a separate region with very low polarization. If 0420-014 is a typical case, the nonthermal optical emission from blazars originates primarily in and near the pseudocore rather than closer to the central engine where the flow collimates and accelerates.

  5. Short Report: Acceptability and Feasibility of Rapid Chlamydial, Gonococcal, and Trichomonal Screening and Treatment in Pregnant Women in Six Low-to-Middle Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, C L; Bristow, C C; Hoff, N A; Wynn, A; Nguyen, M; Medina-Marino, A; Cabeza, J; Rimoin, A W; Klausner, J D

    2018-03-09

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infections during pregnancy are linked with adverse birth outcomes. However, few countries have prenatal CT, NG, or TV screening programs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of CT, NG, and TV screening and treatment among pregnant women across six low-to-middle income countries. A total 1,817 pregnant women were screened for CT, NG, and TV in Botswana, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Haiti, South Africa, and Vietnam. An additional 640 pregnant women were screened for CT in Peru. Screening occurred between December 2012 and October 2017. Acceptability of screening was evaluated at each site as the proportion of eligible women who agreed to participate in screening. Feasibility of treatment was calculated as the proportion of women who tested positive that received treatment. Acceptability of screening and feasibility of treatment was high across all six sites. Acceptability of screening ranged from 85-99%, and feasibility of treatment ranged from 91-100%. The high acceptability of screening and treatment for CT, NG, and TV among pregnant women supports further research to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of prenatal CT, NG, and TV screening programs.

  6. Optimised and rapid pre-clinical screening in the SOD1(G93A transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Mead

    Full Text Available The human SOD1(G93A transgenic mouse has been used extensively since its development in 1994 as a model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. In that time, a great many insights into the toxicity of mutant SOD1 have been gained using this and other mutant SOD transgenic mouse models. They all demonstrate a selective toxicity towards motor neurons and in some cases features of the pathology seen in the human disease. These models have two major drawbacks. Firstly the generation of robust preclinical data in these models has been highlighted as an area for concern. Secondly, the amount of time required for a single preclinical experiment in these models (3-4 months is a hurdle to the development of new therapies. We have developed an inbred C57BL/6 mouse line from the original mixed background (SJLxC57BL/6 SOD1(G93A transgenic line and show here that the disease course is remarkably consistent and much less prone to background noise, enabling reduced numbers of mice for testing of therapeutics. Secondly we have identified very early readouts showing a large decline in motor function compared to normal mice. This loss of motor function has allowed us to develop an early, sensitive and rapid screening protocol for the initial phases of denervation of muscle fibers, observed in this model. We describe multiple, quantitative readouts of motor function that can be used to interrogate this early mechanism. Such an approach will increase throughput for reduced costs, whilst reducing the severity of the experimental procedures involved.

  7. Optimised and rapid pre-clinical screening in the SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Richard J; Bennett, Ellen J; Kennerley, Aneurin J; Sharp, Paul; Sunyach, Claire; Kasher, Paul; Berwick, Jason; Pettmann, Brigitte; Battaglia, Guiseppe; Azzouz, Mimoun; Grierson, Andrew; Shaw, Pamela J

    2011-01-01

    The human SOD1(G93A) transgenic mouse has been used extensively since its development in 1994 as a model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In that time, a great many insights into the toxicity of mutant SOD1 have been gained using this and other mutant SOD transgenic mouse models. They all demonstrate a selective toxicity towards motor neurons and in some cases features of the pathology seen in the human disease. These models have two major drawbacks. Firstly the generation of robust preclinical data in these models has been highlighted as an area for concern. Secondly, the amount of time required for a single preclinical experiment in these models (3-4 months) is a hurdle to the development of new therapies. We have developed an inbred C57BL/6 mouse line from the original mixed background (SJLxC57BL/6) SOD1(G93A) transgenic line and show here that the disease course is remarkably consistent and much less prone to background noise, enabling reduced numbers of mice for testing of therapeutics. Secondly we have identified very early readouts showing a large decline in motor function compared to normal mice. This loss of motor function has allowed us to develop an early, sensitive and rapid screening protocol for the initial phases of denervation of muscle fibers, observed in this model. We describe multiple, quantitative readouts of motor function that can be used to interrogate this early mechanism. Such an approach will increase throughput for reduced costs, whilst reducing the severity of the experimental procedures involved.

  8. Rapid screening of ASXL1, IDH1, IDH2, and c-CBL mutations in de novo acute myeloid leukemia by high-resolution melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Mariam; Such, Esperanza; Cervera, José; Luna, Irene; Gómez-Seguí, Inés; López-Pavía, María; Dolz, Sandra; Barragán, Eva; Fuster, Oscar; Llop, Marta; Rodríguez-Veiga, Rebeca; Avaria, Amparo; Oltra, Silvestre; Senent, M Leonor; Moscardó, Federico; Montesinos, Pau; Martínez-Cuadrón, David; Martín, Guillermo; Sanz, Miguel A

    2012-11-01

    Recently, many novel molecular abnormalities were found to be distinctly associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, their clinical relevance and prognostic implications are not well established. We developed a new combination of high-resolution melting assays on a LightCycler 480 and direct sequencing to detect somatic mutations of ASXL1 (exon 12), IDH1 (exon 4), IDH2 (exon 4), and c-CBL (exons 8 and 9) genes to know their incidence and prognostic effect in a cohort of 175 patients with de novo AML: 16 patients (9%) carried ASXL1 mutations, 16 patients had IDH variations (3% with IDH1(R132) and 6% with IDH2(R140)), and none had c-CBL mutations. Patients with ASXL1 mutations did not harbor IDH1, [corrected] or CEBPA mutations, and a combination of ASXL1 and IDH2 mutations was found only in one patient. In addition, we did not find IDH1 and FLT3 or CEBPA mutations concurrently or IDH2 with CEBPA. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations were mutually exclusive. Alternatively, NPM1 mutations were concurrently found with ASXL1, IDH1, or IDH2 with a variable incidence. Mutations were not significantly correlated with any of the clinical and biological features studied. High-resolution melting is a reliable, rapid, and efficient screening technique for mutation detection in AML. The incidence for the studied genes was in the range of those previously reported. We were unable to find an effect on the outcome. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid diagnosis of retina and optic nerve abnormalities in canine patients with and without cataracts using chromatic pupil light reflex testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdanic, Sinisa D; Kecova, Helga; Lazic, Tatjana

    2013-09-01

    To develop fast and reliable testing routines for diagnosing retina and optic nerve diseases in canine cataract patients based on chromatic properties of the pupillary light reflex response. Seventy-seven canine patients with a history of cataract and decreased vision (43 patients with cataracts and no evidence of retina or optic nerve disease, 21 patients with cataracts and retinal degeneration [RD], 13 patients with cataracts and retinal detachment [RDT]), 11 canine patients with optic neuritis (ON) and 23 healthy dogs were examined using chromatic pupillary light reflex (cPLR) analysis with red and blue light and electroretinography. Electroretinography analysis showed statistically significant deficits in a- and b-wave amplitudes in dogs with cataracts and RD, or cataracts and RDT, when compared to dogs with cataracts without evidence of retinal abnormalities. Evaluation of b-wave amplitudes showed that presence of 78.5-μV (or lower) amplitudes had high sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 87.2-100%) and high specificity of 96.7% (95% CI: 88.4-100%) in RD and RDT. Evaluation of cPLR responses using red light showed that presence of the pupil end constriction diameter of 5.5 mm (or higher) had moderately high sensitivity of 76.5% (95% CI: 50.1-93.2%) and high specificity of 100% (95% CI: 91.2-100%) in detecting RD and RDT. Optic neuritis patients had absent cPLR responses, regardless of the visual status. Chromatic evaluation of the pupillary light reflex is a rapid and accurate test for diagnosing retina and optic nerve diseases in canine patients. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. Label-free optical imaging technologies for rapid translation and use during intraoperative surgical and tumor margin assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppart, Stephen A.; Brown, J. Quincy; Farah, Camile S.; Kho, Esther; Marcu, Laura; Saunders, Christobel M.; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.

    2018-02-01

    The biannual International Conference on Biophotonics was recently held on April 30 to May 1, 2017, in Fremantle, Western Australia. This continuing conference series brought together key opinion leaders in biophotonics to present their latest results and, importantly, to participate in discussions on the future of the field and what opportunities exist when we collectively work together for using biophotonics for biological discovery and medical applications. One session in this conference, entitled "Tumor Margin Identification: Critiquing Technologies," challenged invited speakers and attendees to review and critique representative label-free optical imaging technologies and their application for intraoperative assessment and guidance in surgical oncology. We are pleased to share a summary in this outlook paper, with the intent to motivate more research inquiry and investigations, to challenge these and other optical imaging modalities to evaluate and improve performance, to spur translation and adoption, and ultimately, to improve the care and outcomes of patients.

  11. Controle da qualidade em colpocitologia: visão rápida com campo marcado Cervical cytology quality control: rapid pre-screening with marked field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Lopes Bonilha

    2006-12-01

    Preto, SP had decided to develop a Quality Control System following the NBR ISO 9001: 2000 guidelines. Some procedures were adopted to verify technical reliability for the exams performed, where quality is defined as the clients' judgement, i.e., the solution for the clients' requests and expectations. In this study we have focused on the quality of the cervical cytology performed in the Department. Although the development of cervical lesions through cervical carcinoma takes place slowly, the treatment will have a better chance of success in case of an early diagnosis. Considering all the possible diagnostic mistakes, the false-negative exam is the most dangerous, as it delays the beginning of the treatment. OBJECTIVE: To test three different methods looking for the one with the smaller number of false-negative results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the same team of technicians, and with the same diagnostic criteria the three different techniques were tested. Methodology 1 (M1: in accordance to the Brazilian Ministry of National Health, with a random review of 10% of the false-negative results, in the 3,500 cytologies; Methodology 2 (M2: rapid review (RR, as suggested in literature, consists of a rapid review of 100% of the smears, after their routine evaluation, and was done in 7,373 cytologies; Methodology 3 (M3: rapid prescreening (RP with marked field, was proposed by the researcher and consists of a rapid screening of all cases, pointing out a field were there are abnormal cells, and after that the normal screening, in 8,096 cytologies. RESULTS: The three techniques tested showed the following false-negative rates: M1: 2.4%; M2: 1.7% and M3: 1.2 %. CONCLUSION: The M3 was the best methodology, presenting less false-negative diagnosis.

  12. A fiber-optic sorbitol biosensor based on NADH fluorescence detection toward rapid diagnosis of diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessei, Tomoko; Arakawa, Takahiro; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-09-21

    Accumulation of sorbitol in the tissue is known to cause microvascular diabetic complications. In this paper, a fiber-optic biosensor for sorbitol which is used as a biomarker of diabetic complications was developed and tested. The biosensor used a sorbitol dehydrogenase from microorganisms of the genus Flavimonas with high substrate specificity and detected the fluorescence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by the enzymatic reaction. An ultraviolet light emitting diode (UV-LED) was used as the excitation light source of NADH. The fluorescence of NADH was detected using a spectrometer or a photomultiplier tube (PMT). The UV-LED and the photodetector were coupled using a Y-shaped optical fiber. In the experiment, an optical fiber probe with a sorbitol dehydrogenase immobilized membrane was placed in a cuvette filled with a phosphate buffer containing the oxidized form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). The changes in NADH fluorescence intensity were measured after adding a standard sorbitol solution. According to the experimental assessment, the calibration range of the sorbitol biosensor systems using a spectrometer and a PMT was 5.0-1000 μmol L(-1) and 1.0-1000 μmol L(-1), respectively. The sorbitol biosensor system using the sorbitol dehydrogenase from microorganisms of the genus Flavimonas has high selectivity and sensitivity compared with that from sheep liver. The sorbitol biosensor allows for point-of-care testing applications or daily health care tests for diabetes patients.

  13. Evaluating a novel application of optical fibre evanescent field absorbance: rapid measurement of red colour in winegrape homogenates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lye, Peter G.; Bradbury, Ronald; Lamb, David W.

    Silica optical fibres were used to measure colour (mg anthocyanin/g fresh berry weight) in samples of red wine grape homogenates via optical Fibre Evanescent Field Absorbance (FEFA). Colour measurements from 126 samples of grape homogenate were compared against the standard industry spectrophotometric reference method that involves chemical extraction and subsequent optical absorption measurements of clarified samples at 520 nm. FEFA absorbance on homogenates at 520 nm (FEFA520h) was correlated with the industry reference method measurements of colour (R2 = 0.46, n = 126). Using a simple regression equation colour could be predicted with a standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 0.21 mg/g, with a range of 0.6 to 2.2 mg anthocyanin/g and a standard deviation of 0.33 mg/g. With a Ratio of Performance Deviation (RPD) of 1.6, the technique when utilizing only a single detection wavelength, is not robust enough to apply in a diagnostic sense, however the results do demonstrate the potential of the FEFA method as a fast and low-cost assay of colour in homogenized samples.

  14. Resource utilization and cost-effectiveness of counselor- vs. provider-based rapid point-of-care HIV screening in the emergency department.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle P Walensky

    Full Text Available Routine HIV screening in emergency department (ED settings may require dedicated personnel. We evaluated the outcomes, costs and cost-effectiveness of HIV screening when offered by either a member of the ED staff or by an HIV counselor.We employed a mathematical model to extend data obtained from a randomized clinical trial of provider- vs. counselor-based HIV screening in the ED. We compared the downstream survival, costs, and cost-effectiveness of three HIV screening modalities: 1 no screening program; 2 an ED provider-based program; and 3 an HIV counselor-based program. Trial arm-specific data were used for test offer and acceptance rates (provider offer 36%, acceptance 75%; counselor offer 80%, acceptance 71%. Undiagnosed HIV prevalence (0.4% and linkage to care rates (80% were assumed to be equal between the screening modalities. Personnel costs were derived from trial-based resource utilization data. We examined the generalizability of results by conducting sensitivity analyses on offer and acceptance rates, undetected HIV prevalence, and costs.Estimated HIV screening costs in the provider and counselor arms averaged $8.10 and $31.00 per result received. The Provider strategy (compared to no screening had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $58,700/quality-adjusted life year (QALY and the Counselor strategy (compared to the Provider strategy had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $64,500/QALY. Results were sensitive to the relative offer and acceptance rates by strategy and the capacity of providers to target-screen, but were robust to changes in undiagnosed HIV prevalence and programmatic costs.The cost-effectiveness of provider-based HIV screening in an emergency department setting compares favorably to other US screening programs. Despite its additional cost, counselor-based screening delivers just as much return on investment as provider based-screening. Investment in dedicated HIV screening personnel is justified in

  15. Resource utilization and cost-effectiveness of counselor- vs. provider-based rapid point-of-care HIV screening in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walensky, Rochelle P; Morris, Bethany L; Reichmann, William M; Paltiel, A David; Arbelaez, Christian; Donnell-Fink, Laurel; Katz, Jeffrey N; Losina, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Routine HIV screening in emergency department (ED) settings may require dedicated personnel. We evaluated the outcomes, costs and cost-effectiveness of HIV screening when offered by either a member of the ED staff or by an HIV counselor. We employed a mathematical model to extend data obtained from a randomized clinical trial of provider- vs. counselor-based HIV screening in the ED. We compared the downstream survival, costs, and cost-effectiveness of three HIV screening modalities: 1) no screening program; 2) an ED provider-based program; and 3) an HIV counselor-based program. Trial arm-specific data were used for test offer and acceptance rates (provider offer 36%, acceptance 75%; counselor offer 80%, acceptance 71%). Undiagnosed HIV prevalence (0.4%) and linkage to care rates (80%) were assumed to be equal between the screening modalities. Personnel costs were derived from trial-based resource utilization data. We examined the generalizability of results by conducting sensitivity analyses on offer and acceptance rates, undetected HIV prevalence, and costs. Estimated HIV screening costs in the provider and counselor arms averaged $8.10 and $31.00 per result received. The Provider strategy (compared to no screening) had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $58,700/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) and the Counselor strategy (compared to the Provider strategy) had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $64,500/QALY. Results were sensitive to the relative offer and acceptance rates by strategy and the capacity of providers to target-screen, but were robust to changes in undiagnosed HIV prevalence and programmatic costs. The cost-effectiveness of provider-based HIV screening in an emergency department setting compares favorably to other US screening programs. Despite its additional cost, counselor-based screening delivers just as much return on investment as provider based-screening. Investment in dedicated HIV screening personnel is justified in situations

  16. Photo-isomerization induced rapid photo-degradation of optical nonlinearity in cyano substituted stilbene derivative doped poled polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jieyun; Liu Liying; Ji Liyong; Ye Mingxin; Xu Lei; Wang Wencheng

    2004-01-01

    We found that, although alpha'-cyano-4'-nitro-4-N, N-dimethylaminostilbene has larger hyperpolarizability than that of conventional 4'-N, N-dimethylamino-nitrostilbene, the addition of the cyano group makes it much more easy to photo-isomerize, thus destroying the molecular ordering in poled chromophore doped polymers. Experimental evidence was obtained by monitoring the second-harmonic generation intensity, UV-Vis absorption spectrum, and FTIR spectrum. The photo-isomerization reaction process was monitored by optical pump induced absorption anisotropy measurement. Comparisons with the behaviour of a azobenzene dye are also made

  17. UV-cured polymer optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñón, Victor; Santiago, Freddie; Vogelsberg, Ashten; Davenport, Amelia; Cramer, Neil

    2017-10-01

    Although many optical-quality glass materials are available for use in optical systems, the range of polymeric materials is limited. Polymeric materials have some advantages over glass when it comes to large-scale manufacturing and production. In smaller scale systems, they offer a reduction in weight when compared to glass counterparts. This is especially important when designing optical systems meant to be carried by hand. We aimed to expand the availability of polymeric materials by exploring both crown-like and flint-like polymers. In addition, rapid and facile production was also a goal. By using UV-cured thiolene-based polymers, we were able to produce optical materials within seconds. This enabled the rapid screening of a variety of polymers from which we down-selected to produce optical flats and lenses. We will discuss problems with production and mitigation strategies in using UV-cured polymers for optical components. Using UV-cured polymers present a different set of problems than traditional injection-molded polymers, and these issues are discussed in detail. Using these produced optics, we integrated them into a modified direct view optical system, with the end goal being the development of drop-in replacements for glass components. This optical production strategy shows promise for use in lab-scale systems, where low-cost methods and flexibility are of paramount importance.

  18. Construction of a simple optical sensor based on air stable lipid film with incorporated urease for the rapid detection of urea in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoleli, Georgia-Paraskevi; Nikolelis, Dimitrios P; Methenitis, Constantinos

    2010-08-18

    This work describes the construction of a simple optical sensor for the rapid, selective and sensitive detection of urea in milk using air stable lipid films with incorporated urease. The lipid film is stabilized on a glass filter by polymerization using UV (ultra-violet) radiation prior its use. Methacrylic acid was the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was the crosslinker and 2,2'-azobis-(2-methylpropionitrile) was the initiator. Urease is incorporated within this mixture prior to the polymerization. The presence of the enzyme in these films quenched this fluorescence and the colour became similar to that of the filters without the lipid films. A drop of aqueous solution of urea provided a "switching on" of the fluorescence which allows the rapid detection of this compound at the levels of 10(-8) M concentrations. The investigation of the effect of potent interferences included a wide range of compounds usually found in foods and also of proteins and lipids. These lipid membranes were used for the rapid detection of urea in milk. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Towards Universal Screening for Toxoplasmosis: Rapid, Cost-effective and Simultaneous Detection of Toxoplasma Anti-IgG, IgM and IgA Antibodies Using Very Small Serum Volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    No dataset associated with this publication.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Augustine, S. Towards Universal Screening for Toxoplasmosis: Rapid, Cost-effective and Simultaneous Detection of Toxoplasma Anti-IgG, IgM and IgA Antibodies Using Very Small Serum Volumes. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, USA, 56(7): 1-2, (2016).

  20. Integrated metabolomic analysis of the nano-sized copper particle-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats: a rapid in vivo screening method for nanotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ronghui; Wu, Chunqi; Yang, Baohua; Ma, Huazhai; Shi, Chang; Wang, Quanjun; Wang, Qingxiu; Yuan, Ye; Liao, Mingyang

    2008-10-15

    by nano-copper. The data generated from the current study completely supports the fact that an integrated metabolomic approach is promising for the development of a rapid in vivo screening method for nanotoxicity.

  1. Integrated metabolomic analysis of the nano-sized copper particle-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats: A rapid invivo screening method for nanotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Ronghui; Wu Chunqi; Yang Baohua; Ma Huazhai; Shi Chang; Wang Quanjun; Wang Qingxiu; Yuan Ye; Liao Mingyang

    2008-01-01

    nano-copper. The data generated from the current study completely supports the fact that an integrated metabolomic approach is promising for the development of a rapid invivo screening method for nanotoxicity

  2. Improving the extraction of crisis information in the context of flood, fire, and landslide rapid mapping using SAR and optical remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinis, Sandro; Clandillon, Stephen; Twele, André; Huber, Claire; Plank, Simon; Maxant, Jérôme; Cao, Wenxi; Caspard, Mathilde; May, Stéphane

    2016-04-01

    Optical and radar satellite remote sensing have proven to provide essential crisis information in case of natural disasters, humanitarian relief activities and civil security issues in a growing number of cases through mechanisms such as the Copernicus Emergency Management Service (EMS) of the European Commission or the International Charter 'Space and Major Disasters'. The aforementioned programs and initiatives make use of satellite-based rapid mapping services aimed at delivering reliable and accurate crisis information after natural hazards. Although these services are increasingly operational, they need to be continuously updated and improved through research and development (R&D) activities. The principal objective of ASAPTERRA (Advancing SAR and Optical Methods for Rapid Mapping), the ESA-funded R&D project being described here, is to improve, automate and, hence, speed-up geo-information extraction procedures in the context of natural hazards response. This is performed through the development, implementation, testing and validation of novel image processing methods using optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. The methods are mainly developed based on data of the German radar satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X, the French satellite missions Pléiades-1A/1B as well as the ESA missions Sentinel-1/2 with the aim to better characterize the potential and limitations of these sensors and their synergy. The resulting algorithms and techniques are evaluated in real case applications during rapid mapping activities. The project is focussed on three types of natural hazards: floods, landslides and fires. Within this presentation an overview of the main methodological developments in each topic is given and demonstrated in selected test areas. The following developments are presented in the context of flood mapping: a fully automated Sentinel-1 based processing chain for detecting open flood surfaces, a method for the improved detection of flooded vegetation

  3. Organic conjugated small molecule materials based optical probe for rapid, colorimetric and UV-vis spectral detection of phosphorylated protein in placental tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfang; Yang, Na; Liu, Yi

    2018-04-05

    A novel organic small molecule with D-Pi-A structure was prepared, which was found to be a promising colorimetric and ratiometric UV-vis spetral probe for detection of phosphorylated proteins with the help of tetravalent zirconium ion. Such optical probe based on chromophore WYF-1 shows a rapid response (within 10s) and high selectivity and sensitivity for phosphorylated proteins, giving distinct colorimetric and ratiometric UV-vis changes at 720 and 560nm. The detection limit for phosphorylated proteins was estimated to be 100nM. In addition, detection of phosphorylated proteins in placental tissue samples with this probe was successfully applied, which indicates that this probe holds great potential for phosphorylated proteins detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High Throughput, Label-free Screening Small Molecule Compound Libraries for Protein-Ligands using Combination of Small Molecule Microarrays and a Special Ellipsometry-based Optical Scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, James P; Fei, Yiyan; Zhu, X D

    2011-12-01

    Small-molecule compounds remain the major source of therapeutic and preventative drugs. Developing new drugs against a protein target often requires screening large collections of compounds with diverse structures for ligands or ligand fragments that exhibit sufficiently affinity and desirable inhibition effect on the target before further optimization and development. Since the number of small molecule compounds is large, high-throughput screening (HTS) methods are needed. Small-molecule microarrays (SMM) on a solid support in combination with a suitable binding assay form a viable HTS platform. We demonstrate that by combining an oblique-incidence reflectivity difference optical scanner with SMM we can screen 10,000 small-molecule compounds on a single glass slide for protein ligands without fluorescence labeling. Furthermore using such a label-free assay platform we can simultaneously acquire binding curves of a solution-phase protein to over 10,000 immobilized compounds, thus enabling full characterization of protein-ligand interactions over a wide range of affinity constants.

  5. VARIABILITY AT THE EDGE: OPTICAL NEAR/IR RAPID-CADENCE MONITORING OF NEWLY OUTBURSTING FU ORIONIS OBJECT HBC 722

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Joel D.; Robertson, Paul; Pak, Soojong; Meschiari, Stefano; Baek, Giseon; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Pooley, David; Im, Myungshin; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu

    2013-01-01

    We present the detection of day-timescale periodic variability in the r-band lightcurve of newly outbursting FU Orionis-type object HBC 722, taken from >42 nights of observation with the CQUEAN instrument on the McDonald Observatory 2.1 m telescope. The optical/near-IR lightcurve of HBC 722 shows a complex array of periodic variability, clustering around 5.8-day (0.044 mag amplitude) and 1.28-day (0.016 mag amplitude) periods, after removal of overall baseline variation. We attribute the unusual number of comparable strength signals to a phenomenon related to the temporary increase in accretion rate associated with FUors. We consider semi-random 'flickering', magnetic braking/field compression and rotational asymmetries in the disk instability region as potential sources of variability. Assuming that the 5.8-day period is due to stellar rotation and the 1.28-day period is indicative of Keplerian rotation at the inner radius of the accretion disk (at 2 R * ), we derive a B-field strength of 2.2-2.7 kG, slightly larger than typical T Tauri stars. If instead the 5.8-day signal is from a disk asymmetry, the instability region has an outer radius of 5.4 R * , consistent with models of FUor disks. Further exploration of the time domain in this complicated source and related objects will be key to understanding accretion processes.

  6. Unique Nanoparticle Optical Properties Confound Fluorescent Based Assays Widely Employed in Their In Vitro Toxicity Screening and Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are novel materials having at least one dimension less than 100 nm and display unique physicochemical properties due to their nanoscale size. An emphasis has been placed on developing high throughput screening (HTS) assays to characterize and rank the toxiciti...

  7. Validation of an optical surface plasmon resonance biosensor assay for screening (fluoro)quinolones in egg, fish and poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huet, A.C.; Charlier, C.; Weigel, S.; Benrejeb Godefroy, S.; Delahaut, P.

    2009-01-01

    A surface plasmon resonance biosensor immunoassay has been developed for multi-residue determination of 13 (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics in poultry meat, eggs and fish. The following performance characteristics were determined according to the guidelines laid down for screening assay validation in

  8. Rapid Visualization of Human Tumor Xenografts through Optical Imaging with a Near-Infrared Fluorescent Anti–Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Nanobody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given that overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is found in many types of human epithelial cancers, noninvasive molecular imaging of this receptor is of great interest. A number of studies have employed monoclonal antibodies as probes; however, their characteristic long half-life in the bloodstream has encouraged the development of smaller probes. In this study, an anti-EGFR nanobody-based probe was developed and tested in comparison with cetuximab for application in optical molecular imaging. To this aim, the anti-EGFR nanobody 7D12 and cetuximab were conjugated to the near-infrared fluorophore IRDye800CW. 7D12-IR allowed the visualization of tumors as early as 30 minutes postinjection, whereas with cetuximab-IR, no signal above background was observed at the tumor site. Quantification of the IR-conjugated proteins in the tumors revealed ≈ 17% of injected dose per gram 2 hours after injection of 7D12-IR, which was significantly higher than the tumor uptake obtained 24 hours after injection of cetuximab-IR. This difference is associated with the superior penetration and distribution of 7D12-IR within the tumor. These results demonstrate that this anti-EGFR nanobody conjugated to the NIR fluorophore has excellent properties for rapid preclinical optical imaging, which holds promise for its future use as a complementary diagnostic tool in humans.

  9. Reusable split-aptamer-based biosensor for rapid detection of cocaine in serum by using an all-fiber evanescent wave optical biosensing platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yunfei; Long, Feng; Gu, Chunmei; Wang, Cheng; Han, Shitong; He, Miao

    2016-08-24

    A rapid, facile, and sensitive assay of cocaine in biological fluids is important to prevent illegal abuse of drugs. A two-step structure-switching aptasensor has been developed for cocaine detection based on evanescent wave optical biosensing platform. In the proposed biosensing platform, two tailored aptamer probes were used to construct the molecular structure switching. In the existence of cocaine, two fragments of cocaine aptamer formed a three-way junction quickly, and the fluorophore group of one fragment was effectively quenched by the quencher group of the other one. The tail of the three-way junction hybridized with the cDNA sequences immobilized on the optical fiber biosensor. Fluorescence was excited by evanescent wave, and the fluorescence signal was proportional to cocaine concentration. Cocaine was detected in 450 s (300 s for incubation and 150 s for detection and regeneration) with a limit of detection (LOD) of 165.2 nM. The proposed aptasensor was evaluated in human serum samples, and it exhibited good recovery, precision, and accuracy without complicated sample pretreatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of ENVISAT ASAR Global Monitoring Mode to complement optical data in the mapping of rapid broad-scale flooding in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O'Grady

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Envisat ASAR Global Monitoring Mode (GM data are used to produce maps of the extent of the flooding in Pakistan which are made available to the rapid response effort within 24 h of acquisition. The high temporal frequency and independence of the data from cloud-free skies makes GM data a viable tool for mapping flood waters during those periods where optical satellite data are unavailable, which may be crucial to rapid response disaster planning, where thousands of lives are affected. Image differencing techniques are used, with pre-flood baseline image backscatter values being deducted from target values to eliminate regions with a permanent flood-like radar response due to volume scattering and attenuation, and to highlight the low response caused by specular reflection by open flood water. The effect of local incidence angle on the received signal is mitigated by ensuring that the deducted image is acquired from the same orbit track as the target image. Poor separability of the water class with land in areas beyond the river channels is tackled using a region-growing algorithm which seeks threshold-conformance from seed pixels at the center of the river channels. The resultant mapped extents are tested against MODIS SWIR data where available, with encouraging results.

  11. Enhancing the Usability of an Optical Reader System to Support Point-of-Care Rapid Diagnostic Testing: An Iterative Design Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenstein, Jess; O'Dell, Dakota; Murnane, Elizabeth L; Lu, Zhengda; Erickson, David; Gay, Geri

    2017-11-21

    In today's health care environment, increasing costs and inadequate medical resources have created a worldwide need for more affordable diagnostic tools that are also portable, fast, and easy to use. To address this issue, numerous research and commercial efforts have focused on developing rapid diagnostic technologies; however, the efficacy of existing systems has been hindered by usability problems or high production costs, making them infeasible for deployment in at-home, point-of-care (POC), or resource-limited settings. The aim of this study was to create a low-cost optical reader system that integrates with any smart device and accepts any type of rapid diagnostic test strip to provide fast and accurate data collection, sample analysis, and diagnostic result reporting. An iterative design methodology was employed by a multidisciplinary research team to engineer three versions of a portable diagnostic testing device that were evaluated for usability and overall user receptivity. Repeated design critiques and usability studies identified a number of system requirements and considerations (eg, software compatibility, biomatter contamination, and physical footprint) that we worked to incrementally incorporate into successive system variants. Our final design phase culminated in the development of Tidbit, a reader that is compatible with any Wi-Fi-enabled device and test strip format. The Tidbit includes various features that support intuitive operation, including a straightforward test strip insertion point, external indicator lights, concealed electronic components, and an asymmetric shape, which inherently signals correct device orientation. Usability testing of the Tidbit indicates high usability for potential user communities. This study presents the design process, specification, and user reception of the Tidbit, an inexpensive, easy-to-use, portable optical reader for fast, accurate quantification of rapid diagnostic test results. Usability testing suggests

  12. Optical sensor system for time-resolved quantification of methane concentrations: Validation measurements in a rapid compression machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauke, Stephan; Golibrzuch, Kai; Wackerbarth, Hainer; Fendt, Peter; Zigan, Lars; Seefeldt, Stefan; Thiele, Olaf; Berg, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Lowering greenhouse gas emissions is one of the most challenging demands of today's society. Especially, the automotive industry struggles with the development of more efficient internal combustion (IC) engines. As an alternative to conventional fuels, methane has the potential for a significant emission reduction. In methane fuelled engines, the process of mixture formation, which determines the properties of combustion after ignition, differs significantly from gasoline and diesel engines and needs to be understood and controlled in order to develop engines with high efficiency. This work demonstrates the development of a gas sensing system that can serve as a diagnostic tool for measuring crank-angle resolved relative air-fuel ratios in methane-fuelled near-production IC engines. By application of non-dispersive infrared absorption spectroscopy at two distinct spectral regions in the ν3 absorption band of methane around 3.3 μm, the system is able to determine fuel density and temperature simultaneously. A modified spark plug probe allows for straightforward application at engine test stations. Here, the application of the detection system in a rapid compression machine is presented, which enables validation and characterization of the system on well-defined gas mixtures under engine-like dynamic conditions. In extension to a recent proof-of-principle study, a refined data analysis procedure is introduced that allows the correction of artefacts originating from mechanical distortions of the sensor probe. In addition, the measured temperatures are compared to data obtained with a commercially available system based on the spectrally resolved detection of water absorption in the near infrared.

  13. Additional gonorrhea and Chlamydia infections found with rapid follow-up screening in men who have sex with men with an indication for HIV postexposure prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vrieze, Nynke H. N.; van Rooijen, Martijn S.; van de Loeff, Maarten Schim; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infection was found in 16.5% of the men who have sex with men with a postexposure prophylaxis indication. Chlamydia and gonorrhea screening was repeated after 14 days. Among those who were initially sexually transmitted infection negative, 4.1% had chlamydia or gonorrhea. In

  14. Cryptococcal antigen screening by lay cadres using a rapid test at the point of care: A feasibility study in rural Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Fernanda; Niyibizi, Aline Aurore; Shroufi, Amir; Onami, Kazumi; Steele, Sarah-Jane; Kuleile, Malehlohonolo; Muleya, Innocent; Chiller, Tom; Walker, Tiffany; Van Cutsem, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is one of the leading causes of death among people with HIV in Africa, primarily due to delayed presentation, poor availability and high cost of treatment. Routine cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening of patients with a CD4 count less than 100 cells/mm3, followed by pre-emptive therapy if positive, might reduce mortality in high prevalence settings. Using the cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) lateral flow assay (LFA), screening is possible at the point of care (POC). However, critical shortages of health staff may limit adoption. This study investigates the feasibility of lay counsellors conducting CrAg LFA screening in rural primary care clinics in Lesotho. From May 2014 to June 2015, individuals who tested positive for HIV were tested for CD4 count and those with CD4 lay counsellors. CrAg-positive asymptomatic patients received fluconazole, while symptomatic patients were referred to hospital. Lay counsellors were trained and supervised by a laboratory technician and counsellor activity supervisor. Additionally, nurses and doctors were trained on CrAg screening and appropriate treatment. During the study period, 1,388 people were newly diagnosed with HIV, of whom 129 (9%) presented with a CD4 count lay counsellors followed by pre-emptive fluconazole treatment for asymptomatic cases, or referral to hospital for symptomatic cases, proved feasible. However, regular follow-up to ensure proper management of cryptococcal disease was needed. These early results support the wider use of CrAg LFA screening in remote primary care settings where upper cadres of healthcare staff may be in short supply.

  15. Revisão rápida de esfregaços cervicais como método de garantia interna de qualidade Rapid screening of cervical smears as a method of internal quality assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Goreti Amaral

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Uma das críticas mais freqüentes ao exame citopatológico é a alta taxa de falsos negativos. O método de garantia de qualidade mais utilizado é a revisão de 10% dos esfregaços negativos. Segundo diversos autores, o método de revisão rápida de 100% é eficiente para detectar resultados falsos negativos. OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho dos métodos de revisão rápida de 100% e revisão de 10% dos esfregaços negativos como método de garantia interna de qualidade. MÉTODOS: Foram submetidos à revisão rápida, realizada por um citotécnico sênior, 2.750 esfregaços com resultados negativos da rotina, seguida pela revisão de 10% por outro citotécnico sênior. Após estas revisões, todos os esfregaços foram analisados por dois citopatologistas, separadamente. Quando seus resultados não eram concordantes, os esfregaços eram analisados por um terceiro citopatologista e, através de uma reunião de consenso, era definido o diagnóstico final (padrão-ouro. RESULTADOS: A revisão rápida identificou 98 esfregaços suspeitos, dos quais 62 foram confirmados pelo padrão-ouro, sendo 45 Ascus, 11 LSIL e seis HSIL (sensibilidade 73,8%. A revisão de 10% identificou nove esfregaços positivos, dos quais seis foram confirmados pelo padrão-ouro, sendo três Ascus, dois LSIL e um HSIL (sensibilidade 50%. Dos 2.489 esfregaços não-incluídos na revisão de 10%, o padrão-ouro identificou 57 Ascus, dez LSIL e cinco casos HSIL. CONCLUSÃO: A revisão rápida de 100% é uma alternativa eficiente para reduzir as taxas de falsos negativos dos exames citopatológicos. Permite ainda o monitoramento do desempenho individual da equipe.INTRODUCTION: One of the most frequently cited disadvantages of cervical cancer screening is its high false negative rate. The most widely used quality assurance method is 10% random re-screening. Recent studies have shown that 100% rapid re-screening is an efficient method for reduction of the false

  16. Structural, optical and gas sensing properties of screen-printed nanostructured Sr-doped SnO2 thick film sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, F.I.; Chikhale, L.P.; Patil, J.Y.; Rajgure, A.V.; Suryavanshi, S.S.; Mulla, I.S.

    2013-01-01

    The nanocrystalline materials of strontium doped tin oxide powders were synthesized by conventional co-precipitation method. Synthesized nanophase SnO 2 powders were used to fabricate thick films of pure and Sr-doped SnO 2 using screen-printing technology and investigated for their gas sensing properties towards LPG, ethanol, ammonia and acetone vapor. The crystal structure and phase of the sintered powders were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and microstructure by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the doped and undoped SnO 2 compositions revealed single phase and solid solution formation. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) results indicated that well crystallized Sr-doped SnO 2 particles of size about 10 nm were obtained at sintering temperature 700℃. The optical properties viz. UV-Vis, FTIR and Raman were used to characterize various physico-chemical properties of samples. The reduction of grain size in metal oxide is a key factor to enhance the gas sensing properties. The doping of Sr in SnO 2 has reduced the grain size and improved the gas response. The results of gas sensing measurements showed that the thick films deposited on alumina substrates using screen-printing technique exhibited high gas response, quick response time and fast recovery time to acetone gas at a working temperature of 250℃. Further, the selectivity of sensor towards acetone with respect to other reducing gases (LPG, ethanol, ammonia) was studied. (author)

  17. Influence of the substrate and nitrogen amount on the microstructural and optical properties of thin r.f.-sputtered ZnO films treated by rapid thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolescu, Madalina [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Anastasescu, Mihai, E-mail: manastasescu@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Preda, S.; Stroescu, H.; Stoica, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Teodorescu, V.S. [National Institute of Material Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Aperathitis, E.; Kampylafka, V. [FORTH-IESL, Crete (Greece); Modreanu, M. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Zaharescu, M.; Gartner, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO:N films are crystallized in hexagonal wurtzite phase (XRD), (0 0 2) oriented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of the Nitrogen in the RTA films is confirmed by EDX and XPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All ZnO:N films are highly transparent (over 80%) in VIS to NIR spectral range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The frequency of the phonon modes, E{sub 1}(TO) and A{sub 1}(LO), were obtained by IRSE. - Abstract: N-doped ZnO (ZnO:N) thin films, intended to be used as one of the layers in solar cell applications were deposited by r.f. sputtering, using ZnN target (99.9% purity), on silicon and fused silica substrates. In the gas flow composition, Ar was kept constant (50%) and the O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} ratio was varied as: 40%/10%, 25%/25% and 10%/40%. After deposition, rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 400 and 550 Degree-Sign C for 1 min in N{sub 2} ambient has been performed. The RTA impact on the optical and microstructural properties of ZnO:N thin films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, UV-vis-NIR spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and infrared ellipsometry (IR-SE). The as-deposited (ad) ZnO:N films are polycrystalline with preferentially oriented columnar crystals. After RTA we found ZnO:N films with improved crystallinity and fewer boundary defects. We report optical constants of ZnO:N from UV to IR spectral range as well as the infrared active phononic modes.

  18. A rapid, accurate and robust particle-based assay for the simultaneous screening of plasma samples for the presence of five different anti-cytokine autoantibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Daniel Kring Rasmussen; von Stemann, Jakob Hjorth; Larsen, Rune

    2015-01-01

    suitable for larger screenings. Based on confirmed antibody binding characteristics and the resultant reactivity in this multiplex assay, a classification of the c-aAb levels was suggested. The screening results of the recipients who received blood transfusions indicate that more studies are needed...... plasma samples and pooled normal immunoglobulin preparations were used to validate the assay. Plasma samples from 98 transfusion recipients, half of whom presented with febrile reactions, were tested by the assay. RESULTS: The assay detected specific and saturable immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding to each...... cytokine autoantibodies quantities in the negative plasma samples ranged between 80% and 125%. The analytical intra- and inter-assay variations were 4% and 11%, respectively. Varying c-aAb levels were detectable in the transfusion recipients. There was no difference in c-aAb frequency between the patients...

  19. Immunoassay of blood spot TSH; development of a rapid two-site immunoradiometric assay and comparison with radioimmunoassay as a screening method for neonatal hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, R.M.; Ratcliffe, J.G.; Chapman, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a two-site immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for thyrotropin (TSH) eluted from dried blood filter paper discs is described and compared with a conventional TSH radioimmunoassay (RIA) as a screening procedure for neonatal hypothyroidism. The two-site IRMA involves a primary incubation of excess labelled TSH antibody and the blood disc for 16-18 h at pH 8 and a secondary 3 h incubation under agitation, with solid phase TSH antibody. Bound and free fractions are separated by a semi-automated washing procedure. It is concluded that the two-site TSH IRMA has advantages over conventional RIA in speed, sensitivity, precision and ruggedness and can be recommended as an efficient screening procedure for neonatal hypothyroidism. (Auth.)

  20. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF SOS-GFP BIOSENSOR TO IN VITRO RAPID SCREENING OF CYTOTOXIC AND GENOTOXIC EFFECT OF ANTICANCER AND ANTIDIABETIC PHARMACIST RESIDUES IN SURFACE WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Matejczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli K-12 GFP-based bacterial biosensors allowed the detection of cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of anticancer drug– cyclophosphamide and antidiabetic drug – metformin in PBS buffer and surface water. Experimental data indicated that recA::gfpmut2 genetic system was sensitive to drugs and drugs mixture applied in experiment. RecA promoter was a good bioindicator in cytotoxic and genotoxic effect screening of cyclophosphamide, metformin and the mixture of the both drugs in PBS buffer and surface water. The results indicated that E. coli K-12 recA::gfp mut2 strain could be potentially useful for first-step screening of cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of anticancer and antidiabetic pharmacist residues in water. Next steps in research will include more experimental analysis to validate recA::gfpmut2 genetic system in E. coli K-12 on different anticancer drugs.

  1. Rapid prototyping of solar-powered, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, sugar-cube size microplasma on hybrid, 3D chips for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples using a portable optical emission spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Karanassios, V.

    2012-06-01

    A solar-powered, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, self-igniting microplasma the size of a sugar-cube developed on a hybrid, 3d-chip is described. Rapid prototyping of the 3d-chip; some fundamental aspects and a brief characterization of its background spectral emission using a portable, fiber-optic spectrometer are discussed.

  2. Nitric oxide production in mouse and rat macrophages: a rapid and efficient assay for screening of drugs immunostimulatory effects in human cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kmoníčková, Eva; Melkusová, Petra; Farghali, H.; Holý, Antonín; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2007), s. 160-169 ISSN 1089-8603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508; GA ČR GA305/07/0061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Cytokines * Nitric oxide * Immunobiological screening Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.900, year: 2007

  3. Retinal and Optic Nerve Hemorrhages in the Newborn Infant: One-year Results of the Newborn Eye Screen Test (NEST) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Natalia F.; Ludwig, Cassie A.; Blumenkranz, Mark S.; Jones, Jennifer Michelle; Fredrick, Douglas R.; Moshfeghi, Darius M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report the birth prevalence, risk factors, characteristics and location of fundus hemorrhages (FH) of the retina and optic nerve present in newborns at birth. Design Prospective cohort study at Stanford University School of Medicine. Participants All infants who were 37 weeks postmenstrual age or older and were deemed stable by their pediatrician were eligible for screening. Infants who were anophthalmic or had known or suspected infectious conjunctivitis were excluded. Methods Infants born at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital (LPCH) from July 25, 2013 through July 25, 2014 were offered universal newborn screening via wide-angle digital retinal photography in the Newborn Eye Screen Test (NEST) study. Maternal, obstetric, and neonatal factors were obtained by reviewing hospital records prior to discharge. The location, retinal layer, and laterality of FH were recorded by one pediatric vitreoretinal specialist. Main Outcome Measures Birth prevalence of FH. Secondary outcomes included rate of adverse events, risk factors for FH, hemorrhage characteristics and adverse events. Results The birth prevalence of FH in this study was 20.3% (41/202 infants). Ninety-five percent of FHs involved the periphery, 83% involved the macula, and 71% involved multiple layers of the retina. The fovea was involved in 15% of FH cases (birth prevalence, 3.0%). No cases of bilateral foveal hemorrhage were found. Fundus hemorrhages were more common in the left eye than the right. Fundus hemorrhages were most commonly optic nerve flame hemorrhages (48%) and white-centered retinal hemorrhages (30%). Retinal hemorrhages were found most frequently in all 4 quadrants (35%) and more often were multiple than solitary. Macular hemorrhages most often were intraretinal (40%). Among the risk factors examined in this study, vaginal delivery compared with cesarean section (odds ratio [OR], 9.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-33.97) showed the greatest level of association with FH. Self

  4. A rapid screening method to monitor expression of various recombinant proteins from prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jebanathirajah, J.A.; Andersen, S.; Blagoev, B.

    2002-01-01

    Rapid methods using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry to monitor recombinant protein expression from various prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell culture systems were devised. Intracellular as well as secreted proteins from both induced and constitutive...

  5. Characterization of rapidly-prototyped, battery-operated, argon-hydrogen microplasma on a hybrid chip for elemental analysis of microsamples by portable optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weagant, Scott; Dulai, Gurjit; Li, Lu; Karanassios, Vassili

    2015-04-01

    A rapidly-prototyped, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, self-igniting Ar-H2 microplasma was interfaced to a portable fiber-optic spectrometer. The microplasma-spectrometer combination was used to document the spectral lines emitted when μL of dilute solutions of single element standards of Ag, Ba, Ca, Eu, Pd, Rb and Sr were first dried and then vaporized into the microplasma. A small-size, electrothermal vaporization system was used for microsample introduction. Identification of the prominent spectral lines for these elements is reported. It was found that the most prominent spectral line for Ba, Ca and Sr was different than that emitted from an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). In general, prominent spectral lines with low excitation energy were dominating, thus resulting in spectra simpler than those emitted from an ICP. Detection limits were between 45 and 180 pg (expressed in absolute amounts). When expressed in relative concentration units, they ranged between 15 and 60 μg/L (obtained using 3 μL diluted standards). Calibration curves were linear (on the average) for 1.5 orders-of-magnitude. Average precision was 15%. Analytical capability and utility was demonstrated using the determination of Ca and Mg in (medicinal) thermal spring water.

  6. MINUTE-SCALE RAPID VARIABILITY OF THE OPTICAL POLARIZATION IN THE NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY PMN J0948+0022

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Ueno, Issei [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kawabata, Koji S.; Moritani, Yuki; Uemura, Makoto; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Hanayama, Hidekazu; Miyaji, Takeshi [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 1024-1 Arakawa, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Kawai, Nobuyuki, E-mail: itoh@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    We report on optical photopolarimetric results of the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (RL-NLSy1) galaxy PMN J0948+0022 on 2012 December to 2013 February triggered by flux enhancements in the near infrared and γ-ray bands. With the one-shot polarimetry of the Hiroshima One-shot Wide field Polarimeter installed on the Kanata Telescope, we detected very rapid variability in the polarized-flux (PF) light curve on MJD 56281 (2012 December 20). The rise and decay times were about 140 s and 180 s, respectively. The polarization degree (PD) reached 36% ± 3% at the peak of the short-duration pulse, while the polarization angle remained almost constant. In addition, temporal profiles of the total flux and PD showed highly variable but well correlated behavior and discrete correlation function analysis revealed that no significant time lag of more than 10 minutes was present. The high PD and minute-scale variability in PF provides clear evidence of synchrotron radiation from a very compact emission region of ∼10{sup 14} cm size with a highly ordered magnetic field. Such micro-variability of polarization is also observed in several blazar jets, but its complex relation between total flux and PD are explained by a multi-zone model in several blazars. The implied single emission region in PMN J0948+0022 might reflect a difference of jets between RL-NLSy1s and blazars.

  7. Synthesis of ZnSe nanocrystals (NCs) using a rapid microwave irradiation method and investigation of the effect of copper (Cu) doping on the optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molaei, M., E-mail: m.molaei@vru.ac.ir; Khezripour, A.R.; Karimipour, M.

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • ZnSe nanocrystals were synthesized using a rapid microwave method. • Synthesized ZnSe NCs indicated an emission with two peaks. • For ZnSe:Cu NCs band edge emission of the ZnSe was completely disappeared. • Synthesized NCs can be dispersed in water therefore they are proper for biological applications. - Abstract: ZnSe nanocrystals (NCs) were synthesized using a microwave activated method. Synthesized NCs were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–visible (UV–vis) optical spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). XRD analysis demonstrated cubic zinc blende NCs. TEM image indicated round shape NCs and most of the particles had diameters of about 3 nm. Band gap of the NCs was obtained about 3.15 eV and PL spectra indicates a broad emission with two peaks located about 415 and 500 nm related to band edge and trap state respectively. For ZnSe:Cu NCs, PL intensity of band gap emission of ZnSe NCs at 415 nm decreased gradually with the increase in the concentration of Cu dopant ions and for precursor ratio of Cu:Zn 1% band gap emission at 415 nm disappeared completely. At the same conditions, PL QY was obtained about 2% and 8% for ZnSe and ZnSe:Cu (1%) NCs, respectively.

  8. Rapid Screening of Psychological Well-Being of Patients with Chronic Illness: Reliability and Validity Test on WHO-5 and PHQ-9 Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fang Vivienne Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to test the reliability and validity of two simple psychological screening scales, the World Health Organization Well-being Index (WHO-5 and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9, in patients with chronic illness in Taiwan and to understand the psychological well-being of patients with chronic illness (e.g., metabolic syndrome in Taiwan and the incidences of psychological problems that follow. The research design of this study was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 310 patients with metabolic syndrome (MS, aged 20 years or more, from the outpatient clinic of a municipal hospital in Taiwan. This study used questionnaires to collect basic information, including physiological indices, WHO-5 and PHQ-9 that were used. “Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS,” and “World Health Organization Quality of Life—Short-form Version for Taiwan (WHOQOL”. Results are as follows: (1 compared to PHQ-9, the reliability and validity of WHO-5 are better for screening the psychological well-being of patients with chronic illness. (2 The features of WHO-5 are high sensitivity, briefness, and ease-of-use. The incidence of depression in patients with metabolic syndrome was approximately 1.0–6.5%, which is significantly lower than that of western countries.

  9. High throughput virtual screening and in silico ADMET analysis for rapid and efficient identification of potential PAP248-286 aggregation inhibitors as anti-HIV agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ruchi; Bunkar, Devendra; Choudhary, Bhanwar Singh; Srivastava, Shubham; Mehta, Pakhuri; Sharma, Manish

    2016-10-01

    Human semen is principal vehicle for transmission of HIV-1 and other enveloped viruses. Several endogenous peptides present in semen, including a 39-amino acid fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP248-286) assemble into amyloid fibrils named as semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI) that promote virion attachment to target cells which dramatically enhance HIV virus infection by up to 105-fold. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenolic compound, is the major catechin found in green tea which disaggregates existing SEVI fibers, and inhibits the formation of SEVI fibers. The aim of this study was to screen a number of relevant polyphenols to develop a rational approach for designing PAP248-286 aggregation inhibitors as potential anti-HIV agents. The molecular docking based virtual screening results showed that polyphenolic compounds 2-6 possessed good docking score and interacted well with the active site residues of PAP248-286. Amino acid residues of binding site namely; Lys255, Ser256, Leu258 and Asn265 are involved in binding of these compounds. In silico ADMET prediction studies on these hits were also found to be promising. Polyphenolic compounds 2-6 identified as hits may act as novel leads for inhibiting aggregation of PAP248-286 into SEVI.

  10. Rapid and Accurate Behavioral Health Diagnostic Screening: Initial Validation Study of a Web-Based, Self-Report Tool (the SAGE-SR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodey, Benjamin; Purcell, Susan E; Rhea, Karen; Maier, Philip; First, Michael; Zweede, Lisa; Sinisterra, Manuela; Nunn, M Brad; Austin, Marie-Paule; Brodey, Inger S

    2018-03-23

    The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) is considered the gold standard assessment for accurate, reliable psychiatric diagnoses; however, because of its length, complexity, and training required, the SCID is rarely used outside of research. This paper aims to describe the development and initial validation of a Web-based, self-report screening instrument (the Screening Assessment for Guiding Evaluation-Self-Report, SAGE-SR) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and the SCID-5-Clinician Version (CV) intended to make accurate, broad-based behavioral health diagnostic screening more accessible within clinical care. First, study staff drafted approximately 1200 self-report items representing individual granular symptoms in the diagnostic criteria for the 8 primary SCID-CV modules. An expert panel iteratively reviewed, critiqued, and revised items. The resulting items were iteratively administered and revised through 3 rounds of cognitive interviewing with community mental health center participants. In the first 2 rounds, the SCID was also administered to participants to directly compare their Likert self-report and SCID responses. A second expert panel evaluated the final pool of items from cognitive interviewing and criteria in the DSM-5 to construct the SAGE-SR, a computerized adaptive instrument that uses branching logic from a screener section to administer appropriate follow-up questions to refine the differential diagnoses. The SAGE-SR was administered to healthy controls and outpatient mental health clinic clients to assess test duration and test-retest reliability. Cutoff scores for screening into follow-up diagnostic sections and criteria for inclusion of diagnoses in the differential diagnosis were evaluated. The expert panel reduced the initial 1200 test items to 664 items that panel members agreed collectively represented the SCID items from the 8 targeted modules and DSM criteria for the covered

  11. Screening for impaired renal function in outpatients before iodinated contrast injection: Comparing the Choyke questionnaire with a rapid point-of-care-test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Too, C.W., E-mail: toochowwei@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Ng, W.Y., E-mail: ng.wai.yoong@sgh.com.sg [Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, 20 College Road, Academia, Singapore 169856 (Singapore); Tan, C.C., E-mail: tan.chin.chong@sgh.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Mahmood, M.I., E-mail: muhd.illyyas.mahmood@sgh.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Tay, K.H., E-mail: tay.kiang.hiong@sgh.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Iodinated intravenous contrast carries a low risk of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN). • Patients with eGFR less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2} are particularly at risk for CIN. • The Choyke questionnaire is used to screen for impaired renal function in outpatients. • Choyke questionnaire is a good screening tool for eGFR less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}. • Point of care test (POCT) for serum creatinine can reduce waiting time. - Abstract: Rationale and purpose: To determine the usefulness of the Choyke questionnaire with a creatinine point-of-care test (POCT) to detect impaired renal function amongst outpatients receiving intravenous iodinated contrast in a tertiary centre. Materials and methods: Between July and December 2012, 1361 outpatients had their serum creatinine determined by POCT and answered the Chokye questionnaire just before their examination. Results: Four hundred and eighty (35.2%) patients had at least one ‘Yes’ response. Forty-four patients (3.2%) had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2} and 14 patients (1.0%) have eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the Choyke criteria in detecting patients with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2} are respectively: 65.9%, 65.8%, 6.0% and 98.3% and to detect eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}: 92.9%, 65.3%, 2.7% and 99.9%. Only ‘Yes’ responses to ‘Have you ever been told you have renal problems?’ and ‘Do you have diabetes mellitus?’ were statistically significant in predicting eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, with odds ratio 98.7 and 4.4 respectively. Conclusion: The Choyke questionnaire has excellent sensitivity and moderate-to-good specificity in detecting patients with <45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, below this level it has been shown that risk of contrast induced nephropathy increases significantly, making it an effective screening tool. Also the use of POCT can potentially

  12. Screening for impaired renal function in outpatients before iodinated contrast injection: Comparing the Choyke questionnaire with a rapid point-of-care-test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Too, C.W.; Ng, W.Y.; Tan, C.C.; Mahmood, M.I.; Tay, K.H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Iodinated intravenous contrast carries a low risk of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN). • Patients with eGFR less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 are particularly at risk for CIN. • The Choyke questionnaire is used to screen for impaired renal function in outpatients. • Choyke questionnaire is a good screening tool for eGFR less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . • Point of care test (POCT) for serum creatinine can reduce waiting time. - Abstract: Rationale and purpose: To determine the usefulness of the Choyke questionnaire with a creatinine point-of-care test (POCT) to detect impaired renal function amongst outpatients receiving intravenous iodinated contrast in a tertiary centre. Materials and methods: Between July and December 2012, 1361 outpatients had their serum creatinine determined by POCT and answered the Chokye questionnaire just before their examination. Results: Four hundred and eighty (35.2%) patients had at least one ‘Yes’ response. Forty-four patients (3.2%) had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 14 patients (1.0%) have eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the Choyke criteria in detecting patients with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 are respectively: 65.9%, 65.8%, 6.0% and 98.3% and to detect eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 : 92.9%, 65.3%, 2.7% and 99.9%. Only ‘Yes’ responses to ‘Have you ever been told you have renal problems?’ and ‘Do you have diabetes mellitus?’ were statistically significant in predicting eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , with odds ratio 98.7 and 4.4 respectively. Conclusion: The Choyke questionnaire has excellent sensitivity and moderate-to-good specificity in detecting patients with <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , below this level it has been shown that risk of contrast induced nephropathy increases significantly, making it an effective screening tool. Also the use of POCT can potentially reduce waiting time

  13. Formulation of 3D Printed Tablet for Rapid Drug Release by Fused Deposition Modeling: Screening Polymers for Drug Release, Drug-Polymer Miscibility and Printability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Nayan G; Tahsin, Md; Shah, Ankita V; Serajuddin, Abu T M

    2018-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to identify pharmaceutically acceptable amorphous polymers for producing 3D printed tablets of a model drug, haloperidol, for rapid release by fused deposition modeling. Filaments for 3D printing were prepared by hot melt extrusion at 150°C with 10% and 20% w/w of haloperidol using Kollidon ® VA64, Kollicoat ® IR, Affinsiol ™ 15 cP, and HPMCAS either individually or as binary blends (Kollidon ® VA64 + Affinisol ™ 15 cP, 1:1; Kollidon ® VA64 + HPMCAS, 1:1). Dissolution of crushed extrudates was studied at pH 2 and 6.8, and formulations demonstrating rapid dissolution rates were then analyzed for drug-polymer, polymer-polymer and drug-polymer-polymer miscibility by film casting. Polymer-polymer (1:1) and drug-polymer-polymer (1:5:5 and 2:5:5) mixtures were found to be miscible. Tablets with 100% and 60% infill were printed using MakerBot printer at 210°C, and dissolution tests of tablets were conducted at pH 2 and 6.8. Extruded filaments of Kollidon ® VA64-Affinisol ™ 15 cP mixtures were flexible and had optimum mechanical strength for 3D printing. Tablets containing 10% drug with 60% and 100% infill showed complete drug release at pH 2 in 45 and 120 min, respectively. Relatively high dissolution rates were also observed at pH 6.8. The 1:1-mixture of Kollidon ® VA64 and Affinisol ™ 15 cP was thus identified as a suitable polymer system for 3D printing and rapid drug release. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. SIMULATING PROTEIN DIGESTION ON TROUT A RAPID AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DOCUMENTING FISH MEAL QUALITY AND SCREENING NOVEL PROTEIN SOURCES FOR USE IN AQUAFEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bassompierre

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel in vitro digestion system, which simulated rainbow trout gastric and intestinal digestion was developed. The method was employed to evaluate the impact of the gastric phase of digestion upon degradation of three fish meals od differing quality. Results illustrated that two-phase gastric-intestinal digestion increased the discriminatory powers of the system when compared to one-step intestinal digestion. A comparison of the system with pH-STAT methods demonstrated that the in vitro technique was superior. The presented method provides an ethical and cost effective means for rapid evaluation of fish meals and potentially, alternative protein sources for aquafeeds.

  15. Characterization of rapidly-prototyped, battery-operated, argon-hydrogen microplasma on a hybrid chip for elemental analysis of microsamples by portable optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weagant, Scott; Dulai, Gurjit; Li, Lu; Karanassios, Vassili, E-mail: vkaranassios@uwaterloo.ca

    2015-04-01

    A rapidly-prototyped, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, self-igniting Ar-H{sub 2} microplasma was interfaced to a portable fiber-optic spectrometer. The microplasma-spectrometer combination was used to document the spectral lines emitted when μL of dilute solutions of single element standards of Ag, Ba, Ca, Eu, Pd, Rb and Sr were first dried and then vaporized into the microplasma. A small-size, electrothermal vaporization system was used for microsample introduction. Identification of the prominent spectral lines for these elements is reported. It was found that the most prominent spectral line for Ba, Ca and Sr was different than that emitted from an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). In general, prominent spectral lines with low excitation energy were dominating, thus resulting in spectra simpler than those emitted from an ICP. Detection limits were between 45 and 180 pg (expressed in absolute amounts). When expressed in relative concentration units, they ranged between 15 and 60 μg/L (obtained using 3 μL diluted standards). Calibration curves were linear (on the average) for 1.5 orders-of-magnitude. Average precision was 15%. Analytical capability and utility was demonstrated using the determination of Ca and Mg in (medicinal) thermal spring water. - Highlights: • Microplasma emission spectra for Ag, Ba, Ca, Eu, Pd, Rb and Sr are reported. • Absolute amount detection limits ranged between 45 pg and 180 pg. • Relative unit detection limits ranged between 15 and 60 μg/L (using 3 μL). • The effect of vaporization temperature on analyte signals is reported. • Ca and Mg concentrations in (medicinal) thermal spring water were determined.

  16. Characterization of rapidly-prototyped, battery-operated, argon-hydrogen microplasma on a hybrid chip for elemental analysis of microsamples by portable optical emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weagant, Scott; Dulai, Gurjit; Li, Lu; Karanassios, Vassili

    2015-01-01

    A rapidly-prototyped, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, self-igniting Ar-H 2 microplasma was interfaced to a portable fiber-optic spectrometer. The microplasma-spectrometer combination was used to document the spectral lines emitted when μL of dilute solutions of single element standards of Ag, Ba, Ca, Eu, Pd, Rb and Sr were first dried and then vaporized into the microplasma. A small-size, electrothermal vaporization system was used for microsample introduction. Identification of the prominent spectral lines for these elements is reported. It was found that the most prominent spectral line for Ba, Ca and Sr was different than that emitted from an inductively coupled plasma (ICP). In general, prominent spectral lines with low excitation energy were dominating, thus resulting in spectra simpler than those emitted from an ICP. Detection limits were between 45 and 180 pg (expressed in absolute amounts). When expressed in relative concentration units, they ranged between 15 and 60 μg/L (obtained using 3 μL diluted standards). Calibration curves were linear (on the average) for 1.5 orders-of-magnitude. Average precision was 15%. Analytical capability and utility was demonstrated using the determination of Ca and Mg in (medicinal) thermal spring water. - Highlights: • Microplasma emission spectra for Ag, Ba, Ca, Eu, Pd, Rb and Sr are reported. • Absolute amount detection limits ranged between 45 pg and 180 pg. • Relative unit detection limits ranged between 15 and 60 μg/L (using 3 μL). • The effect of vaporization temperature on analyte signals is reported. • Ca and Mg concentrations in (medicinal) thermal spring water were determined

  17. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  18. Rapid screening method to study the reactivity of UV filter substances towards skin proteins by high-performance thin-layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, C; Schwack, W

    2013-12-01

    Most UV filters used in sunscreens and other cosmetic products contain carbonyl groups, which generally are able to react with peptides or free amino acids of the human skin. To estimate their reactivity, we studied different prominent UV filter substances, octocrylene, ethylhexyl salicylate, 4-t-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, benzophenone-3, hydroxymethylbenzoyl sulphonic acid, octyldimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid, 3-benzylidene camphor, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, diethylhexyl butamido triazone and ethylhexyl triazone. A simple screening method using an amino HPTLC plate as protein model was established. The influence of different reaction conditions like heating and irradiation was determined. The ketones BP-3, HMBS and BM-DBM revealed the highest binding rates after both irradiation and heating. After 1 h of irradiation, 82%, 28% and 96%, respectively, were bonded to the amino phase, while heating resulted in values of 52%, 36% and 16%. For BP-3 and HMBS, even storage in the dark at room temperature resulted in a low binding. Contrarily, for the two camphor derivatives 3-BC and 4-MBC, only irradiation led to a slightly turnover. UV filters with ester groups also showed a different behaviour depending on their main skeleton. While OCR especially reacted under heating with the amino phase, resulting in 36% of bound species after one hour, UV irradiation particularly encouraged a reaction of the other esters. After 1 h irradiation, 15% of EHMC, 38% of EHS and 48% of OD-PABA were bonded to the amino groups of the HPTLC plate, whereas the reactivity of the two triazones, EHT and DEBT, was comparatively low. Especially the UV filters BP-3, BM-DBM, HMBS, EHMC or OCR, which are commonly known to cause contact dermatitis, showed a high tendency to form adducts with the amino layer. Thus, the amino plate seems to be a proper tool to screen for skin sensitizers. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  19. Rapid screening of selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in urine samples using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Petinal, Carmen; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria; Cela, Rafael

    2005-07-01

    In this paper a solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) method is proposed for a rapid analysis of some frequently prescribed selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI)-venlafaxine, fluvoxamine, mirtazapine, fluoxetine, citalopram, and sertraline-in urine samples. The SPME-based method enables simultaneous determination of the target SSRI after simple in-situ derivatization of some of the target compounds. Calibration curves in water and in urine were validated and statistically compared. This revealed the absence of matrix effect and, in consequence, the possibility of quantifying SSRI in urine samples by external water calibration. Intra-day and inter-day precision was satisfactory for all the target compounds (relative standard deviation, RSD, detection limits achieved were detected and tentatively identified.

  20. Rapid screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and haemoglobin polymorphisms in Africa by a simple high-throughput SSOP-ELISA method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, Anders; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Lusingu, John

    2005-01-01

    was available. METHODS: A simple and rapid technique was developed to detect the most prominent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HbB and G6PD genes. The method is able to detect the different haemoglobin polymorphisms A, S, C and E, as well as G6PD polymorphisms B, A and A- based on PCR......-amplification followed by a hybridization step using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOPs) specific for the SNP variants and quantified by ELISA. RESULTS: The SSOP-ELISA method was found to be specific, and compared well to the commonly used PCR-RFLP technique. Identical results were obtained in 98......% (haemoglobin) and 95% (G6PD) of the tested 90 field samples from a high-transmission area in Tanzania, which were used to validate the new technique. CONCLUSION: The simplicity and accuracy of the new methodology makes it suitable for application in settings where resources are limited. It would serve...

  1. Single-Use Poly(etheretherketone) Solid-Phase Microextraction-Transmission Mode Devices for Rapid Screening and Quantitation of Drugs of Abuse in Oral Fluid and Urine via Direct Analysis in Real-Time Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, Tijana; Gómez-Ríos, Germán Augusto; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2018-01-02

    The analysis of oral fluid (OF) and urine samples to detect drug consumption has garnered considerable attention as alternative biomatrices. Efficient implementation of microextraction and ambient ionization technologies for rapid detection of target compounds in such biomatrices creates a need for biocompatible devices which can be implemented for in vivo sampling and easily interfaced with mass spectrometry (MS) analyzers. This study introduces a novel solid-phase microextraction-transmission mode (SPME-TM) device made of poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK) mesh that can rapidly detect prohibited substances in biofluids via direct analysis in real-time tandem MS (DART-MS/MS). PEEK mesh was selected due to its biocompatibility, excellent resistance to various organic solvents, and its ability to withstand relatively high temperatures (≤350 °C). The meshes were coated with hydrophilic-lipophilic-balance particle-poly(acrylonitrile) (HLB-PAN) slurry. The robustness of the coated meshes was tested by performing rapid vortex agitation (≥3200 rpm) in LC/MS-grade solvents and by exposing them to the DART source jet stream at typical operational temperatures (∼250-350 °C). PEEK SPME-TM devices proved to be robust and were therefore used to perform ex vivo analysis of drugs of abuse spiked in urine and OF samples. Excellent results were obtained for all analytes under study; furthermore, the tests yielded satisfactory limits of quantitation (median, ∼0.5 ng mL -1 ), linearity (≥0.99), and accuracy (80-120%) over the evaluated range (0.5-200 ng mL -1 ). This research highlights plastic SPME-TM's potential usefulness as a method for rapidly screening for prohibited substances in on-site/in vivo scenarios, such as roadside or workplace drug testing, antidoping controls, and pain management programs.

  2. Microchip-electrochemistry route for rapid screening of hydroquinone and arbutin from miscellaneous samples: Investigation of the robustness of a simple cross-injector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crevillen, Agustin G.; Barrigas, Ines; Blasco, Antonio Javier; Gonzalez, Maria Cristina; Escarpa, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    This work examines in deep the analytical performance of an example of 'first-generation' microdevices: capillary electrophoresis microchip (CE) with end-channel electrochemical detection (ED). A hydroquinone and arbutin separation strategically chosen as route involving pharmaceutical-clinical testing, public safety and food control scenes was carried out. The reproducibility of the unpinched electrokinetic protocol was carefully studied and the technical possibility of working indiscriminately and/or sequentially with both simple cross-injectors was also demonstrated using a real sample (R.S.D.'s less than 7%). The robustness of the injection protocol allowed checking the state of the microchip/detector coupling and following the extraction efficiency of the analyte from real sample. Separation variables such as pH, ionic strength and, separation voltage were also carefully assayed and optimized. Analyte screening was performed using borate buffer (pH 9, 60 mM) in less than 180 s in the samples studied improving dramatically the analysis times used for the same analytes on a conventional scale (15 min), with good precision (R.S.D.'s ranging 5-10%), accuracy (recoveries ranging 90-110%) and acceptable resolution (Rs ≥ 1.0). In addition, the excellent analytical performance of the overall analytical method indicated the quality of the whole analytical microsystem and allowed to introduce the definition of robustness for methodologies developed into the 'lab-on-a-chip' scene

  3. Four-channel asymmetric Real-Time PCR hybridization probe assay: a rapid pre-screening method for critical BCR-ABL kinase domain mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Serra, Jordi; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Marcús, Toni F; Soverini, Simona; Amat, Juan Carlos; Navarro-Palou, María; Ros, Teresa; Bex, Teresa; Ballester, Carmen; Bauça, Josep Miquel; SanFelix, Sara; Novo, Andrés; Vidal, Carmen; Santos, Carmen; Besalduch, Joan

    2012-03-01

    Within the laboratory protocols, used for the study of BCR-ABL resistance mutations in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with Imatinib, direct sequencing remains the reference method. Since the incidence of patients with a mutation-related loss of response is not very high, it is very useful in the routine laboratory to perform a fast pre-screening method. With this in mind, we have designed a new technique, based on a single Real-Time FRET-based PCR, followed by a study of melting peaks. This new tool, developed in a LightCycler 2.0, combines four different fluorescence channels for the simultaneous detection, in a single close tube, of critical mutations within the ABL kinase domain. Assay evaluation performed on 33 samples, previously genotyped by sequentiation, resulted in full concordance of results. This new methodology detects in a few steps the presence of critical mutations associated to Imatinib resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Rapid screening and quality evaluation for the harmful substance 5-hydroxymethyl furfural in commercially available traditional Chinese medicine injection using LC-MS/MS method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Qing-ce; He, Jing-jing; Bai, Jin-fa; Zheng, Ya-jie; Zhang, Rui-ping; Li, Tie-gang; Wang, Zhong-hua; He, Jiu-ming; Abliz, Zeper

    2013-11-01

    To screen the harmful substance 5-hydroxymethyl furfural content in commercially available traditional Chinese medicine injection which are commonly used, and to preliminarily evaluate the quality of these injections, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural was taken as an index. The contents of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural in 56 samples which consist of 23 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine injections and glucose injection were determined using LC-MS/MS, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural was detected in 52 of these samples. The minimal content was 0.0038 microg x L(-1) and the maximum content was 1420 microg x mL(-1). The contents of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural were significantly different in traditional Chinese medicine injection which came from different kinds, manufacturers or batches. The results showed the quality difference of commercially available traditional Chinese medicine injection is significant taking 5-hydroxymethyl furfural content as assessment index. More attention should be paid to the safety of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural in traditional Chinese medicine injection, and unified limitation standard should be set to improve medication safety of traditional Chinese medicine injection.

  5. Clinical screening of paraquat in plasma samples using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection: Towards rapid diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of acute paraquat poisoning in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Anh Phuong; Nguyen, Thi Ngan; Do, Thi Trang; Doan, Thu Ha; Ha, Tran Hung; Ta, Thi Thao; Nguyen, Hung Long; Hauser, Peter C; Nguyen, Thi Anh Huong; Mai, Thanh Duc

    2017-08-15

    The employment of a purpose-made capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C 4 D) as a simple and cost-effective solution for clinical screening of paraquat in plasma samples for early-stage diagnosis of acute herbicide poisoning is reported. Paraquat was determined using an electrolyte composed of 10mM histidine adjusted to pH 4 with acetic acid. A detection limit of 0.5mg/L was achieved. Good agreement between results from CE-C 4 D and the confirmation method (HPLC-UV) was obtained, with relative errors for the two pairs of data better than 20% for 31 samples taken from paraquat-intoxicated patients. The results were used by medical doctors for identification and prognosis of acute paraquat poisoning cases. The objective of the work is the deployment of the developed approach in rural areas in Vietnam as a low-cost solution to reduce the mortality rate due to accidental or suicidal ingestion of paraquat. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Microchip-electrochemistry route for rapid screening of hydroquinone and arbutin from miscellaneous samples: Investigation of the robustness of a simple cross-injector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crevillen, Agustin G. [Dpto. Quimica Analitica e Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Barrigas, Ines [Dpto. Quimica Analitica e Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Blasco, Antonio Javier [Dpto. Quimica Analitica e Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Maria Cristina [Dpto. Quimica Analitica e Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Escarpa, Alberto [Dpto. Quimica Analitica e Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: alberto.escarpa@uah.es

    2006-03-15

    This work examines in deep the analytical performance of an example of 'first-generation' microdevices: capillary electrophoresis microchip (CE) with end-channel electrochemical detection (ED). A hydroquinone and arbutin separation strategically chosen as route involving pharmaceutical-clinical testing, public safety and food control scenes was carried out. The reproducibility of the unpinched electrokinetic protocol was carefully studied and the technical possibility of working indiscriminately and/or sequentially with both simple cross-injectors was also demonstrated using a real sample (R.S.D.'s less than 7%). The robustness of the injection protocol allowed checking the state of the microchip/detector coupling and following the extraction efficiency of the analyte from real sample. Separation variables such as pH, ionic strength and, separation voltage were also carefully assayed and optimized. Analyte screening was performed using borate buffer (pH 9, 60 mM) in less than 180 s in the samples studied improving dramatically the analysis times used for the same analytes on a conventional scale (15 min), with good precision (R.S.D.'s ranging 5-10%), accuracy (recoveries ranging 90-110%) and acceptable resolution (Rs {>=} 1.0). In addition, the excellent analytical performance of the overall analytical method indicated the quality of the whole analytical microsystem and allowed to introduce the definition of robustness for methodologies developed into the 'lab-on-a-chip' scene.

  7. A Rapid Phenotypic Whole Cell Screening Approach for the Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors that Counter Beta-lactamase Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collia, Deanna; Bannister, Thomas D.; Tan, Hao; Jin, Shouguang; Langaee, Taimour; Shumate, Justin; Scampavia, Louis; Spicer, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen which is prevalent in hospitals and continues to develop resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. Historically, β-lactam antibiotics have been the first line of therapeutic defense. However, the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of P. aeruginosa, such as AmpC β-lactamase overproducing mutants, limits the effectiveness of current antibiotics. Among AmpC hyper producing clinical isolates, inactivation of AmpG, which is essential for the expression of AmpC, increases bacterial sensitivity to β-lactam antibiotics. We hypothesize that inhibition of AmpG activity will enhance the efficacy of β-lactams against P. aeruginosa. Here, using a highly drug resistant AmpC inducible laboratory strain PAO1, we describe an ultra-high throughput whole cell turbidity assay designed to identify small molecule inhibitors of the AmpG. We screened 645K compounds to identify compounds with the ability to inhibit bacterial growth in the presence of Cefoxitin; an AmpC inducer, and identified 2,663 inhibitors which were also tested in the absence of Cefoxitin to determine AmpG specificity. The Z′ and S:B were robust at 0.87 ± 0.05 and 2.2 ± 0.2, respectively. Through a series of secondary and tertiary studies, including a novel luciferase based counterscreen, we ultimately identified 8 potential AmpG specific inhibitors. PMID:28850797

  8. A rapid and reliable method for Pb isotopic analysis of peat and lichens by laser ablation-quadrupole-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for biomonitoring and sample screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kylander, M.E.; Weiss, D.J.; Jeffries, T.E.; Kober, B.; Dolgopolova, A.; Garcia-Sanchez, R.; Coles, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical protocol for rapid and reliable laser ablation-quadrupole (LA-Q)- and multi-collector (MC-) inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of Pb isotope ratios ( 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb) in peats and lichens is developed. This technique is applicable to source tracing atmospheric Pb deposition in biomonitoring studies and sample screening. Reference materials and environmental samples were dry ashed and pressed into pellets for introduction by laser ablation. No binder was used to reduce contamination. LA-MC-ICP-MS internal and external precisions were 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios. LA-Q-ICP-MS internal precisions on 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios were lower with values for the different sample sets 208 Pb by Q-ICP-MS are identified as sources of reduced analytical performance

  9. Rapid determination of hydrophilic phenols in olive oil by vortex-assisted reversed-phase dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and screen-printed carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Elena; Vidal, Lorena; Canals, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    A novel approach is presented to determine hydrophilic phenols in olive oil samples, employing vortex-assisted reversed-phase dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (RP-DLLME) for sample preparation and screen-printed carbon electrodes for voltammetric analysis. The oxidation of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and tyrosol was investigated, being caffeic acid and tyrosol selected for quantification. A matrix-matching calibration using sunflower oil as analyte-free sample diluted with hexane was employed to compensate matrix effects. Samples were analyzed under optimized RP-DLLME conditions, i.e., extractant phase, 1M HCl; extractant volume, 100µL; extraction time, 2min; centrifugation time, 10min; centrifugation speed, 4000rpm. The working range showed a good linearity between 0.075 and 2.5mgL -1 (r = 0.998, N = 7) for caffeic acid, and between 0.075 and 3mgL -1 (r = 0.999, N = 8) for tyrosol. The methodological limit of detection was empirically established at 0.022mgL -1 for both analytes, which is significantly lower than average contents found in olive oil samples. The repeatability was evaluated at two different spiking levels (i.e., 0.5mgL -1 and 2mgL -1 ) and coefficients of variation ranged from 8% to 11% (n = 5). The applicability of the proposed method was tested in olive oil samples of different quality (i.e., refined olive oil, virgin olive oil and extra virgin olive oil). Relative recoveries varied between 83% and 108% showing negligible matrix effects. Finally, fifteen samples were analyzed by the proposed method and a high correlation with the traditional Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method was obtained. Thereafter, the concentrations of the fifteen oil samples were employed as input variables in linear discriminant analysis in order to distinguish between olive oils of different quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Liquid chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography as alternative techniques to gas chromatography for the rapid screening of anabolic agents in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desfontaine, Vincent; Nováková, Lucie; Ponzetto, Federico; Nicoli, Raul; Saugy, Martial; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2016-06-17

    This work describes the development of two methods involving supported liquid extraction (SLE) sample treatment followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography or ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPSFC-MS/MS) for the screening of 43 anabolic agents in human urine. After evaluating different stationary phases, a polar-embedded C18 and a diol columns were selected for UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPSFC-MS/MS, respectively. Sample preparation, mobile phases and MS conditions were also finely tuned to achieve highest selectivity, chromatographic resolution and sensitivity. Then, the performance of these two methods was compared to the reference routine procedure for steroid analyses in anti-doping laboratories, which combines liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). For this purpose, urine samples spiked with the compounds of interest at five different concentrations were analyzed using the three analytical platforms. The retention and selectivity of the three techniques were very different, ensuring a good complementarity. However, the two new methods displayed numerous advantages. The overall procedure was much faster thanks to high throughput SLE sample treatment using 48-well plates and faster chromatographic analysis. Moreover, the highest sensitivity was attained using UHPLC-MS/MS with 98% of the doping agents detected at the lowest concentration level (0.1ng/mL), against 76% for UHPSFC-MS/MS and only 14% for GC-MS/MS. Finally, the weakest matrix effects were obtained with UHPSFC-MS/MS with 76% of the analytes displaying relative matrix effect between -20 and 20%, while the GC-MS/MS reference method displayed very strong matrix effects (over 100%) for all of the anabolic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of a broad specificity antibody for the development and validation of an optical SPR screening method for free and intracellular microcystins and nodularin in cyanobacteria cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Shauna; Meneely, Julie P; Greer, Brett; Campbell, Katrina; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Elliott, Christopher T

    2014-05-01

    A highly sensitive broad specificity monoclonal antibody was produced and characterised for microcystin detection through the development of a rapid surface plasmon resonance (SPR) optical biosensor based immunoassay. The antibody displayed the following cross-reactivity: MC-LR 100%; MC-RR 108%; MC-YR 68%; MC-LA 69%; MC-LW 71%; MC-LF 68%; and Nodularin 94%. Microcystin-LR was covalently attached to a CM5 chip and with the monoclonal antibody was employed in a competitive 4 min injection assay to detect total microcystins in water samples below the WHO recommended limit (1 µg/L). A 'total microcystin' level was determined by measuring free and intracellular concentrations in cyanobacterial culture samples as this toxin is an endotoxin. Glass bead beating was used to lyse the cells as a rapid extraction procedure. This method was validated according to European Commission Decision 96/23/EC criteria. The method was proven to measure intracellular microcystin levels, the main source of the toxin, which often goes undetected by other analytical procedures and is advantageous in that it can be used for the monitoring of blooms to provide an early warning of toxicity. It was shown to be repeatable and reproducible, with recoveries from spiked samples ranging from 74 to 123%, and had % CVs below 10% for intra-assay analysis and 15% for inter-assay analysis. The detection capability of the assay was calculated as 0.5 ng/mL for extracellular toxins and 0.05 ng/mL for intracellular microcystins. A comparison of the SPR method with LC-MS/MS was achieved by testing six Microcystis aeruginosa cultures and this study yielded a correlation R(2) value of 0.9989. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Viremic blood donor found by a rapid screening method in a season of high human parvovirus B19 activity in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Setúbal

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Erythrovirus B19 infection is usually benign but may have serious consequences in patients with hemolytic anemia (transient aplastic crisis, immunodeficiency (in whom persistent infection can lead to chronic bone marrow failure with anemia, or who are in the first or second trimester of gestation (spontaneous abortion, hydrops fetalis, and fetal death. Being non-enveloped, B19 resists most inactivation methods and can be transmitted by transfusion. B19 is difficult to cultivate and native virus is usually obtained from viremic blood. As specific antibodies may be absent, and there is no reliable immunological method for antigen detection, hybridization or polymerase chain reaction are needed for detecting viremia. A rapid method, gel hemagglutination (Diamed ID-Parvovirus B19 Antigen Test, can disclose highly viremic donations, whose elimination lessens the viral burden in pooled blood products and may even render them non-infectious. In order to obtain native antigen and to determine the frequency of viremic donors, we applied this test to blood donors in a period of high viral activity in our community. Positive or indeterminate results were re-tested by dot-blot hybridization. We tested 472 donors in 1998 and 831 ones in 1999. One viremic donor was found in 1999. We suggest that in periods of high community viral activity the gel hemagglutination test may be useful in avoiding highly viremic blood being added to plasma pools or directly transfused to patients under risk.

  13. A Low-Cost, Simplified Platform of Interchangeable, Ambient Ionization Sources for Rapid, Forensic Evidence Screening on Portable Mass Spectrometric Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Fedick

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Portable mass spectrometers (MS are becoming more prevalent due to improved instrumentation, commercialization, and the robustness of new ionization methodologies. To increase utility towards diverse field-based applications, there is an inherent need for rugged ionization source platforms that are simple, yet robust towards analytical scenarios that may arise. Ambient ionization methodologies have evolved to target specific real-world problems and fulfill requirements of the analysis at hand. Ambient ionization techniques continue to advance towards higher performance, with specific sources showing variable proficiency depending on application area. To realize the full potential and applicability of ambient ionization methods, a selection of sources may be more prudent, showing a need for a low-cost, flexible ionization source platform. This manuscript describes a centralized system that was developed for portable MS systems that incorporates modular, rapidly-interchangeable ionization sources comprised of low-cost, commercially-available parts. Herein, design considerations are reported for a suite of ambient ionization sources that can be crafted with minimal machining or customization. Representative spectral data is included to demonstrate applicability towards field processing of forensic evidence. While this platform is demonstrated on portable instrumentation, retrofitting to lab-scale MS systems is anticipated.

  14. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid screening of ticks and fleas for spotted fever group rickettsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noden, Bruce H; Martin, Jaclyn; Carrillo, Yisel; Talley, Justin L; Ochoa-Corona, Francisco M

    2018-01-01

    The importance of tick and flea-borne rickettsia infections is increasingly recognized worldwide. While increased focus has shifted in recent years to the development of point-of-care diagnostics for various vector-borne diseases in humans and animals, little research effort has been devoted to their integration into vector surveillance and control programs, particularly in resource-challenged countries. One technology which may be helpful for large scale vector surveillance initiatives is loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The aim of this study was to develop a LAMP assay to detect spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsia DNA from field-collected ticks and fleas and compare with published end-point PCR results. A Spotted Fever Group rickettsia-specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (SFGR-LAMP) assay was developed using primers based on a region of the R. rickettsii 17kDa protein gene. The sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of the assay were evaluated. The assay was then compared with the results of end-point PCR assays for pooled tick and flea samples obtained from field-based surveillance studies. The sensitivity of the SFGR-LAMP assay was 0.00001 ng/μl (25μl volume) which was 10 times more sensitive than the 17kDa protein gene end-point PCR used as the reference method. The assay only recognized gDNA from SFG and transitional group (TRG) rickettsia species tested but did not detect gDNA from typhus group (TG) rickettsia species or closely or distantly related bacterial species. The SFGR-LAMP assay detected the same positives from a set of pooled tick and flea samples detected by end-point PCR in addition to two pooled flea samples not detected by end-point PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first study to develop a functional LAMP assay to initially screen for SFG and TRG rickettsia pathogens in field-collected ticks and fleas. With a high sensitivity and specificity, the results indicate the potential use as a field

  15. A rapid screening procedure for the analysis of proliferation compounds in complex matrices using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and SPME with in-situ derivatization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, A.; Hulsey, S.S.; Andresen, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    A variety of methods have been established using advanced chromatographic techniques and new detection systems for the analysis of chemical signatures associated with nuclear and chemical weapon (CW) proliferation. Most of these analytical methods are used in the laboratory and seldom applied in the field. The Chemical Weapons Convention (an international treaty to ban chemical weapons) may require the rapid on-site analysis of environmental samples which contain CW agents, their precursors, and/or their degradation products. In addition to the fact that certain countries are involved in CW non-compliance, there is a current uncertainty regarding nuclear proliferation. This also creates new demands on sample work-up and analytical instrumentation use in the field. The isolation and identification of unique chemical signatures in complex samples such as soils, waste tanks, and decontamination solutions would determine non-compliance. However, a primary area of detection research continues to be sample preparation. Most of the established sample cleanup technologies involve liquid/liquid, Soxhlet, or most recently, solid phase extraction (SPE). Despite the success of these traditional sample preparation techniques, they are time consuming and require multi-step procedures (especially when preparing samples for gas chromatographic mass-spectrometric analysis). The goal of this work is to demonstrate the advantages of utilizing SPME and SPME in-situ derivatization techniques to eliminate time consuming steps necessary to prepare a sample for on-site GC-MS. The authors' approach was to compare two SPME fibers and to develop methods to facilitate the isolation of polar and moderately polar proliferation compounds from complex environmental samples. This work will help to evaluate current SPME technologies for use during on-site environmental monitoring analysis

  16. Peptide nucleic acid probe-based fluorescence melting curve analysis for rapid screening of common JAK2, MPL, and CALR mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonhong; Song, Minsik; Jang, Woori; Chae, Hyojin; Lee, Gun Dong; Kim, KyungTak; Park, Heekyung; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Yonggoo

    2017-02-01

    We developed and evaluated the feasibility of peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-based fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA) to detect common mutations in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). We have set up two separate reactions of PNA-based FMCA: JAK2 V617F &CALR p.Leu367fs*46 (set A) and MPL W515L/K &CALR p.Lys385fs*47 (set B). Clinical usefulness was validated with allele-specific real-time PCR, fragment analysis, Sanger sequencing in 57 BCR-ABL1-negative MPNs. The limit of detection (LOD) of PNA-based FMCA was approximately 10% for each mutation and interference reactions using mixtures of different mutations were not observed. Non-specific amplification was not observed in normal control. PNA-based FMCA was able to detect all JAK2 V617F (n=20), CALR p.Leu367fs*46 (n=10) and p.Lys385fs*47 (n=8). Three of six MPL mutations were detected except three samples with low mutant concentration in out of LOD. JAK2 exon 12 mutations (n=7) were negative without influencing V617F results. Among six variant CALR exon 9 mutations, two were detected by this method owing to invading of probe binding site. PNA-based FMCA for detecting common JAK2, MPL, and CALR mutations is a rapid, simple, and sensitive technique in BCR-ABL1-negative MPNs with >10% mutant allele at the time of initial diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of a Rapid One-step Real-time PCR Method as a High-throughput Screening for Quantification of Hepatitis B Virus DNA in a Resource-limited Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed-Ul Islam, S M; Jahan, Munira; Tabassum, Shahina

    2015-01-01

    Virological monitoring is the best predictor for the management of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Consequently, it is important to use the most efficient, rapid and cost-effective testing systems for HBV DNA quantification. The present study compared the performance characteristics of a one-step HBV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) vs the two-step HBV PCR method for quantification of HBV DNA from clinical samples. A total of 100 samples consisting of 85 randomly selected samples from patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and 15 samples from apparently healthy individuals were enrolled in this study. Of the 85 CHB clinical samples tested, HBV DNA was detected from 81% samples by one-step PCR method with median HBV DNA viral load (VL) of 7.50 × 10 3 lU/ml. In contrast, 72% samples were detected by the two-step PCR system with median HBV DNA of 3.71 × 10 3 lU/ml. The one-step method showed strong linear correlation with two-step PCR method (r = 0.89; p Tabassum S. Evaluation of a Rapid One-step Real-time PCR Method as a High-throughput Screening for Quantification of Hepatitis B Virus DNA in a Resource-limited Setting. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2015;5(1):11-15.

  18. Combination of 2D/3D ligand-based similarity search in rapid virtual screening from multimillion compound repositories. Selection and biological evaluation of potential PDE4 and PDE5 inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobi, Krisztina; Hajdú, István; Flachner, Beáta; Fabó, Gabriella; Szaszkó, Mária; Bognár, Melinda; Magyar, Csaba; Simon, István; Szisz, Dániel; Lőrincz, Zsolt; Cseh, Sándor; Dormán, György

    2014-05-28

    Rapid in silico selection of target focused libraries from commercial repositories is an attractive and cost effective approach. If structures of active compounds are available rapid 2D similarity search can be performed on multimillion compound databases but the generated library requires further focusing by various 2D/3D chemoinformatics tools. We report here a combination of the 2D approach with a ligand-based 3D method (Screen3D) which applies flexible matching to align reference and target compounds in a dynamic manner and thus to assess their structural and conformational similarity. In the first case study we compared the 2D and 3D similarity scores on an existing dataset derived from the biological evaluation of a PDE5 focused library. Based on the obtained similarity metrices a fusion score was proposed. The fusion score was applied to refine the 2D similarity search in a second case study where we aimed at selecting and evaluating a PDE4B focused library. The application of this fused 2D/3D similarity measure led to an increase of the hit rate from 8.5% (1st round, 47% inhibition at 10 µM) to 28.5% (2nd round at 50% inhibition at 10 µM) and the best two hits had 53 nM inhibitory activities.

  19. Rapid screening of anabolic steroids in horse urine with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry after chemical derivatisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Colton H F; Leung, David K K; Tang, Francis P W; Wong, Jenny K Y; Yu, Nola H; Wan, Terence S M

    2012-04-06

    Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has been successfully applied to the detection of anabolic steroids in biological samples. However, the sensitive detection of saturated hydroxysteroids, such as androstanediols, by electrospray ionisation (ESI) is difficult because of their poor ability to ionise. In view of this, chemical derivatisation has been used to enhance the detection sensitivity of hydroxysteroids by LC/MS. This paper describes the development of a sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) method for the screening of anabolic steroids in horse urine by incorporating a chemical derivatisation step, using picolinic acid as the derivatisation reagent. The method involved solid-phase extraction (SPE) of both free and conjugated anabolic steroids in horse urine using a polymer-based SPE cartridge (Abs Elut Nexus). The conjugated steroids in the eluate were hydrolysed by methanolysis and the resulting extract was further cleaned up by liquid-liquid extraction. The resulting free steroids in the extract were derivatised with picolinic acid to form the corresponding picolinoyl esters and analysed by UHPLC/MS/MS in the positive ESI mode with selected-reaction-monitoring. Separation of the targeted steroids was performed on a C18 UHPLC column. The instrument turnaround time was 10.5 min inclusive of post-run equilibration. A total of thirty-three anabolic steroids (including 17β-estradiol, 5(10)-estrene-3β,17α-diol, 5α-estrane-3β,17α-diol, 17α-ethyl-5α-estran-3α,17β-diol, 17α-methyl-5α-androstan-3,17β-diols, androstanediols, nandrolone and testosterone) spiked in negative horse urine at the QC levels (ranging from 0.75 to 30 ng/mL) could be consistently detected. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (% RSD) for the peak area ratios were around 7-51% and around 1-72%, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (% RSD) for the relative retention times were both less than 1% for

  20. Rapid molecular screening of black carbon (biochar) thermosequences obtained from chestnut wood and rice straw: A pyrolysis-GC/MS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaal, Joeri; Schneider, Maximilian P.W.; Schmidt, Michael W.I.

    2012-01-01

    for rapid assessment of molecular properties of black C. ► Most thermal rearrangements occur between 250 and 450 °C charring temperature. ► Compounds from polysaccharides, lignin, chlorophyll, etc. recognised up to 500 °C. ► Relevant to predict black C degradation/preservation in soil (stability concept).

  1. Magnetic bead/capture DNA/glucose-loaded nanoliposomes for amplifying the glucometer signal in the rapid screening of hepatitis C virus RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Haijian; Lin, Kun; Lun, Yongzhi; Yu, Liuming

    2018-06-01

    A digital detection strategy based on a portable personal glucometer (PGM) was developed for the simple, rapid, and sensitive detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA, involving the release of glucose-loaded nanoliposomes due to coupling-site-specific cleavage by the endonuclease BamHI. The glucose-loaded nanoliposomes were synthesized using a reversed-phase evaporation method and provided an amplified signal at the PGM in the presence of HCV RNA. Initially, a 21-mer oligonucleotide complementary to HCV RNA was covalently conjugated to a magnetic bead through the amino group at the 5' end of the oligonucleotide, and then bound to a glucose-loaded liposome by typical carbodiimide coupling at its 3' end. In the presence of the target HCV RNA, the target hybridized with the oligonucleotide to form double-stranded DNA. The symmetrical duplex sequence 5'-GGATCC-3' between guanines was then catalytically cleaved by BamHI, which detached the glucose-loaded liposome from the magnetic bead. Following magnetic separation of the bead, the detached glucose-loaded liposome was lysed using Triton X-100 to release the glucose molecules within it, which were then detected as an amplified signal at the digital PGM. Under optimal conditions, the PGM signal increased with increasing HCV RNA, and displayed a strongly linear dependence on the level of HCV RNA for concentrations ranging from 10 pM to 1.0 μM. The detection limit (LOD) of the system was 1.9 pM. Good reproducibility and favorable specificity were achieved in the analysis of the target HCV RNA. Human serum samples containing HCV RNA were analyzed using this strategy, and the developed sensing platform was observed to yield satisfactory results based on a comparison with the corresponding results from a Cobas ® Amplicor HCV Test Analyzer. Graphical abstract A digital detection strategy utilizing a personal glucometer was developed for the detection of hepatitis C virus RNA. The strategy involved the use of the

  2. Technology-enabled examinations of cardiac rhythm, optic nerve, oral health, tympanic membrane, gait and coordination evaluated jointly with routine health screenings: an observational study at the 2015 Kumbh Mela in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Otkrist; Patalano II, Vincent; Mohit, Mrinal; Merchant, Rikin; Subramanian, S V

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Technology-enabled non-invasive diagnostic screening (TES) using smartphones and other point-of-care medical devices was evaluated in conjunction with conventional routine health screenings for the primary care screening of patients. Design Dental conditions, cardiac ECG arrhythmias, tympanic membrane disorders, blood oxygenation levels, optic nerve disorders and neurological fitness were evaluated using FDA-approved advanced smartphone powered technologies. Routine health screenings were also conducted. A novel remote web platform was developed to allow expert physicians to examine TES data and compare efficacy with routine health screenings. Setting The study was conducted at a primary care centre during the 2015 Kumbh Mela in Maharashtra, India. Participants 494 consenting 18–90 years old adults attending the 2015 Kumbh Mela were tested. Results TES and routine health screenings identified unique clinical conditions in distinct patients. Intraoral fluorescent imaging classified 63.3% of the population with dental caries and periodontal diseases. An association between poor oral health and cardiovascular illnesses was also identified. Tympanic membrane imaging detected eardrum abnormalities in 13.0% of the population, several with a medical history of hearing difficulties. Gait and coordination issues were discovered in eight subjects and one subject had arrhythmia. Cross-correlations were observed between low oxygen saturation and low body mass index (BMI) with smokers (p=0.0087 and p=0.0122, respectively), and high BMI was associated with elevated blood pressure in middle-aged subjects. Conclusions TES synergistically identified clinically significant abnormalities in several subjects who otherwise presented as normal in routine health screenings. Physicians validated TES findings and used routine health screening data and medical history responses for comprehensive diagnoses for at-risk patients. TES identified high prevalence of oral diseases

  3. Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, S.

    1985-04-01

    Implementation of single-mode optical fiber systems depends largely on the availability of integrated optical components for such functions as switching, multiplexing, and modulation. The technology of integrated optics is maturing very rapidly, and its growth justifies the optimism that now exists in the optical community.

  4. Simultaneous separation of five major ribonucleic acids by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence in the presence of electroosmotic flow: application to the rapid screening of 5S rRNA from ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chu; Liao, Ching-Ru; Chung, I-Che; Chang, Yu-Sun; Chang, Po-Ling

    2014-10-17

    RNA integrity is important in RNA studies because poor RNA quality may impact downstream methodologies. This study proposes a rapid and cost-effective method for the determination of RNA integrity based on CE-LIF in the presence of electroosmotic flow. The proposed method uses poly(ethylene) oxide (Mavg=4,000,000 Da) as a sieving matrix for total RNA separation. Ethidium bromide (μg mL(-1)) was dissolved in a polymer solution as an interchelating dye for on-column fluorescent labeling. The 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, 5S rRNA and tRNA from the total human RNA extracted from the cells were fully separated using the proposed method. The lowest detectable concentration of total RNA achieved was 100 pg μL(-1) with a 6 min sample injection followed by on-column concentration. In addition, the temperature-induced degradation of total RNA was observed by CE-LIF. The electropherograms revealed more fragmentation of 28S and 18S rRNAs by temperature-induced hydrolysis compared with the 5.8S rRNA, 5S rRNA and tRNA. Therefore, the results indicated that RNA degradation should be considered for long-term, high-temperature incubations in RNA-related experiments involving RNA hybridization. The proposed method is furthermore, applied to the determination of 5S rRNA overexpressed in ovarian cancer cells as compared to the cervical cancer cells. Overall, CE-LIF is highly promising for rapid screening of ovarian cancers without tedious pre-amplification steps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Felix; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V.; Diaz, Ramon; Ibanez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000 Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MS E , enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater.

  6. Rapid wide-scope screening of drugs of abuse, prescription drugs with potential for abuse and their metabolites in influent and effluent urban wastewater by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Felix, E-mail: felix.hernandez@qfa.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Bijlsma, Lubertus, E-mail: bijlsma@guest.uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain); Sancho, Juan V.; Diaz, Ramon; Ibanez, Maria [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat s/n, E-12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2011-01-17

    This work illustrates the potential of hybrid quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) coupled to ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to investigate the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater. After solid-phase extraction with Oasis MCX cartridges, seventy-six illicit drugs, prescription drugs with potential for abuse, and metabolites were investigated in the samples by TOF MS using electrospray interface under positive ionization mode, with MS data acquired over an m/z range of 50-1000 Da. For 11 compounds, reference standards were available, and experimental data (e.g., retention time and fragmentation data) could be obtained, facilitating a more confident identification. The use of a QTOF instrument enabled the simultaneous application of two acquisition functions with different collision energies: a low energy (LE) function, where none or poor fragmentation took place, and a high energy (HE) function, where fragmentation in the collision cell was promoted. This approach, known as MS{sup E}, enabled the simultaneous acquisition of full-spectrum accurate mass data of both protonated molecules and fragment ions in a single injection, providing relevant information that facilitates the rapid detection and reliable identification of these emerging contaminants in the sample matrices analyzed. In addition, isomeric compounds, like the opiates, morphine and norcodeine, could be discriminated by their specific fragments observed in HE TOF MS spectra, without the need of reference standards. UHPLC-QTOF MS was proven to be a powerful and efficient technique for rapid wide-scope screening and identification of many relevant drugs in complex matrices, such as influent and effluent urban wastewater.

  7. Ultrasensitive multi-analyte electrochemical immunoassay based on GNR-modified heated screen-printed carbon electrodes and PS@PDA-metal labels for rapid detection of MMP-9 and IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-Jun; He, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Fang; Abdel-Halim, E S; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2014-05-15

    An ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay was developed for rapid detection of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9); the method utilized PS@PDA-metal nanocomposites based on graphene nanoribbon (GNR)-modified heated screen-printed carbon electrode (HSPCE). Because of the good hydrophilicity and low toxicity, GNRs were used to immobilize antibodies (Ab) and amplify the electrochemical signal. PS@PDA-metal was used to label antibodies and generate a strong electrochemical signal in acetic buffer. A sandwich strategy was adopted to achieve simultaneous detection of MMP-9 and IL-6 based on HSPCE without cross-talk between adjacent electrodes in the range of 10(-5) to 10(3) ng mL(-1) with detection limits of 5 fg mL(-1) and 0.1 pg mL(-1) (S/N=3), respectively. The proposed method showed wide detection range, low detection limit, acceptable stability and good reproducibility. Satisfactory results were also obtained in the practical samples, thus showing this is a promising technique for simultaneous clinical detection of biocomponent proteins. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Integrated Field Screening for Rapid Sediment Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    operating procedure SOW statement of work sq square mile(s) SSC San Diego–Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego TBT tributyltin ...PCBs], tributyltin [ TBT ]), the data show these areas not very contaminated. 3.4 PHYSICAL SET-UP AND OPERATION The details of the methodology for the...Eohaustorius) Toxicity Data with QwikSed Demonstration Toxicity Data at NAS Alameda for 25 Samples

  9. SERS Technique for Rapid Bacterial Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports the feasibility of citrate-reduced colloidal silver SERS for differentiating E. coli, Listeria, and Salmonella. FT-Raman and SERS spectra of both silver colloids and colloid-K3PO4 mixtures were collected and analyzed to evaluate the reproducibility and stability of silver colloids...

  10. Scheduled Intermittent Screening with Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Treatment with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine versus Intermittent Preventive Therapy with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine for Malaria in Pregnancy in Malawi: An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwayiwawo Madanitsa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, most plasmodium infections during pregnancy remain asymptomatic, yet are associated with maternal anemia and low birthweight. WHO recommends intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP. However, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP efficacy is threatened by high-level parasite resistance. We conducted a trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of scheduled intermittent screening with malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and treatment of RDT-positive women with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP as an alternative strategy to IPTp-SP.This was an open-label, two-arm individually randomized superiority trial among HIV-seronegative women at three sites in Malawi with high SP resistance. The intervention consisted of three or four scheduled visits in the second and third trimester, 4 to 6 wk apart. Women in the IPTp-SP arm received SP at each visit. Women in the intermittent screening and treatment in pregnancy with DP (ISTp-DP arm were screened for malaria at every visit and treated with DP if RDT-positive. The primary outcomes were adverse live birth outcome (composite of small for gestational age, low birthweight [<2,500 g], or preterm birth [<37 wk] in paucigravidae (first or second pregnancy and maternal or placental plasmodium infection at delivery in multigravidae (third pregnancy or higher. Analysis was by intention to treat. Between 21 July 2011 and 18 March 2013, 1,873 women were recruited (1,155 paucigravidae and 718 multigravidae. The prevalence of adverse live birth outcome was similar in the ISTp-DP (29.9% and IPTp-SP (28.8% arms (risk difference = 1.08% [95% CI -3.25% to 5.41%]; all women: relative risk [RR] = 1.04 [95% CI 0.90-1.20], p = 0.625; paucigravidae: RR = 1.10 [95% CI 0.92-1.31], p = 0.282; multigravidae: RR = 0.92 [95% CI 0.71-1.20], p = 0.543. The prevalence of malaria at delivery was higher in the ISTp-DP arm (48.7% versus 40.8%; risk difference = 7.85%, [95% CI 3

  11. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on invisible Z-boson width and restrictions on next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, cosmic test of honeycomb drift chambers, fission of 209 Bi, 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 237 Np in a spallation neutron field, rapid screening of spontaneous and radiation-induced structural changes at the vestigial gene of Drosophila melanogaster by polymerase chain reaction, gamma-ray multiplicities in sub-barrier fission of 226 Th and the decay constants of the scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the quark models with quasilocal interaction

  12. Screened coulomb hybrid DFT study on electronic structure and optical properties of anionic and cationic Te-doped anatase TiO2

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moussab

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the enhanced visible-light optical absorption in Te-doped bulk anatase TiO2 is investigated in the framework of DFT and DFPT within HSE06 in order to ensure accurate electronic structure and optical transition predictions. Various

  13. Evaluation of monolithic and sub 2 microm particle packed columns for the rapid screening for illicit drugs--application to the determination of drug contamination on Irish euro banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bones, Jonathan; Macka, Mirek; Paull, Brett

    2007-03-01

    A study comparing recently available 100 x 3 mm id, 200 x 3 mm id monolithic reversed-phase columns with a 50 x 2.1 mm id, 1.8 microm particle packed reversed-phase columns was carried out to determine the most efficient approach (using traditional van Deemter analysis and a modern kinetic plot approach) for the rapid screening of samples for 16 illicit drugs and associated metabolites. A plot of column backpressure versus plate number (N) showed a significant advantage of using the monolithic phases, with the 20 cm monolithic column exhibiting a maximum 15,000 plates at a column backpressure of approximately 70 bar, compared to approximately 7000 plates at 150 bar for the 5 cm 1.8 microm particle packed column. Optimum linear velocities were found to be 0.40 mm s(-1), 0.52 mm s(-1) and 0.98 mm s(-1) for the three above columns, respectively. The 20 cm monolithic column was subsequently applied to the separation and determination of illicit drug contamination on Irish euro banknotes, using methanol extraction followed by LC-MS/MS. Method performance data showed that the new LC-MS/MS method was significantly more sensitive than previous GC-MS/MS based methods for this application, with detection limits in the pg note(-1) region, based upon a 20 microL standard injection. All of the notes examined tested positive for trace quantities of cocaine, with benzoylecgonine detected on 12 of the 45 notes sampled. Traces of heroin were also detected on three of the 45 notes.

  14. Rapid synthesis and optical properties of hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanostructures using a simple thermal decomposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Gaashani, R., E-mail: Rashad_jashani@yahoo.com [School of Applied Physics, Faculty Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Thamar University, Dhamar, Republic of Yemen (Yemen); Radiman, S. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Tabet, N. [Department of Physics and Center of Research Excellence in Renewable Energy, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Daud, A.R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel method for the synthesis of hematite nanopowder is reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} changed with altering the preparation temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coral like nano {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} prepared at 500 and 600 Degree-Sign C showed novel optical behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coral like nano {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} could be used to enhance efficiency of the solar cells. - Abstract: Hematite nanostructures were prepared by a simple technique using the thermal decomposition of iron (III) nitrate 9-hydrate at different temperatures under air atmosphere. Observations using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the morphology of the nanostructures changed as the temperature was varied while their size increased with increasing preparation time. Samples prepared at 300, 400, and 500 Degree-Sign C were made of particles with a quantum dots (QDs) size. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed that the as-synthesized powders are pure {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The optical energy gap of the samples varied from 3.2 eV to 2.7 eV as the preparation temperature increased from 300 Degree-Sign C to 600 Degree-Sign C.

  15. Structural, optical and electrical properties of quasi-monocrystalline silicon thin films obtained by rapid thermal annealing of porous silicon layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajji, M.; Khardani, M.; Khedher, N.; Rahmouni, H.; Bessais, B.; Ezzaouia, H.; Bouchriha, H.

    2006-01-01

    Quasi-mono-crystalline silicon (QMS) layers have a top surface like crystalline silicon with small voids in the body. Such layers are reported to have a higher absorption coefficient than crystalline silicon at the interesting range of the solar spectrum for photovoltaic application. In this work we present a study of the structural, optical and electrical properties of quasimonocrystalline silicon thin films. Quasimonocrystalline silicon thin films were obtained from porous silicon, which has been annealed at a temperature ranging from 950 to 1050 deg. C under H 2 atmosphere for different annealing durations. The porous layers were prepared by conventional electrochemical anodization using a do