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Sample records for rapid opiate detoxification

  1. Differences in depression severity and frequency of relapses in opiate addicts treated with methadone or opiate blocker after detoxification

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    Jovanović Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Relapse of opiate dependence is a common occurrence after detoxification and introduction of opiate addicts in abstinence from opiates. Clinical evaluation showed that over 90% of opiate addicts exhibit depressive manifestations during detoxification, or develop post-detoxification depression. The aim of this study was to determine differences in the frequency of relapses, severity and course of depression during a of 6-month period, and previous patterns of use of opioids in the two groups of opiate addicts treated by two different therapeutic modalities. Methods. The results of the two groups of opiate addicts were compared: the patients on substitution methadone treatment (M and the patients treated with opiate blocker naltrexone (B. In all the patients, clinical and instrumental evaluations confirmed depressive syndrome. Opioid relapses were diagnosed by the panel test for rapid detection of metabolites of opiates in urine. Then they were brought in connection with scores of depression and addiction variables. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD and Zunge Depression Scale were the applied instruments for measuring the level of depression. All the subjects completed a questionnaire Pompidou (short version. Psychological measurements were carried out during a 6-month follow-up on three occasions. The presence of opiate metabolites in urine was controlled every two weeks. Results. Both groups of patients (M and B had high scores on HAMD during the study. The group on methadone had a strong depression in all three measurements. There was a drop in the level of depression in both experimental groups over time, which was accompanied by a decrease in the incidence of recurrence. In both tested groups the frequency of relapses was positively correlated with earlier addiction variables - intravenous application of opioids, the experience of overdose, the absence of immunization against hepatitis C and hepatitis C virus carriers

  2. Rapid opiate detoxication in outpatient treatment: relationship with naltrexone compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerra, G; Zaimovic, A; Rustichelli, P; Fontanesi, B; Zambelli, U; Timpano, M; Bocchi, C; Delsignore, R

    2000-03-01

    A variety of detoxification methods have been utilized for the treatment of heroin withdrawal before individuals begin long-term opiate-free and naltrexone programs. While methadone in decreasing doses is still widely used for detoxication procedures, rapid and ultrarapid protocols including clonidine and opiate receptors antagonists have been proposed. This study compares the efficacy of different detoxification methods and investigates possible changes in naltrexone compliance. Ninety-eight heroin-addicted individuals were studied to evaluate withdrawal symptoms, craving, mood, urine toxicologic screens, and drop-out rate during therapy with: Group A: clonidine only (5 days); Group B: clonidine, oxazepam, baclofen, and ketoprofene with naloxone and naltrexone (2 days); and Group C: methadone in decreasing doses (10 days). Naltrexone compliance and relapse rates were evaluated during a 6-month follow-up period. Rapid detoxification with opiate antagonists (Group B) induced slight and transient withdrawal symptoms, and resulted in a significantly lower percentage of heroin catabolites in urine controls during the detoxification procedure, lower negative and positive craving, less mood problems, and higher compliance in extended naltrexone treatment. In comparison with clonidine only (Group A) and methadone (Group C), the early use of naltrexone during detoxification in combination with benzodiazepines and clonidine facilitated extended naltrexone acceptance and improved the recovery outcome in outpatients.

  3. [Ultrafast opiate detoxification under general anesthesia: the St. Loup Hospital experience].

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    Zimmermann, Grégoire; Favrat, Bernard; Muller, Jacques; Zullino, Daniele; Krenz, Sonia; Deyras, Eliane; Dorogi, Frédéric; Zwahlen, André; Besson, Jacques

    2003-02-01

    Rapid antagonist induction under anesthesia is a method that has been increasingly used to detoxify opiate addicts. These procedures are useful to reduce the duration and the discomfort of withdrawal. However, the high risk and the cost of these methods require randomized clinical trial to evaluate safety and clinical effectiveness. The University Substance Abuse Division of Lausanne and the Intensive Care Unit of the St-Loup Hospital work on a randomized clinical trial comparing anesthesia-assisted versus traditional clonidine detoxification combined with an additional psychosocial week. This paper describes the technique of anesthesia used in our study. Our clinical experience suggests that, integrating this technique in a multidisciplinary network, with a strong emphasis on post-anesthetic follow-up, is a viable and safe option in the treatment of opiate dependence.

  4. Buprenorphine versus dihydrocodeine for opiate detoxification in primary care: a randomised controlled trial

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    Adams Clive E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many drug users present to primary care requesting detoxification from illicit opiates. There are a number of detoxification agents but no recommended drug of choice. The purpose of this study is to compare buprenorphine with dihydrocodeine for detoxification from illicit opiates in primary care. Methods Open label randomised controlled trial in NHS Primary Care (General Practices, Leeds, UK. Sixty consenting adults using illicit opiates received either daily sublingual buprenorphine or daily oral dihydrocodeine. Reducing regimens for both interventions were at the discretion of prescribing doctor within a standard regimen of not more than 15 days. Primary outcome was abstinence from illicit opiates at final prescription as indicated by a urine sample. Secondary outcomes during detoxification period and at three and six months post detoxification were recorded. Results Only 23% completed the prescribed course of detoxification medication and gave a urine sample on collection of their final prescription. Risk of non-completion of detoxification was reduced if allocated buprenorphine (68% vs 88%, RR 0.58 CI 0.35–0.96, p = 0.065. A higher proportion of people allocated to buprenorphine provided a clean urine sample compared with those who received dihydrocodeine (21% vs 3%, RR 2.06 CI 1.33–3.21, p = 0.028. People allocated to buprenorphine had fewer visits to professional carers during detoxification and more were abstinent at three months (10 vs 4, RR 1.55 CI 0.96–2.52 and six months post detoxification (7 vs 3, RR 1.45 CI 0.84–2.49. Conclusion Informative randomised trials evaluating routine care within the primary care setting are possible amongst drug using populations. This small study generates unique data on commonly used treatment regimens.

  5. Rapid opiate detoxification and antagonist induction under general anaesthesia or intravenous sedation is humane, sometimes essential and should always be an option. Three illustrative case reports involving diabetes and epilepsy and a review of the literature.

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    Brewer, Colin; de Jong, Catherine; Williams, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    When abstinence is an appropriate goal, controlled studies and systematic reviews confirm that rapid, antagonist-precipitated opiate withdrawal procedures are the most effective and cost effective methods of initiating abstinence, and naltrexone (NTX) maintenance. While 'rapid' withdrawal, better conceptualised as Rapid Antagonist Induction (RAI), can often be humanely achieved with modest sedation levels, we present three case histories to support our argument that for some patients, general anaesthesia (GA), or techniques of intravenous sedation (IVS) that approach GA, are essential for safety and success. This includes patients with intercurrent disease (e.g. epilepsy or insulin-dependent diabetes) but also those with severe withdrawal phobia after previous distressing experiences. We discuss the history of the procedure. The dangers of RAI under GA or IVS in experienced hands have been exaggerated and the appropriate expertise should be more easily available. Patients and clinicians readily accept risks of major surgery for the excessive intake of food that causes most obesity. Similar risk-acceptance exists in cosmetic surgery and obstetrics. The increasing use and effectiveness of long-acting implants or depot-injections of NTX for relapse-prevention have largely solved compliance problems that undermined the potential of oral NTX. Their ability to prevent opiate overdose in abstinent, non-tolerant patients also strengthens arguments both for offering RAI as a therapeutic option and for reducing psychological, professional and practical barriers to using it.

  6. The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS prisons project pilot study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial comparing dihydrocodeine and buprenorphine for opiate detoxification

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    Dalton Richard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom (UK, there is an extensive market for the class 'A' drug heroin. Many heroin users spend time in prison. People addicted to heroin often require prescribed medication when attempting to cease their drug use. The most commonly used detoxification agents in UK prisons are buprenorphine, dihydrocodeine and methadone. However, national guidelines do not state a detoxification drug of choice. Indeed, there is a paucity of research evaluating the most effective treatment for opiate detoxification in prisons. This study seeks to address the paucity by evaluating routinely used interventions amongst drug using prisoners within UK prisons. Methods/Design The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS Prisons Pilot Study will use randomised controlled trial methodology to compare the open use of buprenorphine and dihydrocodeine for opiate detoxification, given in the context of routine care, within HMP Leeds. Prisoners who are eligible and give informed consent will be entered into the trial. The primary outcome measure will be abstinence status at five days post detoxification, as determined by a urine test. Secondary outcomes during the detoxification and then at one, three and six months post detoxification will be recorded.

  7. 77 FR 72752 - Opioid Drugs in Maintenance and Detoxification Treatment of Opiate Addiction; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ...-supported network of Addiction Technology Transfer Centers (ATTCs) offers classroom training and other... Opiate Addiction; Proposed Modification of Dispensing Restrictions for Buprenorphine and Buprenorphine... responsibility and stability to receive opioid addiction treatment medication. Opioid treatment programs that use...

  8. P-50the prevalence of seizures during withdrawal from alcohol, benzodiazepines and opiates in medically monitored detoxification center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poluha, W

    2014-01-01

    .... Medically monitored detoxification centers admit patients with known history of withdrawal seizures as well as history of seizure disorders for detoxification from alcohol benzodiazepines and opioids...

  9. Hypothesizing that a Pro-Dopaminergic Regulator (KB220z(™) Liquid Variant) can Induce "Dopamine Homeostasis" and Provide Adjunctive Detoxification Benefits in Opiate/Opioid Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Whitney, Debra; Fried, Lye; Febo, Marcelo; Waite, Roger L; Braverman, Eric R; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Giordano, John; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the initiation of detoxification of addictive patients to opiates/opioids (along with some other anti-withdrawal agents), we developed a protocol to be utilized in treatment centers particularly with heavily dependent opiate/opioid subjects. Out of 17 subjects, only three received Buprenorphine/Naloxone (Bup/nx) along with KB220Z. In this pilot, we first used a dose of KB220Z of 2 oz twice daily before meals along with clonidine and benzodiazepines and other anti-nausea and sleep aids including Gabapentin. The dose of KB220Z was maintained for 6 days in five individuals. In a second scenario, we utilized a higher dose of 4 oz every 6 hours, over a 6-day period. The higher dose was employed in another 12 patients. It is noteworthy that only 3 people have relapsed utilizing these two protocols during the first two weeks of the study, allowing for the remaining 82% to be maintained on KB220Z. The patients have been maintained without any additional Bup/nx for a minimum of 120 days and in one subject, 214 days. We are in the process of testing this hypothesis in multiple treatment centers across the United Sates utilizing data from the Clinical opiate Withdrawal Scale (COWS) pre and post KB220Z. We are in the process of testing this hypothesis in multiple treatment centers across the United Sates. While this does not constitute an acceptable controlled experiment, it does provide some preliminary evidence that agrees with an earlier study. Moreover, because of the utilization of standard detoxifying agents in this detoxification protocol, we cannot make any inference to KB220Z's effects. However, out of 17 subjects, only three required Bup/nx suggesting an interesting finding. If further confirmed in larger studies, the utilization for opiate/opioid detoxification may provide a novel way to eliminate the need for addictive opioids during withdrawal and detoxification. This paradigm shift may translate to a reduction in utilizing powerful and

  10. Ziconotide: A rapid detoxification protocol for the conversion from intrathecal morphine--the Raffaeli Detoxification Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaeli, William; Righetti, Donatella; Sarti, Donatella; Balestri, Marco; Ferioli, Isabella; Monterubbianesi, Maria Cristina; Caminiti, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and the safety of our rapid detoxificationprotocol in preventing signs and symptoms of withdrawal and pain severity. Prospective, open-label case series study. Public primary care at the Pain and Palliative Care Unit of the Infermi Hospital of Rimini, Italy. The authors studied 10 consecutive patients suffering from chronic noncancer pain who were refractory to intrathecal (IT) morphine, and hence indicated for ziconotide therapy. IT pump was refilled with saline solution, and each patient received endovenous morphine, oral clonidine, ketoprofen, and lorazepam for the first 3 days, and slow-release tramadol, oral clonidine, and ketoprofen for 10 days. Ziconotide therapy was started at the end of the 2-week detoxification treatment. The observer-rated opioid withdrawal scale (OOWS) was used for the assessment of withdrawal signs, visual analogue scale was used for pain intensity assessment, and also adverse events were recorded. Withdrawal symptoms were experienced by 3 patients (30 percent). Their average OOWS decreased significantly (p ziconotide monotherapy in patients who are refractory to morphine.

  11. Outcomes of opiod abstinence after ultra-rapid opiate detoxification (UROD under general anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hasan Teimory

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opiod dependency has serious socioeconomic disadvantages in addition to physical damage. Various methods are used to increase abstinenece rate of opiod dependency, among which UROD under general anesthesia is the new one which leads to reduce withdrawal syndrome and symptoms. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done to evalute opiod abstinence rate by UROD on 121 patients referred to Khorramabad Shohada Ashayer hospital in 2005. After interview and obtaining written informed consents, all patients underwent general anaesthesia for 5 hours with 0-25 to 0.5 mg/kg IV Naloxane. Then all patients followed at 4-6 months after UROD for relapse of addiction by self report and three coincidental tests of addiction. Data was analyzed by SPSS software version 9.1. Results: The results showed that opiod abstinence rate at a 4-6 month follow up among 104 eases out of 121 addicts undergone UROD was 86.5%. Abstinence rate had no significant relationship with age, level of education, duration, way of use and kind of opiod, but it had a significant relation with employment status(p<0.001. Conclusion: It seams that UROD can reduce the withdrawal syndrome and symptoms, and prevents the relaps of addiction.

  12. Rapid detoxification of benzodiazepine or Z-drugs dependence using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Ku

    2014-07-01

    Dependence on benzodiazepines (BZDs) or Z-drugs (zolpidem, zopicline and zaleplon) is a common clinical phenomenon. Traditional detoxification of BZDs dependence includes tapering used dose gradually and using equivalent doses of long-acting BZDs as substitutes. This kind of regimen tends to take a long time (up to 4weeks) and may require hospitalization. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have been shown to reverse BZDs induced sedation. We propose that oral form acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine and rivastigmine) also posses the effect of inhibiting GABA receptors, and act as indirect antagonist, to be applied in the rapid detoxification treatment of BZDs and Z-drug dependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid detoxification from opioid dependence under general anaesthesia versus standard methadone tapering: abstinence rates and withdrawal distress experiences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, P.F.M.; Koning, J.P.; Heinen, N.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Cauter, R.M.V. van; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study abstinence rates and withdrawal effects of rapid detoxification of opioid-dependents under general anaesthesia (RD-GA) compared to standard methadone tapering (SMT) using a prospective clinical trial with a follow-up of 3 months, as a preliminary study at the

  14. Rapid detoxification from opioid dependence under general anaesthesia versus standard methadone tapering : abstinence rates and withdrawal distress experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Paul F M; Koning, Jeroen P F; Heinen, Nadia; Laheij, Robert J F; van Cauter, R M Victory; De Jong, Cor A J

    The aim of this work was to study abstinence rates and withdrawal effects of rapid detoxification of opioid-dependents under general anaesthesia (RD-GA) compared to standard methadone tapering (SMT) using a prospective clinical trial with a follow-up of 3 months, as a preliminary study at the

  15. Rapid analysis of urinary opiates using fast gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and hydrogen as a carrier gas

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    Sumandeep Rana

    2014-09-01

    Gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric analysis was performed in electron ionization mode by selective ion monitoring, using hydrogen as a carrier gas, a short narrow bore GC capillary column, and fast temperature program, allowing for a rapid analytical cycle to maximize the instrument time for high throughput laboratories. While maintaining specificity for these drugs, concentrations in human urine ranging from 50 to 5,000 ng/mL can be measured with intraday and interday imprecision, expressed as variation coefficients, of less than 2.3% for all analytes within a run time of less than 3.5 minutes.

  16. The effect of rapid detoxification method with Naltrexone on drug abuse quitting in drug abusers referred to Khorramabad Psychiatric hospital during the first half of the year 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hedayat Nazari

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: About 8 percent of Iranian adult population are illicit drug abusers. Affected persons grow more each day. Ominous consequences such as divorce, prostitution, murder and other crimes and infectious diseases such as AIDS and hepatitis take place following drug abuse, as well as a loss equall to 29% of national income for our country. Traditional treatment methods wasted too much time and cost. professional inpatient clinics are not adequate for admission of all care seekers. Rapid detoxification methods are supposed to be better alternatives. Materials and Methods: 140 male drug abusers in two matched groups were assessed from March to September, 2005. They used heroin or opium. Both groups were scheduled for detoxification and were closely observed for 3 months thereafter. First group received Clonidine, Benzodiazepine and Naltrexone besides symptom relieving modalities in first 4 days of treatment. Naltrexone was continued in maintenance dose for one month. Second group received Methadone for one month. Results: Clients age was between 18 to 73 years, with mean age 34 years old. Their intelligence quotients were above the lower limit of normal range. There was no significant difference according to these parameters between two groups. Success rate in rapid detoxification group was 55 % and in Methadone group was 50 %. Relapse in rapid detoxification method occurred less frequent and slower (45 % vs. 50%. In Naltrexone group, better success rate was due to less duration of drug abuse and heroin dependency. In Methadone group, therapy had better results in patients with longer drug abuse history and opium addiction. There was no significant difference between success rate and either drug kind or job, marital status or education level. The most serious adverse effect in both groups was hypotension (10% in Naltrexone and 5 % in Methadone groups.

  17. Opiate addiction in China: current situation and treatments.

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    Tang, Yi-Lang; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Chengzheng; Cubells, Joseph F

    2006-05-01

    Historically, China has had extraordinarily high rates of opiate dependence. These rates declined drastically following the 1949 revolution; however, opiate abuse has re-emerged in the late 1980's and has spread quickly since then. To describe the current situation of opiate addiction and treatments in China and make some suggestions. A descriptive study based on literature searched from Medline and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database (1996 to 2004) and hand-picked references. The number of registered addicts in 2004 was 1.14 million (more than 75% of them heroin addicts), but the actual number is probably far higher. Opiate abuse contributes substantially to the spread of HIV/AIDS in China, with intravenous drug use the most prevalent route of transmission (51.2%). Currently, the main treatments for opiate dependence in China include short-term detoxification with opiate agonists or non-opiate agents, such as clonidine or lofexidine; Chinese herbal medicine and traditional non-medication treatments are also used. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has not been officially approved by the Chinese government for widespread implementation, but some pilot studies are currently underway. China faces substantial drug abuse problems that appear to be worsening with time. Opiate dependence is a major threat to the public health and social security of China because of its devastating medical effects, its impact on risk for HIV/AIDS and criminal behaviors, low rates of recovery and high rates of relapse. There is an urgent need to implement MMT and other modern treatments for opiate dependence more widely in China.

  18. Imaging opiate receptors with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, J.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Wong, D.F.; Links, J.M.; Burns, H.D.; Kuhar, M.J.; Snyder, S.H.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Opiate receptors exist in the mammalian brain and are thought to meditate the diverse pharmacological actions of the opiates, such as analgesia, euphoria, and sedation. The 4-carbomethoxyl derivatives of fentanyl, such as lofentanil and R31833 (4-carbomethoxyfentanyl) bind to the opiate receptor with high affinity. C-11 R31833 was synthesized by reacting C-11 methyl iodide with the appropriate carboxylate. Male ICR mice were injected intravenously with C-11 R31833 (5..mu..g/kg), killed 30 minutes later, and the brains rapidly dissected. The thalami, striata, and cerebral cortex are rich in opiate receptors, but the cerebellum contains a very low concentration of opiate receptors. The thalamus/cerebellum and striatum/cerebellum activity ratios, calculated per mg of wet tissue, were 4.1 and 5.2 respectively. Coinjection of 5mg/kg naloxone reduced the ratios to 1.1, which indicates that the preferential localization of C-11 R31833 in the thalami and striata is due to binding to opiate is due to binding to opiate receptors. A 22 kg anesthetized male baboon was imaged using the NeuroECAT after injection of 18.9 mCi of C-11 R13833 (0.50 ..mu..g/kg, specific activity 616 Ci/mmole at time of injection). From 15-70 minutes after injection preferential accumulation of activity could be seen in the thalami, caudate nuclei, and cerebral cortex and, conversely, low activity was demonstrated in the cerebellum. At one hour postinjection the maximum measured caudate/cerebellum activity ratio per pixel was 2.9. For the NeuroECAT the recovery coefficient for the baboon caudate is ca. 0.2-0.3, and therefore the actual caudate/cerebellum ratio is ca. 10-15.

  19. [Benzodiazepine withdrawal in subjects on opiate substitution treatment].

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    Fatséas, Mélina; Lavie, Estelle; Denis, Cécile; Franques-Rénéric, Pascale; Tignol, Jean; Auriacombe, Marc

    2006-04-01

    Benzodiazepines are the most widely used psychotropic agents in the world. Abuse and dependence are reported in the general population and among drug misusers, including those dependent on heroine. Benzodiazepine use by heroine users increases their risk of overdose, not only from heroin but also substitution drugs such as methadone and more recently buprenorphine. Hence, detoxification from benzodiazepines is desirable. The objective of this paper was to review the literature and determine the best benzodiazepine detoxification procedure for opiate-dependent individuals receiving substitution treatment. Relevant studies were sought through systematic searches of Medline and Toxibase (a database focusing on substance abuse). There were fewer controlled studies than expected about benzodiazepine detoxification, and all of them excluded subjects who misused opiates or were in opiate substitution treatment. The best evidence supports a procedure where the patient is switched to a long-lasting benzodiazepine and the dose then tapered by 25% of the initial dose each week. Diazepam is the drug most often used in the framework. In opiate users, diazepam may raise special problems of misuse, as suggested by clinical and epidemiologic studies. Nonetheless, diazepam is the only benzodiazepine found to be effective for this withdrawal in controlled studies and some studies indicate that unprescribed diazepam use in heroin users is sometimes motivated by the desire to alleviate withdrawal symptoms and discomfort. Although diazepam appears to have potential for abuse, the available data does not rule out its therapeutic interest for benzodiazepine withdrawal in patients on opiate substitution treatment in an adequate treatment setting. Specific studies of this population are needed.

  20. Lapse and relapse following inpatient treatment of opiate dependence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, B P

    2010-06-01

    We conducted a prospective follow-up study of consecutive opiate dependent patients admitted to a residential addiction treatment service for detoxification. We measured the rate of relapse following discharge, and sought to identify factors that were associated with early relapse (i.e., a return to daily opiate use). Follow-up interviews were conducted with 109 patients, of whom, 99 (91%) reported a relapse. The initial relapse occurred within one week in 64 (59%) cases. Multivariate survival analysis revealed that earlier relapse was significantly predicted by younger age, greater heroin use prior to treatment, history of injecting, and a failure to enter aftercare. Unexpectedly, those who were in a relationship with an opiate user had significantly delayed relapse. Those who completed the entire six-week inpatient treatment programme also had a significantly delayed relapse. In order to reduce relapse and the associated increased risk of fatal overdose, services providing residential opiate detoxification should prepare people for admission, strive to retain them in treatment for the full admission period and actively support their entry into planned aftercare in order to improve outcome.

  1. General anaesthesia does not improve outcome in opioid antagonist detoxification treatment : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Cor A J; Laheij, Robert J F; Krabbe, Paul F M

    AIM: Opioid detoxification by administering opioid-antagonists under general anaesthesia has caused considerable controversy. This study is conducted to determine whether rapid detoxification under general anaesthesia results in higher levels of opioid abstinence than rapid detoxification without

  2. General anaesthesia does not improve outcome in opioid antagonist detoxification treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.J. de; Laheij, R.J.F.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Opioid detoxification by administering opioid-antagonists under general anaesthesia has caused considerable controversy. This study is conducted to determine whether rapid detoxification under general anaesthesia results in higher levels of opioid abstinence than rapid detoxification without

  3. Heroin detoxification during pregnancy: A systematic review and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    detox programme was compared with street drug use on neonatal morbidity in 75 neonates. NAS occurred in 63% of neonates, and was less frequent after methadone detox. Opioid detoxification in pregnancy. Dashe et al.[9]. Obstetrics and. Gynaecology, 1998. 34 pregnant opiate-dependent women offered methadone.

  4. Opiate use and sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirin, S M; Meyer, R E; Mendelson, J H; Ellingboe, J

    1980-08-01

    Although opiate addicts often equate the drug experience with sexual orgasm, diminished libido and impaired sexual performance are common sequelae of chronic use. Early clinical studies suggested that opiates may interfere with sex hormone secretion. The authors carried out three sequential studies which demonstrated that heroin use in man results in acute suppression of luteinizing hormone (LH) release from the pituitary followed by a secondary drop in plasma testosterone levels. The time course of these neuroendocrine events correlates well with the tension-reducing effects of heroin and suggests that drive reduction is an important component of opiate reinforcement.

  5. Pholcodine interference in the immunoassay for opiates in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenneby, G; Wedege, E; Karlsen, R L

    1983-01-01

    The excretion in urine after single oral therapeutic doses of morphine derivatives was analysed with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and homogeneous enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) for opiates. In contrast to the rapid excretion of ethylmorphine and codeine, pholcodine showed positive results for opiates 2-6 weeks after intake when the urines were analysed with the RIA-method. When analysed with the EMIT-method, positive results were obtained for pholcodine for approximately 10 days. As pholcodine is a common component in cough mixtures, its prolonged excretion could represent a hazard in interpreting the results from drug analyses of urines.

  6. Neurogenetics of acute and chronic opiate/opioid abstinence: treating symptoms and the cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kenneth; Gold, Mark S; Jacobs, William; McCall, William Vaughn; Febo, Marcelo; Baron, David; Dushaj, Kristina; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D

    2017-03-01

    This review begins with a comprehensive history of opioid dependence and treatment in the United States. The focus is an evidence-based treatment model for opioid/opiate dependent individuals. The role of reward genetic polymorphisms and the epigenetic modifications that lead to vulnerability to use and misuse of opiates/opioid to treat pain are reviewed. The neurochemical mechanisms of acute opiate withdrawal and opiate/opioid reward mechanisms are explored with a goal of identifying specific treatment targets. Alterations in functional brain connectivity based on neurobiological mechanisms in heroin dependence and abstinence are also reviewed. A new clinical model an alternative to merely blocking acute withdrawal symptoms as identified in the DSM -5 is proposed. Genetic diagnosis at the onset of detoxification, to determine risk stratification, and identify polymorphic gene targets for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical interventions, followed by the simultaneous initiation of Medication Assisted Therapy (MAT), to enable psychological extinction, and steady pro-dopaminergic therapy with the goal of developing "dopamine homeostasis" is recommended. The objective of these interventions is to prevent future relapse by treating all "Reward Deficiency Syndrome" (RDS) behaviors and eventually make an addiction-free life possible.

  7. Enhanced bioavailability of opiates after intratracheal administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, J.W.A.; Jones, E.C.; McNulty, M.J.

    1986-03-01

    Several opiate analgesics have low oral bioavailabilities in the dog because of presystemic metabolism. Intratracheal administration may circumvent this first-pass effect. Three anesthetized beagles received 5-mg/kg doses of codeine phosphate intratracheally (i.t.), orally (p.o.) and intravenously (i.v.) in a crossover study. The following drugs were also studied in similar experiments: ethylmorphine hydrochloride (5 mg/kg), pholcodine bitartrate (10 mg/kg, hydrocodone bitartrate (4 mg/kg) and morphine sulfate (2.5 mg/kg). Plasma drug concentrations over the 24- to 48-hr periods after drug administrations were determined by radioimmunoassays. I.t. bioavailabilities (codeine (84%), ethylmorphine (100%), and morphine (87%)) of drugs with poor oral availabilities were all markedly higher than the corresponding oral values (14, 26, and 23%, respectively). I.t. bioavailabilities of pholcodine (93%) and hydrocodone (92%), which have good oral availabilities (74 and 79%, respectively), were also enhanced. In all cases, peak plasma concentrations occurred more rapidly after i.t. (0.08-0.17 hr) than after oral (0.5-2 hr) dosing and i.t. disposition often resembled i.v. kinetics. I.t. administration may be a valuable alternative dosing route, providing rapid onset of pharmacological activity for potent drugs with poor oral bioavailability.

  8. Buprenorphine Initiation and Linkage to Outpatient Buprenorphine do not Reduce Frequency of Injection Opiate Use Following Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Phoebe A; Liebschutz, Jane M; Anderson, Bradley J; Moreau, Merredith R; Stein, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    Buprenorphine has established effectiveness for outpatient treatment of opioid use disorder. Our previously published STOP (Suboxone Transition to Opiate Program) trial showed that buprenorphine induction, stabilization, and linkage to outpatient treatment in opioid-dependent inpatients (injection and non-injection drug users) decreased illicit opioid use over 6months. The present study was a planned subgroup analysis of injection opiate users from STOP. To determine if inpatient buprenorphine initiation and linkage to outpatient buprenorphine reduce injection opiate users' frequency of injection opiate use (IOU). Inpatient injection opiate users at a safety-net hospital were randomized to buprenorphine linkage (induction, stabilization, bridge prescription, and facilitated referral to outpatient treatment) or detoxification (5-day inpatient buprenorphine taper). Conditional fixed-effects Poisson regression was used to estimate the effects of intervention on 30-day (self-report) at 1, 3, and 6months, measured using 30-day timeline follow-back. The secondary outcome was linkage effectiveness, measured as % presenting to initial outpatient buprenorphine visits after hospital discharge. Analysis was limited to persons (n=62 randomized to detoxification and n=51 to linkage) with baseline IOU. There were no significant differences in age, ethnicity, or baseline IOU frequency. At follow-up, linkage patients (70.6%) were significantly more likely (pbuprenorphine visits than detoxification patients (9.7%). However, there was no significant between group difference in the rate of IOU at 1- (IRR=0.73, p=0.32), 3- (IRR=1.20, p=0.54), or 6-month (IRR=0.73, p=0.23) follow-ups. Using person-day analysis, participants self-reported IOU on 5.8% of follow-up days in which they used prescription buprenorphine and 37.5% of non-buprenorphine days. Using a generalized estimating equation, the estimated odds of IOU was 4.57 times higher (pbuprenorphine days. Despite STOP's success in

  9. Different Levels in Orexin Concentrations and Risk Factors Associated with Higher Orexin Levels: Comparison between Detoxified Opiate and Methamphetamine Addicts in 5 Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to explore the degree of orexin levels in Chinese opiate and methamphetamine addicts and the differences between them. The cross-sectional study was conducted among detoxified drug addicts from Mandatory Detoxification Center (MDC in five Chinese cities. Orexin levels were assayed with radioimmunoassay (RIA. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to detect differences across groups, and logistic regression was used to explore the association between orexin levels and characteristics of demographic and drug abuse. Between November 2009 and January 2011, 285 opiates addicts, 112 methamphetamine addicts, and 79 healthy controls were enrolled. At drug withdrawal period, both opiate and methamphetamine addicts had lower median orexin levels than controls, and median orexin levels in opiate addicts were higher than those in methamphetamine addicts (all above P<0.05. Adjusted odds of the above median concentration of orexin were higher for injection than “chasing the dragon” (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.2–7.9. No significant factors associated with orexin levels of methamphetamine addicts were found. Development of intervention method on orexin system by different administration routes especially for injected opiate addicts at detoxification phase may be significant and was welcome.

  10. Carglumic acid enhances rapid ammonia detoxification in classical organic acidurias with a favourable risk-benefit profile : a retrospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Baruteau, Julien; Delgado, Maria Bueno; Cano, Aline; Couce, Maria L; Del Toro, Mireia; Donati, Maria Alice; Garcia-Cazorla, Angeles; Gil-Ortega, David; Gomez-de Quero, Pedro; Guffon, Nathalie; Hofstede, Floris C; Kalkan-Ucar, Sema; Coker, Mahmut; Lama-More, Rosa; Martinez-Pardo Casanova, Mercedes; Molina, Agustin; Pichard, Samia; Papadia, Francesco; Rosello, Patricia; Plisson, Celine; Le Mouhaer, Jeannie; Chakrapani, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Isovaleric aciduria (IVA), propionic aciduria (PA) and methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) are inherited organic acidurias (OAs) in which impaired organic acid metabolism induces hyperammonaemia arising partly from secondary deficiency of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) synthase. Rapid reduction in

  11. The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS project: An open-label pragmatic randomised control trial comparing the efficacy of differing therapeutic agents for primary care detoxification from either street heroin or methadone [ISRCTN07752728

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheard Laura

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heroin is a synthetic opioid with an extensive illicit market leading to large numbers of people becoming addicted. Heroin users often present to community treatment services requesting detoxification and in the UK various agents are used to control symptoms of withdrawal. Dissatisfaction with methadone detoxification 8 has lead to the use of clonidine, lofexidine, buprenorphine and dihydrocodeine; however, there remains limited evaluative research. In Leeds, a city of 700,000 people in the North of England, dihydrocodeine is the detoxification agent of choice. Sublingual buprenorphine, however, is being introduced. The comparative value of these two drugs for helping people successfully and comfortably withdraw from heroin has never been compared in a randomised trial. Additionally, there is a paucity of research evaluating interventions among drug users in the primary care setting. This study seeks to address this by randomising drug users presenting in primary care to receive either dihydrocodeine or buprenorphine. Methods/design The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS project is a pragmatic randomised trial which will compare the open use of buprenorphine with dihydrocodeine for illicit opiate detoxification, in the UK primary care setting. The LEEDS project will involve consenting adults and will be run in specialist general practice surgeries throughout Leeds. The primary outcome will be the results of a urine opiate screening at the end of the detoxification regimen. Adverse effects and limited data to three and six months will be acquired.

  12. In vivo studies of opiate receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, J.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Duelfer, T.; Burns, H.D.; Ravert, H.T.; Langstroem, B.; Balasubramanian, V.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    To study opiate receptors noninvasively in vivo using positron emission tomography, techniques for preferentially labeling opiate receptors in vivo can be used. The rate at which receptor-bound ligand clears from the brain in vivo can be predicted by measuring the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) at 37 degrees C in the presence of 100 mM sodium chloride and 100 microM guanyl-5'-imidodiphosphate, the drug distribution coefficient, and the molecular weight. A suitable ligand for labeling opiate receptors in vivo is diprenorphine, which binds to mu, delta, and kappa receptors with approximately equal affinity in vitro. However, in vivo diprenorphine may bind predominantly to one opiate receptor subtype, possibly the mu receptor. To predict the affinity for binding to the opiate receptor, a Hansch correlation was determined between the 50% inhibitory concentration for a series of halogen-substituted fentanyl analogs and electronic, lipophilic, and steric parameters. Radiochemical methods for the synthesis of carbon-11-labeled diprenorphine and lofentanil are presented.

  13. Rapid detoxification via glutathione S-transferase (GST) conjugation confers a high level of atrazine resistance in Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakka, Sridevi; Godar, Amar S; Thompson, Curtis R; Peterson, Dallas E; Jugulam, Mithila

    2017-11-01

    Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) is an economically troublesome, aggressive and damaging weed that has evolved resistance to six herbicide modes of action including photosystem II (PS II) inhibitors such as atrazine. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism and inheritance of atrazine resistance in Palmer amaranth. A population of Palmer amaranth from Kansas (KSR) had a high level (160 - 198-fold more; SE ±21 - 26) of resistance to atrazine compared to the two known susceptible populations MSS and KSS, from Mississippi and Kansas, respectively. Sequence analysis of the chloroplastic psbA gene did not reveal any known mutations conferring resistance to PS II inhibitors, including the most common Ser264Gly substitution for triazine resistance. However, the KSR plants rapidly conjugated atrazine at least 24 times faster than MSS via glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. Furthermore, genetic analyses of progeny generated from reciprocal crosses of KSR and MSS demonstrate that atrazine resistance in Palmer amaranth is a nuclear trait. Although triazine resistance in Palmer amaranth was reported more than 20 years ago in the USA, this is the first report elucidating the underlying mechanism of resistance to atrazine. The non-target-site based metabolic resistance to atrazine mediated by GST activity may predispose the Palmer amaranth populations to have resistance to other herbicide families, and the nuclear inheritance of the trait in this dioecious species further exacerbates the propensity for its rapid spread. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Opiates and elderly: Use and side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L Chau

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Diane L Chau1, Vanessa Walker2, Latha Pai3, Lwin M Cho4University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USA 1Division Geriatric Medicine, 2Internal Medicine, 3Psychiatry, 4Geriatric Medicine, Sierra Nevada Healthcare System, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Reno, NV, USAAbstract: The evaluation of pain and the subsequent issue of pain control is a clinical challenge that all healthcare providers face. Pain in the elderly population is especially difficult given the myriad of physiological, pharmacological, and psychological aspects of caring for the geriatric patient. Opiates are the mainstay of pain treatment throughout all age groups but special attention must be paid to the efficacy and side effects of these powerful drugs when prescribing to a population with impaired metabolism, excretion and physical reserve. In a random chart review of 300 US veterans, 44% of those receiving an analgesic also received opioids. The increasing use of opiates for pain management by healthcare practitioners requires that those prescribing opioids be aware of the special considerations for treating the elderly. This article will address the precautions one must take when using opiates in the geriatric population, as well as the side effects and ways to minimize them.Keywords: opiates, pain, elderly, side effects

  15. NABIR Assessment Element, Expanded Rapid, Comprehensive, Lipid Biomarker Analysis for Subsurface, Community Composition and Nutritional/Physiological Status as Monitors of Remediation and Detoxification Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. White

    2005-09-14

    NABIR funding at the University of Tennessee Center for Biomarker Analysis (CBA) has led to several key contributions to the investigation of bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. This lab has played an integral part in assessing microbial communities at the field scale at the ORNL FRC (Istok et al., 2004) and two UMTRA sites (Anderson et al., 2003, Chang et al., 2001). Our work over the period of the grant has resulted in 42-peer reviewed publications, 62 presentations (14 of which were international), and one patent pending. Currently CBA has 2 papers in press. The main objectives relating to the field portion of this program were to provide comprehensive biomarker analysis for NABIR collaborators to enhance the understanding of microbial geo-bioprocesses involved in the effective immobilization of metals (We have worked with and published or currently are publishing with 10 groups of NAIBR investigators). The laboratory portion of our research centered on methods development and has led to three major innovations that could result in a systematic way of evaluating sites for potential bioremediation. The first of these is the development of an in situ sampling device (Peacock et al., 2004, Anderson et al., 2003, Istok et al., 2004) for the collection and concentration of microbial biomass. The second is the development of expanded lipid analysis based on the significantly greater sensitivity and selectivity of the LC/MS/MS that allows the analysis of respiratory quinones, diglycerides, sterols, intact phospholipids, poly-hydroxyalkonates, and potentially archaeol, and caldarchaeols from archea. These new analyses are accomplished more rapidly and with increased sensitivities and resolution than in the past (Lytle et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, Geyer et al., 2004). The third advance is the coupling of lipid analysis with 13C enrichment experiments (Lytle et al., 2001b, Geyer et al. 2005). With this technique it is now possible to follow the active portion of

  16. Drug Craving Terminology among Opiate Dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Maarefvand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Drug craving is defined as an urge to continue substance abuse. Drug dependents use different terms to express their subjective feeling of craving. This study was an attempt to generate an understanding of craving terminology among different groups of Persian speaking Iranian opiate dependents.Method:Terms used for the meaning of drug craving were listed by 36 ex-opiate dependents in focus group discussion meetings in the first phase of the study. These terms were composed from Craving Terms Questionnaire. In the second phase, 120 subjects in 3 groups of opiate dependents and a group of Current Opiate Abusers rated usage frequency of each term in the questionnaire under a Twelve-Step Program, Methadone Maintenance, and Other Abstinence-based Programs.Results:Eighty nine terms were categorized in stimulation and triggering, attention bias and obsession, decision making difficulty, information processing impairment, withdrawal induction, drug euphoric experience, mental urge, motor control problem, negative valancing and stigmatizing. Terms for the three categories of mental urge, attention bias and obsession and motor control problem were used more than others. Patients in Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT group used different categories of craving terms in comparison to other groups. Abstinent cases reported higher total score for craving terms in comparison to other groups in Twelve-Step Program and other abstinence-based programs.Conclusion:Each craving-related term is associated with some aspects of the multidimensional concept of craving. A drug-craving thesaurus could provide a better understanding of craving nature from a drug dependent point of view. There are differences among abstinence vs. maintenance based treated opiate dependents in using craving terms. Addiction therapists will benefit from accessing drug dependents’ lexicon to assess and create therapeutic alliance with their clients.

  17. Carglumic acid enhances rapid ammonia detoxification in classical organic acidurias with a favourable risk-benefit profile: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Baruteau, Julien; Delgado, Maria Bueno; Cano, Aline; Couce, Maria L; Del Toro, Mireia; Donati, Maria Alice; Garcia-Cazorla, Angeles; Gil-Ortega, David; Gomez-de Quero, Pedro; Guffon, Nathalie; Hofstede, Floris C; Kalkan-Ucar, Sema; Coker, Mahmut; Lama-More, Rosa; Martinez-Pardo Casanova, Mercedes; Molina, Agustin; Pichard, Samia; Papadia, Francesco; Rosello, Patricia; Plisson, Celine; Le Mouhaer, Jeannie; Chakrapani, Anupam

    2016-03-31

    Isovaleric aciduria (IVA), propionic aciduria (PA) and methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) are inherited organic acidurias (OAs) in which impaired organic acid metabolism induces hyperammonaemia arising partly from secondary deficiency of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) synthase. Rapid reduction in plasma ammonia is required to prevent neurological complications. This retrospective, multicentre, open-label, uncontrolled, phase IIIb study evaluated the efficacy and safety of carglumic acid, a synthetic structural analogue of NAG, for treating hyperammonaemia during OA decompensation. Eligible patients had confirmed OA and hyperammonaemia (plasma NH3 > 60 μmol/L) in ≥1 decompensation episode treated with carglumic acid (dose discretionary, mean (SD) first dose 96.3 (73.8) mg/kg). The primary outcome was change in plasma ammonia from baseline to endpoint (last available ammonia measurement at ≤18 hours after the last carglumic acid administration, or on Day 15) for each episode. Secondary outcomes included clinical response and safety. The efficacy population (received ≥1 dose of study drug and had post-baseline measurements) comprised 41 patients (MMA: 21, PA: 16, IVA: 4) with 48 decompensation episodes (MMA: 25, PA: 19, IVA: 4). Mean baseline plasma ammonia concentration was 468.3 (±365.3) μmol/L in neonates (29 episodes) and 171.3 (±75.7) μmol/L in non-neonates (19 episodes). At endpoint the mean plasma NH3 concentration was 60.7 (±36.5) μmol/L in neonates and 55.2 (±21.8) μmol/L in non-neonates. Median time to normalise ammonaemia was 38.4 hours in neonates vs 28.3 hours in non-neonates and was similar between OA subgroups (MMA: 37.5 hours, PA: 36.0 hours, IVA: 40.5 hours). Median time to ammonia normalisation was 1.5 and 1.6 days in patients receiving and not receiving concomitant scavenger therapy, respectively. Although patients receiving carglumic acid with scavengers had a greater reduction in plasma ammonia, the endpoint ammonia levels were

  18. Newer approaches to opioid detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Opioid use disorders present with distressing withdrawal symptoms at the time of detoxification. The pharmacological agents and methods currently in use for detoxification mainly include buprenorphine, methadone, and clonidine. Many other pharmacological agents have been tried for opioid detoxification. This review takes a look at the newer pharmacological options, both opioid agonists and non-agonist medications that have been utilized for detoxification. Peer reviewed articles were identified using PubMed and PsychInfo databases. The keywords included for the search were a combination of ′opioid′ and ′detoxification′ and their synonyms. All the articles published in the last 10 years were screened for. Relevant data was extracted from identified studies. Many newer pharmacological agents have been tried in detoxification of opioids. However, the quest for a safe, efficacious, cost-effective pharmacological option which requires minimal monitoring still continues. The role of non-pharmacological measures and alternative medicine needs further evaluation.

  19. Opiate Withdrawal Complicated by Tetany and Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfanali R. Kugasia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with symptoms of opiate withdrawal, after the administration of opiate antagonist by paramedics, are a common presentation in the emergency department of hospitals. Though most of opiate withdrawal symptoms are benign, rarely they can become life threatening. This case highlights how a benign opiate withdrawal symptom of hyperventilation led to severe respiratory alkalosis that degenerated into tetany and cardiac arrest. Though this patient was successfully resuscitated, it is imperative that severe withdrawal symptoms are timely identified and immediate steps are taken to prevent catastrophes. An easier way to reverse the severe opiate withdrawal symptom would be with either low dose methadone or partial opiate agonists like buprenorphine. However, if severe acid-base disorder is identified, it would be safer to electively intubate these patients for better control of their respiratory and acid-base status.

  20. Detoxification of cyanides in cassava flour by linamarase of Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partially purified linamarase (53 KDa) enzyme from this organism showed considerable activity (9.6 U/ml) and effected rapid cyanide reduction in cassava flour. The results indicate scope for enzymatic detoxification of cassava cyanide without compromising nutrients in sago industries. Key words: Cyanogenic glucoside ...

  1. Opioid detoxification: from controlled clinical trial to clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Wensing, M.J.P.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Staak, C.P. van der

    2010-01-01

    Controlled clinical trials have high internal validity but suffer from difficulties in external validity. This study evaluates the generalizability of the results of a controlled clinical trial on rapid detoxification in the everyday clinical practice of two addiction treatment centers. The results

  2. Opioid Detoxification: From Controlled Clinical Trial to Clinical Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Wensing, M.J.P.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Staak, C.P.F. van der

    2010-01-01

    Controlled clinical trials have high internal validity but suffer from difficulties in external validity. This study evaluates the generalizability of the results of a controlled clinical trial on rapid detoxification in the everyday clinical practice of two addiction treatment centers. The results

  3. Opioid detoxification : from controlled clinical trial to clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; De Jong, Cor A J; Wensing, Michel; Krabbe, Paul F M; van der Staak, Cees P F

    2010-01-01

    Controlled clinical trials have high internal validity but suffer from difficulties in external validity. This study evaluates the generalizability of the results of a controlled clinical trial on rapid detoxification in the everyday clinical practice of two addiction treatment centers. The results

  4. Opiate addicts in and outside of treatment; Different populations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Goossensen (Anne)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe core of this study is related to the insight that the population of opiate addicls is quite an invisible group. Some paris of this group can be identified at treatment institutions and in prisons. However, a large pari of the opiate addicls is hard to detect. This is because

  5. Cannabinoid and opioid interactions: implications for opiate dependence and withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavone, J.L.; Sterling, R.C.; Van Bockstaele, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Withdrawal from opiates, such as heroin or oral narcotics, is characterized by a host of aversive physical and emotional symptoms. High rates of relapse and limited treatment success rates for opiate addiction have prompted a search for new approaches. For many opiate addicts, achieving abstinence may be further complicated by poly-drug use and co-morbid mental disorders. Research over the past decade has shed light on the influence of endocannabinoids on the opioid system. Evidence from both animal and clinical studies point towards an interaction between these two systems, and suggest that targeting the endocannabinoid system may provide novel interventions for managing opiate dependence and withdrawal. This review will summarize the literature surrounding the molecular effects of cannabinoids and opioids system on the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system, a key circuit implicated in the negative sequelae of opiate addiction. A consideration of the trends and effects of marijuana use in those seeking treatment to abstain from opiates in the clinical setting will also be presented. In summary, the present review details how cannabinoid-opioid interactions may inform novel interventions in management of opiate dependence and withdrawal. PMID:23624062

  6. Distribution of opiate alkaloids in brain tissue of experimental animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilija, Vladimir; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Budakov, Branislav; Cvjeticanin, Stanko

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined regional distribution of opiate alkaloids from seized heroin in brain regions of experimental animals in order to select parts with the highest content of opiates. Their analysis should contribute to resolve causes of death due to heroin intake. The tests were performed at different time periods (5, 15, 45 and 120 min) after male and female Wistar rats were treated with seized heroin. Opiate alkaloids (codeine, morphine, acetylcodeine, 6-acetylmorphine and 3,6-diacetylmorphine) were quantitatively determined in brain regions known for their high concentration of µ-opiate receptors: cortex, brainstem, amygdala and basal ganglia, by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The highest content of opiate alkaloids in the brain tissue of female animals was found 15 min and in male animals 45 min after treatment. The highest content of opiates was determined in the basal ganglia of the animals of both genders, indicating that this part of brain tissue presents a reliable sample for identifying and assessing contents of opiates after heroin intake. PMID:23554560

  7. Glutathione-Dependent Detoxification Processes in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dringen, Ralf; Brandmann, Maria; Hohnholt, Michaela C

    2015-01-01

    component in many of the astrocytic detoxification processes is the tripeptide glutathione (GSH) which serves as electron donor in the GSH peroxidase-catalyzed reduction of peroxides. In addition, GSH is substrate in the detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds by GSH-S-transferases which...... knowledge on the GSH metabolism of astrocytes with a special emphasis on GSH-dependent detoxification processes....

  8. Maintenance Medication for Opiate Addiction: The Foundation of Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Bart, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    Illicit use of opiates is the fastest growing substance use problem in the United States and the main reason for seeking addiction treatment services for illicit drug use throughout the world. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality related to HIV, hepatitis C, and overdose. Treatment for opiate addiction requires long-term management. Behavioral interventions alone have extremely poor outcomes, with more than 80% of patients returning to drug use. Similarly poor results are...

  9. Comparative analysis of pathological and toxicological features of opiate overdose and non-overdose fatalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soravisut, Narin; Rattanasalee, Pranithan; Junkuy, Anongphan; Thampitak, Subharat; Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk

    2011-12-01

    To compare pathological and toxicological features between opiate overdose and non-opiate overdose fatalities examined in the Department of Forensic Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. A retrospective study of 142 cases, diagnosed as opiate-related deaths between 1996 and 2008 was conducted. Demographic data, pathological findings and toxicological results were retrieved from autopsy records. Within these 142 opiate-related deaths, 102 cases were classified as opiate overdose fatalities by Forensic Medicine doctors. More than 95% ofcases were male. About 80% were aged 20 to 39 years. Forty-eight percent were Thai, 13% were British and 11% were American. The most commonplaces of death were residential areas and hotels. Pulmonary edema and needle marks were more common in opiate overdose cases than in non-opiate overdose cases. Toxicological findings showed that 61% of opiate overdose cases and 34% of non-opiate overdose cases were positive for blood morphine. Morphine was detected in about 95% of urine samples in both groups. About 62% of opiate overdose cases and 31% of non-opiate overdose cases had positive blood alcohol. The average incidence of opiate-related death was about 1% of autopsy cases. More than two thirds of the deaths were opiate overdose cases. After the year 2003, more foreigners suffered from opiate overdose fatalities than Thais. The fatalities were confined to an area frequented by tourists. Pulmonary edema and needle puncture marks were more frequently observed in opiate overdose cases. The number of cases of morphine detection in serum from the opiate overdose group was significantly higher than in the non-opiate overdose group. There was no significant difference in urine morphine detection between both groups. Other substances detected in these victims were alcohol, benzodiazepines, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methadone. Alcohol was found significantly higher in opiate overdose fatality than in non-opiate

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of fluorinated derivatives of fentanyl as candidates for opiate receptor studies using positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahren Hwang; Feliu, A.L.; Wolf, A.P.; MacGregor, R.R.; Fowler, J.S.; Arnett, C.D.

    1986-03-01

    Three fluorinated derivatives of fentanyl, fluorofentanyl (3), keto-fluorofentanyl (5), and fluorofentanol (6), were synthesized and their abilities to compete with /sup 3/diprenorphine for binding sites in guinea pig brain membranes were determined. The relative potencies were fentanyl > 3 approx.= 6 >> 5. On the basis of its apparent affinity for opiate receptors and its relative ease of synthesis, 6 was selected for further study. Fentanyl was slightly better than 6 in its ability to compete with (/sup 3/H)naltrexone for binding sites in rat brain membranes. Both fentayl and 6 exhibited a similar high ''sodium ratio'' (quotient of the IC/sub 50/'s against (/sup 3/H)naltrexone in the presence and absence of sodium chloride) generally characteristic of opiate agonists. The analgesic potencies of fentanyl and 6 were determined in rats by measuring suppression of locomotion and vocalization responses to footshock. 6 appeared slightly less potent than fentanyl, but produced a similar analgesia and catalepsy which was entirely blocked by pretreatment of rats with naloxone, an opiate antagonist. A rapid synthesis of (/sup 18/F)-6 was developed and the tissue distribution of (/sup 18/F)-6 in mice was determined 5, 60, and 120 minutes after intravenous injection. The use of this general route to /sup 18/F-labeled derivatives of fentanyl for studies of the opiate receptor using positron emission tomography is planned.

  11. Psychosocial and treatment correlates of opiate free success in a clinical review of a naltrexone implant program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reece AS

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is on-going controversy in relation to the efficacy of naltrexone used for the treatment of heroin addiction, and the important covariates of that success. We were also interested to review our experience with two depot forms of implantable naltrexone. Methods A retrospective review of patients' charts was undertaken, patients were recalled by telephone and by letter, and urine drug screen samples were collected. Opiate free success (OFS was the parameter of interest. Three groups were defined. The first two were treated in the previous 12 months and comprised "implant" and "tablet" patients. A third group was "historical" comprising those treated orally in the preceding 12 months. Results There were 102, 113 and 161 patients in each group respectively. Groups were matched for age, sex, and dose of heroin used, but not financial status or social support. The overall follow-up rate was 82%. The Kaplan Meier 12 month OFS were 82%, 58% and 52% respectively. 12 post-treatment variables were independently associated with treatment retention. In a Cox proportional hazard multivariate model social support, the number of detoxification episodes, post-treatment employment, the use of multiple implant episodes and spiritual belief were significantly related to OFS. Conclusion Consistent with the voluminous international literature clinically useful retention rates can be achieved with naltrexone, which may be improved by implants and particularly serial implants, repeat detoxification, meticulous clinical follow-up, and social support. As depot formulations of naltrexone become increasingly available such results can guide their clinical deployment, improve treatment outcomes, and enlarge the policy options for an exciting non-addictive pharmacotherapy for opiate addiction.

  12. Opiate addiction in Republic of Srpska: Characteristics and etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niškanović Jelena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Opiate addiction is a significant social and health problem with a negative impact on individuals' health and their social environment. The aim of this paper is to analyze the characteristics of opiate addicts in order to determine the social and contextual factors underlying the development of addiction. All health care facilities and therapeutic communities which provide care and help addicts are required to fill in the Form of treated addicts. The analysis included people who sought treatment during the period from 25th November 2010 to 21st May 2013 in health care facilities and associations for substance abuse treatment in the Republic of Srpska. The majority of treated addicts belong to opiate addiction (N= 241: 91%. Opiate addicts are mostly males (88.8%, while 11.2% of treated opiate addicts are female. The highest percentage of opiate addicts live in urban areas (86.7%, have secondary education (73.4%, 63.3% are unemployed, while 70.5% live with primary family. Predominant etiologic factor for the development of addiction is peer or partner pressure (29%, pathology of the family as family breakdown or alcoholism (19.3%, while on the third place is low self control (16.8%. For 19.1% of opiate addicts, delinquent behavior started before taking any drugs. The presented data confirms the importance of social environment, like low family control and presence of family pathology. The mentioned factors in combination with negative peer pressure can lead to risky behavior and potential addiction.

  13. Detoxification enzymes activities in deltamethrin and bendiocarb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detoxification enzymes activities in deltamethrin and bendiocarb resistant and susceptible malarial vectors ( Anopheles gambiae ) breeding in Bichi agricultural and residential sites, Kano state, Nigeria.

  14. Use of Opiates to Manage Pain in the Seriously and Terminally Ill Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but also to possible premature death and even suicide. What are opiate medicines? Opiates are a class ... NOT the same as being addicted (remember the definition of addiction above as a psychological disorder marked ...

  15. Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; Krabbe, Paul F M; De Jong, Cor A J; van der Staak, Cees P F

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of

  16. Prediction of withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Staak, C.P.F. van der

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The severity of self-reported withdrawal symptoms varies during detoxification of opioid-dependent patients. The aim of this study is to identify subgroups of withdrawal symptoms within the detoxification trajectory and to predict the severity of withdrawal symptoms on the basis of

  17. Accelerated neuroregulation for therapy of opiate dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sunatrio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute weaning from chronic opioid abuse during general anesthesia is usually followed by adrenergic outflow effects. This article is to report our experience with accelerated neuroregulation that reverses the physical and psychological dependency. After a comprehensive psychological and medical examination, 361 heroin dependent patients were admitted to ICU to be hospitalized for a full 24 or 36 hours, including a 6 hour pre-procedure medication process (solbutamol, clonidine, diazepam, ranitidine, omeprazole, vitamin C, octreotide, and ondansetron. Anesthesia was induced with midazolam and propofol iv and maintained with propofol infusion. Naltrexon, clonidine, octreotide, and diazepam were then administered. Anesthesia was maintained for 3 ½ - 5 hours depending on severity of withdrawal symptoms precipitated by naltrexone. Analgetics and sedatives were given as needed afterwards. Upon discharge on the following day, patient was prescribed a regimen of oral naltrexone for 10-12 months. All 361 patients were successfully detoxified without any adverse anesthetic events. The side effects encountered were fatigue, insomnia, drowsy, shivering, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhoea, myalgia, goose bumps and uncomfortable feeling. In most of the patients these symptoms disappeared without any treatment. Symptomatic treatments were needed in 32.7% of patients. In all 166 patients who completed their naltrexone maintenance treatment, craving disappeared in the 10th month. The main problem was the low patient compliance to oral naltrexone, so that only 45.9% of the patients completed their therapy. Conclusion: Accelerated neuroregulation which includes naltrexone maintenance treatment (10-12 months was highly effective to detoxify and to abolish craving in the heroin dependent patients. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 53-8Keywords: detoxification, craving management

  18. Total biosynthesis of opiates by stepwise fermentation using engineered Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Akira; Matsumura, Eitaro; Koyanagi, Takashi; Katayama, Takane; Kawano, Noriaki; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kumagai, Hidehiko; Sato, Fumihiko; Minami, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    Opiates such as morphine and codeine are mainly obtained by extraction from opium poppies. Fermentative opiate production in microbes has also been investigated, and complete biosynthesis of opiates from a simple carbon source has recently been accomplished in yeast. Here we demonstrate that Escherichia coli serves as an efficient, robust and flexible platform for total opiate synthesis. Thebaine, the most important raw material in opioid preparations, is produced by stepwise culture of four ...

  19. Differential opiate influences on food hoarding and intake in the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaliers, M; Hirst, M

    1985-12-09

    The feeding behavior of the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, includes food hoarding as well as ingestion. In this animal the mu opiate agonist, morphine, and the kappa opiate agonist, U-50, 488H, selectively stimulate food hoarding and ingestion, respectively. This suggests that mu and kappa opiate systems may differentially mediate primary components of natural feeding behavior.

  20. Lifetime ATS use and increased HIV risk among not-in-treatment opiate injectors in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawarski, Marek C; Vicknasingam, Balasingam; Mazlan, Mahmud; Schottenfeld, Richard S

    2012-07-01

    Malaysia has been experiencing significant drug abuse problems since the 1970s, and drug abuse is the major driver of HIV transmission in Malaysia. We investigated risk factors for HIV associated with use of amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) among not-in-treatment opiate injectors in Malaysia. Between October of 2006 and May of 2008, we conducted a series of surveys in three major urban areas of Malaysia. A total of 732 opiate IDUs (679 males and 53 females) were enrolled in the three surveys. The survey instruments consisted of a structured interview on demographic characteristics, drug use history (including year of first use, and past month history of use of illicit drugs; lifetime and past month history of IDU or needle or equipment sharing), and HIV status. There were 194/704 (27.6%) HIV positive participants in the sample. Two factors were significantly associated with HIV infection in this sample: lifetime history of ATS use (OR [95%CI]: 2.3 [1.5-3.6]) and lifetime history of sharing of injection equipment (OR [95% CI]: 4.2 [1.8-9.8]). Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants reported high levels of current needle/equipment sharing practices: 82% vs. 75%, respectively. ATS use spread rapidly in the study sample after 1997 and is associated with an increased risk of HIV infection in this population already at high risk because of opiate IDU. Out-of-treatment IDUs in Malaysia engage in high risk behaviors regardless of their HIV status. Increased education and public health prevention measures are needed to reduce HIV transmission risks in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Arsenic Detoxification by Geobacter Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yan; Walker, David J F; Vautour, Kaitlin E; Dixon, Steven; Holmes, Dawn E

    2017-02-15

    Insight into the mechanisms for arsenic detoxification by Geobacter species is expected to improve the understanding of global cycling of arsenic in iron-rich subsurface sedimentary environments. Analysis of 14 different Geobacter genomes showed that all of these species have genes coding for an arsenic detoxification system (ars operon), and several have genes required for arsenic respiration (arr operon) and methylation (arsM). Genes encoding four arsenic repressor-like proteins were detected in the genome of G. sulfurreducens; however, only one (ArsR1) regulated transcription of the ars operon. Elimination of arsR1 from the G. sulfurreducens chromosome resulted in enhanced transcription of genes coding for the arsenic efflux pump (Acr3) and arsenate reductase (ArsC). When the gene coding for Acr3 was deleted, cells were not able to grow in the presence of either the oxidized or reduced form of arsenic, while arsC deletion mutants could grow in the presence of arsenite but not arsenate. These studies shed light on how Geobacter influences arsenic mobility in anoxic sediments and may help us develop methods to remediate arsenic contamination in the subsurface. This study examines arsenic transformation mechanisms utilized by Geobacter, a genus of iron-reducing bacteria that are predominant in many anoxic iron-rich subsurface environments. Geobacter species play a major role in microbially mediated arsenic release from metal hydroxides in the subsurface. This release raises arsenic concentrations in drinking water to levels that are high enough to cause major health problems. Therefore, information obtained from studies of Geobacter should shed light on arsenic cycling in iron-rich subsurface sedimentary environments, which may help reduce arsenic-associated illnesses. These studies should also help in the development of biosensors that can be used to detect arsenic contaminants in anoxic subsurface environments. We examined 14 different Geobacter genomes and found

  2. 21 CFR 862.3650 - Opiate test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Opiate test system. 862.3650 Section 862.3650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3650...

  3. Premorbid and current neuropsychological function in opiate abusers receiving treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluck, Graham; Lee, Kwang-Hyuk; Rele, Ruta; Spence, Sean A; Sarkar, Sugato; Lagundoye, Olawale; Parks, Randolph W

    2012-07-01

    There is an established corpus of evidence linking substance abuse with neuropsychological impairment, particularly implicating frontal lobe functions. These could potentially be premorbid to, rather than consequences of, direct effects of substance abuse. A matched pairs design was employed in which currently abstinent opiate abusers in treatment were matched to 22 healthy control individuals. These were compared for premorbid and current neurobehavioral abnormalities with the self-report Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). Estimated premorbid and current IQ scores were also ascertained. There was no difference between the groups regarding socioeconomic background. There was no evidence for an alteration in cognitive function as measured by current IQ associated with opiate abuse, nor evidence of premorbidly lower IQ. However, with the FrSBe, the opiate abusers reported overall higher levels of apathy. They also had raised FrSBe total scores, indicating the presence of neurobehavioral features associated with frontal lobe impairment. Furthermore, the opiate abusers reported higher levels of these neurobehavioral abnormalities compared to their matched controls, even in the period preceding substance abuse. The results suggest that some substance abusing individuals in treatment demonstrate raised levels of neurobehavioral abnormalities, independently of general intellectual functioning. Furthermore, the results imply that these abnormalities may have already been present prior to the effects on the nervous system of substance abuse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Opiate Injection Site Infections--19 years in the UK

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-09-06

    Dan Lewer, a public health registrar in England, discusses an increase in infections related to opiate injections in the U.K.  Created: 9/6/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/6/2017.

  5. Microbial detoxification of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völkl, Andrea; Vogler, Bernhard; Schollenberger, Margit; Karlovsky, Petr

    2004-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a trichothecene secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium species infecting cereal crops. As a mycotoxin, DON causes losses in livestock production and poses a health risk to humans consuming contaminated cereal products. DON also acts as a virulence factor, facilitating the colonization of host plants by Fusarium spp. Enzymatic detoxification of mycotoxins in feed additives and genetically modified crops is a promising approach for the reduction of mycotoxin contamination of feeds and food. A prerequisite for the development of biotechnological strategies for DON detoxification is the availability of genes encoding suitable enzymatic activities. With the goal of isolating microbial cultures that can be used as a source of such activities, we screened 1285 microbial cultures from farmland soil, cereal grains, insects and other sources for DON transformation under aerobic conditions. One mixed culture transformed DON into two chromatographically separable products. The main product of the transformation was purified and its structure was elucidated by mass spectroscopy, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and proton-proton and carbon-proton correlated NMR spectroscopy. The structure of this product was determined to be 3-keto-4-deoxynivalenol. The DON-transforming mixed culture survived and retained its transforming activity during a starvation period of six months at 20 degrees C. Transformation of DON was suppressed by low concentrations of glucose and high concentrations of tryptone and yeast extract. Cell-free supernatants obtained either by filtration through a 0.22 microm membrane filter or by centrifugation did not exert DON-transforming activity. Trichothecenes 15-acetyl-DON, 3-acetyl-DON and fusarenon-X were also transformed. Copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

  6. Estimate of the extent of opiate overdose in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Overdose is known to be among leading causes of death in injection drug users (IDUs. However, there is no official statistics in Ukraine with regard to both fatal and nonfatal overdose. We aimed to estimate the scope of the problem and level of provided help to those who have suffered overdose.METHODS: Data from bio-behavioral survey conducted among IDUs in 2007 (N=8575 with general questions about having experienced overdose and specialized survey among participants of overdose prevention and response program conducted in 2010 (N=2821 were considered. The specialized survey inquired personal experience of overdose and received help, witnessing overdose in others and providing help. Data triangulation was used to estimate the scope of the problem.RESULTS: Among the participants of the specialized survey, 1918 witnessed overdoses and 550 of them said that help was delivered late. Thus, up to 29% of overdoses could be fatal.According to the results of the bio-behavioral survey, 35-37% of self-prepared opiates users have ever experienced overdose, while among all IDUs current opiate users constitute 53% and 80% are ever users. Among the participants of the specialized survey, a larger proportion are current opiate users (73%, and 70% have ever suffered overdose with 19% within the last six months. Of 1201 opiate overdoses reported by the participants of the specialized survey, 179 have reported to have received specific treatment with naloxone which constitutes 15%. With estimated number of IDUs in Ukraine around 300 thousand, this makes 159 thousand opiate users, 57 thousand those who have ever suffered overdose and 15 thousand those who suffered overdose within last six months. Of these, 4 thousand could have died and 2 thousand could have received specific treatment with naloxone.CONCLUSION: We estimate that 30 thousand nonfatal and 8 thousand fatal overdoses may happen in Ukraine per year.

  7. Opiate versus psychostimulant addiction: the differences do matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Aldo; Belin, David; Epstein, David; Calu, Donna; Shaham, Yavin

    2011-10-05

    The publication of the psychomotor stimulant theory of addiction in 1987 and the finding that addictive drugs increase dopamine concentrations in the rat mesolimbic system in 1988 have led to a predominance of psychobiological theories that consider addiction to opiates and addiction to psychostimulants as essentially identical phenomena. Indeed, current theories of addiction - hedonic allostasis, incentive sensitization, aberrant learning and frontostriatal dysfunction - all argue for a unitary account of drug addiction. This view is challenged by behavioural, cognitive and neurobiological findings in laboratory animals and humans. Here, we argue that opiate addiction and psychostimulant addiction are behaviourally and neurobiologically distinct and that the differences have important implications for addiction treatment, addiction theories and future research.

  8. Amenability to counseling of opiate addicts on probation or parole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkin, K; Wilson, K E

    1982-08-01

    Fifty-two opiate addicts were classified as abstainers or continued abusers by their probation or parole officer. Eighteen variables--nine demographic and nine psychological--were evaluated for all subjects. Following factor analysis, 13 remaining variables were entered into a stepwise discriminant function analysis which significantly differentiated the abstaining and abusing groups. Abstainers were characterized by less dogmatism, higher education and personality integration, fewer aggressive incidents and previous drug arrests, and older age. The discriminant function classified 78.8% of the observations correctly and accounted for 27% of the variance. Rokeach's Dogmatism Scale, the Personality Integration Subscale of the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and the effective demographic discriminators have been included in a screening battery for counseling amenability by which incoming opiate addicts scoring like abstainers are granted priority in treatment assignment.

  9. Expansion of opiate agonist treatment: an historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newman Robert G

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Untreated opiate addiction remains a major health care crisis in New York and in most other urban centers in America. Optimism for closing the gap between need and demand for treatment and its availability has greeted the recent approval of a new opiate medication for addiction, buprenorphine – which unlike methadone may be prescribed by independent, office-based practitioners. The likelihood of buprenorphine fulfilling its potential is assessed in the light of the massive expansion of methadone treatment more than 30 years earlier. It is concluded that the key, indispensable ingredient of success will be true commitment on the part of Government to provide care to all those who need it.

  10. Uzbekistan: government discontinues pilot opiate substitution therapy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatrian, Avet

    2009-12-01

    In this decade, with support from the international community, most countries of the former Soviet Union introduced opiate substitution therapy (OST) programs, using methadone or buprenorphine, in order to curb the spread of HIV and to introduce more efficient drug dependence treatment options. However, the development is uneven:While some countries have expanded their pilot projects, others have not gone beyond the pilot stage. One Central Asian country--Uzbekistan--has recently closed its pilot OST project.

  11. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Opiate and Stimulant Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Karami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early maladaptive schemas are valid representations of unpleasant childhood experiences that shape a person’s viewpoints of the world, and lead to clinical symptoms such as depression, personality disorders, and substance abuse. Given the importance of this matter, we conducted a research on early maladaptive schemas in substance-abusers, to allow more appropriate preventive measures to be taken with a better understanding of the issue. Methods: For this descriptive-comparative study, 115 patients (91 opiate users and 24 stimulant users visiting drug addiction treatment centers were selected through convenience sampling from persons who were admitted to substance abuse treatment centers (Methadone Maintenance therapy centers, addiction treatment camps and self-help groups and Narcotics Anonymous (NA of Yasuj. Data were collected using a Demographic Information Questionnaire and Young’s Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF. Data analysis was done with ANOVA and t-tests. Results: The results showed a significant difference (P<0.05 between users of opiates and stimulants in terms of vulnerability to harm or illness, enmeshment, subjugation, emotional inhibition, entitlement, insufficient self-control/self-discipline, emotional  deprivation, social isolation, defectiveness, failure/shame, and dependence. The average score of the stimulant-users was higher than that of opiate-users in all the schemas except for the dimensions of abandonment, mistrust, and unrelenting standards. Discussion: Stimulant users have more early maladaptive schemas and are at a greater risk of psychological vulnerability. Early maladaptive schemas can be used by clinicians and researchers as a psychopathology and treatment method for substance dependence disorder.

  12. Influence of Manganese on Ochratoxin A Detoxification in Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Serum samples were assayed for liver enzymes and kidney biomarkers. Histopathological ... porteries and veins, pericholongitis, congestion of portal vessels by white blood cells, hepatocellular necrosis and ... ochratoxin A detoxification. Key Words: Ochratoxin A, Biochemical, Histological, Detoxification, Manganese, Rats.

  13. The opiate antagonist, naltrexone, in the treatment of trichotillomania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Schreiber, Liana R N

    2014-01-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM) is characterized by repetitive hair pulling resulting in hair loss. Data on the pharmacological treatment of TTM are limited. This study examined the opioid antagonist, naltrexone, in adults with TTM who had urges to pull their hair. Fifty-one individuals with TTM were...... improved with naltrexone (P = 0.026). Subjects taking naltrexone with a family history of addiction showed a greater numerical reduction in the urges to pull, although it was not statistically significant. Future studies will have to examine whether pharmacological modulation of the opiate system may...

  14. [Detoxification of patients with GHB dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oene, G.H. de Weert-van; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Dijkstra, B.A.; Kamal, R.M.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A new detoxification method for ghb dependence was developed recently in the Netherlands. The method involves the use of pharmaceutical ghb. AIM: To describe the characteristics of ghb

  15. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses represents a global threat to seagrasses. In contrast seegrasses grow in hostile sediments, where they are constantly exposed to sulfide intrusion. Little is known about the strategies to survive sulfide intrusion, if there are detoxification mechanisms and sulfur ...

  16. Screening of cannabinoids, benzoylecgonine and opiates in whole blood and urine using emit II plus immunoassay and konelab 30

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Christiansen, Nobuko; Müller, Irene Breum

    2004-01-01

    Screening,cannabinoids,benzoylecgonine,opiates in whole blood and urine, emit II, immunoassay,konelab 30......Screening,cannabinoids,benzoylecgonine,opiates in whole blood and urine, emit II, immunoassay,konelab 30...

  17. Acting with the future in mind is impaired in long-term opiate users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrett, Gill; Lyons, Amanda; Henry, Julie D; Ryrie, Clare; Suddendorf, Thomas; Rendell, Peter G

    2017-01-01

    Episodic foresight is a fundamental human capacity. It refers to the ability to simulate future situations and organise current actions accordingly. While there is some evidence that opiate users have a reduced capacity to imagine themselves in future situations, no study to date has assessed whether opiate users show deficits in the ability to take steps in the present in anticipation of future needs. In this study, we assessed whether this functional aspect of episodic foresight is impaired in chronic opiate users and the extent to which any deficits are associated with executive dysfunction. Participants were 33 long-term opiate users enrolled in an opiate substitution program and 34 controls. Relative to controls, the opiate users displayed significant impairment (medium effect size η (2)p = 0.08) in the two behavioural measures of episodic foresight used (items acquired and items used in the VW Foresight task). Furthermore, executive functioning was associated with foresight ability, although this was restricted to items acquired, and the associations were generally stronger for the control group. These data provide important evidence suggesting that the functional aspect of episodic foresight is disrupted in long-term opiate users. While these deficits appear to have some links to impaired executive control, additional work is needed to gain a more complete understanding of the underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms involved. This, in turn, will have important implications for tailoring interventions with opiate users to maximise the likelihood of successful independent functioning.

  18. Chronic opiate use in pregnancy and newborn head circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Kevin C; Hennessy, Kerry C; Towers, Craig V; Howard, Bobby C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate whether chronic opiate use in pregnancy affects newborn head circumference (HC). All newborns from January 1, 2010, to June 30, 2012, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit for treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome were prospectively collected. The demographic, obstetrical, neonatal, and perinatal ultrasound data were retrospectively obtained. A gestational age-matched control was used for comparison purposes. Of 332 neonates admitted for the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome, 98 (29.5%) had a HC ≤ 10th percentile for gestational age that was significantly increased when compared with controls (p percentile. Of the case population, 141 had an ultrasound in the perinatal unit within 10 days of birth. A HC percentile was found in 38.3% of cases of which 74% were ≤ 10th percentile postdelivery. The ultrasound femur and humerus length measurements were also percentile in 36.2 and 28.9%, respectively. Chronic opiate use in pregnancy appears to increase the risk for a HC ≤ 10th percentile and ≤ 3rd percentile when compared with controls. From ultrasound findings, femur and humerus lengths also appear to be shortened suggesting a possible effect on bone growth. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Estimating the number of opiate users in amsterdam by capture-recapture: the importance of case definition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buster, M. C.; van Brussel, G. H.; van den Brink, W.

    2001-01-01

    One of the objectives of Amsterdam's methadone maintenance treatment is maximising its coverage among problematic opiate users. In order to evaluate what proportion is reached, the capture-recapture method is conducted to estimate the prevalence of problematic opiate use. Samples of opiate users in

  20. Excitatory and inhibitory effects of opiates in the rat vas deferens: a dual mechanism of opiate action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Y F

    1980-10-03

    Both natural (-)-morphine and its unnatural enantiomer (+)-morphine exert an excitatory action on electrically stimulated contractions of rat vas deferens. Preexposure to (-)-morphine results in cross-tolerance to the inhibitory action of beta-endorphin. (-)-Naloxone and its stereoisomer (+)-naloxone also exert an excitatory action, but only (-)-naloxone bocks the inhibtory action of beta-endorphin. Thus morphine exerts a dual action on a peripheral organ: one an inhibitory action mediated by the stereospecific endorphin receptor that is blocked stereospecifically by naloxone, the other an excitatory action mediated by a nonstereospecific receptor that is not blocked by naloxone. The opiate abstinence syndrome is seen as due to the unmasking of the excitatory action of opiates when its concomitant inhibitory influence is removed by selective blockade by naloxone or weakened by selective tolerance. The view that the rat vas deferens is devoid of morphine receptors is now seen as arising from a reverse example of morphine's dual action: the masking of the inhibitory action of morphine by its concomitant and more potent excitatory action.

  1. Heavy metal detoxification in eukaryotic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Peña-Castro, Julián Mario; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2006-06-01

    Microalgae are aquatic organisms possessing molecular mechanisms that allow them to discriminate non-essential heavy metals from those essential ones for their growth. The different detoxification processes executed by algae are reviewed with special emphasis on those involving the peptides metallothioneins, mainly the post transcriptionally synthesized class III metallothioneins or phytochelatins. Also, the features that make microalgae suitable organisms technologies specially to treat water that is heavily polluted with metals is discussed.

  2. Opiate addiction and cocaine addiction: underlying molecular neurobiology and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Levran, Orna; Reed, Brian; Schlussman, Stefan D.; Zhou, Yan; Butelman, Eduardo R.

    2012-01-01

    Addictive diseases, including addiction to heroin, prescription opioids, or cocaine, pose massive personal and public health costs. Addictions are chronic relapsing diseases of the brain caused by drug-induced direct effects and persisting neuroadaptations at the epigenetic, mRNA, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter, or protein levels. These neuroadaptations, which can be specific to drug type, and their resultant behaviors are modified by various internal and external environmental factors, including stress responsivity, addict mindset, and social setting. Specific gene variants, including variants encoding pharmacological target proteins or genes mediating neuroadaptations, also modify vulnerability at particular stages of addiction. Greater understanding of these interacting factors through laboratory-based and translational studies have the potential to optimize early interventions for the therapy of chronic addictive diseases and to reduce the burden of relapse. Here, we review the molecular neurobiology and genetics of opiate addiction, including heroin and prescription opioids, and cocaine addiction. PMID:23023708

  3. Cannabis as an adjunct to or substitute for opiates in the treatment of chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence to support the use of medical cannabis as an adjunct to or substitute for prescription opiates in the treatment of chronic pain. When used in conjunction with opiates, cannabinoids lead to a greater cumulative relief of pain, resulting in a reduction in the use of opiates (and associated side-effects) by patients in a clinical setting. Additionally, cannabinoids can prevent the development of tolerance to and withdrawal from opiates, and can even rekindle opiate analgesia after a prior dosage has become ineffective. Novel research suggests that cannabis may be useful in the treatment of problematic substance use. These findings suggest that increasing safe access to medical cannabis may reduce the personal and social harms associated with addiction, particularly in relation to the growing problematic use of pharmaceutical opiates. Despite a lack of regulatory oversight by federal governments in North America, community-based medical cannabis dispensaries have proven successful at supplying patients with a safe source of cannabis within an environment conducive to healing, and may be reducing the problematic use of pharmaceutical opiates and other potentially harmful substances in their communities.

  4. Plant mediated detoxification of mercury and lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of efficient green chemistry methods for detoxification of metal poisoning has become a major focus of researchers. They have investigated in order to find an eco-friendly and recyclable technique for the removal of heavy metal (Pb2+, Hg2+ contamination from the natural resources. One of the most considered methods is the removal of Pb2+, Hg2+ metal using green plants and their wastes. Among these plant wastes seem to be the best candidates and they are suitable for detoxification of heavy metals. Biosorption by plants involve complex mechanisms, mainly ion exchange, chelation, adsorption by physical forces and ion entrapment in inter and intra fibrillar capillaries and spaces of the structural polysaccharide cell wall network. The advantages of using green plants and their wastes for detoxification of heavy metal have interested researchers to investigate mechanisms of metal ion uptake, and to understand the possible utilization. In this review, we discuss the role of plants and their wastes for minimizing mercury and lead pollution with their toxic effect on both human beings and plants.

  5. Five-Factor Model Personality Profiles: The Differences between Alcohol and Opiate Addiction among Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raketic, Diana; Barisic, Jasmina V; Svetozarevic, Snezana M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Tepavcevic, Darija Kisic; Milovanovic, Srdjan D

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of female alcohol and substance abusers has markedly increased. The main objective of this research was to explore personality profiles among females who had alcohol and opiate dependence. The aim of the study is to analyse if there is differences in personality profiles of females addicted to alcohol and opiates. We hypothesized that there might be significant differences in personality profiles among subgroups of women who present with alcohol and opiate use disorders. Of 157 consecutive women with diagnosis of alcohol/opiate addiction, 62 fulfilled following inclusion criteria: age 19-45 years, abstinence from alcohol and opiates for at least 10 days prior to enrollment. Alcohol-dependent group consisted of 30 females, while opiate-dependent group consisted of 32 females. The control group involved 30 age-matched randomly chosen healthy women. The data were collected using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). The multiple stepwise discriminant analysis was used to determine relations between personality traits and the probability of belonging to one of the study groups. Significant differences in the NEO-PI-R scores were observed between groups for all main personality traits except for Openness to Experience. Compared with controls, substance-dependent women scored significantly higher on Neuroticism and lower on Conscientiousness. Opiate-dependent females scored the highest on Neuroticism and on Extraversion and lowest on Agreeableness and on Conscientiousness. Alcohol-dependent females scored higher on Conscientiousness and lower on Neuroticism compared to opiate-dependent women. The results of our study confirmed significant characteristics in personality profiles among females with alcohol and opiate dependence, as well as the difference between these two groups of substance abusers and their healthy controls. The distinct personality characteristics among different groups of substance addicted women should be taken into account

  6. Sociodemographic And Clinical Profile Of Men Assisted In A Psychiatric Detoxification Service In Natal, Rn, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeika Carla Ferreira de Sena

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The male population has a high probability of abandoning treatment, avoidance of health services, great exposure to violence, mainly due to abusive use of alcohol and other drugs, and high crime rates also associated with this problem. Objective: To characterize the sociodemographic and clinical profile of men admitted to a Psychiatric Detoxification Hospital Unit for alcohol and drug abuse. Method: It is a cross-sectional and retrospective study, with data collection in 2015, with a temporal cut in patients´ records between 2008 and 2014, reaching a sample of 1,152 medical records. The data collection instrument was composed of a structured form. The data were analyzed in a descriptive way. Results: Regarding the age, the age group between 21 and 50 years old had 30.73% between six and ten days hospitalized, and 11.98% had readmissions. The main diagnoses for this disorders were linked to the use of opiates, cannabinoids, sedatives and hypnotics. Conclusion: The profile of internal and assisted men was characterized such as adults of productive age, residents of the metropolitan area of the city, with long periods of hospitalization, generally with improved type discharge, low readmission and diagnoses of mental disorders related to the excessive use of alcohol and other drugs.

  7. Fear during alcohol detoxification: views from the clients' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joanne; Copello, Alex; Orford, Jim

    2005-07-01

    Little is known about fears experienced during alcohol detoxification. Using qualitative research this preliminary study analysed descriptions of fears during one-to-one interviews about the experience of undertaking alcohol detoxification. Fears about detoxification centred around four main areas: the setting in which the process takes place, the physical consequences of withdrawal, the medication given to manage detoxification and the experience of future daily living without alcohol. The findings suggest that particular attention needs to be paid to the environmental setting of detoxification and the personal meaning of receiving medical care for withdrawal. In addition, more integration of relapse prevention work into the earliest stages of alcohol-related treatment and the provision of accurate information about detoxification may prove effective in reducing fears about the process.

  8. Opiate addiction and overdose: experiences, attitudes, and appetite for community naloxone provision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, Tomás

    2017-02-28

    More than 200 opiate overdose deaths occur annually in Ireland. Overdose prevention and management, including naloxone prescription, should be a priority for healthcare services. Naloxone is an effective overdose treatment and is now being considered for wider lay use.

  9. Implicit and Explicit Memory Bias in Opiate Dependent, Abstinent and Normal Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Hasani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of current research was to assess implicit and explicit memory bias to drug related stimuli in opiate Dependent, abstinent and normal Individuals. Method: Three groups including opiate Dependent, abstinent and normal Individuals (n=25 were selected by available sampling method. After matching on the base of age, education level and type of substance use all participants assessed by recognition task (explicit memory bias and stem completion task (implicit memory bias. Results: The analysis of data showed that opiate dependent and abstinent groups in comparison with normal individual had implicit memory bias, whereas in explicit memory only opiate dependent individuals showed bias. Conclusion: The identification of explicit and implicit memory governing addiction may have practical implications in diagnosis, treatment and prevention of substance abuse.

  10. Dismantling the Afghan Opiate Economy: A Cultural and Historical Policy Assessment, with Policy Recommendations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byrom, Christopher L

    2005-01-01

    .... Specific lessons are taken from a chapter dedicated to Afghan culture, history, and rural power structures, and applied in chapters analyzing the opiate economy and current counter-narcotics policies...

  11. Preclinical Assessment of a Strategy to Minimize the Abuse Liability of Opiate Medications for Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0305 TITLE: Preclinical Assessment of a Strategy to Minimize the Abuse Liability of Opiate Medications for Pain...Minimize the Abuse Liability of Opiate Medications for Pain 5b. GRANT NUMBER 10251229 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Wynne Schiffer, PhD...clinically relevant animal model. We have tested two animal models; the Formalin Paw Test (FPT) and the Acetic Acid (AA) writhing test in the

  12. Regional distribution of opiate alkaloids in experimental animals' brain tissue and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurendić-Brenesel Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the regional distribution of opiate alkaloids from seized heroin in experimental animals' brain regions and blood. Results could be used in the examination of opiate alkaloids' distribution in human biological samples in order to contribute to the solution of the causes of death due to heroin intake. Experimental animals (Wistar rats were treated with seized heroin, and were sacrificed at different time periods: 5, 15, 45 and 120 min after treatment. Opiate alkaloids' (codeine, morphine, acetylcodeine, 6- acetylmorphine and 3,6-diacetylmorphine content was determined in the brain regions (cortex, brainstem, amygdala and basal ganglia and blood of animals using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS method. The highest content of opiate alkaloids in the blood was measured 15 min, and in the brain tissue 45 min after the treatment with heroin. The maximal concentration of opiates was determined in the basal ganglia. The obtained results offer the possibility of selecting this part of the brain tissue as a representative sample for identifying and assessing the content of opiates.

  13. Comparison of temperament and character personality traits in opiate and stimulant addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadeghi Pouya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenomenon of addiction as one of the social problems has a high prevalence, especially among youth. The aim of the present study was to compare personality traits based on the temperament and character inventory in opiate and stimulant addicts in Tehran.  Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study, 60 male addicts (30 opiate and 30 stimulant addicts who referred to addiction treatment centers in the suburbs of Tehran were selected through convenience sampling method and were studied using Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI. The participants were sorted according to their age and education.    Results: There was a significant difference between the two groups with regard to harm avoidance, reward dependence, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence traits. Thus, opiate addicts had higher levels of harm avoidance, reward dependence, and cooperativeness, and stimulant addicts had higher levels of self-transcendence. The significance level was set at P<0.01.  Conclusion: The obtained results showed that there was a significant difference between opiate and stimulant addicts. Opiate addicts gained higher scores, compared with stimulant addicts, in Temperament and Character Inventory variables. The obtained results also showed that stimulant addicts were suffering from more severe disorders than opiate addicts. Based on the means of the values of the TCI, personality traits reflecting personality disorders are detectable and predictable in substance abusers. This new understanding is important in the prevention and treatment of addiction.

  14. Advertising representation, treatment menu and economic circulation of substance misuse treatment centers in Iran: a rapid survey based on newspaper advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Sobhan; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2014-05-01

    Daily newspapers are the main platform by which substance misuse treatment (SMT) centers in Iran advertise their services. However, these advertisements provide little information on treatment options or costs. The current research aimed to use advertisements to compile a schema of treatment services and to map the extent and nature of drug treatments offered. During a four-week period (April to May) in 2009, the four most popular Persian newspapers printed in Tehran were reviewed. Across these publications 1704 advertisements were posted by 66 SMT centers. Each center was then contacted by telephone to complete a structured interview about services offered and related costs. The advertisements were also decoded through a quantitative contextual analysis method. On average, each SMT center published 26 advertisements during the review period, costing 421 US$. In addition, advertisements included word signifiers in six main categories including centers' introduction (100%), treatment types (91%), treatment duration (68%), medicines (70%), treatment features (60%) and psychological facilities (52%). The three detoxification programs advertised were the rapid method (57% of clinics, 443.23 US$), buprenorphine (68%, 265 US$) and methadone (71%, 137 US$). More than 90% of the centers in Tehran were offering methadone maintenance (99 US$, per month). SMT services in the Iranian market ranged from abstinence to maintenance programs, with opiates as the main focus. This review of centers' advertisements provides an indirect but rapidly obtained picture of the drug misuse treatment network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Opiates Modulate Thermosensation by Internalizing Cold Receptor TRPM8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Shapovalov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of μ-opioid receptors (OPRMs brings powerful pain relief, but it also leads to the development of tolerance and addiction. Ensuing withdrawal in abstinent patients manifests itself with severe symptoms, including cold hyperalgesia, often preventing addicted patients from successfully completing the rehabilitation. Unsurprisingly, OPRMs have been a central point of many studies. Nonetheless, a satisfactory understanding of the pathways leading to distorted sensory responses during opiate administration and abstinence is far from complete. Here, we present a mechanism that leads to modulation by OPRMs of one of the sensory responses, thermosensation. Activation of OPRM1 leads to internalization of a cold-sensor TRPM8, which can be reversed by a follow-up treatment with the inverse OPRM agonist naloxone. Knockout of TRPM8 protein leads to a decrease in morphine-induced cold analgesia. The proposed pathway represents a universal mechanism that is probably shared by regulatory pathways modulating general pain sensation in response to opioid treatment.

  16. [Blood detoxification using superparamagnetic nanoparticles (magnetic hemodialysis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciochină, Al D; Untu, Alina; Iacob, Gh

    2010-01-01

    The authors present an experimental study realized in order to simulate blood detoxification with the help of supermagnetic nanoparticles. The particles used are red oxide nanoparticles which are considered to be equivalent from a magnetic susceptibility and dynamic diameter point of view to the complex structures of magnetite nanoparticles. Two types of custom HGMS matrices have been used--a threaded one and a micro-spheres one. For testing red oxide particles have been purposefully created to have a lower magnetic susceptibility than magnetite or iron-carbon particles used in other experimental studies. Different concentrations of iron oxide, glycerine and water have been prepared, creating a 3.5 cP viscosity (equivalent to the one of the blood); the concentrations of the prepared solutions varied between 0.16 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL, with the background magnetic field value ranging from 0.25 T to 0.9 T, in order to observer the effectiveness of filtering at different intensities. The efficiency of HGMS filtering in experimental conditions was almost completely successful (99.99%) in all experimental conditions, both with the threaded and micro-spheres matrices. The high gradient magnetic separation system of nanoparticles has maximum efficiency and has the potential of being implemented in a medical blood detoxification device.

  17. Occurrence, detection and detoxification of mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiko, Visenuo; Mehta, Alka

    2015-12-01

    Mycotoxins have been identified as important toxins affecting animal species and humans ever since the discovery of aflatoxin B1 in 1960. Mycotoxigenic fungi are ubiquitous in nature and are held responsible for economic loss as they decrease crop yield and quality of food. The presence of fungi and their mycotoxins are reported not only in food grains but also in medicinal herbs and processed foods. Since prevention is not always possible, detoxification of mycotoxins have been attempted using several means; however, only few have been accepted for practical use, e.g. ammonia in the corn industry. Organizations such as the World Health Organization, US Food and Drug Administration and European Union have set regulations and safety limits of important mycotoxins, viz. aflatoxins, fusarium toxins, ochratoxin, patulin zearalenone, etc., to ensure the safety of the consumers. This review article is a brief and up-to-date account of the occurrence, detection and detoxification of mycotoxins for those interested in and considering research in this area.

  18. Detoxification is the primary task in overusing patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jes

    2011-01-01

    Background: Common practice in patients overusing medication is to place major emphasis on detoxification.Overview: This is based on decades of disappointing experience trying to treat patients with prophylactics despite medication overuse. Several trials have shown that, when patients are taken...... off medication overuse, approximately 50% of them get so much better that prophylactic drug treatment is no longer needed. There is no doubt that detoxification by one means or another is of crucial importance in the initial steps of treating patients who have a medication overuse. The methodology...... for detoxification may vary from country to country. Likewise, it varies whether patients are placed on prophylactic treatment simultaneously with detoxification or after a drug-free period of 2 months. Only future long-term studies can show whether one approach or the other is preferable.Conclusion: Detoxification...

  19. Long-term opiate receptor antagonism in a patient with panhypopituitarism: effects on appetite, prolactin and demand for vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, K; Vetter, H

    1991-02-01

    As endogenous opiates are known to be involved in regulation of appetite, an obese patient with panhypopituitarism and frequent episodes of ravenous hunger was treated with the oral opiate antagonist naltrexone for 13 months. This resulted in loss of body weight and attacks of severe hunger. The increased serum prolactin concentration and the dose of vasopressin required for substitution could be reduced. Long-term application of opiate antagonists may be useful in related cases.

  20. Decision-making, somatic markers and emotion processing in opiate users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Kathryn; Terrett, Gill; McLennan, Skye N; Labuschagne, Izelle; Morton, Phoebe; Rendell, Peter G

    2018-01-01

    Opiate use is associated with deficits in decision-making. A possible explanation for these deficits is provided by the somatic marker hypothesis, which suggests that substance users may experience abnormal emotional responses during decision-making involving reward and punishment. This in turn may interfere with the brief physiological arousal, i.e. somatic markers that normally occur in anticipation of risky decisions. To date, the applicability of the somatic marker hypothesis to explain decision-making deficits has not been investigated in opiate users. This study assessed whether decision-making deficits in opiate users were related to abnormal emotional responses and reduced somatic markers. Opiate users enrolled in an opiate substitute treatment program (n = 28) and healthy controls (n = 32) completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) while their skin conductance responses (SCRs) were recorded. Participants' emotional responses to emotion-eliciting videos were also recorded using SCRs and subjective ratings. Opiate users displayed poorer decision-making on the IGT than did controls. However, there were no differences between the groups in SCRs; both groups displayed stronger SCRs following punishment than following reward, and both groups displayed stronger anticipatory SCRs prior to disadvantageous decisions than advantageous decisions. There were no group differences in objective or subjective measures of emotional responses to the videos. The results suggest that deficits in emotional responsiveness are not apparent in opiate users who are receiving pharmacological treatment. Thus, the somatic marker hypothesis does not provide a good explanation for the decision-making deficits in this group.

  1. Drug detoxification dynamics explain the postantibiotic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, Jaydeep K; Huang, Shuqiang; Lopatkin, Allison J; You, Lingchong

    2017-10-23

    The postantibiotic effect (PAE) refers to the temporary suppression of bacterial growth following transient antibiotic treatment. This effect has been observed for decades for a wide variety of antibiotics and microbial species. However, despite empirical observations, a mechanistic understanding of this phenomenon is lacking. Using a combination of modeling and quantitative experiments, we show that the PAE can be explained by the temporal dynamics of drug detoxification in individual cells after an antibiotic is removed from the extracellular environment. These dynamics are dictated by both the export of the antibiotic and the intracellular titration of the antibiotic by its target. This mechanism is generally applicable for antibiotics with different modes of action. We further show that efflux inhibition is effective against certain antibiotic motifs, which may help explain mixed cotreatment success. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  2. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in seagrasses ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses represents a global threat to seagrasses and thereby an important parameter in resilience of seagrass ecosystems. In contrast seegrasses colonize and grow in hostile sediments, where they are constantly exposed to invasion of toxic gaseous sulfide. Remarkably little...... strategies of seagrasses to sustain sulfide intrusion. Using stable isotope tracing, scanning electron microscopy with x-ray analysis, tracing sulfur compounds combined with ecosystem parameters we found different spatial, intraspecific and interspecific strategies to cope with sulfidic sediments. 1...... not present in terrestrial plants at that level. Sulfide is not necessarily toxic but used as sulfur nutrition, presupposing healthy seagrass ecosystems that can support detoxification mechanisms. Presence or absence of those mechanisms determines susceptibility of seagrass ecosystems to sediment sulfide...

  3. Impaired decision-making in opiate-dependent subjects: effect of pharmacological therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirastu, R; Fais, R; Messina, M; Bini, V; Spiga, S; Falconieri, D; Diana, M

    2006-06-28

    Cognitive dysfunction is a major feature of drug addiction. In the present paper, we compared the decision-making ability using the Iowa gambling task of methadone- and buprenorphine-maintained individuals to non opiate-dependent drug-free controls. Buprenorphine-maintained individuals performed better than methadone-maintained individuals, and not differently than non opiate-dependent controls. In addition, methadone-maintained individuals had more perseverative errors on the Wisconsin card sorting task (WCST) as compared with non opiate-dependent drug-free controls whereas buprenorphine-maintained individuals had intermediate scores. Scores on Weschler adult intelligence scale (WAIS-R) were similar for methadone- and buprenorphine-maintained individuals whereas drug-free controls had significantly higher scores. In addition, both opiate-dependent groups performed more poorly than drug-free controls on the Benton visual retention test (BVRT). The results suggest that buprenorphine in contrast to methadone improves decision-making, and thus may be more effective in rehabilitation programs of opiate-dependent subjects and this improvement may be related to its distinct pharmacological action as a k antagonist.

  4. Opiate Analgesics as Negative Modulators of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis: Potential Implications in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Bortolotto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, studies of the mechanisms and functional implications of adult hippocampal neurogenesis (ahNG have significantly progressed. At present, it is proposed that adult born neurons may contribute to a variety of hippocampal-related functions, including specific cognitive aspects and mood regulation. Several groups focussed on the factors that regulate proliferation and fate determination of adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC/NPC, including clinically relevant drugs. Opiates were the first drugs shown to negatively impact neurogenesis in the adult mammalian hippocampus. Since that initial report, a vast array of information has been collected on the effect of opiate drugs, by either modulating proliferation of stem/progenitor cells or interfering with differentiation, maturation and survival of adult born neurons. The goal of this review is to critically revise the present state of knowledge on the effect of opiate drugs on the different developmental stages of ahNG, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms. We will also highlight the potential impact of deregulated hippocampal neurogenesis on patients undergoing chronic opiate treatment. Finally, we will discuss the differences in the negative impact on ahNG among clinically relevant opiate drugs, an aspect that may be potentially taken into account to avoid long-term deregulation of neural plasticity and its associated functions in the clinical practice.

  5. Executive functions and risky decision-making in patients with opiate dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Roth-Bauer, Martina; Driessen, Martin; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2008-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that individuals with opiate dependence may have cognitive dysfunctions particularly within the spectrum of executive functioning and emotional processing. Such dysfunctions can also compromise daily decisions associated with risk-taking behaviors. However, it remains unclear whether patients addicted to opiates show impaired decision-making on gambling tasks that specify explicit rules for rewards and punishments and provide information about probabilities associated with different long-term outcomes. In this study, we examined 18 individuals with opiate dependence and 18 healthy comparison subjects, matched for age, gender, and education with the Game of Dice Task (GDT). The GDT is a gambling task with explicit rules for gains and losses and fix winning probabilities. In addition, all subjects completed a neuropsychological test battery that primarily focused on executive functions and a personality questionnaire. On the GDT, patients chose the risky alternatives more frequently than the control group. Patients' GDT performance was related to executive functioning but not to other neuropsychological constructs, personality or dependence specific variables with one exception that is the number of days of abstinence. Thus, patients with opiate dependence demonstrate abnormalities in decision-making that might be neuropsychologically associated with dysfunctional behavior in patients' daily lives. Decision-making and other neuropsychological functioning should be considered in the treatment of opiate dependence.

  6. [Spinal opiates in obstetrics. Theoretical aspects and criteria for practical use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, A

    1995-11-01

    Spinal opiates were introduced for use in obstetrics during the 1980's. The possibility of achieving analgesic effects with small doses, without motor and/or vegetative involvement, initially aroused a great deal of enthusiasm. After extensive experience using these drugs, however, it seems they only partially live up to these great expectations. Savings on dose seem to be attained only with morphine and the efficacy of spinal opiates used as the only agents against pain during childbirth is limited. Intradural administration is often accompanied by vegetative involvement, and the reduction in motor blockade generally does not have substantial effect on the progression of labor. On the other hand, it is important to underline the advantages of combining opiates with local anesthesia: both doses are reduced, quality of analgesia is greater, as is maternal satisfaction, and fetal/neonatal repercussions are scarce. Finally, in certain cases, opiates may constitute a valid alternative for local anesthesia, especially if delivery is intradural. The use of spinal opiates is certainly an important qualitative advance, though not a definitive one, in obstetrics.

  7. Decision-making ability in current and past users of opiates: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Kathryn; McLennan, Skye N; Terrett, Gill; Labuschagne, Izelle; Rendell, Peter G

    2016-12-01

    Opiate use is associated with deficits in decision-making. However, the impact of abstinence and co-morbid factors, like head injury and poly-substance abuse, on this ability, is currently unclear. This meta-analysis aimed to assess 1) the magnitude of decision-making deficits in opiate users; 2) whether co-morbid factors moderate the severity of these deficits; 3) whether ex-opiate users demonstrate smaller decision-making deficits than current users; and 4) whether the length of abstinence is related to the magnitude of decision-making deficits. We analysed 22 studies that compared the performance of current and ex-opiate users to healthy controls on decision-making measures such as the Iowa Gambling Task. Current users demonstrated a moderately strong impairment in decision-making relative to controls, which was not significantly moderated by co-morbid factors. The magnitude of the impairment did not significantly differ between studies assessing current or ex-users, and this impairment was not related to length of abstinence. Thus, it appears that opiate users have relatively severe decision-making deficits that persist at least 1.5 years after cessation of use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. KPNA3 Variation Is Associated with Schizophrenia, Major Depression, Opiate Dependence and Alcohol Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P. Morris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available KPNA3 is a gene that has been linked to schizophrenia susceptibility. In this study we investigated the possible association between KPNA3 variation and schizophrenia. To investigate a wider role of KPNA3 across psychiatric disorders we also analysed major depression, PTSD, nicotine dependent, alcohol dependent and opiate dependent cohorts. Using a haplotype block-based gene-tagging approach we genotyped six KPNA3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 157 schizophrenia patients, 121 post-traumatic stress disorder patients, 120 opiate dependent patients, 231 alcohol dependent patients, 147 nicotine dependent patients and 266 major depression patients. One SNP rs2273816 was found to be significantly associated with schizophrenia, opiate dependence and alcohol dependence at the genotype and allele level. Major depression was also associated with rs2273816 but only at the allele level. Our study suggests that KPNA3 may contribute to the genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia as well as other psychiatric disorders.

  9. Pertussis toxin treatment modifies opiate action in the rat brain striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, M E; Law, P Y; Loh, H H

    1985-03-15

    In this report we present evidence that a guanine nucleotide regulatory protein, Gi, mediates opiate action in the rat brain striatum. Opiates inhibit basal adenylate cyclase activity in rat brain striatum. This effect on adenylate cyclase is dose-dependently attenuated by pretreatment of membranes with pertussis toxin, which ADP-ribosylates a protein with a molecular mass of 41,000 daltons. This protein co-migrates with the GTP-binding subunit of Gi, which mediates inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Several brain regions were compared for the extent of radiolabeling and effects on adenylate cyclase activity. Although Gi was found in each region examined, opiate inhibition of adenylate cyclase is clearly seen only in the striatum.

  10. Morphine and codeine concentrations in human urine following controlled poppy seeds administration of known opiate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L; Nichols, Daniel C; Underwood, Paula; Fuller, Zachary; Moser, Matthew A; LoDico, Charles; Gorelick, David A; Newmeyer, Matthew N; Concheiro, Marta; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-08-01

    Opiates are an important component for drug testing due to their high abuse potential. Proper urine opiate interpretation includes ruling out poppy seed ingestion; however, detailed elimination studies after controlled poppy seed administration with known morphine and codeine doses are not available. Therefore, we investigated urine opiate pharmacokinetics after controlled oral administration of uncooked poppy seeds with known morphine and codeine content. Participants were administered two 45 g oral poppy seed doses 8 h apart, each containing 15.7 mg morphine and 3mg codeine. Urine was collected ad libitum up to 32 h after the first dose. Specimens were analyzed with the Roche Opiates II immunoassay at 2000 and 300 μg/L cutoffs, and the ThermoFisher CEDIA(®) heroin metabolite (6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM) and Lin-Zhi 6-AM immunoassays with 10 μg/L cutoffs to determine if poppy seed ingestion could produce positive results in these heroin marker assays. In addition, all specimens were quantified for morphine and codeine by GC/MS. Participants (N=22) provided 391 urine specimens over 32 h following dosing; 26.6% and 83.4% were positive for morphine at 2000 and 300 μg/L GC/MS cutoffs, respectively. For the 19 subjects who completed the study, morphine concentrations ranged from codeine at a cutoff concentration of 2000 μg/L, but 20.2% exceeded 300 μg/L, with peak concentrations of 658 μg/L (284-1540). The Roche Opiates II immunoassay had efficiencies greater than 96% for the 2000 and 300 μg/L cutoffs. The CEDIA 6-AM immunoassay had a specificity of 91%, while the Lin-Zhi assay had no false positive results. These data provide valuable information for interpreting urine opiate results. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. An Ecological Study of the Association between Opiate Use and Incidence of Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Hamideh; Zendehdel, Kazem; Kamangar, Farin; Malekzadeh, Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death after cardiovascular disease. In recent years it has been hypothesized that opiate use could be a risk factor for cancer. This study aimed to evaluate a possible association between opiate use and common cancers using ecological statistics from around the world. To investigate the association we used ordinary linear regression models. The log10-transformed age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of cancers was used as dependent variables in the models. We adjusted for smoking, alcohol use per capita, human development index (HDI), and body mass index (BMI) as confounding variables. We extracted these variables from different data sources including the GLOBOCAN 2012, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) annual reports, World Health Organization database, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) report 2012, and published literature. We estimated two separate models for each cancer, one for males and the other for both sexes. Opiate prevalence ranged from 0.01% to 2.65% and its median was 0.20%. In the multiple regression models for both sexes, opiate use was significantly associated with bladder (β = 0.59), kidney (β = 0.16), oral cavity (β = 0.27), esophagus (β = 0.33), larynx (β = 0.17) and other pharynx (β = 0.36) cancers. In the models based on the male data, the coefficient and the significances were approximately the same for the above cancers but larynx cancer was no longer significantly associated with opiate use. There was a significant association between opiate use and risk of cancers. We suggest that more studies should be conducted, especially in high-risk areas of the world.

  12. Dopamine D2 receptor availability in opiate addicts at baseline and during naloxone precipitated withdrawal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G.J.; Volkow, N.D.; Logan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY, Stony Brook, NY (United States)]|[Psychiatry Services VAMC Northport, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    To determine if changes in dopamine activity contribute to the clinical presentation of opiate withdrawal we assessed dopamine (DA) D2 receptor availability in opiate-dependent subjects at baseline and during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. DA D2 receptor availability was evaluated in eleven male heroine and methadone users using positron emission tomography (PET) and [11-C]raclopride and compared to eleven age matched male control subjects. Nine of the opiate-dependent subjects and two of the control were tested twice after placebo and naloxone (0.02 mg/kg) iv injection 7-10 min. prior to [11-C]raclopride. DA D2 receptor availability was measured using the ratio of the distribution volume in the region of interest (caudate, putamen and ventral striatum) to that in the cerebellum which is a function of B{sub max}/K{sub d}. DA D2 receptor availability in putamen was significantly lower in opiate-dependent subjects (3.44 {plus_minus} 0.4) than that in controls (3.97 {plus_minus} 0.45, p {ge} 0.009). Naloxone induced a short lasting withdrawal in all of the opiate-dependent subjects (79 {plus_minus} 17% of maximum withdrawal), but not in controls, with significant increase in pulse (p {le} 0.006), blood pressure (p {le} 0.0001), lacrimation (p {le} 0.01), muscle twitches (p {le} 0.01), annoyance (p {le} 0.005), anxiety (p {le} 0.0006), restlessness (p {le} 0.0005) and unhappiness (p {le} 0.001). DA D2 receptor availability in basal ganglia after naloxone administration was not different from that of baseline. These results document abnormalities in DA D2 receptors in opiate-dependent subjects. However, DA D2 availability did not change with naloxone-precipitated withdrawal.

  13. Opiate addiction and overdose: experiences, attitudes, and appetite for community naloxone provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tomás; Klimas, Jan; Tobin, Helen; Egan, Mairead; Bury, Gerard

    2017-04-01

    More than 200 opiate overdose deaths occur annually in Ireland. Overdose prevention and management, including naloxone prescription, should be a priority for healthcare services. Naloxone is an effective overdose treatment and is now being considered for wider lay use. To establish GPs' views and experiences of opiate addiction, overdose care, and naloxone provision. An anonymous postal survey to GPs affiliated with the Department of Academic General Practice, University College Dublin, Ireland. A total of 714 GPs were invited to complete an anonymous postal survey. Results were compared with a parallel GP trainee survey. A total of 448/714 (62.7%) GPs responded. Approximately one-third of GPs were based in urban, rural, and mixed areas. Over 75% of GPs who responded had patients who used illicit opiates, and 25% prescribed methadone. Two-thirds of GPs were in favour of increased naloxone availability in the community; almost one-third would take part in such a scheme. A higher proportion of GP trainees had used naloxone to treat opiate overdose than qualified GPs. In addition, a higher proportion of GP trainees were willing to be involved in naloxone distribution than qualified GPs. Intranasal naloxone was much preferred to single (Pnaloxone. Few GPs objected to wider naloxone availability, with 66.1% (n = 292) being in favour. GPs report extensive contact with people who have opiate use disorders but provide limited opiate agonist treatment. They support wider availability of naloxone and would participate in its expansion. Development and evaluation of an implementation strategy to support GP-based distribution is urgently needed. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  14. Sex and day-night differences in opiate-induced responses of insular wild deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus triangularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaliers, M; Innes, D G

    1987-07-01

    We examined the effects of mu and kappa opiate agonists on the day- and night-time nociceptive, locomotory and ingestive behaviors of an island population of wild male and female deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus triangularis. The prototypical mu opiate agonist, morphine, had significant analgesic and locomotory effects, which were blocked by naloxone, and the specific delta opiate antagonist, ICI 154,129, respectively. The specific kappa opiate agonist, U-50,488, had significant analgesic actions and inhibitory effects on locomotor activity, as well as stimulating feeding. Significant day-night variations occurred in the analgesic and activity responses, with the mu and kappa opiate agonists having significantly greater effects at night. There were also prominent sex differences in responses; male deer mice displaying significantly greater levels of mu and kappa opiate-induced analgesia and alterations in activity than female animals. These sex differences in opiate-induced effects were most pronounced at night, female deer mice displaying reduced day-night rhythms of responsiveness. These results demonstrate the existence of significant day-night rhythms and sex differences in the mu and kappa opiate behavioral responses of a wild population of rodents.

  15. In vivo Spondias mombin leaves and detoxification of reactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vivohypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of aqueous extract of Spondias mombin leaves and detoxification of reactive oxygen species in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Etah Etah Nkanu, Sikirullai Olatunde Jeje, Daniel Ewa Ikpi, Gabriel Otu Ujong ...

  16. Sulfide Intrusion and Detoxification in the Seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field with sca......Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field...... of the detoxification occurred in underground tissues, where sulfide intrusion was greatest. Elemental sulfur was a major detoxification compound, precipitating on the inner wall of the aerenchyma of underground tissues. Sulfide was metabolized into thiols and entered the plant sulfur metabolism as well as being stored...

  17. A novel approach in the detoxification of intravenous buprenorphine dependence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarkar, Sukanto; Subramaniam, Eswaran; Konthoujam, Janet

    2016-01-01

    .... We assessed the safety and efficacy of transdermal patch of buprenorphine with week long duration of action in the treatment of detoxification of IV buprenorphine dependence in view of its many advantages...

  18. Engineered photocatalysts for detoxification of waste water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumder, S.A.; Prairie, M.R.; Shelnutt, J.A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Khan, S.U.M. [Duquesne Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry] [and others

    1996-12-01

    This report describes progress on the development of engineered photocatalysts for the detoxification of water polluted with toxic organic compounds and heavy metals. We examined a range of different oxide supports (titania, alumina, magnesia and manganese dioxide) for tin uroporphyrin and investigated the efficacy of a few different porphyrins. A water-soluble octaacetic-acid-tetraphenylporphyrin and its derivatives have been synthesized and characterized in an attempt to design a porphyrin catalyst with a larger binding pocket. We have also investigated photocatalytic processes on both single crystal and powder forms of semiconducting SiC with an ultimate goal of developing a dual-semiconductor system combining TiO{sub 2} and SiC. Mathematical modeling was also performed to identify parameters that can improve the efficiency of SiC-based photocatalytic systems. Although the conceptual TiO{sub 2}/SiC photodiode shows some promises for photoreduction processes, SiC itself was found to be an inefficient photocatalyst when combined with TiO{sub 2}. Alternative semiconductors with bandgap and band potentials similar to SiC should be tested in the future for further development and a practical utilization of the dual photodiode concept.

  19. Focal nonconvulsive seizures during detoxification for benzodiazepine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiero, Anna; Brigo, Francesco; Faccini, Marco; Casari, Rebecca; Quaglio, Gianluca; Storti, Monica; Fiaschi, Antonio; Bongiovanni, Luigi Giuseppe; Lugoboni, Fabio

    2012-02-01

    Chronic benzodiazepine (BDZ) abuse is currently treated with detoxification using a low-dose flumazenil infusion, a relatively recently developed and promising procedure. Given the possibility reported in the literature of the occurrence of generalized seizures during therapeutic BDZ detoxification, we usually administer preventive antiepileptic drug (AED) therapy. We describe two patients with no previous history of seizures or evidence of intracerebral lesions who, during detoxification for benzodiazepine abuse, developed repetitive focal nonconvulsive seizures instead of generalized seizures, even with appropriate doses of preventive AED therapy. There are no previous reported cases of focal nonconvulsive seizures occurring during this procedure or, more generally, during abrupt BDZ discontinuation. The cases we describe suggest that during detoxification for BDZ abuse, not only generalized, but also focal nonconvulsive seizures may occur. In this context, the focal seizures probably result from a diffuse decrease in the seizure threshold (caused by a generalized excitatory rebound), which may trigger focal seizures arising from cortical regions with higher intrinsic epileptogenicity. Detoxification for benzodiazepine abuse, even if performed with adequate-dosage AED treatment, may not be as safe a procedure as previously considered, because not only convulsive, but also nonconvulsive seizures may occur and go unnoticed. It is therefore strongly advisable to perform this detoxification under close medical supervision and to maintain a low threshold for EEG monitoring in the event of sudden onset of behavioral changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on inter-ethnic human differences in bioactivation and detoxification of estragole using physiologically based kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jia; Louisse, Jochem; Spenkelink, Bert; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2017-03-29

    Considering the rapid developments in food safety in the past decade in China, it is of importance to obtain insight into what extent safety and risk assessments of chemicals performed for the Caucasian population apply to the Chinese population. The aim of the present study was to determine physiologically based kinetic (PBK) modeling-based predictions for differences between Chinese and Caucasians in terms of metabolic bioactivation and detoxification of the food-borne genotoxic carcinogen estragole. The PBK models were defined based on kinetic constants for hepatic metabolism derived from in vitro incubations using liver fractions of the two ethnic groups, and used to evaluate the inter-ethnic differences in metabolic activation and detoxification of estragole. The models predicted that at realistic dietary intake levels, only 0.02% of the dose was converted to the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite 1'-sulfooxyestragole in Chinese subjects, whereas this amounted to 0.09% of the dose in Caucasian subjects. Detoxification of 1'-hydroxyestragole, mainly via conversion to 1'-oxoestragole, was similar within the two ethnic groups. The 4.5-fold variation in formation of the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of estragole accompanied by similar rates of detoxification may indicate a lower risk of estragole for the Chinese population at similar levels of exposure. The study provides a proof of principle for how PBK modeling can identify differences in ethnic sensitivity and provide a more refined risk assessment for a specific ethnic group for a compound of concern.

  1. Multimodal analgesia versus traditional opiate based analgesia after cardiac surgery, a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafiq, Sulman; Steinbrüchel, Daniel Andreas; Wanscher, Michael Jaeger

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate if an opiate sparing multimodal regimen of dexamethasone, gabapentin, ibuprofen and paracetamol had better analgesic effect, less side effects and was safe compared to a traditional morphine and paracetamol regimen after cardiac surgery. METHODS: Open-label, prospective...

  2. Relationships Between Using Other Substances and Socio-Demographic Characteristics in Opiate Dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Nebioglu,Hacer Yalniz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to determine the variables that can be a risk factor for addiction like age, gender, education level, school cession, first using age, substance use period, frequency and using other addictive substances among people who have a diagnosis of opiate addiction. Methods: This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study in AMBAUM ( Akdeniz University Alcohol and Substance Dependence Research and Practice Center between February 1,2010- April30, 2010. 84 inpatient and outpatient patients (60 men, 24 women between age 14-37, who have a diagnosis of opiate addiction according to DSM IV-TR diagnostic criteria recruited in this study. All participating patients completed a standard questionaire and sociodemographic data form face to face. The results were analyzed with chi-squared test by using SPSS 16 statistics program. Results: In our patients nicotin addiction prevalance is 100%, alcohol using prevalance is 91.7%, cannabis using prevalance 86.9%, ecstasy using prevalance 54.8%, cocain using prevalance 48.8%, polysubstance using prevalance 47.6%, hallucinogen using prevalance 27.4%, addictive medical drug using prevalance 17.9%. Conclusions: This epidemiological study guide us in the monitoring and evalution of the opiate use and prevalance of other substance use with opiate addiction. Keywords: Prevalence, heroin, polysubstance dependence. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(1.000: 35-42

  3. Psychometric evaluation of the Dutch version of the Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Riezebos, T.G.M.; Staak, C.P.F. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the 16-item Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS). The SOWS measures withdrawal symptoms at the time of assessment. METHODS: The Dutch SOWS was repeatedly administered to a sample of 272 opioid-dependent inpatients of four

  4. Nonmedical Abuse of Benzodiazepines in Opiate-Dependent Patients in Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhanian, Masuade; Sadeghi, Maliheh; Mansoori, Nader; Alam Mehrjerdi, Zahra; Tabatabai, Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present preliminary study was to explore the prevalence of nonmedical abuse of benzodiazepines in a group of opiate-dependent patients who were on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program in outpatient clinics in the south-west of Tehran, Iran. Methods: 114 male and female opiate-dependent clients who met DSM.IV-TR criteria for opiate dependence with mean age 36.5 years participated in the study from 16 clinics and completed a self-report questionnaire on demographics and substance use details. Then the participants were interviewed on the details of nonmedical abuse of benzodiazepines. Results: The study findings indicated that the current nonmedical abuse of benzodiazepines was commonly prevalent among participants. The most common current benzodiazepines abused were alprazolam (100%) followed by chlordiazepoxide (96.5%), clonazepam (94.7%), diazepam (86.8%), lorazepam (79.8%) and oxazepam (73.7%) respectively. Depression (77%) and anxiety (72.8%) were frequently reported as the most important reasons associated with consuming benzodiazepines followed by problem in anger control (44.7%), suicide thought (12.3%), self-injury (7.9%), and suicide commitment (5.3%) respectively. Conclusion: Nonmedical abuse of benzodiazepines is an important problem among opiate addicts which should be considered in treatment interventions during MMT program. PMID:24644471

  5. Automated multiple development thin-layer chromatography for separation of opiate alkaloids and derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothier, Jacques; Galand, Nicole

    2005-07-08

    There are three types of opiate alkaloids. First, the poppy alkaloids: morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine and papaverine; then, the semi-synthetic and synthetic derivatives used in therapy as antitussives and analgesics, such as pholcodine, ethylmorphine and dextromethorphan; at last narcotic compounds, diacetylmorphine (heroin) and opiates employed as substitutes in treatment of addiction: buprenorphine and methadone. For classical thin-layer chromatography (TLC) of opium alkaloids, it is necessary to use complex eluents with strong alkaline substances to obtain a clean separation between morphinan and isoquinoline compounds. This study purposes the planar chromatographic analysis of these substances by the automated multiple development (AMD) compared with results obtained by classical TLC method. The aim of this work was to achieve the best separation of these opiate alkaloids and derivatives by this modern technique of planar chromatography. The AMD system provided a clean separation for each of three opiates groups studied and the best results have been obtained with universal gradient: methanol 100, methanol-dichloromethane 50/50, dichloromethane 100, dichloromethane 100, hexane 100 for opium alkaloids and with gradient A: 5% of 28% ammonia in methanol 100, acetone 100, acetone 100, ethyl acetate-dichloromethane 50/50, dichloromethane 100 for antitussives and substitutes. Two reagents were used for the detection of alkaloids by spraying: Dragendorff and iodoplatinate reagents. The detection limits with these two reagents were 1 microg for ethylmorphine, thebaine, papaverine, codeine, and 2 microg for morphine and noscapine and other alkaloids.

  6. The effect of hyperthyroidism on opiate receptor binding and pain sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmondson, E.A. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA)); Bonnet, K.A.; Friedhoff, A.J. (New York Univ. School of Medicine, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of thyroid hormone on opiate receptor ligand-binding and pain sensitivity. Specific opiate receptor-binding was performed on brain homogenates of Swiss-Webster mice. There was a significant increase in {sup 3}H-naloxone-binding in thyroxine-fed subjects (hyperthyroid). Scatchard analysis revealed that the number of opiate receptors was increased in hyperthyroid mice (Bmax = 0.238 nM for hyperthyroid samples vs. 0.174 nM for controls). Binding affinity was unaffected (Kd = 1.54 nM for hyperthyroid and 1.58 nM for control samples). When mice were subjected to hotplate stimulation, the hyperthyroid mice were noted to be more sensitive as judged by pain aversion response latencies which were half that of control animals. After morphine administration, the hyperthyroid animals demonstrated a shorter duration of analgesia. These findings demonstrate that thyroxine increases opiate receptor number and native pain sensitivity but decreases the duration of analgesia from morphine.

  7. A meta-analysis of marijuana, cocaine and opiate toxicology study findings among homicide victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Joseph B; Wilson, David B; Maguire, Edward R; Ainsworth, Stephanie A; Clodfelter, Tammatha A

    2009-07-01

    ABSTRACT Aim To synthesize the results of marijuana, cocaine and opiate drug toxicology studies of homicide victims and examine variation in results across person and setting characteristics. Methods A meta-analysis of 18 independent studies identified from an extensive review of 239 published articles that met the inclusion criteria of reporting marijuana, cocaine and/or opiate toxicology test results for homicide victims. A total of 28 868 toxicology test results derived from 30 482 homicide victims across five countries were examined. Results On average, 6% of homicide victims tested positive for marijuana, 11% tested positive for cocaine, and 5% tested positive for opiates. The proportion of homicide victims testing positive for illicit drugs has increased over time. Age had a strong curvilinear relationship with toxicology test results, but gender differences were not apparent. Hispanic and African American homicide victims were more likely to test positive for cocaine; Caucasians were most likely to test positive for opiates. Cocaine use appeared to be related to increased risk of death from a firearm and was a greater risk factor for violent victimization in the United States than in Newfoundland and Scandinavia. Conclusion There are relatively few studies of illicit drug toxicology reports from homicide victims that allow for cross-cultural comparisons. This study provides a basis for comparing future local toxicology test results to estimates from existing research.

  8. Exploratory study on domain-specific determinants of opiate-dependent individuals' quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maeyer, J; Vanderplasschen, W; Lammertyn, J; van Nieuwenhuizen, C; Broekaert, E

    2011-01-01

    Studies on determinants of quality of life (QoL) among opiate-dependent individuals are scarce. Moreover, findings concerning the role of severity of drug use are inconsistent. This exploratory study investigates the association between domain-specific QoL and demographic, social, person, health and drug-related variables, and potential indirect effects of current heroin use on opiate-dependent individuals' QoL. A cohort of opiate-dependent individuals who started outpatient methadone treatment at least 5 years previously (n = 159) were interviewed about their current QoL, psychological distress, satisfaction with methadone treatment and the severity of drug-related problems using the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Verona Service Satisfaction Scale for Methadone Treatment and the EuropASI. None of the QoL domains were defined by the same compilation of determinants. No direct effect of current heroin use on QoL was retained, but path analyses demonstrated its indirect effects on the domains of 'living situation', 'finances' and 'leisure and social participation'. These findings illustrate the particularity of each QoL domain and the need for a multidimensional approach to the concept. The relationship between current heroin use and various domains of opiate-dependent individuals' QoL is complex, indirect and mediated by psychosocial and treatment-related variables. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Positive association of personal distress with testosterone in opiate-addicted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Katrin; Krüger, Mathias; Janke, Eva; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas; Heberlein, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    Clinical studies report that substance addictions are associated with sociocognitive impairments. Regarding opiate-addicted patients, the few existing studies point to deficits in empathic abilities. Previous research suggests that testosterone might be a relevant biomarker of these impairments. The authors aimed to investigate whether opiate-addicted patients show specific impairments in emotional (empathic concern, personal distress) and cognitive empathy compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, the authors aimed to assess possible associations of testosterone levels with impaired empathic abilities in the patients' group. In this cross-sectional study, 27 opiate-addicted, diacetylmorphine-maintained patients (21 males, age mean 41.67 years, standard deviation 8.814) and 31 healthy controls (23 males, age mean 40.77 years, standard deviation 8.401) matched in age, sex, and educational level were examined. Cognitive and emotional empathy were measured via the German version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index and salivary testosterone levels were assessed. The authors found higher personal distress scores (p personal distress among the patients' group (r = 0.399, p personal distress, which has clinical implications regarding social cognition rehabilitation and relapse prevention. The current data point toward testosterone as a possible biomarker for these sociocognitive impairments and suggest that high personal distress and high testosterone during withdrawal are possible markers for severe opiate addiction.

  10. Racial Differences in Opiate Administration for Pain Relief at an Academic Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickason, R. Myles

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The decision to treat pain in the emergency department (ED is a complex, idiosyncratic process. Prior studies have shown that EDs undertreat pain. Several studies demonstrate an association between analgesia administration and race. This is the first Midwest single institution study to address the question of race and analgesia, in addition to examining the effects of both patient and physician characteristics on race-based disparities in analgesia administration. Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of patients presenting to an urban academic ED with an isolated diagnosis of back pain, migraine, or long bone fracture (LBF from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2011. Demographic and medication administration information was collected from patient charts by trained data collectors blinded to the hypothesis of the study. The primary outcome was the proportion of African-Americans who received analgesia and opiates, as compared to Caucasians, using Pearson’s chi-squared test. We developed a multiple logistic regression model to identify which physician and patient characteristics correlated with increased opiate administration. Results: Of the 2,461 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 57% were African-American and 30% Caucasian (n=2136. There was no statistically significant racial difference in the administration of any analgesia (back pain: 86% vs. 86%, p=0.81; migraine: 83% vs. 73%, p=0.09; LBF: 94% vs. 90%, p=0.17, or in opiate administration for migraine or LBF. African-Americans who presented with back pain were less likely to receive an opiate than Caucasians (50% vs. 72%, p<0.001. Secondary outcomes showed that higher acuity, older age, physician training in emergency medicine, and male physicians were positively associated with opiate administration. Neither race nor gender patient-physician congruency correlated with opiate administration. Conclusion: No race-based disparity in overall analgesia administration was

  11. Treatment of polydrug-using opiate dependents during withdrawal: towards a standardisation of treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristensen, Øistein; Lølandsmo, Terje; Isaksen, Ase; Vederhus, John-Kåre; Clausen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    ...) to a control group (n = 50) who took a 10-day traditional Clonidine/Carbamazepine (CLN/CBZ) regimen. Sixty-two dependent subjects admitted to a detoxification unit were included, all dependent on at least opioids and benzodiazepines...

  12. Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates: Inhibition and detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmqvist, E.

    1998-02-01

    The ethanol yield and productivity obtained during fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates is decreased due to the presence of inhibiting compounds, such as weak acids, furans and phenolic compounds produced during hydrolysis. Evaluation of the effect of various biological, physical and chemical detoxification treatments by fermentation assays using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used to characterise inhibitors. Inhibition of fermentation was decreased after removal of the non-volatile compounds, pre-fermentation by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei, treatment with the lignolytic enzyme laccase, extraction with ether, and treatment with alkali. Yeast growth in lignocellulosic hydrolysates was inhibited below a certain fermentation pH, most likely due to high concentrations of undissociated weak acids. The effect of individual compounds were studied in model fermentations. Furfural is reduced to furfuryl alcohol by yeast dehydrogenases, thereby affecting the intracellular redox balance. As a result, acetaldehyde accumulated during furfural reduction, which most likely contributed to inhibition of growth. Acetic acid (10 g 1{sup -1}) and furfural (3 g 1{sup -1}) interacted antagonistically causing decreased specific growth rate, whereas no significant individual or interaction effects were detected by the lignin-derived compound 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2 g 1{sup -1}). By maintaining a high cell mass density in the fermentor, the process was less sensitive to inhibitors affecting growth and to fluctuations in fermentation pH, and in addition the depletion rate of bioconvertible inhibitors was increased. A theoretical ethanol yield and high productivity was obtained in continuous fermentation of spruce hydrolysate when the cell mass concentration was maintained at a high level by applying cell recirculation 164 refs, 16 figs, 5 tabs

  13. Use of benzodiazepines and detoxification with methadone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, G; Negrei, C; Bălălău, D; Ciobanu, A M; Baconi, D; Bălălău, C

    2014-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are used as anti anxiety drugs, as well as in adjunct treatment for a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Abusive patterns of use were increasingly reported and building evidence points to prevalence of benzodiazepines abuse, on one hand as well as to their common abuse in combination with other drugs such as opioids, most frequently. The main objective of this research is to conduct a systematic study on the behavior profile of a patient admitted to a prison hospital, who is a benzodiazepines user consecutive to admission into a methadone administration program. Statistic values have been taken into account describing the distribution and the distribution form of the various variables studied to find the normality degree of distributions, regarding three measurements at the three moments: before the administration of methadone, immediately after its completion and two months after completion. The statistic results obtained speak of a strong positive correlation, allowing the support of the fact that persons diagnosed with prescribed/ unprescribed benzodiazepine, use the display association with the admission into a methadone administration program, based on the assumption which concerns a significant positive association between the use of reported benzodiazepine and the administration of methadone in the questioned patients on admission. As far as the second premise regarding the administration of methadone is concerned it brings about an improvement in the level of benzodiazepines used in research patients, which one may assert that, according to the results obtained, the initiation of methadone therapy in the detoxification program is conducive to the reduction of benzodiazepines use.

  14. Duration of methadone maintenance treatment during pregnancy and pregnancy outcome parameters in women with opiate addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peles, Einat; Schreiber, Shaul; Bloch, Miki; Dollberg, Shaul; Adelson, Miriam

    2012-03-01

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is the standard treatment of choice for pregnant opiate addicts; however, data on newborn outcomes are contradictory. We studied the effect of the timing of starting MMT and of MMT related drug abstinence on the outcome of newborns of former and current opiate-addicted pregnant women. All babies (excluding repeated deliveries) of all pregnant women who were admitted to 1 MMT clinic between 1993 and 2008 were studied. Former opiate-addicted women who became pregnant while already on MMT (full-pregnancy MMT, FP-MMT) and opiate-addicted women who only started MMT during pregnancy (partial-pregnancy MMT, PP-MMT) were retrospectively compared for birth weight and gestational age of newborns. Abstinence was defined as negative urine sample results for opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, benzodiazepine and cannabis during the month before delivery. We examined 59 newborn babies: 14 in the FP-MMT group and 45 in the PP-MMT group. The mean birth weight was 2733.2 ± 392.0 g versus 2240.0 ± 680.4 g respectively (F[1] = 6.6, P = 0.01). Abstinence was determined among 73.3% of the FP-MMT and 28.6% of the PP-MMT (P = 0.004). Gestational age was higher in the abstinence (37.9 ± 2.8 weeks) versus no-abstinence group (35.8 ± 4.6 weeks; F[1] = 4.4, P = 0.04). The best pregnancy outcome, characterized by a higher gestational and birth weight, was associated with a longer duration on MMT and substance abstinence, emphasizing the importance of MMT stabilization before and during pregnancy.

  15. Behavioral expression of opiate withdrawal is altered after prefrontocortical dopamine depletion in rats: monoaminergic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, E F; Serrano, M I; Caillé, S; Stinus, L

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the effects of prefrontocortical dopamine depletion on opiate withdrawal and prefrontocortical neurochemical changes elicited by morphine dependence and withdrawal. The dopaminergic content was also measured in the nucleus accumbens during withdrawal, in order to detect reactive changes induced by prefrontocortical lesion. Withdrawal was induced by naloxone in morphine-dependent rats. Monoamine levels were analyzed post-mortem by high performance liquid cromatography. The results showed that chronic morphine dependence did not modify basal levels of monoamines in sham rats, revealing neuroadaptation of prefrontocortical dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin systems to chronic morphine. The neuroadaptive phenomenon remained after prefrontocortical lesion (> 79% dopamine depletion). On the other hand, a strong increase of dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin contents in the medial prefrontal cortex of sham rats was detected during opiate withdrawal. However, in lesioned rats, the increase of prefrontocortical dopamine and serotonin content, but not that of noradrenaline, was much lower. In the nucleus accumbens, prefrontocortical lesion reactively enhanced the dopaminergic tone and, although opiate withdrawal reduced dopaminergic activity in both sham and lesioned rats, this reduction was less intense in the latter group. At a behavioral level, some symptoms of physical opiate withdrawal were exacerbated in lesioned rats (writhing, mastication, teeth-chattering, global score) and exploration was reduced. The findings hence indicate that: (i) prefrontocortical monoaminergic changes play a role in the behavioral expression of opiate withdrawal; (ii) the severity of some withdrawal signs are related to the dopaminergic and serotonergic tone of the medial prefrontal cortex rather than to the noradrenergic one, and (iii) an inverse relationship between mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems exists.

  16. Premature ejaculation and other sexual dysfunctions in opiate dependent men receiving methadone substitution treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekuri, Venkat; Gerber, David; Brodie, Adam; Krishnadas, Rajeev

    2012-01-01

    A significant number of men with opiate misuse have sexual problems. Premature ejaculation (PE) occurs predominantly on discontinuation of the opiate but seems to persist in some cases. The aims of this study were to determine the rates of PE and other sexual dysfunctions in patients maintained on methadone; to determine the time of onset of PE in relation to onset of opiate misuse; and to look at the patients' perception of the effect of heroin and methadone on PE. Sixty five men attending a tertiary referral clinic for methadone maintenance treatment were assessed cross-sectionally using a semi-structured questionnaire, clinical interview, review of clinical records and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Thirty eight (58.5%) subjects reported a "lifetime" history of PE. Twenty (30.76%) of them reported "current" history of PE. Eleven (16.9%) people reported that PE preceded opiate misuse. Twenty four (63.2%) felt that heroin helped their PE and 7 (18.4%) felt that heroin worsened it. Fourteen (36.8%) felt that methadone helped PE, while 10 (26.3%) felt methadone worsened PE. Only 2 out of 65 (3.07%) reported that they had been asked about their sex life by the addiction services. Prevalence of "current" premature ejaculation was almost 3 times greater than reported in the general population. A significant number of patients perceived heroin to be beneficial on PE. Presence of sexual dysfunction could therefore be a risk factor for relapse into heroin misuse. Most clinicians avoid asking patients questions of a sexual nature. Nevertheless, managing sexual difficulties among patients with opiate misuse could be a significant step in relapse prevention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Opiates Modulate Noxious Chemical Nociception through a Complex Monoaminergic/Peptidergic Cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Holly; Ortega, Amanda; Law, Wenjing; Hapiak, Vera; Summers, Philip; Clark, Tobias; Komuniecki, Richard

    2016-05-18

    The ability to detect noxious stimuli, process the nociceptive signal, and elicit an appropriate behavioral response is essential for survival. In Caenorhabditis elegans, opioid receptor agonists, such as morphine, mimic serotonin, and suppress the overall withdrawal from noxious stimuli through a pathway requiring the opioid-like receptor, NPR-17. This serotonin- or morphine-dependent modulation can be rescued in npr-17-null animals by the expression of npr-17 or a human κ opioid receptor in the two ASI sensory neurons, with ASI opioid signaling selectively inhibiting ASI neuropeptide release. Serotonergic modulation requires peptides encoded by both nlp-3 and nlp-24, and either nlp-3 or nlp-24 overexpression mimics morphine and suppresses withdrawal. Peptides encoded by nlp-3 act differentially, with only NLP-3.3 mimicking morphine, whereas other nlp-3 peptides antagonize NLP-3.3 modulation. Together, these results demonstrate that opiates modulate nociception in Caenorhabditis elegans through a complex monoaminergic/peptidergic cascade, and suggest that this model may be useful for dissecting opiate signaling in mammals. Opiates are used extensively to treat chronic pain. In Caenorhabditis elegans, opioid receptor agonists suppress the overall withdrawal from noxious chemical stimuli through a pathway requiring an opioid-like receptor and two distinct neuropeptide-encoding genes, with individual peptides from the same gene functioning antagonistically to modulate nociception. Endogenous opioid signaling functions as part of a complex, monoaminergic/peptidergic signaling cascade and appears to selectively inhibit neuropeptide release, mediated by a α-adrenergic-like receptor, from two sensory neurons. Importantly, receptor null animals can be rescued by the expression of the human κ opioid receptor, and injection of human opioid receptor ligands mimics exogenous opiates, highlighting the utility of this model for dissecting opiate signaling in mammals

  18. Opiate users' knowledge about overdose prevention and naloxone in New York City: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galea Sandro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug-induced and drug-related deaths have been increasing for the past decade throughout the US. In NYC, drug overdose accounts for nearly 900 deaths per year, a figure that exceeds the number of deaths each year from homicide. Naloxone, a highly effective opiate antagonist, has for decades been used by doctors and paramedics during emergency resuscitation after an opiate overdose. Following the lead of programs in Europe and the US who have successfully distributed take-home naloxone, the Overdose Prevention and Reversal Program at the Lower East Side Harm Reduction Center (LESHRC has started providing a similar resource for opiate users in NYC. Participants in the program receive a prescription for two doses of naloxone, with refills as needed, and comprehensive training to reduce overdose risk, administer naloxone, perform rescue breathing, and call 911. As of September 2005, 204 participants have received naloxone and been trained, and 40 have revived an overdosing friend or family member. While naloxone accessibility stands as a proven life-saving measure, some opiates users at LESHRC have expressed only minimal interest in naloxone use, due to past experiences and common misconceptions. Methods In order to improve the naloxone distribution program two focus groups were conducted in December 2004 with 13 opiate users at LESHRC to examine knowledge about overdose and overdose prevention. The focus groups assessed participants' (i experiences with overdose response, specifically naloxone (ii understanding and perceptions of naloxone, (iii comfort level with naloxone administration and (iv feedback about increasing the visibility and desirability of the naloxone distribution program. Results Analyses suggest that there is both support for and resistance to take-home naloxone, marked by enthusiasm for its potential role in reviving an overdosing individual, numerous misconceptions and negative views of its impact and use

  19. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial of thoracic epidural or patient-controlled opiate analgesia on perioperative quality of life.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, M

    2010-03-01

    Perioperative epidural analgesia provides continuous pain control and may have advantages over parenteral opiate administration. This study assessed the impact of epidural analgesia on quality of life (QOL) of patients undergoing major surgery.

  20. Lifetime opiate exposure as an independent and interactive cardiovascular risk factor in males: a cross-sectional clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reece AS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Albert S Reece, Gary K HulseSchool of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA, AustraliaIntroduction: While several studies have identified an increased incidence of cardiovascular disorders in opiate dependence, neither opiates as a cardiovascular risk factor nor their effect on central arterial function has been considered.Methods: Pulse wave analysis (SphygmoCor, AtCorMedical Pty Limited, Sydney, NSW, Australia was undertaken on a cohort of controls and opiate dependent patients and the results compared to their lifetime opiate exposure.Results: Controls (N = 401 were compared with 465 opiate dependent men. The mean (log ages were different and were found to be 28.80 ± 0.49 years versus 35.02 ± 0.39 years (P < 0.0001, respectively. Of the opiate dependent group, 87.7% were treated with buprenorphine, 8.8% with methadone, and 3.4% with naltrexone. Multiple regression analysis was used to adjust for chronologic age (CA. At CA of 60 years, the modeled age in the controls was 66.40 years, and that in the addicted group was 73.11 years, an advancement of 6.71 years, or 10.10%. Exacerbations of age dependent changes in central arterial stiffness, central pressures, pulse rate, ejection duration, diastolic duration, and subendocardial perfusion ratio by opiate dependence were all noted (P < 0.05. Current heroin dose, heroin duration, and the dose duration interaction were all significantly related to the vascular (or “reference” age (RA/CA ratio (all P < 0.006. After multivariate adjustment, the opiate dose duration was independently predictive of RA (P < 0.02. Opiate dose and/or duration were included in a further 25 terms.Conclusion: These data show that opiate use is not benign for the male cardiovascular system, but has a dose response relationship to central arterial stiffness and thus cardiovascular aging, acting independently and interactively with established cardiovascular risk factors

  1. Mathematical model insights into arsenic detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijhout H Frederik

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic in drinking water, a major health hazard to millions of people in South and East Asia and in other parts of the world, is ingested primarily as trivalent inorganic arsenic (iAs, which then undergoes hepatic methylation to methylarsonic acid (MMAs and a second methylation to dimethylarsinic acid (DMAs. Although MMAs and DMAs are also known to be toxic, DMAs is more easily excreted in the urine and therefore methylation has generally been considered a detoxification pathway. A collaborative modeling project between epidemiologists, biologists, and mathematicians has the purpose of explaining existing data on methylation in human studies in Bangladesh and also testing, by mathematical modeling, effects of nutritional supplements that could increase As methylation. Methods We develop a whole body mathematical model of arsenic metabolism including arsenic absorption, storage, methylation, and excretion. The parameters for arsenic methylation in the liver were taken from the biochemical literature. The transport parameters between compartments are largely unknown, so we adjust them so that the model accurately predicts the urine excretion rates of time for the iAs, MMAs, and DMAs in single dose experiments on human subjects. Results We test the model by showing that, with no changes in parameters, it predicts accurately the time courses of urinary excretion in mutiple dose experiments conducted on human subjects. Our main purpose is to use the model to study and interpret the data on the effects of folate supplementation on arsenic methylation and excretion in clinical trials in Bangladesh. Folate supplementation of folate-deficient individuals resulted in a 14% decrease in arsenicals in the blood. This is confirmed by the model and the model predicts that arsenicals in the liver will decrease by 19% and arsenicals in other body stores by 26% in these same individuals. In addition, the model predicts that arsenic

  2. Epidural opiates and local anesthetics for the management of cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Q; Haddox, J D; Abram, S; Weissman, D; Taylor, M L; Janjan, N

    1991-09-01

    The role of epidural morphine in chronic cancer pain treatment is unresolved. In a population of 1205 cancer patients, the aggressive use of systemic opiates limited the trial of epidural analgesia to 16 cases. Successful analgesia was achieved with epidural morphine alone in 6 of these 16 cases following systemic opiate failure. The addition of bupivacaine produced analgesia in all of the 10 remaining cases and was successful chronically in 6 cases. Complications occurred in 11 of the 16 cases of epidural analgesia and included dislodged or broken catheters, pain on injection, hyperesthesia from epidural morphine and bleeding or infection related to the epidural catheter. Epidural morphine is indicated only in selected cancer pain patients and, although bupivacaine extends the efficacy of epidural analgesia, these methods are accompanied by problems and limitations.

  3. One Year Study of Chest X-Ray Changes in Opiate -poisoned Patients in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Afzali

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Intoxication with opiates is one of the most common causes of referring to emergency departments in Iran. Because respiratory signs are one of the most common and important signs in these patients, this study was designed to evaluate the chest x-ray changes of the patients.Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional one. The changes noted in the Chest X-Ray (CXR of the patients having been intoxicated with opiates and referred with respiratory signs of intoxication during the one year period between July 2007 till July 2008 to Farshchian Hospital in Hamadan were studied. The data, then, were gathered and analyzed using T and chi-square statistical tests.Results: Out of 1698 patients having referred due to poisoning with drugs and chemical agents, 318(18.72% patients were admitted due to opiates intoxication. Among them, 214 (67.29% had respiratory signs. 84.1% were male and 15.9% were female. Their average age was 35.6. The most important substance used was opium (57.5%.Most of the cases (84.1% were due to abuse.

    The most common physical signs were: miosis (83.6%, respiratory distress (74.8%, rales & wheezing (67.3%. The most common radiographic abnormality was pulmonary edema (14.5%. And the most common substance causing pulmonary edema was crack (59.4% revealing a significant statistical difference (p=0.001. Conclusion: As expected, one of the most important complications and common causes of death in opiate-poisoned patients was respiratory problems; we suggest that physicians and staffs working in the emergency department be well-trained in management of such patients.

  4. One Year Study of Chest X-Ray Changes in Opiate -poisoned Patients in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari M.R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Intoxication with opiates is one of the most common causes of referring to emergency departments in Iran. Because respiratory signs are one of the most common and important signs in these patients, this study was designed to evaluate the chest x-ray changes of the patients.Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional one. The changes noted in the Chest X-Ray (CXR of the patients having been intoxicated with opiates and referred with respiratory signs of intoxication during the one year period between July 2007 till July 2008 to Farshchian Hospital in Hamadan were studied. The data, then, were gathered and analyzed using T and chi-square statistical tests.Results: Out of 1698 patients having referred due to poisoning with drugs and chemical agents, 318(18.72% patients were admitted due to opiates intoxication. Among them, 214 (67.29% had respiratory signs. 84.1% were male and 15.9% were female. Their average age was 35.6. The most important substance used was opium (57.5%.Most of the cases (84.1% were due to abuse. The most common physical signs were: miosis (83.6%, respiratory distress (74.8%, rales & wheezing (67.3%. The most common radiographic abnormality was pulmonary edema (14.5%. And the most common substance causing pulmonary edema was crack (59.4% revealing a significant statistical difference (p=0.001. Conclusion: As expected, one of the most important complications and common causes of death in opiate-poisoned patients was respiratory problems; we suggest that physicians and staffs working in the emergency department be well-trained in management of such patients.Keywords: Radiography, Thoracic; Analgesics, Opioid; Poisoning; Pulmonary Edema.

  5. Initiation of opiate addiction in a Canadian prison: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Ronald

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In North America, the harms of illicit drug use have been responded to primarily through law enforcement interventions. This strategy has resulted in record populations of addicted individuals being incarcerated in both Canada and the United States. The incarceration of non-violent drug offenders has become increasingly controversial as studies demonstrate the harms, including elevated HIV risk behavior, of incarcerating injection drug users. Other harms, such as the initiation of illicit drug use by prison inmates who previously did not use drugs, have been less commonly described. Case Presentation We report on the case of an individual who initiated non-injection opiate use in a Canadian prison and developed an addiction to the drug. Upon release into the community, the individual continued using opiates and sought treatment at a clinic. The patient feared that he might initiate injection use of opiates if his cravings could not be controlled. The patient was placed on methadone maintenance therapy. Conclusion While anecdotal reports indicate that initiation in prison of the use of addictive illicit substances is frequent, documentation through clinical experience is rare, and the public health implications of this behavior have not been given sufficient attention in the literature. Strategies of incarcerating non-violent drug offenders and attempting to keep illicit drugs out of prisons have not reduced the harms and costs of illicit drug use. Effective, practical alternatives are urgently needed; expanded community diversion programs for non-violent drug offenders deserve particular attention.

  6. NCK2 Is Significantly Associated with Opiates Addiction in African-Origin Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifa Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance dependence is a complex environmental and genetic disorder with significant social and medical concerns. Understanding the etiology of substance dependence is imperative to the development of effective treatment and prevention strategies. To this end, substantial effort has been made to identify genes underlying substance dependence, and in recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWASs have led to discoveries of numerous genetic variants for complex diseases including substance dependence. Most of the GWAS discoveries were only based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and a single dichotomized outcome. By employing both SNP- and gene-based methods of analysis, we identified a strong (odds ratio = 13.87 and significant (P value = 1.33E−11 association of an SNP in the NCK2 gene on chromosome 2 with opiates addiction in African-origin men. Codependence analysis also identified a genome-wide significant association between NCK2 and comorbidity of substance dependence (P value = 3.65E−08 in African-origin men. Furthermore, we observed that the association between the NCK2 gene (P value = 3.12E−10 and opiates addiction reached the gene-based genome-wide significant level. In summary, our findings provided the first evidence for the involvement of NCK2 in the susceptibility to opiates addiction and further revealed the racial and gender specificities of its impact.

  7. Detoxification of copper fungicide using EDTA-modified cellulosic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-04

    Feb 4, 2009 ... Pesticides are poisons and can be particularly dangerous when misused or carelessly disposed. The detoxification of a copper fungicide (KOCIDE 101) using maize cob, a cellulosic material, was studied. Based on copper as the active agent (after a sorption period of 1 h), the concentration of the fungicide.

  8. Detoxification of copper fungicide using EDTA-modified cellulosic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pesticides are poisons and can be particularly dangerous when misused or carelessly disposed. The detoxification of a copper fungicide (KOCIDE 101) using maize cob, a cellulosic material, was studied. Based on copper as the active agent (after a sorption period of 1 h), the concentration of the fungicide reduced from an ...

  9. Response of Anopheles gambiae detoxification enzymes to levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activities of the 3 major detoxification enzymes (Cytochrome P450 oxygenase, GST and α & β-esterases) were evaluated in the sampled larvae as well as the pupae and adult samples that ultimately emerged from the larvae. Following statistical analysis, results showed that P450 activities were higher in the petrochemical ...

  10. Influence of Manganese on Ochratoxin A Detoxification in Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Influence of manganese on ochratoxin A detoxification was studied in 3- month old female white albino rats administered with 0.00, 500 and 500μg/kg body weight of ochratoxin A intraperitoneally daily for five days. In addition to the ochratoxin A, 0.5ml of 5% Manganese (II) chloride was administered to one of the test ...

  11. Detoxification of chromium (VI) in coastal water using lignocellulosic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, attempts have been made to harness lignocellulosic agricultural waste material (bagasse) for the removal of chromium (VI) from highly saline coastal water used for aquacultural practices using brackish water. Five different products prepared from bagasse were evaluated for the detoxification of Cr(VI) ...

  12. Modulation of central sensitisation by detoxification in MOH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, Signe B; Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2013-01-01

    detoxification. For baseline comparison, we tested 40 healthy controls. We measured cephalic and extra-cephalic pressure-pain thresholds and supra-threshold pressure-pain scores and extra-cephalic pain thresholds, supra-threshold pain scores and temporal summation for electrical stimulation.ResultsOf the 35...

  13. Sensing and detoxification devices in public building spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg-Borup, Steen; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Afshari, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes commonly used ventilation principles and where sensig and detoxification devices could be integrated in public buidings in an effort to warn and protect citizens against surprise attacks by toxic agents. The release of toxic agents may be outdoors, in a single indoor spot...

  14. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate detoxification by titration and tapering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.J. de; Kamal, R.M.; Dijkstra, B.A.; de Haan, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness and safety of a new detoxification procedure in gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)-dependent patients. GHB is an endogenous inhibitory neurotransmitter and anesthetic agent that is being abused as a club drug. In many GHB-dependent patients a severe withdrawal

  15. Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Detoxification by Titration and Tapering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.J. de; Kamal, R.M.; Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Haan, H.A. de

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness and safety of a new detoxification procedure in gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)-dependent patients. GHB is an endogenous inhibitory neurotransmitter and anesthetic agent that is being abused as a club drug. In many GHB-dependent patients a severe withdrawal

  16. Simvastatin effects on detoxification mechanisms in Danio rerio embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, V; Santos, M M; Moradas-Ferreira, P; Ferreira, M

    2016-06-01

    The transcription and protein activity of defence mechanisms such as ABC transporters, phase I and II of cellular detoxification and antioxidant enzymes can be altered in the presence of emerging contaminants such as pharmaceuticals impacting the overall detoxification mechanism. The present work aimed to characterise the effects of simvastatin on the detoxification mechanisms of embryonic stages of Danio rerio. In a first approach, constitutive transcription of key genes involved in detoxification was determined. Embryos were collected at different developmental stages, and transcription patterns of genes coding for ABC transporters, phase I and II and oxidative stress were analysed. With exception of abcc2, all genes seem to be from maternal transfer (0-2 hpf). Embryos were then exposed to different concentrations of simvastatin (5 and 50 μg/L), verapamil and MK571 (10 μM; ABC protein inhibitors) and a combination of simvastatin and ABC inhibitors. mRNA expression levels of abcb4, abcc1, abcc2, abcg2, cyp1a, cyp3a65, gst, sod, cat was evaluated. Accumulation assays to measure ABC proteins activity and activity of EROD, GST, CAT and Cu/ZnSOD, were also undertaken. Simvastatin acted as a weak inhibitor of ABC proteins and increased EROD and GST activity, whereas Cu/ZnSOD and CAT activity were decreased. Simvastatin up-regulated abcb4 and cyp3a65 transcription (both concentrations), as well as abcc1 and abcc2 at 50 μg/L, and down-regulated gst, sod, cat at 5 μg/L. In conclusion, our data revealed the interaction of simvastatin with detoxification mechanisms highlighting the importance of monitoring the presence of this emerging contaminant in aquatic environments.

  17. Widespread Chemical Detoxification of Alkaloid Venom by Formicine Ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBrun, Edward G; Diebold, Peter J; Orr, Matthew R; Gilbert, Lawrence E

    2015-10-01

    The ability to detoxify defensive compounds of competitors provides key ecological advantages that can influence community-level processes. Although common in plants and bacteria, this type of detoxification interaction is extremely rare in animals. Here, using laboratory behavioral assays and analyses of videotaped interactions in South America, we report widespread venom detoxification among ants in the subfamily Formicinae. Across both data sets, nine formicine species, representing all major clades, used a stereotyped grooming behavior to self-apply formic acid (acidopore grooming) in response to fire ant (Solenopsis invicta and S. saevissima) venom exposure. In laboratory assays, this behavior increased the survivorship of species following exposure to S. invicta venom. Species expressed the behavior when exposed to additional alkaloid venoms, including both compositionally similar piperidine venom of an additional fire ant species and the pyrrolidine/pyrroline alkaloid venom of a Monomorium species. In addition, species expressed the behavior following exposure to the uncharacterized venom of a Crematogaster species. However, species did not express acidopore grooming when confronted with protein-based ant venoms or when exposed to monoterpenoid-based venom. This pattern, combined with the specific chemistry of the reaction of formic acid with venom alkaloids, indicates that alkaloid venoms are targets of detoxification grooming. Solenopsis thief ants, and Monomorium species stand out as brood-predators of formicine ants that produce piperidine, pyrrolidine, and pyrroline venom, providing an important ecological context for the use of detoxification behavior. Detoxification behavior also represents a mechanism that can influence the order of assemblage dominance hierarchies surrounding food competition. Thus, this behavior likely influences ant-assemblages through a variety of ecological pathways.

  18. Evaluation of the Counter-regulatory Responses to Hypoglycemia in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes during Opiate Receptor Blockade with Naltrexone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naik, Sarita; Belfort-DeAguiar, Renata; Sejling, Anne-Sophie

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Hypoglycemia is the major limiting factor in achieving optimal glycemic control in people with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), especially intensively treated patients with impaired glucose counterregulation during hypoglycemia. Naloxone, an opiate receptor blocker, has been reported to enhance...... responses were observed. CONCLUSION: In contrast to the intravenous opiate receptor blocker naloxone, overnight administration of the oral long acting opiate receptor blocker, naltrexone, at a clinically used dose, had a limited effect on the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia in intensively treated...

  19. Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Opiate Use and Retention in Methadone Maintenance Treatment in China: A Randomised Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujun Pan

    Full Text Available Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is widely available in China; but, high rates of illicit opiate use and dropout are problematic. The aim of this study was to test whether cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT in conjunction with MMT can improve treatment retention and reduce opiate use.A total of 240 opiate-dependent patients in community-based MMT clinics were randomly assigned to either weekly CBT plus standard MMT (CBT group, n=120 or standard MMT (control group, n=120 for 26 weeks. The primary outcomes were treatment retention and opiate-negative urine test results at 12 weeks and 26 weeks. The secondary outcomes were composite scores on the Addiction Severity Index (ASI and total scores on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS at 12 weeks and 26 weeks.Compared to the control group in standard MMT, the CBT group had higher proportion of opiate-negative urine tests at both 12 weeks (59% vs. 69%, p<0.05 and 26 weeks (63% vs. 73%, p<0.05; however, the retention rates at 12 weeks (73.3% vs. 74.2%, p=0.88 and 26 weeks were not different (55.8% vs. 64.2%, p=0.19 between the two groups. At both 12 and 26 weeks, all of the ASI component scores and PSS total scores in the CBT group and control group decreased from baseline; but the CBT group exhibited more decreases in ASI employment scores at week 26 and more decrease in the PSS total score at week 12 and week 26.CBT counselling is effective in reducing opiate use and improving employment function and in decreasing stress level for opiate-dependent patients in MMT in China.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01144390.

  20. Sexual transmissibility of HIV among opiates users with concurrent sexual partnerships: An egocentric network study in Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Liu, Hongjie; Li, Jianhua; Luo, Jian; Koram, Nana; Detels, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Aims To investigate the patterns of concurrent sexual partnerships among young opiate users and sexual transmissibility of HIV in concurrent sexual partnerships in drug-use and sexual networks. Design Cross-sectional design. Participants 426 young opiate users in Yunnan, China. Measurement Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit participants. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to analyze the relationships of concurrent sexual partnerships with egocentric social network components, risky sexual behavior for HIV, and drug-use practices. Findings The RDS-adjusted prevalence of concurrent sexual partners was 42.9% among opiate users. Opiate users with concurrent sexual partnerships were more likely to engage in risky HIV-related sexual behavior, compared to those without. Specifically, they were more likely to report having had four or more sexual partners (26.3% vs. 2.0%), having had a spouse or boy/girl friends who also had concurrent sexual partnerships (28.1% vs. 8.2%), having exchanged drug for sex (12.4% vs. 3.8%), having had sexual partners who were non-injection drug users (22.6% vs. 10.1%), having had sexual partners who were injection drug users (25.3% vs. 13.5%), and having used club drugs (26.3% vs. 13.5%). There were no significant differences in consistent condom use between opiate users with sexual concurrency and those without. The same proportion (25.8%) of opiate users in the two groups reported having consistently used condoms when having sex with regular partners, and 46.3% of opiate users with sexual concurrency and 36.4% of those without such concurrency consistently used condoms with non-regular partners. Conclusion The expansion of the HIV epidemic from high risk populations to the general population in China may be driven by concurrent sexual partnerships. Behavioral interventions targeting safer sex should be integrated into harm reduction programmes. PMID:21457169

  1. Treatment of polydrug-using opiate dependents during withdrawal: towards a standardisation of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Øistein; Lølandsmo, Terje; Isaksen, Ase; Vederhus, John-Kåre; Clausen, Thomas

    2006-11-15

    The growing tendency among opioid addicts to misuse multiple other drugs should lead clinicians and researchers to search for new pharmacological strategies in order to prevent life-threatening complications and minimize withdrawal symptoms during polydrug detoxification. A non-randomised, open-label in-patient detoxification study was used to compare the short-time efficacy of a standardised regimen comprising 6 days Buprenorphine and 10 days Valproate (BPN/VPA) (n = 12) to a control group (n = 50) who took a 10-day traditional Clonidine/Carbamazepine (CLN/CBZ) regimen. Sixty-two dependent subjects admitted to a detoxification unit were included, all dependent on at least opioids and benzodiazepines. Other dependencies were not excluded. In the BPN/VPA group, 8 out of 12 patients (67%) completed treatment compared with 25 of 50 patients (50%) in the CLN/CBZ group; this difference between the groups was non-significant (p = 0.15). Withdrawal symptoms were reduced in both groups, but only the BPN/VPA group achieved a reduction in withdrawal symptoms from day one. The difference between the two groups was significantly in favour of the BPN/VPA group for days 2 (p withdrawal symptoms. The results of this study suggest that the BPN/VPA combination is potentially a better detoxification treatment for polydrug withdrawal than the traditional treatment with Clonidine and Carbamazepine. However, a randomised, double-blind study with a larger sample size to confirm our results is recommended.

  2. Glutathione S-transferase affects permethrin detoxification in the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Galindo, Ruth Cecilia; Tichy, Alexander; Hummel, Karin; Kocan, Katherine M; de la Fuente, José

    2014-04-01

    Control of ticks on dogs is often done by application of repellents that contain permethrin as the active ingredient. In this research, we studied the role of a glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene in detoxification of permethrin by ticks using a gene silencing method RNA interference (RNAi). The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, used in these studies, has a notable host preference for dogs, but also infests other mammals. In this research, R. sanguineus females were injected with gst double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to effect gene silencing by RNAi and then exposed to sublethal doses of permethrin. Sixty hours after injection, the females were allowed to feed on sheep. The female ticks subjected to RNAi proved to be more susceptible to permethrin than the untreated controls. The effect of gene silencing was most notable in the highest dose group (50.3 ppm) in which all ticks died, while in the corresponding controls that were not subjected to RNAi this dose was not lethal. The acaricide treatment of the ticks resulted in a change in tick attachment behavior. Acaricide-treated ticks attached in a scattered pattern in contrast to the control ticks that attached and fed tightly clustered together. The time required for repletion for both the injected and non-injected females exposed to the higher permethrin level was shorter than that observed in the lower-dose groups and unexposed controls, and this more rapid attachment and feeding would likely favor more rapid transmission of pathogens. However, engorgement and egg mass weights were not significantly different among the experimental groups. This research demonstrated that the silencing of the gst gene increased the tick's susceptibility to permethrin. Overall, these results have contributed to our understanding of the detoxification mechanism of ticks and provide new considerations for the formulation of treatment strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Recidivism with opiate addicted patients on buprenorphine substitution treatment: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnić Katarina B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Opiate dependence is a serious, chronic and recurrent psychiatric disorder, whose prevalence reach epidemic proportions. This also contributes to a significant increase in mortality, associated with overdose with opiates, as well as the rise in other health and social problems of the society. The methods and availability of treatment do not correspond to increased treatment needs, and treatment success is limited by the characteristics of the disorder, or numerous risk factors, which contribute to a high percentage of recidivism. Good clinical practice guidelines have defined treatment recommendations that include high and low-demanding programs. The personalized and integrative approaches are emphasized. Case report: The patient aged 41 years, intravenous-use opiate addict from his adolescences, with numerous psychological, health and social complications of addiction, is a participant in institutional treatment, following a court order as a measure of obligatory treatment, due to criminal offenses related to addiction. The history of the disease refers to numerous unsuccessful attempts to heal and short-term abstinence in the past, mainly in penal institutions. The patient meets all the criteria defined by the guidelines for inclusion in the buprenorphine maintenance program started in the year 2013. During the four-year treatment, the doses of the drug were adapted as needed; two heroin relapses and many in-risk situations for relapse were registered. The treatment continued with close monitoring of the patient's condition and, with appropriate psychosocial interventions, contribute to keeping the patient in treatment and preventing the development of new complications of addiction, as well an improving the quality of his life. Discussion: Pharmacological treatment of opioid dependence relies on agents belonging to groups of antagonists, agonists and partial agonists of opiate receptors. The earlier programs with abstinence as a

  4. Detoxification of acidic catalyzed hydrolysate of Kappaphycus alvarezii (cottonii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinita, Maria Dyah Nur; Hong, Yong-Ki; Jeong, Gwi-Taek

    2012-01-01

    Red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, holds great promise for use in biofuel production due to its high carbohydrate content. In this study, we investigated the effect of fermentation inhibitors to the K. alvarezii hydrolysate on cell growth and ethanol fermentation. In addition, detoxification of fermentation inhibitors was performed to decrease the fermentation inhibitory effect. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid, which are liberated from acidic hydrolysis, was also observed in the hydrolysate of K. alvarezii. These compounds inhibited ethanol fermentation. In order to remove these inhibitors, activated charcoal and calcium hydroxide were introduced. The efficiency of activated charcoals was examined and over-liming was used to remove the inhibitors. Activated charcoal was found to be more effective than calcium hydroxide to remove the inhibitors. Detoxification by activated charcoal strongly improved the fermentability of dilute acid hydrolysate in the production of bioethanol from K. alvarezii with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The optimal detoxifying conditions were found to be below an activated charcoal concentration of 5%.

  5. Women and addiction (alcohol and opiates: Comparative analysis of psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raketić Diana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays women constitute one third of all addicts. In the last decade, there has been a remarkable growth in scientific interest in biochemical and psychosocial aspects of women’s addiction. Many researches point out the specific character of women’s addiction. Objective. The aim of the study was to assess and compare psychosocial aspects, including the socio-demographic characteristics as well as the specific aspects of functioning of family and interpersonal relationships of the subjects addicted to opiates and alcohol. Methods. There were two substance addict groups (32 and 30 subjects addicted to drugs and alcohol, respectively and the control group, consisting of 30 subjects (no substance addiction. A socio-demo- graphic data questionnaire and semi-structured Addiction Severity Index (ASI interview were used. Results. The results of the research indicated that there were statistically significant differences between the compared groups in respect to the age of the subjects, family history of addiction disorders, education, parenthood, employment work status, and marital status. The subjects addicted to opiates differed significantly in respect to manifestation of aggressive, delinquent behaviour, infectious diseases, presence of addicts-partnerships, but there were no significant differences in relation to physical abuse, sexual abuse and self-assessment of depression. Conclusion. The results of this research suggest that subjects addicted to opiates differed largely from the subjects addicted to alcohol in terms of the age of the subjects, education level, family relationships, partnerships and social relationships, which all have to be taken into consideration when designing a therapy protocol and planning activities for prevention.

  6. Stochastic ensembles, conformationally adaptive teamwork, and enzymatic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, William M; Qian, Hong

    2011-05-17

    It has been appreciated for a long time that enzymes exist as conformational ensembles throughout multiple stages of the reactions they catalyze, but there is renewed interest in the functional implications. The energy landscape that results from conformationlly diverse poteins is a complex surface with an energetic topography in multiple dimensions, even at the transition state(s) leading to product formation, and this represents a new paradigm. At the same time there has been renewed interest in conformational ensembles, a new paradigm concerning enzyme function has emerged, wherein catalytic promiscuity has clear biological advantages in some cases. "Useful", or biologically functional, promiscuity or the related behavior of "multifunctionality" can be found in the immune system, enzymatic detoxification, signal transduction, and the evolution of new function from an existing pool of folded protein scaffolds. Experimental evidence supports the widely held assumption that conformational heterogeneity promotes functional promiscuity. The common link between these coevolving paradigms is the inherent structural plasticity and conformational dynamics of proteins that, on one hand, lead to complex but evolutionarily selected energy landscapes and, on the other hand, promote functional promiscuity. Here we consider a logical extension of the overlap between these two nascent paradigms: functionally promiscuous and multifunctional enzymes such as detoxification enzymes are expected to have an ensemble landscape with more states accessible on multiple time scales than substrate specific enzymes. Two attributes of detoxification enzymes become important in the context of conformational ensembles: these enzymes metabolize multiple substrates, often in substrate mixtures, and they can form multiple products from a single substrate. These properties, combined with complex conformational landscapes, lead to the possibility of interesting time-dependent, or emergent

  7. Plasmodium infection alters Anopheles gambiae detoxification gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranson Hilary

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae has been shown to change its global gene expression patterns upon Plasmodium infection. While many alterations are directly related to the mosquito's innate immune response, parasite invasion is also expected to generate toxic by-products such as free radicals. The current study aimed at identifying which loci coding for detoxification enzymes are differentially expressed as a function of Plasmodium berghei infection in midgut and fat body tissues. Results Using a custom-made DNA microarray, transcript levels of 254 loci primarily belonging to three major detoxification enzyme families (glutathione S-transferases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases were compared in infected and uninfected mosquitoes both during ookinete invasion and the release of sporozoites into the hemocoel. The greatest changes in gene expression were observed in the midgut in response to ookinete invasion. Interestingly, many detoxification genes including a large number of P450s were down-regulated at this stage. In the fat body, while less dramatic, gene expression alterations were also observed and occurred during the ookinete invasion and during the release of sporozoites into the hemocoel. While most gene expression changes were tissue-related, CYP6M2, a CYP previously associated with insecticide resistance, was over-expressed both in the midgut and fat body during ookinete invasion. Conclusions Most toxicity-related reactions occur in the midgut shortly after the ingestion of an infected blood meal. Strong up-regulation of CYP6M2 in the midgut and the fat body as well as its previous association with insecticide resistance shows its broad role in metabolic detoxification.

  8. Rice Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Possible Herbicide Quinclorac Detoxification Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying eXu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinclorac is a highly selective auxin-type herbicide, and is widely used in the effective control of barnyard grass in paddy rice fields, improving the world’s rice yield. The herbicide mode of action of quinclorac has been proposed and hormone interactions affect quinclorac signaling. Because of widespread use, quinclorac may be transported outside rice fields with the drainage waters, leading to soil and water pollution and environmental health problems.In this study, we used 57K Affymetrix rice whole-genome array to identify quinclorac signaling response genes to study the molecular mechanisms of action and detoxification of quinclorac in rice plants. Overall, 637 probe sets were identified with differential expression levels under either 6 or 24 h of quinclorac treatment. Auxin-related genes such as GH3 and OsIAAs responded to quinclorac treatment. Gene Ontology analysis showed that genes of detoxification-related family genes were significantly enriched, including cytochrome P450, GST, UGT, and ABC and drug transporter genes. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that top candidate P450 families such as CYP81, CYP709C and CYP72A genes were universally induced by different herbicides. Some Arabidopsis genes for the same P450 family were up-regulated under quinclorac treatment.We conduct rice whole-genome GeneChip analysis and the first global identification of quinclorac response genes. This work may provide potential markers for detoxification of quinclorac and biomonitors of environmental chemical pollution.

  9. Mercury in pilot whales: possible limits to the detoxification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caurant, F; Navarro, M; Amiard, J C

    1996-07-16

    The ability of pilot whales (Globicephala melas) to concentrate cadmium and mercury is well established. The levels of these metals were generally higher than those encountered in other species of marine mammals. The biological data have not revealed a major toxic problem in the population, and this suggests a remarkable tolerance of this species to heavy metals. Cellular distribution of mercury was carried out in liver samples. The presence of metallothionein-like proteins in the soluble fraction has been demonstrated, but 95% of mercury was mainly bound to the insoluble fraction, showing that these proteins had no role in this metal detoxification. The molar ratio between mercury and selenium suggests that the major mechanism of detoxification is through the formation of a complex Hg-Se which leads to the demethylation of mercury. The site of this process is the liver in which mercury mainly appeared as inorganic, whereas in the muscle the percentage of organic to total mercury was much higher. Nevertheless, this detoxification is limited in lactating females and in all the individuals of one school. This could be the result of changes in the diet and could constitute a toxicological risk for the species.

  10. Impact of food processing and detoxification treatments on mycotoxin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlovsky, Petr; Suman, Michele; Berthiller, Franz; De Meester, Johan; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Perrin, Irène; Oswald, Isabelle P; Speijers, Gerrit; Chiodini, Alessandro; Recker, Tobias; Dussort, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly occurring in food, which pose a health risk to the consumer. Maximum levels for major mycotoxins allowed in food have been established worldwide. Good agricultural practices, plant disease management, and adequate storage conditions limit mycotoxin levels in the food chain yet do not eliminate mycotoxins completely. Food processing can further reduce mycotoxin levels by physical removal and decontamination by chemical or enzymatic transformation of mycotoxins into less toxic products. Physical removal of mycotoxins is very efficient: manual sorting of grains, nuts, and fruits by farmers as well as automatic sorting by the industry significantly lowers the mean mycotoxin content. Further processing such as milling, steeping, and extrusion can also reduce mycotoxin content. Mycotoxins can be detoxified chemically by reacting with food components and technical aids; these reactions are facilitated by high temperature and alkaline or acidic conditions. Detoxification of mycotoxins can also be achieved enzymatically. Some enzymes able to transform mycotoxins naturally occur in food commodities or are produced during fermentation but more efficient detoxification can be achieved by deliberate introduction of purified enzymes. We recommend integrating evaluation of processing technologies for their impact on mycotoxins into risk management. Processing steps proven to mitigate mycotoxin contamination should be used whenever necessary. Development of detoxification technologies for high-risk commodities should be a priority for research. While physical techniques currently offer the most efficient post-harvest reduction of mycotoxin content in food, biotechnology possesses the largest potential for future developments.

  11. Enzymatic Mercury Detoxification: The Regulatory Protein MerR

    CERN Multimedia

    Ctortecka, B; Walsh, C T; Comess, K M

    2002-01-01

    Mercury ions and organomercurial reagents are extremely toxic due to their affinity for thiol groups. Many bacteria contain an elaborate detoxification system for a metabolic conversion of toxic Hg$^{2+}$ or organomercurials to less toxic elemental Hg$^0$. The main components of the enzymatic mercury detoxification (see Fig. 1) are the regulatory protein MerR (mercury responsive genetic switch), the organomercurial lyase MerB (cleavage of carbon mercury bonds), and the mercuric ion reductase MerA (reduction of mercuric ions). In these proteins Hg$^{2+}$ is usually coordinated by the thiol groups of cysteines. We utilize the nuclear quadrupole interaction (NQI) of ${\\rm^{199m}}$Hg detected by time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) to identify the Hg metal site geometries in these proteins in order to elucidate the molecular origin of the ultrasensitivity, selectivity and reaction mechanism of this detoxification system. The short lived TDPAC probe ${\\rm^{199m}}$Hg ($\\tau_{1/2} =$ 43 min) is su...

  12. Sulfide Intrusion and Detoxification in the Seagrass Zostera marina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field with scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods, and stable isotope tracing coupled with a mass balance of sulfur compounds. We found that Z. marina detoxified gaseous sediment-derived sulfide through incorporation and that most of the detoxification occurred in underground tissues, where sulfide intrusion was greatest. Elemental sulfur was a major detoxification compound, precipitating on the inner wall of the aerenchyma of underground tissues. Sulfide was metabolized into thiols and entered the plant sulfur metabolism as well as being stored as sulfate throughout the plant. We conclude that avoidance of sulfide exposure by reoxidation of sulfide in the rhizosphere or aerenchyma and tolerance of sulfide intrusion by incorporation of sulfur in the plant are likely major survival strategies of seagrasses in sulfidic sediments. PMID:26030258

  13. Is arsenic biotransformation a detoxification mechanism for microorganisms?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, M. Azizur, E-mail: Mohammad.Rahman@uts.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Sustainability, School of the Environment, Faculty of Science, University of Technology, P.O. Box 123, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Hassler, Christel [Marine and Lake Biogeochemistry, Institute F. A. Forel, University of Geneva, 10 rte de Suisse, Versoix, 1290 Switzerland (Switzerland)

    2014-01-15

    Arsenic (As) is extremely toxic to living organisms at high concentration. In aquatic systems, As exists in different chemical forms. The two major inorganic As (iAs) species are As{sup V}, which is thermodynamically stable in oxic waters, and As{sup III}, which is predominant in anoxic conditions. Photosynthetic microorganisms (e.g., phytoplankton and cyanobacteria) take up As{sup V}, biotransform it to As{sup III}, then biomethylate it to methylarsenic (MetAs) forms. Although As{sup III} is more toxic than As{sup V}, As{sup III} is much more easily excreted from the cells than As{sup V}. Therefore, majority of researchers consider the reduction of As{sup V} to As{sup III} as a detoxification process. The biomethylation process results in the conversion of toxic iAs to the less toxic pentavalent MetAs forms (monomethylarsonate; MMA{sup V}, dimethylarsonate; DMA{sup V}, and trimethylarsenic oxide; TMAO{sup V}) and trimethylarsine (TMAO{sup III}). However, biomethylation by microorganisms also produces monomethylarsenite (MMA{sup III}) and dimethylarsenite (DMA{sup III}), which are more toxic than iAs, as a result of biomethylation by the microorganisms, demonstrates the need to reconsider to what extent As biomethylation contributes to a detoxification process. In this review, we focused on the discussion of whether the biotransformation of As species in microorganisms is really a detoxification process with recent data.

  14. Detoxification of azo dyes in the context of environmental processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Deepak; Mishra, Vandana; Sharma, Radhey Shyam

    2016-07-01

    Azo dyes account for >70% of the global industrial demand (∼9 million tons). Owing to their genotoxic/carcinogenic potential, the annual disposal of ∼4,500,000 tons of dyes and/or degraded products is an environmental and socio-economic concern. In comparison to physico-chemical methods, microbe-mediated dye degradation is considered to be low-input, cost-effective and environmentally-safe. However, under different environmental conditions, interactions of chemically diverse dyes with metabolically diverse microbes produce metabolites of varying toxicity. In addition, majority of studies on microbial dye-degradation focus on decolorization with least attention towards detoxification. Therefore, the environmental significance of microbial dye detoxification research of past >3 decades is critically evaluated with reference to dye structure and the possible influence of microbial interactions in different environments. In the absence of ecosystem-based studies, the results of laboratory-based studies on dye degradation, metabolite production and their genotoxic impact on model organisms are used to predict the possible fate and consequences of azo dyes/metabolites in the environment. In such studies, the predominance of fewer numbers of toxicological assays that too at lower levels of biological organization (molecular/cellular/organismic) suggests its limited ecological significance. Based on critical evaluation of these studies the recommendations on inclusion of multilevel approach (assessment at multiple levels of biological organization), multispecies microcosm approach and native species approach in conjunction with identification of dye metabolites have been made for future studies. Such studies will bridge the gap between the fundamental knowledge on dye-microbe-environment interactions and its application to combat dye-induced environmental toxicity. Thus an environmental perspective on dye toxicity in the background of dye structure and effects of

  15. Sexual transmissibility of HIV among opiate users with concurrent sexual partnerships: an egocentric network study in Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Liu, Hongjie; Li, Jianhua; Luo, Jian; Koram, Nana; Detels, Roger

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the patterns of concurrent sexual partnerships among young opiate users and sexual transmissibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in concurrent sexual partnerships in drug-use and sexual networks. Cross-sectional design. A total of 426 young opiate users in Yunnan, China. Young opiate users recruited from their network ties. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit participants. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to analyze the relationships of concurrent sexual partnerships with egocentric social network components, risky sexual behavior for HIV and drug-use practices. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of concurrent sexual partners was 42.9% among opiate users. Opiate users with concurrent sexual partnerships were more likely to engage in risky HIV-related sexual behavior, compared to those without. Specifically, they were more likely to report having had four or more sexual partners (26.3% versus 2.0%), having had a spouse or boy/girlfriends who also had concurrent sexual partnerships (28.1% versus 8.2%), having exchanged drug for sex (12.4% versus 3.8%), having had sexual partners who were non-injection drug users (22.6% versus 10.1%), having had sexual partners who were injection drug users (25.3% versus 13.5%) and having used club drugs (26.3% versus 13.5%). There were no significant differences in consistent condom use between opiate users with sexual concurrency and those without. The same proportion (25.8%) of opiate users in the two groups reported having consistently used condoms when having sex with regular partners, and 46.3% of opiate users with sexual concurrency and 36.4% of those without such concurrency consistently used condoms with non-regular partners. The expansion of the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic from high-risk populations to the general population in China may be driven by concurrent sexual partnerships. Behavioral interventions targeting safer sex should be integrated into harm reduction

  16. A national study of the retention of Irish opiate users in methadone substitution treatment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullen, Louise

    2012-07-02

    Background: Retention in treatment is a key indicator of methadone treatment success. The study aims to identify factors that are associated with retention. Objectives: To determine retention in treatment at 12 months for Irish opiate users in methadone substitution treatment and to indicate factors that increase the likelihood of retention. Methods: National cohort study of randomly selected opiate users commencing methadone treatment in 1999, 2001, and 2003 (n = 1269). Results: Sixty-one percent of patients attending methadone treatment remained in continuous treatment for more than 1 year. Retention in treatment at 12 months was associated with age, gender, facility type, and methadone dose. Age and gender were no longer significant when adjusted for other variables in the model. Those who attended a specialist site were twice as likely to leave methadone treatment within 12 months compared with those who attended a primary care physician. The most important predictor of retention in treatment was methadone dose. Those who received <60 mg of methadone were three times more likely to leave treatment. Conclusion: Retention in methadone treatment is high in Ireland in a variety of settings. The main factors influencing retention in methadone treatment was an adequate methadone dose and access to a range of treatment settings including from primary care physicians. Scientific Significance: Providing an adequate dose of methadone during treatment will increase the likelihood of treatment retention. Methadone treatment by the primary care physician is a successful method of retaining opioid users in treatment.

  17. Involvement of endogenous opiates in regulation of gastric emptying of fat test meals in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fioramonti, J.; Fargeas, M.J.; Bueno, L.

    1988-08-01

    The role of endogenous opioids and cholecystokinin (CCK) in gastric emptying was investigated in mice killed 30 min after gavage with /sup 51/Cr-radiolabeled liquid meals. The meals consisted of 0.5 ml of milk or one of five synthetic meals containing arabic gum, glucose and/or arachis oil and/or casein. Naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc) significantly (P less than 0.01) accelerated gastric emptying of milk and meals containing fat but did not modify gastric emptying of nonfat meals. The CCK antagonist asperlicin (0.1 mg/kg ip) increased by 25% gastric emptying of milk. The gastric emptying of meals containing glucose and casein but not fat was reduced after administration of the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8, 4 micrograms/kg ip). This decrease was antagonized by both asperlicin (10 mg/kg ip) and naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc). Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of an opiate antagonist that poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier, methyl levallorphan (10 micrograms/kg), did not modify gastric emptying of milk but accelerated it when peripherally administered (0.1 mg/kg sc). Similarly, asperlicin (icv) administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg did not affect milk emptying. These results indicate that endogenous opiates are involved at peripheral levels in the regulation of gastric emptying of fat meals only and that such regulation involves release of CCK.

  18. [Long term effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatments in persons with addiction to opiates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes García, Julio; Bobes Bascarán, María Teresa

    2012-01-01

    There is no large prospective cohort studies using different therapeutic doses and standardized distal outcomes, however there is a fair amount of evidence on the effectiveness of methadone as a long-term treatment for the addiction to opiates. Strengths include less illegal drug use, decreased criminal activity and better general functioning. Also physical and mental health seems to be more preserved and recovered. Since patients undergoing methadone treatment exhibit diminished likelihood of suffering from cardiovascular conditions, HIV, HCV, HBV and other infections, and lesser psychiatric comorbidity. This Editorial intends to define and guide the therapeutic statement to address the management of persons with opiate abuse or dependence. These proposals have been grounded in the main long-term studies, systematic analysis and meta-analytic approaches on the effectiveness of methadone. Thereby it is recommended, with the maximum level of evidence, methadone maintenance treatments in spite of its weaknesses (ie. Toxicity, cardiovascular risk, sedation problems and cognitive impairment), considering the clinical history, general health status, and willingness and preferences of the patient.

  19. Contributions of ludic care in nursing to chemical detoxification due to the use of crack cocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Aparecida Pavanatto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to understand the contributions of ludic care in nursing by stimulating the acceptance of chemical detoxification from crack on the perception of people in the detoxification process. METHODS: an exploratory, descriptive study with a qualitative approach, performed with five people hospitalized for chemical detoxification from crack, from March to July 2013 in a chemical detox unit of a midsize hospital in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul. Data was collected using a semi-structured interview and was subjected to content analysis. RESULTS: Two categories emerged: Ludic care in nursing as a stimulus to the acceptance of chemical detoxification; Ludic care in nursing in the promotion for healthy living after chemical detoxification. CONCLUSION: ludic care in nursing proved to enhance the acceptance of chemical detoxification from crack in the reality investigated.

  20. Treatment of polydrug-using opiate dependents during withdrawal: towards a standardisation of treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Øistein; Lølandsmo, Terje; Isaksen, Åse; Vederhus, John-Kåre; Clausen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Background The growing tendency among opioid addicts to misuse multiple other drugs should lead clinicians and researchers to search for new pharmacological strategies in order to prevent life-threatening complications and minimize withdrawal symptoms during polydrug detoxification. Methods A non-randomised, open-label in-patient detoxification study was used to compare the short-time efficacy of a standardised regimen comprising 6 days Buprenorphine and 10 days Valproate (BPN/VPA) (n = 12) to a control group (n = 50) who took a 10-day traditional Clonidine/Carbamazepine (CLN/CBZ) regimen. Sixty-two dependent subjects admitted to a detoxification unit were included, all dependent on at least opioids and benzodiazepines. Other dependencies were not excluded. Results In the BPN/VPA group, 8 out of 12 patients (67%) completed treatment compared with 25 of 50 patients (50%) in the CLN/CBZ group; this difference between the groups was non-significant (p = 0.15). Withdrawal symptoms were reduced in both groups, but only the BPN/VPA group achieved a reduction in withdrawal symptoms from day one. The difference between the two groups was significantly in favour of the BPN/VPA group for days 2 (p Carbamazepine. However, a randomised, double-blind study with a larger sample size to confirm our results is recommended. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov: NCT00367874 PMID:17107609

  1. Food hoarding and ingestion in the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus: selective responses to mu and kappa opiate agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaliers, M; Hirst, M

    1986-09-01

    The feeding behavior of the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, includes food hoarding as well as ingestion. Administration of the prototypical mu opiate agonist, morphine sulfate, 1-20 mg/kg, produced over three hours a significant dose-dependent stimulation of hoarding by free feeding deer mice. The specific kappa opiate agonist, U-50,488H, 0.10-10 mg/kg, markedly increased ingestion without having any augmentatory effects on hoarding. The mixed mu and kappa opiate agonist, ketocyclazocine hydrochloride, 1-10 mg/kg, as well as various combinations of morphine sulfate and U-50,488H, augmented both hoarding and ingestion. Food restriction for 24 hr caused a significant, naloxone (1.0 mg/kg) reversible, increase in food intake. Food deprivation also modified the hoarding and ingestion responses of the deer mice to the mu and kappa opiate agonists, reducing the relative amounts of food that were hoarded. These results indicate that mu and kappa opioid systems are differentially involved in the mediation of various aspects of feeding. This also suggests that environmental factors, such as food restriction, can modify the relative roles of mu and kappa opioid systems in the expression of feeding behavior.

  2. Endogenous Opioid-Induced Neuroplasticity of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Ventral Tegmental Area Influences Natural and Opiate Reward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitchers, Kyle K.; Coppens, Caroline M.; Beloate, Lauren N.; Fuller, Jonathan; Van, Sandy; Frohmader, Karla S.; Laviolette, Steven R.; Lehman, Michael N.; Coolen, Lique M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural reward and drugs of abuse converge on the mesolimbic pathway and activate common mechanism of neural plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Chronic exposure to opiates induces plasticity in dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which regulates morphine reward tolerance.

  3. Dopamine receptor D1 and postsynaptic density gene variants associate with opiate abuse and striatal expression levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, M M; Ökvist, A; Horvath, M; Keller, E; Bannon, M J; Morgello, S; Hurd, Y L

    2013-11-01

    Opioid drugs are highly addictive and their abuse has a strong genetic load. Dopamine-glutamate interactions are hypothesized to be important for regulating neural systems central for addiction vulnerability. Balanced dopamine-glutamate interaction is mediated through several functional associations, including a physical link between discs, large homolog 4 (Drosophila) (DLG4, PSD-95) and dopamine receptor 1 (DRD1) within the postsynaptic density to regulate DRD1 trafficking. To address whether genetic associations with heroin abuse exist in relation to dopamine and glutamate and their potential interactions, we evaluated single-nucleotide polymorphisms of key genes within these systems in three populations of opiate abusers and controls, totaling 489 individuals from Europe and the United States. Despite significant differences in racial makeup of the separate samples, polymorphisms of DRD1 and DLG4 were found to be associated with opiate abuse. In addition, a strong gene-gene interaction between homer 1 homolog (Drosophila) (HOMER1) and DRD1 was predicted to occur in Caucasian subjects. This interaction was further analyzed by evaluating DRD1 genotype in relation to HOMER1b/c protein expression in postmortem tissue from a subset of Caucasian subjects. DRD1 rs265973 genotype correlated with HOMER1b/c levels in the striatum, but not cortex or amygdala; the correlation was inversed in opiate abusers as compared with controls. Cumulatively, these results support the hypothesis that there may be significant, genetically influenced interactions between glutamatergic and dopaminergic pathways in opiate abusers.

  4. Blood-borne hepatitis in opiate users in iran: a poor outlook and urgent need to change nationwide screening policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarvar, Behnam; Odoomi, Neda; Moghadami, Mohsen; Afsar Kazerooni, Parvin; Hassanabadi, Alireza; Zare Dolatabadi, Parvin; Farzanfar, Ehsan; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri

    2013-01-01

    Iran has the highest rate of opiate use worldwide. However, most opiate users are not screened for hepatitis virus infections. This study aimed to provide accurate, detailed data on the size of the opiate user population at risk of developing these infections. This seroprevalence study was conducted in the city of Shiraz, southern Iran. All participants were screened for HBV, HCV and HIV infection. The data were analyzed with SPSS. Among 569 participants, 233 (40.9%) were injection drug users (IDU), 369 (64.8%) were heterosexual, 84 (14.7%) were bisexual and 15 (2.6%) were homosexual. One hundred nine (19.1%) were HCV antibody-positive, 18 (3.1%) were HBS antigen-positive, 72 (12.6%) were HBc antibody-positive and 23 (4%) were HIV-positive. Among IDU compared to non-IDU, positivity rates for HBS antigen (5.5 vs 1.4%), HBc antibody (22.7 vs 5.6%), HCV antibody (40.3 vs 4.4%) and HIV (7.7 vs 1.4%) were higher (P revision of the nationwide protocol by the Ministry of Health in Iran to implement routine screening of all opiate users and especially IDU for these viruses, regardless of their HIV status.

  5. Evaluation of short-term psychological functions in opiate addicts after ablating the nucleus accumbens via stereotactic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Guan, Hao; Zhao, Zhijing; Miao, Xinfang; Zhou, Qin; Li, Lihong; Huang, Dongmei; Liu, Anheng; Miao, Danmin

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the short-term psychological function of opiate addicts who have undergone ablative stereotactic surgery targeting the nucleus accumbens (NAc) for alleviating opiate drug psychological dependence. The psychological functional status of 14 opiate addicts was assessed by standardized psychological tests both before and approximately 3 months after stereotactic surgery. Standardized tests included the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Chinese (WAIS-RC), the Clinical Memory Scale of Chinese (CMS), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). The evaluation of psychological dimensions included intelligence, memory, personality characteristics and mental health symptoms. Compared with the preoperative state, there was no statistically significant difference in full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) postoperatively, but without Bonferroni correction a significant decline by 13.55% (p memory quotient (MQ) of CMS demonstrated a significant decline of 10.65% (p memory and attention appeared to decline postoperatively. In addition, there was a trend towards change in some personality characteristics postoperatively. The postoperative mental health levels of the patients increased, indicating a trend towards improvement. Stereotactic ablation of the NAc in opiate addicts may be associated with short-term negative psychological functions. Advisement regarding the safety of the new surgical modality and recommendations for further investigation are necessary. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Molecular and Neuronal Plasticity Mechanisms in the Amygdala-Prefrontal Cortical Circuit: Implications for Opiate Addiction Memory Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura G Rosen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of associative memories linked to the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse is a core underlying feature of the addiction process. Opiate class drugs in particular, possess potent euphorigenic effects which, when linked to environmental cues, can produce drug-related ‘trigger’ memories that may persist for lengthy periods of time, even during abstinence, in both humans and other animals. Furthermore, the transitional switch from the drug-naïve, non-dependent state to states of dependence and withdrawal, represents a critical boundary between distinct neuronal and molecular substrates associated with opiate-reward memory formation. Identifying the functional molecular and neuronal mechanisms related to the acquisition, consolidation, recall and extinction phases of opiate-related reward memories is critical for understanding, and potentially reversing, addiction-related memory plasticity characteristic of compulsive drug-seeking behaviors. The mammalian prefrontal cortex (PFC and basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA share important functional and anatomical connections that are involved importantly in the processing of associative memories linked to drug reward. In addition, both regions share interconnections with the mesolimbic pathway’s ventral tegmental area (VTA and nucleus accumbens (NAc and can modulate dopamine (DA transmission and neuronal activity associated with drug-related DAergic signaling dynamics. In this review, we will summarize research from both human and animal modelling studies highlighting the importance of neuronal and molecular plasticity mechanisms within this circuitry during critical phases of opiate addiction-related learning and memory processing. Specifically, we will focus on two molecular signaling pathways known to be involved in both drug-related neuroadaptations and in memory-related plasticity mechanisms; the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase system (ERK and the Ca2+/calmodulin

  7. Blood-borne hepatitis in opiate users in iran: a poor outlook and urgent need to change nationwide screening policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Honarvar

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Iran has the highest rate of opiate use worldwide. However, most opiate users are not screened for hepatitis virus infections. This study aimed to provide accurate, detailed data on the size of the opiate user population at risk of developing these infections. METHOD: This seroprevalence study was conducted in the city of Shiraz, southern Iran. All participants were screened for HBV, HCV and HIV infection. The data were analyzed with SPSS. RESULT: Among 569 participants, 233 (40.9% were injection drug users (IDU, 369 (64.8% were heterosexual, 84 (14.7% were bisexual and 15 (2.6% were homosexual. One hundred nine (19.1% were HCV antibody-positive, 18 (3.1% were HBS antigen-positive, 72 (12.6% were HBc antibody-positive and 23 (4% were HIV-positive. Among IDU compared to non-IDU, positivity rates for HBS antigen (5.5 vs 1.4%, HBc antibody (22.7 vs 5.6%, HCV antibody (40.3 vs 4.4% and HIV (7.7 vs 1.4% were higher (P < 0.05. Most patients with HBV (80.7% and HCV infection (83.4% were HIV-negative. In the cumulative analysis, only history of imprisonment was a statistically significant determinant of infection by HCV or HBV in opiate users. CONCLUSION: The current policy of screening only HIV-positive drug users for HBV and HCV in Iran misses most cases of HBV and HCV infection. We therefore recommend urgent revision of the nationwide protocol by the Ministry of Health in Iran to implement routine screening of all opiate users and especially IDU for these viruses, regardless of their HIV status.

  8. Delta-opiate DPDPE in magnetically oriented phospholipid micelles: binding and arrangement of aromatic pharmacophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, F; Lin, M; Shapiro, M J; Petersheim, M

    1997-01-01

    D-Penicillamine(2,5)-enkephalin (DPDPE) is a potent opioid peptide that exhibits a high selectivity for the delta-opiate receptors. This zwitterionic peptide has been shown, by pulsed-field gradient 1H NMR diffusion studies, to have significant affinity for a zwitterionic phospholipid bilayer. The bilayer lipid is in the form of micelles composed of dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) mixtures, where the DMPC forms the bilayer structure. At high lipid concentration (25% w/w) these micelles orient in the magnetic field of an NMR spectrometer. The resulting 1H-13C dipolar couplings and chemical shift changes in the natural abundance 13C resonances for the Tyr and Phe aromatic rings were used to characterize the orientations in the bilayer micelles of these two key pharmacophores. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 8 PMID:9414244

  9. Antiglutamatergic strategies for ethanol detoxification: comparison with placebo and diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupitsky, Evgeny M; Rudenko, Anatoly A; Burakov, Andrey M; Slavina, Tatyana Y; Grinenko, Alexander A; Pittman, Brian; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Petrakis, Ismene L; Zvartau, Edwin E; Krystal, John H

    2007-04-01

    Benzodiazepines are the standard pharmacotherapies for ethanol detoxification, but concerns about their abuse potential and negative effects upon the transition to alcohol abstinence drive the search for new treatments. Glutamatergic activation and glutamate receptor up-regulation contribute to ethanol dependence and withdrawal. This study compared 3 antiglutamatergic strategies for ethanol detoxification with placebo and to the benzodiazepine, diazepam: the glutamate release inhibitor, lamotrigine; the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor antagonist, memantine; and the AMPA/kainite receptor inhibitor, topiramate. This placebo-controlled randomized single-blinded psychopharmacology trial studied male alcohol-dependent inpatients (n=127) with clinically significant alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Subjects were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments for 7 days: placebo, diazepam 10 mg TID, lamotrigine 25 mg QID, memantine 10 mg TID, or topiramate 25 mg QID. Additional diazepam was administered when the assigned medication failed to suppress withdrawal symptoms adequately. All active medications significantly reduced observer-rated and self-rated withdrawal severity, dysphoric mood, and supplementary diazepam administration compared with placebo. The active medications did not differ from diazepam. This study provides the first systematic clinical evidence supporting the efficacy of a number of antiglutamatergic approaches for treating alcohol withdrawal symptoms. These data support the hypothesis that glutamatergic activation contributes to human alcohol withdrawal. Definitive studies of each of these medications are now needed to further evaluate their effectiveness in treating alcohol withdrawal.

  10. Metal accumulation and detoxification mechanisms in mycorrhizal Betula pubescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Fuego, D; Bertrand, A; González, A

    2017-12-01

    Metal detoxification in plants is a complex process that involves different mechanisms, such as the retention of metals to the cell wall and their chelation and subsequent compartmentalization in plant vacuoles. In order to identify the mechanisms involved in metal accumulation and tolerance in Betula pubescens, as well as the role of mycorrhization in these processes, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants were grown in two industrial soils with contrasting concentrations of heavy metals. Mycorrhization increased metal uptake at low metal concentrations in the soil and reduced it at high metal concentrations, which led to an enhanced growth and biomass production of the host when growing in the most polluted soil. Our results suggest that the sequestration on the cell wall is the main detoxification mechanism in white birch exposed to acute chronic metal-stress, while phytochelatins play a role mitigating metal toxicity inside the cells. Given its high Mn and Zn root-to-shoot translocation rate, Betula pubescens is a very promising species for the phytoremediation of soils polluted with these metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Take-home naloxone to prevent fatalities from opiate-overdose: Protocol for Scotland's public health policy evaluation, and a new measure to assess impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Sheila M; Parmar, Mahesh K B; Strang, John

    2015-02-01

    Aims: Scotland was the first country to adopt take-home naloxone (THN) as a funded public health policy. We summarise the background and rigorous set-up for before/after monitoring to assess the impact on high-risk opiate-fatalities. Methods: Evidence-synthesis of prospectively monitored small-scale THN schemes led to a performance indicator for distribution of THN-kits relative to opiate-related deaths. Next, we explain the primary outcome and statistical power for Scotland's before/after monitoring. Results: Fatality-rate at opiate overdoses witnessed by THN-trainees was 6% (9/153, 95% CI: 2-11%). National THN-schemes should aim to issue 20 times as many THN-kits as there are opiate-related deaths per annum; and at least nine times as many. Primary outcome for evaluating Scotland's THN policy is reduction in the percentage of all opiate-related deaths with prison-release as a 4-week antecedent. Scotland's baseline period is 2006-10, giving a denominator of 1970 opiate-related deaths. A priori plausible effectiveness was 20-30% reduction, relative to baseline, in the proportion of opiate-related deaths that had prison-release as a 4-week antecedent. A secondary outcome was also defined. Conclusion: If Scotland's THN evaluation shifts the policy ground seismically, our new performance measure may prove useful on how many THN-kits nations should provide annually.

  12. Label-free porous silicon immunosensor for broad detection of opiates in a blind clinical study and results comparison to commercial analytical chemistry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Lisa M; Kwong, Tai C; DeLouise, Lisa A

    2010-12-01

    In this work, we evaluate for the first time the performance of a label-free porous silicon (PSi) immunosensor assay in a blind clinical study designed to screen authentic patient urine specimens for a broad range of opiates. The PSi opiate immunosensor achieved 96% concordance with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) results on samples that underwent standard opiate testing (n = 50). In addition, successful detection of a commonly abused opiate, oxycodone, resulted in 100% qualitative agreement between the PSi opiate sensor and LC-MS/MS. In contrast, a commercial broad opiate immunoassay technique (CEDIA) achieved 65% qualitative concordance with LC-MS/MS. Evaluation of important performance attributes including precision, accuracy, and recovery was completed on blank urine specimens spiked with test analytes. Variability of morphine detection as a model opiate target was clinical use. These results motivate future development of label-free PSi technology to reduce complexity and cost of diagnostic testing particularly in a point-of-care setting.

  13. Social learning and peer education in responding to opiate overdose among injection drug users in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Tokar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Opiate overdoses (OD constitute one of the leading causes of avoidable deaths among people aged 20-40 years old. As peer-administered help in cases of overdose was found to be effective, we aimed to explore how much the subjects of the intervention are able to learn from one another and from their own experience. METHODS: Secondary data analysis was performed with the 2008 dataset of peer-driven intervention among IDUs who were not involved in harm reduction programs earlier; recruiting was performed with respondent driven sampling methodology combined with peer education covering overdose response. Subsample of 6667 opiate users was considered. Data on overdose response strategies experienced by respondents were considered predictors and data on intended response strategies as outcomes. To reveal relationships between the experienced and intended responses, binary logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: With recommended strategies including calling ambulance, putting a person in recovery position, fixing the tongue, applying mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and cardiac massage, percentages of those planning to apply them was considerably higher (on average, 2.3 times higher than the percentage of those having experienced them. With other strategies including applying cold, pain, ammonia, percentages of those who experienced the strategy and those who planned to practice it were rather close and on average differed just by 1.1. With all the strategies, the intention to apply a particular response in future was strongly associated with personal experience of having had this applied when having an overdose episode. Peer-education to larger extent determines the intentions of those who have not experienced particular overdose responses themselves. On the other hand, social learning contributes to persisting of those experienced strategies which cannot be recommended. CONCLUSIONS: Social learning can impact intended overdose

  14. Influence of biliary cirrhosis on the detoxification and elimination of a food derived carcinogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietrich, C. G.; Geier, A.; Wasmuth, H. E.; Matern, S.; Gartung, C.; de Waart, D. R.; Elferink, R. P. J. O.

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: The liver is the central organ for the detoxification of numerous xenobiotics, including carcinogens. We studied the influence of cholestasis and biliary cirrhosis on the detoxification, elimination, and tissue distribution of a model compound and food derived carcinogen,

  15. Detoxificatie van patiënten met GHB-afhankelijkheid [Detoxification of patients with GHB dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weert-van Oene, G.H. de; Schellekens, A.F.A.; Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Kamal, R.M.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2013-01-01

    background A new detoxification method for ghb dependence was developed recently in the Netherlands. The method involves the use of pharmaceutical ghb. aim To describe the characteristics of ghb dependent inpatients, the course of the detoxification process and patients' progress in the three

  16. Detoxification with titration and tapering in gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) dependent patients: The Dutch GHB monitor project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Kamal, R.M.; Noorden, M.S. van; Haan, H.A. de; Loonen, A.J.M.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) detoxification procedures have been insufficiently studied for effectiveness and safety. Based on case reports, benzodiazepines are generally regarded as first-choice agents in GHB detoxification. Detoxification by titration and tapering (DeTiTap)

  17. Detoxification with titration and tapering in gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) dependent patients : The Dutch GHB monitor project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Boukje A G; Kamal, Rama; van Noorden, Martijn S; de Haan, Hein; Loonen, Anton J.M.; De Jong, Cor A J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) detoxification procedures have been insufficiently studied for effectiveness and safety. Based on case reports, benzodiazepines are generally regarded as first-choice agents in GHB detoxification. Detoxification by titration and tapering (DeTiTap)

  18. Nursing care of the patient undergoing alcohol detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M E Norrish

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Nurses are challenged with the task of holistic care for the alcohol dependent patient. The objective of the study was to explore and describe the opinions of male patients regarding the holistic care in a selected detoxification unit in Gauteng. A quantitative, explorative and descriptive design was employed utilizing interviews with a structured questionnaire as method of data collection. After the data was analysed (frequencies were used the results were presented according to the five client variables of the Neuman Systems Model. Positive and negative results on the physiological, psychological, socio cultural, developmental and spiritual needs of the client were identified. This article aims at identifying crucial holistic aspects of nursing care of the alcohol dependent patient.

  19. Detoxification Mechanisms of Mercury Toxicity in Plants: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Shrivastava

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals present in the earth’s crust. It has been considered as environmental pollutant because of its potent toxicity to plants and humans. In this review, we discuss mercury toxicity responses on plant metabolism and its detoxification mechanism by phytochelatins and antioxidant enzymes. Some light is also shed on selenium antagonistic study with mercury. Due to its potential toxicity, it has attracted attention in fields of soil science and plant nutrition. Mercury has harmful toxic effects on the molecular and physiobiochemical behavior of plants. Mostly research work has been done on seed germination, and shoot, root, and leaf morphology. Enzyme responses with respect to mercury as a result Hg accumulated in food chain is also reviewed here. Hence, this review may provide a compiled data for other researches in this direction, to provide a better mechanism or details about mercury’s noxious effect in the ecosystem.

  20. Phytochelatins and metallothioneins: roles in heavy metal detoxification and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett, Christopher; Goldsbrough, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Among the heavy metal-binding ligands in plant cells the phytochelatins (PCs) and metallothioneins (MTs) are the best characterized. PCs and MTs are different classes of cysteine-rich, heavy metal-binding protein molecules. PCs are enzymatically synthesized peptides, whereas MTs are gene-encoded polypeptides. Recently, genes encoding the enzyme PC synthase have been identified in plants and other species while the completion of the Arabidopsis genome sequence has allowed the identification of the entire suite of MT genes in a higher plant. Recent advances in understanding the regulation of PC biosynthesis and MT gene expression and the possible roles of PCs and MTs in heavy metal detoxification and homeostasis are reviewed.

  1. PEI detoxification of pretreated spruce for high solids ethanol fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannella, David; Sveding, Per Viktor; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    .e. spruce) this has been difficult to reach. The main reason behind this difference is the higher recalcitrance of woody substrates which require harsher pretreatment conditions, thus generating higher amounts of inhibitory compounds, ultimately lowering fermentation performances. In this work we studied...... ethanol production from spruce performing the whole process, from pretreatment to hydrolysis and fermentation, at 30% dry matter (equivalent to similar to 20% WIS). Hydrolysis and fermentation was performed in a horizontal free fall mixing reactor enabling efficient mixing at high solids loadings....... In batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), up to 76% cellulose to ethanol conversion was achieved resulting in a concentration of 51 g/kg of ethanol. Key to obtaining this high ethanol yield at these conditions was the use of a detoxification technology based on applying a soluble...

  2. Detoxification of mycotoxin patulin by the yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruiyu; Feussner, Kirstin; Wu, Tao; Yan, Fujie; Karlovsky, Petr; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2015-07-15

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium species which often contaminates fruit and fruit-derived products. In this work the degradation of patulin by the yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum was studied and the toxicity of the degradation product was determined. Patulin-degrading activity of R. paludigenum was inducible by patulin; it was located within yeast cells and the enzyme did not require a dissociable cofactor. Chromatographic behavior and molecular mass of the degradation product indicated that R. paludigenum transformed patulin into desoxypatulinic acid. The degradation product was significantly less toxic to Arabidopsis thaliana and human liver cells than patulin; it was not toxic to Escherichia coli at the highest concentration tested. The detoxification activity of R. paludigenum toward patulin is a promising tool for the control of patulin contamination in food and feed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma application for detoxification of Jatropha phorbol esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongmany, S.; Matsuura, H.; Furuta, M.; Okuda, S.; Imamura, K.; Maeda, Y.

    2013-06-01

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma generated by helium gas at high voltage and input power of about 50 W was first applied to detoxification of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters (J. PEs) as well as standard phorbol ester (4β-12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, TPA) in water and methanol. Plasma irradiation on the solution sample was conducted for 15 min. In aqueous solution, only 16% of TPA was degraded and complete degradation of J. PEs was observed. On the contrary, complete degradation of both TPA and J. PEs in methanol was achieved by the same plasma irradiation condition. Hydroxyl radical (•OH) generated by plasma irradiation of the solution is expected as the main radical inducing the degradation of PEs.

  4. A Genetic Analysis of the Caenorhabditis elegans Detoxification Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushige, Tetsunari; Smith, Harold E; Miwa, Johji; Krause, Michael W; Hanover, John A

    2017-06-01

    Oxidative damage contributes to human diseases of aging including diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders. Reactive oxygen species resulting from xenobiotic and endogenous metabolites are sensed by a poorly understood process, triggering a cascade of regulatory factors and leading to the activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 (Nuclear factor-erythroid-related factor 2, SKN-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans). Nrf2/SKN-1 activation promotes the induction of the phase II detoxification system that serves to limit oxidative stress. We have extended a previous C. elegans genetic approach to explore the mechanisms by which a phase II enzyme is induced by endogenous and exogenous oxidants. The xrep (xenobiotics response pathway) mutants were isolated as defective in their ability to properly regulate the induction of a glutathione S-transferase (GST) reporter. The xrep-1 gene was previously identified as wdr-23, which encodes a C. elegans homolog of the mammalian β-propeller repeat-containing protein WDR-23 Here, we identify and confirm the mutations in xrep-2, xrep-3, and xrep-4 The xrep-2 gene is alh-6, an ortholog of a human gene mutated in familial hyperprolinemia. The xrep-3 mutation is a gain-of-function allele of skn-1 The xrep-4 gene is F46F11.6, which encodes a F-box-containing protein. We demonstrate that xrep-4 alters the stability of WDR-23 (xrep-1), a key regulator of SKN-1 (xrep-3). Epistatic relationships among the xrep mutants and their interacting partners allow us to propose an ordered genetic pathway by which endogenous and exogenous stressors induce the phase II detoxification response. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  5. N-Acetylcysteine boosts xenobiotic detoxification in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Serrano, Roque; Pitarch, Elena; Beltrán, Eduardo; Ibáñez, María; Hernández, Félix; Peña, Juan B

    2014-09-01

    Water pollution represents a threat of increasing importance to human health. Bivalve mollusks are filter-feeding organisms that can accumulate chemical and microbiological contaminants in their tissues from very low concentrations in the water or sediments. Consumption of contaminated shellfish is one of the main causes of seafood poisoning. Thus, marine bivalves are normally depurated in sterilized seawater for 48 h to allow the removal of bacteria. However, this depuration time might be insufficient to eliminate chemical contaminants from their tissues. We have developed a novel technology that accelerates up to fourfold the excretion rate of xenobiotics in bivalves by treatment with the antioxidant and glutathione (GSH) pro-drug N-acetylcysteine (NAC) during the depuration period. NAC improved dose-dependently the detoxification of the organophosphate (OP) pesticide fenitrothion in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, diminishing its levels up to nearly a hundred fold compared to conventional depuration, by enhancing the glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and inducing the GSH anabolism (GSH synthesis and reduction by glutathione reductase). Notably, this induction in GSH anabolism and GST activity was also observed in uncontaminated bivalves treated with NAC. As the GSH pathway is involved in the detoxification of many pollutants and biotoxins from harmful algal blooms, we validated this proof of principle in king scallops (Pecten maximus) that naturally accumulated the amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxin domoic acid. We illustrate here a method that enhances the elimination of organic contaminants in shellfish, opening new avenues of depuration of marine organisms. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Separation of Opiate Isomers Using Electrospray Ionization and Paper Spray Coupled to High-Field Asymmetric Waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manicke, Nicholas E.; Belford, Michael

    2015-05-01

    One limitation in the growing field of ambient or direct analysis methods is reduced selectivity caused by the elimination of chromatographic separations prior to mass spectrometric analysis. We explored the use of high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS), an ambient pressure ion mobility technique, to separate the closely related opiate isomers of morphine, hydromorphone, and norcodeine. These isomers cannot be distinguished by tandem mass spectrometry. Separation prior to MS analysis is, therefore, required to distinguish these compounds, which are important in clinical chemistry and toxicology. FAIMS was coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, and ionization was performed using either a pneumatically assisted heated electrospray ionization source (H-ESI) or paper spray, a direct analysis method that has been applied to the direct analysis of dried blood spots and other complex samples. We found that FAIMS was capable of separating the three opiate structural isomers using both H-ESI and paper spray as the ionization source.

  7. Influence of Psychiatric and Personality Disorders on Smoking Cessation among Individuals in Opiate Dependence Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Lu, Shou-En; Richter, Kimber P.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Williams, Jill M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate how psychiatric and personality disorders influence smoking cessation goals and attempts among people with opiate dependence who smoke. This information could aid the development of more effective cessation interventions for these individuals. Methods Participants (N=116) were recruited from two methadone clinics, completed the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory–III, and were asked about their smoking behavior and quitting goals. We used the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) method, a technique commonly used for studies with small sample sizes and large number of predictors, to develop models predicting having a smoking cessation goal, among those currently smoking daily, and ever making a quit attempt, among those who ever smoked. Results Almost all participants reported ever smoking (n = 115, 99%); 70% (n = 80) had made a serious quit attempt in the past; 89% (n = 103) reported current daily smoking; and, 59% (n = 61) had a goal of quitting smoking and staying off cigarettes. Almost all (n = 112, 97%) had clinically significant characteristics of a psychiatric or personality disorder. White race, anxiety, and a negativistic personality facet (expressively resentful) were negative predictors of having a cessation goal. Overall narcissistic personality pattern and a dependent personality facet (interpersonally submissive) were positive predictors of having a cessation goal. Somatoform disorder, overall borderline personality pattern, and a depressive personality facet (cognitively fatalistic) were negative predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Individual histrionic (gregarious self-image), antisocial (acting out mechanism), paranoid (expressively defensive), and sadistic (pernicious representations) personality disorder facets were positive predictors of ever making a quit attempt. Each model provided good discrimination for having a smoking cessation goal or not (C-statistic of .76, 95% CI[0.66, 0

  8. [Serotoninergic antidepressants and opiate analgesics: a sometimes-painful association. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, M; Lefebvre-Kuntz, D

    2010-06-01

    We report a case of serotonin syndrome caused by interaction between nasal fentanyl, oxycodone and escitalopram. Due to chronic painful episodes with paroxistic level of pain, a 66-year-old patient, treated for prostate adenocarcinoma and bone metastases received an association of major opiate analgesics (oxycodone 120 mg/day for 6 months, and fentanyl nasal spray four puff of 200 microg/puff). After the addition, for mood disorders, of a small dose of escitalopram (5 mg/day), he developed severe serotoninergic features including diaphoresis, night sweating, tremor, diarrhea, visual disorders with mydriasis and weight loss of 8.8 lbs (4 kg). Discontinuation of escitalopram resulted in complete resolution of his symptoms within 48 h except for persistent blurred vision. The clinical manifestations of this case meet Sternbach's criteria of serotonin syndrome. Its possible etiologic factors include adverse drug reaction and pharmacodynamic interaction between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant and opioid analgesics. The Naranjo probability scale suggested a probable causality of escitalopram, oxycodone and fentanyl treatment on the serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome occurrence is estimated around 0.04% in the literature with incidence rates between 14 to 16% in voluntary overdose with serotoninergic agents. It is an infrequent syndrome with, most of the time, a mild to moderate clinical expression. Nevertheless, lethal evolution might occur resulting from either monotherapy with serotoninergic agents (eg: SSRI antidepressants) or the combination of several medications that will increase serotoninergic transmission and therefore intra cerebral serotonin levels. Its physiopathology is related to a hyperstimulation of 5-HT(1A) receptors. Its clinical manifestations involve mental status impairment and cognitive disorders, neuromuscular disorders and neurovegetative impairment. The prescription of SSRI antidepressants among patients depressed

  9. Hospice, opiates, and acute care service use among the elderly before death from heart failure or cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setoguchi, Soko; Glynn, Robert J; Stedman, Margaret; Flavell, Carol M; Levin, Raisa; Stevenson, Lynne Warner

    2010-07-01

    Advances in heart failure (HF) treatments have prolonged survival, but more patients die of HF than of any type of cancer. Little is known about the current practice in end-of-life (EOL) care in HF. Two EOL cohorts (HF and cancer) were identified using Medicare data linked with pharmacy and cancer registry data. We assessed use of hospice, opiates, and acute care services (hospitalizations, emergency department [ED] visits, intensive care unit [ICU] admissions, and death in acute care). Time trends and predictors of use were assessed using multivariate regression including demographics and cardiovascular and noncardiovasuclar comorbidities. Among 5,836 HF patients with median age of 85, 77% female and 4% black, 20% were referred to hospice compared to 51% of 7,565 cancer patients. A modest rise in hospice use over time was parallel in the 2 groups. Twenty-two percent of HF patients filled opiate prescriptions during 60 days before death compared to 46% of cancer patients. Use of acute care services in the 30 days before death was higher for HF (64% vs 39% for ED visits, 60% vs 45% for hospitalizations, and 19% vs 7% for ICU admission). More HF patients died during acute hospitalizations than cancer patients (39% vs 21%). Patients dying of HF were less likely to be supported by hospice and opiates but more likely to die in hospitals than patients with cancer. Our study suggests that opportunities may exist to improve hospice and opiate use in HF patients. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Adolescent opiate exposure in the female rat induces subtle alterations in maternal care and transgenerational effects on play behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L. Johnson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The non-medical use of prescription opiates, such as Vicodin® and MSContin®, has increased dramatically over the past decade. Of particular concern is the rising popularity of these drugs in adolescent female populations. Use during this critical developmental period could have significant long-term consequences for both the female user as well as potential effects on her future offspring. To address this issue, we have begun modeling adolescent opiate exposure in female rats and have observed significant transgenerational effects despite the fact that all drugs are withdrawn several weeks prior to pregnancy. The purpose of the current set of studies was to determine whether adolescent morphine exposure modifies postpartum care. In addition, we also examined juvenile play behavior in both male and female offspring. The choice of the social play paradigm was based on previous findings demonstrating effects of both postpartum care and opioid activity on play behavior. The findings revealed subtle modifications in the maternal behavior of adolescent morphine-exposed females, primarily related to the amount of time females’ spend nursing and in non-nursing contact with their young. In addition, male offspring of adolescent morphine-exposed mothers (MOR-F1 demonstrate decreased rough and tumble play behaviors, with no significant differences in general social behaviors (i.e. social grooming and social exploration. Moreover, there was a tendency toward increased rough and tumble play in MOR-F1 females, demonstrating the sex-specific nature of these effects. Given the importance of the postpartum environment on neurodevelopment, it is possible that modifications in maternal-offspring interactions, related to a history of adolescent opiate exposure, plays a role in the observed transgenerational effects. Overall, these studies indicate that the long-term consequences of adolescent opiate exposure can impact both the female and her future offspring.

  11. The detoxification process, bioaccumulation and damage effect in juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to chrysene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xianyun; Pan, Luqing; Wang, Lin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chrysene (CHR) on detoxification enzymes, bioaccumulation and effect of CHR on biomolecule damage in different organs of the juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In this study, juvenile white shrimp L. vannamei were exposed to CHR for 21 days at four different concentrations as 0, 0.3, 2.1 and 14.7 μg/L. Results showed that CHR bioaccumulation increased rapidly at first then reached a plateau. The activities of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), sulfotransferase (SULT) and uridinediphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UGT) were induced and then became stable gradually. Moreover, 2.1 and 14.7 μg/L CHR treatments increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in gills and hepatopancreas, while total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and GSH/GSSG were suppressed after CHR exposure. Additionally, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, protein carbonyl (PC) contents and DNA damage were induced throughout the exposure period, and different trends were detected with time of exposure. Overall, these novel findings of CHR bioaccumulation and resulted toxicity demonstrate that CHR could affect the physical status of L. vannamei. This study will form a solid basis for a realistic extrapolation scientific data for aquaculture water monitoring and food security. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Detoxification of medication-overuse headache by a multidisciplinary treatment programme is highly effective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, Signe B; Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-01-01

    the acceptability, feasibility and outcome of these two regimes in a non-randomised open-label study. Methods: Patients able to undergo outpatient detoxification, with medication-overuse headache that had previously been unsuccessfully treated by specialists and without significant co-morbidities were treated...... and only 61.9% of these patients needed prophylactics after two months compared with 84.8% in programme A. Conclusions: Both structured detoxification programmes proved highly effective with one-year close follow-up in previously treatment-resistant patients with medication-overuse headache. We suggest...... multidisciplinary education for patients in groups and delaying initiation of prophylactics until after the detoxification....

  13. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Improving Quality of Life in Opiate Addicts under Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Momeni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of cognitive- behavioral group therapy on improvement of quality of life in opiate patients under methadone maintenance treatment. Method: This was a semi experimental study using control group also pre-test, post-test and follow-up. Thirty six patients on MMT were selected between the entire opiate addicts referred to Iranian national center for addiction studies within judgmental sampling and were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. They were all administered the WHOQOL-BREF. In experimental group, cognitive behavior group therapy was performed in 8 sessions and the control group was registered in the waiting list for the CBGT. Findings: Data analysis revealed that the mean WHOQOL-BREF score in the experimental group had significant higher increase when compared with that of the control group. But it wasn’t significant in follow up. Conclusion: Results demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive–behavior group therapy On improvement of quality of life of opiate addicts on MMT in short term but didn’t seem to be effective in long term.

  14. Transitioning opioid-dependent patients from detoxification to long-term treatment: efficacy of intensive role induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Elizabeth C; Brown, Barry S; Schwartz, Robert P; O'Grady, Kevin E; King, Stuart D; Gandhi, Devang

    2011-08-01

    Despite findings that opioid detoxification serves little more than a palliative function, few patients who enter detoxification subsequently transition to long-term treatment. The current study evaluated intensive role induction (IRI), a strategy adapted from a single-session intervention previously shown to facilitate engagement of substance-dependent patients in drug-free treatment. IRI was delivered either alone or combined with case management (IRI+CM) to determine the capacity of each condition to enhance transition and engagement in long-term treatment of detoxification patients. Study participants were 240 individuals admitted to a 30-day buprenorphine detoxification delivered at a publicly funded outpatient drug treatment clinic. Following clinic intake, participants were randomly assigned to IRI, IRI+CM, or standard clinic treatment (ST). Outcomes were assessed in terms of adherence and satisfaction with the detoxification program, detoxification completion, and transition and retention in treatment following detoxification. Participants who received IRI and IRI+CM attended more counseling sessions during detoxification than those who received ST (both pstreatment for more days following detoxification (p=.005), than ST participants. The current study demonstrated that an easily administered psychosocial intervention can be effective for enhancing patient involvement in detoxification and for enabling their engagement in long-term treatment following detoxification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Outcome of heroin-dependent adolescents presenting for opiate substitution treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Bobby P

    2012-01-01

    Because the outcome of methadone and buprenorphine substitution treatment in adolescents is unclear, we completed a retrospective cohort study of 100 consecutive heroin-dependent adolescents who sought these treatments over an 8-year recruitment period. The participants\\' average age was 16.6 years, and 54 were female. Half of the patient group remained in treatment for over 1 year. Among those still in treatment at 12 months, 39% demonstrated abstinence from heroin. The final route of departure from the treatment program was via planned detox for 22%, dropout for 32%, and imprisonment for 8%. The remaining 39% were transferred elsewhere for ongoing opiate substitution treatment after a median period of 23 months of treatment. Males were more likely to exit via imprisonment (p < .05), but other outcomes were not predicted by gender. There were no deaths during treatment among these 100 patients who had a cumulative period of 129 person years at risk. Our findings suggest that this treatment delivers reductions in heroin use and that one fifth of patients will exit treatment following detox completion within a 1- to 2-year time frame.

  16. Human semen inhibits T rosette formation through an opiate mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, A; Gnessi, L; Perricone, R; De Sanctis, G; Moretti, C; De Carolis, C; Fontana, L; Isidori, A; Fraioli, F

    1985-04-01

    Seminal plasma contains high levels of opioid peptides and both seminal plasma and endogenous opioids can influence the immune system. In order to investigate whether these two findings can be related, semen was collected from 7 normal subjects, and assayed for beta-endorphin content and for its in vitro ability to inhibit the total T rosette formation of human lymphocytes in the presence or in the absence of 10(-6) M naloxone, an universal opiate antagonist. The results were as follows: 1) immunoreactive beta-endorphin content in seminal plasma was 4 to 12 times higher than the peripheral plasma levels detected in the same subjects (76.1 +/- 42.1 SD vs 10.5 +/- 2.0 SD pg/ml); 2) increasing concentrations of seminal plasma (1%, 5%, and 10%) in RPMI 1640 significantly depressed the T rosette formation ability of lymphocytes; and 3) the simultaneous addition to the incubation mixture of 10(-6) M naloxone prevented the phenomenon, while naloxone per se was ineffective. The possibility that endogenous opioids may play a role in the immunomodulatory action of human semen is suggested.

  17. Resting EEG and ERPs findings in methadone-substituted opiate users: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Grace Y; Kydd, Robert; Russell, Bruce R

    2015-12-01

    Methadone has been used to treat opiate dependence since the mid-1960s. Despite its clinical effectiveness there is evidence from neuropsychological studies demonstrating that its long-term use might have negative effects on cognition. Nevertheless, it remains uncertain whether the observed cognitive impairments in patients undertaking methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) are solely attributable to the pharmacological effects of methadone, as suggested by some researchers. Determining the effects of MMT on neuropsychological function using electroencephalography (EEG) combined with event-related potentials (ERP) has been used infrequently. However EEG and ERP provide a means of closely examining information processing to determine whether MMT induces any deficits. The purpose of this review was to investigate whether psychophysiological evidence supports cognitive impairment in association with MMT by focusing on research using EEG and ERPs. The findings of EEG studies to date appear not support the notion that cognitive impairments are attributable to the specific pharmacological effects of methadone suggested by some neuropsychological studies. However, due to the methodological deficits and limited number of the studies, any conclusion based on the findings of the existing EEG studies should be avoided.

  18. Toxicological Analysis of Opiates from Alternative Matrices Collected from an Exhumed Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippitelli, Marta; Mirtella, Dora; Ottaviani, Giovanni; Tassoni, Giovanna; Froldi, Rino; Cingolani, Mariano

    2017-05-18

    In this case study, the body of a 45-year-old man was exhumed after 1 year at the request of the public prosecutor to assess whether the death was caused by drug consumption. Toxicological analyses were performed on several matrices, including liver, kidney, and the alternative matrices hair and teeth. The systematic toxicological analysis (STA), which consisted of basic and acid liquid/liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, showed the presence of opiates in each of the matrices analyzed. Subsequently, to confirm and quantify the presence of opioids, samples of each of the matrices were subjected to solid-phase extraction and specific GC-MS analysis. The case presented demonstrates the possibility of drug detection in an exhumed body that has been buried for 1 year, despite the problems of quantitative interpretation of the data, and that toxicological results could be useful along with other forensic evidence. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Degradation of Opioids and Opiates During Acid Hydrolysis Leads to Reduced Recovery Compared to Enzymatic Hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitasuwan, Pongkwan; Melendez, Cathleen; Marinova, Margarita; Mastrianni, Kaylee R; Darragh, Alicia; Ryan, Emily; Lee, L Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Drug monitoring laboratories utilize a hydrolysis process to liberate the opiates from their glucuronide conjugates to facilitate their detection by tandem mass spectrometry (MS). Both acid and enzyme hydrolysis have been reported as viable methods, with the former as a more effective process for recovering codeine-6-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide. Here, we report concerns with acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of opioids, including a significant loss of analytes and conversions of oxycodone to oxymorphone, hydrocodone to hydromorphone and codeine to morphine. The acid-catalyzed reaction was monitored in neat water and patient urine samples by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight and tandem MS. These side reactions with acid hydrolysis may limit accurate quantitation due to loss of analytes, possibly lead to false positives, and poorly correlate with pharmacogenetic profiles, as cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP2D6) is often involved with oxycodone to oxymorphone, hydrocodone to hydromorphone and codeine to morphine conversions. Enzymatic hydrolysis process using the purified, genetically engineered β-glucuronidase (IMCSzyme(®)) addresses many of these concerns and demonstrates accurate quantitation and high recoveries for oxycodone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone and hydromorphone. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Association study between sick building syndrome and polymorphisms of seven human detoxification genes in the Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaka, Yasunari; Kikuti, Yukie Y; Mizutani, Akiko; Aoyama, Yoshiko; Kakuta, Kazuhiko; Oka, Akira; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Sakabe, Kou; Ishikawa, Satoshi; Kulski, Jerzy K; Kimura, Minoru

    2010-03-01

    Sick building syndrome (SBS) is a chronic disorder caused by exposure to diverse indoor environmental or chemical pollutants. This study examined the association between seven detoxification genes (CYP1A1, CYP2E1, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, and NAT2) and SBS in the Japanese population. One hundred eighty patients with SBS and 401 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. We examined the prevalence for total of eleven genetic polymorphisms of detoxification genes. However, no statistically significant differences in allele and genotype frequency distributions of eleven genetic polymorphisms of these detoxification genes were found between patients and controls. On this basis, we conclude that the polymorphisms that we assessed for the detoxification genes do not contribute to the etiology of SBS. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Detoxification of toxic heavy metals by marine bacteria highly resistant to mercury

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De, J.; Ramaiah, N.; Vardanyan, L.

    isolate), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (one isolate), and Brevibacterium iodinium (one isolate). The mechanisms of heavy metal detoxification were through volatilization (for Hg), putative entrapment in the extracellular polymeric substance (for Hg, Cd and Pb...

  2. Decreased Skin-Mediated Detoxification Contributes to Oxidative Stress and Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xing-Xing; Sun, Chang-Bin; Yang, Ting-Tong; Li, Da; Li, Chun-Yan; Tian, Yan-Jie; Guo, Ming; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Shi-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The skin, the body's largest organ, plays an important role in the biotransformation/detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and endogenous toxic substances, but its role in oxidative stress and insulin resistance is unclear. We investigated the relationship between skin detoxification and oxidative stress/insulin resistance by examining burn-induced changes in nicotinamide degradation. Rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated, sham-nicotinamide, burn, and burn-nicotinamide. Ra...

  3. Reducing dropout among traumatized alcohol patients in detoxification treatment : A pilot intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Odenwald, Michael; Semrau, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Dropout rates from detoxification treatment are high. We tested whether high trauma event load was related to a higher dropout from alcohol detoxification. Furthermore, we studied the feasibility and effects of a short psychoeducational tool to increase retention among traumatized alcohol in-patients. Retention and treatment length were compared between treatment as usual (TAU) and standard therapy plus a psychoeducational group intervention on alcohol drinking related to stress and trauma (P...

  4. Aflatoxin detoxification by manganese peroxidase purified from Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Ramy Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) was produced from white rot edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on the culture filtrate. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The final enzyme activity achieved 81 U mL(-1), specific activity 78 U mg(-1) with purification fold of 130 and recovery 1.2% of the crude enzyme. SDS-PAGE indicated that the pure enzyme have a molecular mass of approximately 42 kDa. The optimum pH was between 4-5 and the optimum temperature was 25 °C. The pure MnP activity was enhanced by Mn(2+), Cu(2+), Ca(2+) and K(+) and inhibited by Hg(+2) and Cd(+2). H2O2 at 5 mM enhanced MnP activity while at 10 mM inhibited it significantly. The MnP-cDNA encoding gene was sequenced and determined (GenBank accession no. AB698450.1). The MnP-cDNA was found to consist of 497 bp in an Open Reading Frame (ORF) encoding 165 amino acids. MnP from P. ostreatus could detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) depending on enzyme concentration and incubation period. The highest detoxification power (90%) was observed after 48 h incubation at 1.5 U mL(-1) enzyme activities.

  5. Azoreductase and dye detoxification activities of Bacillus velezensis strain AB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bafana, Amit; Chakrabarti, Tapan; Devi, Sivanesan Saravana

    2008-01-01

    Azo dyes are known to be a very important and widely used class of toxic and carcinogenic compounds. Although lot of research has been carried out for their removal from industrial effluents, very little attention is given to changes in their toxicity and mutagenicity during the treatment processes. Present investigation describes isolation of a Bacillus velezensis culture capable of degrading azo dye Direct Red 28 (DR28). Azoreductase enzyme was isolated from it, and its molecular weight was found to be 60 kDa. The enzyme required NADH as cofactor and was oxygen-insensitive. Toxicity and mutagenicity of the dye during biodegradation was monitored by using a battery of carefully selected in vitro tests. The culture was found to degrade DR28 to benzidine and 4-aminobiphenyl, both of which are potent mutagens. However, on longer incubation, both the compounds were degraded further, resulting in reduction in toxicity and mutagenicity of the dye. Thus, the culture seems to be a suitable candidate for further study for both decolourization and detoxification of azo dyes, resulting in their safe disposal.

  6. Oxazaphosphorine bioactivation and detoxification: the role of xenobiotic receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxazaphosphorines, with the most representative members including cyclophosphamide, ifosfamide, and trofosfamide, constitute a class of alkylating agents that have a broad spectrum of anticancer activity against many malignant ailments including both solid tumors such as breast cancer and hematological malignancies such as leukemia and lymphoma. Most oxazaphosphorines are prodrugs that require hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes to generate active alkylating moieties before manifesting their chemotherapeutic effects. Meanwhile, oxazaphosphorines can also be transformed into non-therapeutic byproducts by various drug-metabolizing enzymes. Clinically, oxazaphosphorines are often administered in combination with other chemotherapeutics in adjuvant treatments. As such, the therapeutic efficacy, off-target toxicity, and unintentional drug–drug interactions of oxazaphosphorines have been long-lasting clinical concerns and heightened focuses of scientific literatures. Recent evidence suggests that xenobiotic receptors may play important roles in regulating the metabolism and clearance of oxazaphosphorines. Drugs as modulators of xenobiotic receptors can affect the therapeutic efficacy, cytotoxicity, and pharmacokinetics of coadministered oxazaphosphorines, providing a new molecular mechanism of drug–drug interactions. Here, we review current advances regarding the influence of xenobiotic receptors, particularly, the constitutive androstane receptor, the pregnane X receptor and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, on the bioactivation and detoxification of oxazaphosphorines, with a focus on cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide.

  7. Aflatoxin detoxification by manganese peroxidase purified from Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Ramy Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) was produced from white rot edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on the culture filtrate. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The final enzyme activity achieved 81 U mL−1, specific activity 78 U mg−1 with purification fold of 130 and recovery 1.2% of the crude enzyme. SDS-PAGE indicated that the pure enzyme have a molecular mass of approximately 42 kDa. The optimum pH was between 4–5 and the optimum temperature was 25 °C. The pure MnP activity was enhanced by Mn2+, Cu2+, Ca2+ and K+ and inhibited by Hg+2 and Cd+2. H2O2 at 5 mM enhanced MnP activity while at 10 mM inhibited it significantly. The MnP-cDNA encoding gene was sequenced and determined (GenBank accession no. AB698450.1). The MnP-cDNA was found to consist of 497 bp in an Open Reading Frame (ORF) encoding 165 amino acids. MnP from P. ostreatus could detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) depending on enzyme concentration and incubation period. The highest detoxification power (90%) was observed after 48 h incubation at 1.5 U mL−1 enzyme activities. PMID:24948923

  8. Aflatoxin detoxification by manganese peroxidase purified from Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Sayed Yehia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese peroxidase (MnP was produced from white rot edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on the culture filtrate. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using (NH42SO4 precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The final enzyme activity achieved 81UmL-1, specific activity 78 U mg-1 with purification fold of 130 and recovery 1.2% of the crude enzyme. SDS-PAGE indicated that the pure enzyme have a molecular mass of approximately 42 kDa. The optimum pH was between 4-5 and the optimum temperature was 25 ºC. The pure MnP activity was enhanced by Mn2+,Cu2+,Ca2+ and K+ and inhibited by Hg+2 and Cd+2.H2O2 at 5 mM enhanced MnP activity while at 10 mM inhibited it significantly. The MnP-cDNA encoding gene was sequenced and determined (GenBank accession no. AB698450.1. The MnP-cDNA was found to consist of 497 bp in an Open Reading Frame (ORF encoding 165 amino acids. MnP from P. ostreatus could detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 depending on enzyme concentration and incubation period. The highest detoxification power (90% was observed after 48 h incubation at 1.5 U mL-1 enzyme activities.

  9. Multiple Pesticides Detoxification Function of Maize (Zea mays) GST34.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongzhi; Xu, Li; Pang, Sen; Liu, Zhiqian; Zhao, Weisong; Wang, Chengju

    2017-03-08

    ZmGST34 is a maize Tau class GST gene and was found to be differently expressed between two maize cultivars differing in tolerance to herbicide metolachlor. To explore the possible role of ZmGST34 in maize development, the expression pattern and substrate specificity of ZmGST34 were characterized by quantitative RT-PCR and heterologous expression system, respectively. The results indicated that the expression level of ZmGST34 was increased ∼2-5-fold per day during the second-leaf stage of maize seedling. Chloroacetanilide herbicides or phytohormone treatments had no influence on the expression level of ZmGST34, suggesting that ZmGST34 is a constitutively expressed gene in maize seedling. Heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and in Arabidopsis thaliana proved that ZmGST34 can metabolize most chloroacetanilide herbicides and increase tolerance to these herbicides in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana. The constitutive expression pattern and broad substrate activity of ZmGST34 suggested that this gene may play an important role in maize development in addition to the detoxification of pesticides.

  10. Antioxidant and drug detoxification potentials of Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Salawu, Nasir A; Yakubu, Musa T; Oladiji, Adenike T; Akanji, Musbau A; Okogun, Joseph I

    2011-04-01

    The antioxidant and drug metabolizing potentials of Hibiscus anthocyanin extract in CCl(4)- induced oxidative damage of rat liver was investigated. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract effectively scavenge α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide ion, and hydrogen peroxide. It produced a 92% scavenging effect of DPPH radical at a concentration of 2.0 mg/mL. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a 69 and 90% scavenging effect on superoxide ion and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, at 1.0 mg/mL, which compared favorably with the synthetic antioxidant (butylated hydroanisole and α-tocopherol). A reducing power of this anthocyanin was examined using K(3)Fe(CN)(6). Hibiscus anthocyanin extract has reducing power that is approximately 2-fold that of the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroanisole. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a significantly increase and completely attenuated the CCl(4)-mediated decrease in antioxidant enzymes (e.g., catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). However, the level of nonenzymic antioxidant molecules (i.e., vitamins C and E) were significant preserved by Hibiscus anthocyanin extract. There was an induction of phase II drug-detoxifying enzymes: glutathione S-transferase, NAD(H):quinone oxidoreductase, and uridyl diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase by 65, 45, and 57%, respectively. In view of these properties, Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract can act as a prophylactic by intervening as a free radical scavenger both in vitro and in vivo as well as inducing the phase II drug detoxification enzymes.

  11. Eating when ill is risky: immune defense impairs food detoxification in the caterpillar, Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Laura E; Miller, Dylan W; Adamo, Shelley A

    2017-12-07

    Mounting an immune response consumes resources, which should lead to increased feeding. However, activating the immune system reduces feeding (i.e. illness-induced anorexia) in both vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting that it may be beneficial. We suggest that illness-induced anorexia may be an adaptive response to conflicts between immune defense and food detoxification. We found that activating an immune response in the caterpillar Manduca sexta increased its susceptibility to the toxin permethrin. Conversely, a sublethal dose of permethrin reduced resistance to the bacterium Serratia marcescens, demonstrating a negative interaction between detoxification and immune defense. Immune system activation and toxin challenge each depleted the amount of glutathione in the hemolymph. Increasing glutathione concentration in the hemolymph increased survival for both toxin and immune+toxin challenged groups. The results of this rescue experiment suggest that decreased glutathione availability, such as occurs during an immune response, impairs detoxification. We also found that the expression of some detoxification genes were not upregulated during a combined immune-toxin challenge, although they were when animals received a toxin challenge alone. These results suggest that immune defense reduces food detoxification capacity. Illness-induced anorexia may protect animals by decreasing exposure to food toxins when detoxification is impaired. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Machine-learning identifies substance-specific behavioral markers for opiate and stimulant dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Woo-Young; Vassileva, Jasmin

    2016-04-01

    Recent animal and human studies reveal distinct cognitive and neurobiological differences between opiate and stimulant addictions; however, our understanding of the common and specific effects of these two classes of drugs remains limited due to the high rates of polysubstance-dependence among drug users. The goal of the current study was to identify multivariate substance-specific markers classifying heroin dependence (HD) and amphetamine dependence (AD), by using machine-learning approaches. Participants included 39 amphetamine mono-dependent, 44 heroin mono-dependent, 58 polysubstance dependent, and 81 non-substance dependent individuals. The majority of substance dependent participants were in protracted abstinence. We used demographic, personality (trait impulsivity, trait psychopathy, aggression, sensation seeking), psychiatric (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, anxiety, depression), and neurocognitive impulsivity measures (Delay Discounting, Go/No-Go, Stop Signal, Immediate Memory, Balloon Analogue Risk, Cambridge Gambling, and Iowa Gambling tasks) as predictors in a machine-learning algorithm. The machine-learning approach revealed substance-specific multivariate profiles that classified HD and AD in new samples with high degree of accuracy. Out of 54 predictors, psychopathy was the only classifier common to both types of addiction. Important dissociations emerged between factors classifying HD and AD, which often showed opposite patterns among individuals with HD and AD. These results suggest that different mechanisms may underlie HD and AD, challenging the unitary account of drug addiction. This line of work may shed light on the development of standardized and cost-efficient clinical diagnostic tests and facilitate the development of individualized prevention and intervention programs for HD and AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Opiate-related dependence/abuse and PTSD exposure among the active-component U.S. military, 2001 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbs, Clifton; Watkins, Eren Youmans; Fink, David S; Eick-Cost, Angelia; Millikan, Amy M

    2014-08-01

    Over the past 5 years, diagnoses for opiate abuse or dependency and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have increased across all U.S. military services. Moreover, in the United States, opiate prescription dependence and abuse has now surpassed all other illicit drugs of abuse with the exception of marijuana. Some research indicates that PTSD is predictive of substance dependence and abuse, while other research suggests that substance dependence and abuse may lead to events that trigger PTSD. This dichotomy has not been extensively explored within a military population. Using conditional multiple logistic regression analysis, a matched case-control study with 18,606 active-component U.S. military service members was conducted to examine the relationship between opiate dependence or abuse and PTSD. Among the 18,606 service members included in the analysis, 21% were cases and 79% were controls. Thirteen percent of service members with substance dependence or abuse diagnosis had a prior PTSD diagnosis compared to 1% of controls. After, adjusting for sociodemographic and military characteristics, the odds of having a prior diagnosis of PTSD was 28 (95% CI: 21.24-37.78) times greater for service members with opiate abuse/dependency compared to controls. These findings suggest active duty military personnel diagnosed with PTSD should be closely monitored to reduce the likelihood of future morbidity because of opiate dependence or abuse. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. Detoxification and elimination of nicotine by nectar-feeding birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch-Henning, S; Du Rand, E E; Nicolson, S W

    2017-05-01

    Many dilute nectars consumed by bird pollinators contain secondary metabolites, potentially toxic chemicals produced by plants as defences against herbivores. Consequently, nectar-feeding birds are challenged not only by frequent water excess, but also by the toxin content of their diet. High water turnover, however, could be advantageous to nectar consumers by enabling them to excrete secondary metabolites or their transformation products more easily. We investigated how the alkaloid nicotine, naturally present in nectar of Nicotiana species, influences osmoregulation in white-bellied sunbirds Cinnyris talatala and Cape white-eyes Zosterops virens. We also examined the metabolic fate of nicotine in these two species to shed more light on the post-ingestive mechanisms that allow nectar-feeding birds to tolerate nectar nicotine. A high concentration of nicotine (50 µM) decreased cloacal fluid output and increased its osmolality in both species, due to reduced food intake that led to dehydration. White-eyes excreted a higher proportion of the ingested nicotine-containing diet than sunbirds. However, sugar concentration did not affect nicotine detoxification and elimination. Both species metabolised nicotine, excreting very little unchanged nicotine. Cape white-eyes mainly metabolised nicotine through the cotinine metabolic pathway, with norcotinine being the most abundant metabolite in the excreta, while white-bellied sunbirds excreted mainly nornicotine. Both species also utilized phase II conjugation reactions to detoxify nicotine, with Cape white-eyes depending more on the mercapturic acid pathway to detoxify nicotine than white-bellied sunbirds. We found that sunbirds and white-eyes, despite having a similar nicotine tolerance, responded differently and used different nicotine-derived metabolites to excrete nicotine.

  15. Benzodiazepine maintenance in opiate substitution treatment: Good or bad? A retrospective primary care case-note review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Adam; Streel, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Co-prescribing benzodiazepines to patients in opiate substitution treatment is controversial and often alleged to increase mortality. In an inner-London general practice, patients with problematic benzodiazepine co-dependence were allowed benzodiazepine maintenance treatment (BMT) since 1994, providing an opportunity for analysis. 1) Case-note review of all 278 opiate substitution treatment patients, accruing 1289 patient treatment years; 46% had concurrent BMT. 2) National Health Service database search for patients who died after leaving accrued a further 883 years of information; only patients who left the UK were unaccounted for (4%). Three groups were studied: 1) never obtained benzodiazepine prescription (NOB): n=80); 2) briefly/occasionally prescribed benzodiazepines (BOP): n=71; 3) BMT: n=127. Treatment retention (months); deaths/100 patient treatment years; deaths after leaving the service/100 years of information. Treatment retention: NOB: 34 months; BOP: 51 months; BMT: 72 months. In-treatment mortality: NOB: 1.79/100 patient treatment years; BOP: 0.33/100 patient treatment years; BMT: 1.31/100 patient treatment years. Deaths after leaving service: NOB: 2.24/100 years of information, BOP: 0.63/100 years of information. However, mortality for previously BMT-patients increased by 450% to 5.90/100 years of information. BMT patients had longer treatment retention than NOB or BOP and lower mortality than NOB patients. It is unlikely that patients had access to prescribed benzodiazepines on leaving the service because of restrictions in the national guidelines but co-dependent patients are a high-risk group who may stand to gain most benefit from opiate substitution treatment if combined with benzodiazepine-maintenance.

  16. Methadone, Cocaine, Opiates and Metabolite Disposition in Umbilical Cord and Correlations to Maternal Methadone Dose and Neonatal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Ana; Jones, Hendreé E.; Johnson, Rolley E.; Gray, Teresa R; Shakleya, Diaa M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To explore methadone and 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) umbilical cord disposition, correlate with maternal methadone dose and neonatal outcomes, and evaluate the window of drug detection in umbilical cord of in utero illicit drug exposure. Methods Subjects, 19 opioid-dependent pregnant women from two clinical studies, one comparing methadone and buprenorphine pharmacotherapy for opioid-dependence treatment, and the second examining monetary reinforcement schedules to maintain drug abstinence. Correlations were calculated for methadone and EDDP umbilical cord concentrations and maternal methadone dose, and neonatal outcomes. Cocaine- and opiate-positive umbilical cord concentrations were compared to those in placenta and meconium, and urine specimens collected throughout gestation. Results Significant positive correlations were found for umbilical cord methadone concentrations and methadone mean daily dose, mean dose during the 3rd trimester and methadone cumulative daily dose. Umbilical cord EDDP concentrations and EDDP/methadone concentration ratios were positively correlated to newborn length, peak neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) score and time-to-peak NAS score. Methadone concentrations and EDDP/methadone ratios in umbilical cord and placenta were positively correlated. Meconium identified many more cocaine and opiate positive specimens than umbilical cord. Conclusion Umbilical cord methadone concentrations were correlated to methadone doses. Also, our results indicate that methadone and EDDP concentrations might help to predict NAS severity. Meconium proved to be more suitable than umbilical cord to detect in utero exposure to cocaine and opiates; however, umbilical cord could be useful when meconium is unavailable due to in utero or delayed expulsion. PMID:21743375

  17. Oxytocin in the periaqueductal gray participates in pain modulation in the rat by influencing endogenous opiate peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Liang, Jin-Ying; Li, Peng; Pan, Yan-Juan; Qiu, Pei-Yong; Zhang, Jing; Hao, Fang; Wang, Da-Xin

    2011-06-01

    Periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays a very important role in pain modulation through endogenous opiate peptides including leucine-enkephalin (L-Ek), methionine-enkephalin (M-Ek), β-endorphin (β-Ep) and dynorphin A(1-13) (DynA(1-13)). Our pervious study has demonstrated that intra-PAG injection of oxytocin (OXT) increases the pain threshold, and local administration of OXT receptor antagonist decreases the pain threshold, in which the antinociceptive role of OXT can be reversed by pre-PAG administration of OXT receptor antagonist. The experiment was designed to investigate the effect of OXT on endogenous opiate peptides in the rat PAG during the pain process. The results showed that (1) the concentrations of OXT, L-Ek, M-Ek and β-Ep, not DynA(1-13) in the PAG perfusion liquid were increased after the pain stimulation; (2) the concentrations of L-Ek, M-Ek and β-Ep, not DynA(1-13) in the PAG perfusion liquid were decreased by the OXT receptor antagonist; (3) the increased pain threshold induced by the OXT was attenuated by naloxone, an opiate receptor antagonist; and (4) the concentrations of L-Ek, M-Ek and β-Ep, not DynA(1-13) in the PAG perfusion liquid were increased by exogenous OXT administration. The data suggested that OXT in the PAG could influence the L-Ek, M-Ek and β-Ep rather than DynA(1-13) to participate in pain modulation, i.e. OXT in the PAG participate in pain modulation by influencing the L-Ek, M-Ek and β-Ep rather than DynA(1-13). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Opiate sensitization induces FosB/ΔFosB expression in prefrontal cortical, striatal and amygdala brain regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary B Kaplan

    Full Text Available Sensitization to the effects of drugs of abuse and associated stimuli contributes to drug craving, compulsive drug use, and relapse in addiction. Repeated opiate exposure produces behavioral sensitization that is hypothesized to result from neural plasticity in specific limbic, striatal and cortical systems. ΔFosB and FosB are members of the Fos family of transcription factors that are implicated in neural plasticity in addiction. This study examined the effects of intermittent morphine treatment, associated with motor sensitization, on FosB/ΔFosB levels using quantitative immunohistochemistry. Motor sensitization was tested in C57BL/6 mice that received six intermittent pre-treatments (on days 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12 with either subcutaneous morphine (10 mg/kg or saline followed by a challenge injection of morphine or saline on day 16. Mice receiving repeated morphine injections demonstrated significant increases in locomotor activity on days 8, 10, and 12 of treatment (vs. day 1, consistent with development of locomotor sensitization. A morphine challenge on day 16 significantly increased locomotor activity of saline pre-treated mice and produced even larger increases in motor activity in the morphine pre-treated mice, consistent with the expression of opiate sensitization. Intermittent morphine pre-treatment on these six pre-treatment days produced a significant induction of FosB/ΔFosB, measured on day 16, in multiple brain regions including prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL cortex, nucleus accumbens (NAc core, dorsomedial caudate-putamen (CPU, basolateral amygdala (BLA and central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA but not in a motor cortex control region. Opiate induced sensitization may develop via Fos/ΔFosB plasticity in motivational pathways (NAc, motor outputs (CPU, and associative learning (PL, IL, BLA and stress pathways (CNA.

  19. Quality of life of treated opiate addicts in the methadone maintenance program and those treated with buprenorphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Although the characteristics of the treatment are the most researched determinants of quality of life of opiate addicts, it is indisputable that there is a certain influence of the characteristics of addicts and addiction, too. The aim of this study was to determine which addicts characteristics, as well as the characteristics of the addiction and treatment have predicative influence on the quality of life of the opiate addicts treated in the methadone maintenance program and those treated with buprenorphine. Methods. The epidemiological cross-sectional study was carried out in 2013 at the Clinical Center Niš, on a total of 64 opiate addicts, both sexes, aged 18 and older (32 addicts in the methadone program, chosen by random selection, and 32 addicts treated with buprenorphine, matched by sex and age. Necessary data were collected in a “face to face” interview with the examinees, based on the autonomous kind of a questionnaire, together with the use of the standardized World Health Organization (WHO instruments: for health status, for the level of severity of addiction and for the quality of life measuring based on which the health index (EQ-5D, Addiction Severity Index (ASI and the quality of life index (WHOQOL-BREF were calculated. The data were described by the methods of descriptive statistics, while the differences between groups were analyzed by applying χ2 and t-test. Multiple regressions were used to determine the predictors. Results. The addicts in the methadone program showed much worse perception of quality of life than those treated in another way, although, according to the values of quality of life, they did not differ significantly. The most numerous predictors of the level of quality of life were health characteristics, characteristics of the socioeconomic position of the examinees, as well as different consequences of addiction. The influence of treatment was less noticeable. Participating in the methadone

  20. Topiramate in opiate withdrawal- comparison with clonidine and with carbamazepine/mianserin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullino, Daniele Fabio; Krenz, Sonia; Zimmerman, Grégoire; Miozzari, Amos; Rajeswaran, Rajini; Kolly, Stéphane; Khazaal, Yasser

    2004-12-01

    There are some rationales for developing anticonvulsants for the treatment of substance abuse. The blockade of the AMPA/kainate subtype of glutamate receptor by topiramate may be of particular interest, as preclinical studies of withdrawal from opioids suggest that whilst AMPA-receptor antagonists may not be able to prevent tolerance or dependence from developing, they may ameliorate both physical and emotional consequences of withdrawal. Ten consecutively admitted patients treated with topiramate were compared in a retrospective naturalistic drug utilization observation study with 10 consecutively admitted patients treated with clonidine and with 10 consecutively admitted patients treated with a carbamazepine/ mianserin combination. In 9 cases of the clonidine group and in 7 carbamazepine/mianserin treated patients the dose had been reduced, whereas this occurred in only 2 topiramate treated patients (p < 0.01). Patients in the topiramate group received less p.r.n. myorelaxant medication than the two other groups, and there was a significant difference between the three groups with regard to p.r.n. analgesics (p < 0.05), topiramate and clonidine treated patients receiving fewer analgesics than the carbamazepine/mianserin group. Compared to clonidine and carbamazepine/mianserin, a detoxification scheme using high initial and then decreasing doses of topiramate appeared to be appropriate for most patients and as associated with less analgesic and myorelaxant comedication, indicating a more promising efficacy at the used doses.

  1. Physiological and molecular responses to heavy metal stresses suggest different detoxification mechanism of Populus deltoides and P. x canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyó, Dániel; Horváth, Edit; Németh, Edit; Leviczky, Tünde; Takács, Kinga; Lehotai, Nóra; Feigl, Gábor; Kolbert, Zsuzsanna; Ördög, Attila; Gallé, Róbert; Csiszár, Jolán; Szabados, László; Erdei, László; Gallé, Ágnes

    2016-08-20

    Plants have divergent defense mechanisms against the harmful effects of heavy metals present in excess in soils and groundwaters. Poplars (Populus spp.) are widely cultivated because of their rapid growth and high biomass production, and members of the genus are increasingly used as experimental model organisms of trees and for phytoremediation purposes. Our aim was to investigate the copper and zinc stress responses of three outstanding biomass producer bred poplar lines to identify such transcripts of genes involved in the detoxification mechanisms, which can play an important role in the protection against heavy metals. Poplar cuttings were grown hydroponically and subjected to short-term (one week) mild and sublethal copper and zinc stresses. We evaluated the effects of the applied heavy metals and the responses of plants by detecting the changes of multiple physiological and biochemical parameters. The most severe cellular oxidative damage was caused by 30μM copper treatment, while zinc was less harmful. Analysis of stress-related transcripts revealed genotype-specific differences that are likely related to alterations in heavy metal tolerance. P. deltoides clones B-229 and PE 19/66 clones were clearly more effective at inducing the expression of various genes implicated in the detoxification process, such as the glutathione transferases, metallothioneins, ABC transporters, (namely PtGSTU51, PxMT1, PdABCC2,3), while the P. canadensis line M-1 accumulated more metal, resulting in greater cellular oxidative damage. Our results show that all three poplar clones are efficient in stress acclimatization, but with different molecular bases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxicity and Detoxification Mechanism of Black Pepper and Its Major Constituent in Controlling Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Curculionidae: Coleoptera)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hussain, A; Rizwan-ul-Haq, M; Al-Ayedh, H; Aljabr, A M

    2017-01-01

    The survival, feeding response, and detoxification mechanism of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, a key pest responsible for destruction of date palm, was examined with different extracts of Piper...

  3. Hypoxemia in patients on chronic opiate therapy with and without sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogri, Mohammed; Desai, Himanshu; Webster, Lynn; Grant, Brydon J B; Mador, M Jeffery

    2009-03-01

    Animal models have shown a quantal slowing of respiratory pattern when exposed to opioid agonist, in a pattern similar to that observed in central sleep apnea. We postulated that opioid-induced hypoventilation is more likely to be associated with sleep apnea rather than hypoventilation alone. Since we did not have a direct measure of hypoventilation we used hypoxemia as an indirect measure reasoning that significant hypoventilation would not occur in the absence of hypoxemia. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 98 consecutive patients on chronic opioid medications who were referred for overnight polysomnography. All patients on chronic opioids seen in the chronic pain clinic were referred for a sleep study regardless of whether they had sleep symptoms or not. Sleep-related hypoxemia was defined as arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation of less than 90% for more than 5 min with a nadir of opiate therapy for chronic pain have an extremely high prevalence of sleep apnea and nocturnal hypoxemia. Hypoxemia can occur during quiet wakefulness in patients on chronic opioid medications with and without sleep apnea. In patients on chronic opioid therapy, isolated nocturnal hypoxemia without coexisting sleep apnea or daytime hypoxemia is very

  4. Mechanistic insight into acrylate metabolism and detoxification in marine dimethylsulfoniopropionate-catabolizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Cao, Hai-Yan; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Li, Chun-Yang; Li, Ping-Yi; Zhang, Xi-Ying; Qin, Qi-Long; Todd, Jonathan D; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) cleavage, yielding dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and acrylate, provides vital carbon sources to marine bacteria, is a key component of the global sulfur cycle and effects atmospheric chemistry and potentially climate. Acrylate and its metabolite acryloyl-CoA are toxic if allowed to accumulate within cells. Thus, organisms cleaving DMSP require effective systems for both the utilization and detoxification of acrylate. Here, we examine the mechanism of acrylate utilization and detoxification in Roseobacters. We propose propionate-CoA ligase (PrpE) and acryloyl-CoA reductase (AcuI) as the key enzymes involved and through structural and mutagenesis analyses, provide explanations of their catalytic mechanisms. In most cases, DMSP lyases and DMSP demethylases (DmdAs) have low substrate affinities, but AcuIs have very high substrate affinities, suggesting that an effective detoxification system for acylate catabolism exists in DMSP-catabolizing Roseobacters. This study provides insight on acrylate metabolism and detoxification and a possible explanation for the high Km values that have been noted for some DMSP lyases. Since acrylate/acryloyl-CoA is probably produced by other metabolism, and AcuI and PrpE are conserved in many organisms across all domains of life, the detoxification system is likely relevant to many metabolic processes and environments beyond DMSP catabolism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Efficacy of integrating stress coping skills training with detoxification on social adjustment of addicted women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehestani, Mehdi; Tarkhan, Morteza; Abbasi, Maryam; Aghili, Zahra Sadat

    2012-01-01

    Addiction as a biopsychosocial problem has been dramatically increased in our country. Adverse consequences of the addiction in women have been shown to be more than men, which in turn can affect family members' health and wellbeing. The current study examined the efficacy of stress coping skills training in addicted women referring to an outpatient centre of addiction prevention located in Welfare Organization of Gorgan, Iran. 30 women with low levels of social adjustment measured by Social Adjustment Scale were randomly assigned to coping skills training with detoxification treatments (experimental) or detoxification alone groups. Both groups (n = 15) completed pre-post assessments of Bell's adjustment Inventory. Experimental group received coping skills training program in ten sessions, each session last 90 minutes. Social adjustment was considerably improved more in addicted women who followed coping skills training program with detoxification treatment in comparison with the women who was undergone only detoxification treatment. Skills training program can help addicted women to better cope with their adjustment problem and these skills should be integrated into detoxification programs for this population.

  6. A Stage I Pilot Study of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Methadone Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, Angela L.; Green, Charles; Masuda, Akihiko; Grabowski, John; Wilson, Kelly; Northrup, Thomas; Moeller, F. Gerard; Schmitz, Joy

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND While agonist replacement therapies are effective for managing opioid dependence, community treatment programs are increasingly choosing detoxification. Unfortunately, success rates for opioid detoxification are very low, in part, due to physical and psychological symptoms associated with opioid withdrawal. Few behavior therapies specifically address the distressing experiences specific to opioid withdrawal. A novel behavioral treatment, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), works from the premise that the avoidance of unpleasant private experiences (thoughts, feelings, bodily sensations) is ubiquitous yet may be pathogenic, resulting in treatment drop-out and further drug use. METHODS This Stage I pilot study developed and tested an ACT-based opioid detoxification behavioral therapy. Opioid dependent patients (N = 56) who were attending a licensed methadone clinic were randomized to receive either 24 individual therapy sessions of ACT or Drug Counseling (DC) in the context of a 6-month methadone dose reduction program. RESULTS While no difference was found on opioid use during treatment, 37% of participants in the ACT condition were successfully detoxified at the end of treatment compared to 19% of those who received DC. Fear of detoxification was also reduced across time in the ACT condition relative to DC. CONCLUSION This first study of ACT to assist opioid detoxification indicates promise. Research is needed to refine specific treatment strategies for this population to further strengthen effects. PMID:22425411

  7. Sequential pattern of non-medical drug use in the drug career of opiate dependents in Nagpur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wairagkar, N S; Wahab, S N; Kulkarni, H R

    1996-12-01

    A study was carried out in a group of opiate addicts who reported to various centers in Nagpur city, India, to know the sequential pattern of nonmedical drug use in the drug career of opiate dependents in Nagpur. The mean age of the study group was 28.2 years, the majority were males, educated up to 10th standard, employed in various occupations like petty business, vehicle driving, etc, with an average monthly income of Rs. 316. The average number of drugs ever used per person was 3.7 +/- 1.2, those recently used was 2.6 +/- 0.9 and currently used was 2.2 +/- 0.6. The study group experienced 13 drug types in their addict careers. Beedi¿cigarette was the first drug abused by the majority. Drug careers starting with beedi¿cigarette, progressing to alcohol and then to canabis and finally to heroin were observed in a majority of subjects. There appeared to be a shift from multidrug use to the singular combination of heroin and beedi¿cigarette currently. Use of all other drugs declined in favor of heroin as the career progressed. The study indicates that preventive programs should be directed at reducing the use of initial drugs like beedi¿cigarette and alcohol and also reducing the social acceptability of these drugs as measure for preventing progression to hard drugs like heroin.

  8. Monitoring of opiates, cannabinoids and their metabolites in wastewater, surface water and finished water in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleda, M A Rosa; Galceran, M A Teresa; Ventura, Francesc

    2009-03-01

    The occurrence of several opiates and cannabinoids in wastewaters and surface waters has been investigated. Most of the compounds (8 out of 11) were identified in both influent and effluents of fifteen wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Codeine, morphine, EDDP and methadone were detected in almost all samples with median values of 69ng/L; 63ng/L; 28ng/L and 18ng/L, respectively, whereas the main cannabinoid metabolite THC-COOH presented a median value of 57ng/L in influents. A rough estimate of heroin and cannabis consumption was performed from the analysis of target urinary metabolites in wastewater influents. Data obtained from influents of rural and urban WWTPs gave 0.07% of heroin consumption (0.67% for the largest urban WWTP) and 4% consumption of cannabinoids, respectively for the population aged between 15 and 64 years old. The presence of opiates and cannabinoids in surface waters used for drinking water production showed the presence of the same compounds identified in wastewater effluents at concentrations up to 76ng/L for codeine; 31ng/L for EDDP; 12ng/L for morphine and 9ng/L for methadone at the intake of the DWTP. A complete removal of all studied drugs present in surface water was achieved during the potabilization process except for methadone and EDDP (91% and 87% removal, respectively).

  9. Detoxification mechanisms of honey bees (Apis mellifera) resulting in tolerance of dietary nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Rand, Esther E; Smit, Salome; Beukes, Mervyn; Apostolides, Zeno; Pirk, Christian W W; Nicolson, Susan W

    2015-07-02

    Insecticides are thought to be among the major factors contributing to current declines in bee populations. However, detoxification mechanisms in healthy, unstressed honey bees are poorly characterised. Alkaloids are naturally encountered in pollen and nectar, and we used nicotine as a model compound to identify the mechanisms involved in detoxification processes in honey bees. Nicotine and neonicotinoids have similar modes of action in insects. Our metabolomic and proteomic analyses show active detoxification of nicotine in bees, associated with increased energetic investment and also antioxidant and heat shock responses. The increased energetic investment is significant in view of the interactions of pesticides with diseases such as Nosema spp which cause energetic stress and possible malnutrition. Understanding how healthy honey bees process dietary toxins under unstressed conditions will help clarify how pesticides, alone or in synergy with other stress factors, lead to declines in bee vitality.

  10. Investigation of the detoxification mechanism of formaldehyde-treated tetanus toxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Jørgensen, Sys Borcher; Wilhelmsen, Ellen Sloth

    2007-01-01

     The tetanus vaccine is based on the extremely potent tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT), which is converted by treatment with formaldehyde and lysine into the non-toxic, but still immunogenic tetanus toxoid (TTd). This formaldehyde-induced detoxification, which to a large extend determines the quality...... and formaldehyde in the detoxification process and (ii) characterisation of the chemically detoxified TTd. (i) We examined a number of TTd components that was produced by varying the concentrations of formaldehyde and lysine during the inactivation. Toxicity tests showed that the detoxification failed when...... the lysine or formaldehyde concentration was formaldehyde-dependent and, furthermore, revealed that inter-chain cross-linking was not the only requirement for the inactivation...

  11. Identification of Chromobacterium violaceum genes with potential biotechnological application in environmental detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carepo, Marta S P; Azevedo, Juliana S Nina de; Porto, Jorge I R; Bentes-Sousa, Alexandra R; Batista, Jacqueline da Silva; Silva, Artur L C da; Schneider, Maria P C

    2004-03-31

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative bacterium found in a wide variety of tropical and subtropical ecosystems. The complete genome sequence of C. violaceum ATCC 12472 is now available, and it has considerable biotechnological potential for various applications, such as environmental detoxification, as well as medical and agricultural use. We examined the biotechnological potential of C. violaceum for environmental detoxification. Three operons, comprising the ars operon, involved in arsenic resistance, the cyn operon, involved in cyanate detoxification, and the hcn operon, encoding a cyanase, responsible for biogenic production of cyanide, as well as an open reading frame, encoding an acid dehalogenase, were analyzed in detail. Probable catalytic mechanisms for the enzymes were determined, based on amino acid sequence comparisons and on published structural information for these types of proteins.

  12. Outcomes of adult heroin users v. abstinent users four years after presenting for heroin detoxification treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zureida Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are no studies in South Africa (SA on the outcomes following detoxification and psychosocial rehabilitation of heroin-dependent patients. Objective. To compare the demographic, clinical, forensic and treatment data of active heroin users v. users who were abstinent at the time of interview 4 years after attending the Opioid Detoxification Unit at Stikland Hospital in the Western Cape Province, SA.  Method. Participants included patients above the age of 16 years who had been admitted to the Opioid Detoxification Unit at Stikland Hospital for heroin detoxification between July 2006 and June 2007. Participants were individually interviewed (either in person or tele­phonically using a structured self-report questionnaire to collect demographic, clinical, forensic and treatment data 4 years following heroin detoxification treatment at this unit.  Results. Of the participants, 60% were abstinent and a large portion (34% attributed this to social support. Furthermore, there was a significant (p=0.04 difference in the longest period of abstinence between the past user group and active users, with more participants in the past user group being abstinent for 18 months or longer (n=24, 57% than in the active users group (n=8, 29%. Active users (n=18, 64% had significantly (p=0.03 more legal problems than abstinent users (n=14, 33%. Most participants (n=38, 54% relapsed within 3 months after index detoxification and rehabilitation.  Conclusion. Active users had more legal problems than abstinent users, with social support structures playing a pivotal role in abstinence. Future research should assess the impact of interventions such as post-discharge social support programmes on criminality and heroin use in those that relapse following treatment.

  13. Ethanol from lignocellulose - Fermentation inhibitors, detoxification and genetic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Simona

    2000-07-01

    Ethanol can be produced from lignocellulose by first hydrolysing the material to sugars, and then fermenting the hydrolysate with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis using dilute sulphuric acid has advantages over other methods, however, compounds which inhibit fermentation are generated during this kind of hydrolysis. The inhibitory effect of aliphatic acids, furans, and phenolic compounds was investigated. The generation of inhibitors during hydrolysis was studied using Norway spruce as raw material. It was concluded that the decrease in the fermentability coincided with increasing harshness of the hydrolysis conditions. The decrease in fermentability was not correlated solely to the content of aliphatic acids or furan derivatives. To increase the fermentability, detoxification is often employed. Twelve detoxification methods were compared with respect to the chemical composition of the hydrolysate and the fermentability after treatment. The most efficient detoxification methods were anion-exchange at pH 10.0, overliming and enzymatic detoxification with the phenol-oxidase laccase. Detailed analyses of ion exchange revealed that anion exchange and unspecific hydrophobic interactions greatly contributed to the detoxification effect, while cation exchange did not. The comparison of detoxification methods also showed that phenolic compounds are very important fermentation inhibitors, as their selective removal with laccase had a major positive effect on the fermentability. Selected compounds; aliphatic acids, furans and phenolic compounds, were characterised with respect to their inhibitory effect on ethanolic fermentation by S. cerevisiae. When aliphatic acids or furans were compared, the inhibitory effects were found to be in the same range, but the phenolic compounds displayed widely different inhibitory effects. The possibility of genetically engineering S. cerevisiae to achieve increased inhibitor resistance was explored by heterologous expression of

  14. Interactions between cyanobacteria and gastropods I. Ingestion of toxic Planktothrix agardhii by Lymnaea stagnalis and the kinetics of microcystin bioaccumulation and detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Emilie; Brient, Luc; Bormans, Myriam; Gérard, Claudia

    2006-08-23

    The last two decades have been marked by an increasing occurrence of toxic cyanobacterial blooms in aquatic ecosystems. These pose an expanding threat to the environment and to human health. Among the intracellular toxins produced by cyanobacteria, microcystins (hepatotoxins) are the most frequent and widely studied. As an ubiquitous herbivore living in eutrophic freshwaters, the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) is particularly exposed to cyanobacteria. The toxic filamentous Planktothrix agardhii is common in temperate lakes and is, therefore, a potential food resource for gastropods. We have studied the consumption of P. agardhii by L. stagnalis juveniles and adults in the presence or absence of non-toxic food (lettuce) over a 5-weeks period. Intoxication was followed by a 3-week detoxification period when snails were fed only on lettuce. The kinetics of microcystin accumulation and detoxification in the gastropods were established using the ELISA analytical method. The results showed an ingestion of toxic P. agardhii by L. stagnalis, even in the presence of lettuce, and the absence of food selection regardless of the age of the snails. Juveniles and adults consumed the same number of cells per millilitre and consumption was proportional to food availability. On average, 63% of cyanobacteria available were taken up during the first 24h. After 5 weeks of intoxication, 61% of the toxins present in the ingested cyanobacterial cells had accumulated in snail tissues (95% in the digestive-genital gland complex) with a concentration up to 80.4+/-4.9microggDW(-1). Toxin accumulation was greater in the gastropods fed on P. agardhii alone than those fed on the mixed diet, and was also greater in juveniles than in adults. After the removal of toxic cyanobacteria, detoxification was rapid: 64% of the toxins disappeared from snail tissues during the first week, but microcystins were still detected after 3 weeks (on average, 3.5+/-0.9microggDW(-1

  15. Study of liver function and expression of some detoxification genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmad Ali Badr

    2015-10-19

    Oct 19, 2015 ... banned in the USA, it is still used in Middle East countries. MTBE is rapidly and readily absorbed via inhalation and oral exposure, but at a modest rate through ... Animals were housed in plastic cages under standard animal house conditions with a 12 h light/dark cycle and a temperature of 25 ± 2 °C, ...

  16. Reliability of self-reported use of amphetamine, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, cocaine, methadone, and opiates among acutely hospitalized elderly medical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, B.; Olsen, L.; Poulsen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Undisclosed use of illicit drugs and prescription controlled substances is frequent in some settings. The aim of the present study was to estimate the reliability of self-reported use of amphetamine, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, cocaine, methadone, and opiates among acutely...

  17. Striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding and dopamine release during cue-elicited craving in recently abstinent opiate-dependent males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Fleur; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2008-01-01

    Opiate addiction is a chronic disorder characterized by relapse behaviour, often preceded by craving and anhedonia. Chronic craving and anhedonia have been associated with low availability of dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) and cue-elicited craving has been linked with endogenous dopamine release. We

  18. The Impact of Take-Home Naloxone Distribution and Training on Opiate Overdose Knowledge and Response: An Evaluation of the THN Project in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Trevor; Holloway, Katy

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To determine the impact of naloxone training on knowledge of opiate overdose and confidence and willingness to take appropriate action and to examine the use of naloxone and other harm-reduction actions at the time of overdose events. Methods: The evaluation was based on a repeated-measure design, whereby clients were tested before and after…

  19. Detoxification of biomass hydrolysates with nucleophilic amino acids enhances alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rui; Tu, Maobing; Carvin, Jamarius; Wu, Yonnie

    2015-06-01

    Carbonyl compounds generated in biomass pretreatment hinder the biochemical conversion of biomass hydrolysates to biofuels. A novel approach of detoxifying hydrolysates with amino acids for ethanol production was developed. Among the 20 amino acids assessed for their detoxification efficiency and nucleophilicity, cysteine was the most effective one. It increased both ethanol productivity and final yield of biomass hydrolysates from 0.18 (untreated) to 1.77 g/L/h and from 0.02 to 0.42 g/g, respectively. Detoxification efficiency was followed by histidine and it increased the final yield to 0.42 g/g, then by lysine, tryptophan and asparagine. It was observed all five effective amino acids contained reactive side-chain functional groups, which played important roles in the amino acid detoxification reaction. The study further showed cysteine and glycine detoxifications were temperature and pH dependent. The mechanistic study using mass spectrometry revealed thiazolidine carboxylic acid, a Schiff base, was formed by condensation of aldehyde and cysteine. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Forager bees (Apis mellifera) highly express immune and detoxification genes in tissues associated with nectar processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannette, Rachel L; Mohamed, Abbas; Johnson, Brian R

    2015-11-09

    Pollinators, including honey bees, routinely encounter potentially harmful microorganisms and phytochemicals during foraging. However, the mechanisms by which honey bees manage these potential threats are poorly understood. In this study, we examine the expression of antimicrobial, immune and detoxification genes in Apis mellifera and compare between forager and nurse bees using tissue-specific RNA-seq and qPCR. Our analysis revealed extensive tissue-specific expression of antimicrobial, immune signaling, and detoxification genes. Variation in gene expression between worker stages was pronounced in the mandibular and hypopharyngeal gland (HPG), where foragers were enriched in transcripts that encode antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and immune response. Additionally, forager HPGs and mandibular glands were enriched in transcripts encoding detoxification enzymes, including some associated with xenobiotic metabolism. Using qPCR on an independent dataset, we verified differential expression of three AMP and three P450 genes between foragers and nurses. High expression of AMP genes in nectar-processing tissues suggests that these peptides may contribute to antimicrobial properties of honey or to honey bee defense against environmentally-acquired microorganisms. Together, these results suggest that worker role and tissue-specific expression of AMPs, and immune and detoxification enzymes may contribute to defense against microorganisms and xenobiotic compounds acquired while foraging.

  1. Heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for medication-assisted treatment after inpatient detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Bailey, Genie L; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-10-01

    An individual's self-efficacy to refuse using heroin in high-risk situations is believed to minimize the likelihood for relapse. However, among individuals completing inpatient heroin detoxification, perceived refusal self-efficacy may also reduce one's perceived need for medication-assisted treatment (MAT), an effective and recommended treatment for opioid use disorder. In the current study, we examined the relationship between heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for MAT following inpatient detoxification. Participants (N=397) were interviewed at the start of brief inpatient opioid detoxification. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted association of background characteristics, depressed mood, and perceived heroin refusal self-efficacy with preference for MAT. Controlling for other covariates, depressed mood and lower perceived refusal self-efficacy were associated with a significantly greater likelihood of expressing preference for MAT (versus no MAT). Perceived ability to refuse heroin after leaving detox is inversely associated with a heroin user's desire for MAT. An effective continuum of care model may benefit from greater attention to patient's perceived refusal self-efficacy during detoxification which may impact preference for MAT and long-term recovery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The role of pH in heavy metal detoxification by biosorption from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high level of toxic metal pollution in the environment is a result of increased human activities. The hydrogen ion concentration of solutions has been known to affect reactions in solutions. The role of pH in As(V), Pb(II) and Hg(II) ions detoxification by bio-sorption from aqueous solutions using coconut fiber and sawdust ...

  3. Growth characteristics of Dayak Borneo yam (Dioscorea hispida and detoxification techniques as alternative food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUDITO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Rudito, Suwarto, Azkiyah L, Witono Y, Saragih B, Arung ET. 2017. Growth characteristics of Dayak Borneo yam (Dioscorea hispida and detoxification techniques as alternative food. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 3: 99-103. Finding of local food sources to enhance food security areas. This study focuses on the characteristics of growth Dayak Borneo yam observation, toxic substances and detoxification techniques development of non nutritional. The objective of the research was to find out a more concrete picture, as well as comparing it with Java yam non nutritional components as a basis for further exploration of alternative food. Observations indicate that the plant growth of Dayak Borneo yam had specific characteristics, and can be grown in intercropping with other crops. Yam tubers have negative image due to the toxins contained by this commodity, as well as technology management (detoxification and processing of yam products that have not been controlled by the community. But based on the results of physical and chemical detoxification, indicates that the Dayak Borneo yam can be exploited further as food. Dayak Borneo yam need to be developed modification process in raw materials of Dayak Borneo yam as modified starch through fermentation techniques which also intended to obtain intermediate product from which Dayak Borneo yam has a larger functionality as a food ingredient.

  4. Decreased Skin-Mediated Detoxification Contributes to Oxidative Stress and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Xing Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The skin, the body's largest organ, plays an important role in the biotransformation/detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and endogenous toxic substances, but its role in oxidative stress and insulin resistance is unclear. We investigated the relationship between skin detoxification and oxidative stress/insulin resistance by examining burn-induced changes in nicotinamide degradation. Rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated, sham-nicotinamide, burn, and burn-nicotinamide. Rats received an intraperitoneal glucose injection (2 g/kg with (sham-nicotinamide and burn-nicotinamide groups or without (sham-operated and burn groups coadministration of nicotinamide (100 mg/kg. The results showed that the mRNA of all detoxification-related enzymes tested was detected in sham-operated skin but not in burned skin. The clearance of nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide in burned rats was significantly decreased compared with that in sham-operated rats. After glucose loading, burn group showed significantly higher plasma insulin levels with a lower muscle glycogen level than that of sham-operated and sham-nicotinamide groups, although there were no significant differences in blood glucose levels over time between groups. More profound changes in plasma H2O2 and insulin levels were observed in burn-nicotinamide group. It may be concluded that decreased skin detoxification may increase the risk for oxidative stress and insulin resistance.

  5. Decreased skin-mediated detoxification contributes to oxidative stress and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing-Xing; Sun, Chang-Bin; Yang, Ting-Tong; Li, Da; Li, Chun-Yan; Tian, Yan-Jie; Guo, Ming; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Shi-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The skin, the body's largest organ, plays an important role in the biotransformation/detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics and endogenous toxic substances, but its role in oxidative stress and insulin resistance is unclear. We investigated the relationship between skin detoxification and oxidative stress/insulin resistance by examining burn-induced changes in nicotinamide degradation. Rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated, sham-nicotinamide, burn, and burn-nicotinamide. Rats received an intraperitoneal glucose injection (2 g/kg) with (sham-nicotinamide and burn-nicotinamide groups) or without (sham-operated and burn groups) coadministration of nicotinamide (100 mg/kg). The results showed that the mRNA of all detoxification-related enzymes tested was detected in sham-operated skin but not in burned skin. The clearance of nicotinamide and N(1)-methylnicotinamide in burned rats was significantly decreased compared with that in sham-operated rats. After glucose loading, burn group showed significantly higher plasma insulin levels with a lower muscle glycogen level than that of sham-operated and sham-nicotinamide groups, although there were no significant differences in blood glucose levels over time between groups. More profound changes in plasma H(2)O(2) and insulin levels were observed in burn-nicotinamide group. It may be concluded that decreased skin detoxification may increase the risk for oxidative stress and insulin resistance.

  6. Adsorption and photocatalytic detoxification of diazinon using iron and nanotitania modified activated carbons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hassan, A F.; Elhadidy, Hassan; Abdel-Mohsen, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 75, JUN (2017), s. 299-306 ISSN 1876-1070 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Detoxification * Diazinon * Flamboyant pods * Photocatalyst * Characterization Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.217, year: 2016

  7. Detoxification combining fasting with fluid therapy for refractory cases of severe atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu Seok; Nam, Hae Jeong

    2013-01-01

    To introduce and determine the clinical benefits of a detoxification program that combines fasting with fluid therapy for refractory cases of severe atopic dermatitis (AD), we performed a retrospective chart review of inpatients with AD from March 2010 to February 2012 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Otorhinolaryngology and Dermatology of Korean Medicine in the Kyung Hee Medical Center. Patients were treated with the detoxification program, which combined fasting with fluid therapy, and herbal medicine, herbal wet wrap dressings, or acupuncture treatment when clinically necessary. The primary outcome was the SCORAD total index. The secondary outcome was the pruritus visual analogue scale (VAS) score in SCORAD as evaluated by a trained dermatology specialist. Among the 130 inpatients that have done detoxification, 7 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean total SCORAD scores significantly decreased from 64.67 ± 11.72 to 26.26 ± 11.01 (P = 0.018) after the detoxification program. There was also a significant decrease in VAS score for pruritus from 8.00 ± 1.16 to 2.57 ± 0.98 (P = 0.016) between admission and discharge. We suggest that fasting with fluid therapy as a complementary and alternative treatment method may provide some benefits for patients with refractory cases of severe atopic dermatitis.

  8. Treatment outcome of alcohol use disorder outpatients with or without medically assisted detoxification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, Maarten J. M.; Schippers, Gerard M.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; de Wildt, Wencke A. J. M.; Vedel, Ellen; Goudriaan, Anna E.; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the incremental effects of medically assisted detoxification on outpatient treatment for alcohol use disorders. The objective of this study was to compare drinking outcomes in a psychosocial treatment program between two groups of heavy drinking patients who had an alcohol use

  9. Reduction of Medication Costs After Detoxification for Medication-Overuse Headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Asif M; Bendtsen, Lars; Zeeberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    . Long-term economic savings obtained by detoxification have never been investigated. METHODS: We conducted a registry-based observational retrospective follow-up study on 336 medication-overuse headache patients treated and discharged from the Danish Headache Center over a 2-year period. By means...

  10. Low colonic glutathione detoxification capacity in patients at risk for colon cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M.J.A.L.; Braak, C.C.M.; Nagengast, F.M.; Peters, W.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colon carcinogenesis is a multifactorial process influenced by hereditary as well as environmental factors. The glutathione/glutathione S-transferase detoxification system in the colon is important for protection against carcinogens. We investigated the levels of glutathione/glutathione

  11. Mu Opioid Receptors on Primary Afferent Nav1.8 Neurons Contribute to Opiate-Induced Analgesia: Insight from Conditional Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchewski, Laurie; Gardon, Olivier; Matifas, Audrey; Filliol, Dominique; Becker, Jérôme A. J.; Wood, John N.; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Opiates are powerful drugs to treat severe pain, and act via mu opioid receptors distributed throughout the nervous system. Their clinical use is hampered by centrally-mediated adverse effects, including nausea or respiratory depression. Here we used a genetic approach to investigate the potential of peripheral mu opioid receptors as targets for pain treatment. We generated conditional knockout (cKO) mice in which mu opioid receptors are deleted specifically in primary afferent Nav1.8-positive neurons. Mutant animals were compared to controls for acute nociception, inflammatory pain, opiate-induced analgesia and constipation. There was a 76% decrease of mu receptor-positive neurons and a 60% reduction of mu-receptor mRNA in dorsal root ganglia of cKO mice. Mutant mice showed normal responses to heat, mechanical, visceral and chemical stimuli, as well as unchanged morphine antinociception and tolerance to antinociception in models of acute pain. Inflammatory pain developed similarly in cKO and controls mice after Complete Freund’s Adjuvant. In the inflammation model, however, opiate-induced (morphine, fentanyl and loperamide) analgesia was reduced in mutant mice as compared to controls, and abolished at low doses. Morphine-induced constipation remained intact in cKO mice. We therefore genetically demonstrate for the first time that mu opioid receptors partly mediate opiate analgesia at the level of Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons. In our study, this mechanism operates under conditions of inflammatory pain, but not nociception. Previous pharmacology suggests that peripheral opiates may be clinically useful, and our data further demonstrate that Nav1.8 neuron-associated mu opioid receptors are feasible targets to alleviate some forms of persistent pain. PMID:24069332

  12. PET in neuroscience. Dopaminergic, CABA/benzodiazepine, and opiate system; PET in den Neurowisssenschaften: dopaminerges, GABA/Benzodiazepin- und Opiatsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartenstein, P. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2004-02-01

    This article gives an overview on radiotracer imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) in measuring various aspects of neurotransmission. The review focusses on the dopaminergic system, the GABA/benzodiazepine system, and the opiate system. Besides dealing with the current clinical applications for brain PET studies with specific radiopharmaceuticals this article outlines an idea on potential future developments for the use of these methods in basic neuroscience. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit praesentiert eine Uebersicht zur aktuellen Forschung und klinischen Anwendung von PET-Untersuchungen mit Radiopharmaka, die verschiedene Komponenten der Neurotransmission erfassen. Ausserdem werden Perspektiven und Trend der Methodik gezeigt. Im Mittelpunkt stehen das dopaminerge System, das GABA/Benzodiazepinsystem, und das Opiatsystem. Ausfuehrlich dargestellt werden aktuelle klinische und kliniknahe Moeglichkeiten sowie methodische Aspekte der grundlagenorientierten Forschung, die fuer eine zukunftsorientierte Anwendung von PET-Studien mit Rezeptorliganden u.a. Radiopharmaka zur Bildgebung komplexer biochemischer Prozesse von Bedeutung sind. (orig.)

  13. Preparation of (/sup 11/C)buprenorphine - a potential radioligand for the study of the opiate receptor system in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luthra, S.K.; Pike, V.W.; Brady, F.; Horlock, P.L.; Prenant, C.; Crouzel, C.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for the preparation of (/sup 11/C)buprenorphine in high specific activity, based on the reaction of N-(de-cyclopropylmethyl)buprenorphine with ''no carrier added'' (1-/sup 11/C)cyclopropanecarbonyl chloride followed by reduction with lithium aluminium hydride. The (1-/sup 11/C)cyclopropanecarbonyl chloride is itself prepared from cyclotron-produced (/sup 11/C)carbon dioxide. The overall preparation time is 57 min from the end of radionuclide production, and the radiochemical yield is ca 20%, (decay-corrected from (/sup 11/C)-carbon dioxide). (/sup 11/C)Buprenophine has potential as a radio-ligand for the study of the opiate receptor system in vivo by means of position emission tomography.

  14. Glucocorticoids regulation of FosB/ΔFosB expression induced by chronic opiate exposure in the brain stress system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel García-Pérez

    Full Text Available Chronic use of drugs of abuse profoundly alters stress-responsive system. Repeated exposure to morphine leads to accumulation of the transcription factor ΔFosB, particularly in brain areas associated with reward and stress. The persistent effects of ΔFosB on target genes may play an important role in the plasticity induced by drugs of abuse. Recent evidence suggests that stress-related hormones (e.g., glucocorticoids, GC may induce adaptations in the brain stress system that is likely to involve alteration in gene expression and transcription factors. This study examined the role of GC in regulation of FosB/ΔFosB in both hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic brain stress systems during morphine dependence. For that, expression of FosB/ΔFosB was measured in control (sham-operated and adrenalectomized (ADX rats that were made opiate dependent after ten days of morphine treatment. In sham-operated rats, FosB/ΔFosB was induced after chronic morphine administration in all the brain stress areas investigated: nucleus accumbens(shell (NAc, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST, central amygdala (CeA, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN and nucleus of the solitary tract noradrenergic cell group (NTS-A(2. Adrenalectomy attenuated the increased production of FosB/ΔFosB observed after chronic morphine exposure in NAc, CeA, and NTS. Furthermore, ADX decreased expression of FosB/ΔFosB within CRH-positive neurons of the BNST, PVN and CeA. Similar results were obtained in NTS-A(2 TH-positive neurons and NAc pro-dynorphin-positive neurons. These data suggest that neuroadaptation (estimated as accumulation of FosB/ΔFosB to opiates in brain areas associated with stress is modulated by GC, supporting the evidence of a link between brain stress hormones and addiction.

  15. Benzodiazepine use among opiate-dependent subjects in buprenorphine maintenance treatment: correlates of use, abuse and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Estelle; Fatséas, Mélina; Denis, Cécile; Auriacombe, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies from North America, Europe and Australia have reported high levels of benzodiazepine use among opiate-dependent patients in opiate maintenance treatment. However, to date, there are no available data on patterns of abuse and dependence on benzodiazepines according to DSM criteria among these patients. To describe the independent correlates of use, abuse and dependence on benzodiazepines among buprenorphine patients selected from standard treatment settings. Cross-sectional study in France between June 2001 and June 2004. Buprenorphine patients treated for over 3 months were recruited via physicians prescribing buprenorphine. Patients answered a self-administered questionnaire, the DSM-IV criteria for benzodiazepine abuse and dependence, the Beck Anxiety and Depression Inventories (BAI, BDI) and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Main outcome was modalities of benzodiazepine use: no use vs. simple use vs. problematic use (abuse or dependence according to DSM-IV). 170 patients were recruited. 54% did not use benzodiazepines during the previous month, 15% were simple users and 31% were problematic users. Benzodiazepine use (all modalities) was associated with poly-use of psychotropics. Simple users of benzodiazepines were not statistically different from non-users for the other factors explored. Problematic users of benzodiazepines had higher depression and anxiety levels, correlated with quality of life impairment and precariousness. They used higher dosages of benzodiazepines than simple users. Characteristics of simple benzodiazepine users were distinct from problematic users but not from non-users in this sample of buprenorphine patients. This should be taken into account in the clinical management of benzodiazepine use among buprenorphine patients.

  16. Cytotoxicity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and their detoxification in a freshwater system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalai, Swayamprava; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Joyce Nirmala, M.; Chaudhri, Apoorvi; Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Mandal, A.B. [Chemical Laboratory, Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amitav@vit.ac.in [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •TiO{sub 2} NPs cytotoxicity at low exposure levels (≤1 μg/mL) to freshwater algae. •ROS generation, NP adsorption and internalization contributors to toxicity. •Observational evidence of genotoxicity by nanoparticles in an algal cell. •Reduced bioavailability thus detoxification of NPs by microalgae. •Possible role of EPS in detoxification. -- Abstract: In the current study, two aspects concerning (i) the cytotoxicity potential of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) toward freshwater algal isolate Scenedesmus obliquus and (ii) the potential detoxification of NPs by the microalgae were assessed under light (UV-illumination) and dark conditions at low exposure levels (≤1 μg/mL), using sterile freshwater as the test medium. The statistically significant reduction in cell viability, increase in reactive oxygen species production and membrane permeability (light vs. dark) suggested photo-induced toxicity of TiO{sub 2} NPs. The electron micrographs demonstrated adsorption of the NPs onto the cell surface and substantiated their internalization/uptake. The fluorescence micrographs and the confocal laser scanning (CLSM) images suggested the absence of a definite/intact nucleus in the light treated cells pointing toward the probable genotoxic effects of NPs. In a separate three cycle experiment, a continuous decrease in the cytotoxicity was observed, whereas, at the end of each cycle only fresh algae were added to the supernatant containing NPs from the previous cycle. The decreasing concentrations of the NPs in the subsequent cycles owing to agglomeration–sedimentation processes exacerbated by the algal interactions played a crucial role in the detoxification. In addition, the exo-polymeric substances produced by the cells could have rendered the available NPs less reactive, thereby, enhancing the detoxification effects.

  17. Wood hydrolysis and hydrolysate detoxification for subsequent xylitol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Converti, A.; Perego, P.; Zilli, M. [Genoa Univ. (Italy). Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e di Processo ' G.B. Bonino' ; Dominguez, J.M. [Universidad de Vigo, Ourense (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Edificio Politecnico; Silverio da Silva, S. [Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica de Lorena (FAENQUIL) (Brazil). Departamento de Biotecnologia

    2000-11-01

    A great deal of work has been done during the last decade to develop alternative processes for the integral utilization and revaluation of vegetable biomass. Hardwoods (in particular Eucalyptus globulus) were demonstrated to be of particular interest, because of their rapid growth as well as of the excellent quality of the wood pulp that can be obtained. Today only the cellulose fraction is used for paper production from wood pulp, whereas the lignin and hemicellulose fractions are burnt to produce heat or wasted. This process could be performed in a more profitable way by fractionating the woody material into these fractions and separately using them in different processes. (orig.)

  18. Predicting client attendance at further treatment following drug and alcohol detoxification: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Implementation Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter J; Leung, Joanne; Deane, Frank P; Lyons, Geoffrey C B

    2016-11-01

    Despite clinical recommendations that further treatment is critical for successful recovery following drug and alcohol detoxification, a large proportion of clients fail to attend treatment after detoxification. In this study, individual factors and constructs based on motivational and volitional models of health behaviour were examined as predictors of post-detoxification treatment attendance. The sample consisted of 220 substance-dependent individuals participating in short-term detoxification programs provided by The Australian Salvation Army. The Theory of Planned Behaviour and Implementation Intentions were used to predict attendance at subsequent treatment. Follow-up data were collected for 177 participants (81%), with 104 (80%) of those participants reporting that they had either attended further formal treatment (e.g. residential rehabilitation programs, outpatient counselling) or mutual support groups in the 2 weeks after leaving the detoxification program. Logistic regression examined the predictors of further treatment attendance. The full model accounted for 21% of the variance in treatment attendance, with attitude and Implementation Intentions contributing significantly to the prediction. Findings from the present study would suggest that assisting clients to develop a specific treatment plan, as well as helping clients to build positive perceptions about subsequent treatment, will promote greater attendance at further treatment following detoxification. [Kelly PJ, Leung J, Deane FP, Lyons GCB. Predicting client attendance at further treatment following drug and alcohol detoxification: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Implementation Intentions. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:678-685]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. Molecular Genetics of Metal Detoxification: Prospects for Phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ow, David W. ow@pgec.ams.usda.gov

    2000-09-01

    Unlike compounds that can be broken down, the remediation of most heavy metals and radionuclides requires physical extraction from contaminated sources. Plants can extract inorganics, but effective phytoextraction requires plants that produce high biomass, grow rapidly and possess high capacity-uptake for the inorganic substance. Either hyperaccumulator plants must be bred for increased growth and biomass or hyperaccumulation traits must be engineered into fast growing, high biomass plants. This latter approach requires fundamental knowledge of the molecular mechanisms in the uptake and storage of inorganics. Much has been learned in recent years on how plants and certain fungi chelate and transport selected heavy metals. This progress has been facilitated by the use of Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model system. The use of a model organism for study permits rapid characterization of the molecular process. As target genes are identified in a model organism, their sequences can be modified for expression in a heterologous host or aid in the search of homologous genes in more complex organisms. Moreover, as plant nutrient uptake is intrinsically linked to the association with rhizospheric fungi, elucidating metal sequestration in this fungus permits additional opportunities for engineering rhizospheric microbes to assist in phytoextraction.

  20. ROS detoxification and proinflammatory cytokines are linked by p38 MAPK signaling in a model of mature astrocyte activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Nahirnyj

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are the most abundant glial cell in the retinal nerve fiber layer (NFL and optic nerve head (ONH, and perform essential roles in maintaining retinal ganglion cell (RGC detoxification and homeostasis. Mature astrocytes are relatively quiescent, but rapidly undergo a phenotypic switch in response to insult, characterized by upregulation of intermediate filament proteins, loss of glutamate buffering, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased antioxidant production. These changes result in both positive and negative influences on RGCs. However, the mechanism regulating these responses is still unclear, and pharmacologic strategies to modulate select aspects of this switch have not been thoroughly explored. Here we describe a system for rapid culture of mature astrocytes from the adult rat retina that remain relatively quiescent, but respond robustly when challenged with oxidative damage, a key pathogenic stress associated with inner retinal injury. When primary astrocytes were exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS we consistently observed characteristic changes in activation markers, along with increased expression of detoxifying genes, and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. This in vitro model was then used for a pilot chemical screen to target specific aspects of this switch. Increased activity of p38α and β Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs were identified as a necessary signal regulating expression of MnSOD, and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1, with consequent changes in ROS-mediated injury. Additionally, multiplex cytokine profiling detected p38 MAPK-dependent secretion of IL-6, MCP-1, and MIP-2α, which are proinflammatory signals recently implicated in damage to the inner retina. These data provide a mechanism to link increased oxidative stress to proinflammatory signaling by astrocytes, and establish this assay as a useful model to further dissect factors regulating the reactive switch.

  1. Modulation of Metabolic Detoxification Pathways Using Foods and Food-Derived Components: A Scientific Review with Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romilly E. Hodges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into human biotransformation and elimination systems continues to evolve. Various clinical and in vivo studies have been undertaken to evaluate the effects of foods and food-derived components on the activity of detoxification pathways, including phase I cytochrome P450 enzymes, phase II conjugation enzymes, Nrf2 signaling, and metallothionein. This review summarizes the research in this area to date, highlighting the potential for foods and nutrients to support and/or modulate detoxification functions. Clinical applications to alter detoxification pathway activity and improve patient outcomes are considered, drawing on the growing understanding of the relationship between detoxification functions and different disease states, genetic polymorphisms, and drug-nutrient interactions. Some caution is recommended, however, due to the limitations of current research as well as indications that many nutrients exert biphasic, dose-dependent effects and that genetic polymorphisms may alter outcomes. A whole-foods approach may, therefore, be prudent.

  2. Detoxification of zearalenone from corn oil by adsorption of functionalized GO systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaojuan; Sun, Changpo; Xu, Jing; Liu, Di; Han, Yangying; Wu, Songling; Luo, Xiaohong

    2018-02-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) and its functionalized systems have very unique structural advantages as excellent adsorbent or substrate material in the removal of organic contaminants. Herein, we reported a strategy to establish functionalized GO system (FGO) using amphiphilic molecules didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) as a modifier for the detoxification of zearalenone (ZEN) from corn oil. The adsorption property for the removal of ZEN from edible corn oils under different experimental conditions such as pH, amphiphilic molecules, time and temperature was investigated in detail. The morphology structure, adsorption isotherm, adsorption kinetics and the recyclability of FGO systems have also been researched, systematically. The FGO systems exhibit a higher adsorption efficiency, recyclability and thermostability in comparison with the traditional adsorbent materials. It provides an insight into the detoxification of mycotoxin from edible oils by graphene-based new materials.

  3. Effectiveness of inpatient drug detoxification: links between process and outcome variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hättenschwiler, J; Rüesch, P; Hell, D

    2000-09-01

    The Psychiatric University Hospital of Zürich offers a 2-week residential detoxification treatment program for patients abusing illegal drugs. 96 out of 160 patients were interviewed at three intervals: upon admission, on the 10th day of treatment, and about 1 month after leaving the clinic. Approximately 17% of the patients were completely abstinent 1 month after treatment. About 50% of the patients could give up the consumption of particular drugs. For around one third of the dependents, the drug consumption remained the same or had increased. The analysis of the predictors of drug consumption after treatment stresses the importance of the social integration of the dependents before detoxification as well as of characteristics of the treatment process (relapse, dropping out of treatment, and referral to a follow-up program). Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Complications related to osteopenia in the thoracic spine on admission chest radiographs of substance abuse detoxification patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haramati, L.B.; Alterman, D.D.; Israel, G.M.; Haramati, N. [Department of Radiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Mallavurapu, R. [Department of Psychiatry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence of complications related to osteopenia in the thoracic spine (anterior wedging and fish vertebrae) of patients admitted for substance abuse detoxification. Design and patients. We retrospectively identified 150 sequential patients admitted to our drug and alcohol detoxification ward in whom posteroanterior and lateral admission chest radiographs and clinical charts were available for review. There were 116 men and 34 women with a mean age of 37 years (range 19-67 years). Thirty-eight patients were admitted for drug detoxification, 37 for alcohol detoxification, and 75 for drug and alcohol detoxification. These patients were compared with 66 age- and sex-matched controls from our hospital`s employee health service. Two radiologists reviewed all chest radiographs for the presence of anterior wedging and fish vertebrae in the thoracic spine and other nonspinal fractures. Serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus levels were recorded for the substance abuse detoxification patients. Results. Forty-nine percent (n=73) of detoxification patients had complications of osteopenia in the thoracic spine including: anterior wedging (n=47), fish vertebrae (n=21), or both (n=5). Twenty-four percent (n=36) of patients had an elevated serum inorganic phosphorus level and one patient had an elevated serum calcium level. Patients with anterior wedging or fish vertebrae included: 45% (n=45) of patients below age 40 years, 35% (n=12) of women, 41% (n=15) of drug detoxification patients, 58% (n=22) of alcohol detoxification patients, 48% (n=36) of drug and alcohol detoxification patients, and 47% (n=17) of patients with elevated serum inorganic phosphorus (P=NS). Six percent (n=9) of our study population had nonspinal fractures on their chest radiographs. Twenty-one percent (n=14) of controls had complications of osteopenia in the thoracic spine (all anterior wedging). This prevalence differed significantly (P<0.05, chi-squared) from the study population

  5. Mixed waste treatment using the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchynka, D. [Mirage Systems, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The diversity of mixed waste matrices contained at Department of Energy sites that require treatment preclude a single, universal treatment technology capable of handling sludges, solids, heterogeneous debris, aqueous and organic liquids and soils. This report describes the ChemChar thermolytic detoxification process. The process is a thermal, chemically reductive technology that converts the organic portion of mixed wastes to a synthesis gas, while simultaneously absorbing volatile inorganics on a carbon-based char.

  6. Overexpression of multiple detoxification genes in deltamethrin resistant Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The small brown planthopper (SBPH, Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén, is one of the major rice pests in Asia and has developed resistance to multiple classes of insecticides. Understanding resistance mechanisms is essential to the management of this pest. Biochemical and molecular assays were performed in this study to systematically characterize deltamethrin resistance mechanisms with laboratory-selected resistant and susceptible strains of SBPH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Deltamethrin resistant strains of SBPH (JH-del were derived from a field population by continuously selections (up to 30 generations in the laboratory, while a susceptible strain (JHS was obtained from the same population by removing insecticide pressure for 30 generations. The role of detoxification enzymes in the resistance was investigated using synergism and enzyme activity assays with strains of different resistant levels. Furthermore, 71 cytochrome P450, 93 esterases and 12 glutathione-S-transferases cDNAs were cloned based on transcriptome data of a field collected population. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR screening analysis of 176 identified detoxification genes demonstrated that multiple P450 and esterase genes were overexpressed (>2-fold in JH-del strains (G4 and G30 when compared to that in JHS, and the results of quantitative PCR coincided with the semi-quantitative RT-PCR results. Target mutation at IIS3-IIS6 regions encoded by the voltage-gated sodium channel gene was ruled out for conferring the observed resistance. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: As the first attempt to discover genes potentially involved in SBPH pyrethroid resistance, this study putatively identified several candidate genes of detoxification enzymes that were significantly overexpressed in the resistant strain, which matched the synergism and enzyme activity testing. The biochemical and molecular evidences suggest that the high level pyrethroid resistance in L. striatellus could be due to

  7. Stop&Go – Promoting healthy lifestyles during inpatient detoxification treatment : rationale, intervention design, methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz Garcia, Saül

    2017-01-01

    Exercise could help in the treatment of substance addictions. However, there is a lack of programs promoting a healthy and physically active lifestyle for patients requiring inpatient detoxification treatment. We present the protocol of an intervention program with such characteristics, namely Stop&Go. Stop&Go includes two different phases. Phase I is aimed at understanding the variables related with adherence to healthy lifestyle interventions. Patients with substance use disorders will be i...

  8. Biotic interaction between earthworms and pesticide degrading bacteria - Impact on the detoxification service of soil

    OpenAIRE

    Monard, Cécile; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Binet, Françoise

    2010-01-01

    Earthworms are efficient soil engineers that change the physical and chemical properties of soil and act in turn on soil microbial communities. Earthworm bioturbation will thus impact microbial processes in soil and also the generated ecosystemic services such as detoxification function. By using RNA based Stable Isotope Probing we demonstrated that the bacterial communities responsive to 13 C enrichments in earthworm casts were different from those in bulk soil resulting in different degrada...

  9. Laccase detoxification mediates the nutritional alliance between leaf-cutting ants and fungus-garden symbionts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik; Schiøtt, Morten; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants combine large-scale herbivory with fungus farming to sustain advanced societies. Their stratified colonies are major evolutionary achievements and serious agricultural pests, but the crucial adaptations that allowed this mutualism to become the prime herbivorous component of neo...... preadaptation and subsequent modification of a particular laccase enzyme for the detoxification of secondary plant compounds during the transition to active herbivory in the ancestor of leaf-cutting ants between 8 and 12 Mya....

  10. Long-Acting Injectable Naltrexone Induction: A Randomized Trial of Outpatient Opioid Detoxification With Naltrexone Versus Buprenorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Maria; Bisaga, Adam; Pavlicova, Martina; Choi, C Jean; Mishlen, Kaitlyn; Carpenter, Kenneth M; Levin, Frances R; Dakwar, Elias; Mariani, John J; Nunes, Edward V

    2017-05-01

    At present there is no established optimal approach for transitioning opioid-dependent adults to extended-release injection naltrexone (XR-naltrexone) while preventing relapse. The authors conducted a trial examining the efficacy of two methods of outpatient opioid detoxification for induction to XR-naltrexone. Participants were 150 opioid-dependent adults randomly assigned 2:1 to one of two outpatient detoxification regimens, naltrexone-assisted detoxification or buprenorphine-assisted detoxification, followed by an injection of XR-naltrexone. Naltrexone-assisted detoxification lasted 7 days and included a single day of buprenorphine followed by ascending doses of oral naltrexone along with clonidine and other adjunctive medications. Buprenorphine-assisted detoxification included a 7-day buprenorphine taper followed by a week-long delay before administration of XR-naltrexone, consistent with official prescribing information for XR-naltrexone. Participants from both groups received behavioral therapy focused on medication adherence and a second dose of XR-naltrexone. Compared with participants in the buprenorphine-assisted detoxification condition, participants assigned to naltrexone-assisted detoxification were significantly more likely to be successfully inducted to XR-naltrexone (56.1% compared with 32.7%) and to receive the second injection at week 5 (50.0% compared with 26.9%). Both models adjusted for primary type of opioid use, route of opioid administration, and morphine equivalents at baseline. These results demonstrate the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of low-dose naltrexone, in conjunction with single-day buprenorphine dosing and adjunctive nonopioid medications, for initiating adults with opioid dependence to XR-naltrexone. This strategy offers a promising alternative to the high rates of attrition and relapse currently observed with agonist tapers in both inpatient and outpatient settings.

  11. Phytoremediation of organic xenobiotics - Glutathione dependent detoxification in Phragmites plants from European treatment sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Peter; Daubner, Diana; Maier, Heiko; Neustifter, Juliane; Debus, Reinhard

    2008-10-01

    Studies on the uptake of several organic xenobiotics and on their subsequent conjugation to biomolecules have been performed to elucidate the use of reed plants in phytoremediation of polluted water. Phragmites australis plants were able to accumulate organic xenobiotics in their rhizomes. The uptake was correlated to the logKOW and pKa of the xenobiotics and highest with compounds exhibiting logKOWs between 1 and 3. Detoxification of xenobiotics was demonstrated when the activity of glutathione S-transferase was determined in plants from various treatment sites. Enzyme activities were strongly dependent on the provenience of the plant and the history of the stand. Detoxification enzymes were also inducible. Naphthylic acetic acid (NAA), 2,4-dichlorophenol and BION were tested as potential inducers. BION was able to induce the GST activity 5-fold, albeit only for a short period of hours. The mechanism of induction and the flexibility of the detoxification system of certain ecotypes of reed toward stress or the pollution level will require further investigation.

  12. Administration of venlafaxine after chronic methadone detoxification blocks post-depression relapse in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Fadaei-Kenarsary

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Relapse is highly prevalent after detoxification and depression. Due to the advantages of venlafaxine compared with other antidepressants, it is expected that venlafaxine administration may reduce relapse after detoxification and depression. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of venlafaxine on depression-induced relapse to morphine dependence after methadone detoxification. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were habituated and conditioned with morphine (10 mg/kg, S.C., for 4 days. After that, primary forced swimming and conditioned place preference (CPP were tested. They were followed by methadone (70 mg/kg/day, P.O., for 7 days administration, extinguishing, forced swimming stress (FSS and administration of venlafaxine (80 mg/kg/day, I.P., for 7 days. Finally same tests were performed. Administration of venlafaxine resulted in a decrement in final preference scores associated with a prime morphine injection (PMI compared to the primary scores in methadone treated (MTD+ animals. In a swimming test, venlafaxine increased the amount of final floating and decreased final activity scores compared with the primary scores after administration of methadone. Venlafaxine reduced locomotor activity in MTD+ animals in the final test with PMI. There was a positive correlation between the final activity and preference scores after PMI. In conclusion, venlafaxine improved anxiety and depression-induced relapse on methadone detoxified rats.

  13. Novel metabolic biomarkers related to sulfur-dependent detoxification pathways in autistic patients of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al- Ayadhi Laila Y

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xenobiotics are neurotoxins that dramatically alter the health of the child. In addition, an inefficient detoxification system leads to oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and immune dysfunction. The consensus among physicians who treat autism with a biomedical approach is that those on the spectrum are burdened with oxidative stress and immune problems. In a trial to understand the role of detoxification in the etiology of autism, selected parameters related to sulfur-dependent detoxification mechanisms in plasma of autistic children from Saudi Arabia will be investigated compared to control subjects. Methods 20 males autistic children aged 3-15 years and 20 age and gender matching healthy children as control group were included in this study. Levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, total (GSH+GSSG, glutathione status (GSH/GSSG, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione- s-transferase (GST, thioredoxin (Trx, thioredoxin reductase (TrxR and peroxidoxins (Prxs I and III were determined. Results Reduced glutathione, total glutathione, GSH/GSSG and activity levels of GST were significantly lower, GR shows non-significant differences, while, Trx, TrxR and both Prx I and III recorded a remarkably higher values in autistics compared to control subjects. Conclusion The impaired glutathione status together with the elevated Trx and TrxR and the remarkable over expression of both Prx I and Prx III, could be used as diagnostic biomarkers of autism.

  14. Detoxification of Implant Surfaces Affected by Peri-Implant Disease: An Overview of Surgical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Valderrama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Peri-implantitis is one of the major causes of implant failure. The detoxification of the implant surface is necessary to obtain reosseointegration. The aim of this review was to summarize in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials that have evaluated surgical approaches for detoxification of the implant body surfaces. Materials and Methods. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed from 1966 to 2013. The outcome variables were the ability of the therapeutic method to eliminate the biofilm and endotoxins from the implant surface, the changes in clinical parameters, radiographic bone fill, and histological reosseointegration. Results. From 574 articles found, 76 were analyzed. The findings, advantages, and disadvantages of using mechanical, chemical methods and lasers are discussed. Conclusions. Complete elimination of the biofilms is difficult to achieve. All therapies induce changes of the chemical and physical properties of the implant surface. Partial reosseointegration after detoxification has been reported in animals. Combination protocols for surgical treatment of peri-implantitis in humans have shown some positive clinical and radiographic results, but long-term evaluation to evaluate the validity and reliability of the techniques is needed.

  15. Detoxification of Implant Surfaces Affected by Peri-Implant Disease: An Overview of Surgical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson Jr, Thomas G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Peri-implantitis is one of the major causes of implant failure. The detoxification of the implant surface is necessary to obtain reosseointegration. The aim of this review was to summarize in vitro and in vivo studies as well as clinical trials that have evaluated surgical approaches for detoxification of the implant body surfaces. Materials and Methods. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed) from 1966 to 2013. The outcome variables were the ability of the therapeutic method to eliminate the biofilm and endotoxins from the implant surface, the changes in clinical parameters, radiographic bone fill, and histological reosseointegration. Results. From 574 articles found, 76 were analyzed. The findings, advantages, and disadvantages of using mechanical, chemical methods and lasers are discussed. Conclusions. Complete elimination of the biofilms is difficult to achieve. All therapies induce changes of the chemical and physical properties of the implant surface. Partial reosseointegration after detoxification has been reported in animals. Combination protocols for surgical treatment of peri-implantitis in humans have shown some positive clinical and radiographic results, but long-term evaluation to evaluate the validity and reliability of the techniques is needed. PMID:23983691

  16. Plant species forbidden in health food and their toxic constituents, toxicology and detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xi-Lin; Shang, Yu; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2016-02-01

    Many plants with pharmacological efficacies are widely used as ingredients in so-called "health foods", but many of them are toxic. In order to ensure the safety of "health food", the Chinese Ministry of Health has listed 59 materials that are forbidden from being used in health food and are called health food forbidden species (HFFS). This review focuses on 47 plants among the HFFS to discuss research regarding their pharmacology, toxicology, and detoxification methods. According to the literature published in the last 2 decades, the main constituents and the pharmacology of such plants are described here, especially their toxic constituents and toxicology. The toxicity mechanisms of several typical toxic components from the 47 plants are outlined and some effective detoxification methods are introduced. Although all HFFS are poisonous, they are considered to be useful in the treatment of many diseases. How to keep their pharmacological effects and at the same time decrease their toxicity is a great challenge. In the future, more attention should be paid to the application of modern science and technology in the exploration of the toxicology and detoxification of HFFS.

  17. Psychological factors associated with failure of detoxification treatment in chronic headache associated with medication overuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottiroli, S; Viana, M; Sances, G; Ghiotto, N; Guaschino, E; Galli, F; Vegni, E; Pazzi, S; Nappi, G; Tassorelli, C

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychological factors associated with a negative outcome following detoxification in a 2-month follow-up in medication-overuse headache. All consecutive patients entering the detoxification program were analysed in a prospective, non-randomised fashion. Psychiatric conditions and personality characteristics were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID-I) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2. χ2 tests, one-way analyses of variance, and odds ratios (ORs) were used. A total of 248 patients completed the follow-up: 156 stopped overuse and their headaches reverted to an episodic pattern (Group A); 23 kept overusing without any benefit on headache frequency (Group B); and 51 stopped overuse without any benefit on headache frequency (Group C). The prognostic factors for the outcome of Group B were higher scores on the correction (OR 1.128; p = 0.036), depression (OR 1.071; p = 0.05), hysteria (OR 1.106; p = 0.023), and overcontrolled hostility (OR 1.182; p = 0.04) MMPI-2 scales, whereas those for Group C were psychiatric comorbidities (OR 1.502; p = 0.021) and higher scores on the hysteria scale (OR 1.125; p = 0.004). The outcome of detoxification is influenced by psychological factors that should be considered when considering treatment strategies. © International Headache Society 2016.

  18. Honey constituents up-regulate detoxification and immunity genes in the western honey bee Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2013-05-28

    As a managed pollinator, the honey bee Apis mellifera is critical to the American agricultural enterprise. Recent colony losses have thus raised concerns; possible explanations for bee decline include nutritional deficiencies and exposures to pesticides and pathogens. We determined that constituents found in honey, including p-coumaric acid, pinocembrin, and pinobanksin 5-methyl ether, specifically induce detoxification genes. These inducers are primarily found not in nectar but in pollen in the case of p-coumaric acid (a monomer of sporopollenin, the principal constituent of pollen cell walls) and propolis, a resinous material gathered and processed by bees to line wax cells. RNA-seq analysis (massively parallel RNA sequencing) revealed that p-coumaric acid specifically up-regulates all classes of detoxification genes as well as select antimicrobial peptide genes. This up-regulation has functional significance in that that adding p-coumaric acid to a diet of sucrose increases midgut metabolism of coumaphos, a widely used in-hive acaricide, by ∼60%. As a major component of pollen grains, p-coumaric acid is ubiquitous in the natural diet of honey bees and may function as a nutraceutical regulating immune and detoxification processes. The widespread apicultural use of honey substitutes, including high-fructose corn syrup, may thus compromise the ability of honey bees to cope with pesticides and pathogens and contribute to colony losses.

  19. Bacterial epimerization as a route for deoxynivalenol detoxification: the influence of growth and environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wei eHe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by several Fusarium species that infest wheat and corn. Food and feed contaminated with DON pose a health risk to both humans and livestock and form a major barrier for international trade. Microbial detoxification represents an alternative approach to the physical and chemical detoxification methods of DON-contaminated grains. The present study details the characterization of a novel bacterium, Devosia mutans 17-2-E-8, that is capable of transforming DON to a non-toxic stereoisomer, 3-epi-deoxynivalenol under aerobic conditions, mild temperature (25-30 oC, and neutral pH. The biotransformation takes place in the presence of rich sources of organic nitrogen and carbon without the need of DON to be the sole carbon source. The process is enzymatic in nature and endures a high detoxification capacity (3 µg DON/h/108 cells. The above conditions collectively suggest the possibility of utilizing the isolated bacterium as a feed treatment to address DON contamination under empirical field conditions.

  20. Detoxification of aflatoxin B1 and patulin by Enterococcus faecium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Ali; Bulat, Tugba; Wishah, Refaat; Boyaci, Ismail H

    2010-05-15

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the detoxification of aflatoxin B(1) and patulin from aqueous solution by probiotic culture of Enterococcus faecium M74 and commercial culture of E. faecium EF031. The effect of the bacterial viability, incubation time and pH of the medium on the binding ability was tested. Also, binding stability was determined by washing the bacteria-mycotoxin complexes with phosphate buffer saline. Both M74 and EF031 strains have the ability to remove aflatoxin B(1) and patulin. While M74 removes 19.3 to 30.5% of aflatoxin B(1) and 15.8 to 41.6% of patulin, EF031 removes 23.4 to 37.5% of aflatoxin B(1) and 19.5 to 45.3% of patulin throughout a 48 h incubation period. The removal of aflatoxin B(1) and patulin was highest at pH 7.0 and 4.0, respectively. The stability of the aflatoxin B(1) and patulin complexes formed with the bacterial strains was found to be high. The viability of the bacteria did not have any significant effect on the detoxification of aflatoxin B(1) and patulin. Detoxification properties of E. faecium could represent new strategies for a possible application in the human diet and animal feed. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Broken lives: Fights, fractures, and motor vehicle accidents among heroin users entering detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Michael D; Anderson, Bradley J; Bailey, Genie L

    2017-08-01

    The lives of persons who use illicit substances are filled with physical adversities and negative outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) the frequency of substance-related fights, fractures, and driving accidents in the past year among heroin users entering an inpatient detoxification program, and 2) to determine demographic and recent substance use factors associated with the most common of these physical traumas. Between May 2015 and December 2015, we surveyed 433 persons entering a short-term inpatient detoxification program that reported heroin use in the last month and recorded their experiences of physical traumas in the last year. Among participants (72% male; 74% heroin injectors), more than a quarter (28.6%) reported a substance-related fight in the past year. Multivariate modeling revealed cocaine use, hazardous alcohol use, and younger age were significantly associated with fighting, but gender was not. Forty-five (10.4%) persons reported a fracture in the past year, with 64% of fractures related to a substance-related fall or fight. Additionally, 9.0% reported being a driver in a car accident after drinking or using drugs in the past year. Trauma rates were not significantly different from a contemporaneous cohort seeking alcohol detoxification at the same facility. Heroin users, both men and women, lead physically traumatic lives, interrupted by interpersonal violence, falls, fractures, and motor vehicle accidents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reducing HIV-Related Risk Behaviors Among Injection Drug Users in Residential Detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Robert E.; Campbell, Barbara K.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Tillotson, Carrie J.; Choi, Dongseok; Robinson, James; Calsyn, Donald A.; Mandler, Raul N.; Jenkins, Lindsay M.; Thompson, Laetitia L.; Dempsey, Catherine L.; Liepman, Michael R.; McCarty, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    This study of 632 drug injectors enrolled in eight residential detoxification centers within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network tested three interventions to reduce drug and sex risk behaviors. Participants were randomized to: (a) a two-session, HIV/HCV counseling and education (C&E) model added to treatment as usual (TAU), (b) a one-session, therapeutic alliance (TA) intervention conducted by outpatient counselors to facilitate treatment entry plus TAU, or (c) TAU. Significant reductions in drug and sex risk behaviors occurred for all three conditions over a 6-month follow-up period. C&E participants reported significantly greater rates of attending an HIV testing appointment, but this was not associated with better risk reduction outcomes. Reporting treatment participation within 2 months after detoxification and self-efficacy to practice safer injection behavior predicted reductions in injection risk behaviors. Findings indicate that participation in detoxification was followed by significant decreases in drug injection and risk behaviors for up to 6-months; interventions added to standard treatment offered no improvement in risk behavior outcomes. PMID:20652630

  3. Kinetics of Natural Detoxification of Hydrogen Cyanide Contained In Retted Cassava Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the kinetics of natural detoxification of hydrogen cyanide contained in retted cassava roots. Retting is traditional fermentation of cassava, performed to soften the roots. During retting, cyanide diffuses into water used for the retting. The fresh cassava roots (bitter and sweet varieties used for this experiment were separately retted at ambient 0 temperature of 30 C. The cyanide content and pH were monitored daily. From the analysis of the experimental results, a first order consecutive rate equation is an adequate tool for explaining the mechanism of HCN reduction (or decay in retted cassava roots. The detoxification constants for the bound cyanide in the bitter and sweet cassava roots were 0.378/day and 0.438/day respectively, while that of the free hydrogen cyanide were 0.63/day and 0.74/day for the bitter and sweet varieties respectively. Cassava tubers from different species cannot be fermented with the same retting condition unless they have same or close functional properties. Keywords: Kinetics, Detoxification, Hydrogen Cyanide, Retting, Cassava

  4. Preparation of 1,7,8-/sup 3/H-dihydromorphine of high molar activity and its application in opiate receptor binding experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, G.; Szuecs, M.; Benyhe, S.; Sirokman, F. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Szeged. Biologiai Kutato Koezpontja); Kramer, M. (Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary). 2. Kemiai Biokemiai Intezet)

    1983-05-04

    A method was developed for the preparation of multiple labelled /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine of high specific activity. The procedure involved iodine tritium exchange and saturation of the 7,8 double bond of 1-iodomorphine in one step. The resulting 1,7,8-/sup 3/H-dihydromorphine had a specific activity of 67.8 Ci/mmole (2.51 TBq/mmole) and showed high affinity for rat brain opiate receptors.

  5. Long-term posttraumatic stress symptoms vary inversely with early opiate dosing in children recovering from serious burns: effects durable at 4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Robert L; Stoddard, Frederick J; Kazis, Lewis E; Lee, Austin; Li, Nien-Chen; Kagan, Richard J; Palmieri, Tina L; Meyer, Walter J; Nicolai, Marc; Stubbs, Teresa K; Chan, Grace; Hinson, Michelle I; Herndon, David N; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2014-03-01

    Children surviving serious burns are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a function both of the injury and of its treatment. Short-term studies in such children have demonstrated reduced PTSD symptoms with intensive early pain control. However, the long-term impact of early pain control strategies on posttraumatic stress symptoms in children recovering from serious burn injuries has not been examined. This was a retrospective review of a multiple time point data collection involving a cohort of 147 infants, children, and teenagers with 4 years of follow-up after serious burns conducted at 4 pediatric burn centers to examine the impact of early opiate dosing on long-term posttraumatic stress symptoms. The main outcome measure was the nine-item Short Form Child Stress Disorders Checklist, which is an established and validated assessment. The impact of total opiate dosing during the first 7 days on these scores was assessed. Subjects had an average age of 11 years and average injury size of 22% total body surface area burned (%TBS). The correlation between opiate units (OUs) and %TBS was 0.46 at baseline, OU increasing with increasing %TBS. OUs were strongly predictive of Child Stress Disorders Checklist scores up to 4 years, with higher OU (10 units vs. 6 and 2 units) remaining constantly different up to 4 years in predicting lower stress scores for both smaller and larger burns. Early opiate management of pain associated with acute burn wounds and burn treatment predicts the development and resolution rate of PTSD symptoms in a large multicenter sample of children hospitalized for serious burns. The effect seems to be dose related and durable at least up to 4 years in a range of burn sizes. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level II.

  6. Microbial detoxification of eleven food and feed contaminating trichothecene mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahad, Rafiq; Zhou, Ting; Lepp, Dion; Pauls, K Peter

    2017-03-15

    Contamination of agricultural commodities with multiple trichothecene mycotoxins, produced by toxigenic Fusarium species, is a food safety issue, which greatly affects grain production and marketing worldwide. Importantly, exposure to multiple trichothecenes may increase toxicity in animals due to their synergistic and/or additive effects. To address the problem this study aimed to achieve a novel biological trait capable of detoxifying various food and feed contaminating trichothecenes under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and wide range of temperatures. A highly enriched microbial consortium (called DX100) capable of transforming eleven trichothecenes to significantly less toxic de-epoxy forms was achieved after prolonged incubation of soil microbial culture with 200 μg/mL deoxynivalenol (DON). DX100 demonstrated de-epoxidation activity under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, a greater range of temperatures and around neutral pH. The consortium contains 70% known and 30% unknown bacterial species, dominated by Stenotrophomonas species. Probably novel bacteria including strains of Stenotrophomonas and Alkaliphilus-Blautia species complex could be involved in aerobic and anaerobic de-epoxidation of trichothecenes, respectively. DX100 showed rapid and stable activity by de-epoxidizing 100% of 50 μg/mL deoxynivalenol at 48 h of incubation and retaining de-epoxidation ability after 100 subcultures in mineral salts broth (MSB). It was able to de-epoxidize high concentration of DON (500 μg/mL), and transformed ten more food contaminating trichothecenes into de-epoxy forms and/or other known/unknown compounds. Microbial de-epoxidation rate increased with increasing trichothecene concentrations in the broth media, suggesting that DX100 maintains a robust trichothecene detoxifying mechanism. Furthermore, the nature of microbial de-epoxidation reaction and inhibition of the reaction by sodium azide and the finding that bacterial cell culture lysate retained activity

  7. Endogenous Opiates in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Mediate Electroacupuncture-Induced Sleep Activities in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiung-Hsiang Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroacupuncture (EA possesses various therapeutic effects, including alleviation of pain, reduction of inflammation and improvement of sleep disturbance. The mechanisms of EA on sleep improvement, however, remain to be determined. It has been stated in ancient Chinese literature that the Anmian (EX17 acupoint is one of the trigger points that alleviates insomnia. We previously demonstrated that EA stimulation of Anmian acupoints in rats during the dark period enhances non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, which involves the induction of cholinergic activity in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS. In addition to cholinergic activation of the NTS, activation of the endogenous opioidergic system may also be a mechanism by which acupuncture affects sleep. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the involvement of the NTS opioidergic system in EA-induced alterations in sleep. Our present results indicate that EA of Anmian acupoints increased NREM sleep, but not rapid eye movement sleep, during the dark period in rats. This enhancement in NREM sleep was dose-dependently blocked by microinjection of opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, and the μ-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxonazine, into the NTS; administrations of δ-receptor antagonist, natrindole, and the κ-receptor antagonist, nor-binaltrophimine, however, did not affect EA-induced alterations in sleep. Furthermore, β-endorphin was significantly increased in both the brainstem and hippocampus after the EA stimuli, an effect blocked by administration of the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine into the NTS. Our findings suggest that mechanisms of EA-induced NREM sleep enhancement may be mediated, in part, by cholinergic activation, stimulation of the opiodergic neurons to increase the concentrations of β-endorphin and the involvement of the μ-opioid receptors.

  8. Differential spontaneous recovery across cognitive abilities during detoxification period in alcohol-dependence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Petit

    Full Text Available There is a lack of consensus regarding the extent to which cognitive dysfunctions may recover upon cessation of alcohol intake by alcohol-dependents (AD, and the divergent findings are most likely due to methodological differences between the various studies. The present study was aimed at conducting a very strict longitudinal study of cognitive recovery in terms of assessment points, the duration of abstinence, control of age and duration of the addiction, and by use of individual analyses in addition to mean group comparisons. Our study further focused on the 2-3 week phase of alcohol detoxification that is already known to positively affect many biological, emotional, motivational, as well as neural variables, followed by longer-term therapies for which good cognitive functioning is needed.41 AD inpatients undergoing a detoxification program, and 41 matched controls, were evaluated twice in terms of five cognitive functions (i.e., short-term memory, working memory, inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and verbal fluency within a three-week interval [on the first day (T1 and the 18th day (T2 of abstinence for AD patients]. Emotional (positive and negative affectivity and depression and motivational (craving variables were also measured at both evaluation times.Although verbal fluency, short-term memory, and cognitive flexibility did not appear to be affected, the patients exhibited impaired inhibition and working memory at T1. While no recovery of inhibition was found to occur, the average working memory performance of the patients was comparable to that of the controls at T2. Improvements in emotional and motivational dimensions were also observed, although they did not correlate with the ones in working memory. Individual analysis showed that not all participants were impaired or recover the same functions.While inhibition deficits appear to persist after 18 days of detoxification, deficits in working memory, which is a central component of

  9. Discriminative stimulus properties of narcotic and non-narcotic drugs in rats trained to discriminate opiate kappa-receptor agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearman, G T; Herz, A

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the discriminative stimulus properties of some narcotic and non-narcotic drugs in rats trained to discriminate the effect of the proposed opiate kappa-receptor agonists ethylketocyclazocine and bremazocine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a two-lever food-reinforced paradigm to discriminate between the effect of ethylketocyclazocine (0.32 mg/kg) or bremazocine (0.04 mg/kg) and saline. Both groups of trained rats showed dose-dependent generalization to the effect of the proposed kappa-agonist MRZ-2033 and some animals generalized the effect of nalorphine and pentazocine. Some ethylketocyclazocine - but no bremazocine - trained rats generalized the effect of buprenorphine. The effect of dextrorphan, phencyclidine, and ketamine was generalized by some bremazocine -, but no ethylketocyclazocine-trained rats. Neither group of rats generalized the effect of etorphine, haloperidol, diazepam, or pentobarbital. These data suggest the usefulness of this procedure to evaluate the kappa-like properties of opioid drugs.

  10. The Comparison of Attention Biases to Opiates in Substance Dependent and Treated Clients of Therapeutic Clinics and Narcotics Anonymous Memberships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Enayat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the attention bias about tempting incentives related to opium materials in treated, addicted and normal people. Duration of consumption and treating were also considered. Method: In this causal-comparative study population was all addicted people who were referred to the rehabilitation offices, addiction treatment clinic, rebirthing centers and Narcotics Anonymous of East Azerbaijan. This study consisted of five groups of men, including addicted to opium materials which are divided into two groups namely: long consumption period and people with short consumption period, also, treated people including long term treated and short term treated, and a normal control group. Altogether, 103 selected people were studied. Sample groups were similar in terms of age, education, and sex. For measuring attention bias towards tempting stimuli related opiates, a words recognition test was used. This test included three subtests and one recognition test. The recognition scores for the three categories of words were measured. Results: The findings indicated that there was a difference in attention against opium material incentives between control group and the mild and severe consumers groups. Also there were significant differences between treated people with the short time distance and control group, and control group had less temptation and biases in comparison to the other groups. Finally, those who have mild consumption are threatened more in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: The findings have applied implications.

  11. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  12. Referring heroin users from compulsory detoxification centers to community methadone maintenance treatment: a comparison of three models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liping; Liu, Enwu; McGoogan, Jennifer M; Duan, Song; Wu, Li-Tzy; Comulada, Scott; Wu, Zunyou

    2013-08-13

    Both compulsory detoxification treatment and community-based methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) exist for heroin addicts in China. We aim to examine the effectiveness of three intervention models for referring heroin addicts released from compulsory detoxification centers to community methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China. Using a quasi-experimental study design, three different referral models were assigned to four detoxification centers. Heroin addicts were enrolled based on their fulfillment to eligibility criteria and provision of informed consent. Two months prior to their release, information on demographic characteristics, history of heroin use, and prior participation in intervention programs was collected via a survey, and blood samples were obtained for HIV testing. All subjects were followed for six months after release from detoxification centers. Multi-level logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors predicting successful referrals to MMT clinics. Of the 226 participants who were released and followed, 9.7% were successfully referred to MMT(16.2% of HIV-positive participants and 7.0% of HIV-negative participants). A higher proportion of successful referrals was observed among participants who received both referral cards and MMT treatment while still in detoxification centers (25.8%) as compared to those who received both referral cards and police-assisted MMT enrollment (5.4%) and those who received referral cards only (0%). Furthermore, those who received referral cards and MMT treatment while still in detoxification had increased odds of successful referral to an MMT clinic (adjusted OR = 1.2, CI = 1.1-1.3). Having participated in an MMT program prior to detention (OR = 1.5, CI = 1.3-1.6) was the only baseline covariate associated with increased odds of successful referral. Findings suggest that providing MMT within detoxification centers promotes successful

  13. Using benzodiazepine detoxification and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy in the treatment of a patient with generalized anxiety disorder comorbid with high-dose zolpidem dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Hua Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, literature has shown that zolpidem dependence is not uncommon in the clinical practice, but there is no standard guideline for treatment of zolpidem dependence. Benzodiazepine detoxification has been widely used for alcohol detoxification, which is also an inhibitory substance. We would like to share the experience of benzodiazepine detoxification and cognitive behavioral psychotherapy in a patient with high-dose zolpidem dependence comorbid with generalized anxiety disorder.

  14. Kinetics of 11C-labeled opiates in the brain of rhesus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartvig, P.; Bergstroem, K.; Lindberg, B.; Lundberg, P.O.; Lundqvist, H.; Langstroem, B.; Svaerd, H.; Rane, A.

    1984-07-01

    The regional uptake in the brain of Rhesus monkeys of i.v. administered 11C-labeled morphine, codeine, heroin and pethidine was studied by means of positron emission tomography. The technique measures the sum of parent drug and radiolabeled metabolites. (For the sake of simplicity the drug derived radioactivity is denoted by the drug name.) Morphine had a limited uptake to discrete areas of the brain. The maximum normalized uptake, with respect to dose per kilogram body weight, was about 0.2, i.e., 20% of the calculated activity if the drug had been evenly distributed throughout the body of the monkey. Maximum radioactivity appeared 30 to 45 min after injection. Morphine left the brain slowly with an estimated half-life of more than 2 hr. An area with a normalized uptake of about 1.0 was detected centrally in the lowest horizontal transsection of the skull. The origin of this area was identified as the pituitary. Codeine, heroin and pethidine were taken up to the brain to a larger extent than morphine, with maximum normalized uptakes of 2.6, 4.6 and 6.3, respectively. Maximum radioactivities of these drugs were achieved earlier and the elimination rates were faster than for morphine. Differences in the uptake of these drugs to the brain, as well as differences in time to maximal normalized uptake and rate of disappearance are considered to reflect differences in the lipophilic character between the drugs. Pethidine had the most rapid and extensive uptake followed by heroin, codeine and morphine in order of decreasing lipophilicity.

  15. α-Thujone (the active component of absinthe): γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptor modulation and metabolic detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höld, Karin M.; Sirisoma, Nilantha S.; Ikeda, Tomoko; Narahashi, Toshio; Casida, John E.

    2000-01-01

    α-Thujone is the toxic agent in absinthe, a liqueur popular in the 19th and early 20th centuries that has adverse health effects. It is also the active ingredient of wormwood oil and some other herbal medicines and is reported to have antinociceptive, insecticidal, and anthelmintic activity. This study elucidates the mechanism of α-thujone neurotoxicity and identifies its major metabolites and their role in the poisoning process. Four observations establish that α-thujone is a modulator of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor. First, the poisoning signs (and their alleviation by diazepam and phenobarbital) in mice are similar to those of the classical antagonist picrotoxinin. Second, a strain of Drosophila specifically resistant to chloride channel blockers is also tolerant to α-thujone. Third, α-thujone is a competitive inhibitor of [3H]ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate binding to mouse brain membranes. Most definitively, GABA-induced peak currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons are suppressed by α-thujone with complete reversal after washout. α-Thujone is quickly metabolized in vitro by mouse liver microsomes with NADPH (cytochrome P450) forming 7-hydroxy-α-thujone as the major product plus five minor ones (4-hydroxy-α-thujone, 4-hydroxy-β-thujone, two other hydroxythujones, and 7,8-dehydro-α-thujone), several of which also are detected in the brain of mice treated i.p. with α-thujone. The major 7-hydroxy metabolite attains much higher brain levels than α-thujone but is less toxic to mice and Drosophila and less potent in the binding assay. The other metabolites assayed are also detoxification products. Thus, α-thujone in absinthe and herbal medicines is a rapid-acting and readily detoxified modulator of the GABA-gated chloride channel. PMID:10725394

  16. Alpha-thujone (the active component of absinthe): gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor modulation and metabolic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höld, K M; Sirisoma, N S; Ikeda, T; Narahashi, T; Casida, J E

    2000-04-11

    Alpha-thujone is the toxic agent in absinthe, a liqueur popular in the 19th and early 20th centuries that has adverse health effects. It is also the active ingredient of wormwood oil and some other herbal medicines and is reported to have antinociceptive, insecticidal, and anthelmintic activity. This study elucidates the mechanism of alpha-thujone neurotoxicity and identifies its major metabolites and their role in the poisoning process. Four observations establish that alpha-thujone is a modulator of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor. First, the poisoning signs (and their alleviation by diazepam and phenobarbital) in mice are similar to those of the classical antagonist picrotoxinin. Second, a strain of Drosophila specifically resistant to chloride channel blockers is also tolerant to alpha-thujone. Third, alpha-thujone is a competitive inhibitor of [(3)H]ethynylbicycloorthobenzoate binding to mouse brain membranes. Most definitively, GABA-induced peak currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons are suppressed by alpha-thujone with complete reversal after washout. alpha-Thujone is quickly metabolized in vitro by mouse liver microsomes with NADPH (cytochrome P450) forming 7-hydroxy-alpha-thujone as the major product plus five minor ones (4-hydroxy-alpha-thujone, 4-hydroxy-beta-thujone, two other hydroxythujones, and 7,8-dehydro-alpha-thujone), several of which also are detected in the brain of mice treated i.p. with alpha-thujone. The major 7-hydroxy metabolite attains much higher brain levels than alpha-thujone but is less toxic to mice and Drosophila and less potent in the binding assay. The other metabolites assayed are also detoxification products. Thus, alpha-thujone in absinthe and herbal medicines is a rapid-acting and readily detoxified modulator of the GABA-gated chloride channel.

  17. Midgut Transcriptome of the Cockroach Periplaneta americana and Its Microbiota: Digestion, Detoxification and Oxidative Stress Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhang

    Full Text Available The cockroach, Periplaneta americana, is an obnoxious and notorious pest of the world, with a strong ability to adapt to a variety of complex environments. However, the molecular mechanism of this adaptability is mostly unknown. In this study, the genes and microbiota composition associated with the adaptation mechanism were studied by analyzing the transcriptome and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing of the P. americana midgut, respectively. Midgut transcriptome analysis identified 82,905 unigenes, among which 64 genes putatively involved in digestion (11 genes, detoxification (37 genes and oxidative stress response (16 genes were found. Evaluation of gene expression following treatment with cycloxaprid further revealed that the selected genes (CYP6J1, CYP4C1, CYP6K1, Delta GST, alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and aminopeptidase were upregulated at least 2.0-fold at the transcriptional level, and four genes were upregulated more than 10.0-fold. An interesting finding was that three digestive enzymes positively responded to cycloxaprid application. Tissue expression profiles further showed that most of the selected genes were midgut-biased, with the exception of CYP6K1. The midgut microbiota composition was obtained via 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was found to be mainly dominated by organisms from the Firmicutes phylum, among which Clostridiales, Lactobacillales and Burkholderiales were the main orders which might assist the host in the food digestion or detoxification of noxious compounds. The preponderant species, Clostridium cellulovorans, was previously reported to degrade lignocellulose efficiently in insects. The abundance of genes involved in digestion, detoxification and response to oxidative stress, and the diversity of microbiota in the midgut might provide P. americana high capacity to adapt to complex environments.

  18. Six-month outcome in bipolar spectrum alcoholics treated with acamprosate after detoxification: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icro Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni; Bacciardi, Silvia; Rovai, Luca; Rugani, Fabio; Massimetti, Enrico; Gazzarrini, Denise; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Maremmani, Icro

    2014-12-01

    Glutamate system is modified by ethanol and contributes both to the euphoric and the dysphoric consequences of intoxication, but there is now growing evidence that the glutamatergic system also plays a central role in the neurobiology and treatment of mood disorders, including major depressive disorders and bipolar disorders. We speculate that, using acamprosate, patients with bipolar depression (BIP-A) can take advantage of the anti-glutamate effect of acamprosate to "survive" in treatment longer than peers suffering from non-bipolar depression (NBIP-A) after detoxification. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of a long-term (six-month) acamprosate treatment, after alcohol detoxification, in 41 patients (19 males and 22 females), who could be classified as depressed alcoholics, while taking into account the presence/absence of bipolarity. During the period of observation most NBIP-A patients relapsed, whereas a majority of BIP-A patients were still in treatment at the end of their period of observation. The cumulative proportion of 'surviving' patients was significantly higher in BIP-A patients, but this finding was not related to gender or to other demographic or clinically investigated characteristics. The treatment time effect was significant in both subgroups. The treatment time-group effect was significant (and significantly better) for bipolar patients on account of changes in the severity of their illness. Retrospective methodology and the lack of DSM criteria in diagnosing bipolarity. Bipolarity seems to be correlated with the efficacy of acamprosate treatment in inducing patients to refrain from alcohol use after detoxification (while avoiding relapses) in depressed alcoholics. Placebo-controlled clinical trials are now warranted to check the validity of this hypothesis.

  19. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Godoy, M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimarães, Z.A.S. [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, V.V. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, E.J.T. de [Laboratório de Biologia Celular e Tecidual, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, D.M.G. [Laboratório de Biotecnologia Microbiana, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T. [Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-08-24

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 10{sup 5} cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH){sub 2} or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  20. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Fernandes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin and allergenic (2S albumin proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  1. Six-Month Outcome in Bipolar Spectrum Alcoholics Treated with Acamprosate after Detoxification: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Giovanni Icro Maremmani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glutamate system is modified by ethanol and contributes both to the euphoric and the dysphoric consequences of intoxication, but there is now growing evidence that the glutamatergic system also plays a central role in the neurobiology and treatment of mood disorders, including major depressive disorders and bipolar disorders. We speculate that, using acamprosate, patients with bipolar depression (BIP-A can take advantage of the anti-glutamate effect of acamprosate to “survive” in treatment longer than peers suffering from non-bipolar depression (NBIP-A after detoxification. Method: We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of a long-term (six-month acamprosate treatment, after alcohol detoxification, in 41 patients (19 males and 22 females, who could be classified as depressed alcoholics, while taking into account the presence/absence of bipolarity. Results: During the period of observation most NBIP-A patients relapsed, whereas a majority of BIP-A patients were still in treatment at the end of their period of observation. The cumulative proportion of ‘surviving’ patients was significantly higher in BIP-A patients, but this finding was not related to gender or to other demographic or clinically investigated characteristics. The treatment time effect was significant in both subgroups. The treatment time-group effect was significant (and significantly better for bipolar patients on account of changes in the severity of their illness. Limitations: Retrospective methodology and the lack of DSM criteria in diagnosing bipolarity. Conclusions: Bipolarity seems to be correlated with the efficacy of acamprosate treatment in inducing patients to refrain from alcohol use after detoxification (while avoiding relapses in depressed alcoholics. Placebo-controlled clinical trials are now warranted to check the validity of this hypothesis.

  2. Evaluation of Efficacy and Toxicity of Exfoliated Silicate Nanoclays as a Feed Additive for Fumonisin Detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chiao-Wei; Huang, Jie-Ting; Chen, Ching-Chin; Tang, Pin-Chi; Huang, Jenn-Wen; Lin, Jiang-Jen; Huang, San-Yuan; Chen, Shuen-Ei

    2017-08-09

    The efficacy of nanosilicate clay platelets (NSCP), exfoliated silicates from natural montmorillonites, as a feed additive for ameliorating fumonisin B1 (FB1) toxicosis was evaluated. Toxicological mechanisms by NSCP were examined through proteomic and biochemical analyses. Dietary supplementation with NSCP at a low level of 40 mg/kg of feed improved growth performances in chickens with respect to FB1 toxicosis. Other issues of ameliorated symptoms including serum and/or hepatic aspartate aminotransferase activity, oxidative stress indicators, and sphinganine/sphingosine ratio, a hallmark of FB1 toxicosis, were considered. Chickens with NSCP inclusion alone at 1000 mg/kg of feed exhibited no changes in hepatic histology, oxidative status, and serum parameters and even had a higher feed intake. Proteomic analysis with liver tissues identified 45 distinct proteins differentially affected by FB1 and/or NSCP, in which proteins involved in thiol metabolism and redox regulation, glycolysis, carcinogenesis, and detoxification by glutathione S-transferase were promoted by FB1, whereas NSCP caused differential changes of protein abundances related to methionine/cysteine and choline/glycine interconversion for glutathione synthesis, redox regulation by peroxiredoxin, toxin/metabolite delivery by albumin, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, and chaperon escort for endoplasmic reticulum stress relief. Functional analyses confirmed the enhancement of hepatic metabolic processes for ATP and NAD(P)H production to meet the need for detoxification, antioxidative defense, and toxin/metabolite clearance by FB1 or NSCP ingestion. On the basis of the amelioration of FB1 toxicosis, global profile of hepatic protein expressions, and validated toxicological mechanisms, NSCP were concluded as a safe and effective agent for FB1 detoxification.

  3. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, K V; Deus-de-Oliveira, N; Godoy, M G; Guimarães, Z A S; Nascimento, V V; Melo, E J T de; Freire, D M G; Dansa-Petretski, M; Machado, O L T

    2012-11-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5) cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH)2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  4. CYP9Q-mediated detoxification of acaricides in the honey bee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2011-08-02

    Although Apis mellifera, the western honey bee, has long encountered pesticides when foraging in agricultural fields, for two decades it has encountered pesticides in-hive in the form of acaricides to control Varroa destructor, a devastating parasitic mite. The pyrethroid tau-fluvalinate and the organophosphate coumaphos have been used for Varroa control, with little knowledge of honey bee detoxification mechanisms. Cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification contributes to pyrethroid tolerance in many insects, but specific P450s responsible for pesticide detoxification in honey bees (indeed, in any hymenopteran pollinator) have not been defined. We expressed and assayed CYP3 clan midgut P450s and demonstrated that CYP9Q1, CYP9Q2, and CYP9Q3 metabolize tau-fluvalinate to a form suitable for further cleavage by the carboxylesterases that also contribute to tau-fluvalinate tolerance. These in vitro assays indicated that all of the three CYP9Q enzymes also detoxify coumaphos. Molecular models demonstrate that coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate fit into the same catalytic pocket, providing a possible explanation for the synergism observed between these two compounds. Induction of CYP9Q2 and CYP9Q3 transcripts by honey extracts suggested that diet-derived phytochemicals may be natural substrates and heterologous expression of CYP9Q3 confirmed activity against quercetin, a flavonoid ubiquitous in honey. Up-regulation by honey constituents suggests that diet may influence the ability of honey bees to detoxify pesticides. Quantitative RT-PCR assays demonstrated that tau-fluvalinate enhances CYP9Q3 transcripts, whereas the pyrethroid bifenthrin enhances CYP9Q1 and CYP9Q2 transcripts and represses CYP9Q3 transcripts. The independent regulation of these P450s can be useful for monitoring and differentiating between pesticide exposures in-hive and in agricultural fields.

  5. Accumulation and detoxification dynamics of Chromium and antioxidant responses in juvenile rare minnow, Gobiocypris rarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Cong; Li, Meng; Zheng, Yao; Zhou, Ying; Wu, Feili; Wang, Zaizhao

    2017-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) compounds are hazardous via all exposure routes. To explore the dynamics of Cr accumulation and elimination and to reveal the mechanisms underlying detoxification and antioxidation in juvenile Gobiocypris rarus, one-month old G. rarus larvae were exposed to 0.1mgL-1 Cr6+ for four weeks for accumulation and subsequently placed to clean water for another week for depuration. The contents of Cr were measured weekly in the whole body of G. rarus juveniles. The activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR), and contents of glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA), and transcripts of cat, Cu/Zn-sod, Mn-sod, gpx1, gstpi, gr, mt1, nrf2 and uba52 were determined. The results indicated that G. rarus juveniles had a strong ability to resist the Cr accumulation by Cr6+ exposure and to remove Cr from the body in clean water. In addition, GST and MT proteins may be involved in the detoxification of Cr6+. Moreover, Cr6+-induced GST detoxification in G. rarus juveniles might be accomplished through the Nrf2-mediated regulation of gene expressions. The antioxidant enzyme systems exhibited a response mechanism of the protective enzymes in organisms when they are subjected to external environmental stress. Two weeks of Cr6+ treatments could have led to the damage and consecutive degradation of antioxidant enzymes via ubiquitination, and MT proteins could be involved in protecting the activity of these enzymes. The capability of antioxidant enzyme systems to recover from the Cr6+-induced damage was strong in G. rarus juveniles after Cr6+ was removed from the water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Automatic avoidance tendencies for alcohol cues predict drinking after detoxification treatment in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Matt; Di Lemma, Lisa; Christiansen, Paul; Dickson, Joanne

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol dependence is characterized by conflict between approach and avoidance motivational orientations for alcohol that operate in automatic and controlled processes. This article describes the first study to investigate the predictive validity of these motivational orientations for relapse to drinking after discharge from alcohol detoxification treatment in alcohol-dependent patients. One hundred twenty alcohol-dependent patients who were nearing the end of inpatient detoxification treatment completed measures of self-reported (Approach and Avoidance of Alcohol Questionnaire; AAAQ) and automatic (modified Stimulus-Response Compatibility task) approach and avoidance motivational orientations for alcohol. Their drinking behavior was assessed via telephone follow-ups at 2, 4, and 6 months after discharge from treatment. Results indicated that, after controlling for the severity of alcohol dependence, strong automatic avoidance tendencies for alcohol cues were predictive of higher percentage of heavy drinking days (PHDD) at 4-month (β = 0.22, 95% CI [0.07, 0.43]) and 6-month (β = 0.22, 95% CI [0.01, 0.42]) follow-ups. We failed to replicate previous demonstrations of the predictive validity of approach subscales of the AAAQ for relapse to drinking, and there were no significant predictors of PHDD at 2-month follow-up. In conclusion, strong automatic avoidance tendencies predicted relapse to drinking after inpatient detoxification treatment, but automatic approach tendencies and self-reported approach and avoidance tendencies were not predictive in this study. Our results extend previous findings and help to resolve ambiguities with earlier studies that investigated the roles of automatic and controlled cognitive processes in recovery from alcohol dependence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Detoxification of nerve agents by a substituted beta-cyclodextrin: application of a modified biological assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, T; Tenberken, O; Reiter, G; Müller, S; Le Provost, R; Lafont, O; Estour, F; Thiermann, H; Worek, F

    2009-11-30

    Chemical warfare agents (nerve agents) are still available and present a real threat to the population. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies showed that various nerve agents, e.g. tabun and cyclosarin, are resistant towards standard therapy with atropine and oxime. Based on these facts we applied a modified biological assay for the easy, semi-quantitative testing of the detoxifying properties of the beta-cyclodextrin derivative CD-IBA. Cyclosarin, sarin, tabun and VX were incubated with CD-IBA for 1-50 min at 37 degrees C, then an aliquot was added to erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the percentage of AChE inhibition was determined. The validity of the assay was confirmed by concomitant quantification of tabun by GC-MS. Different concentrations of cyclosarin were detoxified by CD-IBA in a concentration-dependent velocity. The ability to detoxify various nerve agents decreased in the order cyclosarin>sarin>tabun>VX. Hereby, no detoxification of VX could be detected. Sarin was detoxified in a biphasic reaction with a fast reduction of inhibitory potential in the first phase and a slower detoxification in the second phase. CD-IBA detoxified tabun in a one phase decay and, compared to cyclosarin and sarin, a longer half-life was determined with tabun. The modified biological assay is appropriate for the initial semi-quantitative screening of candidate compounds for the detoxification of nerve agents. The beta-cyclodextrin derivative CD-IBA demonstrated its ability to detoxify different nerve agents.

  8. Changes in psychological well-being among heroin-dependent adolescents during psychologically supported opiate substitution treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Bobby P; Ducray, Kevin; Cullen, Walter

    2016-01-23

    Heroin-dependent adolescents demonstrate high rates of comorbid psychological problems. Among heroin-dependent adults, opiate substitution treatment (OST) programmes appear to reduce mental health problems. We sought to examine the impact of OST on psychological well-being in adolescents, as this is unknown. We conducted a prospective study examining psychological well-being in heroin dependent adolescents, aged 18 years or younger, engaged in outpatient psychologically supported OST. Patients were treated with either methadone or buprenorphine. This was complimented with individual key working, counselling (motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy) and group work focusing on life skills. The Beck Youth Inventory was used to measure psychological well-being at treatment entry and repeated after 4 months of treatment. Among 55 consecutive treatment episodes, we examined the 32 episodes where the patient persisted with the OST programme. Polysubstance use was the norm at treatment entry. At follow-up, the median doses of methadone and buprenorphine were 50 mgs and 8 mgs, respectively. Only three patients were treated with antidepressant medication. There was significant improvement in the mean depression (65.0 to 57.9, P = 0.001), anxiety (61.7 to 57.0, P = 0.006) and anger (57.8 to 54.6, P = 0.009) subscale scores. The self-concept and disruptive behaviour subscale scores did not improve significantly. In this relatively short-term follow-up, psychosocially assisted OST appears to be associated with improved psychological well-being in heroin-dependent adolescents, especially in the area of depressive and anxiety symptoms. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Development, optimization, and validation of a novel extraction procedure for the removal of opiates from human hair's surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restolho, José; Barroso, Mário; Saramago, Benilde; Dias, Mário; Afonso, Carlos A M

    2015-05-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) have proved to be efficient extraction media for several systems, and their ability to capture volatile compounds from the atmosphere is well established. We report herein a contactless extraction procedure for the removal of opiate drugs from the surface of human hair. The compounds were chosen as a model drug, particularly due to their low volatility. Equal amounts of IL and hair (about 100 mg) were introduced in a customized Y-shaped vial, and the process occurred simply by heating. After testing several ILs, some of them (e.g. 1-methyl-3-ethanol-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate, phenyl-trimethyl-ammonium triflate or bis(dimethyl) diheptylguanidinium iodide) showed extraction efficiencies higher than 80% for the two studied compounds, morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine. Using the design of experiments (DOE) approach as an optimization tool, and bearing in mind the hygroscopic properties of the ILs (in particular, 1-methyl-3-ethanol-imidazolium tetrafluoroborate), the process was optimized concerning the following variables: temperature (50-120 ºC), extraction time (8-24 h), IL amount (50-200 mg) and water content of the IL (0.01-60%). This study not only provided the optimum conditions for the process (120 ºC, 16 h, 100 mg of IL containing 40% of water), but has also showed that the water content of the IL represents the variable with the most significant effect on the extraction efficiency. Finally, we validated our method through the comparison of the results obtained by treating hair samples with the described procedure to those obtained using a standard washing method and criteria for positivity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Unique structure and regulation of the nematode detoxification gene regulator SKN-1: implications to understanding and controlling drug resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Keith P.; Leung, Chi K.; Miyamoto, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Nematodes parasitize an alarming number of people and agricultural animals globally and cause debilitating morbidity and mortality. Anthelmintics have been the primary tools used to control parasitic nematodes for the past several decades, but drug resistance is becoming a major obstacle. Xenobiotic detoxification pathways defend against drugs and other foreign chemicals in diverse organisms, and evidence is accumulating that they play a role in mediating resistance to anthelmintics in nematodes. Related anti-oxidation pathways may also provide filarial parasites protection against host free radical-mediated immune responses. Upstream regulatory pathways have received almost no attention in nematode parasites despite their potential to co-regulate multiple detoxification and anti-oxidation genes. The NRF2 transcription factor mediates inducible detoxification and anti-oxidation defenses in mammals and recent studies have demonstrated that it promotes multidrug resistance in some human tumors. Recent studies in the free-living model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have defined the homologous transcription factor SKN-1 as a master regulator of detoxification and anti-oxidation genes. Despite similar functions, SKN-1 and NRF2 have important differences in structure and regulatory pathways. Protein alignment and phylogenetic analyses indicate that these differences are shared among many nematodes making SKN-1 a candidate for specifically targeting nematode detoxification and anti-oxidation. PMID:22656429

  11. Intestinal detoxification time of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children with EV71 infection and the related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Shu; Wei, Yi; Zhao, Shi-Yong; Lin, Xian-Yao; Shao, Qi-Min; Wang, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric infectious disease caused by a variety of intestinal viruses. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the primary pathogen that might cause severe symptoms and even death in children with HFMD. This study aimed to investigate the intestinal detoxification time of HFMD children with EV71 infection and its related factors. Sixty-five HFMD children with EV71 infection were followed up. Their stool samples were collected once every 4 to 7 days. Viral nucleic acids were detected by fluorescent polymerase chain reaction until the results became negative. The positive rates of viral nucleic acids were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The Log-rank test and Cox-Mantel test were used to analyze factors affecting the HFMD children with EV71 infection. On the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 10th week, the positive rates of viral nucleic acids in stool samples of the 65 children were 94.6%, 48.1%, 17.2% and 0, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the intestinal detoxification time of the children were related to gender, pre-admission disease course, severity of disease, and use of steroids or gamma globulin (Pdisease was an independent factor affecting the intestinal detoxification time (Pdisease was an important factor affecting the intestinal detoxification time of HFMD children with EV71 infection. Severe HFMD children with EV71 infection had a longer intestinal detoxification time.

  12. Outpatient non-opioid detoxification for opioid withdrawal. Who is likely to benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, M J; Miotto, K; Rawson, R A; Huber, A; Shoptaw, S; Ling, W

    1997-01-01

    The authors examined characteristics of successful completers of an outpatient clonidine/oxazepam detoxification procedure for opioid dependence. Of 215 initial applicants, 167 received medication, and 65 successfully completed by taking a dose of naltrexone. Those who completed were more likely to have last used an opioid other than heroin, to be heroin smokers, rather than intravenous users, to have used benzodiazepines in the 30 days before treatment, and to have abstained from opioids for a longer time before presenting for treatment. New users (for less than 2 years) did no better than those using longer than 2 years. These findings may help in the continued refinement of patient placement criteria.

  13. Fungal Biosorption, An Innovative Treatment for the Decolourisation and Detoxification of Textile Effluents

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    Antonella Pannocchia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Textile effluents are among the most difficult-to-treat wastewaters, due to their considerable amount of recalcitrant and toxic substances. Fungal biosorption is viewed as a valuable additional treatment for removing pollutants from textile wastewaters. In this study the efficiency of Cunninghamella elegans biomass in terms of contaminants, COD and toxicity reduction was tested against textile effluents sampled in different points of wastewater treatment plants. The results showed that C. elegans is a promising candidate for the decolourisation and detoxification of textile wastewaters and its versatility makes it very competitive compared with conventional sorbents adopted in industrial processes.

  14. Targeting of detoxification potential of microorganisms and plants for cleaning environment polluted by organochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Kurashvili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of presented work is the development phytoremediation method targeted to cleaning environment polluted with organochlorine pesticides, based on joint application of specially selected plants and microorganisms. Initial degradation of pesticides carry out by microorganisms; the forming dehalogenated products easily uptake by the plants and undergo oxidative degradation via plant detoxification enzymes. This approach can complete degradation of toxicants and their mineralization into nontoxic compounds. In the presented work the results of using selected strains from genera Pseudomonas and plants phytoremediators in the model experiments are given. It has been shown that the using developed technological approach effectively decreased degree of pollution in artificially polluted soil samples.

  15. Preparation of Hierarchical BiOBr Microspheres for Visible Light-Induced Photocatalytic Detoxification and Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation is a promising alternative to traditional wastewater treatment methods. Recently developed visible light-responsive photocatalyst, BiOBr, has attracted extensive attentions. Hereby, a detailed investigation of application of BiOBr to bacterial inactivation and organic pollutants degradation is reported. Hydrothermal catalyst was prepared using template-free method. While, for solvothermal synthesis, CTAB was used as a template. Results indicate a higher photocatalytic activity by the solvothermally prepared catalyst. Solvothermally prepared BiOBr exhibited high photocatalytic activities in both water detoxification and disinfection.

  16. Application of electro-Fenton oxidation for the detoxification of olive mill wastewater phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoufi, S.; Aouissaoui, H.; Sayadi, S. [Lab. des Bioprocedes, Centre de Biotechnologie de Sfax, Sfax (Tunisia); Penninckx, M. [UPEM, Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    Olive mill effluent (OMW) is an example of a wastewaters containing high concentrations of recalcitrant and toxic compounds which are polyphenolics of different molecular weight. It causes disposal problems because they contain powerful pollutants. Treatment and detoxification of phenolic fraction extracted from olive mill wastewaters as well as a synthetic phenolic mixture was investigated by electro-Fenton method. Results shows that this method is highly efficient in polymerising low molecular mass phenolics and removing a large amount of recalcitrant polyphenolic compounds. This treatment decreased 78% of the toxicity which sustained a good anaerobic post-treatment. (orig.)

  17. Efficacy and safety of a sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone rapidly dissolving tablet for the treatment of adults with opioid dependence: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Lynn; Hjelmström, Peter; Sumner, Michael; Gunderson, Erik W

    2016-01-01

    This prospective, randomized, active-controlled, non-inferiority study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone rapidly dissolving tablet (Zubsolv ® ; buprenorphine/naloxone rapidly dissolving tablet) versus generic buprenorphine for induction of opioid maintenance among dependent adults. The study, conducted at 13 sites from June 2013 to January 2014, included a 2-day blinded induction phase and a 27-day open-label stabilization/maintenance phase. During the blinded induction, patients received fixed doses of buprenorphine/naloxone rapidly dissolving tablets or generic buprenorphine. During open-label stabilization/early maintenance, all patients received buprenorphine/naloxone rapidly dissolving tablets. The primary efficacy assessment was treatment retention at day 3; buprenorphine/naloxone rapidly dissolving tablets were considered non-inferior to generic buprenorphine if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval for the difference between the treatments was ≥-10% in patients retained on day 3. Secondary assessments included opioid withdrawal symptoms and cravings as measured using the Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale, the Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale, and the opioid cravings visual analogue scale. Safety was also assessed. A total of 313 patients were randomly assigned to induction with generic buprenorphine or buprenorphine/naloxone rapidly dissolving tablets. The mean age was 38.4 years, and the mean duration of opioid dependence was 12.4 years. For the primary efficacy assessment, 235 of 256 patients (91.8%) were retained at day 3 and continued to the maintenance phase. The lower limit of the 95% confidence interval was -13.7; thus, buprenorphine/naloxone rapidly dissolving tablets did not demonstrate non-inferiority to generic buprenorphine, and significantly more patients who received induction with generic buprenorphine (122/128 [95.3%]) were retained at day 3 compared with those who received induction with

  18. Reduced emotional signs of opiate withdrawal in rats selectively bred for low (LoS) versus high (HiS) saccharin intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Anna K; Holtz, Nathan A; Gewirtz, Jonathan C; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2013-05-01

    Rats bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) saccharin intake exhibit divergent behavioral responses to multiple drugs of abuse, with HiS rats displaying greater vulnerability to drug taking. Previous research indicates that this effect may be due to increased sensitivity to reward in HiS rats and to the aversive effects of acute drug administration in LoS rats. The current study investigated whether HiS and LoS rats also exhibit different behavioral signs of withdrawal following one or repeated opiate exposures. Emotional signs of opiate withdrawal were assessed with potentiation of the acoustic startle reflex and conditioned place aversion (CPA) in male and female HiS and LoS rats. Startle was measured before and 4 h after a 10-mg/kg injection of morphine on days 1, 2, and 7 of opiate exposure. CPA was induced with a 2-day, naloxone-precipitated conditioning paradigm. Somatic signs of withdrawal and weight loss were also measured. Male and female LoS rats exhibited lower startle potentiation than HiS rats on the seventh day of morphine exposure. LoS male rats also failed to develop a CPA to morphine withdrawal. No differences in physical withdrawal signs were observed between HiS and LoS rats, but males of both lines had more physical signs of withdrawal than females. These results suggest that LoS rats are less vulnerable to the negative emotional effects of morphine withdrawal than HiS rats. A less severe withdrawal syndrome may contribute to decreased levels of drug taking in the LoS line.

  19. A modeling approach to evaluate the balance between bioactivation and detoxification of MeIQx in human hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victorien Delannée

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA are environmental and food contaminants that are potentially carcinogenic for humans. 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx is one of the most abundant HAA formed in cooked meat. MeIQx is metabolized by cytochrome P450 1A2 in the human liver into detoxificated and bioactivated products. Once bioactivated, MeIQx metabolites can lead to DNA adduct formation responsible for further genome instability. Methods Using a computational approach, we developed a numerical model for MeIQx metabolism in the liver that predicts the MeIQx biotransformation into detoxification or bioactivation pathways according to the concentration of MeIQx. Results Our results demonstrate that (1 the detoxification pathway predominates, (2 the ratio between detoxification and bioactivation pathways is not linear and shows a maximum at 10 µM of MeIQx in hepatocyte cell models, and (3 CYP1A2 is a key enzyme in the system that regulates the balance between bioactivation and detoxification. Our analysis suggests that such a ratio could be considered as an indicator of MeIQx genotoxicity at a low concentration of MeIQx. Conclusions Our model permits the investigation of the balance between bioactivation (i.e., DNA adduct formation pathway through the prediction of potential genotoxic compounds and detoxification of MeIQx in order to predict the behaviour of this environmental contaminant in the human liver. It highlights the importance of complex regulations of enzyme competitions that should be taken into account in any further multi-organ models.

  20. Metallothioneins in aquatic invertebrates: their role in metal detoxification and their use as biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiard, J-C; Amiard-Triquet, C; Barka, S; Pellerin, J; Rainbow, P S

    2006-02-10

    The literature on metallothioneins (MT) and metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP) in aquatic invertebrates is large and increasing, and yet inconsistencies and confusion remain, not least over the physiological role of MT and their use as biomarkers in environmental monitoring programmes. We have collated published information on MT in three important groups of aquatic invertebrates-the molluscs, crustaceans and annelid worms, and attempted to seek explanations for some of the apparent inconsistencies present in the dataset. MTs can be induced by the essential metals Cu and Zn and the non-essential metals Cd, Ag and Hg in both vertebrates and invertebrates, but their induction is variable. Such variation is intraspecific and interspecific, and is down to a variety of reasons environmental and physiological explored here. Against this background of variability MTs do appear to play roles both in the routine metabolic handling of essential Cu and Zn, but also in the detoxification of excess amounts intracellularly of these metals and of non-essential Cd, Ag and Hg. Different isoforms of MT probably play different physiological roles, and the dependence on MT in detoxification processes varies environmentally and between zoological groups. MTs can be used as biomarkers if used wisely in well-designed environmental monitoring programmes.

  1. Strategies and Methodologies for Developing Microbial Detoxification Systems to Mitigate Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Hassan, Yousef I; Lepp, Dion; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting

    2017-04-07

    Mycotoxins, the secondary metabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi, have been found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, causing enormous economic losses in livestock production and severe human health problems. Compared to traditional physical adsorption and chemical reactions, interest in biological detoxification methods that are environmentally sound, safe and highly efficient has seen a significant increase in recent years. However, researchers in this field have been facing tremendous unexpected challenges and are eager to find solutions. This review summarizes and assesses the research strategies and methodologies in each phase of the development of microbiological solutions for mycotoxin mitigation. These include screening of functional microbial consortia from natural samples, isolation and identification of single colonies with biotransformation activity, investigation of the physiological characteristics of isolated strains, identification and assessment of the toxicities of biotransformation products, purification of functional enzymes and the application of mycotoxin decontamination to feed/food production. A full understanding and appropriate application of this tool box should be helpful towards the development of novel microbiological solutions on mycotoxin detoxification.

  2. Regional brain metabolic response to lorazepam in alcoholics during early and late alcohol detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, N D; Wang, G J; Overall, J E; Hitzemann, R; Fowler, J S; Pappas, N; Frecska, E; Piscani, K

    1997-10-01

    Changes in GABA function have been postulated to be involved in alcohol tolerance, withdrawal and addiction. In this study we measured regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam, to indirectly assess GABA function (benzodiazepines facilitate GABAergic neurotransmission), in alcoholics during early and late withdrawal. Brain metabolism was measured using PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose after placebo (baseline) and after lorazepam (30 micrograms/kg intravenously) in 10 alcoholics and 16 controls. In the alcoholics evaluations were performed 2 to 3 weeks after detoxification and were repeated 6 to 8 weeks later. Controls were also evaluated twice at a 6 to 8 weeks interval. While during the initial evaluation metabolism was significantly lower for most brain regions in the alcoholics than in controls in the repeated evaluation the only significant differences were in cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex. Lorazepam-induced decrements in metabolism did not change with protracted alcohol withdrawal and the magnitude of these changes were similar in controls and alcoholics except for a trend towards a blunted response to lorazepam in orbitofrontal cortex in alcoholics during the second evaluation. Abnormalities in orbitofrontal cortex and cingulate gyrus in alcoholics are unlikely to be due to withdrawal since they persist 8 to 11 weeks after detoxification. The fact that there was only a trend of significance for an abnormal response to lorazepam in orbitofrontal cortex indicates that mechanisms other than GABA are involved in the brain metabolic abnormalities observed in alcoholic subjects.

  3. Lipid peroxidation, detoxification capacity, and genome damage in mice after transplacental exposure to pharmaceutical drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Markovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on genome damage, lipid peroxidation, and levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPX in newborns after transplacental exposure to xenobiotics are rare and insufficient for risk assessment. The aim of the current study was to analyze, in an animal model, transplacental genotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and detoxification disturbances caused by the following drugs commonly prescribed to pregnant women: paracetamol, fluconazole, 5-nitrofurantoin, and sodium valproate. Genome damage in dams and their newborn pups transplacentally exposed to these drugs was investigated using the in vivo micronucleus (MN assay. The drugs were administered to dams intraperitoneally in three consecutive daily doses between days 12 and 14 of pregnancy. The results were correlated, with detoxification capacity of the newborn pups measured by the levels of GPX in blood and lipid peroxidation in liver measured by malondialdehyde (HPLC-MDA levels. Sodium valproate and 5-nitrofurantoin significantly increased MN frequency in pregnant dams. A significant increase in the MN frequency of newborn pups was detected for all drugs tested. This paper also provides reference levels of MDA in newborn pups, according to which all drugs tested significantly lowered MDA levels of newborn pups, while blood GPX activity dropped significantly only after exposure to paracetamol. The GPX reduction reflected systemic oxidative stress, which is known to occur with paracetamol treatment. The reduction of MDA in the liver is suggested to be an unspecific metabolic reaction to the drugs that express cytotoxic, in particular hepatotoxic, effects associated with oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.

  4. Natural Detoxification Capacity to Inactivate Nerve Agents Sarin and VX in the Rat Blood

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    Jiří Bajgar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The method of continual determination of the rat blood cholinesterase activity was developed to study the changes of the blood cholinesterases following different intervetions. Aims: The aim of this study is registration of cholinesterase activity in the rat blood and its changes to demonstrate detoxification capacity of rats to inactivate sarin or VX in vivo. Methods: The groups of female rats were premedicated (ketamine and xylazine and cannulated to a. femoralis. Continual blood sampling (0.02 ml/min and monitoring of the circulating blood cholinesterase activity were performed. Normal activity was monitored 1–2 min and then the nerve agent was administered i.m. (2× LD50. Using different time intervals of the leg compression and relaxation following the agent injection, cholinesterase activity was monitored and according to the inhibition obtained, detoxification capacity was assessed. Results: Administration of sarin to the leg, then 1 and 5 min compression and 20 min later relaxation showed that further inhibition in the blood was not observed. On the other hand, VX was able to inhibit blood cholinesterases after this intervention. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that sarin can be naturally detoxified on the contrary to VX. Described method can be used as model for other studies dealing with changes of cholinesterases in the blood following different factors.

  5. Chlorine/UV Process for Decomposition and Detoxification of Microcystin-LR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinran; Li, Jing; Yang, Jer-Yen; Wood, Karl V; Rothwell, Arlene P; Li, Weiguang; Blatchley Iii, Ernest R

    2016-07-19

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a potent hepatotoxin that is often associated with blooms of cyanobacteria. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the chlorine/UV process for MC-LR decomposition and detoxification. Chlorinated MC-LR was observed to be more photoactive than MC-LR. LC/MS analyses confirmed that the arginine moiety represented an important reaction site within the MC-LR molecule for conditions of chlorination below the chlorine demand of the molecule. Prechlorination activated MC-LR toward UV254 exposure by increasing the product of the molar absorption coefficient and the quantum yield of chloro-MC-LR, relative to the unchlorinated molecule. This mechanism of decay is fundamentally different than the conventional view of chlorine/UV as an advanced oxidation process. A toxicity assay based on human liver cells indicated MC-LR degradation byproducts in the chlorine/UV process possessed less cytotoxicity than those that resulted from chlorination or UV254 irradiation applied separately. MC-LR decomposition and detoxification in this combined process were more effective at pH 8.5 than at pH 7.5 or 6.5. These results suggest that the chlorine/UV process could represent an effective strategy for control of microcystins and their associated toxicity in drinking water supplies.

  6. A case report of inpatient detoxification after kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Laura; Morris, Siobhan

    2010-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) has been used for medicinal and recreational purposes. It has reported analgesic, euphoric and antitussive effects via its action as an agonist at opioid receptors. It is illegal in many countries including Thailand, Malaysia, Myanmar, South Korea and Australia; however, it remains legal or uncontrolled in the UK and USA, where it is easily available over the Internet. We describe a case of kratom dependence in a 44-year-old man with a history of alcohol dependence and anxiety disorder. He demonstrated dependence on kratom with withdrawal symptoms consisting of anxiety, restlessness, tremor, sweating and cravings for the substance. A reducing regime of dihydrocodeine and lofexidine proved effective in treating subjective and objective measures of opioid-like withdrawal phenomena, and withdrawal was relatively short and benign. There are only few reports in the literature of supervised detoxification and drug treatment for kratom dependence. Our observations support the idea that kratom dependence syndrome is due to short-acting opioid receptor agonist activity, and suggest that dihydrocodeine and lofexidine are effective in supporting detoxification. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Structure Characterization and Lead Detoxification Effect of Carboxymethylated Melanin Derived from Lachnum Sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Shuai; Li, Lan; Li, Jinglei; Shaikh, Farnaz; Yang, Liu; Ye, Ming

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, an intracellular melanin, named LIM205, was separated from Lachnum YM205 mycelia and was purified on a Sephadex G-15 column. The molecular weight of LIM205 was determined as 522 Da, and its molecular formula was speculated as C 28 H 14 N 2 O 7 S. The possible chemical structure of LIM205 was determined according to the results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, and pyrolysis/GC-MS analysis. With the aim to increase its water solubility, its carboxymethylated derivative, named CLIM205, was formed by the substitution of hydrogen atoms in LIM205 with one, two, and three carboxymethylate groups. FT-IR, UV, and ESI-MS analysis demonstrated that the carboxymethylate groups were conjugated onto LIM205. The lead detoxification activities of LIM205 and CLIM205 had also been investigated. In vivo test showed that both LIM205 and CLIM205 reduced the tissue lead concentration, enhanced lead excretion, and reversed lead-induced alterations in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in mice, with CLIM205 showed better efficacy. The study indicates that LIM205 and CLIM205 have significant lead detoxification effect which will contribute to solve related problems.

  8. Role of Penicillium chrysogenum XJ-1 in the detoxification and bioremediation of cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjian eXu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial bioremediation is a promising technology to treat heavy metal-contaminated soils. However, the efficiency of filamentous fungi as bioremediation agents remains unknown, and the detoxification mechanism of heavy metals by filamentous fungi remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the cell morphology and antioxidant systems of Penicillium chrysogenum XJ-1 in response to different Cd concentrations (0–10 mM by using physico-chemical and biochemical methods. Cd in XJ-1 was mainly bound to the cell wall. The malondialdehyde (MDA level in XJ-1 cells was increased by 14.82–94.67 times with the increase in Cd concentration. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione reductase (GR, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH peaked at 1 mM Cd, whereas that of catalase (CAT peaked at 5 mM Cd. Cd exposure increased the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and the activities of GR and G6PDH in XJ-1. These results suggested that the Cd detoxification mechanism of XJ-1 included biosorption, cellular sequestration, and antioxidant defense. The application of XJ-1 in Cd-polluted soils (5–50 mg kg−1 successfully reduced bioavailable Cd and increased the plant yield, indicating that this fungus was a promising candidate for in-situ bioremediation of Cd-polluted soil.

  9. Identifying genes and gene networks involved in chromium metabolism and detoxification in Crambe abyssinica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulfiqar, Asma, E-mail: asmazulfiqar08@yahoo.com [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Paulose, Bibin, E-mail: bpaulose@psis.umass.edu [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chhikara, Sudesh, E-mail: sudesh@psis.umass.edu [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Dhankher, Om Parkash, E-mail: parkash@psis.umass.edu [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, 270 Stockbridge Road, University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Chromium pollution is a serious environmental problem with few cost-effective remediation strategies available. Crambe abyssinica (a member of Brassicaseae), a non-food, fast growing high biomass crop, is an ideal candidate for phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soils. The present study used a PCR-Select Suppression Subtraction Hybridization approach in C. abyssinica to isolate differentially expressed genes in response to Cr exposure. A total of 72 differentially expressed subtracted cDNAs were sequenced and found to represent 43 genes. The subtracted cDNAs suggest that Cr stress significantly affects pathways related to stress/defense, ion transporters, sulfur assimilation, cell signaling, protein degradation, photosynthesis and cell metabolism. The regulation of these genes in response to Cr exposure was further confirmed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Characterization of these differentially expressed genes may enable the engineering of non-food, high-biomass plants, including C. abyssinica, for phytoremediation of Cr-contaminated soils and sediments. - Highlights: > Molecular mechanism of Cr uptake and detoxification in plants is not well known. > We identified differentially regulated genes upon Cr exposure in Crambe abyssinica. > 72 Cr-induced subtracted cDNAs were sequenced and found to represent 43 genes. > Pathways linked to stress, ion transport, and sulfur assimilation were affected. > This is the first Cr transcriptome study in a crop with phytoremediation potential. - This study describes the identification and isolation of differentially expressed genes involved in chromium metabolism and detoxification in a non-food industrial oil crop Crambe abyssinica.

  10. Strategies and Methodologies for Developing Microbial Detoxification Systems to Mitigate Mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Hassan, Yousef I.; Lepp, Dion; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting

    2017-01-01

    Mycotoxins, the secondary metabolites of mycotoxigenic fungi, have been found in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, causing enormous economic losses in livestock production and severe human health problems. Compared to traditional physical adsorption and chemical reactions, interest in biological detoxification methods that are environmentally sound, safe and highly efficient has seen a significant increase in recent years. However, researchers in this field have been facing tremendous unexpected challenges and are eager to find solutions. This review summarizes and assesses the research strategies and methodologies in each phase of the development of microbiological solutions for mycotoxin mitigation. These include screening of functional microbial consortia from natural samples, isolation and identification of single colonies with biotransformation activity, investigation of the physiological characteristics of isolated strains, identification and assessment of the toxicities of biotransformation products, purification of functional enzymes and the application of mycotoxin decontamination to feed/food production. A full understanding and appropriate application of this tool box should be helpful towards the development of novel microbiological solutions on mycotoxin detoxification. PMID:28387743

  11. Changes in cigarette smoking and coffee drinking after alcohol detoxification in alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, H J; Laureaux, C; Tilikete, S; Barrucand, D

    1999-03-01

    To assess the changes in cigarette smoking and coffee drinking after alcohol detoxification in alcoholics. Evaluation at admission and an average 16 days following discharge. Alcohol detoxification inpatient programme. Seventy-three alcohol dependent (DSM-III-R) inpatients. Average number of cigarettes and of cups of coffee per day; urine cotinine level. Smokers were classified as moderate on the basis of consuming fewer than 30 cigarettes per day at the time of admission; heavy smokers were those who smoked 30 cigarettes per day or more. As a group, the smokers (N = 58) did not significantly change their cigarette consumption and there was no change in urine cotinine level. Heavy smokers (N = 34), however, significantly decreased their cigarette consumption, but urine cotinine was unchanged. Moderate smokers (N = 24) significantly increased their cigarette consumption but urine cotinine was not significantly changed. All patients--non-smokers, moderate and heavy smokers--significantly increased their coffee intake. The results suggest that heavy smokers may react to alcohol cues and thus reduce smoking activity when sober. Moderate smokers may increase their smoking rate to cope with alcohol abstinence. These changes appear only to reflect a behavioural adjustment, without modification of patients' nicotine-seeking. Alcoholics may increase their coffee intake to cope with alcohol abstinence.

  12. Effect of ozone on aflatoxins detoxification and nutritional quality of peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ran; Ma, Fei; Li, Pei-Wu; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Qi; Li, Min; Wang, Yan-Ru; Xu, Bao-Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Aflatoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus with carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and mutagenicity. Aflatoxins may be found in a wide range of agri-products, especially in grains, oilseeds, corns, and peanuts. In this study, the conditions for detoxifying peanuts by ozonation were optimised. Aflatoxins in peanuts at moisture content of 5% (w/w) were sensitive to ozone and easily degraded when reacted with 6.0mg/l of ozone for 30min at room temperature. The detoxification rates of the total aflatoxins and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were 65.8% and 65.9%, respectively. The quality of peanut samples was also evaluated in this research. No significant differences (P>0.05) were found in the polyphenols, resveratrol, acid value (AV), and peroxide value (PV) between treated and untreated samples. The results suggested that ozonation was a promising method for aflatoxin detoxification in peanuts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Omics and biotechnology of arsenic stress and detoxification in plants: current updates and prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Smita; Dubey, Rama Shanker; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Chakrabarty, Debasis; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As), a naturally occurring metallic element, is a dreadful health hazard to millions of people across the globe. Arsenic is present in low amount in the environment and originates from anthropogenic impact and geogenic sources. The presence of As in groundwater used for irrigation is a worldwide problem as it affects crop productivity, accumulates to different tissues and contaminates food chain. The consumption of As contaminated water or food products leads to several diseases and even death. Recently, studies have been carried out to explore the biochemical and molecular mechanisms which contribute to As toxicity, accumulation, detoxification and tolerance acquisition in plants. This information has led to the development of the biotechnological tools for developing plants with modulated As tolerance and detoxification to safeguard cellular and genetic integrity as well as to minimize food chain contamination. This review aims to provide current updates about the biochemical and molecular networks involved in As uptake by plants and the recent developments in the area of functional genomics in terms of developing As tolerant and low As accumulating plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Activated sludge respirometry to assess solar detoxification of a metal finishing effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Juanes, L.; Amat, A.M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Arques, A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain)], E-mail: aarques@txp.upv.es; Bernabeu, A.; Silvestre, M.; Vicente, R. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Alcoy, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Plaza Ferrandiz y Carbonell s/n, E-03801 Alcoy (Spain); Ano, E. [Departamento de Gestion e Innovacion, Area de producto y desarrollo sostenible, Asociacion de Investigacion de la Industria del Juguete, Conexas y Afines (AIJU), Avda. de la industria, 23, 03440 Ibi (Spain)], E-mail: m.ambiente@aiju.info

    2008-05-30

    Inhibition of the respiration of activated sludge has been tested as a convenient method to estimate toxicity of aqueous solutions containing copper and cyanide, such as metal finishing effluents; according to this method, an EC{sub 50} of 0.5 mg/l was determined for CN{sup -} and 3.0 mg/l for copper. Solar detoxification of cyanide-containing solutions was studied using TiO{sub 2}, but this process was unfavourable because of the inhibitory role that plays the copper ions present in real effluents on the oxidation of cyanide. On the other hand, the oxidative effect of hydrogen peroxide was greatly enhanced by Cu{sup 2+} and solar irradiation, as complete elimination of free and complexed cyanide could be accomplished, together with precipitation of copper, in experiments carried out at pilot plant scale with real metal finishing effluents. Under these conditions, total detoxification was achieved according to respirometric measurements although some remaining toxicity was determined by more sensitive Vibrio fischeri luminescent assay.

  15. Pharmaceutical and personal care products-induced stress symptoms and detoxification mechanisms in cucumber plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengliang; Dudley, Stacia; Trumble, John; Gan, Jay

    2018-03-01

    Contamination of agricultural soils by pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) resulting from the application of treated wastewater, biosolids and animal wastes constitutes a potential environmental risk in many countries. To date a handful of studies have considered the phytotoxicity of individual PPCPs in crop plants, however, little is known about the effect of PPCPs as mixtures at environmentally relevant levels. This study investigated the uptake and transport, physiological responses and detoxification of a mixture of 17 PPCPs in cucumber seedlings. All PPCPs were detected at higher concentrations in roots compared to leaves, with root activity inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. At 5-50 μg/L, the mature leaves exhibited burnt edges as well as a reduction in photosynthesis pigments. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid peroxidation increased with increasing PPCP concentrations; and their contents were greater in roots than in leaves for all PPCP treatments. Enzymes involved in various functions, including oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase) and xenobiotic metabolism (peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase), were elevated to different levels depending on the PPCP concentration. Glutathione content gradually increased in leaves, while a maxima occurred at 0.5 μg L -1 PPCPs in roots, followed by a decrease thereafter. This study illustrated the complexity of phytotoxicity after exposure to PPCP mixtures, and provided insights into the molecular mechanisms likely responsible for the detoxification of PPCPs in higher plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of PXR in Hepatic Cancer: Its Influences on Liver Detoxification Capacity and Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotiya, Deepak; Jaiswal, Bharti; Ghose, Sampa; Kaul, Rachna; Datta, Kasturi; Tyagi, Rakesh K

    2016-01-01

    The role of nuclear receptor PXR in detoxification and clearance of xenobiotics and endobiotics is well-established. However, its projected role in hepatic cancer is rather illusive where its expression is reported altered in different cancers depending on the tissue-type and microenvironment. The expression of PXR, its target genes and their biological or clinical significance have not been examined in hepatic cancer. In the present study, by generating DEN-induced hepatic cancer in mice, we report that the expression of PXR and its target genes CYP3A11 and GSTa2 are down-regulated implying impairment of hepatic detoxification capacity. A higher state of inflammation was observed in liver cancer tissues as evident from upregulation of inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α along with NF-κB and STAT3. Our data in mouse model suggested a negative correlation between down-regulation of PXR and its target genes with that of higher expression of inflammatory proteins (like IL-6, TNF-α, NF-κB). In conjunction, our findings with relevant cell culture based assays showed that higher expression of PXR is involved in reduction of tumorigenic potential in hepatic cancer. Overall, the findings suggest that inflammation influences the expression of hepatic proteins important in drug metabolism while higher PXR level reduces tumorigenic potential in hepatic cancer.

  17. Dexmedetomidine infusion to facilitate opioid detoxification and withdrawal in a patient with chronic opioid abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjya Prasad Upadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU for acute intoxication, serious complication of overdose, or withdrawal symptoms of illicit drugs. An acute withdrawal of drugs with addiction potential is associated with a sympathetic overactivity leading to marked psychomimetic disturbances. Acute intoxication or withdrawal of such drugs is often associated with life-threatening complications which require ICU admission and necessitate prolonged sedative analgesic medications, weaning from which is often complicated by withdrawal and other psychomimetic symptoms. Dexmedetomidine, an alpha-2 (α2 agonist, has been used successfully to facilitate withdrawal and detoxification of various drugs and also to control delirium in ICU patients. Herein, we report a case of a chronic opioid abuse (heroin patient admitted with acute overdose complications leading to a prolonged ICU course requiring sedative-analgesic medication; the drug withdrawal-related symptoms further complicated the weaning process. Dexmedetomidine infusion was successfully used as a sedative-analgesic to control the withdrawal-related psychomimetic symptoms and to facilitate smooth detoxification and weaning from opioid and other sedatives.

  18. Enzymes involved in the detoxification of organophosphorus, carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides through hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogorb, Miguel A; Vilanova, Eugenio

    2002-03-10

    The most employed insecticides for indoor and agriculture purposes belong to carbamates, pyrethroid or organophosphates. The chemical structures of these three groups correspond to carbamic, carboxylic and triphosphoric esters. Technical monographs suggest that the hydrolysis of ester bonds of carbamates and pyrethroids plays an important role in the detoxification of these compounds. However, detailed studies about enzymes hydrolysing carbamates and pyrethroids in vertebrates are not available. Certain carbamate hydrolysing activities are associated to serum albumin. Phosphotriesterases, being of an unknown physiological role, hydrolyse (in some cases stereospecifically) organophosphorus insecticides (OP). Phosphotriesterases have been found in a multitude of species, from mammals to bacteria. A phosphotriesterase activity, EDTA-resistant, has been detected in serum albumin. Phosphotriesterases in serum of mammals display polymorphisms. Phosphotriesterases offer applications in therapy of organophosphorus poisonings, in biodegradation and bioremedation of organophosphates. Similar studies should be developed with enzymes hydrolysing pyrethroids and carbamate insecticides. Such studies will improve the knowledge of the detoxification routes in non-target species and will help to design specific and safer carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides.

  19. Chinese herbal medicine Shenqi Detoxification Granule inhibits fibrosis in adenine induced chronic renal failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Min; Cai, Pingping; Ma, Hongbo; Meng, Hongyan; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaoyi; Si, Guomin

    2014-01-01

    Progressive fibrosis accompanies all chronic renal disease, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF,) and platelet-derived growth factor-B, (PDGF-B,) play important roles in extra-cellular matrix abnormal accumulation, while endothelin-1 (ET-1) nitric oxide (NO,) are related to endothelial dysfunction, which mediates the progression of renal fibrosis. Shenqi Detoxification Granule (SDG), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, has been used for treatment of chronic renal failure in clinic for many years. In order to evaluate the efficacy, and explore the mechanism of SDG to inhibit the progression of renal fibrosis, study was carried out using the adenine-induced Wister rats as the CRF model, and losartan as postive control drug. Levels of serum creatinine [Scr], and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin (ALB), 24hrs, urine protein (24hUP), triacylglycerol (TG), and cholesterol (CHO), together with ET-1, and NO were detected. Pathological changes of renal tissues were observed by HE, staining. In addition, CTGF and PDGF-B expression were analyzed by immuno-histo-chemistry. The results indicated that SDG can effectively reduce Scr, BUN, 24hUP, TG, and CHO levels, increase ALB levels, inhibit renal tissue damage in CRF rats, and the mechanism maybe reduce PDGF-B, CTGF expression and ET-1/NO. Shenqi Detoxification Granule is a beneficial treatment for chronic renal failure.

  20. Kinetics of Natural Detoxification of Hydrogen Cyanide Contained In Retted Cassava Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the kinetics of natural detoxification of hydrogen cyanide contained in retted cassava roots. Retting is traditional fermentation of cassava, performed to soften the roots. During retting, cyanide diffuses into water used for the retting. The fresh cassava roots (bitter and sweet varieties used for this experiment were separately retted at ambient 0 temperature of 30 C. The cyanide content and pH were monitored daily. From the analysis of the experimental results, a first order consecutive rate equation is an adequate tool for explaining the mechanism of HCN reduction (or decay in retted cassava roots. The detoxification constants for the bound cyanide in the bitter and sweet cassava roots were 0.378/day and 0.438/day respectively, while that of the free hydrogen cyanide were 0.63/day and 0.74/day for the bitter and sweet varieties respectively. Cassava tubers from different species cannot be fermented with the same retting condition unless they have same or close functional properties.

  1. Detoxification of Ammonia in Mouse Cortical GABAergic Cell Cultures Increases Neuronal Oxidative Metabolism and Reveals an Emerging Role for Release of Glucose-Derived Alanine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leke, Renata; Bak, Lasse K; Anker, Malene

    2011-01-01

    enhanced the synthesis and release of alanine. Collectively, our results demonstrate that (1) formation of glutamine is seminal for detoxification of ammonia; (2) neuronal oxidative metabolism is increased in the presence of ammonia; and (3) synthesis and release of alanine is likely to be important...... for ammonia detoxification as a supplement to formation of glutamine....

  2. Reinforcements from the first drug experience can predict later drug habits and/or addiction: results with coffee, cigarettes, alcohol, barbiturates, minor and major tranquilizers, stimulants, marijuana, hallucinogens, heroin, opiates and cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertzen, C A; Kocher, T R; Miyasato, K

    1983-04-01

    The relationship between the reinforcing quality of the first drug experiences and eventual habits for a variety of drugs was studied in 42 male drug abusers who were predominantly opiate addicts. These subjects volunteered for drug studies carried out by the Addiction Research Center. The degree of reinforcement they derived from their first drug experience was related to their subsequent habit. This was true for alcohol, barbiturates, minor tranquilizers, cocaine, stimulants, marijuana, glue or solvents, hallucinogens, opiates other than heroin and heroin. Positive but non-significant correlations were found for coffee and major tranquilizers. The correlation for cigarettes was contrary to expectations. Of the components to the index of reinforcement, degree of liking of a drug on the first occasion was most related to the subsequent habit. The greatest initial reinforcement scores were found for heroin, cocaine and opiates other than heroin. drugs which were not well liked on the first occasion included major tranquilizers, cigarettes, coffee, and glue.

  3. The Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Reduction of Craving, Depression and Anxiety Symptoms among the Opiate Abusers Under MMT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshtwh Momeni

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of cognitive behavior group therapy on reduction of craving, depression and anxiety symptoms among the Opiate abusers under MMT. Method: In this experimental research, 36 addicts on MMT were selected between the entire opiate addicts referred to Iranian national center for addiction studies (INCAS by convenience sampling and were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. In experimental group, cognitive behavior group therapy was performed in 8 sessions, one each week. Sessions were performed for craving, depression and anxiety management. Data was gathered by demographic questionnaire, scale of relapse predicts craving assessment, BDI-II and BAI for depression and anxiety symptoms assessment. The data was analyzed, independent and paired samples t test. Results: Data analysis revealed that craving index was decreased in post- test and follow-up and it was statistically significant. Also beck depression and anxiety symptoms were decreased significantly in post-test and follow-up. Conclusion: The results show that cognitive-behavior group therapy was efficient on reduction of drug craving, depression, and anxiety symptoms in post-test and follow-up, and it can apply as a method of treatment.

  4. [Emotional response to affective stimuli in subjects addicted to opiates engaged in controlled use as part of the P.E.P.S.A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arcos, Francisco Aguilar; Verdejo García, Antonio; López Jiménez, Angeles; Montañez Pareja, Matilde; Gómez Juárez, Encarnación; Arráez Sánchez, Francisco; Pérez García, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze emotional response to a set of everyday emotional visual stimuli unrelated to drug use. Two groups of prescribed opiate drug abusers (heroin+methadone vs. methadone-only groups) currently participating in the Andalusian Experimental Prescribed Drug Program (Programa Experimental de Prescripcion de Estupefacientes de Andalucia, PEPSA) were studied, and comparisons made between them, within them for different phases, and between them and a normative group of nonusers. For this purpose we used the I.C.E.R.E., an instrument based on the I.A.P.S. (International Affective Picture System) and on Peter Lang's S.A.M. (Self-Assessment Manikin). The results showed patterns of emotional response in the opiate users, compared to the non-users, characterized by a lower rating of the everyday natural stimuli of a pleasant nature and a greater sensitivity to the stimuli of a neutral and negative nature. These patterns were quite stable even in different clinical situations and stages of development of the P.E.P.S.A.

  5. Metabolism of Zearalenone by Genetically Modified Organisms Expressing the Detoxification Gene from Clonostachys rosea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi-Ando, Naoko; Ohsato, Shuichi; Shibata, Takehiko; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Isamu; Kimura, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is converted to a nontoxic product by a lactonohydololase encoded by zhd101. An enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene was fused to zhd101 (i.e., egfp::zhd101) and expressed in Escherichia coli. Both recombinant ZHD101 and EGFP::ZHD101 were purified to homogeneity and characterized. Maximal activity of ZHD101 toward ZEN was measured at approximately 37 to 45°C and pH 10.5 (kcat at 30°C, 0.51 s−1). The enzyme was irreversibly inactivated at pH values below 4.5 or by treatment with serine protease inhibitors. ZHD101 was also active against five ZEN cognates, although the efficiencies were generally low; e.g., the kcat was highest with zearalanone (1.5 s−1) and lowest with β-zearalenol (0.075 s−1). EGFP::ZHD101 had properties similar to those of the individual proteins with regard to the EGFP fluorescence and lactonohydrolase activity. Fortuitously, EGFP::ZHD101 exhibited a good correlation between the fluorescence intensity and reaction velocity under various pH conditions. We therefore used egfp::zhd101 to visually monitor the lactonohydrolase activity in genetically modified organisms and evaluated the usefulness of zhd101 for in vivo detoxification of ZEN. While recombinant E. coli and transgenic rice calluses exhibited strong EGFP fluorescence and completely degraded ZEN in liquid media, recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae gave poor fluorescence and did not eliminate all the toxicity of the mycotoxin in the medium; i.e., the rest of ZEN was transformed into an unfavorable substrate, β-zearalenol, by an as-yet-unidentified reductase and remained in the medium. Even so, as much as 75% of ZEN was detoxified by the yeast transformant, which is better than the detoxification system in which food-grade Lactobacillus strains are used (H. El-Nezami, N. Polychronaki, S. Salminen, and H. Mykkuäne, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:3545-3549, 2002). An appropriate combination of a candidate host microbe and the codon-optimized synthetic gene

  6. Detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chang-Zhong [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Tang, Yuanyuan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Lee, Po-Heng [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Liu, Chengshuai, E-mail: csliu@soil.gd.cn [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550009 (China); Shih, Kaimin, E-mail: kshih@hku.hk [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Li, Fangbai [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China)

    2017-01-05

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. All Cr(VI) species is reduced to Cr(III) and most chromium contents are incorporated into spinel structure where the residual chromium are resided in the glass networks. - Highlights: • COPR was detoxified and immobilized in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. • Cr-rich crystalline phase was determined to be MgCr{sub 1.32}Fe{sub 0.19}Al{sub 0.49}O{sub 4} spinel. • The partitioning ratio of Cr into spinel in the glass-ceramic can be up to 77%. • No Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic. • TCLP results demonstrate the superiority of the final product in immobilizing Cr. - Abstract: A promising strategy for the detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix is reported in this study. In the search for a more chemically durable matrix for COPR, the most critical crystalline phase for Cr immobilization was found to be a spinel solid solution with a chemical composition of MgCr{sub 1.32}Fe{sub 0.19}Al{sub 0.49}O{sub 4}. Using Rietveld quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, we identified this final product is with the phases of spinel (3.5 wt.%), diopside (5.2 wt.%), and some amorphous contents (91.2 wt.%). The partitioning ratio of Cr reveals that about 77% of the Cr was incorporated into the more chemically durable spinel phase. The results of Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy show that no Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic, which indicates successful detoxification of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic. The leaching performances of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic were compared with a prolonged acid-leaching test, and the results demonstrate the superiority of the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic matrix in the

  7. Subgroups Among Opiate Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzins, Juris I.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The principal objective of the present investigation was to delineate homogeneous MMPI profile subgroups (types) through multivariate clustering procedures and to compare the derived (replicable) types on measures of the components of "sociopathy" as well as on other psychometric devices. (Author)

  8. Opiate and opioid withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Medications in the Treatment of Addiction Involving Opioid Use. J Addict Med . 2015 Sep-Oct;9(5):358-367. PMID: 26406300 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26406300 . Review Date 4/20/2016 Updated by: Jacob L. ...

  9. Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Using Hydrolyzates of Spruce Sawdust: Comparison of Hydrolyzates Detoxification by Application of Overliming, Active Carbon, and Lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Dan; Benesova, Pavla; Ladicky, Peter; Pekar, Miloslav; Sedlacek, Petr; Obruca, Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bacterial polyesters which are considered biodegradable alternatives to petrochemical plastics. PHAs have a wide range of potential applications, however, the production cost of this bioplastic is several times higher. A major percentage of the final cost is represented by the price of the carbon source used in the fermentation. Burkholderia cepacia and Burkholderia sacchari are generally considered promising candidates for PHA production from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. The wood waste biomass has been subjected to hydrolysis. The resulting hydrolyzate contained a sufficient amount of fermentable sugars. Growth experiments indicated a strong inhibition by the wood hydrolyzate. Over-liming and activated carbon as an adsorbent of inhibitors were employed for detoxification. All methods of detoxification had a positive influence on the growth of biomass and PHB production. Furthermore, lignite was identified as a promising alternative sorbent which can be used for detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolyzates. Detoxification using lignite instead of activated carbon had lower inhibitor removal efficiency, but greater positive impact on growth of the bacterial culture and overall PHA productivity. Moreover, lignite is a significantly less expensive adsorbent in comparison with activated charcoal and; moreover, used lignite can be simply utilized as a fuel to, at least partially, cover heat and energetic demands of fermentation, which should improve the economic feasibility of the process. PMID:28952532

  10. Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Using Hydrolyzates of Spruce Sawdust: Comparison of Hydrolyzates Detoxification by Application of Overliming, Active Carbon, and Lignite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Kucera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are bacterial polyesters which are considered biodegradable alternatives to petrochemical plastics. PHAs have a wide range of potential applications, however, the production cost of this bioplastic is several times higher. A major percentage of the final cost is represented by the price of the carbon source used in the fermentation. Burkholderia cepacia and Burkholderia sacchari are generally considered promising candidates for PHA production from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. The wood waste biomass has been subjected to hydrolysis. The resulting hydrolyzate contained a sufficient amount of fermentable sugars. Growth experiments indicated a strong inhibition by the wood hydrolyzate. Over-liming and activated carbon as an adsorbent of inhibitors were employed for detoxification. All methods of detoxification had a positive influence on the growth of biomass and PHB production. Furthermore, lignite was identified as a promising alternative sorbent which can be used for detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolyzates. Detoxification using lignite instead of activated carbon had lower inhibitor removal efficiency, but greater positive impact on growth of the bacterial culture and overall PHA productivity. Moreover, lignite is a significantly less expensive adsorbent in comparison with activated charcoal and; moreover, used lignite can be simply utilized as a fuel to, at least partially, cover heat and energetic demands of fermentation, which should improve the economic feasibility of the process.

  11. Robust cellulosic ethanol production from SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine using an adapted strain Saccharomyces cervisiae without detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Tian; X.L. Luo; X.S. Yang; J.Y. Zhu

    2010-01-01

    This study reports an ethanol yield of 270 L/ton wood from lodgepole pine pretreated with sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) using an adapted strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y5, without detoxification. The enzymatic hydrolysate produced from pretreated cellulosic solids substrate was combined with pretreatment hydrolysate before...

  12. Effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics and morphology the bone in rat femurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J A D; Souza, A L T; Cruz, L H C; Marques, P P; Camilli, J A; Nakagaki, W R; Esteves, A; Rossi-Junior, W C; Fernandes, G J M; Guerra, F D; Soares, E A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics, area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone in rat femur. This was an experimental study in which 18 male Wistar rats were used, with 40 days of age, weighing 179 ± 2.5 g. The rats were divided into three groups (n=06): CT (control), AC (chronic alcoholic), DT (detoxification). After experimental procedures, the animals were euthanized by an overdose of the anesthetic and their femurs were collected for mechanical testing and histological processing. All animals did not present malnutrition or dehydration during experimentation period. Morphometric analysis of cortical and trabecular bones in rat femurs demonstrated that AC animals showed inferior dimensions and alcohol detoxification (DT) allowed an enhancement in area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone. Material and structural properties data of AC group highlighted the harmful effects of ethanol on bone mechanical properties. The results of this study demonstrated that chronic alcoholic rats (AC) presented major bone damage in all analyzed variables. Those findings suggested that alcohol detoxification is highly suggested in pre-operative planning and this corroborates to the success of bone surgery and bone tissue repair. Thanks to the financial support offered by PROBIC - UNIFENAS.

  13. The evolutionarily conserved mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 links protective innate immune responses and xenobiotic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkila-Worley, Read; Feinbaum, Rhonda L; McEwan, Deborah L; Conery, Annie L; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2014-05-01

    Metazoans protect themselves from environmental toxins and virulent pathogens through detoxification and immune responses. We previously identified a small molecule xenobiotic toxin that extends survival of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with human bacterial pathogens by activating the conserved p38 MAP kinase PMK-1 host defense pathway. Here we investigate the cellular mechanisms that couple activation of a detoxification response to innate immunity. From an RNAi screen of 1,420 genes expressed in the C. elegans intestine, we identified the conserved Mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 and 28 other gene inactivations that abrogate the induction of PMK-1-dependent immune effectors by this small molecule. We demonstrate that MDT-15/MED15 is required for the xenobiotic-induced expression of p38 MAP kinase PMK-1-dependent immune genes and protection from Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We also show that MDT-15 controls the induction of detoxification genes and functions to protect the host from bacteria-derived phenazine toxins. These data define a central role for MDT-15/MED15 in the coordination of xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune responses.

  14. The evolutionarily conserved mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 links protective innate immune responses and xenobiotic detoxification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read Pukkila-Worley

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metazoans protect themselves from environmental toxins and virulent pathogens through detoxification and immune responses. We previously identified a small molecule xenobiotic toxin that extends survival of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with human bacterial pathogens by activating the conserved p38 MAP kinase PMK-1 host defense pathway. Here we investigate the cellular mechanisms that couple activation of a detoxification response to innate immunity. From an RNAi screen of 1,420 genes expressed in the C. elegans intestine, we identified the conserved Mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 and 28 other gene inactivations that abrogate the induction of PMK-1-dependent immune effectors by this small molecule. We demonstrate that MDT-15/MED15 is required for the xenobiotic-induced expression of p38 MAP kinase PMK-1-dependent immune genes and protection from Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We also show that MDT-15 controls the induction of detoxification genes and functions to protect the host from bacteria-derived phenazine toxins. These data define a central role for MDT-15/MED15 in the coordination of xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune responses.

  15. Changes in Nutrition-Related Behaviors in Alcohol-Dependent Patients After Outpatient Detoxification: The Role of Chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, Anna; Rohdemann, Maren; Landes, Tom; Engel, Katharina; Banas, Roman; Heinz, Andreas; Müller, Christian A

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in nutrition-related behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients after alcohol detoxification, but prospective studies assessing the effects of these changes on maintaining abstinence are lacking. To assess changes in craving and consumption of chocolate and other sweets over time up to six months after outpatient alcohol detoxification treatment and to detect differences in abstinent versus nonabstinent patients. One hundred and fifty alcohol-dependent patients were included in this prospective observational study. Participants completed self-report questionnaires on nutrition-related behaviors and craving before detoxification treatment (baseline, t1), one week (t2), one month (t3), and six months later (t4). Significant changes in craving for and consumption of chocolate as well as in craving for other sweets were observed over time. Increases were most prominent within the first month. Patients who remained abstinent until t3 consumed three times more chocolate than nonabstainers. One quarter of the patients switched from being rare (t1) to frequent (t3) chocolate eaters, and 84% of these remained abstinent until t3. No significant correlations were found between craving for alcohol and craving for or consumption of chocolate or other sweets. In the first month after outpatient alcohol detoxification treatment, significant changes in nutrition-related behaviors were observed. These changes were not associated with alcohol craving. For a subgroup, increasing the frequency of chocolate consumption might be a temporary protective factor with respect to alcohol relapse.

  16. Iron(III)-chelating resins. X. Iron detoxification of human plasma with iron(III)-chelating resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, M.; Feng, M.H.; van der Does, L.; Bantjes, A.; Bantjes, A.

    1994-01-01

    Iron detoxification of human blood plasma was studied with resins containing desferrioxamine B (DFO) or 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4(1H)-pyridinone (HMP) as iron(III)-chelating groups. The behaviour of four resins was investigated: DFO-Sepharose, HMP-Sepharose and crosslinked copolymers of

  17. Efficient ethanol production from beetle-killed lodgepole pine using SPORL technology and Saccharomyces cerevisiae without detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; Xiaolin Luo; Shen Tian; Roland Gleisner; Jose Negron; Eric Horn

    2011-01-01

    This study applied Sulfite Pretreatment to Overcome Recalcitrance of Lignocelluloses (SPORL) to evaluate the potential of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine for ethanol production using conventional Saccharomyces cerevisiae without hydrolysate detoxification. The results indicate that the beetle-killed trees are more susceptible to SPORL pretreatment than live...

  18. Implicit and Explicit Drug-Related Cognitions during Detoxification Treatment Are Associated with Drug Relapse: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhe, Reshmi; Waters, Andrew J.; van de Wetering, Ben J. M.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Relapse is a major problem in drug addiction treatment. Both drug craving and drug-related cognitions (e.g., attentional bias and implicit attitudes to drugs) may contribute to relapse. Using ecological momentary assessments, we examined whether craving and cognitions assessed during drug detoxification treatment were associated with…

  19. Transcription factor DecR (YbaO) controls detoxification of L-cysteine in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Kan; Ishihama, Akira

    2016-09-01

    YbaO is an uncharacterized AsnC-family transcription factor of Escherichia coli. In both Salmonella enterica and Pantoea ananatis, YbaO homologues were identified to regulate the adjacent gene encoding cysteine desulfhydrase for detoxification of cysteine. Using the genomic SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) screening system, we identified the yhaOM operon, located far from the ybaO gene on the E. coli genome, as a single regulatory target of YbaO. In both gel shift assay in vitro and reporter and Northern blot assays in vivo, YbaO was found to regulate the yhaOM promoter. The growth of mutants lacking either ybaO or its targets yhaOM was delayed in the presence of cysteine, indicating involvement of these genes in cysteine detoxification. In the major pathway of cysteine degradation, hydrogen sulfide is produced in wild-type E. coli, but its production was not observed in each of the ybaO, yhaO and yhaM mutants. The yhaOM promoter was activated in the presence of cysteine, implying the role of cysteine in activation of YbaO. Taken together, we propose that YbaO is the cysteine-sensing transcriptional activator of the yhaOM operon, which is involved in the detoxification of cysteine. We then propose the naming of ybaO as decR (regulator of detoxification of cysteine).

  20. Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Using Hydrolyzates of Spruce Sawdust: Comparison of Hydrolyzates Detoxification by Application of Overliming, Active Carbon, and Lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Dan; Benesova, Pavla; Ladicky, Peter; Pekar, Miloslav; Sedlacek, Petr; Obruca, Stanislav

    2017-05-28

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bacterial polyesters which are considered biodegradable alternatives to petrochemical plastics. PHAs have a wide range of potential applications, however, the production cost of this bioplastic is several times higher. A major percentage of the final cost is represented by the price of the carbon source used in the fermentation. Burkholderia cepacia and Burkholderia sacchari are generally considered promising candidates for PHA production from lignocellulosic hydrolyzates. The wood waste biomass has been subjected to hydrolysis. The resulting hydrolyzate contained a sufficient amount of fermentable sugars. Growth experiments indicated a strong inhibition by the wood hydrolyzate. Over-liming and activated carbon as an adsorbent of inhibitors were employed for detoxification. All methods of detoxification had a positive influence on the growth of biomass and PHB production. Furthermore, lignite was identified as a promising alternative sorbent which can be used for detoxification of lignocellulose hydrolyzates. Detoxification using lignite instead of activated carbon had lower inhibitor removal efficiency, but greater positive impact on growth of the bacterial culture and overall PHA productivity. Moreover, lignite is a significantly less expensive adsorbent in comparison with activated charcoal and; moreover, used lignite can be simply utilized as a fuel to, at least partially, cover heat and energetic demands of fermentation, which should improve the economic feasibility of the process.

  1. Should psychosocial intervention be added to pharmacological treatment for opiate abuse/dependence? An overview of systematic reviews of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Amato

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Opioid abuse and dependence are major health and social issues in most societies. Different interventions are available, but the majority of heroin patients relapse and these relapses are a substantial problem to their rehabilitation. Psychosocial interventions for drug addicts have been suggested as possible instruments to overcome the difficulty of maintaining a drug-free state. The aim of this paper is to provide a summary of the available evidence of effectiveness.

    Methods: We summarised the results from two systematic reviews on psychosocial interventions combined with Methadone Maintenance Treatment and Methadone or Buprenorphine Detoxification Treatment.

    Results: For detoxification treatments, the results show that benefits can be gained from adding any psychosocial treatment to any substitution detoxification treatment in terms of completion of treatment: relative risk (RR 1.68 (95% CI 1.11-2.55, and compliance (proportion of clinical absences: RR 0.48 (95% CI 0.38-0.59; for the use of heroin during treatment, the differences were not statistically significant. For maintenance treatments, there is an additional benefit to be gained in adding any psychosocial treatment to methadone maintenance treatment in relation to the use of heroin during treatment: RR 0.69(95% CI 0.53-0.91; no statistically significant additional benefit was shown in terms of treatment retention and results at follow-up.

    Conclusions: Psychosocial treatments offered in addition to pharmacological detoxification treatments are effective in terms of completion of treatment and compliance, while adding any psychosocial support to methadone maintenance significantly improves the non-use of heroin during treatment but does not improve the other outcomes considered.

  2. Simultaneous concentration and detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by vacuum membrane distillation coupled with adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqin; Li, Ming; Wang, Yafei; Ji, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Lin; Hou, Lian

    2015-12-01

    Low sugar concentration and the presence of various inhibitors are the major challenges associated with lignocellulosic hydrolyzates as a fermentation broth. Vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process can be used to concentrate sugars and remove inhibitors (furans) efficiently, but it's not desirable for the removal of less volatile inhibitors such as acetic acid. In this study, a VMD-adsorption process was proposed to improve the removal of acetic acid, achieving simultaneous concentration and detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by one step process. Results showed that sugars were concentrated with high rejections (>98%) and little sugar loss (<2%), with the significant reduction in nearly total furans (99.7%) and acetic acid (83.5%) under optimal operation conditions. Fermentation results showed the ethanol production of hydrolyzates concentrated and detoxified using the VMD-adsorption method were approximately 10-fold greater than from untreated hydrolyzates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biodegradation and Detoxification of Sanitary Landfill Leachate by Stabilization Ponds System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rejane H R; Martins, Cláudia L; Fernandes, Heloísa; Velho, Viviane F

    2017-06-01

      The performance of a pilot stabilization ponds system was evaluated for the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate, focusing on effluent detoxification. Three serial ponds (anaerobic-P1, facultative-P2, and maturation-P3) were evaluated during two different operational conditions: natural condition (period 1) and 24 hours of artificial aeration in P2 (period 2). The ponds system exhibited removal efficiencies of 53% for soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 81% for filtered biochemical oxygen demand (FBOD), and 84% for NH4+-N during period 1 and 70% for SCOD, 80% for FBOD, and 96% for -N during period 2. Most metals (Fe, Cu, Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni, and Pb) and organic compounds in the leachate were significantly reduced in the treatment system, with greater reductions during period 2. Moreover, toxicity tests demonstrated the capacity of the system to reduce the toxicity of the raw leachate (up to 89% toxicity reduction).

  4. Structure of a tau class glutathione S-transferase from wheat active in herbicide detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Russell; Cummins, Ian; Dixon, David P; Edwards, Robert; Cole, David J; Lapthorn, Adrian J

    2002-06-04

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) from the phi (GSTF) and tau (GSTU) classes are unique to plants and play important roles in stress tolerance and secondary metabolism as well as catalyzing the detoxification of herbicides in crops and weeds. We have cloned and functionally characterized a group of GSTUs from wheat treated with fenchlorazole-ethyl, a herbicide safener. One of these enzymes, TaGSTU4-4, was highly active in conjugating the chemically distinct wheat herbicides fenoxaprop and dimethenamid. The structure of TaGSTU4-4 has been determined at 2.2 A resolution in complex with S-hexylglutathione. This enzyme is the first tau class GST structure to be determined and most closely resembles the omega class GSTs, but without the unique N-terminal extension or active site cysteine. The X-ray structure identifies key amino acid residues in the hydrophobic binding site and provides insights into the substrate specificity of these enzymes.

  5. Fermentation of Acid-pretreated Corn Stover to Ethanol Without Detoxification Using Pichia stipitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbogbo, Frank K.; Haagensen, Frank D.; Milam, David; Wenger, Kevin S.

    In this work, the effect of adaptation on P. stipitis fermentation using acidpretreated corn stover hydrolyzates without detoxification was examined. Two different types of adaptation were employed, liquid hydrolyzate and solid state agar adaptation. Fermentation of 12.5% total solids undetoxified acid-pretreated corn stover was performed in shake flasks at different rotation speeds. At low rotation speed (100 rpm), both liquid hydrolyzate and solid agar adaptation highly improved the sugar consumption rate as well as ethanol production rate compared to the wild-type strains. The fermentation rate was higher for solid agar-adapted strains compared to liquid hydrolyzate-adapted strains. At a higher rotation speed (150 rpm), there was a faster sugar consumption and ethanol production for both the liquid-adapted and the wild-type strains. However, improvements in the fermentation rate between the liquid-adapted and wild strains were less pronounced at the high rotation speed.

  6. Detoxification of organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents through RSDL: efficacy evaluation by (31)P NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsinghorst, Paul W; Worek, Franz; Koller, Marianne

    2015-03-04

    Intoxication by organophosphorus compounds, especially by pesticides, poses a considerable risk to the affected individual. Countermeasures involve both medical intervention by means of antidotes as well as external decontamination to reduce the risk of dermal absorption. One of the few decontamination options available is Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL), which was originally developed for military use. Here, we present a (31)P NMR spectroscopy based methodology to evaluate the detoxification efficacy of RSDL with respect to a series of organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents. Kinetic analysis of the obtained NMR data provided degradation half-lives proving that RSDL is also reasonably effective against organophosphorus pesticides. Unexpected observations of different RSDL degradation patterns are presented in view of its reported oximate-catalyzed mechanism of action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioremediation and detoxification of industrial wastes by earthworms: Vermicompost as powerful crop nutrient in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Sharanpreet; Singh, Jaswinder; Kumar, Sunil; Bhawana; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2018-03-01

    Vermicompost is the final product of the vermicomposting process involving the collective action of earthworms and microbes. During this process, the waste is converted into useful manure by reducing the harmful effects of waste. Toxicity of industrial wastes is evaluated by plant bioassays viz. Allium cepa and Vicia faba test. These bioassays are sensitive and cost-effective for the monitoring of environmental contamination. The valorization potential of earthworms and their ability to detoxify heavy metals in industrial wastes is because of their strong metabolic system and involvement of earthworm gut microbes and chloragocyte cells. Most of the studies reported that the vermicompost produced from organic wastes contains higher amounts of humic substances, which plays a major role in growth of plants. The present article discusses the detoxification of industrial wastes by earthworms and the role of final vermicompost in plant growth and development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Safety and effectiveness of a fixed-dose phenobarbital protocol for inpatient benzodiazepine detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Sarah Sharfstein; Jacapraro, Janet S; Rastegar, Darius A

    2012-10-01

    Benzodiazepine dependence is a common problem. However, there is limited data on safe and effective detoxification protocols for benzodiazepine-dependent patients. We reviewed the medical records of 310 patients treated with a 3-day fixed-dose phenobarbital taper for benzodiazepine dependence over a 5-year period between 2004 and 2009. We recorded the incidence of seizures, falls, delirium, and emergency department (ED) visits or readmission to our institution within 30 days as markers for safety; we also recorded how many patients had doses held because of sedation. The taper was well tolerated, although one quarter of the patients had at least one dose held because of sedation. There were no seizures, falls, or injuries reported. Six percent had a readmission, and 7% had an ED visit at our institution within 30 days of discharge, but only 3 patients required readmission for withdrawal symptoms. Overall, this protocol appears to be safe and effective. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Detoxification effects of phytonutrients against environmental toxicants and sharing of clinical experience on practical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Raymond Tsz Man

    2017-04-01

    According to the Food and Health Bureau and Trade and Industry Department of the Hong Kong Government, 90 % of the total food supply in Hong Kong was imported from the Mainland China. In addition, the hidden or illegal use of prohibited pesticides, food adulteration (e.g., using industrial salt in food processing, using gutter oil as cooking oil), and pollutions were periodically reported by the media. Excessive exposure to toxic heavy metals or persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from diet or environmental is inevitable amid industrialization and pollution. Understanding of the detoxification ability among nutrients in plant-based food (i.e., phytonutrients in green tea, onion, garlic, coriander, and turmeric) offers therapeutic and preventive effects against the poisoning effects due to these pollutants. Oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory actions are the common mechanisms for heavy metals or POPs toxicities, while phytonutrients counteracts these cellular insults by anti-oxidation, upregulation of anti-inflammatory pathways, and chelation.

  10. Laccase detoxification mediates the nutritional alliance between leaf-cutting ants and fungus-garden symbionts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik; Schiøtt, Morten; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2013-01-01

    of neotropical ecosystems has remained elusive. Here we show how coevolutionary adaptation of a specific enzyme in the fungal symbiont has helped leaf-cutting ants overcome plant defensive phenolic compounds. We identify nine putative laccase-coding genes in the fungal genome of Leucocoprinus gongylophorus....... Phylogenetic analysis of LgLcc1 ortholog sequences from symbiotic and free-living fungi revealed significant positive selection in the ancestral lineage that gave rise to the gongylidia-producing symbionts of leaf-cutting ants and their non-leaf-cutting ant sister group. Our results are consistent with fungal...... preadaptation and subsequent modification of a particular laccase enzyme for the detoxification of secondary plant compounds during the transition to active herbivory in the ancestor of leaf-cutting ants between 8 and 12 Mya....

  11. Synthesis, in vitro macrophage response and detoxification of bamboo charcoal beads for purifying blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Wen, Hsiao-Wei; Shyu, Chih-Liang; Chen, Szu-Hau; Li, Wen-Tyng; Wang, Wei-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2010-09-15

    Bamboo charcoal beads (BCBs) were formed by coprecipitating bamboo charcoal particles with chitosan in alkaline solution. The amount of chitosan in the BCBs and their surface properties were measured. When 13-52 mg BCBs were exposed to RAW 264.7 macrophages, the amount of nitric oxide released and the cell viability were close to those of the blank. The amount of cytokine IL-6 secreted by macrophages did not depend on the dose of BCBs but macrophages secreted more TNF-alpha in response to higher doses of BCBs. However, the cytokine levels were relatively low, suggesting the favorable biocompatibility of BCBs. In adsorption experiments, BCBs adsorbed and released bovine serum albumin at particular concentrations, whereas BCBs adsorbed L-phenylalanine without a sign of release. This difference is attributed to the hydrophilicity and the pore size of the BCBs. Finally, the potential of BCBs as biocompatible adsorbents in blood detoxification is considered. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. First and second line mechanisms of cadmium detoxification in the lichen photobiont Trebouxia impressa (Chlorophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanità di Toppi, L; Pawlik-Skowrońska, B; Vurro, E; Vattuone, Z; Kalinowska, R; Restivo, F M; Musetti, R; Skowroński, T

    2008-01-01

    "First line" defence mechanisms, such as phytochelatin biosynthesis, and "second line" mechanisms, such as stress protein induction, were investigated in cadmium-exposed cells of Trebouxia impressa Ahmadjian, a green microalgal species that is a common photobiont of the lichen Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Olivier. When T. impressa cells were exposed to 0, 9 and 18 microM Cd for 6, 18 and 48 h, glutathione and phytochelatins efficiently protected the cells against Cd damage. By contrast, the highest Cd concentration (36 microM) at the longest exposure-time (48 h) caused marked drops in glutathione and phytochelatin content, several types of ultrastructural damage, and decreases in cell density and total chlorophyll concentration. In this case, induction of stress proteins was observed, but only long after the induction of phytochelatins. Thus, stress proteins could represent a "second line" mechanism to counteract Cd stress, activated when there is a decline in the "first line" mechanism of Cd detoxification given by phytochelatins.

  13. A Seizure Attributed to Ofloxacine in a Woman Undergoing Detoxification for Alcohol Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Lahmek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report one case of seizure following administration of ofloxacin. Case Summary. A 38-year-old woman with alcohol dependence but no prior history of seizure disorder admitted in our inpatient alcohol detoxification program was prescribed ofloxacin four days after admission for a lower urinary tract infection. She was currently prescribed diazepam 30 mg per day. This treatment was continued without modification following admission. Forty eight hours after starting ofloxacin and after receiving five doses of oral ofloxacin, the patient experienced a seizure. Ofloxacin treatment was stopped and no further seizures occurred. Neurological examination of the patient, laboratory tests, computerized tomography with contrast enhancement and electroencephalography did not detect any abnormalities. Up to the last consultation, six months after admission, the patient has reported no recurrence of the seizure. Discussion. Quinolone antibiotics vary in their ability to induce seizures, with ofloxacin having one of the least potentials. In the present case, the seizure could be attributed in all probability to taking ofloxacin; since she had no previous history of seizures, she did not present an alcohol withdrawal syndrome, benzodiazepine treatment was not modified, the seizure occurred 48 h after taking ofloxacin, but seven days after stopping drinking, no alternative aetiologies for the seizure could be identified and no seizure recurrence was reported over the following seven months. Of reported cases of seizures in patients treated with fluoroquinolones, none concerned patients with alcohol dependence or patients treated with benzodiazepines. Conclusions. The present case alerts us to the possibility that seizures may occur in alcohol dependent patients treated with benzodiazepines who concomitantly prescribed a fluoroquinolone. These widely-used antibiotics should thus be prescribed with caution to patients undergoing detoxification for

  14. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases as a detoxification mechanism in insects: new insights from the arctiids (lepidoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Sehlmeyer

    Full Text Available Insects experience a wide array of chemical pressures from plant allelochemicals and pesticides and have developed several effective counterstrategies to cope with such toxins. Among these, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are crucial in plant-insect interactions. Flavin-dependent monooxygenases (FMOs seem not to play a central role in xenobiotic detoxification in insects, in contrast to mammals. However, the previously identified senecionine N-oxygenase of the arctiid moth Tyria jacobaeae (Lepidoptera indicates that FMOs have been recruited during the adaptation of this insect to plants that accumulate toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Identification of related FMO-like sequences of various arctiids and other Lepidoptera and their combination with expressed sequence tag (EST data and sequences emerging from the Bombyx mori genome project show that FMOs in Lepidoptera form a gene family with three members (FMO1 to FMO3. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that FMO3 is only distantly related to lepidopteran FMO1 and FMO2 that originated from a more recent gene duplication event. Within the FMO1 gene cluster, an additional gene duplication early in the arctiid lineage provided the basis for the evolution of the highly specific biochemical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations of these butterflies to pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-producing plants. The genes encoding pyrrolizidine-alkaloid-N-oxygenizing enzymes (PNOs are transcribed in the fat body and the head of the larvae. An N-terminal signal peptide mediates the transport of the soluble proteins into the hemolymph where PNOs efficiently convert pro-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids into their non-toxic N-oxide derivatives. Heterologous expression of a PNO of the generalist arctiid Grammia geneura produced an N-oxygenizing enzyme that shows noticeably expanded substrate specificity compared with the related enzyme of the specialist Tyria jacobaeae. The data about the evolution of FMOs within lepidopteran insects

  15. Zinc Detoxification: A Functional Genomics and Transcriptomics Analysis in Drosophila melanogaster Cultured Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E. Mohr

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cells require some metals, such as zinc and manganese, but excess levels of these metals can be toxic. As a result, cells have evolved complex mechanisms for maintaining metal homeostasis and surviving metal intoxication. Here, we present the results of a large-scale functional genomic screen in Drosophila cultured cells for modifiers of zinc chloride toxicity, together with transcriptomics data for wild-type or genetically zinc-sensitized cells challenged with mild zinc chloride supplementation. Altogether, we identified 47 genes for which knockdown conferred sensitivity or resistance to toxic zinc or manganese chloride treatment, and >1800 putative zinc-responsive genes. Analysis of the ‘omics data points to the relevance of ion transporters, glutathione (GSH-related factors, and conserved disease-associated genes in zinc detoxification. Specific genes identified in the zinc screen include orthologs of human disease-associated genes CTNS, PTPRN (also known as IA-2, and ATP13A2 (also known as PARK9. We show that knockdown of red dog mine (rdog; CG11897, a candidate zinc detoxification gene encoding an ABCC-type transporter family protein related to yeast cadmium factor (YCF1, confers sensitivity to zinc intoxication in cultured cells, and that rdog is transcriptionally upregulated in response to zinc stress. As there are many links between the biology of zinc and other metals and human health, the ‘omics data sets presented here provide a resource that will allow researchers to explore metal biology in the context of diverse health-relevant processes.

  16. Microcystin assimilation and detoxification by Daphnia spp. in two ecosystems of different cyanotoxin concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Wojtal-Frankiewicz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Microcystins (MCs, the main group of cyanotoxins, can induce oxidative stress in the cells of aquatic animals. This study evaluated the sensitivity of daphniids – from two ecosystems characterised by different trophic states and habitat levels of cyanobacteria abundance – to microcystin toxicity by analysing oxidative stress parameters and MC detoxification ability. As a study site, we chose the eutrophic Sulejow reservoir, which has regular annual toxic cyanobacterial blooms, and the mesotrophic lake Białe, where low abundances of cyanobacteria have only recently appeared. We found much higher accumulations of MCs in tissues of Daphnia spp. in lake Białe, despite low toxin concentrations in this ecosystem compared with the Sulejow reservoir. Simultaneously, high levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO and a significant decrease in glutathione (GSH were observed in daphniid cells in lake Białe, while LPO levels were generally lower and GSH concentration more stable in the Sulejow reservoir. Catalase activity, which reflects more efficient oxidative protection, was always significantly higher in the reservoir than in lake Białe. These results demonstrate that generations of daphniids from the Sulejow reservoir had more effective antioxidant systems protecting them against the accumulation of cyanobacterial toxins; thereby, they are less susceptible to toxic effects than the daphniids from lake Białe. However, the presence of conjugate forms of microcystins (MC-GSH and MC-Cys in tissues of the studied animals indicated the ability for MC detoxification by daphniids from the Sulejow reservoir and lake Białe. Nevertheless, the high effectiveness of antioxidant systems in daphniids coexisting with cyanobacteria for a long time in the Sulejow reservoir indicates the importance of a selective pressure exerted by toxic cyanobacterial strains that favours the most resistant daphniid genotypes.

  17. Biochemical strategies for the detection and detoxification of toxic chemicals in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febbraio, Ferdinando

    2017-02-26

    Addressing the problems related to the widespread presence of an increasing number of chemicals released into the environment by human activities represents one of the most important challenges of this century. In the last few years, to replace the high cost, in terms of time and money, of conventional technologies, the scientific community has directed considerable research towards the development both of new detection systems for the measurement of the contamination levels of chemicals in people's body fluids and tissue, as well as in the environment, and of new remediation strategies for the removal of such chemicals from the environment, as a means of the prevention of human diseases. New emerging biosensors for the analysis of environmental chemicals have been proposed, including VHH antibodies, that combine the antibody performance with the affinity for small molecules, genetically engineered microorganisms, aptamers and new highly stable enzymes. However, the advances in the field of chemicals monitoring are still far from producing a continuous real-time and on-line system for their detection. Better results have been obtained in the development of strategies which use organisms (microorganisms, plants and animals) or metabolic pathway-based approaches (single enzymes or more complex enzymatic solutions) for the fixation, degradation and detoxification of chemicals in the environment. Systems for enzymatic detoxification and degradation of toxic agents in wastewater from chemical and manufacturing industries, such as ligninolytic enzymes for the treatment of wastewater from the textile industry, have been proposed. Considering the high value of these research studies, in terms of the protection of human health and of the ecosystem, science must play a major role in guiding policy changes in this field.

  18. miR395 is involved in detoxification of cadmium in Brassica napus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liu Wei; Song, Jian Bo; Shu, Xia Xia; Zhang, Yun [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Yang, Zhi Min, E-mail: zmyang@njau.edu.cn [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Involvement of miR395 in sulfate uptake and assimilation in B. napus. ► miR395 regulation of Cd accumulation and distribution in B. napus. ► Depression of Cd-induced oxidative stress by miR395. -- Abstract: The toxic metal cadmium (Cd) constitutes one of the major inorganic contaminants in environments. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous non-coding small RNAs. miR395 is conserved and regulates sulfate assimilation and distribution in higher plants, but whether it is involved in detoxification of Cd in plants has not been described. In this study, transgenic rapeseed (Brassica napus) over-expressing miR395 was identified under Cd stress. miR395-over-expressing plants showed a lower degree of Cd-induced oxidative stress than wild type. By contrast, chlorophyll, glutathione and non-protein thiols contents were higher in the transformants than wild type. Determination of growth response showed that 35S::MIR395 plants accumulated higher levels of biomass and sulfur than wild type under Cd exposure. miR395 transgenic plants had higher levels of Cd in plants, particularly at the high supply of Cd in the medium, but they tended to repress Cd translocation from roots to shoots. Simultaneously, expression of metal-tolerance genes such as BnPCS1, BnHO1 and Sultr1;1 was up-regulated under Cd stress, and the expression of the genes was more pronounced in 35S::MIR395 plants than in wild type. These results suggest that miR395 would be involved in detoxification of Cd in B. napus.

  19. Effect of Yajieshaba, a preparation of Dai indigenous medicine, on enhanced liver detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaohua, Duan; Jin, Zheng; Hui, Wang; Haifeng, Cheng; Chao, Zhang; Zepu, Yu

    2015-04-01

    To explore the mechanistic effects of Yajieshaba (YJSB) on enhanced liver detoxification. The effects of YJSB on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were assayed in five acute chemical liver injury models [carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), D-galactosamine (D-Glan), 4-acetamidophenol (AAP), thioacetamide (TAA) and 1-naphthyl isothiocyanate (ANIT)]. Sleep latency and sleep time of pentobarbital sodium were tested in control mice and CCl4 model miceafter oral YJSB administration. The effects of YJSB on drug metabolism enzymes of liver microsomes were tested in control rats and CCl4 model rats. The levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and Cyt b5 in liver microsomes were assayed using the method by Omura and Sato, and activities of erythromycin N-demethylase (ERD) and aminopyrine N-demethyl (ADM) were evaluated by Nash colorimetry. Probe substrate-based high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were established for CYP3A4 and CYP1A2. The level of serum ALT was reduced by YJSB at 3.51 g/kg in the five models as follows: CCl4 > D-Glan, AAP, ANIT > TAA. YJSB treatment did not reduce the level of serum AST. YJSB at 3.51 g/kg prolonged the sleep latency in control mice and shortened the sleep time of control mice and CCl4 model mice. For control rats, YJSB at 2.43 g/kg increased the levels of CYP450 and Cyt b5 and induced the activities of ERD and ADM; for liver injuries induced by CCl4 in rats, YJSB at 2.43 g/kg increased the levels of CYP450 and Cyt b5. These results suggest that YJSB at 2.43 g/kg induces CYP3A4 and CYP1A2. These results suggest that YJSB enhanced liver detoxification and the mechanisms may be partially related to CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 induction.

  20. The Impact of Detoxification Costs and Predation Risk on Foraging: Implications for Mimicry Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelhorn, John; Rowe, Candy; Ruxton, Graeme D.; Higginson, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Prey often evolve defences to deter predators, such as noxious chemicals including toxins. Toxic species often advertise their defence to potential predators by distinctive sensory signals. Predators learn to associate toxicity with the signals of these so-called aposematic prey, and may avoid them in future. In turn, this selects for mildly toxic prey to mimic the appearance of more toxic prey. Empirical evidence shows that mimicry could be either beneficial (‘Mullerian’) or detrimental (‘quasi-Batesian’) to the highly toxic prey, but the factors determining which are unknown. Here, we use state-dependent models to explore how tri-trophic interactions could influence the evolution of prey defences. We consider how predation risk affects predators’ optimal foraging strategies on aposematic prey, and explore the resultant impact this has on mimicry dynamics between unequally defended species. In addition, we also investigate how the potential energetic cost of metabolising a toxin can alter the benefits to eating toxic prey and thus impact on predators’ foraging decisions. Our model predicts that both how predators perceive their own predation risk, and the cost of detoxification, can have significant, sometimes counterintuitive, effects on the foraging decisions of predators. For example, in some conditions predators should: (i) avoid prey they know to be undefended, (ii) eat more mildly toxic prey as detoxification costs increase, (iii) increase their intake of highly toxic prey as the abundance of undefended prey increases. These effects mean that the relationship between a mimic and its model can qualitatively depend on the density of alternative prey and the cost of metabolising toxins. In addition, these effects are mediated by the predators’ own predation risk, which demonstrates that, higher trophic levels than previously considered can have fundamental impacts on interactions among aposematic prey species. PMID:28045959

  1. Effective biotransformation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 by using aerobic bacterial granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Ashvini U; Paul, Dhiraj; Dhotre, Dhiraj; Kodam, Kisan M

    2017-10-01

    Treatment of textile wastewater containing anthraquinone dye is quite a huge challenge due to its complex aromatic structure and toxicity. Present study deals with the degradation and detoxification of anthraquinone dye reactive blue 4 using aerobic bacterial granules. Bacterial granules effectively decolorized reactive blue 4 at wide range of pH (4.0-11.0) and temperature (20-55 °C) as well as decolorized and tolerated high concentration of reactive blue 4 dye upto 1000 mg l-1 with Vmax 6.16 ± 0.82 mg l-1 h-1 and Km 227 ± 41 mg l-1. Metagenomics study evaluates important role of Clostridia, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacterial members in biotransformation and tolerance of high concentrations of reactive blue 4 dye. Up-regulation of xenobiotic degradation and environmental information processing pathways during dye exposure signifies their noteworthy role in dye degradation. Biotransformation of dye was confirmed by significant decrease in the values of total suspended solids, biological and chemical oxygen demand. The metabolites formed after biotransformation was characterized by FT-IR and GC-MS analysis. The reactive blue 4 dye was found to be phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic whereas its biotransformed product were non-toxic. This study comprehensively illustrates that, bacterial aerobic granules can be used for eco-friendly remediation and detoxification of wastewater containing high organic load of anthraquinone dye. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A food-grade enzyme preparation with modest gluten detoxification properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ehren

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Celiac sprue is a life-long disease characterized by an intestinal inflammatory response to dietary gluten. A gluten-free diet is an effective treatment for most patients, but accidental ingestion of gluten is common, leading to incomplete recovery or relapse. Food-grade proteases capable of detoxifying moderate quantities of dietary gluten could mitigate this problem.We evaluated the gluten detoxification properties of two food-grade enzymes, aspergillopepsin (ASP from Aspergillus niger and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV from Aspergillus oryzae. The ability of each enzyme to hydrolyze gluten was tested against synthetic gluten peptides, a recombinant gluten protein, and simulated gastric digests of whole gluten and whole-wheat bread. Reaction products were analyzed by mass spectrometry, HPLC, ELISA with a monoclonal antibody that recognizes an immunodominant gluten epitope, and a T cell proliferation assay.ASP markedly enhanced gluten digestion relative to pepsin, and cleaved recombinant alpha2-gliadin at multiple sites in a non-specific manner. When used alone, neither ASP nor DPPIV efficiently cleaved synthetic immunotoxic gluten peptides. This lack of specificity for gluten was especially evident in the presence of casein, a competing dietary protein. However, supplementation of ASP with DPPIV enabled detoxification of moderate amounts of gluten in the presence of excess casein and in whole-wheat bread. ASP was also effective at enhancing the gluten-detoxifying efficacy of cysteine endoprotease EP-B2 under simulated gastric conditions.Clinical studies are warranted to evaluate whether a fixed dose ratio combination of ASP and DPPIV can provide near-term relief for celiac patients suffering from inadvertent gluten exposure. Due to its markedly greater hydrolytic activity against gluten than endogenous pepsin, food-grade ASP may also augment the activity of therapeutically relevant doses of glutenases such as EP-B2 and certain prolyl

  3. Raphasatin is a more potent inducer of the detoxification enzymes than its degradation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Chris; Eshelman, Bruce D; Barnes, David M; Hanlon, Paul R

    2011-04-01

    The biological activity of cruciferous vegetables is hypothesized to be due to the metabolites of a class of phytochemicals called glucosinolates. The chemical properties of these metabolites, including isothiocyanates, determine the biological activity of these compounds and thus their effects on human health. The 2 primary radish (Raphanus sativus L.) glucosinolates, glucoraphasatin, and glucoraphenin, were isolated using solid phase extraction followed by preparative HPLC purification. In an aqueous environment, 77.6% of the maximum amount of sulforaphene produced by the metabolism of glucoraphenin was present after 24 h. Under the same conditions raphasatin, the isothiocyanate metabolite of glucoraphasatin and the oxidized counterpart of sulforaphene, was highly unstable with a half-life of less than 30 min and no raphasatin was detectable after 24 h. In HepG2 cells, raphasatin-induced quinone reductase activity and the RNA expression of several phase 1 and 2 detoxification enzymes by a significantly greater amount than the degradation products of raphasatin. Raphasatin, but not its degradation products, activated the antioxidant response element (ARE) in a stably-transfected reporter cell line. Mice fed a diet consisting of 20% freeze dried radishes for 2 wk had significantly higher liver expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, 1A2, quinone reductase, microsomal epoxide hydrolase, and glutathione S-transferase α2 than mice fed a nutritionally-matched control diet.   Glucoraphasatin, the primary glucosinolate in radishes, is metabolized into an isothiocyanate (raphasatin) that has biological activity but is also unstable in an aqueous environment. Despite the instability of raphasatin, dietary exposure to radishes produced significant induction of detoxification enzymes. Understanding the chemical properties of raphasatin, both in terms of biological activity and instability, could help develop processing methods to retain the most activity from radishes

  4. Detoxification of Atrazine by Low Molecular Weight Thiols in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing Jing; Xu, Jiang Yan; Lu, Feng Fan; Jin, She Feng; Yang, Hong

    2017-10-16

    Low molecular weight (LMW) thiols in higher plants are a group of sulfur-rich nonprotein compounds and play primary and multiple roles in cellular redox homeostasis, enzyme activities, and xenobiotics detoxification. This study focused on identifying thiols-related protein genes from the legume alfalfa exposed to the herbicide atrazine (ATZ) residues in environment. Using high-throughput RNA-sequencing, a set of ATZ-responsive thiols-related protein genes highly up-regulated and differentially expressed in alfalfa was identified. Most of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were involved in regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses. By analyzing the genes involved in thiols-mediated redox homeostasis, we found that many of them were thiols-synthetic enzymes such as γ-glutamylcysteine synthase (γECS), homoglutathione synthetase (hGSHS), and glutathione synthetase (GSHS). Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), we further characterized a group of ATZ-thiols conjugates, which are the detoxified forms of ATZ in plants. Cysteine S-conjugate ATZ-HCl+Cys was the most important metabolite detected by MS. Several other ATZ-conjugates were also examined as ATZ-detoxified metabolites. Such results were validated by characterizing their analogs in rice. Our data showed that some conjugates under ATZ stress were detected in both plants, indicating that some detoxified mechanisms and pathways can be shared by the two plant species. Overall, these results indicate that LMW thiols play critical roles in detoxification of ATZ in the plants.

  5. Strategies for enzyme saving during saccharification of pretreated lignocellulo-starch biomass: effect of enzyme dosage and detoxification chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithra, M G; Padmaja, G

    2017-08-01

    Two strategies leading to enzyme saving during saccharification of pretreated lignocellulo-starch biomass (LCSB) was investigated which included reducing enzyme dosage by varying their levels in enzyme cocktails and enhancing the fermentable sugar yield in enzyme-reduced systems using detoxification chemicals. Time course release of reducing sugars (RS) during 24-120 h was significantly higher when an enzyme cocktail containing full dose of cellulase (16 FPU/g cellulose) along with half dose each of xylanase (1.5 mg protein/g hemicelluloses) and Stargen (12.5 μl/g biomass) was used to saccharify conventional dilute sulphuric acid (DSA) pretreated biomass compared to a parallel system where only one-fourth the dose of the latter two enzymes was used. The reduction in RS content in the 120 h saccharified mash to the extent of 3-4 g/L compared to the system saccharified with full complement of the three enzymes could be overcome considerably by supplementing the system (half dose of two enzymes) with detoxification chemical mix incorporating Tween 20, PEG 4000 and sodium borohydride. Microwave (MW)-assisted DSA pretreated biomass on saccharification with enzyme cocktail having full dose of cellulase and half dose of Stargen along with detoxification chemicals gave significantly higher RS yield than DSA pretreated system saccharified using three enzymes. The study showed that xylanase could be eliminated during saccharification of MW-assisted DSA pretreated biomass without affecting RS yield when detoxification chemicals were also supplemented. The Saccharification Efficiency and Overall Conversion Efficiency were also high for the MW-assisted DSA pretreated biomass. Since whole slurry saccharifcation of pretreated biomass is essential to conserve fermentable sugars in LCSB saccharification, detoxification of soluble inhibitors is equally important as channelling out of insoluble lignin remaining in the residue. As one of the major factors contributing to the cost of

  6. Strategies for enzyme saving during saccharification of pretreated lignocellulo-starch biomass: effect of enzyme dosage and detoxification chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Mithra

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Two strategies leading to enzyme saving during saccharification of pretreated lignocellulo-starch biomass (LCSB was investigated which included reducing enzyme dosage by varying their levels in enzyme cocktails and enhancing the fermentable sugar yield in enzyme-reduced systems using detoxification chemicals. Time course release of reducing sugars (RS during 24–120 h was significantly higher when an enzyme cocktail containing full dose of cellulase (16 FPU/g cellulose along with half dose each of xylanase (1.5 mg protein/g hemicelluloses and Stargen (12.5 μl/g biomass was used to saccharify conventional dilute sulphuric acid (DSA pretreated biomass compared to a parallel system where only one-fourth the dose of the latter two enzymes was used. The reduction in RS content in the 120 h saccharified mash to the extent of 3–4 g/L compared to the system saccharified with full complement of the three enzymes could be overcome considerably by supplementing the system (half dose of two enzymes with detoxification chemical mix incorporating Tween 20, PEG 4000 and sodium borohydride. Microwave (MW-assisted DSA pretreated biomass on saccharification with enzyme cocktail having full dose of cellulase and half dose of Stargen along with detoxification chemicals gave significantly higher RS yield than DSA pretreated system saccharified using three enzymes. The study showed that xylanase could be eliminated during saccharification of MW-assisted DSA pretreated biomass without affecting RS yield when detoxification chemicals were also supplemented. The Saccharification Efficiency and Overall Conversion Efficiency were also high for the MW-assisted DSA pretreated biomass. Since whole slurry saccharifcation of pretreated biomass is essential to conserve fermentable sugars in LCSB saccharification, detoxification of soluble inhibitors is equally important as channelling out of insoluble lignin remaining in the residue. As one of the major factors contributing

  7. Stress-related phenomena and detoxification mechanisms induced by common pharmaceuticals in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christou, Anastasis [Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 22016, 1516 Nicosia (Cyprus); Antoniou, Chrystalla; Christodoulou, Charalampia [Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, 3603 Lemesos (Cyprus); Hapeshi, Evroula; Stavrou, Ioannis; Michael, Costas [NIREAS-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Fatta-Kassinos, Despo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); NIREAS-International Water Research Center, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Fotopoulos, Vasileios, E-mail: vassilis.fotopoulos@cut.ac.cy [Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, 3603 Lemesos (Cyprus)

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been recently shown to exert phytotoxic effects. The present study explores the uptake, systemic translocation, and abiotic stress responses and detoxification mechanisms induced by the exposure of alfalfa plants grown in sand under greenhouse conditions to four common, individually applied PhACs (10 μg L{sup −1}) (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, 17a-ethinylestradiol) and their mixture. Stress physiology markers (lipid peroxidation, proline, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and NO content, antioxidant activity assays) and gene expression levels of key plant detoxification components (including glutathione S-transferases, GST7, GST17; superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD, FeSOD; proton pump, H{sup +}-ATP, and cytochrome c oxidase, CytcOx), were evaluated. PhACs were detected in significantly higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. Stress related effects, manifested via membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative burst, were local (roots) rather than systemic (leaves), and exacerbated when the tested PhACs were applied in mixture. Systemic accumulation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in leaves suggests its involvement in signal transduction and detoxification responses. Increased antioxidant enzymatic activities, as well as upregulated transcript levels of GST7, GST17, H{sup +}-ATPase and CytcOx, propose their role in the detoxification of the selected PhACs in plants. The current findings provide novel biochemical and molecular evidence highlighting the studied PhACs as an emerging abiotic stress factor, and point the need for further research on wastewater flows under natural agricultural environments. - Highlights: • PhACs were detected in higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. • Stress effects were local and exacerbated when PhACs were applied in mixture. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} may be involved in signal transduction and detoxification responses. • GSTs, H{sup +}-ATPase and CytcOx contribute to the

  8. Detoxification of multiple heavy metals by a half-molecule ABC transporter, HMT-1, and coelomocytes of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc S Schwartz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developing methods for protecting organisms in metal-polluted environments is contingent upon our understanding of cellular detoxification mechanisms. In this regard, half-molecule ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters of the HMT-1 subfamily are required for cadmium (Cd detoxification. HMTs have conserved structural architecture that distinguishes them from other ABC transporters and allows the identification of homologs in genomes of different species including humans. We recently discovered that HMT-1 from the simple, unicellular organism, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, SpHMT1, acts independently of phytochelatin synthase (PCS and detoxifies Cd, but not other heavy metals. Whether HMTs from multicellular organisms confer tolerance only to Cd or also to other heavy metals is not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using molecular genetics approaches and functional in vivo assays we showed that HMT-1 from a multicellular organism, Caenorhabditis elegans, functions distinctly from its S. pombe counterpart in that in addition to Cd it confers tolerance to arsenic (As and copper (Cu while acting independently of pcs-1. Further investigation of hmt-1 and pcs-1 revealed that these genes are expressed in different cell types, supporting the notion that hmt-1 and pcs-1 operate in distinct detoxification pathways. Interestingly, pcs-1 and hmt-1 are co-expressed in highly endocytic C. elegans cells with unknown function, the coelomocytes. By analyzing heavy metal and oxidative stress sensitivities of the coelomocyte-deficient C. elegans strain we discovered that coelomocytes are essential mainly for detoxification of heavy metals, but not of oxidative stress, a by-product of heavy metal toxicity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We established that HMT-1 from the multicellular organism confers tolerance to multiple heavy metals and is expressed in liver-like cells, the coelomocytes, as well as head neurons and intestinal cells, which are cell types

  9. The probability distribution of side-chain conformations in [Leu] and [Met]enkephalin determines the potency and selectivity to mu and delta opiate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert; Jensen, Morten Østergaard; Bohr, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The structure of enkephalin, a small neuropeptide with five amino acids, has been simulated on computers using molecular dynamics. Such simulations exhibit a few stable conformations, which also have been identified experimentally. The simulations provide the possibility to perform cluster analysis...... in the space defined by potentially pharmacophoric measures such as dihedral angles, side-chain orientation, etc. By analyzing the statistics of the resulting clusters, the probability distribution of the side-chain conformations may be determined. These probabilities allow us to predict the selectivity...... of [Leu]enkephalin and [Met]enkephalin to the known mu- and delta-type opiate receptors to which they bind as agonists. Other plausible consequences of these probability distributions are discussed in relation to the way in which they may influence the dynamics of the synapse....

  10. Modulation of adenylate cyclase activity by a cytosolic factor following chronic opiate exposure in neuroblastoma x glioma NG108-15 hybrid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, M T; Law, P Y; Loh, H H

    1983-01-01

    A soluble cytosolic factor from neuroblastoma x glioma NG108-15 hybrid cells stimulates adenylate cyclase activity in isolated membrane preparations. This cytosolic component is heat stable, pronase insensitive, has a molecular weight less than 350 daltons and an absorbance peak at 260 nm. The stimulation is immediate, independent of Ca++ and exhibits a sigmoidal concentration dependency curve. The cytosolic factor stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in etorphine treated cells (100 nM etorphine, 16 hrs) to a greater extent than in control cells. In addition, cytosolic factor derived from etorphine treated cells, as compared to control cells, displayed an increased capacity to stimulate adenylate cyclase. It is suggested that the observed cytosolic factor may be adenosine and that cells chronically treated with an opiate exhibit an increase in both concentration and sensitivity to this agent.

  11. Dye decolorization and detoxification potential of Ca-alginate beads immobilized manganese peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad

    2015-12-10

    In view of compliance with increasingly stringent environmental legislation, an eco-friendly treatment technology of industrial dyes and effluents is a major environmental challenge in the color industry. In present study, a promising and eco-friendly entrapment approach was adopted to immobilize purified manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced from an indigenous strain of Ganoderma lucidum IBL-05 on Ca-alginate beads. The immobilized MnP was subsequently used for enhanced decolorization and detoxification of textile reactive dyes). MnP isolated from solid-state culture of G. lucidum IBL-05, presented highest immobilization yield (83.9 %) using alginate beads prepared at optimized conditions of 4 % (w/v) sodium alginate, 2 % (w/v) Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and 0.5 mg/ml enzyme concentration. Immobilization of MnP enhanced optimum temperature but caused acidic shift in optimum pH of the enzyme. The immobilized MnP showed optimum activity at pH 4.0 and 60 °C as compared to pH 5.0 and 35 °C for free enzyme. The kinetic parameters K(m) and V(max) of MnP were significantly improved by immobilization. The enhanced catalytic potential of immobilized MnP led to 87.5 %, 82.1 %, 89.4 %, 95.7 % and 83 % decolorization of Sandal-fix Red C4BLN, Sandal-fix Turq Blue GWF, Sandal-fix Foron Blue E2BLN, Sandal-fix Black CKF and Sandal-fix Golden Yellow CRL dyes, respectively. The insolubilized MnP was reusable for 7 repeated cycles in dye color removal. Furthermore, immobilized MnP also caused a significant reduction in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (94.61-95.47 %), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (91.18-94.85 %), and total organic carbon (TOC) (89.58-95 %) of aqueous dye solutions. G. lucidum MnP was immobilized in Ca-alginate beads by entrapment method to improve its practical effectiveness. Ca-alginate bound MnP was catalytically more vigorous, thermo-stable, reusable and worked over wider ranges of pH and temperature as compared to its free counterpart. Results of cytotoxicity like

  12. Acute detoxification of opioid-addicted patients with naloxone during propofol or methohexital anesthesia: a comparison of withdrawal symptoms, neuroendocrine, metabolic, and cardiovascular patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienbaum, P.; Scherbaum, N.; Thürauf, N.; Michel, M. C.; Gastpar, M.; Peters, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mu-Opioid receptor blockade during general anesthesia is a new treatment for detoxification of opioid addicted patients. We assessed catecholamine plasma concentrations, oxygen consumption, cardiovascular variables, and withdrawal symptoms after naloxone and tested the hypothesis that

  13. In situ dynamics of O2, pH and cyanobacterial transcripts associated with CCM, photosynthesis and detoxification of ROS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sheila I; Steunou, Anne-Soisig; Bhaya, Devaki

    2011-01-01

    The relative abundance of transcripts encoding proteins involved in inorganic carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCM), detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and photosynthesis in the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus OS-B' was measured in hot spring microbial mats over two diel...

  14. Disability, anxiety and depression associated with medication-overuse headache can be considerably reduced by detoxification and prophylactic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, L; Munksgaard, Sb; Tassorelli, C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to investigate whether headache-related disability, depression and anxiety can be reduced by detoxification and prophylactic treatment in patients with medication-overuse headache (MOH). METHODS: Patients with MOH were included from six centres in Europe...... to 96 and number of those with anxiety was reduced by 27.1% from 284 to 207 (both P anxiety were considerably reduced in patients with MOH by detoxification and prophylactic treatment. This emphasises the urgent need for increased awareness about...... and Latin America in a seven-month cohort study. Before and six months after treatment, the degree of disability was measured by the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire, while anxiety and depression were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). RESULTS: A total of 694...

  15. High titer gluconic acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger from dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover without detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongsen; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2016-03-01

    This study reported a high titer gluconic acid fermentation using dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover (DDAP) hydrolysate without detoxification. The selected fermenting strain Aspergillus niger SIIM M276 was capable of inhibitor degradation thus no detoxification on pretreated corn stover was required. Parameters of gluconic acid fermentation in corn stover hydrolysate were optimized in flasks and in fermentors to achieve 76.67 g/L gluconic acid with overall yield of 94.91%. The sodium gluconate obtained from corn stover was used as additive for extending setting time of cement mortar and similar function was obtained with starch based sodium gluconate. This study provided the first high titer gluconic acid production from lignocellulosic feedstock with potential of industrial applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stress-related phenomena and detoxification mechanisms induced by common pharmaceuticals in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Anastasis; Antoniou, Chrystalla; Christodoulou, Charalampia; Hapeshi, Evroula; Stavrou, Ioannis; Michael, Costas; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been recently shown to exert phytotoxic effects. The present study explores the uptake, systemic translocation, and abiotic stress responses and detoxification mechanisms induced by the exposure of alfalfa plants grown in sand under greenhouse conditions to four common, individually applied PhACs (10μgL(-1)) (diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, 17a-ethinylestradiol) and their mixture. Stress physiology markers (lipid peroxidation, proline, H2O2 and NO content, antioxidant activity assays) and gene expression levels of key plant detoxification components (including glutathione S-transferases, GST7, GST17; superoxide dismutases, CuZnSOD, FeSOD; proton pump, H(+)-ATP, and cytochrome c oxidase, CytcOx), were evaluated. PhACs were detected in significantly higher concentrations in roots compared with leaves. Stress related effects, manifested via membrane lipid peroxidation and oxidative burst, were local (roots) rather than systemic (leaves), and exacerbated when the tested PhACs were applied in mixture. Systemic accumulation of H2O2 in leaves suggests its involvement in signal transduction and detoxification responses. Increased antioxidant enzymatic activities, as well as upregulated transcript levels of GST7, GST17, H(+)-ATPase and CytcOx, propose their role in the detoxification of the selected PhACs in plants. The current findings provide novel biochemical and molecular evidence highlighting the studied PhACs as an emerging abiotic stress factor, and point the need for further research on wastewater flows under natural agricultural environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Resistance to coumaphos and diazinon in Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) and evidence for the involvement of an oxidative detoxification mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Andrew Y; Davey, Ronald B; Miller, Robert J; George, John E

    2003-07-01

    The levels of resistance to two organophosphate acaricides, coumaphos and diazinon, in several Mexican strains of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) were evaluated using the FAO larval packet test. Regression analysis of LC50 data revealed a significant cross-resistance pattern between those two acaricides. Metabolic mechanisms of resistance were investigated with synergist bioassays. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) reduced coumaphos toxicity in susceptible strains, but synergized coumaphos toxicity in resistant strains. There was a significant correlation between PBO synergism ratios and the coumaphos resistance ratios. The results suggest that an enhanced cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (cytP450)-mediated detoxification mechanism may exist in the resistant strains, in addition to the cytP450-mediated metabolic pathway that activates coumaphos. PBO failed to synergize diazinon toxicity in resistant strains, suggesting the cytP450 involved in detoxification were specific. Triphenylphosphate (TPP) synergized toxicity of both acaricides in both susceptible and resistant strains, and there was no correlation between TPP synergism ratios and the LC50 estimates for either acaricide. Esterases may not play a major role in resistance to coumaphos and diazinon in those strains. Bioassays with diethyl maleate (DEM) revealed a significant correlation between DEM synergism ratios and LC50 estimates for diazinon, suggesting a possible role for glutathione S-transferases in diazinon detoxification. Resistance to coumaphos in the Mexican strains of B. microplus was likely to be conferred by both a cytP450-mediated detoxification mechanism described here and the mechanism of insensitive acetylcholinesterases reported elsewhere. The results of this study also underscore the potential risk of coumaphos resistance in B. microplus from Mexico to the U.S. cattle fever tick eradication program.

  18. The Role of Oxophytodienoate Reductases in the Detoxification of the Explosive 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene by Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    detoxification in plants. To further elucidate this, we used microarray analysis to identify Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) genes up-regulated by exposure... Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OPR1 removed TNT more quickly from liquid culture, produced increased levels of transformation products, and...Mezzari et al., 2005) have found that members of the small gene family of oxophyto- dienoate reductases (OPRs) in Arabidopsis (Arabidop- sis thaliana

  19. Detoxification of Abrus precatorius L. seeds by Ayurvedic Shodhana process and anti-inflammatory potential of the detoxified extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhoble, Sagar B.; Majumdar, Anuradha S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abrus precatorius seeds traditionally used for the treatment of sciatica and alopecia contains the toxic protein, abrin, a Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein. Ayurveda recommends the use of Abrus seeds after the Shodhana process (detoxification). Objective: The current study was aimed at performing the Shodhana process, swedana (boiling) of Abrus precatorius seeds using water as a medium and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of seed extract post detoxification. Materials and Methods: Non-detoxified and detoxified extracts were prepared and subsequently subjected to various in vitro and in vivo assays. In hemagglutination assay, the non-detoxified extract shows higher agglutination of RBCs than detoxified extract indicating riddance of toxic hemagglutinating proteins by Shodhana. This was confirmed by the SDSPAGE analysis of detoxified extract revealing the absence of abrin band in detoxified extract when compared to non-detoxified extract. Results: The cytotoxicity assay in HeLa cell line expresses a higher reduction in growth percentage of the cells with non-detoxified extract as compared to detoxified extract indicating successful detoxification. Brine shrimp lethality test indicated the reduction in toxicity index of detoxified extract as compared to non-detoxified extract. Further, the whole body apoptosis assay in zebrafish revealed that percentage of viable cells were greater for detoxified extract than non-detoxified extract. The anti-inflammatory studies using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats was carried out on the extracts with doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, per oral, where the detoxified extract exhibited significant inhibition of rat paw edema at both the doses comparable to that of Diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Absence of toxicity and the retention of the anti-inflammatory activity of detoxified Abrus seed extract confirmed that the Swedana process is effective in carrying out the detoxification without affecting

  20. Predicting Inpatient Detoxification Outcome of Alcohol and Drug Dependent Patients: The Influence of Sociodemographic Environment, Motivation, Impulsivity, and Medical Comorbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Yvonne Sofin; Heidi Danker-Hopfe; Tina Gooren; Peter Neu

    2017-01-01

    Aims. This prospective study aims to identify patient characteristics as predictors for treatment outcome during inpatient detoxification treatment for drug and alcohol dependent patients. Methods. A mixed gender sample of 832 consecutively admitted drug and alcohol dependent patients were interviewed by an experienced physician. The impact of a variety of factors concerning social environment, therapy motivation, impulsivity related variables, medical history, and addiction severity on treat...

  1. Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families.

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    Nena Pavlidi

    Full Text Available The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630 were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology.

  2. Differential antioxidant defense and detoxification mechanisms in photodynamically stressed rice plants treated with the deregulators of porphyrin biosynthesis, 5-aminolevulinic acid and oxyfluorfen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phung, Thu-Ha; Jung, Sunyo, E-mail: sjung@knu.ac.kr

    2015-04-03

    This study focuses on differential molecular mechanisms of antioxidant and detoxification systems in rice plants under two different types of photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and oxyfluorfen (OF). The ALA-treated plants with white necrosis exhibited a greater decrease in photochemical quantum efficiency, F{sub v}/F{sub m}, as well as a greater increase in activity of superoxide dismutase, compared to the OF-treated plants. By contrast, the brown necrosis in OF-treated plants resulted in not only more widely dispersed H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production and greater increases in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-decomposing enzymes, catalase and peroxidase, but also lower ascorbate redox state. In addition, ALA- and OF-treated plants markedly up-regulated transcript levels of genes involved in detoxification processes including transport and movement, cellular homeostasis, and xenobiotic conjugation, with prominent up-regulation of serine/threonine kinase and chaperone only in ALA-treated plants. Our results demonstrate that different photodynamic stress imposed by ALA and OF developed differential actions of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification. Particularly, detoxification system may play potential roles in plant protection against photodynamic stress imposed by porphyrin deregulators, thereby contributing to alleviation of photodynamic damage. - Highlights: • We employ two different types of photodynamic stress, white and brown necrosis. • We examine molecular mechanisms of antioxidative and detoxification systems. • ALA and OF develop differential actions of antioxidant and detoxification systems. • Coordinated mechanism of antioxidants and detoxification works against toxic ROS. • Detoxification system plays critical roles in protection against photodynamic stress.

  3. Detoxification of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Maize by Neutral Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Jardon-Xicotencatl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, a group of extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, can occur as natural contaminants of certain agricultural commodities, particularly maize. These toxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and cause severe human and animal diseases. The effectiveness of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW on aflatoxin detoxification was investigated in HepG2 cells using several validation methodologies such as the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the induction of lipid peroxidation, the oxidative damage by means of glutathione modulation, the Ames test and the alkaline Comet assay. Our results showed that, after the aflatoxin-contaminated maize containing 360 ng/g was soaked in NEW (60 mg/L available chlorine, pH 7.01 during 15 min at room temperature, the aflatoxin content did not decrease as confirmed by the immunoaffinity column and ultra performance liquid chromatography methods. Aflatoxin fluorescence strength of detoxified samples was similar to untreated samples. However, aflatoxin-associated cytotoxicity and OPEN ACCESS Toxins 2015, 7 4295 genotoxicity effects were markedly reduced upon treatment. According to these results, NEW can be effectively used to detoxify aflatoxin-contaminated maize.

  4. Cyanide detoxification in an insect herbivore: Molecular identification of β-cyanoalanine synthases from Pieris rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ohlen, Maike; Herfurth, Anna-Maria; Kerbstadt, Henrike; Wittstock, Ute

    2016-03-01

    Cyanogenic compounds occur widely in the plant kingdom. Therefore, many herbivores are adapted to the presence of these compounds in their diet by either avoiding cyanide release or by efficient cyanide detoxification mechanisms. The mechanisms of adaptation are not fully understood. Larvae of Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) are specialist herbivores on glucosinolate-containing plants. They are exposed to cyanide during metabolism of phenylacetonitrile, a product of benzylglucosinolate breakdown catalyzed by plant myrosinases and larval nitrile-specifier protein (NSP) in the gut. Cyanide is metabolized to β-cyanoalanine and thiocyanate in the larvae. Here, we demonstrate that larvae of P. rapae possess β-cyanoalanine activity in their gut. We have identified three gut-expressed cDNAs designated PrBSAS1-PrBSAS3 which encode proteins with similarity to β-substituted alanine synthases (BSAS). Characterization of recombinant PrBSAS1-PrBSAS3 shows that they possess β-cyanoalanine activity. In phylogenetic trees, PrBSAS1-PrBSAS3, the first characterized insect BSAS, group together with a characterized mite β-cyanoalanine synthase and bacterial enzymes indicating a similar evolutionary history. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA damage induced by hydroquinone can be prevented by fungal detoxification

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    Pedro Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroquinone is a benzene metabolite with a wide range of industrial applications, which has potential for widespread human exposure; however, the toxicity of hydroquinone on human cells remains unclear. The aims of this study are to investigate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of hydroquinone in human primary fibroblasts and human colon cancer cells (HCT116. Low doses of hydroquinone (227-454 μM reduce the viability of fibroblasts and HCT116 cells, determined by resazurin conversion, and induce genotoxic damage (DNA strand breaks, as assessed by alkaline comet assays. Bioremediation may provide an excellent alternative to promote the degradation of hydroquinone, however few microorganisms are known that efficiently degrade it. Here we also investigate the capacity of a halotolerant fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum var. halophenolicum, to remove hydroquinone toxicity under hypersaline condition. The fungus is able to tolerate high concentrations of hydroquinone and can reverse these noxious effects via degradation of hydroquinone to completion, even when the initial concentration of this compound is as high as 7265 μM. Our findings reveal that P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum efficiently degrade hydroquinone under hypersaline conditions, placing this fungus among the best candidates for the detoxification of habitats contaminated with this aromatic compound.

  6. Dietary resources shape the adaptive changes of cyanide detoxification function in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Yie, Shangmian; Liu, Yuliang; Wang, Chengdong; Cai, Zhigang; Zhang, Wenping; Lan, Jingchao; Huang, Xiangming; Luo, Li; Cai, Kailai; Hou, Rong; Zhang, Zhihe

    2016-10-05

    The functional adaptive changes in cyanide detoxification in giant panda appear to be response to dietary transition from typical carnivore to herbivorous bear. We tested the absorption of cyanide contained in bamboo/bamboo shoots with a feeding trial in 20 adult giant pandas. We determined total cyanide content in bamboo shoots and giant panda's feces, levels of urinary thiocyanate and tissue rhodanese activity using color reactions with a spectrophotometer. Rhodanese expression in liver and kidney at transcription and translation levels were measured using real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We compared differences of rhodanese activity and gene expressions among giant panda, rabbit (herbivore) and cat (carnivore), and between newborn and adult giant pandas. Bamboo shoots contained 3.2 mg/kg of cyanide and giant pandas absorbed more than 65% of cyanide. However, approximately 80% of absorbed cyanide was metabolized to less toxic thiocyanate that was discharged in urine. Rhodanese expression and activity in liver and kidney of giant panda were significantly higher than in cat, but lower than in rabbit (all P pandas were higher than that in newborn cub. Phylogenetic analysis of both nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the rhodanese gene supported a closer relationship of giant panda with carnivores than with herbivores.

  7. Do heavy metals and metalloids influence the detoxification of organic xenobiotics in plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Peter; Lyubenova, Lyudmila; Huber, Christian

    2009-11-01

    Mixed pollution with trace elements and organic industrial compounds is characteristic for many spill areas and dumping sites. The danger for the environment and human health from such sites is large, and sustainable remediation strategies are urgently needed. Phytoremediation seems to be a cheap and environmentally sound option for the removal of unwanted compounds, and the hyperaccumulation of trace elements and toxic metals is seemingly independent from the metabolism of organic xenobiotics. However, stress reactions, ROS formation and depletion of antioxidants will also cause alterations in xenobiotic detoxification. Here, we investigate the capability of plants to detoxify chlorophenols via glutathione conjugation in a mixed pollution situation. Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis plants for the present study were grown under greenhouse conditions in experimental ponds. A Picea abies L. suspension culture was grown in a growth chamber. Cadmium sulphate, sodium arsenate and lead chloride in concentrations from 10 to 500 microM were administered to plants. Enzymes of interest for the present study were: glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidase. Measurements were performed according to published methods. GST spectrophotometric assays included the model substrates CDNB, DCNB, NBC, NBoC and the herbicide Fluorodifen. Heavy metals lead to visible stress symptoms in higher plants. Besides one long-term experiment of 72 days duration, the present study shows time and concentration-dependent plant alterations already after 24 and 72 h Cd incubation. P. abies spruce cell cultures react to CdSO(4) and Na(2)HAsO(4) with an oxidative burst, similar to that observed after pathogen attack or elicitor treatment. Cd application resulted in a reduction in GSH and GSSG contents. When a heavy metal mixture containing Na(2)HAsO(4), CdSO(4) and PbCl(2) was applied to cultures, both GSH and GSSG levels declined. Incubation with

  8. Phenolic extract of Dialium guineense pulp enhances reactive oxygen species detoxification in aflatoxin B₁ hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleye, Abdulwasiu O; Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Iliasu, Ganiyat A; Abdussalam, Folakemi A; Balogun, Abdulazeez; Ojewuyi, Oluwayemisi B; Yakubu, Musa T

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of Dialium guineense pulp phenolic extract on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced oxidative imbalance in rat liver. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging potentials of free and bound phenolic extract of D. guineense (0.2-1.0 mg/mL) were investigated in vitro using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide ion (O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical, and ferric ion reducing system. In the in vivo study, 35 animals were randomized into seven groups of five rats each. Free and bound phenolic extract (1 mg/mL) produced 66.42% and 93.08%, 57.1% and 86.0%, 62.0% and 90.05%, and 60.11% and 72.37% scavenging effect on DPPH radical, O2(-) radical, H2O2, and hydroxyl radical, while ferric ion was significantly reduced. An AFB1-mediated decrease in the activities of ROS detoxifying enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase) was significantly attenuated (P<.05). AFB1-mediated elevation in the concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers; malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl, and percentage DNA fragmentation were significantly lowered by D. guineense phenolic extract (P<.05). Overall, the in vitro and in vivo effects suggest that D. guineense phenolic extract elicited ROS scavenging and detoxification potentials, as well as the capability of preventing lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA fragmentation.

  9. Chromium (VI) detoxification by oxidation and flocculation of exopolysaccharides from Arthrobacter sp. B4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yumei; Li, Qiang; Fengying, Yang; Bao, Jie; Hu, Zhiheng; Zhu, Wenwen; Zhao, Yueyue; Lin, Zhaodang; Dong, Qingsheng

    2015-11-01

    The exopolysaccharides from Arthrobacter sp. B4 (B4-EPS) exhibited an excellent chromium (VI) (Cr(VI)) removal capability without any pH adjustment, whereby 50mgL(-1) of Cr(VI) could be completely removed by 4gL(-1) of B4-EPS. The kinetics tests revealed that the first-order rate constant was 8.3×10(-5)s(-1) and the optimal reaction time was 720min. However, a low initial concentration of Cr(VI) (5-30mgL(-1)) would accelerate the reaction rate of Cr(VI) removal and shorten reaction time to less than 360min. Meanwhile, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra indicated that Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) by B4-EPS in accordance with the emergence of the green reaction products. Furthermore, the Fourier transform-infrared spectra (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) showed that carboxyl and hydroxyl groups of B4-EPS contributed to Cr(VI) reduction. Additionally, a feasible scheme for Cr(VI) detoxification by oxidation and flocculation of B4-EPS is presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dimethyl fumarate increases fetal hemoglobin, provides heme detoxification, and corrects anemia in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Pace, Betty; Gupta, Dipti; Sturtevant, Sarah; Li, Biaoru; Makala, Levi; Brittain, Julia; Moore, Nancy; Vieira, Benjamin F; Thullen, Timothy; Stone, Ivan; Li, Huo; Hobbs, William E; Light, David R

    2017-10-19

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) results from a point mutation in the β-globin gene forming hemoglobin S (HbS), which polymerizes in deoxygenated erythrocytes, triggering recurrent painful vaso-occlusive crises and chronic hemolytic anemia. Reactivation of fetal Hb (HbF) expression ameliorates these symptoms of SCD. Nuclear factor (erythroid derived-2)-like 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that triggers cytoprotective and antioxidant pathways to limit oxidative damage and inflammation and increases HbF synthesis in CD34+ stem cell-derived erythroid progenitors. We investigated the ability of dimethyl fumarate (DMF), a small-molecule Nrf2 agonist, to activate γ-globin transcription and enhance HbF in tissue culture and in murine and primate models. DMF recruited Nrf2 to the γ-globin promoters and the locus control region of the β-globin locus in erythroleukemia cells, elevated HbF in SCD donor-derived erythroid progenitors, and reduced hypoxia-induced sickling. Chronic DMF administration in SCD mice induced HbF and increased Nrf2-dependent genes to detoxify heme and limit inflammation. This improved hematological parameters, reduced plasma-free Hb, and attenuated inflammatory markers. Chronic DMF administration to nonanemic primates increased γ-globin mRNA in BM and HbF protein in rbc. DMF represents a potential therapy for SCD to induce HbF and augment vasoprotection and heme detoxification.

  11. Detoxification of a Lignocellulosic Waste from a Pulp Mill to Enhance Its Fermentation Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Llano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Detoxification is required for sugar bioconversion and hydrolyzate valorization within the biorefining concept for biofuel or bio-product production. In this work, the spent sulfite liquor, which is the main residue provided from a pulp mill, has been detoxified. Evaporation, overliming, ionic exchange resins, and adsorption with activated carbon or black carbon were considered to separate the sugars from the inhibitors in the lignocellulosic residue. Effectiveness in terms of total and individual inhibitor removals, sugar losses and sugar-to-inhibitor removal ratio was determined. The best results were found using the cation exchange Dowex 50WX2 resin in series with the anion exchange Amberlite IRA-96 resin, which resulted in sugar losses of 24.2% with inhibitor removal of 71.3% of lignosulfonates, 84.8% of phenolics, 82.2% acetic acid, and 100% of furfurals. Apart from exchange resins, the results of evaporation, overliming, adsorption with activated carbon and adsorption with black carbon led to total inhibitor removals of 8.6%, 44.9%, 33.6% and 47.6%, respectively. Finally, some fermentation scenarios were proposed in order to evaluate the most suitable technique or combination of techniques that should be implemented in every case.

  12. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of fipronil on detoxification enzymes in juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haihua; Gao, Cuie; Guo, Yaping; Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Jianzhen; Ma, Enbo

    2014-10-01

    The acute toxicity of fipronil and its sublethal effects on detoxification enzymes (carboxylesterases (CarEs), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD)) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) were investigated. The results indicated that the 24-h LC50 of fipronil for zebrafish was 220.4 μg/L (95% CI: 173.7-272.4 μg/L). Sublethal concentrations of fipronil did not cause significant changes in CarEs activities. In the liver and muscle tissues, GST activities at the tested concentrations did not significantly differ from those in the control. In the brain and gill tissues, GST activities at a concentration of 4 μg/L were significantly lower than those at a concentration of 2 μg/L. The results suggest that CarEs and GSTs were not suitable biomarkers for fipronil effects in D. rerio. A significant induction in the ECOD activities in the brain, gill, liver, and muscle tissues was observed compared with the control. Moreover, the dose-dependent responses of the ECOD activity were observed after treatment with sublethal concentrations of fipronil in the range of 2-20 μg/L. The results suggested that ECOD could be a suitable biomarker of fipronil effects in D. rerio. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B₁ by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guanghui; Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Ma, Yunxiao; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-20

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste-one kind of traditional Chinese food-to detoxify aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii, and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB₁ through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB₁ in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB₁. Additionally, m/s statistics demonstrated that AFB₁ may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB₁, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB₁.

  14. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste—one kind of traditional Chinese food—to detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii, and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB1 through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS. According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB1 in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB1. Additionally, m/s statistics demonstrated that AFB1 may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB1, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB1.

  15. Differential Degradation and Detoxification of an Aromatic Pollutant by Two Different Peroxidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysha Hamad Alneyadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic degradation of organic pollutants is a new and promising remediation approach. Peroxidases are one of the most commonly used classes of enzymes to degrade organic pollutants. However, it is generally assumed that all peroxidases behave similarly and produce similar degradation products. In this study, we conducted detailed studies of the degradation of a model aromatic pollutant, Sulforhodamine B dye (SRB dye, using two peroxidases—soybean peroxidase (SBP and chloroperoxidase (CPO. Our results show that these two related enzymes had different optimum conditions (pH, temperature, H2O2 concentration, etc. for efficiently degrading SRB dye. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography –mass spectrometry analyses confirmed that both SBP and CPO transformed the SRB dye into low molecular weight intermediates. While most of the intermediates produced by the two enzymes were the same, the CPO treatment produced at least one different intermediate. Furthermore, toxicological evaluation using lettuce (Lactuca sativa seeds demonstrated that the SBP-based treatment was able to eliminate the phytotoxicity of SRB dye, but the CPO-based treatment did not. Our results show, for the first time, that while both of these related enzymes can be used to efficiently degrade organic pollutants, they have different optimum reaction conditions and may not be equally efficient in detoxification of organic pollutants.

  16. Binding and detoxification of chlorpyrifos by lactic acid bacteria on rice straw silage fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Su; Wu, Tian-Hao; Yang, Yao; Zhu, Cen-Ling; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-01-01

    This investigation examined the reduction of pesticide residues on straw inoculated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during ensiling. Lactobacillus casei WYS3 was isolated from rice straw that contained pesticide residues. Non-sterilized rice straw, which was inoculated with L. casei WYS3, showed increased removal of chlorpyrifos after ensiling, compared with rice straw that was not inoculated with L. casei WYS3 or sterilized rice straw. In pure culture, these strains can bind chlorpyrifos as indicated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Viable L. casei WYS3 was shown to bind 33.3-42% of exogenously added chlorpyrifos. These results are similar to those of acid-treated cells but less than those of heat-treated cells, which were found to bind 32.0% and 77.2% of the added chlorpyrifos respectively. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis determined that L. casei WYS3 detoxified chlorpyrifos via P-O-C cleavage. Real-time polymerized chain reaction analysis determined that organophosphorus hydrolase gene expression tripled after the addition of chlorpyrifos to LAB cultures, compared with the control group (without chlorpyrifos). This paper highlights the potential use of LAB starter cultures for the detoxification and removal of chlorpyrifos residues in the environment.

  17. Efficient chemo-enzymatic gluten detoxification: reducing toxic epitopes for celiac patients improving functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Miguel; Nunes, Fernando M.; Guedes, Sofia; Domingues, Pedro; Silva, Amélia M.; Carrillo, Jose Maria; Rodriguez-Quijano, Marta; Branlard, Gérard; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Protein engineering of gluten, the exogenous effector in celiac disease, seeking its detoxification by selective chemical modification of toxic epitopes is a very attractive strategy and promising technology when compared to pharmacological treatment or genetic engineering of wheat. Here we present a simple and efficient chemo-enzymatic methodology that decreases celiac disease toxic epitopes of gluten proteins improving its technological value through microbial transglutaminase-mediated transamidation of glutamine with n-butylamine under reducing conditions. First, we found that using low concentrations of amine-nucleophile under non-reducing conditions, the decrease in toxic epitopes is mainly due to transglutaminase-mediated cross-linking. Second, using high amine nucleophile concentrations protein cross-linking is substantially reduced. Third, reducing conditions increase 7-fold the transamidation reaction further decreasing toxic epitopes amount. Fourth, using n-butylamine improves gluten hydrophobicity that strengthens the gluten network. These results open the possibility of tailoring gluten for producing hypoallergenic flours while still taking advantage of the unique viscoelastic properties of gluten. PMID:26691232

  18. Forecasting Model of Gene Enzyme Polymorphism Detoxification in Patients Suffered from HFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Hasanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study gene enzyme polymorphism of xenobiotic detoxification in patients suffered from HFRS influenced by disease severityProceedings : Molecular genetic checkup has been done in 292 patients suffered from HFRS and 426 seronegative donors.DNA samples isolated from lymphocytes of peripheral gene enzyme were used for molecular genetic checkup. Phenic-chloroform extraction method was applied to isolate DNA. The given DNA was used for polymerase chain reaction of DNA synthesis. Polymorphous CYP1A1 and GSTP1 gene locus analysis was performed on an automatic basis by polymerase chain reaction of DNA synthesis in a thermal cycle «Terzik» produced «DNK–techologiya» ( Moscow city with the use of locus specific and oligonucleotide primers.Outcomings: Glutathion-S-transferase class π with A313G locus of AG heterozygous genotype is typical for people of Bashkortostan due to underlying risk for HFRS. A combination of genotypes in the form of cytochrome P-450A1 with polymorphous locus A2455G and glutathione-S-transferase class π with A313G locus of AG can be found only in case of severe form of HFRS.

  19. Metal transformation as a strategy for bacterial detoxification of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Ashraf M M; Al Abboud, Mohamed A; Khatib, Sayeed I

    2017-11-15

    Microorganisms can modify the chemical and physical characters of metals leading to an alteration in their speciation, mobility, and toxicity. Aqueous heavy metals solutions (Hg, Cd, Pb, Ag, Cu, and Zn) were treated with the volatile metabolic products (VMPs) of Escherichia coli Z3 for 24 h using aerobic bioreactor. The effect of the metals treated with VMPs in comparison to the untreated metals on the growth of E. coli S1 and Staphylococcus aureus S2 (local isolates) was examined. Moreover, the toxic properties of the treated and untreated metals were monitored using minimum inhibitory concentration assay. A marked reduction of the treated metals toxicity was recorded in comparison to the untreated metals. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed the formation of metal particles in the treated metal solutions. In addition to heavy metals at variable ratios, these particles consisted of carbon, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen elements. The inhibition of metal toxicity was attributed to the existence of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide in the VMPs of E. coli Z3 culture that might responsible for the transformation of soluble metal ions into metal complexes. This study clarified the capability of E. coli Z3 for indirect detoxification of heavy metals via the immobilization of metal ions into biologically unavailable species. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Detoxification of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Maize by Neutral Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardon-Xicotencatl, Samantha; Díaz-Torres, Roberto; Marroquín-Cardona, Alicia; Villarreal-Barajas, Tania; Méndez-Albores, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, can occur as natural contaminants of certain agricultural commodities, particularly maize. These toxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and cause severe human and animal diseases. The effectiveness of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW) on aflatoxin detoxification was investigated in HepG2 cells using several validation methodologies such as the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the induction of lipid peroxidation, the oxidative damage by means of glutathione modulation, the Ames test and the alkaline Comet assay. Our results showed that, after the aflatoxin-contaminated maize containing 360 ng/g was soaked in NEW (60 mg/L available chlorine, pH 7.01) during 15 min at room temperature, the aflatoxin content did not decrease as confirmed by the immunoaffinity column and ultra performance liquid chromatography methods. Aflatoxin fluorescence strength of detoxified samples was similar to untreated samples. However, aflatoxin-associated cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects were markedly reduced upon treatment. According to these results, NEW can be effectively used to detoxify aflatoxin-contaminated maize. PMID:26512692

  1. Differential Degradation and Detoxification of an Aromatic Pollutant by Two Different Peroxidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alneyadi, Aysha Hamad; Shah, Iltaf; AbuQamar, Synan F.; Ashraf, Syed Salman

    2017-01-01

    Enzymatic degradation of organic pollutants is a new and promising remediation approach. Peroxidases are one of the most commonly used classes of enzymes to degrade organic pollutants. However, it is generally assumed that all peroxidases behave similarly and produce similar degradation products. In this study, we conducted detailed studies of the degradation of a model aromatic pollutant, Sulforhodamine B dye (SRB dye), using two peroxidases—soybean peroxidase (SBP) and chloroperoxidase (CPO). Our results show that these two related enzymes had different optimum conditions (pH, temperature, H2O2 concentration, etc.) for efficiently degrading SRB dye. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography –mass spectrometry analyses confirmed that both SBP and CPO transformed the SRB dye into low molecular weight intermediates. While most of the intermediates produced by the two enzymes were the same, the CPO treatment produced at least one different intermediate. Furthermore, toxicological evaluation using lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds demonstrated that the SBP-based treatment was able to eliminate the phytotoxicity of SRB dye, but the CPO-based treatment did not. Our results show, for the first time, that while both of these related enzymes can be used to efficiently degrade organic pollutants, they have different optimum reaction conditions and may not be equally efficient in detoxification of organic pollutants. PMID:28335468

  2. Biodegradation and detoxification of Direct Black G textile dye by a newly isolated thermophilic microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Feng, Linlin; Li, Hanguang; Wang, Yuanxiu; Chen, Guotao; Zhang, Qinghua

    2017-11-29

    The biodegradation and detoxification of azo dye - Direct Black G (DBG) with a newly isolated thermophilic microflora was investigated in the present study. It was found this microflora can decolorize DBG at a wide range of pH from 5 to 10, and grow well under high concentration of dye (600 mg·L -1 ) and salinity (50 g·L -1 ). Its decolorization ratio could reach 97% with 8 h of incubation at optimal conditions. The induction of laccase, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase and azoreductase suggests their synergetic involvements in the degradation process of DBG. In addition, the phytotoxicity analysis indicated the thermophilic microflora converted toxic dye DBG into low toxicity metabolites. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that there are nine different bacteria presented in this microflora. Furthermore, a new degradation pathway of DBG degradation by this microflora was proposed based on the intermediates identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cryptic indole hydroxylation by a non-canonical terpenoid cyclase parallels bacterial xenobiotic detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugel, Susann; Baunach, Martin; Baer, Philipp; Ishida-Ito, Mie; Sundaram, Srividhya; Xu, Zhongli; Groll, Michael; Hertweck, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Terpenoid natural products comprise a wide range of molecular architectures that typically result from C-C bond formations catalysed by classical type I/II terpene cyclases. However, the molecular diversity of biologically active terpenoids is substantially increased by fully unrelated, non-canonical terpenoid cyclases. Their evolutionary origin has remained enigmatic. Here we report the in vitro reconstitution of an unusual flavin-dependent bacterial indoloterpenoid cyclase, XiaF, together with a designated flavoenzyme-reductase (XiaP) that mediates a key step in xiamycin biosynthesis. The crystal structure of XiaF with bound FADH2 (at 2.4 Å resolution) and phylogenetic analyses reveal that XiaF is, surprisingly, most closely related to xenobiotic-degrading enzymes. Biotransformation assays show that XiaF is a designated indole hydroxylase that can be used for the production of indigo and indirubin. We unveil a cryptic hydroxylation step that sets the basis for terpenoid cyclization and suggest that the cyclase has evolved from xenobiotics detoxification enzymes.

  4. Detoxification of patulin and ochratoxin A, two abundant mycotoxins, by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, S; Sontag, G; Stidl, R; Ehrlich, V; Kundi, M; Knasmüller, S

    2008-04-01

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the detoxification of two abundant mycotoxins, namely ochratoxin A (OTA) and patulin (PAT) which are frequently found in human foods, by lactic acid bacteria. The removal of the two mycotoxins from liquid medium by thirty different LAB strains was analyzed in a screening trial by the use of HPLC coupled with UV- or fluorescence detection. Two highly effective strains were identified; Lactobacillus acidophilus VM 20 caused a decrease of OTA by > or = 95% and Bifidobacterium animalis VM 12 reduced PAT levels by 80%. Subsequently experiments showed that the binding of these compounds depends on different parameters, i.e. the concentration of toxins, the cell density, the pH-value and on the viability of the bacteria. To proof that the decrease of the toxins by LAB from liquid medium results in a reduction of their toxic properties, micronucleus (MCN) assays were conducted with a human derived hepatoma cell line (HepG2). Indeed, a substantial decrease (39-59%) of OTA and PAT induced MCN formation was observed with the most effective strains detected in the chemical analyses. Furthermore, also the inhibition of the cell division rates by the toxins was significantly reduced. These findings indicate that certain LAB strains are able to detoxify the two toxins and may be useful to protect humans and/or animals against the adverse health effects of these compounds.

  5. Patient and program factors that bridge the detoxification-treatment gap: a structured evidence review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Christine; Below, Maureen; Schultz, Nicole R; Brief, Deborah; Cucciare, Michael A

    2015-05-01

    Although completion of detoxification (detox) and a successful transition from detox to substance use disorder (SUD) treatment and/or mutual-help groups are associated with better SUD outcomes, many patients do not complete detox or do not receive SUD care following detox. The purpose of this structured evidence review, summarizing data extraction on a yield of 26 articles, is to identify patient, program, and system factors associated with the outcomes of completion of alcohol detox and successful transitions from alcohol detox to SUD treatment and mutual-help group participation. The review found wide variability among studies in the rates at which patients complete a detox episode (45 to 95%) and enter SUD treatment or mutual-help groups after detox (14 to 92%). Within program factors, behavioral practices that contribute to both detox completion and transitioning to SUD care after detox entail involving the patient's family and utilizing motivational-based approaches. Such practices should be targeted at younger patients, who are less likely to complete detox. Although more studies using a randomized controlled trial design are needed, the evidence suggests that barriers to detox completion and transition to SUD care can be overcome to improve patient outcomes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Transport and detoxification systems for transition metals, heavy metals and metalloids in eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Barry P

    2002-11-01

    Transition metals, heavy metals and metalloids are usually toxic in excess, but a number of transition metals are essential trace elements. In all cells there are mechanisms for metal ion homeostasis that frequently involve a balance between uptake and efflux systems. This review will briefly describe ATP-coupled resistance pumps. ZntA and CadA are bacterial P-type ATPases that confers resistance to Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II). Homologous copper pumps include the Menkes and Wilson disease proteins and CopA, an Escherichia coli pump that confers resistance to Cu(I). For resistance to arsenicals and antimonials there are several different families of transporters. In E. coli the ArsAB ATPase is a novel system that confers resistance to As(III) and Sb(III). Eukaryotic arsenic resistance transporters include Acr3p and Ycf1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These systems provide resistance to arsenite [As(III)]. Arsenate [As(V)] detoxification involves reduction of As(V) to As(III), a process catalyzed by arsenate reductase enzymes. There are three families of arsenate reductases, two found in bacterial systems and a third identified in S. cerevisiae.

  7. First and second line mechanisms of cadmium detoxification in the lichen photobiont Trebouxia impressa (Chlorophyta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanita di Toppi, L. [Dipartimento di Biologia Evolutiva e Funzionale, viale G.P. Usberti 11/A, Universita di Parma, 43100 Parma (Italy)], E-mail: luigi.sanitaditoppi@unipr.it; Pawlik-Skowronska, B. [Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20080 Lublin (Poland); Vurro, E. [Dipartimento di Biologia Evolutiva e Funzionale, viale G.P. Usberti 11/A, Universita di Parma, 43100 Parma (Italy); Vattuone, Z. [Dipartimento di Biologia Evolutiva e Funzionale, viale G.P. Usberti 11/A, Universita di Parma, 43100 Parma (Italy); Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20080 Lublin (Poland); Kalinowska, R. [Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20080 Lublin (Poland); Restivo, F.M. [Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia dei Microrganismi, Antropologia, Evoluzione, viale G.P. Usberti 11/A, Universita di Parma, 43100 Parma (Italy); Musetti, R. [Dipartimento di Biologia Applicata alla Difesa delle Piante, via delle Scienze 208, Universita di Udine, 33100 Udine (Italy); Skowronski, T. [Centre for Ecological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Experimental Station, Niecala 18/3, 20080 Lublin (Poland)

    2008-01-15

    'First line' defence mechanisms, such as phytochelatin biosynthesis, and 'second line' mechanisms, such as stress protein induction, were investigated in cadmium-exposed cells of Trebouxia impressa Ahmadjian, a green microalgal species that is a common photobiont of the lichen Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Olivier. When T. impressa cells were exposed to 0, 9 and 18 {mu}M Cd for 6, 18 and 48 h, glutathione and phytochelatins efficiently protected the cells against Cd damage. By contrast, the highest Cd concentration (36 {mu}M) at the longest exposure-time (48 h) caused marked drops in glutathione and phytochelatin content, several types of ultrastructural damage, and decreases in cell density and total chlorophyll concentration. In this case, induction of stress proteins was observed, but only long after the induction of phytochelatins. Thus, stress proteins could represent a 'second line' mechanism to counteract Cd stress, activated when there is a decline in the 'first line' mechanism of Cd detoxification given by phytochelatins. - Trebouxia impressa photobionts protect themselves against cadmium stress by means of phytochelatins and stress proteins.

  8. [Frequent non-medical cannabis use: health sequelae and effectiveness of detoxification treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Udo; Specka, Michael; Scherbaum, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The non-medical (recreational) use of cannabis is common particularly among young adults. In light of the ongoing legalization debate the clinical impact of physical and psychosocial consequences of regular recreational cannabis consumption should be presented. Health consequences appear to be more pronounced the earlier the regular recreational cannabis use had been started in the individual's development. There is an increasing demand from recreational cannabis users for medical treatment of cannabis-related complaints including the cannabis withdrawal syndrome. Physical sequelae such as chronic bronchitis, cyclical hyperemesis and fertility problems are usually reversible along with abstinence. The often debilitating cannabis-related mental and cognitive complaints respond on a qualified inpatient detoxification treatment with high effect sizes (Cohen's d 0.7 -1.4). The severity of the cannabis addiction benefits sustainably from psychotherapeutic approaches and individual psychosocial counseling (Cohen's d 0,5-1,2). Currently, the actual health hazard of recreational cannabis use was evaluated by addiction experts to be significantly lower than that of tobacco or alcohol use. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. CATALYTIC DETOXIFICATION OF NERVE AGENT AND PESTICIDE ORGANOPHOSPHATES BY BUTYRYLCHOLINESTERASE ASSISTED WITH NON-PYRIDINIUM OXIMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radić, Zoran; Dale, Trevor; Kovarik, Zrinka; Berend, Suzana; Garcia, Edzna; Zhang, Limin; Amitai, Gabriel; Green, Carol; Radić, Božica; Duggan, Brendan M.; Ajami, Dariush; Rebek, Julius; Taylor, Palmer

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS We present here a comprehensive in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo study on hydrolytic detoxification of nerve agent and pesticide organophosphates (OPs) catalyzed by purified human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE) in combination with novel non-pyridinium oxime reactivators. We identified 2-trimethylammonio-6-hydroxybenzaldehyde oxime (TAB2OH) as an efficient reactivator of OP-hBChE conjugates formed by the nerve agents, VX and cyclosarin, and the pesticide, paraoxon. It was also functional in reactivation of sarin and tabun inhibited hBChE. A three to five-fold enhancement of in vitro reactivation of VX, cyclosarin and paraoxon inhibited hBChE was observed, when compared to the commonly used N-methylpyridinium aldoxime reactivator, 2PAM. Kinetic analysis showed the enhancement resulted from improved molecular recognition of corresponding OP-hBChE conjugates by TAB2OH. The unique features of TAB2OH stem from an exocyclic quaternary nitrogen and a hydroxyl, both ortho to an oxime group on a benzene ring. pH dependences reveal participation of the hydroxyl (pKa=7.6) forming an additional ionizing nucleophile to potentiate the oxime (pKa=10) at physiological pH. The TAB2OH protective indices in therapy of sarin and paraoxon exposed mice were enhanced by 30% – 60% when they were treated with a combination of TAB2OH and sub-stoichiometric hBChE. These results establish that oxime-assisted catalysis is feasible for OP bioscavenging. PMID:23216060

  10. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Alves Lara

    Full Text Available In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA, a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may

  11. Benzoxazolinone detoxification by N-Glucosylation: The multi-compartment-network of Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Margot; Filary, Barbara; Kühn, Sabine; Colby, Thomas; Harzen, Anne; Schmidt, Jürgen; Sicker, Dieter; Hennig, Lothar; Hofmann, Diana; Disko, Ulrich; Anders, Nico

    2016-01-01

    The major detoxification product in maize roots after 24 h benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) exposure was identified as glucoside carbamate resulting from rearrangement of BOA-N-glucoside, but the pathway of N-glucosylation, enzymes involved and the site of synthesis were previously unknown. Assaying whole cell proteins revealed the necessity of H2O2 and Fe(2+) ions for glucoside carbamate production. Peroxidase produced BOA radicals are apparently formed within the extraplastic space of the young maize root. Radicals seem to be the preferred substrate for N-glucosylation, either by direct reaction with glucose or, more likely, the N-glucoside is released by glucanase/glucosidase catalyzed hydrolysis from cell wall components harboring fixed BOA. The processes are accompanied by alterations of cell wall polymers. Glucoside carbamate accumulation could be suppressed by the oxireductase inhibitor 2-bromo-4´-nitroacetophenone and by peroxidase inhibitor 2,3-butanedione. Alternatively, activated BOA molecules with an open heterocycle may be produced by microorganisms (e.g., endophyte Fusarium verticillioides) and channeled for enzymatic N-glucosylation. Experiments with transgenic Arabidopsis lines indicate a role of maize glucosyltransferase BX9 in BOA-N-glycosylation. Western blots with BX9 antibody demonstrate the presence of BX9 in the extraplastic space. Proteomic analyses verified a high BOA responsiveness of multiple peroxidases in the apoplast/cell wall. BOA incubations led to shifting, altered abundances and identities of the apoplast and cell wall located peroxidases, glucanases, glucosidases and glutathione transferases (GSTs). GSTs could function as glucoside carbamate transporters. The highly complex, compartment spanning and redox-regulated glucoside carbamate pathway seems to be mainly realized in Poaceae. In maize, carbamate production is independent from benzoxazinone synthesis.

  12. Transcription of detoxification genes following permethrin selection in the mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Suarez, Adriana Flores; Salas, Ildefonso Fernandez; Strode, Clare; Ranson, Hilary; Hemingway, Janet; Black, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in gene expression before, during and after five generations of permethrin laboratory selection were monitored in six strains of Aedes aegypti: five F2 – F3 collections from the Yucatán Peninsula of México and one F2 from Iquitos, Perú. Three biological replicate lines were generated for each strain. The response to selection was measured as changes in the lethal and knockdown permethrin concentrations (LC50, KC50) and in the frequency of the Ile1,016 substitution in the voltage gated sodium channel (para) gene. Changes in expression of 290 metabolic detoxification genes were measured using the “Aedes Detox” microarray. Selection simultaneously increased the LC50, KC50 and Ile1,016 frequency. There was an inverse relationship between Ile1,016 frequency and the numbers of differentially transcribed genes. The Iquitos strain lacked the Ile1,016 allele and 51 genes were differentially transcribed following selection as compared to 10–18 genes in the Mexican strains. Very few of the same genes were differentially transcribed among field strains but ten cytochrome P450 genes were upregulated in more than one strain. Laboratory adaptation to permethrin in Ae. aegypti is genetically complex and largely conditioned by geographic origin and preexisting target site insensitivity in the para gene. The lack of uniformity in the genes that responded to artificial selection as well as differences in the direction of their responses challenges the assumption that one or a few genes control permethrin metabolic resistance. Attempts to identify one or a few metabolic genes that are predictably associated with permethrin adaptation may be futile. PMID:22032702

  13. The Role of the Cephalopod Digestive Gland in the Storage and Detoxification of Marine Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Ana P.; Costa, Pedro M.

    2017-01-01

    The relevance of cephalopods for fisheries and even aquaculture, is raising concerns on the relationship between these molluscs and environmental stressors, from climate change to pollution. However, how these organisms cope with environmental toxicants is far less understood than for other molluscs, especially bivalves, which are frontline models in aquatic toxicology. Although, sharing the same basic body plan, cephalopods hold distinct adaptations, often unique, as they are active predators with high growth and metabolic rates. Most studies on the digestive gland, the analog to the vertebrate liver, focused on metal bioaccumulation and its relation to environmental concentrations, with indication for the involvement of special cellular structures (like spherulae) and proteins. Although the functioning of phase I and II enzymes of detoxification in molluscs is controversial, there is evidence for CYP-mediated bioactivation, albeit with lower activity than vertebrates, but this issue needs yet much research. Through novel molecular tools, toxicology-relevant genes and proteins are being unraveled, from metallothioneins to heat-shock proteins and phase II conjugation enzymes, which highlights the importance of increasing genomic annotation as paramount to understand toxicant-specific pathways. However, little is known on how organic toxicants are stored, metabolized and eliminated, albeit some evidence from biomarker approaches, particularly those related to oxidative stress, suggesting that these molluscs' digestive gland is indeed responsive to chemical aggression. Additionally, cause-effect relationships between pollutants and toxicopathic effects are little understood, thus compromising, if not the deployment of these organisms for biomonitoring, at least understanding how they are affected by anthropogenically-induced global change. PMID:28473775

  14. Detoxification of organophosphate nerve agents by immobilized Escherichia coli with surface-expressed organophosphorus hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulchandani, A; Kaneva, I; Chen, W

    1999-04-20

    An improved whole-cell technology for detoxifying organophosphate nerve agents was recently developed based on genetically engineered Escherichia coli with organophosphorus hydrolase anchored on the surface. This article reports the immobilization of these novel biocatalysts on nonwoven polypropylene fabric and their applications in detoxifying contaminated wastewaters. The best cell loading (256 mg cell dry weight/g of support or 50 mg cell dry weight/cm2 of support) and subsequent hydrolysis of organophosphate nerve agents were achieved by immobilizing nongrowing cells in a pH 8, 150 mM citrate-phosphate buffer supplemented with 1 mM Co2+ for 48 h via simple adsorption, followed by organophosphate hydrolysis in a pH 8, 50 mM citrate-phosphate buffer supplemented with 0.05 mM Co2+ and 20% methanol at 37 degrees C. In batch operations, the immobilized cells degraded 100% of 0.8 mM paraoxon, a model organophosphate nerve agent, in approximately 100 min, at a specific rate of 0.160 mM min-1 (g cell dry wt)-1. The immobilized cells retained almost 100% activity during the initial six repeated cycles and close to 90% activity even after 12 repeated cycles, extending over a period of 19 days without any nutrient supplementation. In addition to paraoxon, other commonly used organophosphates, such as diazinon, coumaphos, and methylparathion were hydrolyzed efficiently. The cell immobilization technology developed here paves the way for an efficient, simple, and cost-effective method for detoxification of organophosphate nerve agents. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  15. Allicin Modulates the Antioxidation and Detoxification Capabilities of Primary Rat Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chung Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of allicin, an active ingredient of garlic, on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage, lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH content, and GSH-related enzyme activity was investigated in primary hepatocytes. In this study, allicin was synthesized in our laboratory as an experimental material, and primary hepatocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were used as an experimental model. According to the results, hepatocytes treated with 10 μM allicin did not differ from the control on LDH leakage during various incubation times. When the hepatocytes were treated with 10 μM allicin, their levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive-substances (TBARS did not differ significantly from that of the control within the 8-h incubation. However, the TBARS values of hepatocytes treated with 30 and 50 μM allicin were higher compared to the control after incubation for 4 h and 8 h, respectively. The hepatocyte intracellular GSH content was significantly higher than that of the control after 30 μM allicin treatment, but treatment with 50 μM allicin caused a significant GSH depletion after incubation for 4 h or longer. In addition, when hepatocytes were treated for 24 h with 10 or 30 μM allicin, glutathione peroxidase (GPx activity was significantly increased compared to that of the control, whereas 50 μM allicin treatment for 24 h or longer significantly decreased the GPx activity. Glutathione reductase (GRd activity was significantly increased when the hepatocytes were treated with 10 μM allicin for 24 h, but GRd activity significantly decreased when the hepatocytes were treated with 50 μM allicin. However, hepatocytes treated for 24 h with 10 or 30 μM allicin showed significantly increased glutathione S-transferase (GST activity compared to the control. These results suggest that 10 μM allicin potentially enhances the antioxidation and detoxification capabilities of primary rat hepatocytes.

  16. ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates Both Heme and Pesticide Detoxification in Tick Midgut Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Flavio Alves; Pohl, Paula C.; Gandara, Ana Caroline; Ferreira, Jessica da Silva; Nascimento-Silva, Maria Clara; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sorgine, Marcos H. F.; Almeida, Igor C.; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Oliveira, Pedro L.

    2015-01-01

    In ticks, the digestion of blood occurs intracellularly and proteolytic digestion of hemoglobin takes place in a dedicated type of lysosome, the digest vesicle, followed by transfer of the heme moiety of hemoglobin to a specialized organelle that accumulates large heme aggregates, called hemosomes. In the present work, we studied the uptake of fluorescent metalloporphyrins, used as heme analogs, and amitraz, one of the most regularly used acaricides to control cattle tick infestations, by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus midgut cells. Both compounds were taken up by midgut cells in vitro and accumulated inside the hemosomes. Transport of both molecules was sensitive to cyclosporine A (CsA), a well-known inhibitor of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Rhodamine 123, a fluorescent probe that is also a recognized ABC substrate, was similarly directed to the hemosome in a CsA-sensitive manner. Using an antibody against conserved domain of PgP-1-type ABC transporter, we were able to immunolocalize PgP-1 in the digest vesicle membranes. Comparison between two R. microplus strains that were resistant and susceptible to amitraz revealed that the resistant strain detoxified both amitraz and Sn-Pp IX more efficiently than the susceptible strain, a process that was also sensitive to CsA. A transcript containing an ABC transporter signature exhibited 2.5-fold increased expression in the amitraz-resistant strain when compared with the susceptible strain. RNAi-induced down-regulation of this ABC transporter led to the accumulation of metalloporphyrin in the digestive vacuole, interrupting heme traffic to the hemosome. This evidence further confirms that this transcript codes for a heme transporter. This is the first report of heme transport in a blood-feeding organism. While the primary physiological function of the hemosome is to detoxify heme and attenuate its toxicity, we suggest that the use of this acaricide detoxification pathway by ticks may represent a new

  17. Chromium speciation, bioavailability, uptake, toxicity and detoxification in soil-plant system: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Shamshad, Saliha; Rafiq, Marina; Khalid, Sana; Bibi, Irshad; Niazi, Nabeel Khan; Dumat, Camille; Rashid, Muhammad Imtiaz

    2017-07-01

    Chromium (Cr) is a potentially toxic heavy metal which does not have any essential metabolic function in plants. Various past and recent studies highlight the biogeochemistry of Cr in the soil-plant system. This review traces a plausible link among Cr speciation, bioavailability, phytouptake, phytotoxicity and detoxification based on available data, especially published from 2010 to 2016. Chromium occurs in different chemical forms (primarily as chromite (Cr(III)) and chromate (Cr(VI)) in soil which vary markedly in term of their biogeochemical behavior. Chromium behavior in soil, its soil-plant transfer and accumulation in different plant parts vary with its chemical form, plant type and soil physico-chemical properties. Soil microbial community plays a key role in governing Cr speciation and behavior in soil. Chromium does not have any specific transporter for its uptake by plants and it primarily enters the plants through specific and non-specific channels of essential ions. Chromium accumulates predominantly in plant root tissues with very limited translocation to shoots. Inside plants, Cr provokes numerous deleterious effects to several physiological, morphological, and biochemical processes. Chromium induces phytotoxicity by interfering plant growth, nutrient uptake and photosynthesis, inducing enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species, causing lipid peroxidation and altering the antioxidant activities. Plants tolerate Cr toxicity via various defense mechanisms such as complexation by organic ligands, compartmentation into the vacuole, and scavenging ROS via antioxidative enzymes. Consumption of Cr-contaminated-food can cause human health risks by inducing severe clinical conditions. Therefore, there is a dire need to monitor biogeochemical behavior of Cr in soil-plant system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrogen peroxide priming modulates abiotic oxidative stress tolerance: insights from ROS detoxification and scavenging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad A.; Bhattacharjee, Soumen; Armin, Saed-Moucheshi; Qian, Pingping; Xin, Wang; Li, Hong-Yu; Burritt, David J.; Fujita, Masayuki; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2015-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by various abiotic stresses that negatively affect growth and productivity worldwide. During the course of their evolution, plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to recognize external signals allowing them to respond appropriately to environmental conditions, although the degree of adjustability or tolerance to specific stresses differs from species to species. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS; hydrogen peroxide, H2O2; superoxide, O2⋅-; hydroxyl radical, OH⋅ and singlet oxygen, 1O2) is enhanced under abiotic and/or biotic stresses, which can cause oxidative damage to plant macromolecules and cell structures, leading to inhibition of plant growth and development, or to death. Among the various ROS, freely diffusible and relatively long-lived H2O2 acts as a central player in stress signal transduction pathways. These pathways can then activate multiple acclamatory responses that reinforce resistance to various abiotic and biotic stressors. To utilize H2O2 as a signaling molecule, non-toxic levels must be maintained in a delicate balancing act between H2O2 production and scavenging. Several recent studies have demonstrated that the H2O2-priming can enhance abiotic stress tolerance by modulating ROS detoxification and by regulating multiple stress-responsive pathways and gene expression. Despite the importance of the H2O2-priming, little is known about how this process improves the tolerance of plants to stress. Understanding the mechanisms of H2O2-priming-induced abiotic stress tolerance will be valuable for identifying biotechnological strategies to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. This review is an overview of our current knowledge of the possible mechanisms associated with H2O2-induced abiotic oxidative stress tolerance in plants, with special reference to antioxidant metabolism. PMID:26136756

  19. Hydrogen peroxide priming modulates abiotic oxidative stress tolerance: insights from ROS detoxification and scavenging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Hossain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are constantly challenged by various abiotic stresses that negatively affect growth and productivity worldwide. During the course of their evolution, plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to recognize external signals allowing them to respond appropriately to environmental conditions, although the degree of adjustability or tolerance to specific stresses differs from species to species. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2; superoxide, O2ˉ˙; hydroxyl radical, OH. and singlet oxygen, 1O2 is enhanced under abiotic and/or biotic stresses, which can cause oxidative damage to plant macromolecules and cell structures, leading to inhibition of plant growth and development, or to death. Among the various ROS, freely diffusible and relatively long-lived H2O2 acts as a central player in stress signal transduction pathways. These pathways can then activate multiple acclamatory responses that reinforce resistance to various abiotic and biotic stressors. To utilize H2O2 as a signaling molecule, non-toxic levels must be maintained in a delicate balancing act between H2O2 production and scavenging. Several recent studies have demonstrated that the H2O2-priming can enhance abiotic stress tolerance by modulating ROS detoxification and by regulating multiple stress-responsive pathways and gene expression. Despite the importance of the H2O2-priming, little is known about how this process improves the tolerance of plants to stress. Understanding the mechanisms of H2O2-priming-induced abiotic stress tolerance will be valuable for identifying biotechnological strategies to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. This review is an overview of our current knowledge of the possible mechanisms associated with H2O2-induced abiotic oxidative stress tolerance in plants, with special reference to antioxidant metabolism.

  20. Hydrogen peroxide priming modulates abiotic oxidative stress tolerance: insights from ROS detoxification and scavenging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad A; Bhattacharjee, Soumen; Armin, Saed-Moucheshi; Qian, Pingping; Xin, Wang; Li, Hong-Yu; Burritt, David J; Fujita, Masayuki; Tran, Lam-Son P

    2015-01-01

    Plants are constantly challenged by various abiotic stresses that negatively affect growth and productivity worldwide. During the course of their evolution, plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to recognize external signals allowing them to respond appropriately to environmental conditions, although the degree of adjustability or tolerance to specific stresses differs from species to species. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS; hydrogen peroxide, H2O2; superoxide, [Formula: see text]; hydroxyl radical, OH(⋅) and singlet oxygen, (1)O2) is enhanced under abiotic and/or biotic stresses, which can cause oxidative damage to plant macromolecules and cell structures, leading to inhibition of plant growth and development, or to death. Among the various ROS, freely diffusible and relatively long-lived H2O2 acts as a central player in stress signal transduction pathways. These pathways can then activate multiple acclamatory responses that reinforce resistance to various abiotic and biotic stressors. To utilize H2O2 as a signaling molecule, non-toxic levels must be maintained in a delicate balancing act between H2O2 production and scavenging. Several recent studies have demonstrated that the H2O2-priming can enhance abiotic stress tolerance by modulating ROS detoxification and by regulating multiple stress-responsive pathways and gene expression. Despite the importance of the H2O2-priming, little is known about how this process improves the tolerance of plants to stress. Understanding the mechanisms of H2O2-priming-induced abiotic stress tolerance will be valuable for identifying biotechnological strategies to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. This review is an overview of our current knowledge of the possible mechanisms associated with H2O2-induced abiotic oxidative stress tolerance in plants, with special reference to antioxidant metabolism.

  1. The Role of the Cephalopod Digestive Gland in the Storage and Detoxification of Marine Pollutants

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    Pedro M. Costa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of cephalopods for fisheries and even aquaculture, is raising concerns on the relationship between these molluscs and environmental stressors, from climate change to pollution. However, how these organisms cope with environmental toxicants is far less understood than for other molluscs, especially bivalves, which are frontline models in aquatic toxicology. Although, sharing the same basic body plan, cephalopods hold distinct adaptations, often unique, as they are active predators with high growth and metabolic rates. Most studies on the digestive gland, the analog to the vertebrate liver, focused on metal bioaccumulation and its relation to environmental concentrations, with indication for the involvement of special cellular structures (like spherulae and proteins. Although the functioning of phase I and II enzymes of detoxification in molluscs is controversial, there is evidence for CYP-mediated bioactivation, albeit with lower activity than vertebrates, but this issue needs yet much research. Through novel molecular tools, toxicology-relevant genes and proteins are being unraveled, from metallothioneins to heat-shock proteins and phase II conjugation enzymes, which highlights the importance of increasing genomic annotation as paramount to understand toxicant-specific pathways. However, little is known on how organic toxicants are stored, metabolized and eliminated, albeit some evidence from biomarker approaches, particularly those related to oxidative stress, suggesting that these molluscs' digestive gland is indeed responsive to chemical aggression. Additionally, cause-effect relationships between pollutants and toxicopathic effects are little understood, thus compromising, if not the deployment of these organisms for biomonitoring, at least understanding how they are affected by anthropogenically-induced global change.

  2. Establishing an animal model for National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) auricular acupuncture protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattalai Kailasam, Vasanth; Anand, Preeti; Melyan, Zara

    2016-06-15

    The use of opioids in the treatment of chronic pain has increased dramatically in the past few decades making them one of the most commonly prescribed medications in the US. However, long-term use of opioids is limited by development of tolerance (decreased antinociceptive efficacy) and opioid-induced hyperalgesia - paradoxical sensitization to noxious (hyperalgesia) and non-noxious (allodynia) stimuli. Novel adjunctive therapies are needed to increase the efficacy and prolong the duration of action of opioids in chronic pain treatment. Acupuncture is often used as an adjunct therapy for the treatment of symptoms induced by non-clinical use of opioids. The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA) auricular acupuncture protocol is the most common form of acupuncture treatment for substance abuse. The standardized, easy to use and virtually painless procedure make it an attractive complementary treatment option for patients suffering from opioid-induced adverse effects. Clinical trials designed to test the efficacy of the NADA protocol yielded contradictory results. The mechanism by which NADA acupuncture could serve as a successful treatment remains unknown. Therefore, establishing an animal model of NADA acupuncture can provide a tool for investigating the efficacy and cellular mechanisms of NADA treatment. Previous studies have shown that repeated morphine administration in rodents can produce locomotor sensitization and reduce analgesic potency of a challenge dose of morphine, indicating development of morphine tolerance. Here we show that NADA acupuncture treatment can both reduce morphine-induced locomotor sensitization and prevent the development of morphine tolerance in rats, thus validating a new model for NADA acupuncture studies. Our data provides support for evidence-based use of NADA acupuncture as a new adjunctive approach that can potentially improve the side-effect profile of morphine and other prescription opioids. Copyright © 2016

  3. Role of glucuronidation for hepatic detoxification and urinary elimination of toxic bile acids during biliary obstruction.

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    Martin Perreault

    Full Text Available Biliary obstruction, a severe cholestatic condition, results in a huge accumulation of toxic bile acids (BA in the liver. Glucuronidation, a conjugation reaction, is thought to protect the liver by both reducing hepatic BA toxicity and increasing their urinary elimination. The present study evaluates the contribution of each process in the overall BA detoxification by glucuronidation. Glucuronide (G, glycine, taurine conjugates, and unconjugated BAs were quantified in pre- and post-biliary stenting urine samples from 12 patients with biliary obstruction, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The same LC-MS/MS procedure was used to quantify intra- and extracellular BA-G in Hepatoma HepG2 cells. Bile acid-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells was evaluated using MTS reduction, caspase-3 and flow cytometry assays. When compared to post-treatment samples, pre-stenting urines were enriched in glucuronide-, taurine- and glycine-conjugated BAs. Biliary stenting increased the relative BA-G abundance in the urinary BA pool, and reduced the proportion of taurine- and glycine-conjugates. Lithocholic, deoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids were the most cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic/necrotic BAs for HepG2 cells. Other species, such as the cholic, hyocholic and hyodeoxycholic acids were nontoxic. All BA-G assayed were less toxic and displayed lower pro-apoptotic/necrotic effects than their unconjugated precursors, even if they were able to penetrate into HepG2 cells. Under severe cholestatic conditions, urinary excretion favors the elimination of amidated BAs, while glucuronidation allows the conversion of cytotoxic BAs into nontoxic derivatives.

  4. Glutathione-mediated detoxification of halobenzoquinone drinking water disinfection byproducts in T24 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hongquan; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

    2014-10-01

    Halobenzoquinones (HBQs) are a new class of drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and are capable of producing reactive oxygen species and causing oxidative damage to proteins and DNA in T24 human bladder carcinoma cells. However, the exact mechanism of the cytotoxicity of HBQs is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of glutathione (GSH) and GSH-related enzymes including glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in defense against HBQ-induced cytotoxicity in T24 cells. The HBQs are 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), 2,6-dichloro-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DCMBQ), 2,3,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TriCBQ), and 2,6-dibromobenzoquinone (DBBQ). We found that depletion of cellular GSH could sensitize cells to HBQs and extracellular GSH supplementation could attenuate HBQ-induced cytotoxicity. HBQs caused significant cellular GSH depletion and increased cellular GST activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Our mass spectrometry study confirms that HBQs can conjugate with GSH, explaining in part the mechanism of GSH depletion by HBQs. The effects of HBQs on GPx activity are compound dependent; DCMBQ and DBBQ decrease cellular GPx activities, whereas DCBQ and TriCBQ have no significant effects. Pearson correlation analysis shows that the cellular GSH level is inversely correlated with ROS production and cellular GST activity in HBQ-treated cells. These results support a GSH and GSH-related enzyme-mediated detoxification mechanism of HBQs in T24 cells. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Impact of Furfural on Rapid Ethanol Production Using a Membrane Bioreactor

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    Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A membrane bioreactor was developed to counteract the inhibition effect of furfural in ethanol production. Furfural, a major inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolyzates, is a highly toxic substance which is formed from pentose sugars released during the acidic degradation of lignocellulosic materials. Continuous cultivations with complete cell retention were performed at a high dilution rate of 0.5 h−1. Furfural was added directly into the bioreactor by pulse injection or by addition into the feed medium to obtain furfural concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 21.8 g L−1. At all pulse injections of furfural, the yeast was able to convert the furfural very rapidly by in situ detoxification. When injecting 21.8 g L−1 furfural to the cultivation, the yeast converted it by a specific conversion rate of 0.35 g g−1 h−1. At high cell density, Saccharomyces cerevisiae could tolerate very high furfural levels without major changes in the ethanol production. During the continuous cultures when up to 17.0 g L−1 furfural was added to the inlet medium, the yeast successfully produced ethanol, whereas an increase of furfural to 18.6 and 20.6 g L−1 resulted in a rapidly decreasing ethanol production and accumulation of sugars in the permeate. This study show that continuous ethanol fermentations by total cell retention in a membrane bioreactor has a high furfural tolerance and can conduct rapid in situ detoxification of medium containing high furfural concentrations.

  6. Comparison of prescriber evaluations and patient-directed self-reports in office-based practice for buprenorphine treatment of opiate-dependent individuals in France, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Lavie

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Estelle Lavie1, Mélina Fatséas1, Jean-Pierre Daulouède1,2, Cécile Denis1, Jacques Dubernet1, Laurent Cattan3, Marc Auriacombe11Laboratoire de psychiatrie/EA4139, INSERM IFR-99 and Faculté de médecine Victor Pachon, University Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux, France; 2Bizia, Centre de soins d’addictologie, Centre Hospitalier de la Côte Basque, Bayonne, France; 3Centre médical, Noisy-le-sec, FranceAbstract: The objective of this cross-sectional evaluation study was to compare data generated through prescriber assessments, and data generated from independent direct contact with opiate-dependent patients in office-based practice to evaluate buprenorphine treatment for modality of buprenorphine absorption, benzodiazepine use, and depressive symptoms. A group of buprenorphine office-based practice prescribers was selected to participate in this study. They were asked to screen for inclusion all their patients coming for a visit from February to August 2002. Once included by their prescribing physician, patients were given a series of self-administered questionnaires to be returned directly to the research staff, independently of their prescriber. Each prescriber was given a questionnaire to complete based on their knowledge and interview of the patient. Items assessed were history of current treatment, current substance use, buprenorphine treatment related behavior (daily frequency of intake, route of administration, benzodiazepine use and existence of a major depressive episode. Prescribers and patients’ questionnaires were compared. Concordance of both assessments was assessed by kappa statistics. The sensitivity and specificity as well as the positive and negative predictive values of prescriber collected information were compared to that of their patients’. There was an overall good correlation between both data sources on the procedures for buprenorphine use especially for intravenous use of buprenorphine. There were important

  7. Abstinence phenomena of chronic cannabis-addicts prospectively monitored during controlled inpatient detoxification: cannabis withdrawal syndrome and its correlation with delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and -metabolites in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, U; Specka, M; Stratmann, U; Ochwadt, R; Scherbaum, N

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the course of cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS) within a controlled inpatient detoxification setting and to correlate severity of CWS with the serum-levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its main metabolites 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH) and 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH). Thirty-nine treatment-seeking chronic cannabis dependents (ICD-10) were studied on admission and on abstinent days 2, 4, 8 and 16, using a CWS-checklist (MWC) and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale (CGI-S). Simultaneously obtained serum was analysed to its concentration of THC, THC-OH and THC-COOH. MWC peaked on day 4 (10.4 ± 4.6 from 39 points) and declined to 2.9 ± 2.4 points on day 16. Women had a significantly stronger CWS than men. The CWS was dominated by craving>restlessness>nervousness>sleeplessness. CGI-S peaked with 5 out of 7 points. On admission, THC and its metabolites did negatively correlate with the severity of CWS. There was no significant correlation afterwards, no matter if CWS was medicated or not. THC-OH in serum declined most rapidly below detection limit, on median at day 4. At abstinence day 16, the THC-levels of 28.2% of the patients were still above 1g/ml (range: 1.3 to 6.4 ng/ml). CWS increased and then decreased without any correlation between its severity and the serum-levels of THC or its main metabolites after admission. According to the CGI-S, most patients achieved the condition of 'markedly ill'. Serum THC-OH was most clearly associated with recent cannabis use. Residual THC was found in the serum of almost one-third of the patients at abstinence day 16. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiosynthesis of an opiate receptor-binding radiotracer for positron emission tomography: (C-11 methyl)-methyl-4-(N-(1-oxopropyl)-N-phenylamino)-4-piperidine carboxylate (C-11 4-carbomethoxyfentanyl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Frost, J.J.; Wilson, A.A.; Burns, H.D.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The development of high affinity, high specific activity tritium-labeled neurotransmitter receptor ligands has made it possible to determine the spatial distribution and relative regional concentration of several neuroreceptors by means of in vivo receptor labeling techniques in animals. This development made possible the biochemical identification of opiate receptors by autoradiographic visualization in experimental animals. The quantitation and localization of opiate receptors in man using non-invasive methods, such as positron emission tomography, could provide a means of obtaining information about a variety of receptor-linked neuropsychiatric diseases as well as normal brain mechanisms regulating pain and emotions. As part of a continuing program to identify and radiolabel high affinity, highly specific ligands for the opiate receptor, the authors have selected two derivatives of fentanyl, a well-known analgesic, as candidates for radiolabeling: R-31,833 (4-carbomethoxy-fentanyl) and R-34,995 (lofentanil). Carbon-11 labeled R-31,833 was synthesized by the methylation of the appropriate carboxylate with C-11 methyl iodide in dimethylformamide at room temperature and purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The average synthesis time from end-of-bombardment (E.O.B.) was 30 minutes. The average specific activity was determined by ultraviolet spectroscopy to be 890 mCi/..mu..mole end-of-synthesis (approx. 2500 mCi/..mu..mole E.O.B.).

  9. Assessment of hepatic detoxification activity: proposal of an improved variant of the (13c-methacetin breath test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann-Georg Holzhütter

    Full Text Available Breath tests based on the administration of a (13C-labeled drug and subsequent monitoring of (13CO2 in the breath (quantified as DOB - delta over baseline liberated from the drug during hepatic CPY-dependent detoxification are important tools in liver function diagnostics. The capability of such breath tests to reliably indicate hepatic CYP performance is limited by the fact that (13CO2 is not exclusively exhaled but also exchanged with other compartments of the body. In order to assess this bias caused by variations of individual systemic CO2 kinetics we administered intravenously the test drug (13C-methacetin to 25 clinically liver-healthy individuals and monitored progress curves of DOB and the plasma concentration of (13C-methacetin. Applying compartment modelling we estimated for each individual a set of kinetic parameters characterizing the time-dependent exchange of the drug and of CO2 with the liver and non-hepatic body compartments. This analysis revealed that individual variations in the kinetics of CO2 may account for up to 30% deviation of DOB curve parameters from their mean at otherwise identical (13C-methacetin metabolization rates. In order to correct for this bias we introduced a novel detoxification score which ideally should be assessed from the DOB curve of a 2-step test ("2DOB" which is initialized with the injection of a standard dose of (13C-labeled bicarbonate (in order to provide information on the actual CO2 status of the individual followed by injection of the (13C-labeled test drug (the common procedure. Computer simulations suggest that the predictive power of the proposed 2DOB breath test to reliably quantity the CYP-specific hepatic detoxification activity should be significantly higher compared to the conventional breath test.

  10. A mollusk VDR/PXR/CAR-like (NR1J) nuclear receptor provides insight into ancient detoxification mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruzeiro, Catarina, E-mail: catarinarcruzeiro@hotmail.com [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Lopes-Marques, Mónica, E-mail: monicaslm@hotmail.com [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Ruivo, Raquel, E-mail: ruivo.raquel@gmail.com [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Rodrigues-Oliveira, Nádia, E-mail: nadia.oliveira@ciimar.up.pt [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Santos, Miguel M., E-mail: santos@ciimar.up.pt [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); FCUP - Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, U. Porto (Portugal); Rocha, Maria João, E-mail: mjsrocha@netcabo.pt [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Rocha, Eduardo, E-mail: erocha@icbas.up.pt [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Castro, L. Filipe C., E-mail: filipe.castro@ciimar.up.pt [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); FCUP - Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, U. Porto (Portugal)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A nuclear receptor orthologue of the NR1J group is isolated from a mollusc. • The molluscan NR1J transactivates gene expression upon exposure to okadaic acid but not a pesticide, esfenvarelate and triclosan. • Lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss have occurred in the NR1J of protostomes with likely impacts on detoxification mechanisms. - Abstract: The origin and diversification of the metazoan endocrine systems represents a fundamental research issue in biology. Nuclear receptors are critical components of these systems. A particular group named VDR/PXR/CAR (NR1I/J) is central in the mediation of detoxification responses. While orthologues have been thoroughly characterized in vertebrates, a sparse representation is currently available for invertebrates. Here, we provide the first isolation and characterization of a lophotrochozoan protostome VDR/PXR/CAR nuclear receptor (NR1J), in the estuarine bivalve the peppery furrow shell (Scrobicularia plana). Using a reporter gene assay, we evaluated the xenobiotic receptor plasticity comparing the human PXR with the S. plana NR1Jβ. Our results show that the molluscan receptor responds to a natural toxin (okadaic acid) in a similar fashion to that reported for other invertebrates. In contrast, the pesticide esfenvalerate displayed a unique response, since it down regulated transactivation at higher concentrations, while for triclosan no response was observed. Additionally, we uncovered lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss in the gene group encoding NRs in protostomes with likely impacts on the complexity of detoxification mechanisms across different phyla. Our findings pave the way for the development of multi-specific sensor tools to screen xenobiotic compounds acting via the NR1I/J group.

  11. Effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on bile acid profiles and intestinal detoxification machinery in primary biliary cirrhosis and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Karin; Hohenester, Simon; Winkler-Budenhofer, Ursula; Bastiaansen, Barbara A J; Schaap, Frank G; Rust, Christian; Beuers, Ulrich

    2012-07-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) exerts anticholestatic, antifibrotic and antiproliferative effects in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) via mechanisms not yet fully understood. Its adequate biliary enrichment is considered mandatory for therapeutic efficacy. However, precise determination of biliary enrichment of UDCA is not possible in clinical practice. Therefore, we investigated (i) the relationship between biliary enrichment and plasma pharmacokinetics of UDCA, (ii) the effect of UDCA on plasma and biliary bile acid composition and conjugation patterns, and (iii) on the intestinal detoxification machinery in patients with PBC and healthy controls. In 11 PBC patients and 11 matched healthy subjects, cystic bile and duodenal tissue were collected before and after 3 weeks of administration of UDCA (15 mg/kg/day). Extensive pharmacokinetic profiling of bile acids was performed. The effect of UDCA on the intestinal detoxification machinery was studied by quantitative PCR and Western blotting. The relative fraction of UDCA and its conjugates in plasma at trough level[x] correlated with their biliary enrichment[y] (r=0.73, p=0.0001, y=3.65+0.49x). Taurine conjugates of the major hydrophobic bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, were more prominent in bile of PBC patients than in that of healthy controls. Biliary bile acid conjugation patterns normalized after treatment with UDCA. UDCA induced duodenal expression of key export pumps, BCRP and P-glycoprotein. Biliary and trough plasma enrichment of UDCA are closely correlated in PBC and health. Taurine conjugation may represent an adaptive mechanism in PBC against chenodeoxycholic acid-mediated bile duct damage. UDCA may stabilize small intestinal detoxification by upregulation of efflux pumps. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Glutathione S-Transferase (GST Gene Diversity in the Crustacean Calanus finmarchicus--Contributors to Cellular Detoxification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Roncalli

    Full Text Available Detoxification is a fundamental cellular stress defense mechanism, which allows an organism to survive or even thrive in the presence of environmental toxins and/or pollutants. The glutathione S-transferase (GST superfamily is a set of enzymes involved in the detoxification process. This highly diverse protein superfamily is characterized by multiple gene duplications, with over 40 GST genes reported in some insects. However, less is known about the GST superfamily in marine organisms, including crustaceans. The availability of two de novo transcriptomes for the copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, provided an opportunity for an in depth study of the GST superfamily in a marine crustacean. The transcriptomes were searched for putative GST-encoding transcripts using known GST proteins from three arthropods as queries. The identified transcripts were then translated into proteins, analyzed for structural domains, and annotated using reciprocal BLAST analysis. Mining the two transcriptomes yielded a total of 41 predicted GST proteins belonging to the cytosolic, mitochondrial or microsomal classes. Phylogenetic analysis of the cytosolic GSTs validated their annotation into six different subclasses. The predicted proteins are likely to represent the products of distinct genes, suggesting that the diversity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus exceeds or rivals that described for insects. Analysis of relative gene expression in different developmental stages indicated low levels of GST expression in embryos, and relatively high expression in late copepodites and adult females for several cytosolic GSTs. A diverse diet and complex life history are factors that might be driving the multiplicity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus, as this copepod is commonly exposed to a variety of natural toxins. Hence, diversity in detoxification pathway proteins may well be key to their survival.

  13. Yoga effects on mood and quality of life in Chinese women undergoing heroin detoxification: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Shu-mei; An, Shi-hui; Zhao, Yue

    2013-01-01

    Yoga, as a mind-body therapy, is effective in improving quality of life for patients with chronic diseases, yet little is known about its effectiveness in female heroin addicts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of yoga on mood status and quality of life among women undergoing detoxification for heroin dependence in China. This study was a randomized controlled trial. Seventy-five women aged 20-37 years undergoing detoxification for heroin dependence at AnKang Hospital were allocated randomly into an intervention or a control group. Women in the intervention group received a 6-month yoga intervention in addition to hospital routine care, and women in the control group received hospital routine care only. Mood status and quality of life were assessed using the Profile of Mood States and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey at baseline and following 3 and 6 months of treatment. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate treatment and time effects on mood and quality of life. Most female heroin addicts were young and single, with a low education level. Most had used heroin by injection. Mood state and quality of life of female heroin addicts were poor. The intervention group showed a significant improvement in mood status and quality of life over time compared with their counterparts in the control group. Yoga may improve mood status and quality of life for women undergoing detoxification for heroin dependence. Yoga can be used as an auxiliary treatment with traditional hospital routine care for these women.

  14. Septal co-infusions of glucose with the benzodiazepine agonist chlordiazepoxide impair memory, but co-infusions of glucose with the opiate morphine do not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L; Parent, Marise B

    2010-03-30

    We have found repeatedly that medial septal (MS) infusions of glucose impair memory when co-infused with the gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) agonist muscimol. The present experiments sought to determine whether the memory-impairing effects of this concentration of glucose would generalize to another GABA(A) receptor agonist and to an agonist from another neurotransmitter system that is known to impair memory. Specifically, we determined whether the dose of glucose that produces memory deficits when combined with muscimol in the MS would also impair memory when co-infused with the GABA(A) receptor modulator chlordiazepoxide (CDP) or the opiate morphine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given MS co-infusions and then 15 min later tested for spontaneous alternation or given shock avoidance training (retention tested 48 h later). The results showed that MS infusions of the higher dose of glucose with morphine did not produce memory deficits, whereas, the performance of rats given MS co-infusions of CDP with glucose was impaired. These findings suggest that the memory-impairing effects of brain glucose administration may involve an interaction with the GABA(A) receptor. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dissociative disorders and possession experiences in Israel: a comparison of opiate use disorder patients, Arab women subjected to domestic violence, and a nonclinical group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somer, Eli; Ross, Colin; Kirshberg, Revital; Bakri, Rana Shawahdy; Ismail, Shefa

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the association between exposure to domestic violence and dissociative symptoms. A sample of 68 Israeli opiate use disorder patients in recovery, 80 battered Arab Israeli women, and 103 respondents from a community sample participated in structured interviews that included the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the Dissociative Trance Disorder Interview Schedule (DTDIS), and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). As predicted, community participants reported significantly less exposure to traumatizing events and lower levels of dissociative psychopathology than individuals sampled from specialized treatment centers. In all, 91% of battered female participants were taxon-positive for dissociative disorder with 1 of every 2 respondents reporting symptoms corresponding to dissociative amnesia and depersonalization disorder, suggesting that this group may be particularly vulnerable to dissociative psychopathology. Extrasensory and paranormal experiences (ESP) and dissociative trance disorder experiences were strongly related to dissociative experiences and features of dissociative identity disorder (DID). These statistical associations suggest that dissociative disorders and ESP/trance experiences may share an underlying construct. Further research is needed on trauma and dissociation among female victims of domestic abuse in patriarchal, collectivist societies, particularly in the Arab world. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. How can a methadone and an opiate-positive immunoassay result be reconciled in a patient prescribed only OxyContin and Wellbutrin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, Jude M

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate management of patients in pain clinics can be complex and sometimes confusing because providers must correctly interpret multiple sources of patient information. The correct interpretation of laboratory results is essential to guide subsequent patient treatment and management; however, laboratory and clinical pictures can appear to be conflicting in cases of substance abuse. Incorrect interpretation of laboratory results can multiply negative impacts on clinical outcomes and may lead to patient harm or death. This report introduces the complex nature involved in understanding and interpreting urine drug testing (UDT) results in pain patients who are prescribed opioid medications. Laboratory testing examples of UDT results are provided to illustrate the sometimes discordant nature of UDT interpretation. This case study describes one method of approaching cases where laboratory result interpretation in pain clinic patients is essential for medical treatment and management. The case presented in this manuscript illustrates a reconciliation of an opiate positive immunoassay result in a patient who was prescribed only OxyContin and Wellbutrin after traumatic amputations.

  17. Role of central and peripheral opiate receptors in the effects of fentanyl on analgesia, ventilation and arterial blood-gas chemistry in conscious rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Fraser; May, Walter J.; Gruber, Ryan B.; Discala, Joseph F.; Puscovic, Veljko; Young, Alex P.; Baby, Santhosh M.; Lewis, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the effects of the peripherally restricted µ-opiate receptor (µ-OR) antagonist, naloxone methiodide (NLXmi) on fentanyl (25 µg/kg, i.v.)-induced changes in (1) analgesia, (2) arterial blood gas chemistry (ABG) and alveolar-arterial gradient (A-a gradient), and (3) ventilatory parameters, in conscious rats. The fentanyl-induced increase in analgesia was minimally affected by a 1.5 mg/kg of NLXmi but was attenuated by a 5.0 mg/kg dose. Fentanyl decreased arterial blood pH, pO2 and sO2 and increased pCO2 and A-a gradient. These responses were markedly diminished in NLXmi (1.5 mg/kg)-pretreated rats. Fentanyl caused ventilatory depression (e.g., decreases in tidal volume and peak inspiratory flow). Pretreatment with NLXmi (1.5 mg/kg, i.v.) antagonized the fentanyl decrease in tidal volume but minimally affected the other responses. These findings suggest that (1) the analgesia and ventilatory depression caused by fentanyl involve peripheral µ-ORs and (2) NLXmi prevents the fentanyl effects on ABG by blocking the negative actions of the opioid on tidal volume and A-a gradient. PMID:24284037

  18. Detoxification of a Sulfur Mustard Simulant Using a BODIPY-Functionalized Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilgan, Ahmet; Islamoglu, Timur; Howarth, Ashlee J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2017-07-26

    Effective detoxification of chemical warfare agents is a global necessity. As a powerful photosensitizer, a halogenated BODIPY ligand is postsynthetically appended to the Zr6 nodes of the metal-organic framework (MOF), NU-1000, to enhance singlet oxygen generation from the MOF. The BODIPY/MOF material is then used as a heterogeneous photocatalyst to produce singlet oxygen under green LED irradiation. The singlet oxygen selectively detoxifies the sulfur mustard simulant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), to the less toxic sulfoxide derivative (2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfoxide, CEESO) with a half-life of approximately 2 min.

  19. Prenatal exposure to residential air pollution and infant mental development: modulation by antioxidants and detoxification factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxundi, Nerea; Mendez, Michelle A; Tardón, Adonina; Vrijheid, Martine; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution effects on children's neurodevelopment have recently been suggested to occur most likely through the oxidative stress pathway. We aimed to assess whether prenatal exposure to residential air pollution is associated with impaired infant mental development, and whether antioxidant/detoxification factors modulate this association. In the Spanish INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA; Environment and Childhood) Project, 2,644 pregnant women were recruited during their first trimester. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and benzene were measured with passive samplers covering the study areas. Land use regression models were developed for each pollutant to predict average outdoor air pollution levels for the entire pregnancy at each residential address. Maternal diet was obtained at first trimester through a validated food frequency questionnaire. Around 14 months, infant mental development was assessed using Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Among the 1,889 children included in the analysis, mean exposure during pregnancy was 29.0 μg/m3 for NO2 and 1.5 μg/m3 for benzene. Exposure to NO2 and benzene showed an inverse association with mental development, although not statistically significant, after adjusting for potential confounders [β (95% confidence interval) = -0.95 (-3.90, 1.89) and -1.57 (-3.69, 0.56), respectively, for a doubling of each compound]. Stronger inverse associations were estimated for both pollutants among infants whose mothers reported low intakes of fruits/vegetables during pregnancy [-4.13 (-7.06, -1.21) and -4.37 (-6.89, -1.86) for NO2 and benzene, respectively], with little evidence of associations in the high-intake group (interaction p-values of 0.073 and 0.047). Inverse associations were also stronger in non-breast-fed infants and infants with low maternal vitamin D, but effect estimates and interactions were not significant. Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to residential air pollutants may adversely affect infant mental

  20. Novel oral detoxification of mercury, cadmium, and lead with thiol-modified nanoporous silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangvanich, Thanapon; Morry, Jingga; Fox, Cade; Ngamcherdtrakul, Worapol; Goodyear, Shaun; Castro, David; Fryxell, Glen E; Addleman, Raymond S; Summers, Anne O; Yantasee, Wassana

    2014-04-23

    We have developed a thiol-modified nanoporous silica material (SH-SAMMS) as an oral therapy for the prevention and treatment of heavy metal poisoning. SH-SAMMS has been reported to be highly efficient at capturing heavy metals in biological fluids and water. Herein, SH-SAMMS was examined for efficacy and safety in both in vitro and in vivo animal models for the oral detoxification of heavy metals. In simulated gastrointestinal fluids, SH-SAMMS had a very high affinity (Kd) for methyl mercury (MeHg(I)), inorganic mercury (Hg(II)), lead (Pb(II)), and cadmium (Cd(II)) and was superior to other SAMMS with carboxylic acid or phosphonic acid ligands or commercially available metal chelating sorbents. SH-SAMMS also effectively removed Hg from biologically digested fish tissue with no effect on most nutritional minerals found in fish. SH-SAMMS could hold Hg(II) and MeHg(I) tightly inside the nanosize pores, thus preventing bacteria from converting them to more absorbable forms. Rats fed a diet containing MeHg(I), Cd(II), and Pb(II) and SH-SAMMS for 2 weeks had blood Hg levels significantly lower than rats fed the metal-rich diet only. Upon cessation of the metal-rich diet, continued administration of SH-SAMMS for 2 weeks facilitated faster and more extensive clearance of Hg than in animals not continued on oral SH-SAMMS. Rats receiving SH-SAMMS also suffered less weight loss as a result of the metal exposure. Retention of Hg and Cd in major organs was lowest in rats fed with SH-SAMMS throughout the entire four weeks. The reduction of blood Pb by SH-SAMMS was significant. SH-SAMMS was safe to intestinal epithelium model (Caco-2) and common intestinal bacteria (Escherichia coli). Altogether, it has great potential as a new oral drug for the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. This new application is enabled by the installation of tailored interfacial chemistry upon nontoxic nanoporous materials.

  1. Biodegradation and detoxification of textile azo dyes by bacterial consortium under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Harshad; Kadam, Avinash; Paul, Diby; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Release of textile azo dyes to the environment is an issue of health concern while the use of microorganisms has proved to be the best option for remediation. Thus, in the present study, a bacterial consortium consisting of Providencia rettgeri strain HSL1 and Pseudomonas sp. SUK1 has been investigated for degradation and detoxification of structurally different azo dyes. The consortium showed 98-99 % decolorization of all the selected azo dyes viz. Reactive Black 5 (RB 5), Reactive Orange 16 (RO 16), Disperse Red 78 (DR 78) and Direct Red 81 (DR 81) within 12 to 30 h at 100 mg L-1 concentration at 30 ± 0.2 °C under microaerophilic, sequential aerobic/microaerophilic and microaerophilic/aerobic processes. However, decolorization under microaerophilic conditions viz. RB 5 (0.26 mM), RO 16 (0.18 mM), DR 78 (0.20 mM) and DR 81 (0.23 mM) and sequential aerobic/microaerophilic processes viz. RB 5 (0.08 mM), RO 16 (0.06 mM), DR 78 (0.07 mM) and DR 81 (0.09 mM) resulted into the formation of aromatic amines. In distinction, sequential microaerophilic/ aerobic process doesn’t show the formation of amines. Additionally, 62-72 % reduction in total organic carbon content was observed in all the dyes decolorized broths under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggesting the efficacy of method in mineralization of dyes. Notable induction within the levels of azoreductase and NADH-DCIP reductase (97 and 229 % for RB 5, 55 and 160 % for RO 16, 63 and 196 % for DR 78, 108 and 258 % for DR 81) observed under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes suggested their critical involvements in the initial breakdown of azo bonds, whereas, a slight increase in the levels of laccase and veratryl alcohol oxidase confirmed subsequent oxidation of formed amines. Also, the acute toxicity assay with Daphnia magna revealed the nontoxic nature of the dye-degraded metabolites under sequential microaerophilic/aerobic processes. As biodegradation under sequential microaerophilic

  2. Seasonal mercury transformation and surficial sediment detoxification by bacteria of Marano and Grado lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Franco; Gallo, Michele; Marchetto, Davide; Fani, Renato; Maida, Isabel; Horvat, Milena; Fajon, Vesna; Zizek, Suzana; Hines, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Marano and Grado lagoons are polluted by mercury from the Isonzo River and a chlor-alkali plant, yet despite this contamination, clam cultivation is one of the main activities in the region. Four stations (MA, MB, MC and GD) were chosen for clam seeding and surficial sediments were monitored in autumn, winter and summer to determine the Hg detoxifying role of bacteria. Biotransformation of Hg species in surficial sediments of Marano and Grado lagoons was investigated while taking into consideration the speciation of organic matter in the biochemical classes of PRT (proteins), CHO (carbohydrates) and LIP (lipids), water-washed cations and anions, bacterial biomass, Hg-resistant bacteria, some specific microbial activities such as sulfate reduction rates, Hg methylation rates, Hg-demethylation rates, and enzymatic ionic Hg reduction. MeHg in sediments was well correlated with PRT content, whereas total Hg in sediments correlated with numbers of Hg-resistant bacteria. Correlations of the latter with Hg-demethylation rates in autumn and winter suggested a direct role Hg-resistant bacteria in Hg detoxification by producing elemental Hg (Hg0) from ionic Hg and probably also from MeHg. MeHg-demethylation rates were ˜10 times higher than Hg methylation rates, were highest in summer and correlated with high sulfate reduction rates indicating that MeHg was probably degraded in summer by sulfate-reducing bacteria via an oxidative pathway. During the summer period, aerobic heterotrophic Hg-resistant bacteria decreased to resistant bacterial strains were isolated, two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus and Bacillus) and two Gram-negative (Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas). Two were able to produce Hg0, but just one contained a merA gene; while other two strains did not produce Hg0 even though they were able to grow at 5 μg ml of HgCl2. Lagoon sediments support a strong sulfur cycle in summer that controls Hg methylation and demethylation. However, during winter, Hg

  3. Microbial detoxification of bifenthrin by a novel yeast and its potential for contaminated soils treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Chen

    Full Text Available Bifenthrin is one the most widespread pollutants and has caused potential effect on aquatic life and human health, yet little is known about microbial degradation in contaminated regions. A novel yeast strain ZS-02, isolated from activated sludge and identified as Candida pelliculosa based on morphology, API test and 18S rDNA gene analysis, was found highly effective in degrading bifenthrin over a wide range of temperatures (20-40 °C and pH (5-9. On the basis of response surface methodology (RSM, the optimal degradation conditions were determined to be 32.3 °C and pH 7.2. Under these conditions, the yeast completely metabolized bifenthrin (50 mg · L(-1 within 8 days. This strain utilized bifenthrin as the sole carbon source for growth as well as co-metabolized it in the presence of glucose, and tolerated concentrations as high as 600 mg · L(-1 with a q(max, K(s and K(i of 1.7015 day(-1, 86.2259 mg · L(-1 and 187.2340 mg · L(-1, respectively. The yeast first degraded bifenthrin by hydrolysis of the carboxylester linkage to produce cyclopropanecarboxylic acid and 2-methyl-3-biphenylyl methanol. Subsequently, 2-methyl-3-biphenylyl methanol was further transformed by biphenyl cleavage to form 4-trifluoromethoxy phenol, 2-chloro-6-fluoro benzylalcohol, and 3,5-dimethoxy phenol, resulting in its detoxification. Eventually, no persistent accumulative product was detected by gas chromatopraphy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. This is the first report of a novel pathway of degradation of bifenthrin by hydrolysis of ester linkage and cleavage of biphenyl in a microorganism. Furthermore, strain ZS-02 degraded a variety of pyrethroids including bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, and fenpropathrin. In different contaminated soils introduced with strain ZS-02, 65-75% of the 50 mg · kg(-1 bifenth