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Sample records for rapid open pyrolysis

  1. The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongyun; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Ren; Luo, Guangqian; Liu, Wenqiang; Li, Aijun; Yao, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires at temperatures from 673 to 1073K was investigated. Sulfur was predominant in the forms of thiophenic and inorganic sulfides in raw scrap tires. In the pyrolysis process, sulfur in organic forms was unstable and decomposed, leading to the sulfur release into tar and gases. At 673 and 773K, a considerable amount of sulfur was distributed in tar. Temperature increasing from 773 to 973K promoted tar decomposition and facilitated sulfur release into gases. At 1073K, the interactions between volatiles and char stimulated the formation of high-molecular-weight sulfur-containing compounds. After pyrolysis, almost half of the total content of sulfur in raw scrap tires still remained in the char and was mostly in the form of sulfides. Moreover, at temperatures higher than 873K, part of sulfur in the char was immobilized in the sulfates. In the pyrolysis gases, H2S was the main sulfur-containing gas. Increasing temperature stimulated the decomposition of organic polymers in scrap tires and more H2S was formed. Besides H2S, other sulfur-containing gases such as CH3SH, COS and SO2 were produced during the rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goran G. Jankes; Olga Cvetkovic; Nebojsa M. Milovanovic; Marko Ercegovaci Ercegovac; Miroljub Adzic; Mirjana Stamenic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield), forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N{sub 2}) at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900{sup o}C) and retention times (3-28 s) were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900{sup o}C). The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300{sup o}C). Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900{sup o}C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenospheres, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed. 20 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Rapid pyrolysis of Serbian soft brown coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankes Goran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft brown coals of the open coal fields of Kolubara and Kostolac are the main domestic energy sources of Serbia. This paper presents the results of investigations on rapid devolatilization of these two coals which have covered kinetics of devolatilization (based on total volatile yield, forms of sulphur and petrographic analysis of coal and char. Experiments of devolatilization were performed in inert gas (N2 at atmospheric pressure and in batch-type hot-wire screen reactor. The mass-loss values of both coals at selected final reaction temperatures (300-900°C and retention times (3-28 s were obtained. Anthony and Howard's kinetic model was applied over two temperature ranges (300-500 and 700-900°C. The types of sulphur as monosulphide, sulphate, pyritic, and organic sulphur were determined for chars and original coals. Strong transformation of pyrite was evident even at low temperatures (300°C. Devolatilization of all types of sulphur has started over 600 and at 900°C the content of sulphur in char remained only 66% of total sulphur in original coal. Microscopic investigations were carried out on samples prepared for reflected light measurements. The petrographic analysis included: the ratio of unchanged and changed coal, maceral types, the share of cenosferes, isotropic mixed carbonized grains, mixed grains, small fragments, clay, and pyrite. The change of the structure of devolatilized coal was also observed.

  4. Catalytic Rapid Pyrolysis of Quercus variabilis over Nanoporous Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Koo Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic rapid pyrolysis of Quercus variabilis, a Korean native tree species, was carried out using Py-GC/MS. Mesoporous MFI, which has both nanopores and micropores, and three nanoporous materials, Al-MCM-41, Al-SBA-15, and γ-Al2O3, were used as the catalyst. The acid sites of mesoporous MFI were strong Brønsted acid sites, whereas those of nanoporous materials were mostly weak acid sites. The composition of the product bio-oil varied greatly depending on the acid characteristics of the catalyst used. Phenolics were the most abundant species in the bio-oil, followed by acids and furanics, obtained over Al-MCM-41 or Al-SBA-15 with weak acid sites, whereas aromatics were the most abundant species produced over mesoporous MFI with strong acid sites, followed by phenolics. Aromatics, phenolics, and furanics are all important chemicals contributing to the improvement of bio-oil quality.

  5. Plate reactor as an analysis tool for rapid pyrolysis of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sepman, A. V.; de Goey, L. P. H.

    This work presents a study of the performance of the modified plate reactor by rapid pyrolysis experiments with different biomass samples (MDF, bark pine and Avicel cellulose). The use of the plate instead of a grid allowed us to achieve a more homogeneous temperature distribution across the plate

  6. Nitrogen conversion under rapid pyrolysis of two types of aquatic biomass and corresponding blends with coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Chen, Xue-li; Li, Wei-feng; Liu, Hai-feng; Wang, Fu-chen

    2011-11-01

    Rapid pyrolysis of two types of aquatic biomass (blue-green algae and water hyacinth), and their blends with two coals (bituminous and anthracite) was carried out in a high-frequency furnace. Nitrogen conversions during rapid pyrolysis of the two biomass and the interactions between the biomass and coals on nitrogen conversions were investigated. Results show that little nitrogen retained in char after the biomass pyrolysis, and NH(3) yields were higher than HCN. During co-pyrolysis of biomass and coal, interactions between biomass and coal decreased char-N yields and increased volatile-N yields, but the total yields of NH(3)+HCN in volatile-N were decreased in which HCN formations were decreased consistently, while NH(3) formations were only decreased in the high-temperature range but promoted in the low-temperature range. Interactions between blue-green algae and coals are stronger than those between water hyacinth and coal, and interactions between biomass and bituminous are stronger than those between biomass and anthracite. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between hydrous and ordinary pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-06-01

    Pyrolysis results are reviewed briefly with the intent of drawing comparisons between open, high pressure, and hydrous pyrolysis. Empirically, the degree of pyrolysis severity to form volatile products in open pyrolysis is similar to that required to form an expelled oil phase in hydrous pyrolysis. The yields of hydrocarbons from open pyrolysis are close to those from hydrous pyrolysis, but hydrous pyrolysis tends to assist the separation of hydrocarbons from polar materials. Pressure has a small but measurable affect on the generation kinetics.

  8. Experimental study on fragmental behavior of coals and biomasses during rapid pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tongmin; Xu, Jianliang; Fan, Wenke; Chang, Qinghua; Yu, Guangsuo; Wang, Fuchen

    2016-12-01

    In order to study the primary fragmentation behavior of coals and biomasses, experiments of rapid pyrolysis were carried out. This work focused on the devolatilization and fragmentation characteristics including the solid/gas yield, particle density/morphology, particle size and fragmental probability (S f ). The effects of temperature, time and solid property were investigated. The viscous flow model was employed to characterize the pressure difference (ΔP), which was considered as the driving force of diffusion and fragmentation. The Ohm principle was used to establish the linear relation of devolatilization rate and fragmentation rate. The result showed that temperature and time have positive contribution to the fragmentation. The occurrence of fragmentation was observed more apparently with the decreasing of the ash content in the biomass. The pressure difference has a positive correlation with the fragmental rate, which shows the validity of application Ohm principle in the prediction of fragmenting process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid microwave pyrolysis of coal: methodology and examination of the residual and volatile phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsef-Mirzai, P.; Ravindran, M.; McWhinnie, W.R.; Burchill, P. (Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry)

    1995-01-01

    Substances such as CuO, Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4] and even metallurgical coke (termed 'receptors') heat rapidly in a microwave oven at 2.45 GHz. The receptor, when mixed with Creswell coal and subjected to microwave radiation, induces rapid pyrolysis of the coal. Condensable tar yields of 20 wt% are obtained with coke, 27 wt% with Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4] and as high as 49 wt% in some experiments with CuO. Despite the high final temperature (1200-1300[degree]C after 3 min), analyses suggest that the volatiles are released in the lower part of the temperature regime but that some secondary cracking does occur. The tars are similar in composition, although with coke the proportion of aromatic hydrogen is greater than with CuO and Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4]. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that both pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen are present in the tars and chars, and that the dominant form of tar sulfur is thiophenic. There is evidence that mineral sulfur is immobilized when CuO in particular is the receptor. The chars formed show a degree of graphitization and are themselves excellent microwave receptors. In the presence of oxide receptors, char-oxide redox reactions occur, with loss of char, reduction of oxide and enhanced yields of CO and CO[sub 2]. Of the lighter hydrocarbons identified in the gas phase, methane predominates. The data obtained are compared with those for other pyrolysis methods. 22 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  10. Rapid co-pyrolysis of rice straw and a bituminous coal in a high-frequency furnace and gasification of the residual char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Dai, Zheng-hua; Zhou, Zhi-jie; Chen, Xue-li; Yu, Guang-suo; Wang, Fu-chen

    2012-04-01

    Rapid pyrolysis of rice straw (RS) and Shenfu bituminous coal (SB) separately, and rapid co-pyrolysis of RS/SB blends (mass ratio 1:4, 1:4, and 4:1), were carried out in a high-frequency furnace which can ensure both high heating rate and satisfying contact of fuel particles. Synergies between RS and SB during rapid co-pyrolysis were investigated. Intrinsic and morphological structures of residual char from co-pyrolysis, and their effects on gasification characteristics were also studied. Synergies occurred during rapid co-pyrolysis of RS and SB (RS/SB=1:4) resulting in decreasing char yields and increasing volatile yields. Synergies also happened during gasification of the char derived from co-pyrolysis of RS and SB with mass ratio of 1:4. The increased mass ratio of RS to SB did not only weaken synergies during co-pyrolysis, but significantly reduced the gasification rates of the co-pyrolysis char compared to the calculated values. Results can help to optimize co-conversion process of biomass/coal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Kinetics of petroleum generation by programmed-temperature closed- versus open-system pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, H.J.; Horsfield, B. (Juelich Research Centre (Germany))

    1993-02-01

    Bulk petroleum generation by programmed-temperature pyrolysis of immature (R[sub r] = 0.48%) Posidonia (Toarcian) Shale samples at heating rates of 0.1, 0.7, and 5.0 K/min has been studied comparatively under open- and closed-system conditions, using the microscale sealed vessel (MSSV) technique in the latter case. The comparison of formation rates required a differentiation (vs. temperature) of closed-system cumulative product evolution profiles. The kinetic analysis assuming twenty-five first order parallel reactions with activation energies regularly spaced between 46 and 70 kcal/mol and a single pre-exponential factor A yielded the same value of A = 1.08[center dot]10[sup 16] min[sup [minus]1] and very similar petroleum potential vs. activation energy distributions centered around 54 kcal/mol in both cases. In particular, both approaches turned out to be in excellent agreement with respect to predicting temperature ranges of oil and gas formation under geological heating conditions. This is in contrast to the case of petroleum yield assessment which appears to be more system-dependent. 67 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Analytical pyrolysis mass spectrometry: new vistas opened by temperature-resolved in-source PYMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Jaap J.

    1992-09-01

    Analytical pyrolysis mass spectrometry (PYMS) is introduced and its applications to the analysis of synthetic polymers, biopolymers, biomacromolecular systems and geomacromolecules are critically reviewed. Analytical pyrolysis inside the ionisation chamber of a mass spectrometer, i.e. in-source PYMS, gives a complete inventory of the pyrolysis products evolved from a solid sample. The temperature-resolved nature of the experiment gives a good insight into the temperature dependence of the volatilisation and pyrolytic dissociation processes. Chemical ionisation techniques appear to be especially suitable for the analysis of oligomeric fragments released in early stages of the pyrolysis of polymer systems. Large oligomeric fragments were observed for linear polymers such as cellulose (pentadecamer), polyhydroxyoctanoic acid (tridecamer) and polyhydroxybutyric acid (heneicosamer). New in-source PYMS data are presented on artists' paints, the plant polysaccharides cellulose and xyloglucan, several microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates, wood and enzyme-digested wood, biodegraded roots and a fossil cuticle of Miocene age. On-line and off-line pyrolysis chromatography mass spectrometric approaches are also discussed. New data presented on high temperature gas chromatography--mass spectrometry of deuterio-reduced permethylated pyrolysates of cellulose lead to a better understanding of polysaccharide dissociation mechanisms. Pyrolysis as an on-line sample pretreatment method for organic macromolecules in combination with MS techniques is a very challenging field of mass spectrometry. Pyrolytic dissociation and desorption is not at all a chaotic process but proceeds according to very specific mechanisms.

  13. Experimental Study of Cloud Formation from Rapidly Opened Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, C.E. [Stanford Research Institute; Amaro, A.J. [Stanford Research Institute; Kier, R.J. [Stanford Research Institute

    1969-08-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of droplet size emanating from a rapidly-opened container of volatile liquid, of the internal dynamics of the cavitation process inside such a container, & of the evaporation time of propane drops.

  14. Rapid Application Development with OpenStudio: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, E.; Long, N.; Fleming, K.; Schott, M.; Benne, K.; Hale, E.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents several case studies of rapidly implemented, audience-specific applications for whole building energy modeling and standards analysis. By tailoring each application to the audience and the task at hand, the required learning curve for new users was greatly reduced. Each case study used OpenStudio, the U.S. Department of Energy's middleware software development kit (SDK). OpenStudio provides an easy interface to the EnergyPlus whole building simulation engine, while extending its capability and providing higher-level functionality such as software interoperability, standards, analysis, and optimization. Each case study is unique in the technology employed to interface with OpenStudio as well as the methods used for user interaction and data presentation. Four case studies are presented.

  15. Rapid estimation of the organic sulphur content of kerogens, coals and asphaltenes by pyrolysis-gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Eglinton, T.I.; Kohnen, M.E.L.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1990-01-01

    A pyrolysis-gas Chromatographic (py-g.c.) method for estimation of the Sorg/C ratio in kerogens and other forms of sedimentary macromolecular organic matter is described. The method is based upon flash pyrolysis at 610 °C for 10s and areal integration of the FID peaks attributed to

  16. Transmission Electron Microscopy study of Cu-containing spinel-type In2S3 nanocrystals prepared by rapid pyrolysis of a single molecular precursor

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga-González, Enrique; Bensch, Wolfgang; Duppel, Viola; Kienle, Lorenz

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Cu-containing spinel-type In2S3 nanocrystals have been prepared by rapid pyrolysis (RP) from a single source inorganic-organic hybrid molecular precursor with an initial Cu:In:S ratio of 1:9:16.5. The precursor was synthesized in a one-step hydrothermal reaction with high yield. After a treatment of the precursor for 10 s at 1000 ?C a powdered material was obtained. The X-ray powder pattern exhibits broad reflections indicative for the spinel-type and crystallites in the n...

  17. Analyse quantitative des effluents de pyrolyse en milieu ouvert et fermé Quantitative Analysis of Pyrolysis Effluents in an Open and Closed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behar F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans la première partie de l'article, nous décrivons une technique de pyrolyse en milieu ouvert qui permet de caractériser les matières organiques complexes comme le kérogène, le charbon, les asphaltènes de roche et d'huiles, les substances humiques et fulviques etc. Les effluents de pyrolyse sont récupérés et fractionnés quantitativement puis analysés par des techniques spécifiques comme la chromatographie en phase gazeuse et le couplage chromatographie/spectrométrie de masse. Dans la deuxième partie, est présentée une technique de pyrolyse en milieu fermé pour simuler au laboratoire l'évolution thermique des kérogènes, asphaltènes ou huiles. Nous nous sommes surtout attachés à dresser des bilans massiques et des bilans de l'hydrogène sur l'ensemble des produits de pyrolyse. Pour cela, nous avons distingué cinq classes de poids moléculaire croissant : C1, C2-C5, C6-C13, C14+ et coke. La récupération quantitative et la séparation de chacune des cinq fractions permet une analyse moléculaire détaillée de chacune d'elles. The first part of this article describes an open pyrolysis system in order to characterize complex organic matter such as kerogen, coal, rock and oil asphaltenes and humic substances, etc. Pyrolysis effluents are recovered, fractionated quantitatively by liquid chromatography, and then they are analyzed by specific techniques such as gas chromatography and chromatography/mass-spectrometry coupling. The second part describes a pyrolysis technique in a closed system, used for the laboratory simulation of the thermal evolution of kerogens, asphaltenes or oils. A special effort has been made to give the mass and hydrogen balances for all pyrolysis products. For this, five classes have been distinguised with increasing molecular weight: C1, C2-C5, C6-C13, C14+ and coke. The quantitative recovery and the separation of each of the five fractions is used to make a detailed molecular analysis of each of

  18. Centrifuge modeling of rapid load tests with open-ended piles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.C.; Van Lottum, H.; Holscher, P.; Van Tol, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid and static load tests were conducted on open-ended and close-ended piles in the Deltares GeoCentriflige. hi flight, a pile was driven into the soil. Both fme-grained sand and silt beds were tested. Both the rapid and static soil resistances o f a close-ended pile were higher than the soil

  19. A Short Historical Review of Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass Une brève revue historique de la pyrolyse rapide de la biomasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlein D.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this short review, we survey the historical progress of fast pyrolysis technologies for thermochemical liquefaction of biomass to produce so-called "bio-oil". Our focus is on the potential applications of bio-oil as a liquid fuel for heat and power generation. We point out some of the inherent properties of bio-oil that create difficulties standing in the way of these applications. Finally, we take a brief look at some processes that aim to valorize bio-oil by conversion to higher value liquid fuel products. Dans cette revue nous nous proposons de dresser un rappel historique des progrès relatifs aux technologies de liquéfaction thermochimiques par pyrolyse rapide, encore appelée pyrolyse flash, de la biomasse pour produire ce que l’on appelle communément une "bio-huile". Nous insisterons sur ses applications comme combustible liquide pour la production de chaleur et d’électricité. Nous ferons ressortir quelques propriétés spécifiques aux bio-huiles qui peuvent créer des difficultés d’usage. Nous terminerons par un bref aperçu de quelques procédés permettant de valoriser la bio-huile en carburants liquides de plus forte valeur ajoutée.

  20. Properties of chicken manure pyrolysis bio-oil blended with diesel and its combustion characteristics in RCEM, Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunbong Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-oil (bio-oil was produced from chicken manure in a pilot-scale pyrolysis facility. The raw bio-oil had a very high viscosity and sediments which made direct application to diesel engines difficult. The bio-oil was blended with diesel fuel with 25% and 75% volumetric ratio at the normal temperature, named as blend 25. A rapid compression and expansion machine was used for a combustion test under the experimental condition corresponding to the medium operation point of a light duty diesel engine using diesel fuel, and blend 25 for comparison. The injection related pressure signal and cylinder pressure signal were instantaneously picked up to analyze the combustion characteristics in addition to the measurement of NOx and smoke emissions. Blend 25 resulted in reduction of the smoke emission by 80% and improvements of the apparent combustion efficiency while the NOx emission increased by 40%. A discussion was done based on the analysis results of combustion.

  1. The RAPID protocol enhances patient recovery after both laparoscopic and open colorectal resections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lloyd, G M

    2010-06-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs can accelerate recovery and shorten the hospital stay after colorectal resections. The RAPID (remove, ambulate, postoperative analgesia, introduce diet) protocol is a simplified ERAS program that consists of a simplified, user-friendly single-page pro forma schedule. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the RAPID protocol on patients undergoing both laparoscopic and open colorectal resections in two specialized colorectal units.

  2. High J{sub c} YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} Films via Rapid, Low pO{sub 2} Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAWLEY,JEFFREY T.; CLEM,PAUL G.; SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.

    2000-09-21

    In this investigation, YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} (YBCO) films were fabricated via a metal acetate, trifluoroacetic acid based sol-gel route, and spin-coat deposited on (100) LaAlO{sub 3} with a focus on maximizing J{sub c}, while minimizing processing time. We demonstrate that the use of a low pO{sub 2} atmosphere during the pyrolysis stage can lead to at least a tetiold reduction in pyrolysis time, compared to a 1 atm. O{sub 2} ambient. High-quality YBCO films on LaAlO{sub 3}, with J{sub c} values up to 3 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K, can be routinely crystallized from these rapidly pyrolyzed films.

  3. Adding Impacts and Mitigation Measures to OpenEI's RAPID Toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, Erin

    2017-05-01

    The Open Energy Information platform hosts the Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit to provide renewable energy permitting information on federal and state regulatory processes. One of the RAPID Toolkit's functions is to help streamline the geothermal permitting processes outlined in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). This is particularly important in the geothermal energy sector since each development phase requires separate land analysis to acquire exploration, well field drilling, and power plant construction permits. Using the Environmental Assessment documents included in RAPID's NEPA Database, the RAPID team identified 37 resource categories that a geothermal project may impact. Examples include impacts to geology and minerals, nearby endangered species, or water quality standards. To provide federal regulators, project developers, consultants, and the public with typical impacts and mitigation measures for geothermal projects, the RAPID team has provided overview webpages of each of these 37 resource categories with a sidebar query to reference related NEPA documents in the NEPA Database. This project is an expansion of a previous project that analyzed the time to complete NEPA environmental review for various geothermal activities. The NEPA review not only focused on geothermal projects within the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service managed lands, but also projects funded by the Department of Energy. Timeline barriers found were: extensive public comments and involvement; content overlap in NEPA documents, and discovery of impacted resources such as endangered species or cultural sites.

  4. Rapid speciation in a newly opened postglacial marine environment, the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Ricardo T; Bergström, Lena; Kautsky, Lena; Johannesson, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Background Theory predicts that speciation can be quite rapid. Previous examples comprise a wide range of organisms such as sockeye salmon, polyploid hybrid plants, fruit flies and cichlid fishes. However, few studies have shown natural examples of rapid evolution giving rise to new species in marine environments. Results Using microsatellite markers, we show the evolution of a new species of brown macroalga (Fucus radicans) in the Baltic Sea in the last 400 years, well after the formation of this brackish water body ~8–10 thousand years ago. Sympatric individuals of F. radicans and F. vesiculosus (bladder wrack) show significant reproductive isolation. Fucus radicans, which is endemic to the Baltic, is most closely related to Baltic Sea F. vesiculosus among north Atlantic populations, supporting the hypothesis of a recent divergence. Fucus radicans exhibits considerable clonal reproduction, probably induced by the extreme conditions of the Baltic. This reproductive mode is likely to have facilitated the rapid foundation of the new taxon. Conclusion This study represents an unparalleled example of rapid speciation in a species-poor open marine ecosystem and highlights the importance of increasing our understanding on the role of these habitats in species formation. This observation also challenges presumptions that rapid speciation takes place only in hybrid plants or in relatively confined geographical places such as postglacial or crater lakes, oceanic islands or rivers. PMID:19335884

  5. Rapid speciation in a newly opened postglacial marine environment, the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kautsky Lena

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theory predicts that speciation can be quite rapid. Previous examples comprise a wide range of organisms such as sockeye salmon, polyploid hybrid plants, fruit flies and cichlid fishes. However, few studies have shown natural examples of rapid evolution giving rise to new species in marine environments. Results Using microsatellite markers, we show the evolution of a new species of brown macroalga (Fucus radicans in the Baltic Sea in the last 400 years, well after the formation of this brackish water body ~8–10 thousand years ago. Sympatric individuals of F. radicans and F. vesiculosus (bladder wrack show significant reproductive isolation. Fucus radicans, which is endemic to the Baltic, is most closely related to Baltic Sea F. vesiculosus among north Atlantic populations, supporting the hypothesis of a recent divergence. Fucus radicans exhibits considerable clonal reproduction, probably induced by the extreme conditions of the Baltic. This reproductive mode is likely to have facilitated the rapid foundation of the new taxon. Conclusion This study represents an unparalleled example of rapid speciation in a species-poor open marine ecosystem and highlights the importance of increasing our understanding on the role of these habitats in species formation. This observation also challenges presumptions that rapid speciation takes place only in hybrid plants or in relatively confined geographical places such as postglacial or crater lakes, oceanic islands or rivers.

  6. Rapid mutation of endogenous zebrafish genes using zinc finger nucleases made by Oligomerized Pool ENgineering (OPEN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Foley

    Full Text Available Customized zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs form the basis of a broadly applicable tool for highly efficient genome modification. ZFNs are artificial restriction endonucleases consisting of a non-specific nuclease domain fused to a zinc finger array which can be engineered to recognize specific DNA sequences of interest. Recent proof-of-principle experiments have shown that targeted knockout mutations can be efficiently generated in endogenous zebrafish genes via non-homologous end-joining-mediated repair of ZFN-induced DNA double-stranded breaks. The Zinc Finger Consortium, a group of academic laboratories committed to the development of engineered zinc finger technology, recently described the first rapid, highly effective, and publicly available method for engineering zinc finger arrays. The Consortium has previously used this new method (known as OPEN for Oligomerized Pool ENgineering to generate high quality ZFN pairs that function in human and plant cells.Here we show that OPEN can also be used to generate ZFNs that function efficiently in zebrafish. Using OPEN, we successfully engineered ZFN pairs for five endogenous zebrafish genes: tfr2, dopamine transporter, telomerase, hif1aa, and gridlock. Each of these ZFN pairs induces targeted insertions and deletions with high efficiency at its endogenous gene target in somatic zebrafish cells. In addition, these mutations are transmitted through the germline with sufficiently high frequency such that only a small number of fish need to be screened to identify founders. Finally, in silico analysis demonstrates that one or more potential OPEN ZFN sites can be found within the first three coding exons of more than 25,000 different endogenous zebrafish gene transcripts.In summary, our study nearly triples the total number of endogenous zebrafish genes successfully modified using ZFNs (from three to eight and suggests that OPEN provides a reliable method for introducing targeted mutations in nearly any

  7. Mass Spectral Profile for Rapid Differentiating Beta-Lactams from Their Ring-Opened Impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hecheng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC MS has been widely used for β-lactam antibiotics determination. However, its application to identify impurities of these frequently used drugs is not sufficient at present. In this job, characteristic profiles of the collision induced dissociation (CID spectra of both β-lactams and ring-opened β-lactams were extracted from the MS data of six β-lactam antibiotics and their forty-five impurities, and were confirmed by the MS data reported in the literature. These characteristics have been successfully applied to rapid differentiation of β-lactam and ring-opened β-lactam impurities in cefixime, cefdinir, and cefaclor. However, these characteristic profiles can only be obtained under low activating voltage. They did not display in the high energy activated CID spectra. Diagnostic fragmentations for determining the localization of double bond and substituents on the thiazine ring and the side chain were also observed. In addition, several characteristic fragmentations are hopeful to be used to differentiate the configurations of C-2 on the thiazine ring of ring-opened impurities, which is generally disadvantageous of mass spectrometry. Taken together, forty-five impurities were identified from the capsules of cefixime, cefdinir, and cefaclor.

  8. Preparation, properties, and bonding utilization of pyrolysis bio-oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid increase in energy consumption, limited fossil fuel resource, and environmental concerns have stimulated the research need for biomass-derived fuels and chemicals. Pyrolysis is a thermal degradation process of biomass in the absence of oxygen. The liquid product from pyrolysis is known as ...

  9. Production of pyrolysis oil

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Methods for fractional catalytic pyrolysis which allow for conversion of biomass into a slate of desired products without the need for post-pyrolysis separation are described. The methods involve use of a fluid catalytic bed which is maintained at a suitable pyrolysis temperature. Biomass is added to the catalytic bed, preferably while entrained in a non-reactive gas such as nitrogen, causing the biomass to become pyrolyzed and forming the desired products in vapor and gas forms, allowing the...

  10. Rapid-response Sensor Networks Leveraging Open Standards and the Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, L. E.; Lieberman, J. E.; Lewis, L.; Botts, M.; Liang, S.

    2016-12-01

    New sensor technologies provide an unparalleled capability to collect large numbers of diverse observations about the world around us. Networks of such sensors are especially effective for capturing and analyzing unexpected, fast moving events if they can be deployed with a minimum of time, effort, and cost. A rapid-response sensing and processing capability is extremely important in quickly unfolding events not only to collect data for future research.but also to support response efforts that may be needed by providing up-to-date knowledge of the situation. A recent pilot activity coordinated by the Open Geospatial Consortium combined Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) standards with Internet of Things (IoT) practices to understand better how to set up rapid-response sensor networks in comparable event situations involving accidents or disasters. The networks included weather and environmental sensors, georeferenced UAV and PTZ imagery collectors, and observations from "citizen sensors", as well as virtual observations generated by predictive models. A key feature of each "SWE-IoT" network was one or more Sensor Hubs that connected local, often proprietary sensor device protocols to a common set of standard SWE data types and standard Web interfaces on an IP-based internetwork. This IoT approach provided direct, common, interoperable access to all sensor readings from anywhere on the internetwork of sensors, Hubs, and applications. Sensor Hubs also supported an automated discovery protocol in which activated Hubs registered themselves with a canonical catalog service. As each sensor (wireless or wired) was activated within range of an authorized Hub, it registered itself with that Hub, which in turn registered the sensor and its capabilities with the catalog. Sensor Hub functions were implemented in a range of component types, from personal devices such as smartphones and Raspberry Pi's to full cloud-based sensor services platforms. Connected into a network

  11. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-09-01

    Production of 2nd-generation biofuels from biomass residues and waste feedstock is gaining great concerns worldwide. Pyrolysis, a thermochemical conversion process involving rapid heating of feedstock under oxygen-absent condition to moderate temperature and rapid quenching of intermediate products, is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by "microwave dielectric heating" effects. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass. First, conventional fast pyrolysis and microwave dielectric heating is briefly introduced. Then microwave-assisted pyrolysis process is thoroughly discussed stepwise from biomass pretreatment to bio-oil collection. The existing efforts are summarized in a table, providing a handy overview of the activities (e.g., feedstock and pretreatment, reactor/pyrolysis conditions) and findings (e.g., pyrolysis products) of various investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pyrolysis and Gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Bilitewski, B.

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification include processes that thermally convert carbonaceous materials into products such as gas, char, coke, ash, and tar. Overall, pyrolysis generates products like gas, tar, and char, while gasification converts the carboncontaining materials (e.g. the outputs from pyrolysis......) into a mainly gaseous output. The specific output composition and relative amounts of the outputs greatly depend on the input fuel and the overall process configuration. Although pyrolysis processes in many cases also occur in gasification (however prior to the gasification processes), the overall technology...... may often be described as gasification only. Pyrolysis, however, can also be employed without proceeding with gasification. Gasification is by no means a novel process; in the 19th century so-called ‘town gas’ was produced by the gasification of coal and for example used for illumination purposes...

  13. Pyrolysis of Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rađenović, A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of relevant literature on coal pyrolysis.Pyrolysis, as a process technology, has received considerable attention from many researchers because it is an important intermediate stage in coal conversion.Reactions parameters as the temperature, pressure, coal particle size, heating rate, soak time, type of reactor, etc. determine the total carbon conversion and the transport of volatiles and therebythe product distribution. Part of the possible environmental pollutants could be removed by optimising the pyrolysis conditions. Therefore, this process will be subsequently interesting for coal utilization in the future

  14. Effect of slow versus rapid rewarming on jugular bulb oxygen saturation in adult patients undergoing open heart surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohmaed Shaaban Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A debate has appeared in the recent literature about the optimum rewarming strategy (slow vs. rapid for the best brain function. This study was designed to compare the effect of slow versus rapid rewarming on jugular bulb oxygen saturation (SjO 2 in adult patients undergoing open heart surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 patients undergoing valve and adult congenital heart surgery were randomly allocated equally to rapid rewarming group 0.5 (0.136°C/min and slow rewarming group 0.219 (0.055°C/min in jugular bulb sampling was taken before, during and after surgery. Surgery was done at cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB temperature of 28-30°C and rewarming was performed at the end of the surgical procedure. Results: CPB time, rewarming period were significantly longer in the slow rewarming group. Significant difference was observed in the number of the desaturated patients (SjO 2 ≤ 50% between the two groups; 14 (35% in rapid rewarming versus 6 (15% in the slow rewarming group; P = 0.035 by Fisher′s exact test. Conclusions: Slow rewarming could reduce the incidence of SjO 2 desaturation during rewarming in adult patients undergoing open heart surgery.

  15. Formate-assisted pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSisto, William Joseph; Wheeler, Marshall Clayton; van Heiningen, Adriaan R. P.

    2015-03-17

    The present invention provides, among other thing, methods for creating significantly deoxygenated bio-oils form biomass including the steps of providing a feedstock, associating the feedstock with an alkali formate to form a treated feedstock, dewatering the treated feedstock, heating the dewatered treated feedstock to form a vapor product, and condensing the vapor product to form a pyrolysis oil, wherein the pyrolysis oil contains less than 30% oxygen by weight.

  16. Open-Source Wax RepRap 3-D Printer for Rapid Prototyping Paper-Based Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M; Anzalone, N C; Heldt, C L

    2016-08-01

    The open-source release of self-replicating rapid prototypers (RepRaps) has created a rich opportunity for low-cost distributed digital fabrication of complex 3-D objects such as scientific equipment. For example, 3-D printable reactionware devices offer the opportunity to combine open hardware microfluidic handling with lab-on-a-chip reactionware to radically reduce costs and increase the number and complexity of microfluidic applications. To further drive down the cost while improving the performance of lab-on-a-chip paper-based microfluidic prototyping, this study reports on the development of a RepRap upgrade capable of converting a Prusa Mendel RepRap into a wax 3-D printer for paper-based microfluidic applications. An open-source hardware approach is used to demonstrate a 3-D printable upgrade for the 3-D printer, which combines a heated syringe pump with the RepRap/Arduino 3-D control. The bill of materials, designs, basic assembly, and use instructions are provided, along with a completely free and open-source software tool chain. The open-source hardware device described here accelerates the potential of the nascent field of electrochemical detection combined with paper-based microfluidics by dropping the marginal cost of prototyping to nearly zero while accelerating the turnover between paper-based microfluidic designs. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  17. Method for preventing plugging in the pyrolysis of agglomerative coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Norman W.

    1979-01-23

    To prevent plugging in a pyrolysis operation where an agglomerative coal in a nondeleteriously reactive carrier gas is injected as a turbulent jet from an opening into an elongate pyrolysis reactor, the coal is comminuted to a size where the particles under operating conditions will detackify prior to contact with internal reactor surfaces while a secondary flow of fluid is introduced along the peripheral inner surface of the reactor to prevent backflow of the coal particles. The pyrolysis operation is depicted by two equations which enable preselection of conditions which insure prevention of reactor plugging.

  18. The safety and effectiveness of Da Vinci surgical system compared with open surgery and laparoscopic surgery: a rapid assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiajie; Wang, Yingqiang; Li, Youping; Li, Xianglian; Li, Cuicui; Shen, Jiantong

    2014-05-01

    The primary objectives of this rapid assessment were to assess the clinical evidence of Da Vinci surgical system (DVSS) comparing with open procedures and laparoscopic procedures, and in order to provide the evidence for health decision makers and clinician. A comprehensive search of electronic databases (EMbase, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI, VIP, CBM and Wanfang) and HTA websites were completed up to 9 October, 2013. Two reviews (Jiajie Yu and Yingqiang Wang) independently extracted data of the manuscripts, and assessed quality of included studies using AMSTAR tools. Qualitative description and GRADE were used to report the outcomes and evidence quality. A total of 17 studies were included: 3 were HTA and 14 were SR/meta-analysis. The included studies focused on prostatectomy, nephrectomy, hysterectomy colorectal surgery, and cardiac surgery. DVSS was shown to be associated with statistically significant reduction in length of hospital stay, blood loss, and transfusion rate compared with open and laparoscopic surgery, but increase in operative time when compared with open surgery. Based on the evidence included in this rapid assessment, DVSS has a limited impact on several clinical outcomes. Considering no available data from randomized controlled trials and much higher cost, decisions will be complex and need to be made carefully. Decision makers should cut down the quantity of purchasing and reasonable allocate them. © 2014 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Dimensional Error in Rapid Prototyping with Open Source Software and Low-cost 3D-printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendón-Medina, Marco A; Andrade-Delgado, Laura; Telich-Tarriba, Jose E; Fuente-Del-Campo, Antonio; Altamirano-Arcos, Carlos A

    2018-01-01

    Rapid prototyping models (RPMs) had been extensively used in craniofacial and maxillofacial surgery, especially in areas such as orthognathic surgery, posttraumatic or oncological reconstructions, and implantology. Economic limitations are higher in developing countries such as Mexico, where resources dedicated to health care are limited, therefore limiting the use of RPM to few selected centers. This article aims to determine the dimensional error of a low-cost fused deposition modeling 3D printer (Tronxy P802MA, Shenzhen, Tronxy Technology Co), with Open source software. An ordinary dry human mandible was scanned with a computed tomography device. The data were processed with open software to build a rapid prototype with a fused deposition machine. Linear measurements were performed to find the mean absolute and relative difference. The mean absolute and relative difference was 0.65 mm and 1.96%, respectively ( P = 0.96). Low-cost FDM machines and Open Source Software are excellent options to manufacture RPM, with the benefit of low cost and a similar relative error than other more expensive technologies.

  20. Fast Pyrolysis of Lignin Using a Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    2013-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of lignin from an ethanol plant was investigated on a lab scale pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) with respect to pyrolysis temperature, reactor gas residence time, and feed rate. A maximal organic oil yield of 34 wt % dry basis (db) (bio-oil yield of 43 wt % db) is obtained...

  1. Refining fast pyrolysis of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil produced from biomass is a promising renewable alternative to crude oil. Such pyrolysis oil has transportation, storage, and processing benefits, none of which are offered by the bulky, inhomogeneous solid biomass from which it originates. However, pyrolysis oil has both a different

  2. Flash vacuum pyrolysis of lignin model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooney, M.J.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1997-03-01

    Despite the extensive research into the pyrolysis of lignin, the underlying chemical reactions that lead to product formation are poorly understood. Detailed mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of biomass and lignin under conditions relevant to current process conditions could provide insight into utilizing this renewable resource for the production of chemicals and fuel. Currently, flash or fast pyrolysis is the most promising process to maximize the yields of liquid products (up to 80 wt %) from biomass by rapidly heating the substrate to moderate temperatures, typically 500{degrees}C, for short residence times, typically less than two seconds. To provide mechanistic insight into the primary reaction pathways under process relevant conditions, we are investigating the flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of lignin model compounds that contain a {beta}-ether. linkage and {alpha}- or {gamma}-alcohol, which are key structural elements in lignin. The dominant products from the FVP of PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh (PPE), PhC(OH)HCH{sub 2}OPh, and PhCH{sub 2}CH(CH{sub 2}OH)OPh at 500{degrees}C can be attributed to homolysis of the weakest bond in the molecule (C-O bond) or 1,2-elimination. Surprisingly, the hydroxy-substituent dramatically increases the decomposition of PPE. It is proposed that internal hydrogen bonding is accelerating the reaction.

  3. Finite element analysis of gradually and rapidly varied unsteady flow in open channel : II. Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kun Yeun; Park, Jae Hong; Lee, Eul Rae [Kyungpook National University, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-28

    Petrov-Galerkin finite element model for analyzing dynamic wave equation is applied to gradually and rapidly varied unsteady flow. The model is verified by applying to hydraulic jump, nonlinear disturbance propagation in frictionless horizontal channel and dam-break analysis. It shows stable and accurate results compared with analytical solutions for various cases. The model is applied to a surge propagation in a frictionless horizontal channel. Three-dimensional water surface profiles show that the computed result converges to the analytical one with sharp discontinuity. The model is also applied to the Taehwa River to analyze unsteady flood wave propagation. The computed results have good agreements with those of DWOPER model in terms of discharge and stage hydrographs. (author). 19 refs., 22 figs.

  4. Pyrolysis of the tetra pak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Ahmet; Yanik, Jale; Brebu, Mihai; Vasile, Cornelia

    2009-11-01

    This study deals with pyrolysis of tetra pak which is widely used as an aseptic beverage packaging material. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out under inert atmosphere in a batch reactor at different temperatures and by different pyrolysis modes (one- and two-step). The yields of char, liquid and gas were quantified. Pyrolysis liquids produced were collected as three separate phases; aqueous phase, tar and polyethylene wax. Characterization of wax and the determination of the total amount of phenols in aqueous phase were performed. Chemical compositions of gas and char products relevant to fuel applications were determined. Pure aluminum can be also recovered by pyrolysis.

  5. Resilience of SAR11 bacteria to rapid acidification in the high-latitude open ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Manuela; Hill, Polly G; Tynan, Eithne; Achterberg, Eric P; Leakey, Raymond J G; Zubkov, Mikhail V

    2016-02-01

    Ubiquitous SAR11 Alphaproteobacteria numerically dominate marine planktonic communities. Because they are excruciatingly difficult to cultivate, there is comparatively little known about their physiology and metabolic responses to long- and short-term environmental changes. As surface oceans take up anthropogenic, atmospheric CO2, the consequential process of ocean acidification could affect the global biogeochemical significance of SAR11. Shipping accidents or inadvertent release of chemicals from industrial plants can have strong short-term local effects on oceanic SAR11. This study investigated the effect of 2.5-fold acidification of seawater on the metabolism of SAR11 and other heterotrophic bacterioplankton along a natural temperature gradient crossing the North Atlantic Ocean, Norwegian and Greenland Seas. Uptake rates of the amino acid leucine by SAR11 cells as well as other bacterioplankton remained similar to controls despite an instant ∼50% increase in leucine bioavailability upon acidification. This high physiological resilience to acidification even without acclimation, suggests that open ocean dominant bacterioplankton are able to cope even with sudden and therefore more likely with long-term acidification effects. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The antibody mining toolbox: an open source tool for the rapid analysis of antibody repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Sara; Glanville, Jacob; Ferrara, Fortunato; Naranjo, Leslie; Gleasner, Cheryl D; Shen, Xiaohong; Bradbury, Andrew R M; Kiss, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    In vitro selection has been an essential tool in the development of recombinant antibodies against various antigen targets. Deep sequencing has recently been gaining ground as an alternative and valuable method to analyze such antibody selections. The analysis provides a novel and extremely detailed view of selected antibody populations, and allows the identification of specific antibodies using only sequencing data, potentially eliminating the need for expensive and laborious low-throughput screening methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. The high cost and the need for bioinformatics experts and powerful computer clusters, however, have limited the general use of deep sequencing in antibody selections. Here, we describe the AbMining ToolBox, an open source software package for the straightforward analysis of antibody libraries sequenced by the three main next generation sequencing platforms (454, Ion Torrent, MiSeq). The ToolBox is able to identify heavy chain CDR3s as effectively as more computationally intense software, and can be easily adapted to analyze other portions of antibody variable genes, as well as the selection outputs of libraries based on different scaffolds. The software runs on all common operating systems (Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Linux), on standard personal computers, and sequence analysis of 1-2 million reads can be accomplished in 10-15 min, a fraction of the time of competing software. Use of the ToolBox will allow the average researcher to incorporate deep sequence analysis into routine selections from antibody display libraries.

  7. A critical view on catalytic pyrolysis of biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venderbosch, R H

    2015-04-24

    The rapid heating of biomass in an oxygen-free environment optimizes the yield of fast-pyrolysis liquids. This liquid comprises a mix of acids, (dehydrated) carbohydrates, aldehydes, ketones, lignin fragments, aromatics, and alcohols, limiting its use. Deoxygenation of these liquids to replace hydrocarbons represents significant challenges. Catalytic pyrolysis is seen as a promising route to yield liquids with a higher quality. In this paper, literature data on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass are reviewed and deoxygenation results correlated with the overall carbon yield. Evidence is given that in an initial stage of the catalytic process reactive components are converted to coke, gas, and water, and only to a limited extent to a liquid product. Catalysts are not yet good enough, and an appropriate combination of pyrolysis conditions, reactive products formed, and different reactions to take place to yield improved quality liquids may be practically impossible. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. GSL: An Open Source Framework for the Rapid Development of Data Archive Access Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, J.; Boler, F. M.; Bock, Y.; Squibb, M. B.; Ratzesberger, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Geodetic Seamless Archive Center (GSAC) project is a NASA ROSES ACCESS funded effort with the goal to define and implement a web service API for uniform querying across multiple geodetic data repositories. The project information technology partners include two International GNSS Service (IGS) Data Centers, CDDIS and SOPAC, and a third global NSF and NASA-funded Data Center, UNAVCO. A science partner, the University of Nevada, Reno Geodetic Laboratory is utilizing the services and contributing new quality assessment products. Each of the participant data centers has its own internal database schema and various web-based access mechanisms to suit the needs of their individual user communities. The software engineering challenge that we faced was to unify these access mechanisms into a common web service API. To facilitate the development of the GSAC interfaces within these disparate repositories we have developed a Java-based open source middleware framework called the GSAC Service Layer (GSL). It was recognized early on in the project that much of the required functionality within each repository could be provided by a common software layer, thus achieving a substantial reduction in the development effort required by each partner institution. The GSL provides a range of common services for repository configuration, initialization, database management, web interface generation, and data model and metadata creation. Each repository implementation then simply focuses on the core task of responding to query requests and delivering to the GSL layer the internal results. The GSL layer is then responsible for encoding the results in the desired format. A fundamental challenge in developing a framework such as the GSL is balancing the trade-off between the agnosticism needed within the GSL so that it is applicable to a wide range of problem domains and the specific needs required for a particular repository implementations. The GSL addresses this challenge through an

  9. Rapid instrument prototyping with open source hardware and software: Application to water quality in hypersaline estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loose, B.; O'Shea, R.

    2016-02-01

    We describe the design and deployment of a water quality sonde that utilizes mobile phone networks for near-real time data telemetry. The REOL or Realtime Estuary Ocean Logger has the unique and valuable capability of logging data internally and simultaneously relaying the information to a webserver using a cellular modem. The internal circuitry consists of a GSM cellular modem, a microcontroller, and an SD card for data storage - these components are low cost, and backed up with circuit diagrams and programming libraries that are published under open source license. This configuration is versatile and is capable of reading instrument output from a broad spectrum of devices, including serial, TTL, analog voltage (0 - 5V), and analog current (typically 4-20 mA). We find the greatest challenges lie in development of smart software that is capable of handling the conditions brought on by this harsh environment. We have programmed the sonde to first determine whether it is submerged by water, and record the temperature on the electronics before deciding whether to telemeter measurements over the cellular network. The Google App EngineTM provides an interactive visualization platform. We have tested the REOL with a variety of water quality sensors. In the configuration described here, we use a thermistor, depth gauge and torroidal conductivity sensor to measure water temperature, water level and conductivity up to 200 mS/cm. The latter is necessary for studies in hypersaline estuaries, where porewater salinity can exceed 100 g/kg. We present data from two estuaries in West Africa and from a longer-term deployment in the Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island.

  10. Pyrolysis of Table Sugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Bulut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Table sugars were pyrolyzed at different temperatures (300, 400, and 500°C in a fixed-bed reactor. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on yields of liquid, solid, and gaseous products was investigated. As expected the yield of liquid products gradually increased and the yield of solid products gradually decreased when the pyrolysis temperature was raised. The yield of liquid products was greatest (52 wt% at 500°C. The composition of bio-oils extracted with diethyl ether was identified by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS, nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The following compounds were observed in bio-oils produced from the pyrolysis of table sugar at 500°C: 1,4:3,6-dianhydro-α-d-glucopyranose, 5-(hydroxymethyl furfural, 5-acetoxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, and cyclotetradecane liquid product. The relative concentration of 5-(hydroxymethyl furfural was the highest in bio-oils obtained from pyrolysis of table sugars at 500°C.

  11. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: PYROLYSIS TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis is formally defined as chemical decomposition induced in organic materials by heat in the absence of oxygen. In practice, it is not possible to achieve a completely oxygen-free atmosphere; actual pyrolytic systems are operated with less than stoichiometric quantities of...

  12. Biomass fast pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridgewater Anthony V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioenergy is now accepted as having the potential to provide the major part of the projected renewable energy provisions of the future. Fast pyrolysis is one of the three main thermal routes, with gasification and combustion, to providing a useful and valuable biofuel. It is one of the most recent renewable energy processes to have been introduced and offers the advantages of a liquid product bio-oil that can be readily stored and trans ported, and used as a fuel, an energy carrier and a source of chemicals. Fast pyrolysis has now achieved commercial success for production of some chemicals, liquid fuel and electricity. Bio-oils have been success fully tested in engines turbines and boilers, and have been upgraded to high quality hydrocarbon fuels although at a presently unacceptable energetic and financial cost. This review concentrates on the technology of pyrolysis and applications for the liquid product. The basic pyrolysis process and the characteristics of the main liquid product bio-oil are first summarized followed by a review of applications for bio-oil. The main technical and non-technical barriers to implementation are identified.

  13. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2005-01-01

    may predict the variation of product yield with operating conditions such as temperature and heating rate. The system of coupled differential equations describing the pyrolysis process is solved using the software DYMOLA. Various literature values for kinetic parameters have been compared...

  14. Solid waste utilization: pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Mixon, W.R.; Dean, C.; Lizdas, D.J.

    1977-08-01

    As a part of the Integrated Community Energy System (ICES) Program, a number of technology evaluations are being prepared on various current and emerging sources of energy. This evaluation considers the use of pyrolysis as a method of producing energy from municipal solid waste. The energy can be in the form of a gas, oil, chars, or steam. Pyrolysis, the decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen (or in an oxygen-deficient atmosphere), has been used to convert organic matter to other products or fuels. This process is also described as ''destructive distillation''. Four processes are described in detail: the ''Landgard'' System (Monsanto Environ-Chem Systems, Inc.); the Occidental Research Corporation Process (formerly the Garrett Research and Development Company; The ''Purox'' System (Union Carbide Corporation); and the ''Refu-Cycler'' (Hamilton Standard Corporation). ''Purox'' and ''Refu-Cycler'' produce a low-Btu gas; the Occidental process produces an oil, and the ''Landgard'' process produces steam using on-site auxiliary boilers to burn the fuel gases produced by the pyrolysis unit. Also included is a listing of other pyrolysis processes currently under development for which detailed information was not available. The evaluation provides information on the various process flowsheets, energy and material balances, product characteristics, and economics. Pyrolysis of municipal solid waste as an energy source can be considered a potential for the future; however little operational or economic information is available at this time.

  15. Lncident: A Tool for Rapid Identification of Long Noncoding RNAs Utilizing Sequence Intrinsic Composition and Open Reading Frame Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyu Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more studies have demonstrated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs play critical roles in diversity of biological process and are also associated with various types of disease. How to rapidly identify lncRNAs and messenger RNA is the fundamental step to uncover the function of lncRNAs identification. Here, we present a novel method for rapid identification of lncRNAs utilizing sequence intrinsic composition features and open reading frame information based on support vector machine model, named as Lncident (LncRNAs identification. The 10-fold cross-validation and ROC curve are used to evaluate the performance of Lncident. The main advantage of Lncident is high speed without the loss of accuracy. Compared with the exiting popular tools, Lncident outperforms Coding-Potential Calculator, Coding-Potential Assessment Tool, Coding-Noncoding Index, and PLEK. Lncident is also much faster than Coding-Potential Calculator and Coding-Noncoding Index. Lncident presents an outstanding performance on microorganism, which offers a great application prospect to the analysis of microorganism. In addition, Lncident can be trained by users’ own collected data. Furthermore, R package and web server are simultaneously developed in order to maximize the convenience for the users. The R package “Lncident” can be easily installed on multiple operating system platforms, as long as R is supported.

  16. Rapid sample classification using an open port sampling interface coupled with liquid introduction atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2017-02-15

    An "Open Access"-like mass spectrometric platform to fully utilize the simplicity of the manual open port sampling interface for rapid characterization of unprocessed samples by liquid introduction atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry has been lacking. The in-house developed integrated software with a simple, small and relatively low-cost mass spectrometry system introduced here fills this void. Software was developed to operate the mass spectrometer, to collect and process mass spectrometric data files, to build a database and to classify samples using such a database. These tasks were accomplished via the vendor-provided software libraries. Sample classification based on spectral comparison utilized the spectral contrast angle method. Using the developed software platform near real-time sample classification is exemplified using a series of commercially available blue ink rollerball pens and vegetable oils. In the case of the inks, full scan positive and negative ion ESI mass spectra were both used for database generation and sample classification. For the vegetable oils, full scan positive ion mode APCI mass spectra were recorded. The overall accuracy of the employed spectral contrast angle statistical model was 95.3% and 98% in case of the inks and oils, respectively, using leave-one-out cross-validation. This work illustrates that an open port sampling interface/mass spectrometer combination, with appropriate instrument control and data processing software, is a viable direct liquid extraction sampling and analysis system suitable for the non-expert user and near real-time sample classification via database matching. Published in 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published in 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. A transferable approach towards rapid inventory data capturing for seismic vulnerability assessment using open-source geospatial technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, M.; Pittore, M.; Parolai, S.; Zschau, J.

    2012-04-01

    Geospatial technologies are increasingly being used in pre-disaster vulnerability assessment and post-disaster impact assessment for different types of hazards. Especially the use of remote sensing data has been strongly promoted in recent years due to its capabilities of providing up-to-date information over large areas at a comparatively low cost with increasingly high spatial, temporal and spectral resolution. Despite its clear potentials, a purely remote sensing based approach has its limitations in that it is only capable of providing information about the birds-eye view of the objects of interest. The use of omnidirectional imaging in addition can provide the necessary street-view that furthermore allows for a rapid visual screening of a buildings façade. In this context, we propose an integrated approach to rapid inventory data capturing for the assessment of structural vulnerability of buildings in case of an earthquake. Globally available low-cost data sources are preferred and the tools are developed on an open-source basis to allow for a high degree of transferability and usability. On a neighbourhood scale medium spatial but high temporal and spectral resolution satellite images are analysed to outline areas of homogeneous urban structure. Following a proportional allocation scheme, for each urban structure type representative sample areas are selected for a more detailed analysis of the building stock with high resolution image data. On a building-by-building scale a ground-based, rapid visual survey is performed using an omnidirectional imaging system driven around with a car inside the identified sample areas. Processing of the acquired images allows for an extraction of vulnerability-related features of single buildings (e.g. building height, detection of soft-storeys). An analysis of high resolution satellite images provides with further inventory features (e.g. footprint area, shape irregularity). Since we are dealing with information coming from

  18. Pyrolysis oil as diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, S. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd., Vaasa (Finland). Diesel Technology

    1996-12-31

    Wood waste pyrolysis oil is an attractive fuel alternative for diesel engine operation. The main benefit is the sustainability of the fuel. No fossil reserves are consumed. The fact that wood waste pyrolysis oil does not contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions is of utmost importance. This means that power plants utilising pyrolysis oil do not cause additional global warming. Equally important is the reduced sulphur emissions that this fuel alternative implies. The sulphur content of pyrolysis oil is extremely low. The high water content and low heating value are also expected to result in very low NO{sub x} emissions. Utilisation of wood waste pyrolysis oil in diesel engines, however, involves a lot of challenges and problems to be solved. The low heating value requires a new injection system with high capacity. The corrosive characteristics of the fluid also underline the need for new injection equipment materials. Wood waste pyrolysis oil contains solid particles which can clog filters and cause abrasive wear. Wood waste pyrolysis oil has proven to have extremely bad ignition properties. The development of a reliable injection system which is able to cope with such a fuel involves a lot of optimisation tests, redesign and innovative solutions. Successful single-cylinder tests have already been performed and they have verified that diesel operation on wood pyrolysis oil is technically possible. (orig.)

  19. Time resolved pyrolysis of char

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    pyrolysis, and slow heating in direct combination with mass spectrometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection, respectively. Characteristic ions derived from the flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry data enable the release of volatiles to be time and, hence...

  20. Fuel-N Evolution during the Pyrolysis of Industrial Biomass Wastes with High Nitrogen Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshikawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, sewage sludge and mycelial waste from antibiotic production were pyrolyzed in a batch scale fixed-bed reactor as examples of two kinds of typical industrial biomass wastes with high nitrogen content. A series of experiments were conducted on the rapid pyrolysis and the slow pyrolysis of these wastes in the temperature range from 500–800 °C to investigate the Fuel-N transformation behavior among pyrolysis products. The results showed that Fuel-N conversion to Char-N intimately depended on the pyrolysis temperature and the yield of Char-N reduced with the increase of the pyrolysis temperature. Under the same pyrolysis conditions, Tar-N production mainly depended on complex properties of the different biomasses, including volatile matter, nitrogen content and biomass functional groups. HCN was the predominant NOx precursor in the rapid pyrolysis of biomass, whereas in the slow pyrolysis of mycelial waste, more NH3 was produced than HCN due to the additional NH3 formation through the hydrogenation reaction of Char-N, HCN and H radicals. At the same time, some part of the char was analyzed by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR to get more information on the nitrogen functionality changes and the tar was also characterized by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GCMS to identify typical nitrogenous tar compounds. Finally, the whole nitrogen distribution in products was discussed.

  1. Experimental toxicology of pyrolysis and combustion hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, H H; Hahn, K J; Barth, M L

    1975-01-01

    Data are presented on the acute toxicity (mortality only) of the thermal degradation products of polymers obtained by two methods of degradation. One system utilized a slowly increasing temperature (5 degrees C/min) and gradual degradation of the polymer with the rats being exposed to degradation products as they were evolved. In this system the more toxic polymers included wool, polypropylene, poly(vinyl chloride), and urethane foam. The second system utilized conditions of rapid combustion and exposure of rats to the total products of combustion for a period of 4 hr. In this system the more toxic materials included red oak, cotton, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), and styrene-acrylonitrile. It is of interest to note that the natural product wool is among the least toxic under these rapid combustion conditions and among the most toxic under slow pyrolysis conditions. Other materials also vary in the comparative toxicity of their thermal degradation products, depending upon the conditions of degradation and animal exposure. The two experimental techniques presented here may well represent the two extreme conditions of rapid combustion versus slow pyrolysis. Intermediate types of fire situations might be expected to result in relative acute toxicities somewhere between these two extremes. This report deals with acute toxicity on the basis of mortality data only and does not include other parameters of toxicity such as organ weights and histopathology. PMID:1175552

  2. Pyrolysis characteristics of typical biomass thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongzhen; Ba, Ziyu; Yang, Keyan; Zhang, Qingfa; Zhao, Kunpeng; Gu, Shiyan

    The biomass thermoplastic composites were prepared by extrusion molding method with poplar flour, rice husk, cotton stalk and corn stalk. The thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA) has also been used for evaluating the pyrolysis process of the composites. The results showed that the pyrolysis process mainly consists of two stages: biomass pyrolysis and the plastic pyrolysis. The increase of biomass content in the composite raised the first stage pyrolysis peak temperature. However, the carbon residue was reduced and the pyrolysis efficiency was better because of synergistic effect of biomass and plastic. The composite with different kinds of biomass have similar pyrolysis process, and the pyrolysis efficiency of the composite with corn stalk was best. The calcium carbonate could inhibit pyrolysis process and increase the first stage pyrolysis peak temperature and carbon residue as a filling material of the composite.

  3. Extension of in-situ stress test analysis to rapid hole evacuation at Yucca Mountain due to a network of open conduits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is underlain by tuffaceous rocks that are highly fractured and jointed. During drilling of bore-holes at Yucca Mountain there were numerous occurrences of lost circulation when whole mud was taken by the formation. This evidence suggests that parts of Yucca Mountain are controlled hydrologicaly by a network of open conduits along the existing joints and fractures. Also at Yucca Mountain, stress tests have been performed in-situ by charging a small section along the boreholes with an excess pressure head of water. For many of these tests, the initial drop in water head was so rapid that within seconds up to hundreds of meters of fall had occurred. The opening of fractures as the excess head increases has previously been proposed as an important factor in explaining the shape of the stress test curves at lower pressures. We propose that such induced hydraulic fractures, under increasing water heads, can grow to a length sufficient to intersect the existing network of open joints and fractures. We extend our previous model to incorporate flow out along these open conduits and examine the initial rapid drop in terms of these extended models. We show that this rapid evacuation model fits the observed data from many slug tests in wells in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain. This result is confirmation of the drilling evidence that a network of open conduits exists at various depths below the water table and over a large geographic region around Yucca Mountain.

  4. Flash Pyrolysis and Fractional Pyrolysis of Oleaginous Biomass in a Fluidized-bed Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Brook

    Thermochemical conversion methods such as pyrolysis have the potential for converting diverse biomass feedstocks into liquid fuels. In particular, bio-oil yields can be maximized by implementing flash pyrolysis to facilitate rapid heat transfer to the solids along with short vapor residence times to minimize secondary degradation of bio-oils. This study first focused on the design and construction of a fluidized-bed flash pyrolysis reactor with a high-efficiency bio-oil recovery unit. Subsequently, the reactor was used to perform flash pyrolysis of soybean pellets to assess the thermochemical conversion of oleaginous biomass feedstocks. The fluidized bed reactor design included a novel feed input mechanism through suction created by flow of carrier gas through a venturi which prevented plugging problems that occur with a more conventional screw feeders. In addition, the uniquely designed batch pyrolysis unit comprised of two tubes of dissimilar diameters. The bottom section consisted of a 1" tube and was connected to a larger 3" tube placed vertically above. At the carrier gas flow rates used in these studies, the feed particles remained fluidized in the smaller diameter tube, but a reduction in carrier gas velocity in the larger diameter "disengagement chamber" prevented the escape of particles into the condensers. The outlet of the reactor was connected to two Allihn condensers followed by an innovative packed-bed dry ice condenser. Due to the high carrier gas flow rates in fluidized bed reactors, bio-oil vapors form dilute aerosols upon cooling which that are difficult to coalesce and recover by traditional heat exchange condensers. The dry ice condenser provided high surface area for inertial impaction of these aerosols and also allowed easy recovery of bio-oils after natural evaporation of the dry ice at the end of the experiments. Single step pyrolysis was performed between 250-610°C with a vapor residence time between 0.3-0.6s. At 550°C or higher, 70% of

  5. Biomass-to-hydrogen via fast pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chornet, E.; Wang, D.; Czernik, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and reforming the pyroligneous oils is being studied as a strategy for producing hydrogen. Novel technologies for the rapid pyrolysis of biomass have been developed in the past decade. They provide compact and efficient systems to transform biomass into vapors that are condensed to oils, with yields as high as 75-80 wt.% of the anhydrous biomass. This {open_quotes}bio-oil{close_quotes} is a mixture of aldehydes, alcohols, acids, oligomers from the constitutive carbohydrates and lignin, and some water derived from the dehydration reactions. Hydrogen can be produced by reforming the bio-oil or its fractions with steam. A process of this nature has the potential to be cost competitive with conventional means of producing hydrogen. The reforming facility can be designed to handle alternate feedstocks, such as natural gas and naphtha, if necessary. Thermodynamic modeling of the major constituents of the bio-oil has shown that reforming is possible within a wide range of temperatures and steam-to-carbon ratios. Existing catalytic data on the reforming of oxygenates have been studied to guide catalyst selection. Tests performed on a microreactor interfaced with a molecular beam mass spectrometer showed that, by proper selection of the process variables: temperature, steam-to-carbon ratio, gas hourly space velocity, and contact time, almost total conversion of carbon in the feed to CO and CO{sub 2} could be obtained. These tests also provided possible reaction mechanisms where thermal cracking competes with catalytic processes. Bench-scale, fixed bed reactor tests demonstrated high hydrogen yields from model compounds and carbohydrate-derived pyrolysis oil fractions. Reforming bio-oil or its fractions required proper dispersion of the liquid to avoid vapor-phase carbonization of the feed in the inlet to the reactor. A special spraying nozzle injector was designed and successfully tested with an aqueous fraction of bio-oil.

  6. Catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Sa, Jacinto

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reports on the latest developments of biomass catalytic pyrolysis for the production of fuels. The primary focus is on the role of catalysts in the process, namely, their influence in the liquefaction of lignocellulosic biomass.

  7. Oxidative pyrolysis of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senneca, Osvalda; Chirone, Riccardo [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, C.N.R., P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Salatino, Piero [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

    2004-06-01

    This study addresses the dependence of the rate and pattern of pyrolysis of solid fuels from the oxidizing versus inert nature of the gaseous atmosphere. A selection of four solid fuels is considered in the study, namely two plastics (polyethylene and polyethylene terephthalate), one lignocellulosic material (Robinia Pseudoacacia) and a South African bituminous coal. Fuels are pyrolyzed in a thermogravimetric apparatus at different heating rates, under inert conditions or in the presence of oxygen at different concentration.Results indicate that the action exerted by oxygen during pyrolysis depends on the nature of the fuel and on the process conditions such as heating rate and oxygen concentration. Larger heating rates and larger oxygen concentration may indeed emphasize differences between inert and oxidative pyrolysis. Further analysis is directed to check the adequacy of a power low kinetic expression to describe the dependence of the rate of oxidative pyrolysis from the level of oxygen concentration.

  8. Chapter 8: Biomass Pyrolysis Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, Robert L.; Baldwin, Robert M.; Arbogast, Stephen; Bellman, Don; Paynter, Dave; Wykowski, Jim

    2016-09-06

    Fast pyrolysis is heating on the order of 1000 degrees C/s in the absence of oxygen to 40-600 degrees C, which causes decomposition of the biomass. Liquid product yield from biomass can be as much as 80% of starting dry weight and contains up to 75% of the biomass energy content. Other products are gases, primarily carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and methane, as well as solid char and ash. Residence time in the reactor is only 0.5-2 s so that relatively small, low-capital-cost reactors can be used. The low capital cost combined with greenhouse gas emission reductions relative to petroleum fuels of 50-95% makes pyrolysis an attractive process. The pyrolysis liquids have been investigated as a refinery feedstock and as stand-alone fuels. Utilization of raw pyrolysis oil has proven challenging. The organic fraction is highly corrosive because of its high organic acid content. High water content lowers the net heating value and can increase corrosivity. It can be poorly soluble in petroleum or petroleum products and can readily absorb water. Distillation residues can be as high as 50%, viscosity can be high, oils can exhibit poor stability in storage, and they can contain suspended solids. The ignition quality of raw pyrolysis oils is poor, with cetane number estimates ranging from 0 to 35, but more likely to be in the lower end of that range. While the use of raw pyrolysis oils in certain specific applications with specialized combustion equipment may be possible, raw oils must be significantly upgraded for use in on-highway spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines. Upgrading approaches most often involve catalytic hydrodeoxygenation, one of a class of reactions known as hydrotreating or hydroprocessing. This chapter discusses the properties of raw and upgraded pyrolysis oils, as well as the potential for integrating biomass pyrolysis with a petroleum refinery to significantly reduce the hydroprocessing cost.

  9. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore Dickerson; Juan Soria

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical conversion route for lignocellulosic biomass that produces chemicals and fuels compatible with current, petrochemical infrastructure. Catalytic modifications to pyrolysis bio-oils are geared towards the elimination and substitution of oxygen and oxygen-containing functionalities in addition to increasing the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the final products. Recent progress has focused on both hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation of bio-oil using...

  10. What Were the Reasons for the Rapid Landslide Occurrence in “Piaseczno” Open Pit? – Analysis of the Landslide Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakóbczyk Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are major natural hazards occurring in opencast mining. The problem of slope stability failure in the existing open pit mines as well as in those which are at a stage of technical closure is current issue in Poland and all over the world. This problem requires conducting in-depth and meaningful analysis which will identify the causes of processes characterized by a very rapid course and large extent.

  11. Co-pyrolysis of wood biomass and synthetic polymers mixtures. Part 3. Characterisation of heavy products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharypov, V.I.; Beregovtsova, N.G.; Kuznetsov, B.N. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology SB RAS, K. Marx str., 42, Krasnoyarsk 660049 (Russian Federation); Membrado, L.; Cebolla, V.L. [Instituto de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain); Marin, N.; Weber, J.V. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Applications, Universite de Metz, IUT, rue V. Demange, 57500 Saint-Avold (France)

    2003-05-01

    The chemical composition of heavy liquids (b.p.>180C) obtained by co-pyrolysis of polyolefins/wood biomass mixtures in autoclave conditions under inert atmosphere was investigated by FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, GC-MS, high performance TLC combined with densitometry techniques. The preliminary separation of heavy liquids into different fractions by open LC and TLC methods had been used. Some perspectives of polymer and biomass thermal conversion during co-pyrolysis process were discussed.

  12. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soncini, Ryan M.; Means, Nicholas C.; Weiland, Nathan T.

    2013-10-01

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  13. Effect of dry torrefaction on kinetics of catalytic pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyanto, Sutijan, Deendarlianto, Budiman, Arief

    2015-12-01

    Decreasing world reserve of fossil resources (i.e. petroleum oil, coal and natural gas) encourage discovery of renewable resources as subtitute for fossil resources. Biomass is one of the main natural renewable resources which is promising resource as alternate resources to meet the world's energy needs and raw material to produce chemical platform. Conversion of biomass, as source of energy, fuel and biochemical, is conducted using thermochemical process such as pyrolysis-gasification process. Pyrolysis step is an important step in the mechanism of pyrolysis - gasification of biomass. The objective of this study is to obtain the kinetic reaction of catalytic pyrolysis of dry torrified sugarcane bagasse which used Ca and Mg as catalysts. The model of kinetic reaction is interpreted using model n-order of single reaction equation of biomass. Rate of catalytic pyrolysis reaction depends on the weight of converted biomass into char and volatile matters. Based on TG/DTA analysis, rate of pyrolysis reaction is influenced by the composition of biomass (i.e. hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) and inorganic component especially alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM). From this study, it has found two equations rate of reaction of catalytic pyrolysis in sugarcane bagasse using catalysts Ca and Mg. First equation is equation of pyrolysis reaction in rapid zone of decomposition and the second equation is slow zone of decomposition. Value of order reaction for rapid decomposition is n > 1 and for slow decomposition is nreactions for catalytic pyrolysis of dry-torrified sugarcane bagasse with presence of Ca tend to higher than that's of presence of Mg.

  14. Fuels Combustion Research: Supercritical Fuel Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glassman, Irvin

    2000-01-01

    .... The focus during the subject period was directed to understanding the pyrolysis and combustion of endothermic fuels under subcritical conditions and the pyrolysis of these fuels under supercritical conditions...

  15. Fuels Combustion Research: Supercritical Fuel Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glassman, Irvin

    2001-01-01

    .... The focus during the subject period was directed to understanding the pyrolysis and combustion of endothermic fuels under subcritical conditions and the pyrolysis of these fuels under supercritical conditions...

  16. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  17. Organic emissions from coal pyrolysis: mutagenic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, A G; Wornat, M J; Mitra, A; Sarofim, A F

    1987-01-01

    Four different types of coal have been pyrolyzed in a laminar flow, drop tube furnace in order to establish a relationship between polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) evolution and mutagenicity. Temperatures of 900K to 1700K and particle residence times up to 0.3 sec were chosen to best simulate conditions of rapid rate pyrolysis in pulverized (44-53 microns) coal combustion. The specific mutagenic activity (i.e., the activity per unit sample weight) of extracts from particulates and volatiles captured on XAD-2 resin varied with coal type according to the order: subbituminous greater than high volatile bituminous greater than lignite greater than anthracite. Total mutagenic activity (the activity per gram of coal pyrolyzed), however, varied with coal type according to the order: high volatile bituminous much greater than subbituminous = lignite much greater than anthracite, due primarily to high organic yield during high volatile bituminous coal pyrolysis. Specific mutagenic activity peaked in a temperature range of 1300K to 1500K and generally appeared at higher temperatures and longer residence times than peak PAC production. PMID:3311724

  18. Exploratory studies on fast pyrolysis oil upgrading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahfud, Farchad Husein

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil is a dark brown liquid which can be produced in high yield from different kind of biomass sources by means of fast pyrolysis. Pyrolysis oil is considered as a promising second generation energy carrier and may play an important role in the future of "biobased economies". The energy

  19. Pyrolysis of Coconut Shell: An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ganapathy Sundaram

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fixed-bed slow pyrolysis experiments of coconut shell have been conducted to determine the effect of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on the pyrolysis product yields. The effect of vapour residence time on the pyrolysis yield was also investigated by varying the reactor length. Pyrolysis experiments were performed at pyrolysis temperature between 400 and 600°C with a constant heating rate of 60°C/min and particle sizes of 1.18-1.80 mm. The optimum process conditions for maximizing the liquid yield from the coconut shell pyrolysis in a fixed bed reactor were also identified. The highest liquid yield was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C, particle size of 1.18-1.80 mm, with a heating rate of 60 °C/min in a 200 mm length reactor. The yield of obtained char, liquid and gas was 22-31 wt%, 38-44 wt% and 30-33 wt% respectively at different pyrolysis conditions. The results indicate that the effects of pyrolysis temperature and particle size on the pyrolysis yield are more significant than that of heating rate and residence time. The various characteristics of pyrolysis oil obtained under the optimum conditions for maximum liquid yield were identified on the basis of standard test methods.

  20. Evaluation of opening pattern and bone neoformation at median palatal suture area in patients submitted to surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME through cone beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gomes SALGUEIRO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSurgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME is the treatment of choice to adult patients even with severe transversal maxillary discrepancies. However, the adequate retention period to achieve the bone remodeling, thus assuring treatment stability, is controversial.Objective To evaluate the opening pattern and bone neoformation process at the midpalatal suture in patients submitted to surgically assisted (SARME through cone beam computed tomography (CBCT.Material and Methods Fourteen patients were submitted to SARME through subtotal Le Fort I osteotomy. Both the opening pattern and the mean bone density at midpalatal suture area to evaluate bone formation were assessed pre- and post-operatively (15, 60 and 180 days through CBCT.Results Type I opening pattern (from anterior to posterior nasal spine occurred in 12 subjects while type II opening pattern (from anterior nasal spine to transverse palatine suture occurred in 2 individuals. The 180-day postoperative mean (PO 180 of bone density value was 49.9% of the preoperative mean (Pre value.Conclusions The opening pattern of midpalatal suture is more related to patients’ age (23.9 years in type I and 33.5 years in type II and surgical technique. It was not possible to observe complete bone formation at midpalatal suture area at the ending of the retention period studied (180 days.

  1. Kinetic investigation of wood pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurner, F.; Mann, U.; Beck, S. R.

    1980-06-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the kinetics of the primary reactions of wood pyrolysis. A new experimental method was developed which enabled us to measure the rate of gas, tar, and char production while taking into account the temperature variations during the wood heating up. The experimental method developed did not require any sophisticated instruments. It facilitated the collection of gas, tar and residue (unreacted wood and char) as well as accurate measurement of the temperature inside the wood sample. Expressions relating the kinetic parameters to the measured variables were derived. The pyrolysis kinetics was investigated in the range of 300 to 400/sup 0/C at atmospheric pressure and under nitrogen atmosphere. Reaction temperature and mass fractions of gas, tar, and residue were measured as a function of time. Assuming first-order reactions, the kinetic parameters were determined using differential method. The measured activation energies of wood pyrolysis to gas, tar, and char were 88.6, 112.7, and 106.5 kJ/mole, respectively. These kinetic data were then used to predict the yield of the various pyrolysis products. It was found that the best prediction was obtained when an integral-mean temperature obtained from the temperature-time curve was used as reaction temperature. The pyrolysis products were analyzed to investigate the influence of the pyrolysis conditions on the composition. The gas consisted mainly of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and C/sub 3//sup +/-compounds. The gas composition depended on reaction time as well as reactor temperature. The tar analysis indicated that the tar consisted of about seven compounds. Its major compound was believed to be levoglucosan. Elemental analysis for the char showed that the carbon content increased with increasing temperature.

  2. Application of pyrolysis to recycling organics from waste tantalum capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Bo; Chen, Zhenyang; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-08-05

    Tantalum capacitors (TCs) are widely used in electronic appliances. The rapid replacement of electronic products results in generating large amounts of waste TCs (WTCs). WTCs, rich in valuable tantalum, are considered as high quality tantalum resources for recycling. However, environmental pollution will be caused if the organics of WTCs were not properly disposed. Therefore, effectively recycling the organics of WTCs is significant for recovering the valuable parts. This study proposed an argon (Ar) pyrolysis process to recycle the organics from WTCs. The organic decomposition kinetic was first analyzed by thermogravimetry. The results showed that the organics were decomposed in two major steps and the average activation energy was calculated to 234kJ/mol. Then, the suitable pyrolysis parameters were determined as 550°C, 30min and 100ml/min. The organics were effectively decomposed and converted to oils (mainly contained phenol homologs and benzene homologs) and gases (some hydrocarbon). These pyrolysis products could be reutilized as energy sources. Moreover, based on the products and bond energy theory, the pyrolysis mechanisms of the organics were also discussed. Finally, a reasonable technological process for products utilization was presented. This study contributes to the efficient recycling the organics before valuable material recovery from WTCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biomass to hydrogen via fast pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chornet, E.; Wang, D.; Montane, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass results in a pyrolytic oil which is a mixture of (a) carbohydrate-derived acids, aldehydes and polyols, (b) lignin-derived substituted phenolics, and (c) extractives-derived terpenoids and fatty acids. The conversion of this pyrolysis oil into H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} is thermodynamically favored under appropriate steam reforming conditions. Our efforts have focused in understanding the catalysis of steam reforming which will lead to a successful process at reasonable steam/carbon ratios arid process severities. The experimental work, carried out at the laboratory and bench scale levels, has centered on the performance of Ni-based catalysts using model compounds as prototypes of the oxygenates present in the pyrolysis oil. Steam reforming of acetic acid, hydroxyacetaldehyde, furfural and syringol has been proven to proceed rapidly within a reasonable range of severities. Time-on-stream studies are now underway using a fixed bed barometric pressure reactor to ascertain the durability of the catalysts and thus substantiate the scientific and technical feasibility of the catalytic reforming option. Economic analyses are being carried out in parallel to determine the opportunity zones for the combined fast pyrolysis/steam reforming approach. A discussion on the current state of the project is presented.

  4. An optically accessible pyrolysis microreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraban, J. H.; Ellison, G. Barney [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); David, D. E. [Integrated Instrument Development Facility, CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0216 (United States); Daily, J. W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    We report an optically accessible pyrolysis micro-reactor suitable for in situ laser spectroscopic measurements. A radiative heating design allows for completely unobstructed views of the micro-reactor along two axes. The maximum temperature demonstrated here is only 1300 K (as opposed to 1700 K for the usual SiC micro-reactor) because of the melting point of fused silica, but alternative transparent materials will allow for higher temperatures. Laser induced fluorescence measurements on nitric oxide are presented as a proof of principle for spectroscopic characterization of pyrolysis conditions.

  5. Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandvold, Timothy A; Baird, Lance Awender; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Methods and apparatuses for preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In an embodiment, a method of preparing upgraded pyrolysis oil includes providing a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is hydrodeoxygenated under catalysis in the presence of hydrogen to form a hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream comprising a cyclic paraffin component. At least a portion of the hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oil stream is dehydrogenated under catalysis to form the upgraded pyrolysis oil.

  6. Exploratory studies on fast pyrolysis oil upgrading

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfud, Farchad Husein

    2007-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil is a dark brown liquid which can be produced in high yield from different kind of biomass sources by means of fast pyrolysis. Pyrolysis oil is considered as a promising second generation energy carrier and may play an important role in the future of "biobased economies". The energy content of pyrolysis oil is approximately half of fossil crude. Just like for crude oil, further reprocessing is necessary to arranged pyrolysis oil as fuel in e.g. combustion engines. This thesis des...

  7. Production, properties and utilisation of pyrolysis oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Oasmaa, A.; Arpiainen, V.; Solantausta, Y.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Kuoppala, E.; Levander, J.; Kleemola, J.; Saarimaeki, P. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-01

    In this project VTT Energy co-ordinates the EU JOULE Project `Biofuel oil for power plants and boilers` supporting the development projects of Finnish enterprises, and participates in the Pyrolysis Project of IEA Bioenergy Agreement. Presently two pyrolysis devices with capacities of 150 g/h and 1 kg/h are used for the project. Hot gas filtering tests by using one ceramic candle equipment have been carried out with the 1 kg/h device for pyrolysis oil. The solids and alkali contents of the product oil were reduced clearly. Suitable conditions are being defined for continuous hot gas filtering. A PDU device of 20 kg/h is being commissioned. The main aim of the chemical characterisation of pyrolysis oil was to develop as simple a method as possible for differentiating pyrolysis oils and for finding correlations between the characteristics and behaviour of pyrolysis oils. Pyrolysis oils produced from various raw materials (hardwood, pine, straw) were analysed and compared with each other. VTT Energy participates in the pyrolysis network (EU/PYNE) of EU, the aim of which is to collect and disseminate research results of pyrolysis studies, i.e., through a journal with a wide circulation. VTT also participates in the pyrolysis activity of IEA (PYRA), the other partners being Great Britain, EU, Canada and the United States. I.e., quality criteria and improvement, occupational safety and pyrolysis kinetics are discussed in IEA/PYRA

  8. Understanding the mechanism of catalytic fast pyrolysis by unveiling reactive intermediates in heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemberger, Patrick; Custodis, Victoria B. F.; Bodi, Andras; Gerber, Thomas; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.

    2017-01-01

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis is a promising way to convert lignin into fine chemicals and fuels, but current approaches lack selectivity and yield unsatisfactory conversion. Understanding the pyrolysis reaction mechanism at the molecular level may help to make this sustainable process more economic. Reactive intermediates are responsible for product branching and hold the key to unveiling these mechanisms, but are notoriously difficult to detect isomer-selectively. Here, we investigate the catalytic pyrolysis of guaiacol, a lignin model compound, using photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, which allows for isomer-selective detection of reactive intermediates. In combination with ambient pressure pyrolysis, we identify fulvenone as the central reactive intermediate, generated by catalytic demethylation to catechol and subsequent dehydration. The fulvenone ketene is responsible for the phenol formation. This technique may open unique opportunities for isomer-resolved probing in catalysis, and holds the potential for achieving a mechanistic understanding of complex, real-life catalytic processes. PMID:28660882

  9. Understanding the mechanism of catalytic fast pyrolysis by unveiling reactive intermediates in heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemberger, Patrick; Custodis, Victoria B. F.; Bodi, Andras; Gerber, Thomas; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.

    2017-06-01

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis is a promising way to convert lignin into fine chemicals and fuels, but current approaches lack selectivity and yield unsatisfactory conversion. Understanding the pyrolysis reaction mechanism at the molecular level may help to make this sustainable process more economic. Reactive intermediates are responsible for product branching and hold the key to unveiling these mechanisms, but are notoriously difficult to detect isomer-selectively. Here, we investigate the catalytic pyrolysis of guaiacol, a lignin model compound, using photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, which allows for isomer-selective detection of reactive intermediates. In combination with ambient pressure pyrolysis, we identify fulvenone as the central reactive intermediate, generated by catalytic demethylation to catechol and subsequent dehydration. The fulvenone ketene is responsible for the phenol formation. This technique may open unique opportunities for isomer-resolved probing in catalysis, and holds the potential for achieving a mechanistic understanding of complex, real-life catalytic processes.

  10. Comparison of three optimized digestion methods for rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand: Closed microwaves, open microwaves and ultrasound irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domini, Claudia E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Hidalgo, Montserrat [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Marken, Frank [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Canals, Antonio [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: a.canals@ua.es

    2006-03-02

    In the present work, experimental design was used for the fast optimization of three kinds of sample digestion procedures with the final aim of obtaining the COD value of wastewater samples. The digestion methods evaluated were 'closed microwave-assisted' (CMWD), 'open microwave-assisted' (OMWD) and 'ultrasound-assisted' (USD). Classical digestion was used as reference method. The optimum values for the different variables studied in each method were: 90 psi pressure, 475 W power and 4 min irradiation time (CMWD); 150 deg. C temperature and 4 min irradiation time (OMWD); 90% of maximum nominal power (180 W), 0.9 s (s{sup -1}) cycles and 1 min irradiation time (USD). In all cases, interference concentration that produces a deviation of 10% in COD values is 13.4, 23.4, 21.1 and 2819 mg/L for S{sup 2-}, Fe{sup 2+}, NO{sub 2} {sup -} and Cl{sup -}, respectively. Under optimum conditions, the proposed digestion methods have been successfully applied, with the exception of pyridine, to several pure organic compounds and COD recoveries for 10 real wastewater samples were ranged between 88 and 104% of the values obtained with the classical (open reflux) method used as reference, with R.S.D. lower than 4% in most cases. Thus, the use of ultrasound energy for COD determination seems to be an interesting and promising alternative to conventional open reflux and microwave-assisted digestion methods used for the same purpose since the instrumentation is simpler, cheaper and safer and the digestion step faster than the ones used for the same purpose.

  11. Phenomenological models of cellulose pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, A.E.S.; Zanardi, M.A.; Mullin, J.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Combustion Lab.]|[Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Using yields vs. residence time and temperature from 50 to 1000 ms and 650-900{sup o}C, measured with the ultra pyrolysis system at the University of Western Ontario (UWO) we established an approximate total gaseous yield function Y (t,T). With UWO data, we also establish approximate correlations between individual gaseous yields (CO, CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 3}H{sub 6}) and the total gaseous yield that could be used to give Y{sub i}(t,T) for individual gases. We further extend Y(t,T) using shock tube pyrolysis measurements from 0.3 to 2 ms and 900 to 2100{sup o}C made at Kansas State University (KSU). In doing so, we develop a global decay model that gives analytical time and temperature dependencies for cellulose, activated cellulose, tar, prompt total gas and late total gas. We next examine the impact of heating rates and transfer upon pyrolysis of cellulose using slow pyrolysis data obtained by thermogravimetric analysis at the Colarado School of Mines (CSM). In this effort, we first develop an accurate general relationship for Boltzmann integrals. Then using an analytically convenient Arrhenius reaction rate (ARR) we examine data at varying heating rates and with three Biot numbers. We find some phenomenological analytical relationships giving ARR parameter dependencies on heating rate and particle size that appear indicative of heat transfer impacts. If adequate data becomes available these relationships might be applied to hemicellulose and lignin. Then the pyrolysis rates of any plant species might be predicted in terms of the pyrolytic characteristics of their cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin components. (Author)

  12. Open microfluidic gel electrophoresis: Rapid and low cost separation and analysis of DNA at the nanoliter scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzweiler, Ludwig; Gleichmann, Tobias; Tanguy, Laurent; Koltay, Peter; Zengerle, Roland; Riegger, Lutz

    2017-07-01

    Gel electrophoresis is one of the most applied and standardized tools for separation and analysis of macromolecules and their fragments in academic research and in industry. In this work we present a novel approach for conducting on-demand electrophoretic separations of DNA molecules in open microfluidic (OM) systems on planar polymer substrates. The approach combines advantages of slab gel, capillary- and chip-based methods offering low consumable costs (<0.1$) circumventing cost-intensive microfluidic chip fabrication, short process times (5 min per analysis) and high sensitivity (4 ng/μL dsDNA) combined with reasonable resolution (17 bases). The open microfluidic separation system comprises two opposing reservoirs of 2-4 μL in volume, a semi-contact written gel line acting as separation channel interconnecting the reservoirs and sample injected into the line via non-contact droplet dispensing and thus enabling the precise control of the injection plug and sample concentration. Evaporation is prevented by covering aqueous structures with PCR-grade mineral oil while maintaining surface temperature at 15°C. The liquid gel line exhibits a semi-circular cross section of adaptable width (∼200-600 μm) and height (∼30-80 μm) as well as a typical length of 15-55 mm. Layout of such liquid structures is adaptable on-demand not requiring time consuming and repetitive fabrication steps. The approach was successfully demonstrated by the separation of a standard label-free DNA ladder (100-1000 bp) at 100 V/cm via in-line staining and laser induced fluorescent end-point detection using an automated prototype. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Moose: An Open-Source Framework to Enable Rapid Development of Collaborative, Multi-Scale, Multi-Physics Simulation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, A. E.; Permann, C.; Peterson, J. W.; Gaston, D.; Andrs, D.; Miller, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL)-developed Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE; www.mooseframework.org), is an open-source, parallel computational framework for enabling the solution of complex, fully implicit multiphysics systems. MOOSE provides a set of computational tools that scientists and engineers can use to create sophisticated multiphysics simulations. Applications built using MOOSE have computed solutions for chemical reaction and transport equations, computational fluid dynamics, solid mechanics, heat conduction, mesoscale materials modeling, geomechanics, and others. To facilitate the coupling of diverse and highly-coupled physical systems, MOOSE employs the Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) method when solving the coupled nonlinear systems of equations arising in multiphysics applications. The MOOSE framework is written in C++, and leverages other high-quality, open-source scientific software packages such as LibMesh, Hypre, and PETSc. MOOSE uses a "hybrid parallel" model which combines both shared memory (thread-based) and distributed memory (MPI-based) parallelism to ensure efficient resource utilization on a wide range of computational hardware. MOOSE-based applications are inherently modular, which allows for simulation expansion (via coupling of additional physics modules) and the creation of multi-scale simulations. Any application developed with MOOSE supports running (in parallel) any other MOOSE-based application. Each application can be developed independently, yet easily communicate with other applications (e.g., conductivity in a slope-scale model could be a constant input, or a complete phase-field micro-structure simulation) without additional code being written. This method of development has proven effective at INL and expedites the development of sophisticated, sustainable, and collaborative simulation tools.

  14. Magnetic-luminescent spherical particles synthesized by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Norma L.; Flores, Dora L.; Hirata, Gustavo A.

    2015-07-01

    The combination of magnetic and luminescent properties in a single particle system, opens-up a wide range of potential applications in biotechnology and biomedicine. In this work, we performed the synthesis of magnetic-luminescent Gd2O3:Eu3+@Fe2O3 particles by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis performed in a tubular furnace. In order to achieve the composite formation, commercial superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles were coated with a luminescent Eu3+-doped Gd2O3 shell in a low-cost one-step process. The spray pyrolysis method yields deagglomerated spherical shape magneto/luminescent particles. The photoluminescence spectra under UV excitation (λExc = 265 nm) of the magnetic Gd2O3:Eu3+@Fe2O3 compound showed the characteristic red emission of Eu3+ (λEm = 612 nm). This magneto/luminescent system will find applications in biomedicine and biotechnology.

  15. Use of SMS-Based Surveys in the Rapid Response to the Ebola Outbreak in Liberia: Opening Community Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Amanda; Figueroa, Maria Elena; Storey, J Douglas

    2017-01-01

    During an emerging health crisis like the 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa, communicating with communities to learn from them and to provide timely information can be a challenge. Insight into community thinking, however, is crucial for developing appropriate communication content and strategies and for monitoring the progress of the emergency response. In November 2014, the Health Communication Capacity Collaborative partnered with GeoPoll to implement a Short Message Service (SMS)-based survey that could create a link with affected communities and help guide the communication response to Ebola. The ideation metatheory of communication and behavior change guided the design of the survey questionnaire, which produced critical insights into trusted sources of information, knowledge of transmission modes, and perceived risks-all factors relevant to the design of an effective communication response that further catalyzed ongoing community actions. The use of GeoPoll's infrastructure for data collection proved a crucial source of almost-real-time data. It allowed for rapid data collection and processing under chaotic field conditions. Though not a replacement for standard survey methodologies, SMS surveys can provide quick answers within a larger research process to decide on immediate steps for communication strategies when the demand for speedy emergency response is high. They can also help frame additional research as the response evolves and overall monitor the pulse of the situation at any point in time.

  16. Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Dickerson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical conversion route for lignocellulosic biomass that produces chemicals and fuels compatible with current, petrochemical infrastructure. Catalytic modifications to pyrolysis bio-oils are geared towards the elimination and substitution of oxygen and oxygen-containing functionalities in addition to increasing the hydrogen to carbon ratio of the final products. Recent progress has focused on both hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation of bio-oil using a variety of metal catalysts and the production of aromatics from bio-oil using cracking zeolites. Research is currently focused on developing multi-functional catalysts used in situ that benefit from the advantages of both hydrodeoxygenation and zeolite cracking. Development of robust, highly selective catalysts will help achieve the goal of producing drop-in fuels and petrochemical commodities from wood and other lignocellulosic biomass streams. The current paper will examine these developments by means of a review of existing literature.

  17. Influence of fast pyrolysis temperature on biochar labile fraction and short-term carbon loss in a loamy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Esben; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Ibrahim, Norazana

    2011-01-01

    Production of bio-oil, gas and biochar from pyrolysis of biomass is considered a promising technology for combined production of bioenergy and recalcitrant carbon (C) suitable for sequestration in soil. Using a fast pyrolysis centrifuge reactor (PCR) the present study investigated the relation...... in soil. As these labile carbohydrates are rapidly mineralized, their presence lowers the biochar-C sequestration potential. By raising the pyrolysis temperature, biochar with none or low contents of these fractions can be produced, but this will be on the expense of the biochar quantity. The yield of CO2...

  18. Apparatus for entrained coal pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durai-Swamy, Kandaswamy

    1982-11-16

    This invention discloses a process and apparatus for pyrolyzing particulate coal by heating with a particulate solid heating media in a transport reactor. The invention tends to dampen fluctuations in the flow of heating media upstream of the pyrolysis zone, and by so doing forms a substantially continuous and substantially uniform annular column of heating media flowing downwardly along the inside diameter of the reactor. The invention is particularly useful for bituminous or agglomerative type coals.

  19. Results of the International Energy Agency Round Robin on Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Meier, Dietrich; Oasmaa, Anja; van de Beld, Bert; Bridgwater, Anthony V.; Marklund, Magnus

    2017-04-06

    An international round robin study of the production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil was undertaken. Fifteen institutions in six countries contributed. Three biomass samples were distributed to the laboratories for processing in fast pyrolysis reactors. Samples of the bio-oil produced were transported to a central analytical laboratory for analysis. The round robin was focused on validating the pyrolysis community understanding of production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil by providing a common feedstock for bio-oil preparation. The round robin included: •distribution of 3 feedstock samples from a common source to each participating laboratory; •preparation of fast pyrolysis bio-oil in each laboratory with the 3 feedstocks provided; •return of the 3 bio-oil products (minimum 500 ml) with operational description to a central analytical laboratory for bio-oil property determination. The analyses of interest were: density, viscosity, dissolved water, filterable solids, CHN, S, trace element analysis, ash, total acid number, pyrolytic lignin, and accelerated aging of bio-oil. In addition, an effort was made to compare the bio-oil components to the products of analytical pyrolysis through GC/MS analysis. The results showed that clear differences can occur in fast pyrolysis bio-oil properties by applying different reactor technologies or configurations. The comparison to analytical pyrolysis method suggested that Py-GC/MS could serve as a rapid screening method for bio-oil composition when produced in fluid-bed reactors. Furthermore, hot vapor filtration generally resulted in the most favorable bio-oil product, with respect to water, solids, viscosity, and total acid number. These results can be helpful in understanding the variation in bio-oil production methods and their effects on bio-oil product composition.

  20. Understanding the fast pyrolysis of lignin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Pushkaraj R; Brown, Robert C; Shanks, Brent H

    2011-11-18

    In the present study, pyrolysis of corn stover lignin was investigated by using a micro-pyrolyzer coupled with a GC-MS/FID (FID=flame ionization detector). The system has pyrolysis-vapor residence times of 15-20 ms, thus providing a regime of minimal secondary reactions. The primary pyrolysis product distribution obtained from lignin is reported. Over 84 % mass balance and almost complete closure on carbon balance is achieved. In another set of experiments, the pyrolysis vapors emerging from the micro-pyrolyzer are condensed to obtain lignin-derived bio-oil. The chemical composition of the bio-oil is analyzed by using GC-MS and gel permeation chromatography techniques. The comparison between results of two sets of experiments indicates that monomeric compounds are the primary pyrolysis products of lignin, which recombine after primary pyrolysis to produce oligomeric compounds. Further, the effect of minerals (NaCl, KCl, MgCl(2), and CaCl(2)) and temperature on the primary pyrolysis product distribution is investigated. The study provides insights into the fundamental mechanisms of lignin pyrolysis and a basis for developing more descriptive models of biomass pyrolysis. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Decomposition Polypropylene Plastic Waste with Pyrolysis Methode

    OpenAIRE

    Naimah, Siti; Nuraeni, Chicha; Rumondang, Irma; Jati, Bumiarto Nugroho; Ermawati, Rahyani

    2012-01-01

    Various attempts have been made to reduce plastic waste. One of the attempts is to convert plastic waste into energy sources. The process of converting waste plastics involves several stages of the process, one of which is the pyrolysis (thermal cracking). Pyrolysis is the decomposition process of plastic waste and distillation process without O2 at high temperatures (500-1000 °C). Results of pyrolysis process is solids and liquids forms. With the reactor temperature at 500 °C, pyrolysis equi...

  2. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sensho Honma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds.

  3. Effect of catalytic pyrolysis conditions using pulse current heating method on pyrolysis products of wood biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800 °C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800 °C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds.

  4. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds. PMID:25614894

  5. Laser Pyrolysis Techniques: Application To Catalysis, Combustion Diagnostics, And Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory P.

    1984-05-01

    A pulsed laser pyrolysis method has been developed to study kinetic processes at high temperatures. A CO2 laser is used to irradiate a 100 torr mixture of an infrared absorber (SF6), bath gas (N2), and reactants. Rapid heating to 700-1400 K occurs, followed by two-stage cooling. Unimolecular reactions are studied by competitive kinetics with a known standard, using mass-spectrometric or gas-chromatographic analysis. Bimolecular processes are examined using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The technique offers great advantages in reaching reactive temperatures in a fast and time-resolved manner, without the complications of hot surfaces. It is thus an ideal tool for analyzing and measuring some of the basic processes occurring in more complicated, real, hot systems. Our recent applications of the laser pyrolysis method in the areas of catalysis and combustion are summarized here. Several transition metal-carbonyl bond dissociation energies have been measured, and catalysis by the hot metal particulate products was observed. Since the use of LIF as a flame diagnotic requires some knowledge of the fluorescence quenching rates at high temperatures, the laser pyrolysis method was used to measure these rates for the important OH radical. Its reaction rate with acetylene was also measured, with implications for flame modeling and the mechanism of soot formation. Finally, this method can be used to ignite low concentrations of fuel and oxidant, and then study the time-resolved evolution of the flame chemistry by LIF and chemiluminescence observations.

  6. Heterogeneous Ozonolysis of Surface Adsorbed Lignin Pyrolysis Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, R. Z.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass combustion releases semi-volatile organic compounds into the troposphere, including many phenols and methoxyphenols as the result of lignin pyrolysis. Given their relatively low vapor pressures, these compounds readily adsorb on inorganic and organic aerosol substrates where they may alter aerosol properties and undergo heterogeneous chemistry. We use infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS and ATR-FTIR) to monitor the adsorption and subsequent heterogeneous ozonolysis of model lignin pyrolysis products, including catechol, eugenol, and 4-propylguaiacol. Ozonolysis reaction kinetics were compared on various inorganic substrates - such as Al2O3 and NaCl, which serve as mineral and sea salt aerosol substrates, respectively - and as a function of ozone concentration and relative humidity. Following in situ FTIR analysis, the adsorbed organics were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy to identify reaction products and quantify product branching ratios. Ozonolysis of catechol and 4-propylguaiacol readily resulted in ring cleavage forming dicarboxylic acids (e.g., muconic acid). Eugenol ozonolysis proceeded rapidly at the alkene side chain producing homovanillic acid and homovanillin in an approximate 2:1 branching ratio at 0% RH; ring cleavage was also observed. For all lignin pyrolysis products, heterogeneous ozonolysis was faster on NaCl versus Al2O3. Implications for the atmospheric chemistry of semi-volatile methoxylphenols adsorbed on aerosol substrates will be discussed.

  7. Rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor, said rotor comprising a rotor body having a longitudinal centre axis, and at least one pivotally mounted blade being adapted to pivot around a pivot axis under rotation of the rotor body around the longitudinal centre axis....... Moreover, the present invention relates to a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor applying such a rotor....

  8. Historical Developments of Pyrolysis Reactors : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Nunez, J. A.; Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R.; Garcia-Perez, M. E.; Fonts, I.; Abrego, J.; Westerhof, R. J.M.; Garcia Perez, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a review of pyrolysis technologies, focusing on reactor designs and companies commercializing these technologies. The renewed interest in pyrolysis is driven by the potential to convert lignocellulosic materials into bio-oil and biochar and the use of these intermediates for the

  9. Combustion kinetics of char obtained by flash pyrolysis of pine wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, A.M.C.; Janse, Arthur M.C.; de Jonge, Harald G.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1998-01-01

    The combustion kinetics of rapidly pyrolyzed wood have been investigated within the temperature range of 573−773 K and the oxygen concentration range of 2.25−36 vol %. These kinetics are, for instance, required for the design of a char combustion section in an integrated flash pyrolysis pilot plant.

  10. Combustion kinetics of char obtained by flash pyrolysis of pine wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, A.M.C.; Jonge, de H.G.; Prins, W.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The combustion kinetics of rapidly pyrolyzed wood have been investigated within the temperature range of 573-773 K and the oxygen concentration range of 2.25-36 vol %. These kinetics are, for instance, required for the design of a char combustion section in an integrated flash pyrolysis pilot plant.

  11. Kinetic simulation model for steam pyrolysis of shale oil feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavianian, H.R.; Yesavage, V.F.; Dickson, P.F.; Peters, R.W. (Argonne National Lab., Argonne, IL (US))

    1990-04-01

    Steam pyrolysis of shale oil feedstocks for the production of chemical intermediates was studied in a bench-scale tubular reactor. The results have been correlated as a function of temperature, residence time, and pyrolysis severity. The experimental results obtained upon pyrolysis of shale oil indicate that shale oil should make an excellent feedstock for steam pyrolysis.

  12. Two-dimensional studies of coal pyrolysis: preliminary results. [Large blocks heated slowly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, R.C. III

    1976-01-01

    Two-dimensional pyrolysis behavior of large, instrumented blocks of subbituminous coal has been examined recently in support of in-situ coal gasification process development. Pyrolysis studies have traditionally dealt with small coal particles which were heated rapidly; but, by contrast, in-situ gasification involves slow heating of large coal blocks resulting from permeability enhancement operations or, perhaps, roof collapse. Experiments utilizing maximum reactor temperatures of 500/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/C, achieved over 4- to 50-hr time periods, have produced data correlating tar and gas production rates and composition with maximum temperature and heating rate.

  13. Dentoskeletal outcomes of a rapid maxillary expander with differential opening in patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate: A prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garib, Daniela; Lauris, Rita De Cássia Moura Carvalho; Calil, Louise Resti; Alves, Arthur César De Medeiros; Janson, Guilherme; De Almeida, Araci Malagodi; Cevidanes, Lúcia Helena Soares; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this 2-arm parallel study was to evaluate the dentoskeletal effects of rapid maxillary expansion with differential opening (EDO) compared with the hyrax expander in patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate. A sample of patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate was prospectively and consecutively recruited. Eligibility criteria included participants in the mixed dentition with lip and palate repair performed during early childhood and maxillary arch constriction with a need for maxillary expansion before the alveolar bone graft procedure. The participants were consecutively divided into 2 study groups. The experimental and control groups comprised patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion using EDO and the hyrax expander, respectively. Cone-beam computed tomography examinations and digital dental models of the maxillary dental arches were obtained before expansion and 6 months postexpansion. Standardized cone-beam computed tomography coronal sections were used for measuring maxillary transverse dimensions and posterior tooth inclinations. Digital dental models were used for assessing maxillary dental arch widths, arch perimeters, arch lengths, palatal depths, and posterior tooth inclinations. Blinding was used only during outcome assessment. The chi-square test was used to compare the sex ratios between groups (P variables before expansion. No significant differences were found between the EDO and the hyrax expander groups regarding skeletal changes. The EDO promoted significantly greater increases of intercanine width (difference, 3.63 mm) and smaller increases in canine buccal tipping than the conventional hyrax expander. No serious harm was observed other than transitory variable pressure sensations on the maxillary alveolar process in both groups. The EDO produced skeletal changes similar to the conventional hyrax expander. The differential expander is an adequate alternative to conventional rapid maxillary

  14. H2CAP - Hydrogen assisted catalytic biomass pyrolysis for green fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndal, Trine Marie Hartmann; Høj, Martin; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2014-01-01

    Pyrolysis of biomass produces a high yield of condensable oil at moderate temperature and low pressure.This bio-oil has adverse properties such as high oxygen and water contents, high acidity and immiscibility with fossil hydrocarbons. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is a promising technology...... that can be used to upgrade the crude bio-oil to fuel-grade oil. The development of the HDO process is challenged by rapid catalyst deactivation, instability of the pyrolysis oil, poorly investigated reaction conditions and a high complexity and variability of the input oil composition. However, continuous...... catalytic hydropyrolysis coupled with downstream HDO of the pyrolysis vapors before condensation shows promise (Figure 1). A bench scale experimental setup will be constructed for the continuous conversion of solid biomass (100g /h) to low oxygen, fuel-grade bio-oil. The aim is to provide a proof...

  15. Broadband Microwave Study of Reaction Intermediates and Products Through the Pyrolysis of Oxygenated Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, Chamara; Hernandez-Castillo, Alicia O.; Fritz, Sean; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2017-06-01

    The rapidly growing list of potential plant-derived biofuels creates a challenge for the scientific community to provide a molecular-scale understanding of their combustion. Development of accurate combustion models rests on a foundation of experimental data on the kinetics and product branching ratios of their individual reaction steps. Therefore, new spectroscopic tools are necessary to selectively detect and characterize fuel components and reactive intermediates generated by pyrolysis and combustion. Substituted furans, including furanic ethers, are considered second-generation biofuel candidates. Following the work of the Ellison group, an 8-18 GHz microwave study was carried out on the unimolecular and bimolecular decomposition of the smallest furanic ether, 2-methoxy furan, and it`s pyrolysis intermediate, the 2-furanyloxy radical, formed in a high-temperature pyrolysis source coupled to a supersonic expansion. Details of the experimental setup and analysis of the spectrum of the radical will be discussed.

  16. Numerical simulation of vortex pyrolysis reactors for condensable tar production from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.S.; Bellan, J. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

    1998-08-01

    A numerical study is performed in order to evaluate the performance and optimal operating conditions of vortex pyrolysis reactors used for condensable tar production from biomass. A detailed mathematical model of porous biomass particle pyrolysis is coupled with a compressible Reynolds stress transport model for the turbulent reactor swirling flow. An initial evaluation of particle dimensionality effects is made through comparisons of single- (1D) and multi-dimensional particle simulations and reveals that the 1D particle model results in conservative estimates for total pyrolysis conversion times and tar collection. The observed deviations are due predominantly to geometry effects while directional effects from thermal conductivity and permeability variations are relatively small. Rapid ablative particle heating rates are attributed to a mechanical fragmentation of the biomass particles that is modeled using a critical porosity for matrix breakup. Optimal thermal conditions for tar production are observed for 900 K. Effects of biomass identity, particle size distribution, and reactor geometry and scale are discussed.

  17. Modelling solid-convective flash pyrolysis of straw and wood in the Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Niels; Larsen, Morten Boberg; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Less than a handful of solid-convective pyrolysis reactors for the production of liquid fuel from biomass have been presented and for only a single reactor a detailed mathematical model has been presented. In this article we present a predictive mathematical model of the pyrolysis process...... in the Pyrolysis Centrifuge Reactor, a novel solid-convective flash pyrolysis reactor. The model relies on the original concept for ablative pyrolysis of particles being pyrolysed through the formation of an intermediate liquid compound which is further degraded to form liquid organics, char, and gas. To describe...... the kinetics of the pyrolysis reactions the Broido-Shafizadeh scheme is employed with cellulose parameters for wood and modified parameters for straw to include the catalytic effect of its alkali-containing ash content. The model describes the presented experimental results adequately for engineering purposes...

  18. Solar Assisted Fast Pyrolysis: A Novel Approach of Renewable Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad U. H. Joardder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel produced by fast pyrolysis from biomass is a promising candidate. The heart of the system is a reactor which is directly or indirectly heated to approximately 500°C by exhaust gases from a combustor that burns pyrolysis gas and some of the by-product char. In most of the cases, external biomass heater is used as heating source of the system while internal electrical heating is recently implemented as source of reactor heating. However, this heating system causes biomass or other conventional forms of fuel consumption to produce renewable energy and contributes to environmental pollution. In order to overcome these, the feasibility of incorporating solar energy with fast pyrolysis has been investigated. The main advantages of solar reactor heating include renewable source of energy, comparatively simpler devices, and no environmental pollution. A lab scale pyrolysis setup has been examined along with 1.2 m diameter parabolic reflector concentrator that provides hot exhaust gas up to 162°C. The study shows that about 32.4% carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and almost one-third portion of fuel cost are reduced by incorporating solar heating system. Successful implementation of this proposed solar assisted pyrolysis would open a prospective window of renewable energy.

  19. Coal liquefaction with subsequent bottoms pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walchuk, George P.

    1978-01-01

    In a coal liquefaction process wherein heavy bottoms produced in a liquefaction zone are upgraded by coking or a similar pyrolysis step, pyrolysis liquids boiling in excess of about 1000.degree. F. are further reacted with molecular hydrogen in a reaction zone external of the liquefaction zone, the resulting effluent is fractionated to produce one or more distillate fractions and a bottoms fraction, a portion of this bottoms fraction is recycled to the reaction zone, and the remaining portion of the bottoms fraction is recycled to the pyrolysis step.

  20. Designing biochar properties through pre-pyrolysis feedstock metal blending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anca-Couce, Andrés; Dieguez-Alonso, Alba; Moreno, Eduardo; Fristak, Vladimir; Soja, Gerhard; Husson, Olivier; Conte, Pellegrino; Kienzl, Norbert; Hagemann, Nikolas; Bucheli, Thomas; Hilber, Isabel; Schmidt, Hans-Peter

    2017-04-01

    Metal enhanced biochars have been produced by pyrolysis of wood chips previously blended with different metal-containing compounds: Cu(OH)2, Mg(OH)2, MgCl2, FeSO4, KCl and AlCl3; under an inert gas at 400 and 700°C. The obtained metal-enriched biochars have an organic and inorganic fraction, each accounting approximately to 50% of the mass, and they have been characterized in detail and compared to control samples produced without previous metal blending. The characterization at different European laboratories includes elemental analysis, surface area, pore size distribution, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), sorption isotherms with P and As, pH, Eh, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and zeta potential. It is shown that the presence of metals during pyrolysis affects to a great extent the structure and functionality of the obtained chars. The biochars have a high concentration (>15% in mass for almost all cases) of elemental metals introduced before pyrolysis. These metals strongly affect the development of char internal surface area and pore structure. The total surface area and pore volume increase while porosity decreases, and the pore size distribution and pore network are significantly modified. At high temperatures (700°C), some metals enhance char graphitization and its thermal stability. Mg(OH)2 produces the highest impact on physical structure. Furthermore, the blending with Mg, Al and Fe increased the sorption capacities for anionic forms of As and P by more than 800% compared to control biochar. Depending on the blended metal species and pyrolysis temperature, the pH of the biochar blends varied between 2.7 (Fe) and 10.8 (Cu) while Eh varied between 228 mV (Mg(OH)2 at 400°C) and 504 mV (MgCl2 at 700°C). The promising results obtained with pre-pyrolysis feedstock metal blending open the possibility towards designing biochars for special functions and purposes.

  1. Pyrolysis of fast-growing aquatic biomass -Lemna minor (duckweed): Characterization of pyrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Nazim; Fidalgo, Beatriz; Gujar, Amit C; T-Raissi, Ali

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this work was to conduct the experimental study of pyrolysis of fast-growing aquatic biomass -Lemna minor (commonly known as duckweed) with the emphasis on the characterization of main products of pyrolysis. The yields of pyrolysis gas, pyrolytic oil (bio-oil) and char were determined as a function of pyrolysis temperature and the sweep gas (Ar) flow rate. Thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analyses of duckweed samples in inert (helium gas) and oxidative (air) atmosphere revealed differences in the TG/DTG patterns obtained for duckweed and typical plant biomass. The bio-oil samples produced by duckweed pyrolysis at different reaction conditions were analyzed using GC-MS technique. It was found that pyrolysis temperature had minor effect on the bio-oil product slate, but exerted major influence on the relative quantities of the individual pyrolysis products obtained. While, the residence time of the pyrolysis vapors had negligible effect on the yield and composition of the duckweed pyrolysis products. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans` waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans` waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city`s limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city`s waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city`s ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  3. Waste tire recycling by pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This project examines the City of New Orleans' waste tire problem. Louisiana State law, as of January 1, 1991, prohibits the knowing disposal of whole waste tires in landfills. Presently, the numerous waste tire stockpiles in New Orleans range in size from tens to hundreds of tires. New Orleans' waste tire problem will continue to increase until legal disposal facilities are made accessible and a waste tire tracking and regulatory system with enforcement provisions is in place. Tires purchased outside of the city of New Orleans may be discarded within the city's limits; therefore, as a practical matter this study analyzes the impact stemming from the entire New Orleans metropolitan area. Pyrolysis mass recovery (PMR), a tire reclamation process which produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel, is the primary focus of this report. The technical, legal and environmental aspects of various alternative technologies are examined. The feasibility of locating a hypothetical PMR operation within the city of New Orleans is analyzed based on the current economic, regulatory, and environmental climate in Louisiana. A thorough analysis of active, abandoned, and proposed Pyrolysis operations (both national and international) was conducted as part of this project. Siting a PMR plant in New Orleans at the present time is technically feasible and could solve the city's waste tire problem. Pending state legislation could improve the city's ability to guarantee a long term supply of waste tires to any large scale tire reclamation or recycling operation, but the local market for PMR end products is undefined.

  4. Pyrolysis - gas chromatography - mass spectrometry of lignins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.; Gonzalez-Vila, F.J.

    1979-01-01

    Milled wood lignins from spruce, beech and bamboo were pyrolysed. The high-boiling products of pyrolysis were studied by GLC and mass spectrometry. The forty-three products identified provide information on the structural units of lignin.

  5. Production of Lunar Oxygen Through Vacuum Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matchett, John

    2006-01-01

    .... The vacuum pyrolysis method of oxygen production from lunar regolith presents a viable option for in situ propellant production because of its simple operation involving limited resources from earth...

  6. Energy potential from rice husk through direct combustion and fast pyrolysis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Isabel; Navia, Rodrigo; Kahhat, Ramzy

    2017-01-01

    Rapid population growth and consumption of goods and services imply that demand for energy and resources increases continuously. Energy consumption linked to non-renewable resources contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and enhances resource depletion. In this context, the use of agricultural solid residues such as rice husk, coffee husk, wheat straw, sugar cane bagasse, among others, has been widely studied as an alternative energy source in order to decrease the use of fossil fuels. However, rice husk is among those agricultural residues that are least used to obtain energy in developing countries. Approximately 134 million tonnes of rice husk are produced annually in the world, of which over 90% are burned in open air or discharged into rivers and oceans in order to dispose of them. This review examines the energetic potential of agricultural residues, focused on rice husk. The review describes direct combustion and fast pyrolysis technologies to transform rice husk into energy considering its physical and chemical properties. In addition, a review of existing studies analyzing these technologies from an environmental life cycle thinking perspective, contributing to their sustainable use, is performed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Phakakrong Trongkaew; Thanes Utistham; Prasert Reubroycharoen; Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-01-01

    Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO 2 , Degussa P-25) to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen co...

  8. Behavior of sulfur during coal pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, D.; Hutchinson, E.J.; Heidbrink, J.; Pan, W.-P.; Chou, C.-L.

    1994-01-01

    The behavior of sulfur in Illinois coals during pyrolysis was evaluated by thermogravimetry/ Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (TG/FT-IR) techniques. SO2, COS, and H2S were major gaseous sulfur-containing products observed during coal pyrolysis. The release rates of the gaseous sulfur species showed several peaks within the temperature ranges, which were due to the emission of different forms of sulfur in coal. ?? 1994.

  9. Biocrude Production through Pyrolysis of Used Tyres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius I. Osayi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the pyrolysis process of used tyre as a method of producing an alternative energy source is presented in this paper. The study reports the characteristics of used tyre materials and methods of recycling, types and principles of pyrolysis, the pyrolysis products and their composition, effects of process parameters, and kinetic models applied to pyrolysis. From publications, the proximate analysis of tyre rubber shows that it is composed of about 28.6 wt.% fixed carbon, 62 wt.% volatile material, 8.5 wt.% ash, and 0.9 wt.% moisture. Elemental analysis reveals that tyre rubber has an estimated value of 82 wt.% of C, 8 wt.% of H, 0.4 wt.% of N, 1.3 wt.% of S, 2.4 wt.% of O, and 5.9 wt.% of ash. Thermogravimetry analysis confirms that the pyrolysis of used tyre at atmospheric pressure commences at 250°C and completes at 550°C. The three primary products obtained from used tyre pyrolysis are solid residue (around 36 wt.%, liquid fraction or biocrude (around 55 wt.%, and gas fraction (around 9 wt.%. Although there is variation in the value of kinetic parameters obtained by different authors from the kinetic modeling of used tyre, the process is generally accepted as a first order reaction based on Arrhenius theory.

  10. Flash Vacuum Pyrolysis: Techniques and Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentrup, Curt

    2017-11-20

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) had its beginnings in the 1940s and 1950s, mainly through mass spectrometric detection of pyrolytically formed free radicals. In the 1960s many organic chemists started performing FVP experiments with the purpose of isolating new and interesting compounds and understanding pyrolysis processes. Meanwhile, many different types of apparatus and techniques have been developed, and it is the purpose of this review to present the most important methods as well as a survey of typical reactions and observations that can be achieved with the various techniques. This includes preparative FVP, chemical trapping reactions, matrix isolation, and low temperature spectroscopy of reactive intermediates and unstable molecules, the use of online mass, photoelectron, microwave, and millimeterwave spectroscopies, gas-phase laser pyrolysis, pulsed pyrolysis with supersonic jet expansion, very low pressure pyrolysis for kinetic investigations, solution-spray and falling-solid FVP for involatile compounds, and pyrolysis over solid supports and reagents. Moreover, the combination of FVP with matrix isolation and photochemistry is a powerful tool for investigations of reaction mechanism. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles by pyrolysis of alkaline and Zn-C battery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebin, Burçak; Petranikova, Martina; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Production of zinc and manganese oxide particles from alkaline and zinc-carbon battery black mass was studied by a pyrolysis process at 850-950°C with various residence times under 1L/minN2(g) flow rate conditions without using any additive. The particular and chemical properties of the battery waste were characterized to investigate the possible reactions and effects on the properties of the reaction products. The thermodynamics of the pyrolysis process were studied using the HSC Chemistry 5.11 software. The carbothermic reduction reaction of battery black mass takes place and makes it possible to produce fine zinc particles by a rapid condensation, after the evaporation of zinc from a pyrolysis batch. The amount of zinc that can be separated from the black mass is increased by both pyrolysis temperature and residence time. Zinc recovery of 97% was achieved at 950°C and 1h residence time using the proposed alkaline battery recycling process. The pyrolysis residue is mainly MnO powder with a low amount of zinc, iron and potassium impurities and has an average particle size of 2.9μm. The obtained zinc particles have an average particle size of about 860nm and consist of hexagonal crystals around 110nm in size. The morphology of the zinc particles changes from a hexagonal shape to s spherical morphology by elevating the pyrolysis temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Direct evidence from in situ FTIR spectroscopy that o-quinonemethide is a key intermediate during the pyrolysis of guaiacol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hao; Wu, Shubin; Huang, Jinbao; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2017-04-01

    Although o-quinonemethide (6-methylene-2,4-cyclohexadien-1-one) has been proposed as a key intermediate in char formation during the pyrolysis of guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol), direct evidence of this (e.g., spectroscopic data) has not yet been provided. Using in situ FTIR spectroscopy, the pyrolysis of guaiacol was investigated from 30 °C to 630 °C at 40 °C/min. The IR profiles showed direct evidence of o-quinonemethide production at about 350 °C, which vanished rapidly at around 420 °C in the vapor phase, indicating char formation. In addition, at 400 °C, salicyl aldehyde was observed, which decomposed slowly at about 500 °C. In combination with the known products of guaiacol pyrolysis, these results allowed the major reaction pathways of guaiacol pyrolysis to be discerned. Density functional theory calculations were performed, and the results were found to be in good agreement with the experimentally obtained IR profiles. These findings provide guidance on how to suppress secondary reactions of guaiacol during lignin pyrolysis. Graphical abstract On-line analysis of pyrolysis process of guaiacol using in situ FTIR.

  13. Open Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süreyya Çankırı

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Science is based on the confirmation of phenomena and events in a continuum. In the development of science; the cumulative progress and effective sharing of information comes to the forefront. Within the scope of science, producing new information requires a social approach. Because science has more participants every day so the meaning and importance of science also becomes different. In this sense, the idea of open science, which is based on open access, open data and open source, continues to mediate the socialization of information as well as the purpose of the rapid spread of scientific research results among scientists. In the editorial section, the approach of open science, which has gained momentum in recent years, is evaluated in the context of information retrieval and interaction.

  14. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel-bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating value, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  15. Smashing the Stovepipe: Leveraging the GMSEC Open Architecture and Advanced IT Automation to Rapidly Prototype, Develop and Deploy Next-Generation Multi-Mission Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Satellite/Payload Ground Systems - Typically highly-customized to a specific mission's use cases - Utilize hundreds (or thousands!) of specialized point-to-point interfaces for data flows / file transfers Documentation and tracking of these complex interfaces requires extensive time to develop and extremely high staffing costs Implementation and testing of these interfaces are even more cost-prohibitive, and documentation often lags behind implementation resulting in inconsistencies down the road With expanding threat vectors, IT Security, Information Assurance and Operational Security have become key Ground System architecture drivers New Federal security-related directives are generated on a daily basis, imposing new requirements on current / existing ground systems - These mandated activities and data calls typically carry little or no additional funding for implementation As a result, Ground System Sustaining Engineering groups and Information Technology staff continually struggle to keep up with the rolling tide of security Advancing security concerns and shrinking budgets are pushing these large stove-piped ground systems to begin sharing resources - I.e. Operational / SysAdmin staff, IT security baselines, architecture decisions or even networks / hosting infrastructure Refactoring these existing ground systems into multi-mission assets proves extremely challenging due to what is typically very tight coupling between legacy components As a result, many "Multi-Mission" ops. environments end up simply sharing compute resources and networks due to the difficulty of refactoring into true multi-mission systems Utilizing continuous integration / rapid system deployment technologies in conjunction with an open architecture messaging approach allows System Engineers and Architects to worry less about the low-level details of interfaces between components and configuration of systems GMSEC messaging is inherently designed to support multi-mission requirements, and

  16. Wood Pyrolysis Using Aspen Plus Simulation and Industrially Applicable Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pavel Lestinsky; Aloy Palit

    2016-01-01

    .... Furthermore, the model of pyrolysis was created using Aspen Plus software. Aspects of pyrolysis are discussed with a description of how various temperatures affect the overall reaction rate and the yield of volatile components...

  17. Wood Pyrolysis Using Aspen Plus Simulation and Industrially Applicable Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lestinsky Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, a great deal of experimental work has been carried out on the development of pyrolysis processes for wood and waste materials. Pyrolysis is an important phenomenon in thermal treatment of wood, therefore, the successful modelling of pyrolysis to predict the rate of volatile evolution is also of great importance. Pyrolysis experiments of waste spruce sawdust were carried out. During the experiment, gaseous products were analysed to determine a change in the gas composition with increasing temperature. Furthermore, the model of pyrolysis was created using Aspen Plus software. Aspects of pyrolysis are discussed with a description of how various temperatures affect the overall reaction rate and the yield of volatile components. The pyrolysis Aspen plus model was compared with the experimental data. It was discovered that the Aspen Plus model, being used by several authors, is not good enough for pyrolysis process description, but it can be used for gasification modelling.

  18. Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly Regeneration Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlen, Amber; Abney, Morgan B.; Miller, Lee A.

    2011-01-01

    In April 2010 the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). This technology requires hydrogen to recover oxygen from carbon dioxide. This results in the production of water and methane. Water is electrolyzed to provide oxygen to the crew. Methane is vented to space resulting in a loss of valuable hydrogen and unreduced carbon dioxide. This is not critical for ISS because of the water resupply from Earth. However, in order to have enough oxygen for long-term missions, it will be necessary to recover the hydrogen to maximize oxygen recovery. Thus, the Plasma Pyrolysis Assembly (PPA) was designed to recover hydrogen from methane. During operation, the PPA produces small amounts of carbon that can ultimately reduce performance by forming on the walls and windows of the reactor chamber. The carbon must be removed, although mechanical methods are highly inefficient, thus chemical methods are of greater interest. The purpose of this effort was to determine the feasibility of chemically removing the carbon from the walls and windows of a PPA reactor using a pure carbon dioxide stream.

  19. Products formed under pressurized pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, P.; Numazawa, S.; Mouras, S.; Napoli, A. [Cirad-Foret, Montpellier Cedex (France)

    1999-07-01

    Pressure is responsible for very high charcoal yields (varying from 40% to 48% depending on the raw material and process parameters). This high solid yield induces products quality changes. A primary goal of this ongoing research is to quantitatively measure the effect of process parameters (e.g., temperature, pressure) and feedstock composition (species, moisture) on the quality of pyrolysis products. Reaction pressure was achieved either by adding nitrogen into a seated reactor or by self-increase due to gas formation during load heating. Charcoal proximate and ultimate analyses have been performed. Gas and vapour analyses by GC are not completed yet and will be discussed later. The experimental results on Brazilian tropical hardwoods show the influence of the initial pressure on product quality compared with atmospheric pressure reaction. The paper will then compare and discuss results on the role of water during the reaction. Temperature and pressure profiles suggest that water has no chemical action in the reaction but allows faster pressure increase when heated. (author)

  20. ISOTHERMAL PYROLYSIS OF KRAFT PULP MILL SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsudin Syamsudin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kraft pulp mill sludge cake composed of rejected wood fibers and activated sludge microorganisms. With a heating value about 14 MJ/kg (dried basis, this type of biomass had a potential as an alternative energy source. Unfortunately, it had an ash content of 27.6% and a moisture content of 80%. For reducing moisture content with minimum energy consumption, a combination of mechanical dewatering and thermal drying was studied previously. Meanwhile, experiments on isothermal pyrolysis had been carried out for further improvement on ultimate and proximate analysis of solid fuel. Final mass of char obtained from pyrolysis at 500oC was not significantly different from that of 700oC, so pyrolysis was considered to be optimum at 500oC. A char obtained from pyrolysis at temperature of 500oC had a pore surface area of 77.049 m2/g (highest among other temperatures. Kinetic of isothermal pyrolysis was well represented with a first order modified volumetric model with a frequency factor of 0.782 1/s and an activation of 34.050 kJ/mol.

  1. Photocatalytic Desulfurization of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napida Hinchiranan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste tire pyrolysis oil has high potential to replace conventional fossil liquid fuels due to its high calorific heating value. However, the large amounts of sulfurous compounds in this oil hinders its application. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the possibility to apply the photo-assisted oxidation catalyzed by titanium dioxide (TiO2, Degussa P-25 to partially remove sulfurous compounds in the waste tire pyrolysis oil under milder reaction conditions without hydrogen consumption. A waste tire pyrolysis oil with 0.84% (w/w of sulfurous content containing suspended TiO2 was irradiated by using a high-pressure mercury lamp for 7 h. The oxidized sulfur compounds were then migrated into the solvent-extraction phase. A maximum % sulfur removal of 43.6% was achieved when 7 g/L of TiO2 was loaded into a 1/4 (v/v mixture of pyrolysis waste tire oil/acetonitrile at 50 °C in the presence of air. Chromatographic analysis confirmed that the photo-oxidized sulfurous compounds presented in the waste tire pyrolysis oil had higher polarity, which were readily dissolved and separated in distilled water. The properties of the photoxidized product were also reported and compared to those of crude oil.

  2. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-39 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Christpher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of coherently grown composites of TUN and IMF zeotypes has been synthesized and show to be effective catalysts for catalytic pyrolysis of biomass. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula. Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.n+R.sub.rQ.sub.qAl.sub1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.s- ub.z where M represents zinc or a metal or metals from Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, R is an A,.OMEGA.-dihalosubstituted paraffin such as 1,4-dibromobutane, Q is a neutral amine containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms such as 1-methylpyrrolidine and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-39 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hyrdocarbons into hydrocarbons removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  3. FAST PYROLYSIS TEST WITH WHOLE SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. B. CORTEZ

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a preliminary study proposing the usage of whole sugarcane in the thermoconversion process. . Tests were made on fast pyrolysis of biomass as whole sugarcane (bagasse, sugar and sugarcane straw crushed and dry. These experiments were performed in order to verify the suitability of this type of biomass for the fast pyrolysis process in a fluidized bed. The pre-treatment was assessed, during which, for the preparation of the whole sugarcane, an ordinary machine for chopping and grinding was employed. The pyrolysis process was conducted without major changes in the plant operating conditions to other biomass such as sugarcane trash. The efficiency of energy conversion of biomass to fine coal and bio-oil was 41%, resulting in a production of 3034 MJ per ton of the whole sugarcane processed, compared to 1900.6 MJ obtained in the production of ethanol via fermentation, where the conversion efficiency was around 26%. With the advances in this pyrolysis, efficiency may increase in the coming years, an interesting route for production of second generation fuels via catalytic synthesis using syngas from gasification of the mixture of bio-oil and fine charcoal. Keywords: Bioenergy, Whole sugarcane, Bio-oil, Fast pyrolysis.

  4. High floral bud abscission and lack of open flower abscission in Dendrobium cv. Miss Teen: rapid reduction of ethylene sensitivity in the abscission zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunya-atichart, K.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the abscission of floral buds and open flowers in cut Dendrobium inflorescences. Abscission of floral buds was high and sensitive to ethylene in all cultivars studied. Many open flowers abscised in most cultivars, but cv. Willie exhibited only small amount of floral fall and cv. Miss Teen

  5. Pyrolysis oil utilization in 50KWE gas turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Bijl, Antonie; van Alst, Niek; Bramer, Eduard A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    The concept of using pyrolysis oil (PO) derived from biomass via a fast pyrolysis route for power and heat generation encounters problems due to an incompatibility between properties (physical and chemical) of bio-oil and gas turbines designed for fossil fuels. An extensive research has been performed on the production and improvement of pyrolysis oil but only few investigations were carried out on its utilization. The latter have shown a major difference in behavior of pyrolysis oil compared...

  6. Relationships between biomass composition and liquid products formed via pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan eLin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal conversion of biomass is a rapid, low-cost way to produce a dense liquid product, known as bio-oil, that can be refined to transportation fuels. However, utilization of bio-oil is challenging due to its chemical complexity, acidity, and instability—all results of the intricate nature of biomass. A clear understanding of how biomass properties impact yield and composition of thermal products will provide guidance to optimize both biomass and conditions for thermal conversion. To aid elucidation of these associations, we first describe biomass polymers, including phenolics, polysaccharides, acetyl groups, and inorganic ions, and the chemical interactions among them. We then discuss evidence for three roles (i.e., models for biomass components in formation of liquid pyrolysis products: (1 as direct sources, (2 as catalysts, and (3 as indirect factors whereby chemical interactions among components and/or cell wall structural features impact thermal conversion products. We highlight associations that might be utilized to optimize biomass content prior to pyrolysis, though a more detailed characterization is required to understand indirect effects. In combination with high-throughput biomass characterization techniques this knowledge will enable identification of biomass particularly suited for biofuel production and can also guide genetic engineering of bioenergy crops to improve biomass features.

  7. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min{sup −1} and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  8. Mass balance and exergy analysis of a fast pyrolysis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mass balance closure and exergetic efficiency is evaluated for a bench scale fast pyrolysis system. The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has developed this system for processing energy crops and agricultural residues for bio-oil (pyrolysis oil or pyrolysis liquids) production. Mass balance c...

  9. Cellulose-Lignin interactions during slow and fast pyrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Wang, Z.; Pecha, B.; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Pelaez-Samaniego, M.R.; Garcia Perez, M.

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between lignin and cellulose during the slow pyrolysis of their blends were studied by means of Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fast pyrolysis was studied using Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (Py–GC/MS). Crystalline cellulose

  10. Behavior of chlorine during coal pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, D.; Hutchinson, E.J.; Cao, H.; Pan, W.-P.; Chou, C.-L.

    1994-01-01

    The behavior of chlorine in Illinois coals during pyrolysis was evaluated by combined thermo-gravimetry-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-ion chromatography (TG-FTIR-IC) techniques. It was found that more than 90% of chlorine in Illinois coals (IBC-103, 105, 106, and 109) was liberated as HCl gas during pyrolysis from 300 to 600??C, with the rate reaching a maximum at 440 ??C. Similarity of the HCl and NH3 release profiles during pyrolysis of IBC-109 supports the hypothesis that the chlorine in coal may be associated with nitrogen and the chlorine is probably bonded to the basic nitrogen sites on the inner walls of coal micropores. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  11. Pyrolysis Mechanisms of Aromatic Carboxylic Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, P.F.; Eskay, T.P.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1997-12-31

    Although decarboxylation of carboxylic acids is widely used in organic synthesis, there is limited mechanistic information on the uncatalyzed reaction pathways of aromatic carboxylic acids at 300-400 {degrees} C. The pyrolysis mechanisms of 1,2-(3,3-dicarboxyphenyl)ethane, 1,2-(4,4-dicarboxylphenyl)ethane, 1-(3-carboxyphenyl)-2-(4- biphenyl)ethane, and substituted benzoic acids have been investigated at 325-425 {degrees} C neat and diluted in an inert solvent. Decarboxylation is the dominant pyrolysis path. Arrhenius parameters, substituent effects, and deuterium isotope effects are consistent with decarboxylation by an electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction. Pyrolysis of benzoic acid in naphthalene, as a solvent, produces significant amounts of 1- and 2-phenylnaphthalenes. The mechanistic pathways for decarboxylation and arylation with be presented.

  12. Noncatalytic and catalytic pyrolysis of toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pant, K. K.; Kunzru, D. [Indian Institute of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Kanpur (India)

    1999-02-01

    Investigation of the effects of process variables on conversion and product yields during catalytic and noncatalytic pyrolysis of toluene was described. The catalyst used was potassium carbonate-impregnated calcium aluminate. Kinetics of the pyrolysis of toluene was also studied. Compared to noncatalytic pyrolysis, the conversions were significantly higher in the presence of the catalyst, although product sensitivities were not affected. With nitrogen as a diluent the main products were hydrogen, methane, benzene, bibenzyl and higher hydrocarbons. Using steam as the diluent, significant amounts of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were also produced. Based on the result, it was concluded that the overall consumption of toluene can be represented by two parallel reactions. one for the toluene decomposition, the other for the toluene-steam reaction. The activation energy for toluene decomposition was significantly reduced in the presence of the catalyst; only marginal reduction in the activation energy was observed when steam was used as the diluent. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  13. Reaction rate of propene pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peipei; Su, Kehe; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yanli; Wang, Xin; Zeng, Qingfeng; Cheng, Laifei; Zhang, Litong

    2011-10-01

    The reaction rate of propene pyrolysis was investigated based on the elementary reactions proposed in Qu et al., J Comput Chem 2009, 31, 1421. The overall reaction rate was developed with the steady-state approximation and the rate constants of the elementary reactions were determined with the variational transition state theory. For the elementary reaction having transition state, the vibrational frequencies of the selected points along the minimum energy path were calculated with density functional theory at B3PW91/6-311G(d,p) level and the energies were improved with the accurate model chemistry method G3(MP2). For the elementary reaction without transition state, the frequencies were calculated with CASSCF/6-311G(d,p) and the energies were refined with the multireference configuration interaction method MRCISD/6-311G(d,p). The rate constants were evaluated within 200-2000 K and the fitted three-parameter expressions were obtained. The results are consistent with those in the literatures in most cases. For the overall rate, it was found that the logarithm of the rate and the reciprocal temperature have excellent linear relationship above 400 K, predicting that the rate follows a typical first-order law at high temperatures of 800-2000 K, which is also consistent with the experiments. The apparent activation energy in 800-2000 K is 317.3 kJ/mol from the potential energy surface of zero Kelvin. This value is comparable with the energy barriers, 365.4 and 403.7 kJ/mol, of the rate control steps. However, the apparent activation energy, 215.7 kJ/mol, developed with the Gibbs free energy surface at 1200 K is consistent with the most recent experimental result 201.9 ± 0.6 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Pyrolysis behaviors and thermodynamics properties of hydrochar from bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. pubescens) shoot shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuqing; Dong, Xiangyuan; Zhu, Caixia; Han, Yangyang; Ma, Fuqin; Wu, Tingting

    2017-06-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was employed to produce hydrochar from bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla cv. pubescens) shoot shell (BS) at severity (combined temperature and time) of 4.83-7.69. The pyrolysis and thermodynamics properties of the hydrochars were fully investigated. The results showed that the hydrochar properties (solid yield, C content, H/C and O/C atomic ratios, pyrolysis yield, pyrolysis index, formation of enthalpy, exergy, LHV, and HHV) of BS were highly dependent on severity and could be expressed by dose-response functions. The rapid variations of the hydrochar properties appeared at severity of 5.93-6.59. The pyrolysis temperature interval for the maximum weight loss shifted from 300 to 400°C at hydrothermal severity less than 6.59 to 400-500°C at hydrothermal severity greater than 6.59. The hydrochar thermal stability increased greatly with the severity increasing. And the thermodynamic properties of hydrochar approached those of lignin model compounds as the hydrothermal severity was greater than 6.59. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  16. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for liquid biofuels production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    , is an attractive way for bio-oil production. Various efforts have been made to improve pyrolysis process towards higher yield and quality of liquid biofuels and better energy efficiency. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is one of the promising attempts, mainly due to efficient heating of feedstock by ‘‘microwave...... dielectric heating’’ effects. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass. First, conventional fast pyrolysis and microwave dielectric heating is briefly introduced. Then microwave-assisted pyrolysis process is thoroughly discussed stepwise from biomass...

  17. Organic matter decomposition : bridging the gap between Rock-Eval pyrolysis and chemical characterization (CPMAS C-13 NMR)

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, R; Sebag, David; Verrecchia, E.

    2015-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) is a key component of soils but information on its chemistry and behavior in soils is still incomplete. Numerous methods are commonly used to characterize and monitor OM dynamics, but only a few include the qualities required to become routine techniques i.e. simple, rapid, accurate and at low cost. Rock-Eval pyrolysis (RE pyrolysis) is a good candidate, as it provides an overview of OM properties by monitoring four components related to the main major classes of organic c...

  18. Flame spray pyrolysis synthesis and aerosol deposition of nanoparticle films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoli, Antonio; Elmøe, Tobias Dokkedal

    2012-01-01

    The assembly of nanoparticle films by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) synthesis and deposition on temperature‐controlled substrates (323–723 K) was investigated for several application‐relevant conditions. An exemplary SnO2 nanoparticle aerosol was generated by FSP and its properties (e.g., particle...... size distribution), and deposition dynamics were studied in details aiming to a simple correlation between process settings and film growth rate. At high precursor concentrations (0.05–0.5·mol/L), typically used for FSP synthesis, the nanoparticles agglomerated rapidly in the aerosol leading to large...... (>100 nm) fractal‐like structures with low diffusivity. As a result, thermophoresis was confirmed as the dominant nanoparticle deposition mechanism down to small (≈40 K) temperature differences (ΔT) between the aerosol and the substrate surface. For moderate‐high ΔT (>120 K), thermal equilibrium...

  19. The thermal decomposition of the benzyl radical in a heated micro-reactor. II. Pyrolysis of the tropyl radical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, Grant T. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215, USA; National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden Colorado 80401, USA; Porterfield, Jessica P. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215, USA; Kostko, Oleg [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Troy, Tyler P. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Ahmed, Musahid [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA; Robichaud, David J. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden Colorado 80401, USA; Nimlos, Mark R. [National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden Colorado 80401, USA; Daily, John W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Center for Combustion and Environmental Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0427, USA; Ellison, G. Barney [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215, USA

    2016-07-05

    Cycloheptatrienyl (tropyl) radical, C7H7, was cleanly produced in the gas-phase, entrained in He or Ne carrier gas, and subjected to a set of flash-pyrolysis micro-reactors. The pyrolysis products resulting from C7H7 were detected and identified by vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry. Complementary product identification was provided by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Pyrolysis pressures in the micro-reactor were roughly 200 Torr and residence times were approximately 100 us. Thermal cracking of tropyl radical begins at 1100 K and the products from pyrolysis of C7H7 are only acetylene and cyclopentadienyl radicals. Tropyl radicals do not isomerize to benzyl radicals at reactor temperatures up to 1600 K. Heating samples of either cycloheptatriene or norbornadiene never produced tropyl (C7H7) radicals but rather only benzyl (C6H5CH2). The thermal decomposition of benzyl radicals has been reconsidered without participation of tropyl radicals. There are at least three distinct pathways for pyrolysis of benzyl radical: the Benson fragmentation, the methyl-phenyl radical, and the bridgehead norbornadienyl radical. These three pathways account for the majority of the products detected following pyrolysis of all of the isotopomers: C6H5CH2, C6H5CD2, C6D5CH2, and C6H5 13CH2. Analysis of the temperature dependence for the pyrolysis of the isotopic species (C6H5CD2, C6D5CH2, and C6H5 13CH2) suggests the Benson fragmentation and the norbornadienyl pathways open at reactor temperatures of 1300 K while the methyl-phenyl radical channel becomes active at slightly higher temperatures (1500 K).

  20. Effect of wastewater treatment processes on the pyrolysis properties of the pyrolysis tars from sewage sludges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Xie, Li-Ping; Li, Xin-Yu; Dai, Xiao-Hong; Fei, Xue-Ning; Jiang, Yuan-Guang

    2011-06-01

    The pyrolysis properties of five different pyrolysis tars, which the tars from 1# to 5# are obtained by pyrolyzing the sewage sludges of anaerobic digestion and indigestion from the A2/O wastewater treatment process, those from the activated sludge process and the indigested sludge from the continuous SBR process respectively, were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis at a heating rate of 10 °C/min in the nitrogen atmosphere. The results show that the pyrolysis processes of the pyrolysis tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5# all can be divided into four stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, heavy polar organic compounds decomposition, heavy organic compounds decomposition and the residual organic compounds decomposition. However, the process of 4# pyrolysis tar is only divided into three stages: the stages of light organic compounds releasing, decomposition of heavy polar organic compounds and the residual heavy organic compounds respectively. Both the sludge anaerobic digestion and the "anaerobic" process in wastewater treatment processes make the content of light organic compounds in tars decrease, but make that of heavy organic compounds with complex structure increase. Besides, both make the pyrolysis properties of the tars become worse. The pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of the five pyrolysis tars have been studied with Coats-Redfern equation. It shows that there are the same mechanism functions in the first stage for the five tars and in the second and third stage for the tars of 1#, 2#, 3# and 5#, which is different with the function in the second stage for 4# tar. The five tars are easy to volatile.

  1. Kinetics study on conventional and microwave pyrolysis of moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qing; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2014-11-01

    A comparative study on the pyrolysis kinetics of moso bamboo has been conducted in a conventional thermogravimetric analyzer and a microwave thermogravimetric analyzer respectively. The effect of heating rate on the pyrolysis process was also discussed. The results showed that both the maximum and average reaction rates increased with the heating rate increasing. The values of activation energy increased from 58.30 to 84.22 kJ/mol with the heating rate decreasing from 135 to 60 °C/min during conventional pyrolysis. The value of activation energy was 24.5 kJ/mol for microwave pyrolysis, much lower than that for conventional pyrolysis at a similar heating rate of 160 °C/min. The pyrolysis of moso bamboo exhibited a kinetic compensation effect. The low activation energy obtained under microwave irradiation suggests that microwaves heating would be a promising method for biomass pyrolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis as a recycling method of waste CDs originating from polycarbonate and HIPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonakou, E.V. [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kalogiannis, K.G.; Stephanidis, S.D. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Triantafyllidis, K.S. [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Lappas, A.A. [Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute, 57001 Thermi, Thessaloniki (Greece); Achilias, D.S., E-mail: axilias@chem.auth.gr [Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis is a powerful method for recycling of WEEEs. • Liquid products obtained from the pyrolysis of PC or HIPS found in waste CDs are very different. • Mainly phenols are obtained from pyrolysis PC based wastes while aromatics from HIPS. • Use of MgO catalyst increases the amount of phenols from CD recycling compared to ZSM-5. • Use of MgO or ZSM-5 catalysts reduces the amount of styrene recovered from HIPS. - Abstract: Pyrolysis appears to be a promising recycling process since it could convert the disposed polymers to hydrocarbon based fuels or various useful chemicals. In the current study, two model polymers found in WEEEs, namely polycarbonate (PC) and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) and their counterparts found in waste commercial Compact Discs (CDs) were pyrolysed in a bench scale reactor. Both, thermal pyrolysis and pyrolysis in the presence of two catalytic materials (basic MgO and acidic ZSM-5 zeolite) was performed for all four types of polymers. Results have shown significant recovery of the monomers and valuable chemicals (phenols in the case of PC and aromatic hydrocarbons in the case of HIPS), while catalysts seem to decrease the selectivity towards the monomers and enhance the selectivity towards other desirable compounds.

  3. Catalytic and noncatalytic gasification of pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, G.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2007-01-01

    Gasification of pyrolysis oil was studied in a fluidized bed over a wide temperature range (523−914 °C) with and without the use of nickel-based catalysts. Noncatalytically, a typical fuel gas was produced. Both a special designed fluid bed catalyst and a crushed commercial fixed bed catalyst showed

  4. Flash pyrolysis kinetics of pine wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, B.M.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of sawdust pyrolysis in the temperature range from 300 to 600 °C has been measured. A thermogravimetric analyser was applied for the temperature range from 300 to 450 °C while for measurements in the temperature range from 450 to 600 °C, an entrained flow reactor has been used. The

  5. Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry of Complex Organic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuzelaar, Henk L. C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Illustrates the state of the art in pyrolysis mass spectrometry techniques through applications in: (1) structural determination and quality control of synthetic polymers; (2) quantitative analysis of polymer mixtures; (3) classification and structural characterization of fossil organic matter; and (4) nonsupervised numerical extraction of…

  6. Catalytic pyrolysis using UZM-44 aluminosilicate zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Christopher P; Boldingh, Edwin P

    2013-12-17

    A new family of aluminosilicate zeolites designated UZM-44 has been synthesized. These zeolites are represented by the empirical formula Na.sub.nM.sub.m.sup.k+T.sub.tAl.sub.1-xE.sub.xSi.sub.yO.sub.z where "n" is the mole ratio of Na to (Al+E), M represents a metal or metals from zinc, Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and or the lanthanide series of the periodic table, "m" is the mole ratio of M to (Al+E), "k" is the average charge of the metal or metals M, T is the organic structure directing agent or agents, and E is a framework element such as gallium. The process involves contacting a carbonaceous biomass feedstock with UZM-44 at pyrolysis conditions to produce pyrolysis gases comprising hydrocarbons. The catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction converting oxygenated hydrocarbons into hydrocarbons and removing the oxygen as carbon oxides and water. A portion of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to produce low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  7. The pyrolysis characteristics of moso bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehui Jiang; Zhijia Liu; Benhua Fei; Zhiyong Cai; Yan Yu; Xing’e. Liu

    2012-01-01

    In the research, thermogravimetry (TG), a combination of thermogravimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (TG–FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to investigate pyrolysis characteristics of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens). The Flynn–Wall–Ozawa and Coats–Redfern (modified) methods were used to determine the apparent activation energy (

  8. Pyrolysis of Pine Wood, Experiments and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    may predict the variation of product yield with operating conditions such as temperature and heating rate. The system of coupled differential equations describing the pyrolysis process is solved using the software DYMOLA. Various literature values for kinetic parameters have been compared...

  9. Pyrolysis mechanisms of lignin model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Cooney, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The flash vacuum pyrolysis of lignin model compounds was studied under conditions optimized for the production of liquid products to provide mechanistic insight into the reaction pathways that lead to product formation. The major reaction products can be explained by cleavage of the C-O either linkage by a free radial or concerted 1,2-elimination.

  10. Characteristics of charcoal fines obtained by rapid pyrolysis process of elephant grass in fluidized bed in different operation conditions; Caracteristicas dos finos de carvao vegetal obtido pelo processo de pirolise rapida de capim elefante em leito fluidizado em diferentes condicoes de operacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa Perez, Juan Miguel; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares; Rocha, Jose Dilcio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a study about the effect of excess air and the inert fixed bed height upon the characteristics of fine charcoal particles and the main reactor parameters. The pyrolysis process is considered as a method to concentrate carbon in fine charcoal particles and a method to reduce oxygen content in the biomass.The study concludes that the operation point which gives the highest percentage if carbon fine charcoal particles and reduces the most the oxygen in biomass corresponds to a fixed bed height of 207 mm and excess air of 8%. (author)

  11. A detailed chemical kinetic model for pyrolysis of the lignin model compound chroman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Bland

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyrolysis of woody biomass, including the lignin component, is emerging as a potential technology for the production of renewable fuels and commodity chemicals. Here we describe the construction and implementation of an elementary chemical kinetic model for pyrolysis of the lignin model compound chroman and its reaction intermediate ortho-quinone methide (o-QM. The model is developed using both experimental and theoretical data, and represents a hybrid approach to kinetic modeling that has the potential to provide molecular level insight into reaction pathways and intermediates while accurately describing reaction rates and product formation. The kinetic model developed here can replicate all known aspects of chroman pyrolysis, and provides new information on elementary reaction steps. Chroman pyrolysis is found to proceed via an initial retro-Diels–Alder reaction to form o-QM + ethene (C2H4, followed by dissociation of o-QM to the C6H6 isomers benzene and fulvene (+ CO. At temperatures of around 1000–1200 K and above fulvene rapidly isomerizes to benzene, where an activation energy of around 270 kJ mol-1 is required to reproduce experimental observations. A new G3SX level energy surface for the isomerization of fulvene to benzene supports this result. Our modeling also suggests that thermal decomposition of fulvene may be important at around 950 K and above. This study demonstrates that theoretical protocols can provide a significant contribution to the development of kinetic models for biomass pyrolysis by elucidating reaction mechanisms, intermediates, and products, and also by supplying realistic rate coefficients and thermochemical properties.

  12. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ. Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis. PMID:23781126

  13. Thiophenic Sulfur Compounds Released During Coal Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Mengwen; Kong, Jiao; Dong, Jie; Jiao, Haili; Li, Fan

    2013-06-01

    Thiophenic sulfur compounds are released during coal gasification, carbonization, and combustion. Previous studies indicate that thiophenic sulfur compounds degrade very slowly in the environment, and are more carcinogenic than polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogenous compounds. Therefore, it is very important to study the principle of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal conversion, in order to control their emission and promote clean coal utilization. To realize this goal and understand the formation mechanism of thiophenic sulfur compounds, this study focused on the release behavior of thiophenic sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis, which is an important phase for all coal thermal conversion processes. The pyrolyzer (CDS-5250) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Focus GC-DSQII) were used to analyze thiophenic sulfur compounds in situ . Several coals with different coal ranks and sulfur contents were chosen as experimental samples, and thiophenic sulfur compounds of the gas produced during pyrolysis under different temperatures and heating rates were investigated. Levels of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene were obtained during pyrolysis at temperatures ranging from 200°C to 1300°C, and heating rates ranging from 6°C/ms to 14°C/ms and 6°C/s to 14°C/s. Moreover, the relationship between the total amount of benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene released during coal pyrolysis and the organic sulfur content in coal was also discussed. This study is beneficial for understanding the formation and control of thiophenic sulfur compounds, since it provides a series of significant results that show the impact that operation conditions and organic sulfur content in coal have on the amount and species of thiophenic sulfur compounds produced during coal pyrolysis.

  14. Biofuels Production through Biomass Pyrolysis —A Technological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaque Ahmed Chowdhury

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been an enormous amount of research in recent years in the area of thermo-chemical conversion of biomass into bio-fuels (bio-oil, bio-char and bio-gas through pyrolysis technology due to its several socio-economic advantages as well as the fact it is an efficient conversion method compared to other thermo-chemical conversion technologies. However, this technology is not yet fully developed with respect to its commercial applications. In this study, more than two hundred publications are reviewed, discussed and summarized, with the emphasis being placed on the current status of pyrolysis technology and its potential for commercial applications for bio-fuel production. Aspects of pyrolysis technology such as pyrolysis principles, biomass sources and characteristics, types of pyrolysis, pyrolysis reactor design, pyrolysis products and their characteristics and economics of bio-fuel production are presented. It is found from this study that conversion of biomass to bio-fuel has to overcome challenges such as understanding the trade-off between the size of the pyrolysis plant and feedstock, improvement of the reliability of pyrolysis reactors and processes to become viable for commercial applications. Further study is required to achieve a better understanding of the economics of biomass pyrolysis for bio-fuel production, as well as resolving issues related to the capabilities of this technology in practical application.

  15. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dezhen, E-mail: chendezhen@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); He, Pinjing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • MSW pyrolysis reactors, products and environmental impacts are reviewed. • MSW pyrolysis still has to deal with flue gas emissions and products’ contamination. • Definition of standardized products is suggested to formalize MSW pyrolysis technology. • Syngas is recommended to be the target product for single MSW pyrolysis technology. - Abstract: Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested.

  16. Catalytic Pyrolysis and a Pyrolysis Kinetic Study of Shredded Printed Circuit Board for Fuel Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmiaton Ali

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Scrap printed circuit boards (PCBs are the most abundant wastes that can be found in the landfills in Malaysia and this disposal certainly poses serious detrimental to the environment. This research aims to investigate optimum temperature for pyrolyzing waste PCBs, find out the best catalyst to be used in accelerating PCBs’ pyrolysis, select suitable ratio of catalyst to PCBs for higher oil yield and examine kinetics pyrolysis of the waste PCBs’ decomposition. Operating temperatures ranged from 200 to 350 ˚C of PCB’s pyrolysis were conducted with the optimum temperature obtained was 275 ˚C. Fluid cata-lytic cracking (FCC catalyst, zeolite socony mobil-5 (ZSM-5, H-Y-type zeolite and dolomite were used to accelerate PCB’s pyrolysis at 275 ˚C and FCC was identified as the best catalyst to be used. Differ-ent ratios of FCC to waste PCBs such as 10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60 and 50:50 were applied in the pyro-lysis at 275 ˚C and ratio of 10:90 was selected as the suitable ratio to be utilized for maximum yield. The kinetic study was done through thermogravimetric analysis on waste PCBs under various heating rates and different particle sizes. The GC-MS analysis revealed that compounds detected in the pyro-oil have the potential to be used as fuel. © 2014 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 23rd July 2014; Revised: 14th August 2014; Accepted: 14th August 2014 How to Cite: Ng, C.H., Salmiaton, A., Hizam, H. (2014. Catalytic Pyrolysis and a Pyrolysis Kinetic Study of Shredded Printed Circuit Board for Fuel Recovery. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 9 (3: 224-240. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.9.3.7148.224-240 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.9.3.7148.224-240

  17. eMZed: an open source framework in Python for rapid and interactive development of LC/MS data analysis workflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Patrick; Schmitt, Uwe; Vorholt, Julia A

    2013-04-01

    The Python-based, open-source eMZed framework was developed for mass spectrometry (MS) users to create tailored workflows for liquid chromatography (LC)/MS data analysis. The goal was to establish a unique framework with comprehensive basic functionalities that are easy to apply and allow for the extension and modification of the framework in a straightforward manner. eMZed supports the iterative development and prototyping of individual evaluation strategies by providing a computing environment and tools for inspecting and modifying underlying LC/MS data. The framework specifically addresses non-expert programmers, as it requires only basic knowledge of Python and relies largely on existing successful open-source software, e.g. OpenMS. The framework eMZed and its documentation are freely available at http://emzed.biol.ethz.ch/. eMZed is published under the GPL 3.0 license, and an online discussion group is available at https://groups.google.com/group/emzed-users. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  18. Pyrolysis of corn stalk biomass briquettes in a scaled-up microwave technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salema, Arshad Adam; Afzal, Muhammad T; Bennamoun, Lyes

    2017-06-01

    Pyrolysis of corn stalk biomass briquettes was carried out in a developed microwave (MW) reactor supplied with 2.45GHz frequency using 3kW power generator. MW power and biomass loading were the key parameters investigated in this study. Highest bio-oil, biochar, and gas yield of 19.6%, 41.1%, and 54.0% was achieved at different process condition. In terms of quality, biochar exhibited good heating value (32MJ/kg) than bio-oil (2.47MJ/kg). Bio-oil was also characterised chemically using FTIR and GC-MS method. This work may open new dimension towards development of large-scale MW pyrolysis technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pyrolysis polygeneration of poplar wood: Effect of heating rate and pyrolysis temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Li, Yanjun; Cen, Kehui; Luo, Min; Li, Hongyan; Lu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    The pyrolysis of poplar wood were comprehensively investigated at different pyrolysis temperatures (400, 450, 500, 550, and 600°C) and at different heating rates (10, 30, and 50°C/min). The results showed that BET surface area of biochar, the HHV of non-condensable gas and bio-oil reached the maximum values of 411.06m(2)/g, 14.56MJ/m(3), and 14.39MJ/kg, under the condition of 600°C and 30°C/min, 600°C and 50°C/min, and 550°C and 50°C/min, respectively. It was conducive to obtain high mass and energy yield of bio-oil at 500°C and higher heating rate, while lower pyrolysis temperature and heating rate contributed towards obtaining both higher mass yield and energy yield of biochar. However, higher pyrolysis temperature and heating rate contributed to obtain both higher mass yield and energy yield of the non-condensable gas. In general, compared to the heating rate, the pyrolysis temperature had more effect on the product properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of Paper Discoloration via Pyrolysis Using Lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Alhashem, Mayadah M.

    2017-04-01

    Printing ink is a main component of the modern printer, and it has always been throughout the history of printing. Ink and toners are expensive replaceable components that inkjet and laser printers cannot function without. The digital printing industry, which is majorly composed of monochrome printing, is expected to increase by 225% by 2024 from a 2013 baseline (Smithers et al., 2014). Expenses aside, toner cartridges and ink cartridges pose an overlooked threat to the environment. Manufacturing, packaging, transporting, and waste disposal of printer ink and toners result in carbon dioxide emissions. The complete elimination of ink in monochrome printing is potentially viable with the patented new discoloration technique. The patent studies a discoloration method by carbonizing a paper’s surface (Alhashem et al., 2015). The printing method optimizes surface paper pyrolysis via laser heating. The aim is obtaining the darkest possible shade without compromising paper quality. The challenge is in creating a printed area from the paper material itself, rather than depositing ink on paper. A 75-watt CO2 laser engraving machine emitting a 10.6 μm wavelength beam for heating is used with low power settings to carbonize a fraction of the paper surface. The carbonization is essentially a combustion reaction. Solid fuel burns in three stages: drying, devolatilization (pyrolysis, or distillation phase), and lastly, the char (charcoal) combustion. These stages are driven by heat from the CO2 laser. Moving the laser rapidly above the paper surface arrests the reaction at the second stage, after the formation of blackened char. The control variables in the experimental method are laser power, speed, and the vertical position that affects the laser intensity. Computer software controls these variables. The discoloration of paper is quantified by measuring the light absorptivity using a UV-Vis-IR Spectrometer.

  2. Flash pyrolysis properties of algae and lignin residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg

    A fast pyrolysis study on lignin and macroalgae (non-conventional biomass) and wood and straw (conventional biomass) were carried out in a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor. The product distributions and energy recoveries were measured and compared among these biomasses. The fast pyrolysis of macroal......A fast pyrolysis study on lignin and macroalgae (non-conventional biomass) and wood and straw (conventional biomass) were carried out in a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor. The product distributions and energy recoveries were measured and compared among these biomasses. The fast pyrolysis...... of macroalgae showed a promising result with on yield of 54 wt% dry ash free basis (daf) and 78% energy recovery in the bio-oil. The physiochemical properties of the bio-oils were characterized with respect to higher heating value, molecular mass distribution, viscosity, pH, density and elemental compositions....... The lignin and macroalgae oil properties were quite different to those of the conventional oils....

  3. Pyrolysis Recovery of Waste Shipping Oil Using Microwave Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Adibah Wan Mahari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the use of microwave pyrolysis as a recovery method for waste shipping oil. The influence of different process temperatures on the yield and composition of the pyrolysis products was investigated. The use of microwave heating provided a fast heating rate (40 °C/min to heat the waste oil at 600 °C. The waste oil was pyrolyzed and decomposed to form products dominated by pyrolysis oil (up to 66 wt. % and smaller amounts of pyrolysis gases (24 wt. % and char residue (10 wt. %. The pyrolysis oil contained light C9–C30 hydrocarbons and was detected to have a calorific value of 47–48 MJ/kg which is close to those traditional liquid fuels derived from fossil fuel. The results show that microwave pyrolysis of waste shipping oil generated an oil product that could be used as a potential fuel.

  4. Calcium-catalyzed pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Paige A; Truong, Chi; Wheeler, M Clayton; DeSisto, William J

    2015-09-01

    The present study examines the effect of calcium pretreatment on pyrolysis of individual lignocellulosic compounds. Previous work has demonstrated that the incorporation of calcium compounds with the feedstock prior to pyrolysis has a significant effect on the oxygen content and stability of the resulting oil. The aim of this work was to further explore the chemistry of calcium-catalyzed pyrolysis. Bench-scale pyrolysis of biomass constituents, including lignin, cellulose and xylan is performed and compared to the oils produced from pyrolysis of the same components after calcium pretreatment. The resulting oils were analyzed by quantitative GC-MS and SEC. These analyses, together with data collected from previous work provide evidence which was used to develop proposed reaction pathways for pyrolysis of calcium-pretreatment biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation for Optimal Liquid Products during Biomass Pyrolysis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F.; Hu, L. J.; Zheng, Y. W.; Huang, Y. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Liu, C.; Kang, J.; Zheng, Z. F.

    2016-08-01

    The liquid product obtained from biomass pyrolysis is very valuable that it could be used for extraction of chemicals as well as for liquid fuel. The desire goal is to obtain the most bio-oil with desired higher heating value (HHV), high physicochemical stability. The yields and chemical composition of products from biomass pyrolysis are closely related to the feedstock, pyrolysis parameters and catalysts. Current researches mainly concentrated on the co-pyrolysis of different biomass and introduce of novel catalysts as well as the combined effect of catalysts and pyrolysis parameters. This review starts with the chemical composition of biomass and the fundamental parameters and focuses on the influence of catalysts on bio-oil. What is more, the pyrolysis facilities at commercial scales were also involved. The classic researches and the current literature about the yield and composition of products (mainly liquid products) are summarized.

  6. Fast pyrolysis of biomass at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna

    . Different particle shapes of beechwood and leached wheat straw chars produced in the drop tube reactor which have similar potassium content suggested a stronger influence of the major biomass cell wall compounds (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and extractives) and silicates on the char morphology than...... multi core structures compared to pinewood soot generated at 1400°C, combining both single and multi core particles.Beechwood and wheat straw soot samples had multi and single core particles at both temperatures.In thermogravimetric analysis, the maximal reaction rate of pinewood soot was shifted...... pyrolysis at high temperatures plays a significant role in the overall combustion process since the biomass type, the reaction kinetics and heat transfer rates during pyrolysis influence the volatile gas release. The solid residue yield and its properties in suspension firing, including particle size...

  7. Decarbonisation of fossil energy via methane pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreysa, G.; Agar, D.W.; Schultz, I. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany)

    2010-12-30

    Despite the rising consumption of energy over the last few decades, the proven reserves of fossil fuels have steadily increased. Additionally, there are potentially tremendous reserves of methane hydrates available, which remain to be exploited. The use of fossil energy sources is thus increasingly being dictated less by supply than by the environmental concerns raised by climate change. In the context of the decarbonisation of the global energy system that this has stimulated, new means must be explored for using methane as energy source. Noncatalytic thermal pyrolysis of methane is proposed here as a promising concept for utilising methane with low to zero carbon dioxide emissions. Following cracking, only the energy content of the hydrogen is used, while the carbon can be stored safely and retrievably in disused coal mines. The thermodynamics and different process engineering concepts for the technical realisation of such a carbon moratorium technology are discussed. The possible contribution of methane pyrolysis to carbon negative geoengineering is also addressed. (orig.)

  8. Producing Hydrogen by Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James; Akse, James; Wheeler, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Plasma pyrolysis of methane has been investigated for utility as a process for producing hydrogen. This process was conceived as a means of recovering hydrogen from methane produced as a byproduct of operation of a life-support system aboard a spacecraft. On Earth, this process, when fully developed, could be a means of producing hydrogen (for use as a fuel) from methane in natural gas. The most closely related prior competing process - catalytic pyrolysis of methane - has several disadvantages: a) The reactor used in the process is highly susceptible to fouling and deactivation of the catalyst by carbon deposits, necessitating frequent regeneration or replacement of the catalyst. b) The reactor is highly susceptible to plugging by deposition of carbon within fixed beds, with consequent channeling of flow, high pressure drops, and severe limitations on mass transfer, all contributing to reductions in reactor efficiency. c) Reaction rates are intrinsically low. d) The energy demand of the process is high.

  9. Methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Frey, Stanley Joseph

    2017-09-12

    Methods and apparatuses are provided for deoxygenating pyrolysis oil. A method includes contacting a pyrolysis oil with a deoxygenation catalyst in a first reactor at deoxygenation conditions to produce a first reactor effluent. The first reactor effluent has a first oxygen concentration and a first hydrogen concentration, based on hydrocarbons in the first reactor effluent, and the first reactor effluent includes an aromatic compound. The first reactor effluent is contacted with a dehydrogenation catalyst in a second reactor at conditions that deoxygenate the first reactor effluent while preserving the aromatic compound to produce a second reactor effluent. The second reactor effluent has a second oxygen concentration lower than the first oxygen concentration and a second hydrogen concentration that is equal to or lower than the first hydrogen concentration, where the second oxygen concentration and the second hydrogen concentration are based on the hydrocarbons in the second reactor effluent.

  10. Economics of willow pyrolysis after phytoextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thewys, Theo; Kuppens, Tom

    2008-01-01

    The Campine is a vast cross-border area in the northeast of Belgium and southeast of the Netherlands that has been contaminated with heavy metals. As traditional excavation techniques are too expensive, phytoremediation is preferred. Economically viable conversion techniques for the biomass are researched in order to lower reclamation costs and to guarantee the income of the local farmers, mainly cultivating roughage for dairy cattle rearing. Energy generation by means of pyrolysis of willow from short-rotation coppice seems to be very interesting. This article aims to search for the maximum possible biomass price so that the net present value of the profits stemming from energy conversion based on pyrolysis is at least positive.

  11. Method and apparatus for producing pyrolysis oil having improved stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Lance A.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Muller, Stefan

    2016-12-27

    Methods and apparatus to improve hot gas filtration to reduce the liquid fuel loss caused by prolonged residence time at high temperatures are described. The improvement can be obtained by reducing the residence time at elevated temperature by reducing the temperature of the pyrolysis vapor, by reducing the volume of the pyrolysis vapor at the elevated temperature, by increasing the volumetric flow rate at constant volume of the pyrolysis vapor, or by doing a combination of these.

  12. Phenolic compounds from vacuum pyrolysis of wood wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkdel, H.; Roy, C. [Institut Pyrovac Inc., Sainte-Foy, PQ (Canada); Amen-Chen, C. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Chimique

    1997-02-01

    Hardwood and softwood bark residues and other wood wastes were processed by vacuum pyrolysis in a laboratory scale batch reactor. The pyrolysis oil, water, charcoal, and gas were recovered and analyzed for their content of phenolic compounds. Study of the influence of temperature, heating rate, feedstock bed thickness, particle size and feedstock water pretreatment on the yield of phenols were the primary targets. Pyrolysis performance was evaluated in terms of phenolic yield and composition. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. Reaction mechanisms in cellulose pyrolysis: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molton, P.M.; Demmitt, T.F.

    1977-08-01

    A bibliographic review of 195 references is presented outlining the history of the research into the mechanisms of cellulose pyrolysis. Topics discussed are: initial product identification, mechanism of initial formation of levoglucosan, from cellulose and from related compounds, decomposition of cellulose to other compounds, formation of aromatics, pyrolysis of levoglucosan, crosslinking of cellulose, pyrolytic reactions of cellulose derivatives, and the effects of inorganic salts on the pyrolysis mechanism. (JSR)

  14. Pyrolysis Processing of Waste Peanuts Crisps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grycová Barbora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes are the most frequent "by-product" of human society. The Czech Republic still has a considerable room for energy reduction and material intensiveness of production in connection with the application of scientific and technical expertise in the context of innovation cycles. Pyrolysis waste treatment is a promising alternative to the production of renewable hydrogen as a clean fuel. It can also reduce the environmental burden and the amount of waste in the environment at the same time.

  15. Coal pyrolysis: Thermogravimetric study and kinetic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coll, T.; Perales, J.F.; Arnaldos, J.; Casal, J. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain))

    1992-02-03

    In this experimental study on coal pyrolysis it was found that heat transfer and heating rate have an important influence on the results obtained. A model has been developed which takes into account these aspects. The kinetic parameters were determined using a differential method and the experimental data obtained at low heating rates. The agreement between the predictions of the model, for any heating rate, and the experimental values is fairly good. 8 figs., 2 tabs., 10 refs.

  16. Dutchess County pyrolysis project. Final summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a design and cost estimate for a resource recovery facility for Duchess County, NY which would use the Purox pyrolysis process to produce fuel gas. Information is included on solid waste and sewage sludge quantities and characteristics, site investigations, and products, the potential markets for recovered materials and energy, the plant design features and cost, and the overall economic viability of the project. (LCL)

  17. Toxicity of Pyrolysis Gases from Elastomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, Carlos J.; Kosola, Kay L.; Solis, Alida N.; Kourtides, Demetrius A.; Parker, John A.

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from six elastomers was investigated. The elastomers were polyisoprene (natural rubber), styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM), acrylonitrile rubber, chlorosulfonated polyethylene rubber, and polychloroprene. The rising temperature and fixed temperature programs produced exactly the same rank order of materials based on time to death. Acryltonitrile rubber exhibited the greatest toxicity under these test conditions; carbon monoxide was not found in sufficient concentrations to be the primary cause of death.

  18. Treatment of Lignin and Waste residues by Flash Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Arendt; Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    Lignin, sewage sludge and macroalg ae (nonconventional biomasses) fast pyrolysis properties has been studied through experimental investigations on a la boratory Pyrolysis Centrifugal Reactor (PCR) and a model on lignin pyrolysis have been developed. Fu rthermore the nonconventional biomass....... The properties of sl urries made of char and pyrolysis oil that potentially may be used as a feed for pressurized gasifiers has been investigated. It was shown that slurries made of mixtures of wood and bio-oil can be pumped into pressu rized systems. A new patented version of the PCR rotor unit, which can...

  19. SIMULATION OF OLIVE PITS PYROLYSIS IN A ROTARY KILN PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacobbe Braccio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the simulation of an olive pits fed rotary kiln pyrolysis plant installed in Southern Italy. The pyrolysis process was simulated by commercial software CHEMCAD. The main component of the plant, the pyrolyzer, was modelled by a Plug Flow Reactor in accordance to the kinetic laws. Products distribution and the temperature profile was calculated along reactor's axis. Simulation results have been found to fit well the experimental data of pyrolysis. Moreover, sensitivity analyses were executed to investigate the effect of biomass moisture on the pyrolysis process.

  20. Hydrogen Recovery by ECR Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Plasma Methane Pyrolysis Reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is...

  1. Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2014-12-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-06-30

    Methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. A method for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil comprising the steps of combining a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream with a heated low-oxygen-pyoil diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream is provided. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream has a feed temperature of about 150.degree. C. or greater. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a first deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at first hydroprocessing conditions effective to form a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent.

  3. Reprint of: Pyrolysis technologies for municipal solid waste: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dezhen; Yin, Lijie; Wang, Huan; He, Pinjing

    2015-03-01

    Pyrolysis has been examined as an attractive alternative to incineration for municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal that allows energy and resource recovery; however, it has seldom been applied independently with the output of pyrolysis products as end products. This review addresses the state-of-the-art of MSW pyrolysis in regards to its technologies and reactors, products and environmental impacts. In this review, first, the influence of important operating parameters such as final temperature, heating rate (HR) and residence time in the reaction zone on the pyrolysis behaviours and products is reviewed; then the pyrolysis technologies and reactors adopted in literatures and scale-up plants are evaluated. Third, the yields and main properties of the pyrolytic products from individual MSW components, refuse-derived fuel (RDF) made from MSW, and MSW are summarised. In the fourth section, in addition to emissions from pyrolysis processes, such as HCl, SO2 and NH3, contaminants in the products, including PCDD/F and heavy metals, are also reviewed, and available measures for improving the environmental impacts of pyrolysis are surveyed. It can be concluded that the single pyrolysis process is an effective waste-to-energy convertor but is not a guaranteed clean solution for MSW disposal. Based on this information, the prospects of applying pyrolysis technologies to dealing with MSW are evaluated and suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Process for minimizing solids contamination of liquids from coal pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickstrom, Gary H.; Knell, Everett W.; Shaw, Benjamin W.; Wang, Yue G.

    1981-04-21

    In a continuous process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons from a solid carbonaceous material by pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material in the presence of a particulate source of heat, particulate contamination of the liquid hydrocarbons is minimized. This is accomplished by removing fines from the solid carbonaceous material feed stream before pyrolysis, removing fines from the particulate source of heat before combining it with the carbonaceous material to effect pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material, and providing a coarse fraction of reduced fines content of the carbon containing solid residue resulting from the pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material before oxidizing carbon in the carbon containing solid residue to form the particulate source of heat.

  5. Pyrolysis of waste plastic crusts of televisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinmin; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Dongyan; Guo, Qingjie

    2012-09-01

    The disposal of waste plastic crusts of televisions is an issue that is gaining increasing interest around the world. In this investigation, the pyrolysis and catalytic cracking of the waste television crusts mainly composed of acrylonitrile--butadiene-styrene copolymer was studied. Thermogravimetric analysis was used for initial characterization of the pyrolysis of the waste plastic, but most of the investigations were carried out using a 600 mL tubing reactor. Effects of temperature, reaction time and catalyst on the pyrolysis of the waste television crusts were investigated. The results showed that the oil yield increased with increasing temperature or with prolongation of reaction time. With increasing temperature, the generating percentage of gasoline and diesel oil increased, but the heavy oil yield decreased. Zinc oxide, iron oxide and fluid catalytic cracking catalyst (FCC catalyst) were employed to perform a series of experiments. It was demonstrated that the liquid product was markedly improved and the reaction temperature decreased 100 degrees C when FCC was used. The composition ofpyrolysis oils was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and they contained 36.49% styrene, 19.72% benzenebutanenitrile, 12.1% alpha-methylstyrene and 9.69% dimethylbenzene.

  6. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure and 50°C temperature for comparison of performance of various additives. The use of hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid mixture (10 wt.% was found more economical and effective in desulfurization and improvement of fuel properties of sample oils. The contribution of sulfuric acid in desulfurization and decreasing viscosity was also satisfactory but due to high price of concentrated sulfuric acid its use may not be economical. Calcium oxide and Fuller’s earth was not found to be effective in desulfurization. Results indicate that oxidative desulfurization could render tire pyrolysis oils suitable for blending as heating fuel.

  7. Carbon Nanotube Synthesis Using Coal Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moothi, Kapil; Simate, Geoffrey S; Falcon, Rosemary; Iyuke, Sunny E; Meyyappan, M

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates carbon nanotube (CNT) production from coal pyrolysis wherein the output gases are used in a chemical vapor deposition reactor. The carbon products are similar to those using commercial coal gas as feedstock, but coal is a relatively cheaper feedstock compared to high purity source gases. A Gibbs minimization model has been developed to predict the volume percentages of product gases from coal pyrolysis. Methane and carbon monoxide were the largest carbon components of the product stream and thus formed the primary source for CNT synthesis. Both the model and the observations showed that increasing the furnace temperature led to a decrease in the absolute quantities of "useful" product gases, with the optimal temperature between 400 and 500 °C. Based on the experimental data, a kinetic rate law for CNT from coal pyrolysis was derived as d[CNT]/dt = K([CO][CH4])(1/2), where K is a function of several equilibrium constants representing various reactions in the CNT formation process.

  8. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: BIO-POK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Flash pyrolysis oil from Ensyn Tech., Canada and Union Fenosa, Spain was combusted with simple pressure atomisation equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system changes but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher oil preheat temperature and higher oil pressure than for light fuel oils, refractory section between burner and boiler warmed up to at least 800 deg C. In addition, it was necessary to store pyrolysis oil samples under inert conditions to prevent oxidation and to rinse nozzles with alcohol after shutdown to prevent coking. The complexity and cost of these system modifications are considered to be too great for current grades of flash pyrolysis oil to be sold as a light fuel oil replacement. Improvements to fuel quality will be necessary. The main improvements are lowering of viscosity and improving of stability

  9. Comprehensive Secondary Pyrolysis in Fluidized-bed Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass, a Fluid Dynamics Based Modelling Effort

    OpenAIRE

    Mellin, Pelle; Yang, Weihong; Yu, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Homogenous secondary pyrolysis is category of reactions following the primary pyrolysis and presumed important for fast pyrolysis. For the comprehensive chemistry and fluid dynamics, a probability density functional (PDF) approach is used; with a kinetic scheme comprising 134 species and 4169 reactions being implemented. With aid of acceleration techniques, most importantly Dimension Reduction, Chemistry Agglomeration and In-situ Tabulation (ISAT), a solution within reasonable time was obtain...

  10. Development of advanced technologies for biomass pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ran

    The utilization of biomass resources as a renewable energy resource is of great importance in responding to concerns over the protection of the environment and the security of energy supply. This PhD research focuses on the investigation of the conversion of negative value biomass residues into value-added fuels through flash pyrolysis. Pyrolysis Process Study. A pilot plant bubbling fluidized bed pyrolyzer has been set up and extensively used to thermally crack various low or negative value agricultural, food and biofuel processing residues to investigate the yields and quality of the liquid [bio-oil] and solid (bio-char] products. Another novel aspect of this study is the establishment of an energy balance from which the thermal self-sustainability of the pyrolysis process can be assessed. Residues such as grape skins and mixture of grape skins and seeds, dried distiller's grains from bio-ethanol plants, sugarcane field residues (internal bagasse, external and whole plant) have been tested. The pyrolysis of each residue has been carried out at temperatures ranging from 300 to 600°C and at different vapor residence times, to determine its pyrolysis behavior including yields and the overall energy balance. The thermal sustainability of the pyrolysis process has been estimated by considering the energy contribution of the product gases and liquid bio-oll in relation to the pyrolysis heat requirements. The optimum pyrolysis conditions have been identified in terms of maximizing the liquid blo-oil yield, energy density and content of the product blo-oil, after ensuring a self-sustainable process by utilizing the product gases and part of char or bio-oil as heat sources. Adownflow pyrolyzer has also been set up. Preliminary tests have been conducted using much shorter residence times. Bio-oil Recovery. Bio-oil recovery from the pyrolysis unit includes condensation followed by demisting. A blo-oil cyclonic condensing system is designed A nearly tangential entry forces

  11. The Salmonella In Silico Typing Resource (SISTR: An Open Web-Accessible Tool for Rapidly Typing and Subtyping Draft Salmonella Genome Assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Yoshida

    Full Text Available For nearly 100 years serotyping has been the gold standard for the identification of Salmonella serovars. Despite the increasing adoption of DNA-based subtyping approaches, serotype information remains a cornerstone in food safety and public health activities aimed at reducing the burden of salmonellosis. At the same time, recent advances in whole-genome sequencing (WGS promise to revolutionize our ability to perform advanced pathogen characterization in support of improved source attribution and outbreak analysis. We present the Salmonella In Silico Typing Resource (SISTR, a bioinformatics platform for rapidly performing simultaneous in silico analyses for several leading subtyping methods on draft Salmonella genome assemblies. In addition to performing serovar prediction by genoserotyping, this resource integrates sequence-based typing analyses for: Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST, ribosomal MLST (rMLST, and core genome MLST (cgMLST. We show how phylogenetic context from cgMLST analysis can supplement the genoserotyping analysis and increase the accuracy of in silico serovar prediction to over 94.6% on a dataset comprised of 4,188 finished genomes and WGS draft assemblies. In addition to allowing analysis of user-uploaded whole-genome assemblies, the SISTR platform incorporates a database comprising over 4,000 publicly available genomes, allowing users to place their isolates in a broader phylogenetic and epidemiological context. The resource incorporates several metadata driven visualizations to examine the phylogenetic, geospatial and temporal distribution of genome-sequenced isolates. As sequencing of Salmonella isolates at public health laboratories around the world becomes increasingly common, rapid in silico analysis of minimally processed draft genome assemblies provides a powerful approach for molecular epidemiology in support of public health investigations. Moreover, this type of integrated analysis using multiple sequence

  12. Power production from biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Korhonen, M. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The Seminar on Power Production from Biomass II with special emphasis on gasification and pyrolysis R and DD, was organized by VTT Energy on 27 - 28 March 1995 in Espoo, Finland. All seminar speakers were invited in order to give a high-level overview of the achievements of biomass combustion, gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies. The sessions included presentations by all key industrial entrepreneurs in the field. The poster session was open to all groups interested. Globally bioenergy covers about 3 % of the primary energy consumption. Locally it has a significant role in many countries like in Finland, where bioenergy covers almost 15 % and peat 5 % of primary energy consumption. Today`s cost-effective heat and power production is based on industrial wood residues and spent cooking liquors in relatively large industrial units or municipal heating and power stations. Agricultural residues like straw and especially energy crops are becoming more interesting in co-utilization with other biomasses or fossil fuels. The seminar successfully displayed the status of present technologies as well as development targets for new gasification and flash pyrolysis technologies in the coming years. The many industrial participants showed that there are growing business possibilities in many countries all over the world. The proceedings include the most oral presentations given at the Seminar and also abstracts of poster presentations. (orig.)

  13. Hydrocarbon phenotyping of algal species using pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Shankar L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofuels derived from algae biomass and algae lipids might reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Existing analytical techniques need to facilitate rapid characterization of algal species by phenotyping hydrocarbon-related constituents. Results In this study, we compared the hydrocarbon rich algae Botryococcus braunii against the photoautotrophic model algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using pyrolysis-gas chromatography quadrupole mass spectrometry (pyGC-MS. Sequences of up to 48 dried samples can be analyzed using pyGC-MS in an automated manner without any sample preparation. Chromatograms of 30-min run times are sufficient to profile pyrolysis products from C8 to C40 carbon chain length. The freely available software tools AMDIS and SpectConnect enables straightforward data processing. In Botryococcus samples, we identified fatty acids, vitamins, sterols and fatty acid esters and several long chain hydrocarbons. The algae species C. reinhardtii, B. braunii race A and B. braunii race B were readily discriminated using their hydrocarbon phenotypes. Substructure annotation and spectral clustering yielded network graphs of similar components for visual overviews of abundant and minor constituents. Conclusion Pyrolysis-GC-MS facilitates large scale screening of hydrocarbon phenotypes for comparisons of strain differences in algae or impact of altered growth and nutrient conditions.

  14. Pressurized fast-pyrolysis characteristics of typical Chinese coals with different ranks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunyu Li; Jiantao Zhao; Yitian Fang; Yang Wang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2009-09-15

    The pressurized fast pyrolysis of three typical Chinese coals with different coal ranks (Huolinhe lignite, Shenmu bituminous coal, and Jincheng anthracite) was conducted on a self-made pressurized fixed-bed reactor. The physicochemical characteristics of the chars were studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). In addition, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at ambient pressure has been used to study the influence of the residence time, the pyrolysis temperature, and pressure on the gasification reactivity of residual chars. The results show that the change in char yield and reactivity with pressure, at a residence time of 1 min, is different from that at longer residence time. This is related to the changing impacts of the rapid primary release of volatiles and the slower secondary cracking reactions of the evolved tars and the graphitization of the char structure. Furthermore, as the coal rank, pyrolysis pressure, temperature, and residence time increase, the surface structure of the char becomes much denser, the degree of graphitization is enhanced, and the number of the functional groups is reduced, which lead to the decrease in the gasification reactivity of the coal char. 23 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Hydrocarbon phenotyping of algal species using pyrolysis-gas chromatography mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Biofuels derived from algae biomass and algae lipids might reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Existing analytical techniques need to facilitate rapid characterization of algal species by phenotyping hydrocarbon-related constituents. Results In this study, we compared the hydrocarbon rich algae Botryococcus braunii against the photoautotrophic model algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using pyrolysis-gas chromatography quadrupole mass spectrometry (pyGC-MS). Sequences of up to 48 dried samples can be analyzed using pyGC-MS in an automated manner without any sample preparation. Chromatograms of 30-min run times are sufficient to profile pyrolysis products from C8 to C40 carbon chain length. The freely available software tools AMDIS and SpectConnect enables straightforward data processing. In Botryococcus samples, we identified fatty acids, vitamins, sterols and fatty acid esters and several long chain hydrocarbons. The algae species C. reinhardtii, B. braunii race A and B. braunii race B were readily discriminated using their hydrocarbon phenotypes. Substructure annotation and spectral clustering yielded network graphs of similar components for visual overviews of abundant and minor constituents. Conclusion Pyrolysis-GC-MS facilitates large scale screening of hydrocarbon phenotypes for comparisons of strain differences in algae or impact of altered growth and nutrient conditions. PMID:20492649

  16. Rapid and efficient localization of depth electrodes and cortical labeling using free and open source medical software in epilepsy surgery candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Princich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Depth intracranial electrodes (IEs placement is one of the most used procedures to identify the epileptogenic zone (EZ in surgical treatment of drug resistant epilepsy patients, about 20-30% of this population. IEs localization is therefore a critical issue defining the EZ and its relation with eloquent functional areas. That information is then used to target the resective surgery and has great potential to affect outcome.We designed a methodological procedure intended to avoid the need for highly specialized medical resources and reduce time to identify the anatomical location of IEs, during the first instances of intracranial EEG recordings. This workflow is based on established open source software; 3D Slicer and Freesurfer that uses MRI and Post-implant CT fusion for the localization of IEs and its relation with automatic labeled surrounding cortex. To test this hypothesis we assessed the time elapsed between the surgical implantation process and the final anatomical localization of IEs by means of our proposed method compared against traditional visual analysis of raw post-implant imaging in two groups of patients.All IEs were identified in the first 24 Hs (6-24 Hs of implantation using our method in 4 patients of the first group. For the control group; all IEs were identified by experts with an overall time range of 36 h to 3 days using traditional visual analysis. It included (7 patients, 3 patients implanted with IEs and the same 4 patients from the first group. Time to localization was restrained in this group by the specialized personnel and the image quality available.To validate our method; we trained two inexperienced operators to assess the position of IEs contacts on four patients (5 intracranial electrodes using the proposed method. We quantified the discrepancies between operators and we also assessed the efficiency of our method to define the EZ comparing the findings against the results of traditional analysis.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of fuel oil produced from pyrolysis of low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    previously on pyrolysis of polyethylene and plastics using batch reactors. Pyrolysis of waste polyethylene. (PE) and ... polypropylene and polystyrene plastic pellets in a two- stage thermal degradation process. The main component of the ..... thermal gasification of polyolefins. J. Material. Cycles and Waste Management. 3: 2-7.

  18. Investigation on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purevsuren B

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We have been working on pyrolysis of some organic raw materials including different rank coals, oil shale, wood waste, animal bone, cedar shell, polypropylene waste, milk casein and characterization of obtained hard residue, tar and pyrolytic water and gas after pyrolysis. The technical characteristics of these organic raw materials have been determined and the thermal stability characteristics such as thermal stability indices (T5% and T25% determined by using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis experiments were performed at different heating temperatures and the yields of hard residue, tar, pyrolysis water and gaseous products were determined and discussed. The main technical characteristics of hard residue of organic raw materials after pyrolysis have been determined and the adsorption ability of pyrolysis hard residue and its activated carbon of organic raw materials also determined. The pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials were distilled in air condition and determined the yields of obtained light, middle and heavy fractions and bitumen like residue with different boiling temperature. This is the first time to investigate the curing ability of pyrolysis tars of organic raw materials for epoxy resin and the results of these experiments showed that only tar of milk casein has the highest (95.0%, tar of animal bone has certain (18.70% and tars of all other organic raw materials have no curing ability for epoxy resin.

  19. Evaporation of biomass fast pyrolysis oil: evaluation of char formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balegedde Ramachandran, P.; van Rossum, G.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Evaporation experiments of biomass fast pyrolysis oil and its aqueous fractions at low (TGA-10°C/min, Glass tube-100°C/min) and high (atomization ~10 6°C/min) heating rates are performed. Slow heating of pyrolysis oil produced ~28% char (on carbon basis), whereas atomization of oil droplets (~117µm)

  20. Delay of biomass pyrolysis by gas–particle interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, E; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    2014-01-01

    We apply a biomass pyrolysis model, based on the model developed by Haseli et al. , which can be used in combination with Direct Numerical Simulation. The pyrolysis model is combined with a model for particle tracking to simulate 3D turbulent particle-laden channel flow with biomass particles

  1. Upgrading biomass pyrolysis bio-oil to renewable fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis is a process that can convert woody biomass to a crude bio-oil (pyrolysis oil). However, some of these compounds : contribute to bio-oil shelf life instability and difficulty in refining. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the bio-o...

  2. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  3. Evaluation of Pyrolysis Oil as Carbon Source for Fungal Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörsam, Stefan; Kirchhoff, Jennifer; Bigalke, Michael; Dahmen, Nicolaus; Syldatk, Christoph; Ochsenreither, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil, a complex mixture of several organic compounds, produced during flash pyrolysis of organic lignocellulosic material was evaluated for its suitability as alternative carbon source for fungal growth and fermentation processes. Therefore several fungi from all phyla were screened for their tolerance toward pyrolysis oil. Additionally Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus delemar, both established organic acid producers, were chosen as model organisms to investigate the suitability of pyrolysis oil as carbon source in fungal production processes. It was observed that A. oryzae tolerates pyrolysis oil concentrations between 1 and 2% depending on growth phase or stationary production phase, respectively. To investigate possible reasons for the low tolerance level, eleven substances from pyrolysis oil including aldehydes, organic acids, small organic compounds and phenolic substances were selected and maximum concentrations still allowing growth and organic acid production were determined. Furthermore, effects of substances to malic acid production were analyzed and compounds were categorized regarding their properties in three groups of toxicity. To validate the results, further tests were also performed with R. delemar. For the first time it could be shown that small amounts of phenolic substances are beneficial for organic acid production and A. oryzae might be able to degrade isoeugenol. Regarding pyrolysis oil toxicity, 2-cyclopenten-1-on was identified as the most toxic compound for filamentous fungi; a substance never described for anti-fungal or any other toxic properties before and possibly responsible for the low fungal tolerance levels toward pyrolysis oil.

  4. Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-03-01

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to the key technical challenges outlined in the FOA. The UOP team proposed a multi-track technical approach for pyrolysis oil stabilization. Conceptually, methods for pyrolysis oil stabilization can be employed during one or both of two stages: (1) during the pyrolysis process (In Process); or (2) after condensation of the resulting vapor (Post-Process). Stabilization methods fall into two distinct classes: those that modify the chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil, making it less reactive; and those that remove destabilizing components from the pyrolysis oil. During the project, the team investigated methods from both classes that were suitable for application in each stage of the pyrolysis process. The post processing stabilization effort performed at PNNL is described in this report. The effort reported here was performed under a CRADA between PNNL and UOP, which was effective on March 13, 2009, for 2 years and was subsequently modified March 8, 2011, to extend the term to December 31, 2011.

  5. Novel technique for coal pyrolysis and hydrogenation product analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, L.D.; Boyle, J.

    1993-03-15

    A microjet reactor coupled to a VUV photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been used to obtain species measurements during high temperature pyrolysis and oxidation of a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds ranging from allene and acetylene to cyclohexane, benzene and toluene. Initial work focused on calibration of the technique, optimization of ion collection and detection and characterization of limitations. Using the optimized technique with 118 nm photoionization, intermediate species profiles were obtained for analysis of the hydrocarbon pyrolysis and oxidation mechanisms. The soft'' ionization, yielding predominantly molecular ions, allowed the study of reaction pathways in these high temperature systems where both sampling and detection challenges are severe. Work has focused on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures representative of coal pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis products. The detailed mass spectra obtained during pyrolysis and oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures is especially important because of the complex nature of the product mixture even at short residence times and low primary reactant conversions. The combustion community has advanced detailed modeling of pyrolysis and oxidation to the C4 hydrocarbon level but in general above that size uncertainties in rate constant and thermodynamic data do not allow us to a priori predict products from mixed hydrocarbon pyrolyses using a detailed chemistry model. For pyrolysis of mixtures of coal-derived liquid fractions with a large range of compound structures and molecular weights in the hundreds of amu the modeling challenge is severe. Lumped models are possible from stable product data.

  6. Pyrolysis of brown coals of the Lelchitsy deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishtvan, I. I.; Falyushin, P. L.; Kraiko, V. M.; Dudarchik, V. M.

    2012-11-01

    Results of experimental studies on pyrolysis of brown coals of the Lelchitsy deposit, which were conducted on Laboratory setups in stationary and moving layers for producing high-caloric energy carriers, are presented. The yield of the pyrolysis products is determined; the chemical composition of solid, liquid, and gaseous products of thermochemical treatment is considered.

  7. Pyrolysis oil utilization in 50KWE gas turbine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Bijl, Antonie; van Alst, Niek; Bramer, Eduard A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    The concept of using pyrolysis oil (PO) derived from biomass via a fast pyrolysis route for power and heat generation encounters problems due to an incompatibility between properties (physical and chemical) of bio-oil and gas turbines designed for fossil fuels. An extensive research has been

  8. Recent developments in fast pyrolysis of ligno-cellulosic materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Garcia Perez, M.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis is a thermochemical process to convert ligno-cellulosic materials into bio-char and pyrolysis oil. This oil can be further upgraded or refined for electricity, transportation fuels and chemicals production. At the time of writing, several demonstration factories are considered worldwide

  9. A Comparison of Lignin, Macroalgae, Wood and Straw Fast Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    of the bio-oils were characterized with respect to higher heating value (HHV), molecular mass distribution, viscosity, pH, density, thermal behaviors, elemental concentrations, phase separation and aging. The lignin and macroalgae oil properties were different compared to those of the wood and straw oils......A fast pyrolysis study on lignin and macroalgae (non-conventional biomass) and wood and straw (conventional biomass) were carried out in a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor at pyrolysis temperature of 550 ºC. The product distributions and energy recoveries were measured and compared among...... these biomasses. The fast pyrolysis of macroalgae showed a promising result with a bio-oil yield of 65 wt% dry ash free basis (daf) and 76 % energy recovery in the bio-oil while the lignin fast pyrolysis provides a bio-oil yield of 47 wt% daf and energy recovery in bio-oil of 45 %. The physiochemical properties...

  10. A sequential method to analyze the kinetics of biomass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y F; Kuan, W H; Chiueh, P T; Lo, S L

    2011-10-01

    The kinetics of biomass pyrolysis was studied via a sequential method including two stages. Stage one is to analyze the kinetics of biomass pyrolysis and starts with the determination of unreacted fraction of sample at the maximum reaction rate, (1-α)(m). Stage two provides a way to simulate the reaction rate profile and to verify the appropriateness of kinetic parameters calculated in the previous stage. Filter paper, xylan, and alkali lignin were used as representatives of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin whose pyrolysis was analyzed with the assumption of the orders of reaction being 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For most of the biomass pyrolysis, kinetic parameters were properly determined and reaction rate profiles were adequately simulated by regarding the order of reaction as 1. This new method should be applicable to most of the biomass pyrolysis and similar reactions whose (1-α)(m) is acquirable, representative, and reliable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Influence of impurities on waste plastics pyrolysis: products and emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Zhong-Hui; Chen, De-Zhen; Ma, Xiao-Bo; Luan, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The study is aimed to evaluate the impact of impurities like food waste, paper, textile and especially soil on the pyrolysis of waste plastics. For this purpose, emissions, gas and liquid products from pyrolysis of waste plastics and impurities were studied, as well as the transfer of element N, Cl, S from the substrates to the pyrolysis products. It was found that the presence of food waste would reduce the heat value of pyrolysis oil to 27 MJ/kg and increase the moisture in the liquid products, therefore the food residue should be removed from waste plastics; and the soil, enhance the waste plastics' pyrolysis by improving the quality of gas and oil products. The presence of food residue, textile and paper leaded to higher gas emissions.

  12. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

    1999-04-01

    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  13. Supercritical water pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenchao; Du, Guiyue; Li, Jian; Fang, Yuanhao; Hou, Li'an; Chen, Guanyi; Ma, Degang

    2017-01-01

    Municipal sewage sludge (SS) from wastewater treatment plant containing high water content (>85wt.%), lead to the difficulty of co-combustion with MSW or coal due to the high cost of drying. This study explores an alternative method by supercritical water (SCW) pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) in a high pressure reaction vessel. The effects of temperature and moisture content of SS on yield and composition of the products (bio-oil, bio char and non-condensable gas) were studied. A temperature of 385°C and moisture content of 85wt.% were found to be the optimum conditions for the maximum bio-oil production of 37.23wt.%, with a higher heating value of 31.08MJ/kg. In the optimum condition, the yields of aliphatic hydrocarbon and phenols were about 29.23wt.% and 12.51wt.%, respectively. The physical and chemical properties of bio-char were analyzed by using XRF and BET. Results of GC analyses of NCG showed that it has the maximum HHV of 13.39MJ/m(3) at 445°C and moisture content of 85wt.%. The reaction path from SS to bio-oil through SCW pyrolysis was given. Moreover, carbon balance was calculated for the optimal condition, and finding out that 64.27wt.% of the carbon content was transferred from SS to bio-oil. Finally, this work demonstrates that the SCW pyrolysis is a promising disposal method for SS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Portable in-woods pyrolysis: Using forest biomass to reduce forest fuels, increase soil productivity, and sequester carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah Page-Dumroese; Mark Coleman; Greg Jones; Tyron Venn; R. Kasten Dumroese; Nathanial Anderson; Woodam Chung; Dan Loeffler; Jim Archuleta; Mark Kimsey; Phil Badger; Terry Shaw; Kristin McElligott

    2009-01-01

    We describe the use of an in-woods portable pyrolysis unit that converts forest biomass to bio-oil and the application of the byproduct bio-char in a field trial. We also discuss how in-woods processing may reduce the need for long haul distances of lowvalue woody biomass and eliminate open, currently wasteful burning of forest biomass. If transportation costs can be...

  15. Carbon abatement via treating the solid waste from the Australian olive industry in mobile pyrolysis units: LCA with uncertainty analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hanandeh, Ali

    2013-04-01

    The olive oil industry in Australia has been growing at a rapid rate over the past decade. It is forecast to continue growing due to the steady increase in demand for olive oil and olive products in the local and regional market. However, the olive oil extraction process generates large amounts of solid waste called olive husk which is currently underutilized. This paper uses life-cycle methodology to analyse the carbon emission reduction potential of utilizing olive husk as a feedstock in a mobile pyrolysis unit. Four scenarios, based on different combinations of pyrolysis technologies (slow versus fast) and end-use of products (land application versus energy utilization), are constructed. The performance of each scenario under conditions of uncertainty was also investigated. The results show that all scenarios result in significant carbon emission abatement. Processing olive husk in mobile fast pyrolysis units and the utilization of bio-oil and biochar as substitutes for heavy fuel oil and coal is likely to realize a carbon offset greater than 32.3 Gg CO2-eq annually in 90% of the time. Likewise, more than 3.2 Gg-C (11.8 Gg CO2-eq) per year could be sequestered in the soil in the form of fixed carbon if slow mobile pyrolysis units were used to produce biochar.

  16. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurgul Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  17. Incineration, pyrolysis and gasification of electronic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgul, Agnieszka; Szczepaniak, Włodzimierz; Zabłocka-Malicka, Monika

    2017-11-01

    Three high temperature processes of the electronic waste processing: smelting/incineration, pyrolysis and gasification were shortly discussed. The most distinctive feature of electronic waste is complexity of components and their integration. This type of waste consists of polymeric materials and has high content of valuable metals that could be recovered. The purpose of thermal treatment of electronic waste is elimination of plastic components (especially epoxy resins) while leaving non-volatile mineral and metallic phases in more or less original forms. Additionally, the gaseous product of the process after cleaning may be used for energy recovery or as syngas.

  18. Pyrolysis reactor and fluidized bed combustion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Norman W.

    1981-01-06

    A solid carbonaceous material is pyrolyzed in a descending flow pyrolysis reactor in the presence of a particulate source of heat to yield a particulate carbon containing solid residue. The particulate source of heat is obtained by educting with a gaseous source of oxygen the particulate carbon containing solid residue from a fluidized bed into a first combustion zone coupled to a second combustion zone. A source of oxygen is introduced into the second combustion zone to oxidize carbon monoxide formed in the first combustion zone to heat the solid residue to the temperature of the particulate source of heat.

  19. RECYCLING AND PYROLYSIS OF WASTE PLASTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Amrita Khatri

    2017-01-01

    Plastic has achieved such an extensive market due to fact that it is lightweight, cheap, flexible and reusable. But now it is regarded as a serious hazard. All recommendation for and against plastics finally land up on the reality that plastics are slow to degrade. By the end of the 20th century, plastics are found as persistent polluters of many environmental niches, from Mount Everest to the bottom of the sea. There are numerous ways by which plastic pollution can be controlled. Pyrolysis i...

  20. Effect of heating rate on toxicity of pyrolysis gases from some synthetic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Soriano, J. A.; Kosola, K. L.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of heating rate on the toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from some synthetic polymers was investigate, using a screening test method. The synthetic polymers were polyethylene, polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate, polycarbonate, ABS, polyaryl sulfone, polyether sulfone, and polyphenylene sulfide. The toxicants from the sulfur-containing polymers appeared to act more rapidly than the toxicants from the other polymers. It is not known whether this effect is due primarily to differences in concentration or in the nature of the toxicants. The carbon monoxide concentrations found do not account for the observed results.

  1. Opening education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Marshall S

    2009-01-02

    Spurred by the publication of Massachusetts Institute of Technology OpenCourseWare in 2002, the open educational resources (OER) movement, which has rapidly expanded and captured the imagination and energy of millions of creators and users throughout the world, now faces many opportunities and substantial challenges as it moves to become an integral part of the world's educational environment. The confluence of the Web and a spirit of sharing intellectual property have fueled a worldwide movement to make knowledge and education materials open to all for use. OER are content (courses, books, lesson plans, articles, etc.), tools (virtual laboratories, simulations, and games), and software that support learning and educational practice. OER are free on the Web, and most have licenses that allow copyright holders to retain ownership while providing specified rights for use in original and modified forms. At the least, OER have helped to level the distribution of knowledge across the world. A second promise of OER is to help transform educational practices. This article explores the history of and promises and challenges for OER.

  2. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post

  3. Mechanisms of flash pyrolysis of ether lipids isolated from the green microalga Botryococcus braunii race

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Gelin, F.; Gatellier, J-P.L.A.; Metzger, P.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    Two types of ether lipids isolated from the microalga Botryococcus braunii have been subjected to flash pyrolysis. The pyrolysis products were separated and analyzed by GC/MS. The nature and distribution of the pyrolysis compounds gave clues to the different mechanisms involved in the pyrolysis of

  4. All channels open

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank Huysmans; Jos de Haan

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Alle kanalen staan open. The rapid changes taking place in the media landscape in the Netherlands - characterised by digitisation and convergence of media technologies - raise the question of how the Dutch are dealing with the many new opportunities that have opened up. All

  5. Comparison of direct and indirect pyrolysis of micro-algae Isochrysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Bingwei; Tang, Xiaohan; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2015-03-01

    Yield and composition of pyrolysis oil in direct and indirect pyrolysis process were investigated which indicated that pyrolysis of defatted microalgae provided a potential way to convert protein and carbohydrate to biofuels. Defatted microalgae pyrolysis with lipid extraction has higher total oil yield than only microalgae direct pyrolysis. There was an increase for N-heterocyclic compounds and phenols and a decrease for hydrocarbons in defatted microalgae pyrolysis oil. There is an apparent decrease from C12 to C16 and nearly no carbon distribution from C17 to C22 for defatted microalgae pyrolysis. Based on composition of pyrolysis feedstock, pyrolysis oil yields were simulated by Compounds Biofuel Model and their accuracy was less than ±4.4%. Considering total oil yield and characteristics, microalgae pyrolysis after lipid extraction process is a promising way for microalgae utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Suspension Combustion of Wood: Influence of Pyrolysis Conditions on Char Yield, Morphology, and Reactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall'Ora, Michelangelo; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    Chars from pine and beech wood were produced by fast pyrolysis in an entrained flow reactor and by slow pyrolysis in a thermogravimetric analyzer. The influence of pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and particle size on char yield and morphology was investigated. The applied pyrolysis temperature......, whereas beech sawdust chars showed a somewhat less drastic change of morphology with respect to the parent fuel. Char produced by low heating rate pyrolysis fully retained the original fibrous structure of wood. Fast pyrolysis chars were significantly more reactive than slow pyrolysis chars; moreover...... free basis, whereas it was about 15−17% for slow pyrolysis (10−20 K/min); char yield decreased as pyrolysis temperature increased. During fast pyrolysis wood particles underwent melting, yet to different extents for the two investigated fuels: pine wood produced chars of porous spherical particles...

  7. Combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, and liquefaction of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.B.

    1980-09-01

    All the products now obtained from oil can be provided by thermal conversion of the solid fuels biomass and coal. As a feedstock, biomass has many advantages over coal and has the potential to supply up to 20% of US energy by the year 2000 and significant amounts of energy for other countries. However, it is imperative that in producing biomass for energy we practice careful land use. Combustion is the simplest method of producing heat from biomass, using either the traditional fixed-bed combustion on a grate or the fluidized-bed and suspended combustion techniques now being developed. Pyrolysis of biomass is a particularly attractive process if all three products - gas, wood tars, and charcoal - can be used. Gasification of biomass with air is perhaps the most flexible and best-developed process for conversion of biomass to fuel today, yielding a low energy gas that can be burned in existing gas/oil boilers or in engines. Oxygen gasification yields a gas with higher energy content that can be used in pipelines or to fire turbines. In addition, this gas can be used for producing methanol, ammonia, or gasoline by indirect liquefaction. Fast pyrolysis of biomass produces a gas rich in ethylene that can be used to make alcohols or gasoline. Finally, treatment of biomass with high pressure hydrogen can yield liquid fuels through direct liquefaction.

  8. Wood pyrolysis oil for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paro, D.; Gros, S.; Hellen, G.; Jay, D.; Maekelae, T.; Rantanen, O.; Tanska, T. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Wood Pyrolysis oil (WPO) has been identified by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) as the most competitive biofuel product which can be produced from biomass. The fuel is produced by a fast pyrolysis technique, using wood chipping`s or sawdust. The process can be applied to other recycling products such as straw etc. The use of WPO as a Diesel power plant fuel has been studied, and a fuel specification has been developed. The fuel characteristics have been analysed. There are several fuel properties addressed in the paper which have had to be overcome. New materials have been used in the fuel injection system. The fuel injection system development has progressed from a pump-line-pipe system to a common rail system. The fuel requires a pilot fuel oil injection to initiate combustion. The targets for the fuel injection system have been 1500 bar and 30 deg C injection period with a fuel of 15 MJ/kg lower heating value and 1220 Kg/m{sup 3} density. The combustion characteristics from both a small 80 mm bore engine initially, and then later with a single cylinder test of a 320 mm bore Waertsilae engine, have been evaluated. (author)

  9. Flash pyrolysis fuel oil: bio-pok

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gust, S. [Neste Oy, Porvoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Samples of flash pyrolysis liquid produced by Union Fenosa, Spain from pine and straw and samples produced by Ensyn of Canada from mixed hardwoods were combusted with simple pressure atomization equipment commonly used with light fuel oils in intermediate size (0.1-1 MW) boilers. With a number of modifications to the combustion system, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) could be reduced to acceptable levels: CO < 30 ppm and NO{sub x} < 140 ppm. Particulate emissions which were initially very high (Bacharach 4-5) were reduced (Bach. 2-3) by system improvements but are still higher than from light fuel oil (Bach. <1). The modifications to the combustion system were: refractory section between burner and boiler, acid resistant progressive cavity pump, higher liquid preheat temperature and higher pressure than for light fuel oils. The main problems with pyrolysis liquids concerns their instability or reactivity. At temperatures above 100 deg C they begin to coke, their viscosity increases during storage and oxygen from air causes skin formation. This requires that special handling procedures are developed for fuel storage, delivery and combustion systems. (orig.)

  10. Biofuel from jute stick by pyrolysis technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, J.; Parveen, M.; Islam, M. R.; Haniu, H.; Takai, K.

    2017-06-01

    In this study the conversion of jute stick into biofuels and chemicals by externally heated fixed-bed pyrolysis reactor have been taken into consideration. The solid jute stick was characterized through proximate and ultimate analysis, gross calorific values and thermo-gravimetric analysis to investigate their suitability as feedstock for this consideration. The solid biomass particles were fed into the reactor by gravity feed type reactor feeder. The products were oil, char and gases. The liquid and char products were collected separately while the gas was flared into the atmosphere. The process conditions were varied by fixed-bed temperature; feed stock particle size, N2 gas flow rate and running time. All parameters were found to influence the product yields significantly. The maximum liquid yields were 50 wt% of solid jute stick at reactor temperature 425°C for N2 gas flow rate 6 l/min, feed particle size 1180-1700 µm and running time 30 min. Liquid products obtained at these conditions were characterized by physical properties, chemical analysis and GC-MS techniques. The results show that it is possible to obtained liquid products that are comparable to petroleum fuels and valuable chemical feedstock from the selected biomass if the pyrolysis conditions are chosen accordingly.

  11. Thermal stability of ladderane lipids as determined by hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, A.; Lewan, M.D.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe, Damste J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been recognized as a major process resulting in loss of fixed inorganic nitrogen in the marine environment. Ladderane lipids, membrane lipids unique to anammox bacteria, have been used as markers for the detection of anammox in marine settings. However, the fate of ladderane lipids after sediment burial and maturation is unknown. In this study, anammox bacterial cell material was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis at constant temperatures ranging from 120 to 365 ??C for 72 h to study the stability of ladderane lipids during progressive dia- and catagenesis. HPLC-MS/MS analysis revealed that structural alterations of ladderane lipids already occurred at 120 ??C. At temperatures >140 ??C, ladderane lipids were absent and only more thermally stable products could be detected, i.e., ladderane derivatives in which some of the cyclobutane rings were opened. These diagenetic products of ladderane lipids were still detectable up to temperatures of 260 ??C using GC-MS. Thus, ladderane lipids are unlikely to occur in ancient sediments and sedimentary rocks, but specific diagenetic products of ladderane lipids will likely be present in sediments and sedimentary rocks of relatively low maturity (i.e., C31 hopane 22S/(22S + 22R) ratio 0.5). ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Thermal and catalytic slow pyrolysis of Calophyllum inophyllum fruit shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagu, R M; Sundaram, E Ganapathy; Natarajan, E

    2015-10-01

    Pyrolysis of Calophyllum inophyllum shell was performed in a fixed bed pyrolyser to produce pyrolytic oil. Both thermal (without catalysts) and catalytic pyrolysis process were conducted to investigate the effect of catalysts on pyrolysis yield and pyrolysis oil characteristics. The yield of pyrolytic oil through thermal pyrolysis was maximum (41% wt) at 425 °C for particle size of 1.18 mm and heating rate of 40 °C/min. In catalytic pyrolysis the pyrolytic oil yield was maximum (45% wt) with both zeolite and kaolin catalysts followed by Al2O3 catalyst (44% wt). The functional groups and chemical components present in the pyrolytic oil are identified by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. This study found that C. inophyllum shell is a potential new green energy source and that the catalytic pyrolysis process using zeolite catalyst improves the calorific value and acidity of the pyrolytic oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pyrolysis of municipal plastic wastes: Influence of raw material composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, A; de Marco, I; Caballero, B M; Laresgoiti, M F; Adrados, A

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this work is the study of pyrolysis as a feedstock recycling process, for valorizing the rejected streams that come from industrial plants, where packing and packaging wastes are classified and separated for their subsequent mechanical recycling. Four real samples collected from an industrial plant at four different times of the year, have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5dm(3) autoclave at 500 degrees C for 30min. Pyrolysis liquids are a complex mixture of organic compounds containing valuable chemicals as styrene, ethyl-benzene, toluene, etc. Pyrolysis solids are composed of the inorganic material contained in the raw materials, as well as of some char formed in the pyrolysis process, and pyrolysis gases are mainly composed of hydrocarbons together with some CO and CO(2), and have very high gross calorific values (GCV). It has been proved by the authors that the composition of the raw material (paper, film, and metals contents) plays a significant role in the characteristics of pyrolysis products. High paper content yields water in the pyrolysis liquids, and CO and CO(2) in the gases, high PE film content gives rise to high viscosity liquids, and high metals content yields more aromatics in the liquid products, which may be attributed to the metals catalytic effect. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Additives initiate selective production of chemicals from biomass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Shuai; Wang, Xinde; Wang, Lei; Qiu, Huizhe; Zhuang, Guilin; Zhong, Xing; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Fengyun; Liu, Jingmei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    To improve chemicals selectivity under low temperature, a new method that involves the injection of additives into biomass pyrolysis is introduced. This method allows biomass pyrolysis to achieve high selectivity to chemicals under low temperature (300°C), while nothing was obtained in typical pyrolysis under 300°C. However, by using the new method, the first liquid drop emerged at the interval between 140°C and 240°C. Adding methanol to mushroom scrap pyrolysis obtained high selectivity to acetic acid (98.33%), while adding ethyl acetate gained selectivity to methanol (65.77%) in bagasse pyrolysis and to acetone (72.51%) in corncob pyrolysis. Apart from basic chemicals, one high value-added chemical (2,3-dihydrobenzofuran) was also detected, which obtained the highest selectivity (10.33%) in corncob pyrolysis through the addition of ethyl acetate. Comparison of HZSM-5 and CaCO3 catalysis showed that benzene emerged in the liquid because of the larger degree of cracking and hydrodeoxygenation over HZSM-5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Method for the determination of lignin content of a sample by flash pyrolysis in an atmosphere of hydrogen or helium and method therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakkottai, Parthasarathy (Inventor); Kwack, Eug Y. (Inventor); Lawson, Daniel D. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The lignin content of wood, paper pulp or other material containing lignin (such as filter paper soaked in black liquor) is more readily determined by flash pyrolysis of the sample at approximately 550.degree. C. in a reducing atmosphere of hydrogen or in an inert atmosphere of helium followed by a rapid analysis of the product gas by a mass spectrometer. The heated pyrolysis unit as fabricated comprises a small platinum cup welded to an electrically-heated stainless steel ribbon with control means for programmed short duration (1.5 sec, approximately) heating and means for continuous flow of hydrogen or helium. The pyrolysis products enter an electron-ionization mode mass spectrometer for spectral evaluation. Lignin content is obtained from certain ratios of integrated ion currents of many mass spectral lines, the ratios being linearly related to the Kappa number of Klason lignin.

  16. Effect of temperature on pyrolysis product of empty fruit bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Pyrolysis of empty fruit bunches (EFB) was performed in a fixed bed reactor equipped with liquid collecting system. Pyrolysis process was conducted by varying the terminal pyrolysis temperature from 300 to 500°C under heating rate of 10°C/min for at least 2 hours. Char yield was obtained highest at 300°C around 55.88 wt%, and started to decrease as temperature increase. The maximum yield of pyrolysis liquid was obtained around 54.75 wt% as pyrolysis temperature reach 450°C. For gas yield percentage, the yield gained as temperature was increased from 300 to 500°C, within the range between 8.44 to 19.32 wt%. The char obtained at 400°C has great potential as an alternative solid fuel, due to its high heating value of 23.37 MJ/kg, low in volatile matter and ash content which are approximately around 40.32 and 11.12 wt%, respectively. The collected pyrolysis liquid within this temperature range found to have high water content of around 16.15 to 18.20 wt%. The high aqueous fraction seemed to cause the pyrolysis liquid to have low HHV which only ranging from 10.81 to 12.94 MJ/kg. These trends of results showed that necessary enhancement should be employ either on the raw biomass or pyrolysis products in order to approach at least the minimum quality of common hydrocarbon solid or liquid fuel. For energy production, both produced bio-char and pyrolysis liquid are considered as sustainable sources of bio-energy since they contained low amounts of nitrogen and sulphur, which are considered as environmental friendly solid and liquid fuel.

  17. Co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge and manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gómez, Nadia; Quispe, Violeta; Ábrego, Javier; Atienza-Martínez, María; Murillo, María Benita; Gea, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    The management and valorization of residual organic matter, such as sewage sludge and manure, is gaining interest because of the increasing volume of these residues, their localized generation and the related problems. The anaerobic digestion of mixtures of sewage sludge and manure could be performed due to the similarities between both residues. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the co-pyrolysis of sewage sludge (SS) and digested manure (DM) as a potential management technology for these residues. Pyrolysis of a sewage sludge/manure blend (50:50%) was performed at 525°C in a stirred batch reactor under N2 atmosphere. The product yields and some characteristics of the product were analyzed and compared to the results obtained in the pyrolysis of pure residues. Potential synergetic and antagonist effects during the co-pyrolysis process were evaluated. Although sewage sludge and manure seem similar in nature, there are differences in their pyrolysis product properties and distribution due to their distinct ash and organic matter composition. For the co-pyrolysis of SS and DM, the product yields did not show noticeable synergistic effects with the exception of the yields of organic compounds, being slightly higher than the predicted average, and the H2 yield, being lower than expected. Co-pyrolysis of SS and DM could be a feasible management alternative for these residues in locations where both residues are generated, since the benefits and the drawbacks of the co-pyrolysis are similar to those of the pyrolysis of each residue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fates of Chemical Elements in Biomass during Its Pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Li, Wen-Wei; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2017-05-10

    Biomass is increasingly perceived as a renewable resource rather than as an organic solid waste today, as it can be converted to various chemicals, biofuels, and solid biochar using modern processes. In the past few years, pyrolysis has attracted growing interest as a promising versatile platform to convert biomass into valuable resources. However, an efficient and selective conversion process is still difficult to be realized due to the complex nature of biomass, which usually makes the products complicated. Furthermore, various contaminants and inorganic elements (e.g., heavy metals, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine) embodied in biomass may be transferred into pyrolysis products or released into the environment, arousing environmental pollution concerns. Understanding their behaviors in biomass pyrolysis is essential to optimizing the pyrolysis process for efficient resource recovery and less environmental pollution. However, there is no comprehensive review so far about the fates of chemical elements in biomass during its pyrolysis. Here, we provide a critical review about the fates of main chemical elements (C, H, O, N, P, Cl, S, and metals) in biomass during its pyrolysis. We overview the research advances about the emission, transformation, and distribution of elements in biomass pyrolysis, discuss the present challenges for resource-oriented conversion and pollution abatement, highlight the importance and significance of understanding the fate of elements during pyrolysis, and outlook the future development directions for process control. The review provides useful information for developing sustainable biomass pyrolysis processes with an improved efficiency and selectivity as well as minimized environmental impacts, and encourages more research efforts from the scientific communities of chemistry, the environment, and energy.

  19. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Wang, Tiejun; Ma, Longlong; Chang, Jie

    2008-11-01

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na2CO3, NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 degrees C to 600 degrees C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 degrees C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 degrees C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) approximately 205 degrees C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na2CO3 addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H2, CO, CH4, CO2, C2H4 and C2H6. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher.

  20. Co-pyrolysis characteristics of microalgae Isochrysis and Chlorella: Kinetics, biocrude yield and interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingwei; Wang, Xin; Yang, Xiaoyi

    2015-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis characteristics of Isochrysis (high lipid) and Chlorella (high protein) were investigated qualitatively and quantitatively based on DTG curves, biocrude yield and composition by individual pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis. DTG curves in co-pyrolysis have been compared accurately with those in individual pyrolysis. An interaction has been detected at 475-500°C in co-pyrolysis based on biocrude yields, and co-pyrolysis reaction mechanism appear three-dimensional diffusion in comparison with random nucleation followed by growth in individual pyrolysis based on kinetic analysis. There is no obvious difference in the maximum biocrude yields for individual pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis, but carboxylic acids (IC21) decreased and N-heterocyclic compounds (IC12) increased in co-pyrolysis. Simulation results of biocrude yield by Components Biofuel Model and Kinetics Biofuel Model indicate that the processes of co-pyrolysis comply with those of individual pyrolysis in solid phase by and large. Variation of percentage content in co-pyrolysis and individual pyrolysis biocrude indicated interaction in gas phase. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Investigation of zinc recovery by hydrogen reduction assisted pyrolysis of alkaline and zinc-carbon battery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebin, Burçak; Petranikova, Martina; Steenari, Britt-Marie; Ekberg, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Zinc (Zn) recovery from alkaline and zinc-carbon (Zn-C) battery waste were studied by a laboratory scale pyrolysis process at a reaction temperature of 950°C for 15-60min residence time using 5%H 2(g) -N 2(g) mixture at 1.0L/min gas flow rate. The effect of different cooling rates on the properties of pyrolysis residue, manganese oxide particles, were also investigated. Morphological and structural characterization of the produced Zn particles were performed. The battery black mass was characterized with respect to the properties and chemical composition of the waste battery particles. The thermodynamics of the pyrolysis process was studied using the HSC Chemistry 5.11 software. A hydrogen reduction reaction of the battery black mass (washed with Milli-Q water) takes place at the chosen temperature and makes it possible to produce fine Zn particles by rapid condensation following the evaporation of Zn from the pyrolysis batch. The amount of Zn that can be separated from the black mass increases by extending the residence time. Recovery of 99.8% of the Zn was achieved at 950°C for 60min residence time using 1.0L/min gas flow rate. The pyrolysis residue contains MnO and Mn 2 O 3 compounds, and the oxidation state of manganese can be controlled by cooling rate and atmosphere. The Zn particles exhibit spherical and hexagonal particle morphology with a particle size varying between 200nm and 3µm. However the particles were formed by aggregation of nanoparticles which are primarily nucleated from the gas phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Co-pyrolysis of polypropylene waste with Brazilian heavy oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Luiz C F N; Carbonell, Montserrat M; Marques, Mônica R C

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the chemical recycling of plastic residues, co-pyrolysis of polypropylene (PP) waste with Brazilian crude oil was evaluated varying the temperature (400°C to 500°C) and the amount of PP fed to the reactor. The co-pyrolysis of plastic waste in an inert atmosphere provided around 80% of oil pyrolytic, and of these, half represent the fraction of diesel oil. This study can be used as a reference in chemical recycling of plastics, specially associated with plastics co-pyrolysis.

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF BIO-OIL FROM PALM KERNEL SHELL PYROLYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ahmad; N. Hamidin; U.F.M. Ali; C.Z.A. Abidin

    2014-01-01

    Pyrolysis of palm kernel shell in a fixed-bed reactor was studied in this paper. The objectives were to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature and particle size on the products yield and to characterize the bio-oil product. In order to get the optimum pyrolysis parameters on bio-oil yield, temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500 and 550 °C and particle sizes of 212–300 µm, 300–600 µm, 600µm–1.18 mm and 1.18–2.36 mm under a heating rate of 50 °C min-1 were investigated. The maximum bio-oil...

  4. Modelling of porous biomass pyrolysis in screw reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, A. A.; Kozlov, A. N.

    2017-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a model of wood pyrolysis in a screw reactor as the first stage of the multistage gasification process. To prevent clinkering of particles and thermal inhomogeneities, screw-type transportation is used to transport fuel. In order to describe kinetics of pyrolysis and transport of volatiles within the wood particles and their transition to the gas phase we carried out the studies using a complex of synchronous thermal analysis. A detailed numerical modeling of pyrolyzer was performed with the Comsol Multiphysics software which makes it possible to optimize the design and operating parameters of the pyrolysis process in a screw reactor.

  5. Recycling Possibility of the Salty Food Waste by Pyrolysis and Water Scrubbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye-Eun Lee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Salty food waste is difficult to manage with previous methods such as composting, anaerobic digestion, and incineration, due to the hindrance of salt and the additional burden to handle high concentrations of organic wastewater produced when raw materials are cleaned. This study presents a possibility of recycling food waste as fuel without the burden of treatment washing with water by pyrolyzing and scrubbing. For this purpose, salty food waste with 3% NaCl was made using 10 materials and pyrolysis was conducted at temperature range between 200–400 °C. The result was drawn from elementary analysis (EA, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analysis, atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS analysis, water quality analysis and calorific value analysis of char, washed char, and washing water. The result of the EA showed that NaCl in food waste could be volatilized at a low pyrolysis temperature of 200–300 °C and it could be concentrated and fixed in char at a high pyrolysis temperature of 300–400 °C. The XPS analysis result showed that NaCl existed in form of chloride. Through the Na content result of the AAS analysis, NaCl remaining in char after water scrubbing was determined to be less than 2%. As the pyrolysis temperature increased, the chemical oxygen demand (COD value of scrubbing water decreased rapidly, but the total phosphorus and nitrogen contents decreased gradually. The cleaned pyrolysis char showed an increase of higher heating value (HHV approximately 3667–9920 J/g due to the removal of salt from the char and, especially at 300–400 °C, showed a similar HHV with normal fossil fuels. In conclusion, salty food waste, which is pyrolyzed at a temperature of 300–400 °C and cleaned by water, can be utilized as high-energy refuse derived fuel (RDF, without adverse effects, due to the volatilization of Cl and an additional process of contaminated water.

  6. Production of bio-oils from wood by flash pyrolysis; Herstellung von Bio-Oelen aus Holz in einer Flash-Pyrolyseanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, D.; Ollesch, T. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Forst- und Holzwirtschaft, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Holzchemie und Chemische Technologie des Holzes; Gerdes, C.; Kaminsky, W. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische und Makromolekulare Chemie (ITMCh)

    1998-09-01

    Flash pyrolysis is a medium-temperature process (around 475 C) in which biomass is heated up rapidly in the absence of oxygen. The pyrolysis products are cooled down rapidly, condensing into a reddish-brown liquid with around half the calorific value of a conventional heating oil. In contrast to conventional charcoal production, flash pyrolysis is a modern process whose process parameters enure high liquid yields. Modern fluidized-bed reactors for flash pyrolysis of biomass tend to have high heating rates and short times of residue. In the `Hamburg process`, fluidized-bed reactors are used successfully for pyrolysis of plastics. A flash pyrolysis plant for biomass treatment was constructed in cooperation with Hamburg University with funds provided by the `Bundesstiftung Umwelt`. This contribution describes the first series of experiments, mass balances and oil analyses using beech wood as material to be pyrolyzed. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Flash-Pyrolyse ist ein Mitteltemperatur-Prozess (ca. 475 C), in dem Biomasse unter Sauerstoffausschluss sehr schnell erhitzt wird. Die entstehenden Pyrolyseprodukte werden schnell abgekuehlt und kondensieren zu einer roetlich-braunen Fluessigkeit, die etwa die Haelfte des Heizwertes eines konventionellen Heizoeles besitzt. Flash-Pyrolyse ist, im Gegensatz zur konventionellen Holzverkohlung, ein modernes Verfahren, dessen spezielle Verfahrensparameter hohe Fluessigausbeuten ermoeglichen. Hohe Aufheizraten, verbunden mit kurzen Verweilzeiten, werden mit stationaeren Wirbelbettreaktoren erzielt die gegenwaertig vorwiegend fuer die Flash-Pyrolyse von Biomasse eingesetzt werden. Im `Hamburger Verfahren` haben sich Wirbelbettreaktoren im Bereich der Kunststoffpyrolyse bewaehrt. Daher wurde in Zusammenarbeit mit der Universitaet Hamburg und finanzieller Foerderung der Bundesstiftung Umwelt eine Flash-Pyrolyseanlage fuer Biomasse gebaut: In dieser Arbeit werden erste Versuchsreihen, Massenbilanzen und Oelanalysen aus der Pyrolyse von

  7. Integration of pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion--use of aqueous liquor from digestate pyrolysis for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Tobias; Mumme, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of aqueous pyrolysis liquor derived from pyrolysis of solid digestate was tested in batch mode using an un-adapted inoculum. Three pyrolysis liquors produced at 330°C, 430°C and 530°C in four COD-based concentrations of 3, 6, 12 and 30 g L(-1) were investigated. The three lower concentrations showed considerable biogas production, whereas the 30 g L(-1) dosage caused process inhibition. The highest methane yield of 199.1±18.5 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 56.9±5.3%) was observed for the 330°C pyrolysis liquor, followed by the 430°C sample with only slightly lower values. The 530°C sample dropped to a yield of 129.3±19.7 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 36.9±5.6%). Most VOCs contained in the pyrolysis liquor (i.e. furfural, phenol, catechol, guaiacol, and levoglucosan) were reduced below detection limit (cresol by 10-60%). Consequently, integrated pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion in addition to thermochemical conversion of digestate also promises bioconversion of pyrolysis liquors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phenols from pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of tobacco biomass components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibet, Joshua K; Khachatryan, Lavrent; Dellinger, Barry

    2015-11-01

    Phenol and its derivatives (phenol, o-, m-, p-cresols, catechol, hydroquinone, methoxy substituted phenols, etc. referred to as phenolic compounds or phenols) are well-known toxicants that exist in the environment and affect both human and natural ecosystems. This study explores quantitatively the yields of phenolic compounds from the thermal degradation (pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis) of common tobacco biomass components (lignin, tyrosine, ethyl cellulose, sodium alginate, and laminarin) as well as some mixtures (lignin/tyrosine, ethyl cellulose/tyrosine and sodium alginate/tyrosine) considered important in high temperature cooking, tobacco smoking, and forest fires. Special attention has been given to binary mixtures including those containing tyrosine-pyrolysis of binary mixtures of tyrosine with lignin and ethyl cellulose results in significant reductions in the yields of majority phenols relative to those from the thermal degradation of tyrosine. These results imply that the significant reductions of phenol yields in mixtures are not only dependent upon the mass fractions of the components but also the synergetic inhibition effect of biomass components on the thermal degradation of tyrosine. A mechanistic description of this phenomenon is suggested. The results may also be implied in tobacco industry that the cigarette paper (as ethyl cellulose derivative) may play a critical role in reducing the concentration of phenolic compounds released during tobacco burning. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Zinc oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciąg Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we developed and tested spray pyrolysis system for layers deposition. In the system we have used ultrasonic apparatus (nebulizator as a sprayer. A zinc nitrate aqueous solution has been used as a precursor solution. The idea of the method is the decomposition of nitrate on a hot substrate according to the reaction Zn(NO32 → ZnO +2 NO2 +1/2O2. The layers were grown on glass, (001Si and KCl substrates at the temperatures 300 – 500°C. The thickness of the obtained layers was in the range 50 – 500 nm, depending on the growth time and rate. The influence of substrate temperature on the morphology of the layers has been studied by SEM method. The energy gap of the layers was found to be the range of 3.26-3.3 eV from their absorption spectra.

  10. Production of hydrogen by lignins fast pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumlin, Sebastien; Broust, Francois; Bazer-Bachi, Frederic; Bourdeaux, Thomas; Herbinet, Olivier; Toutie Ndiaye, Fatou; Ferrer, Monique; Lede, Jacques [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique, CNRS-ENSIC, 1, rue Grandville, BP 20451, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France)

    2006-12-15

    This paper reports the results of experiments performed on the flash pyrolysis of lignin samples submitted to controlled heat flux densities (short flashes of a concentrated radiation). Two types of lignins are used: Kraft and Organocell lignins. Microscopic observations of the reacted samples reveal the formation of an intermediate liquid compound that precedes the further formation of char, vapours and gases. The rates of mass loss and the production rates of the products are determined for both lignins. The results are compared to each other and to those obtained in former similar studies made with cellulose. The analyses of the produced gases reveal high syngas and H{sub 2} contents (respectively 87 and 50mol%). This composition is compared to results obtained in other different thermal conditions with lignins and other types of biomasses. The possible mechanism of hydrogen formation is further discussed. (author)

  11. Reductive pyrolysis study of biodesulfurized subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.P. Marinov; L. Gonsalvesha; M. Stefanova; Y. Yueeriem; A.G. Dumanli; N. Kolankaya; M. Sam; R. Carleer; G. Reggers; J. Yperman [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    Biodesulfurization is one of the perspective methods for production of friendly fuels. Reductive pyrolysis in mode of atmospheric pressure temperature programmed reduction (AP-TPR) combined with varied detection systems gave us possibility to obtain more satisfactory explanation of biodesulfurization effects. AP-TPR coupled 'on-line' and 'off-line' with potentiometry, mass spectrometry and GC/MS analysis with inner sulfur standards for quantification were applied. Subbituminous coal from 'Pirin' basin, Bulgaria was treated by three different types of microorganisms with maximal desulfurization effect for total (26%) and organic sulfur (13%). Namely, two types white rot fungi - 'Trametes Versicolor', 'Phanerochaeta Chrysosporium' and one mixed bacterial culture were used. Improved sulfur balance determination was registered. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  12. Fluidized bed selective pyrolysis of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, J.Y.; Cha, C.Y.; Merriam, N.W.

    1992-12-15

    The present invention discloses a process for the pyrolysis of coal which comprises the effective utilization of two zonal inclined fluidized beds, where said zones can be selectively controlled as to temperature and heating rate. The first zonal inclined fluidized bed serves as a dryer for crushed coal and additionally is controlled to selectively pyrolyze said coal producing substantially carbon dioxide for recycle use. The second zonal inclined fluidized bed further pyrolyses the coal to gaseous, liquid and char products under controlled temperature and heating rate zones designed to economically integrate the product mix. The gas and liquid products are recovered from the gaseous effluent stream while the char which remains can be further treated or utilized in a subsequent process step. 9 figs.

  13. Pyrolysis of amino acids - Mechanistic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, M. A., Jr.; Medley, E. E.; Simmonds, P. G.

    1974-01-01

    Pyrolysis of several structurally different amino acids in a column at 500 C showed differences in the mechanisms and final products. The aliphatic protein amino acids decompose mainly by simple decarboxylation and condensation reactions, while the beta amino acids undergo deamination to unsaturated acids. Alpha amino acids with alpha alkyl substituents undergo an unusual intramolecular SN1 reaction with the formation of an intermediate alpha lactone which decomposes to yield a ketone. The alpha alkyl substituents appear to stabilize the developing negative charge formed by partial heterolytic cleavage of the alpha carbon - NH3 bond. The gamma and delta amino acids give 2-pyrrolidinone and 2-piperidone respectively, while the epsilon acids yield mixed products.

  14. Screw pyrolysis technology for sewage sludge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi Morgano, Marco; Leibold, Hans; Richter, Frank; Stapf, Dieter; Seifert, Helmut

    2018-03-01

    Sewage sludge quantities have grown continuously since the introduction of the European Directive (UWWTD 91/271/EEC) relating to the treatment of urban wastewater. In the present, most of the sewage sludge is combusted in single fuels incineration plants or is co-fired in waste incineration or coal power plants. The combustion of sewage sludge is a proven technology. Other treatments, such as fluidized bed gasification, were successfully adopted to produce suitable syngas for power production. Besides, the number of large wastewater treatment plants is relatively small compared to the local rural ones. Moreover, alternative technologies are arising with the main target of nutrients recovery, with a special focus on phosphorus. The aforementioned issues, i.e. the small scale (below 1MW) and the nutrients recovery, suggest that pyrolysis in screw reactors may become an attractive alternative technology for sewage sludge conversion, recovery and recycling. In this work, about 100kg of dried sewage sludge from a plant in Germany were processed at the newly developed STYX Reactor, at KIT. The reactor combines the advantages of screw reactors with the high temperature filtration, in order to produce particle and ash free vapors and condensates, respectively. Experiments were carried out at temperatures between 350°C and 500°C. The yield of the char decreased from 66.7wt.% to 53.0wt.%. The same trend was obtained for the energy yield, while the maximum pyrolysis oil yield of 13.4wt.% was obtained at 500°C. Besides mercury, the metals and the other minerals were completely retained in the char. Nitrogen and sulfur migrated from the solid to the condensate and to the gas, respectively. Based on the energy balance, a new concept for the decentral production of char as well as heat and power in an externally fired micro gas turbine showed a cogeneration efficiency up to about 40%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Making Activated Carbon by Wet Pressurized Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Moran, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A wet pressurized pyrolysis (wet carbonization) process has been invented as a means of producing activated carbon from a wide variety of inedible biomass consisting principally of plant wastes. The principal intended use of this activated carbon is room-temperature adsorption of pollutant gases from cooled incinerator exhaust streams. Activated carbon is highly porous and has a large surface area. The surface area depends strongly on the raw material and the production process. Coconut shells and bituminous coal are the primary raw materials that, until now, were converted into activated carbon of commercially acceptable quality by use of traditional production processes that involve activation by use of steam or carbon dioxide. In the wet pressurized pyrolysis process, the plant material is subjected to high pressure and temperature in an aqueous medium in the absence of oxygen for a specified amount of time to break carbon-oxygen bonds in the organic material and modify the structure of the material to obtain large surface area. Plant materials that have been used in demonstrations of the process include inedible parts of wheat, rice, potato, soybean, and tomato plants. The raw plant material is ground and mixed with a specified proportion of water. The mixture is placed in a stirred autoclave, wherein it is pyrolized at a temperature between 450 and 590 F (approximately between 230 and 310 C) and a pressure between 1 and 1.4 kpsi (approximately between 7 and 10 MPa) for a time between 5 minutes and 1 hour. The solid fraction remaining after wet carbonization is dried, then activated at a temperature of 500 F (260 C) in nitrogen gas. The activated carbon thus produced is comparable to commercial activated carbon. It can be used to adsorb oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons, any or all of which can be present in flue gas. Alternatively, the dried solid fraction can be used, even without the activation treatment, to absorb

  16. High temperature SU-8 pyrolysis for fabrication of carbon electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Yasmin Mohamed; Caviglia, Claudia; Hemanth, Suhith

    2017-01-01

    spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the pyrolytic carbon. The results show that the temperature increase from 900 °C to 1100 °C improves the electrical and electrochemical properties. At 1100 °C, longer dwell time leads to lower resistivity, while the variation of the pyrolysis...... composite experimental design was used to identify the influence of dwell time at the highest pyrolysis temperature and heating rate on electrical, electrochemical and structural properties of the pyrolytic carbon: Van der Pauw sheet resistance measurements, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance......In this work, we present the investigation of the pyrolysis parameters at high temperature (1100 °C) for the fabrication of two-dimensional pyrolytic carbon electrodes. The electrodes were fabricated by pyrolysis of lithographically patterned negative epoxy based photoresist SU-8. A central...

  17. WEEE recycling: Pyrolysis of fire retardant model polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luda, M P; Euringer, N; Moratti, U; Zanetti, M

    2005-01-01

    Pyrolysis treatments of model polymers were made with the aim of studying the recycling of wastes from electronic, electric equipment containing brominated flame retardants. Pyrolysis of flame retarded high impact polystyrene and epoxy resins were made both in flow and closed systems. Products of pyrolysis were analysed with FT-IR spectroscopy and GC-MS and the evolution of bromine was followed with a bromine ion specific electrode. The effect of alkali on pyrolysis was also studied demonstrating, as far epoxy resin is concerned, to be effective on decreasing bromine content in oil and volatile products leading to the recovery of bromine from the residue by washing. The alkali treatment was shown to be less effective in styrenic polymers containing brominated flame retardants.

  18. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior of black liquor under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study has been to enhance the understanding of the processes involved in pressurized black liquor gasification. Gasification is known to occur in three stages: drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. The work presented here focuses on the pyrolysis and gasification stages. Experiments were carried out primarily in two laboratory-scale reactors. A pressurized grid heater was used to study black liquor pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Char yields and the fate of elements in the liquor, as well as the degree of liquor swelling, were measured in this device. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used to measure the rate of the char gasification process under different temperatures and pressures and in various gas atmospheres. Pyrolysis experiments were also carried out in this device, and data on swelling behavior, char yields and component release were obtained 317 refs.

  19. Hydrogen Recovery by ECR Plasma Pyrolysis of Methane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a microgravity and hypogravity compatible microwave plasma methane pyrolysis reactor is proposed to recover hydrogen which is lost as methane in the...

  20. Pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading to renewable fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to upgrade woody biomass pyrolysis bio-oil into transportation fuels by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation : (HDO) using nanospring (NS) supported catalyst via the following research objectives: (1) develop nanospring-based : catalysts (nan...

  1. Pyrolysis-GC×GC-TOFMS to characterize carbonaceous chondrites

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, J. S.; Pearson, V. K.; Gilmour, I.; Pillinger, C. T.; Turner, D.; Perkins, R.; Morgan, G. H.

    2005-01-01

    Using pyrolysis-GCxGC-TOFMS to analyze organic carbon in carbonaceous chondrites gives a massive increase in both sensitivity and structural information from samples when compared to traditional Py-GC-MS.

  2. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS PRETREATMENT ON PYROLYSIS CHARACTERISTICS OF NAPIER GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISAH YAKUB MOHAMMED

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of non-catalytic aqueous pretretment on pyrolysis characteristics of Napier grass was investigated using thermogravimetric analyser. Increasing pretreatment severity (0.0-2.0 improved pyrolysis process. The residual mass at the end of pyrolysis for the pretreated sample was about 50% less compared to the untreated sample. Kinetics of the process was evaluated using order based model and both pretreated and untreated samples followed first order reaction. The activation energy of the pretreated samples was similar and higher than that of the raw sample which was attributed to faster rate of decomposition due removal of hetromaterials (ash, extractives and some hemicellulose in the pretreatment stage. Finally, this pretreatment method has demonstrated effectiveness for the removal of pyrolysis retardants and will improve the quantity and quality of bio-oil yield.

  3. Characterization of products from the pyrolysis of rapeseed oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Suat; Ozkan, Ahmet R

    2008-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the composition of products from the pyrolysis of rapeseed oil cake in a fixed bed reactor at 400, 450, 500, 700 and 900 degrees C. The gas products mainly consisted of CO(2), CO, CH(4) and H(2)S at 500 degrees C. Empirical formula of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of rapeseed oil cake was CH(1.59)O(0.16)N(0.116)S(0.003) for 500 degrees C. Bio-oils mainly contained oleic acid, 1H-indole, 2,3,5-trimethoxy toluene, toluene, (Z)-9-octadecanamide, psoralene, phenol and phenol derivatives at all pyrolysis temperatures. Both non-aromatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were determined in water phase of liquid product by Headspace-GC analysis. The heating values of bio-chars were found to be similar (24MJkg(-1)) at all pyrolysis temperatures.

  4. Hydrogen Generator by Methane Pyrolysis with Carbon Capture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop, fabricate, and test a system to provide 99.999% hydrogen by efficiently performing methane pyrolysis. The system has three unique...

  5. Open data assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, Roumen; Yoshinov, Radoslav; Jekov, Boyan; Pavlova, Galya

    2017-06-01

    The last decade together with rapidly developing of Information and Communication Technologies data and its variety of application fields gaining in popularity. Initially the data becomes Big. Everyday accumulation of so big amount of data and the possibility to analyze it contributes to the ease of modern life. The curiosity of the world enforces the Big Data to become Open and then to connect the available open data in linked. This article presents the Open data and their implication in different fields. Detailed is examined the quality of Open data as the methodology for its evaluation is presented.

  6. Mass production of chemicals from biomass-derived oil by directly atmospheric distillation coupled with co-pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Song; Yang, Guang-Xi; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Wu-Jun; Ding, Hong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Production of renewable commodity chemicals from bio-oil derived from fast pyrolysis of biomass has received considerable interests, but hindered by the presence of innumerable components in bio-oil. In present work, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated an innovative approach combining atmospheric distillation of bio-oil with co-pyrolysis for mass production of renewable chemicals from biomass, in which no waste was produced. It was estimated that 51.86 wt.% of distillate just containing dozens of separable organic components could be recovered using this approach. Ten protogenetic and three epigenetic compounds in distillate were qualitatively identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantified by gas chromatography. Among them, the recovery efficiencies of acetic acid, propanoic acid, and furfural were all higher than 80 wt.%. Formation pathways of the distillate components in this process were explored. This work opens up a fascinating prospect for mass production of chemical feedstock from waste biomass. PMID:23350028

  7. Mass production of chemicals from biomass-derived oil by directly atmospheric distillation coupled with co-pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Song; Yang, Guang-Xi; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Wu-Jun; Ding, Hong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Production of renewable commodity chemicals from bio-oil derived from fast pyrolysis of biomass has received considerable interests, but hindered by the presence of innumerable components in bio-oil. In present work, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated an innovative approach combining atmospheric distillation of bio-oil with co-pyrolysis for mass production of renewable chemicals from biomass, in which no waste was produced. It was estimated that 51.86 wt.% of distillate just containing dozens of separable organic components could be recovered using this approach. Ten protogenetic and three epigenetic compounds in distillate were qualitatively identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantified by gas chromatography. Among them, the recovery efficiencies of acetic acid, propanoic acid, and furfural were all higher than 80 wt.%. Formation pathways of the distillate components in this process were explored. This work opens up a fascinating prospect for mass production of chemical feedstock from waste biomass.

  8. Fractional Distillation & Characterization of Tire Derived Pyrolysis Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mia, Makhan; Islam, Ariful; Islam Rubel, Robiul; Rofiqul Islam, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Energyis extracted recently from the waste products. Environmental pollution is beingminimized along with the addition of considerable amount of energy beside theconventional sources. The energy extracted from the waste leads a hope ofalternative fuel for internal combustion engines as well as to meet otherrequirement. Common energy conversion method uses tire, wood, rubber to derivedenergy through pyrolysis. About 9.25% gaseous, 43% liquid and 47% solid productare obtained for tire pyrolysis...

  9. Sulfur Transformation during Microwave and Conventional Pyrolysis of Sewage Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei; Tian, Yu; Chen, Lin; Yin, Linlin; Zhang, Jie

    2017-01-03

    The sulfur distributions and evolution of sulfur-containing compounds in the char, tar and gas fractions were investigated during the microwave and conventional pyrolysis of sewage sludge. Increased accumulation of sulfur in the char and less production of H2S were obtained from microwave pyrolysis at higher temperatures (500-800 °C). Three similar conversion pathways were identified for the formation of H2S during microwave and conventional pyrolysis. The cracking of unstable mercaptan structure in the sludge contributed to the release of H2S below 300 °C. The decomposition of aliphatic-S compounds in the tars led to the formation of H2S (300-500 °C). The thermal decomposition of aromatic-S compounds in the tars generated H2S from 500 to 800 °C. However, the secondary decomposition of thiophene-S compounds took place only in conventional pyrolysis above 700 °C. Comparing the H2S contributions from microwave and conventional pyrolysis, the significant increase of H2S yields in conventional pyrolysis was mainly attributed to the decomposition of aromatic-S (increasing by 10.4%) and thiophene-S compounds (11.3%). Further investigation on the inhibition mechanism of H2S formation during microwave pyrolysis confirmed that, with the special heating characteristics and relative shorter residence time, microwave pyrolysis promoted the retention of H2S on CaO and inhibited the secondary cracking of thiophene-S compounds at higher temperatures.

  10. Improved Pyrolysis Micro reactor Design via Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    NUMBER (Include area code) 23 May 2017 Briefing Charts 25 April 2017 - 23 May 2017 Improved Pyrolysis Micro-reactor Design via Computational Fluid...PYROLYSIS MICRO-REACTOR DESIGN VIA COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS Ghanshyam L. Vaghjiani* DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release...History of Micro-Reactor (Chen-Source) T ≤ 1800 K S.D. Chambreau et al./International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 2000, 199, 17–27 DISTRIBUTION A

  11. Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staten, Josh; Tiwari, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of oil shale pyrolysis at various scales and the subsequent development a model for in situ production of oil from oil shale. Oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River formation was used in all experiments. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at four scales, powdered samples (100 mesh) and core samples of 0.75”, 1” and 2.5” diameters. The batch, semibatch and continuous flow pyrolysis experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature (300°C to 500°C), heating rate (1°C/min to 10°C/min), pressure (ambient and 500 psig) and size of the sample on product formation. Comprehensive analyses were performed on reactants and products - liquid, gas and spent shale. These experimental studies were designed to understand the relevant coupled phenomena (reaction kinetics, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamics) at multiple scales. A model for oil shale pyrolysis was developed in the COMSOL multiphysics platform. A general kinetic model was integrated with important physical and chemical phenomena that occur during pyrolysis. The secondary reactions of coking and cracking in the product phase were addressed. The multiscale experimental data generated and the models developed provide an understanding of the simultaneous effects of chemical kinetics, and heat and mass transfer on oil quality and yield. The comprehensive data collected in this study will help advance the move to large-scale in situ oil production from the pyrolysis of oil shale.

  12. Production and characterization of chars from cherry pulp via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, E; Özbay, N; Yargıç, A S; Şahin, R Z

    2017-12-01

    Pyrolysis is an eco-friendly process to achieve valuable products like bio-oil, char and gases. In the last decades, biochar production from pyrolysis of a wide variety of industrial and agricultural wastes become popular, which can be utilized as adsorbent instead of the expensive activated carbons. In this study, cherry pulp was pyrolyzed in a fixed bed tubular reactor at five different temperatures (400, 500,550, 600 and 700 °C) and three different heating rates (10, 100 and 200 °C/min) to obtain biochar. Proximate, ultimate, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed on cherry pulp and its chars to examine the chemical alterations after the pyrolysis process. Biochar yields were decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature and heating rate, based on experimental results. Porous biochars are carbon rich and includes high potassium content. The aromaticity of biochars increased and O/C mass ratio reduced with an increase in the pyrolysis temperature as a result of the development of compact aromatic structure in char. Pyrolysis provides a promising conversion procedure for the production of high energy density char which has promising applications in existing coal-fired boilers without any upgrading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The main natural lows of high-rate coal pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chemyavsky Nikola V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of coal pyrolysis studies for the development of energy technologies is evident, since pvrolysis is the first stage of any process of coal thermal conversion. In combustion, pyrolysis determines conditions of coal ignition and the rate of char after-burning, in gasification, pyrolysis determines total yield of gasification products. It must be noted that in modern energy technologies pyrolysis occurs at high late of coal particle heating (=10 K/s for different fluidized bed, or FB-technologies or super-high-rate (>10**5 K/s for entrained-flow gasification, and in some of them at high pressure. In CETI during last 12 years the detailed study of pyrolysis in FB laboratory-scale PYROLYSIS-D plant and entramed-flow pilot-scale GSP-01 plant, was carried out. In this paper main results of mentioned investigations are given. Kinetic constants for bituminous coals and anthracite high heating rates in entrained flow for high temperatures (>1500 °C and >1900 °C, and in fluidized bed conditions in temperature range 972-1273 K. In order to describe data obtained in fluidized bed conditions, G--model based method of calculation of devolatization dynamics was suited to FB heating conditions. Calculated and experimental kinetic data are in good agreement. The result proves that at FB-pvrolysis conditions intrinsic mass-transfer limitations are negligible and devolatilization is really kinetic-controlled.

  14. Cheap carbon sorbents produced from lignite by catalytic pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B.N.; Schchipko, M.L. [Inst. of Chemistry of Natural Organic Materials, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    Some data are presented describing the new technology of carbon sorbent production from powdered lignite in the installation with fluidized bed of catalyst. It was shown the different types of char products with extended pore structure and high sorption ability can be produced from cheap and accessible lignite of Kansk-Achinsk coal pit in pilot installation with fluidized bed of Al-Cu-Cr oxide catalyst or catalytically active slag materials. In comparison with the conventional technologies of pyrolysis the catalytic pyrolysis allows to increase by 3-5 times the process productivity and to decrease significantly the formation of harmful compounds. The latter is accomplished by complete oxidation of gaseous pyrolysis products in the presence of catalysts and by avoiding the formation of pyrolysis tars - the source of cancerogenic compounds. The technology of cheap powdered sorbent production from lignites makes possible to obtain from lignite during the time of pyrolysis only a few seconds char products with porosity up to 0.6 cm{sup 3} /g, and specific surface area more than 400 m{sup 3} /g. Some methods of powdered chars molding into carbon materials with the different shape were proved for producing of firmness sorbents. Cheap carbon sorbents obtained by thermocatalytic pyrolysis can be successfully used in purification of different industrial pollutants as one-time sorbent or as adsorbents of long-term application with periodic regeneration.

  15. Microvawe pyrolysis of biomass: control of process parameters for high pyrolysis oil yields and enhanced oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, John; Dodds, Chris; Stavrinides, Alexander; Kingman, Sam; Katrib, Juliano; Wu, Zhiheng; Medrano, Jose; Overend, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The oil yield and quality of pyrolysis oil from microwave heating of biomass was established by studying the behaviour of Larch in microwave processing. This is the first study in biomass pyrolysis to use a microwave processing technique and methodology that is fundamentally scalable, from which the basis of design for a continuous processing system can be derived to maximise oil yield and quality. It is shown systematically that sample size is a vital parameter that has been overlooked by pr...

  16. Pyrolysis of waste electrical and electronic equipment: effect of antinomy trioxide on the pyrolysis of styrenic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W J; Bhaskar, T; Merpati, N M M; Muto, A; Sakata, Y; Williams, P T

    2007-09-01

    This work has investigated the effect that antimony trioxide has on the pyrolysis of styrenic polymers and the effect that different types of brominated flame retardants used in plastics have on the composition of the pyrolysis products. Brominated high impact polystyrene (Br-HIPS) which contained either 5% or 0% antimony trioxide and either decabromodiphenyl oxide (DDO) or decabromodiphenyl ethane (DDE) was pyrolysed in a fixed bed reactor at 430 degrees C. Some experiments on the fixed bed reactor involved mixing the Br-HIPS with polystyrene. The gaseous products were analysed by GC-FID and GC-TCD and it was found that antimony trioxide caused an increase in the proportion of ethane and ethene and suppressed the proportion of butane and butene. When DDE was the flame retardant increased proportions of ethane and ethene were found in the pyrolysis gas compared to when DDO used. When polystyrene was mixed with the Br-HIPS it suppressed the trends observed in the gas composition during the pyrolysis of Br-HIPS. The pyrolysis oils were characterised using FT-IR, GC-MS, GC-FID, and GC-ECD. It was found that the plastic which did not contain antimony trioxide pyrolysed to form mainly toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene, cumene, and alpha-methylstyrene. The oils produced from the pyrolysis of the plastic that contained antimony trioxide did not contain any styrene or alpha-methylstyrene, but instead contained greater concentrations of ethylbenzene and cumene. The absence of styrene and alpha-methylstyrene from the pyrolysis oil occurred even when the Br-HIPS was mixed with polystyrene. GC-ECD analysis of the oils showed that the plastics which did not contain antimony trioxide pyrolysed to form (1-bromoethyl)benzene, which was totally absent from the pyrolysis oils when antimony trioxide was present in the plastic.

  17. Flash pyrolysis of heavy metal contaminated hardwoods from phytoremediation: Characterisation of biomass, pyrolysis oil and char/ash fraction

    OpenAIRE

    STALS, Mark; CARLEER, Robert; REGGERS, Guy; Schreurs, Sonja; YPERMAN, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Flash pyrolysis of heavy metal contaminated hardwoods originating from phytoremediation is studied. Different kinds of hardwoods, i.e. Salix fragilis (crack willow), Salix jorunn ("Jorunn" willow) and Populus grimminge (Grimminge poplar) are compared in a preliminary phase. Salix fragilis scores the best on both remediation capabilities and pyrolysis characteristics. Therefore, this cultivar is chosen for in-depth research. S. fragilis stems, leaves and stems mixed with leaves are pyrolysed. ...

  18. Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Richard; Brandvold, Timothy A; Kocal, Joseph A

    2013-08-27

    Low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oils and methods for producing them from carbonaceous biomass feedstock are provided. The carbonaceous biomass feedstock is pyrolyzed in the presence of a catalyst comprising base metal-based catalysts, noble metal-based catalysts, treated zeolitic catalysts, or combinations thereof to produce pyrolysis gases. During pyrolysis, the catalyst catalyzes a deoxygenation reaction whereby at least a portion of the oxygenated hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis gases are converted into hydrocarbons. The oxygen is removed as carbon oxides and water. A condensable portion (the vapors) of the pyrolysis gases is condensed to low oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil.

  19. Effect of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics and aromatic contaminants adsorption behavior of magnetic biochar derived from pyrolysis oil distillation residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Mahyoub, Samah Awadh Ali; Liao, Wenjie; Xia, Shuqian; Zhao, Hechuan; Guo, Mengya; Ma, Peisheng

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic biochars were easily fabricated by thermal pyrolysis of Fe(NO3)3 and distillation residue derived from rice straw pyrolysis oil at 400, 600 and 800°C. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on characteristics of magnetic biochars as well as adsorption capacity for aromatic contaminants (i.e., anisole, phenol and guaiacol) were investigated carefully. The degree of carbonization of magnetic biochars become higher as pyrolysis temperature increasing. The magnetic biochar reached the largest surface area and pore volume at the pyrolysis temperature of 600°C due to pores blocking in biochar during pyrolysis at 800°C. Based on batch adsorption experiments, the used adsorbent could be magnetically separated and the adsorption capacity of anisole on magnetic biochars was stronger than that of phenol and guaiacol. The properties of magnetic biochar, including surface area, pore volume, aromaticity, grapheme-like-structure and iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) particles, showed pronounced effects on the adsorption performance of aromatic contaminants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Processes for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil, and apparatuses for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-11-24

    Processes and apparatuses for washing a spent ion exchange bed and for treating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided herein. An exemplary process for washing a spent ion exchange bed employed in purification of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil includes the step of providing a ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream having an original oxygen content. The ion-depleted pyrolysis oil stream is partially hydrotreated to reduce the oxygen content thereof, thereby producing a partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream having a residual oxygen content that is less than the original oxygen content. At least a portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream is passed through the spent ion exchange bed. Water is passed through the spent ion exchange bed after passing at least the portion of the partially hydrotreated pyrolysis oil stream therethrough.

  1. A Compact, Efficient Pyrolysis/Oxidation System for Solid Waste Resource Recovery in Space Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Both pyrolysis and oxidation steps have been considered as the key solid waste processing step for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). Pyrolysis is...

  2. Hot wire and spark pyrolysis as simple new routes to silicon nanoparticle synthesis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scriba, MR

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available gases, silane and diborane or silane and phosphine were used. While hot wire pyrolysis always results in multifaceted particles, those produced by spark pyrolysis are spherical. Electrical resistance measurements of compressed powders showed that boron...

  3. Measurements of temperature of the tungsten hexa-ethoxide pyrolysis flame using IR camera

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mudau, AE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In laser pyrolysis, temperature measurement and control plays a vital role during the development of nanoparticles. Authors present the results of temperature measurements using infrared camera on a tungsten hexa-ethoxide pyrolysis flame used...

  4. Atmospheric Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Vapor by MoO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Guofeng; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Le, Duy Michael

    2016-01-01

    was not significant at temperatures below 400 °C. At 450 °C catalyst temperature and 93 vol % H2 concentration, the wood pyrolysis vapor was more active toward cracking forming gas species instead of performing the desired HDO forming hydrocarbons. The lignin pyrolysis vapor was more resistant to cracking and yielded......MoO3 has been tested as a catalyst in hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of both model compounds (acetone and guaiacol) and real biomass pyrolysis vapors under atmospheric pressure. The pyrolysis vapor was obtained by fast pyrolysis of wood or lignin in a continuous fast pyrolysis reactor at a fixed...... temperature of 500 °C, and it subsequently passed through a downstream, close coupled, fixed bed reactor containing the MoO3 catalyst. The influences of the catalyst temperature and the concentration of H2 on the HDO of the pyrolysis vapors were investigated. The level of HDO of the biomass pyrolysis vapors...

  5. Pyrolysis of electrical and electronic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Marco, I.; Caballero, B.M.; Chomon, M.J.; Laresgoiti, M.F.; Torres, A.; Fernandez, G. [Dpto. Ingenieria Quimica y del Medio Ambiente, Escuela T.S. de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Alda, Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Arnaiz, S. [Centro Tecnologico GAIKER, Parque Tecnologico, Edificio 2002, 48170 Zamudio (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    A preliminary study of the possibilities of pyrolysis for recovering wastes of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has been carried out. Four type of samples coming from real WEEEs streams, including wires of polyethylene (PE), table phones, mobile phones and printed circuit boards (PCB) have been pyrolysed under nitrogen in a 3.5 dm{sup 3} autoclave at 500 C for 30 min. PE wires yield 44.1 wt.% of wax-like liquids, 23 wt.% gases and a solid product mainly composed of Cu and Al together with some char formed during the process. Table and mobile phones give quite similar results, 53 and 57 wt.%, respectively of brown-coloured fluid liquids, {approx}12 wt.% gases and a solid which contains several metals (Cu, Al, Fe, Zn, Ni, etc.) together with a significant amount of char ({approx}50% with respect to solids). Printed circuit boards yield only 16.2 wt.% brown-coloured fluid liquids and 7.3 wt.% gases, and leave 76.5 wt.% of solids which include a wide variety of metals (from Fe to precious metals) which are present in the original circuit board waste. In all the cases the polymer-free metals may be separated and recycled, the gases may be enough energy sources to self-sustain the process and the liquids may have a potential use as energy or chemicals source. (author)

  6. Analysis of photographic records of coal pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodoo, J.N.D.

    1991-10-01

    Bituminous coals upon heating undergo melting and pyrolytic decomposition with significant parts of the coal forming an unstable liquid that can escape from the coal by evaporation. The transient liquid within the pyrolyzing coal causes softening or plastic behavior that can influence the chemistry and physics of the process. Bubbles of volatiles can swell the softened coal mass in turn affecting the combustion behavior of the coal particles. The swelling behavior of individual coal particles has to be taken into account both as the layout as well as for the operation of pyrolysis, coking and performance of coal-fired boilers. Increased heating rates generally increase the amount of swelling although it is also known that in some cases, even highly swelling coals can be transformed into char with no swelling if they are heated slowly enough. The swelling characteristics of individual coal particles have been investigated by a number of workers employing various heating systems ranging from drop tube and shock tube furnaces, flow rate reactors and electrical heating coils. Different methods have also been employed to determine the swelling factors. The following sections summarize some of the published literature on the subject and outline the direction in which the method of analysis will be further extended in the study of the swelling characteristics of hvA bituminous coal particles that have been pyrolyzed with a laser beam.

  7. Combustion of char from plastic wastes pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saptoadi, Harwin; Rohmat, Tri Agung; Sutoyo

    2016-06-01

    A popular method to recycle plastic wastes is pyrolysis, where oil, gas and char can be produced. These products can be utilized as fuels because they are basically hydrocarbons. The research investigates char properties, including their performance as fuel briquettes. There are 13 char samples from PE (Polyethylene) pyrolyzed at temperatures of around 450 °C, with and without a catalyst. Some of the samples were obtained from PE mixed with other types, such as Polystyrene (PS), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET), and Others. Char properties, such as moisture, ash, volatile matter, and fixed carbon contents, are revealed from the proximate analysis, whereas calorific values were measured with a bomb calorimeter. Briquettes are made by mixing 4 g of char with 0.5 - 1 g binder. Briquettes are hollow cylinders with an outer and inner diameter of around 1.75 cm and 0.25 cm, respectively. Combustion is carried out in a furnace with wall temperatures of about 230°C and a constant air velocity of 0.7 m/s. Five out of 13 char briquettes are not feasible because they melt during combustion. Briquettes made from 100% PE wastes burn in substantially shorter duration than those from mixed plastic wastes. Char #1 and #5 are excellent due to their highest energy release, whereas #10 show the worst performance.

  8. Pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis of Laminaria japonica and polypropylene over mesoporous Al-SBA-15 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic co-pyrolysis of a seaweed biomass, Laminaria japonica, and a typical polymer material, polypropylene, was studied for the first time. A mesoporous material Al-SBA-15 was used as a catalyst. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted using a fixed-bed reactor and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). BET surface area, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, and NH3 temperature programmed desorption were measured to examine the catalyst characteristics. When only L. japonica was pyrolyzed, catalytic reforming slightly increased the gas yield and decreased the oil yield. The H2O content in bio-oil was increased by catalytic reforming from 42.03 to 50.32 wt% due to the dehydration reaction occurring on the acid sites inside the large pores of Al-SBA-15. Acids, oxygenates, mono-aromatics, poly aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolics were the main components of the bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of L. japonica. Upon catalytic reforming over Al-SBA-15, the main oxygenate species 1,4-anhydro-d-galactitol and 1,5-anhydro-d-manitol were completely removed. When L. japonica was co-pyrolyzed with polypropylene, the H2O content in bio-oil was decreased dramatically (8.93 wt% in the case of catalytic co-pyrolysis), contributing to the improvement of the oil quality. A huge increase in the content of gasoline-range and diesel-range hydrocarbons in bio-oil was the most remarkable change that resulted from the co-pyrolysis with polypropylene, suggesting its potential as a transport fuel. The content of mono-aromatics with high economic value was also increased significantly by catalytic co-pyrolysis. PMID:25136282

  9. Rapid identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus transmission in hospitals by use of phage-derived open reading frame typing enhanced by multiplex PCR and reverse line blot assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Matthew V N; Kong, Fanrong; Sintchenko, Vitali; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2010-08-01

    The relatively high-level clonality of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and its frequent high-level endemicity in nosocomial settings complicate the development of methods for rapid subtyping of MRSA strains that are capable of identifying person-to-person transmission in hospitals. Phage-derived open reading frame (PDORF) typing is an MRSA typing method targeting mobile genetic elements that was recently described and evaluated using a geographically restricted set of isolates. The objective of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR-reverse line blot (mPCR/RLB) assay for PDORF typing and to test its applicability on a broad range of isolates and in an environment where MRSA is highly endemic. The 16 targets were identified using a 23-primer-pair mPCR/RLB assay with two probes for each target. The method was evaluated using 42 MRSA reference strains, including those representing major international clones, and 35 isolates from episodes of suspected nosocomial transmission. In vivo stability was explored using 81 isolate pairs. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and spa typing were performed for comparison. Among the 42 reference strains, there were 33 PFGE subtypes, 30 PDORF types, and 22 spa types. Simpson's index of diversity was 0.987, 0.971, and 0.926 for PFGE subtyping, PDORF typing, and spa typing, respectively. Typing of clinical isolates by PDORF typing and PFGE demonstrated concordant results. mPCR/RLB-based PDORF typing has similar discriminatory power to that of PFGE, can assist in tracking MRSA transmission events in a setting of high-level endemicity, and has the advantage of being a high-throughput technique.

  10. Microwave pyrolysis of oily sludge with activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Rong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to explore catalytic microwave pyrolysis of crude oil storage tank sludge for fuels using granular activated carbon (GAC) as a catalyst. The effect of GAC loading on the yield of pyrolysis products was also investigated. Heating rate of oily sludge and yield of microwave pyrolysis products such as oil and fuel gas was found to depend on the ratio of GAC to oily sludge. The optimal GAC loading was found to be 10%, while much smaller and larger feed sizes adversely influenced production. During oily sludge pyrolysis, a maximum oil yield of 77.5% was achieved. Pyrolytic oils with high concentrations of diesel oil and gasoline (about 70 wt% in the pyrolytic oil) were obtained. The leaching of heavy metals, such as Cr, As and Pb, was also suppressed in the solid residue after pyrolysis. This technique provides advantages such as harmless treatment of oily sludge and substantial reduction in the consumption of energy, time and cost.

  11. Simulating Biomass Fast Pyrolysis at the Single Particle Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesielski, Peter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Wiggins, Gavin [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Jakes, Joseph E. [U.S. Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, USA

    2017-07-01

    Simulating fast pyrolysis at the scale of single particles allows for the investigation of the impacts of feedstock-specific parameters such as particle size, shape, and species of origin. For this reason particle-scale modeling has emerged as an important tool for understanding how variations in feedstock properties affect the outcomes of pyrolysis processes. The origins of feedstock properties are largely dictated by the composition and hierarchical structure of biomass, from the microstructural porosity to the external morphology of milled particles. These properties may be accounted for in simulations of fast pyrolysis by several different computational approaches depending on the level of structural and chemical complexity included in the model. The predictive utility of particle-scale simulations of fast pyrolysis can still be enhanced substantially by advancements in several areas. Most notably, considerable progress would be facilitated by the development of pyrolysis kinetic schemes that are decoupled from transport phenomena, predict product evolution from whole-biomass with increased chemical speciation, and are still tractable with present-day computational resources.

  12. Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith for Planetary Resource Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Malespin, Charles; ten Kate, Inge L.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Holmes, Vincent E.; Mumm, Erik; Franz, Heather B.; Noreiga, Marvin; Dobson, Nick; Southard, Adrian E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The extraction and identification of volatile resources that could be utilized by humans including water, oxygen, noble gases, and hydrocarbons on the Moon, Mars, and small planetary bodies will be critical for future long-term human exploration of these objects. Vacuum pyrolysis at elevated temperatures has been shown to be an efficient way to release volatiles trapped inside solid samples. In order to maximize the extraction of volatiles, including oxygen and noble gases from the breakdown of minerals, a pyrolysis temperature of 1400 C or higher is required, which greatly exceeds the maximum temperatures of current state-of-the-art flight pyrolysis instruments. Here we report on the recent optimization and field testing results of a high temperature pyrolysis oven and sample manipulation system coupled to a mass spectrometer instrument called Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith (VAPoR). VAPoR is capable of heating solid samples under vacuum to temperatures above 1300 C and determining the composition of volatiles released as a function of temperature.

  13. Auto shredder residue recycling: Mechanical separation and pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Alessandro; Passarini, Fabrizio; Vassura, Ivano; Serrano, David; Dufour, Javier; Morselli, Luciano

    2012-05-01

    Directive 2000/53/EC sets a goal of 85% material recycling from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) by the end of 2015. The current ELV recycling rate is around 80%, while the remaining waste is called automotive shredder residue (ASR), or car fluff. In Europe, this is mainly landfilled because it is extremely heterogeneous and often polluted with car fluids. Despite technical difficulties, in the coming years it will be necessary to recover materials from car fluff in order to meet the ELV Directive requirement. This study deals with ASR pretreatment and pyrolysis, and aims to determine whether the ELV material recycling target may be achieved by car fluff mechanical separation followed by pyrolysis with a bench scale reactor. Results show that flotation followed by pyrolysis of the light, organic fraction may be a suitable ASR recycling technique if the oil can be further refined and used as a chemical. Moreover, metals are liberated during thermal cracking and can be easily separated from the pyrolysis char, amounting to roughly 5% in mass. Lastly, pyrolysis can be a good starting point from a "waste-to-chemicals" perspective, but further research should be done with a focus on oil and gas refining, in order both to make products suitable for the chemical industry and to render the whole recycling process economically feasible. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiman, William R.; Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  15. Experimental Research of Pyrolysis Gases Cracking on Surface of Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosov, Valentin; Kosov, Vladimir; Zaichenko, Victor

    For several years, in the Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences, two-stage technology of biomass processing has been developing [1]. The technology is based on pyrolysis of biomass as the first stage. The second stage is high-temperature conversion of liquid fraction of the pyrolysis on the surface of porous charcoal matrix. Synthesis gas consisted of carbon monoxide and hydrogen is the main products of the technology. This gas is proposed to be used as fuel for gas-engine power plant. For practical implementation of the technology it is important to know the size of hot char filter for full cracking of the pyrolysis gases on the surface of charcoal. Theoretical determination of the cracking parameters of the pyrolysis gases on the surface of coal is extremely difficult because the pyrolysis gases include tars, whose composition and structure is complicated and depends on the type of initial biomass. It is also necessary to know the surface area of the char used in the filter, which is also a difficult task. Experimental determination of the hot char filter parameters is presented. It is shown that proposed experimental method can be used for different types of biomass.

  16. Pyrolysis mechanism of macerals at a low heating rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Yuan, J.; Xu, Y. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). Thermal Energy Engineering Research Institute

    1998-02-01

    Pyrolysis of macerals at a low heating rate was studied using DTA technology. The process of the pyrolysis was analyzed using a combined differential and integral method. The results showed that the process was quite complicated and cannot be described as a one-step reaction. However, there was a definite dividing point for the process, corresponding to the temperature of the maximum weight loss rate, T{sub m}. Based on the assumption that the pyrolysis reaction consisted of two steps, it was found that the rates of both steps are controlled by diffusion of different mechanism. The former step is Anti-Jander three dimension, the later ZLT equation. The activation energies of the two steps are also different, the former is larger than the later. The reasons causing the change of activation energy in the two steps were discussed by comparing the change of pososity in pyrolysis. The macerals showed similar pyrolysis mechanism but different activation energies. Usually the activation energy for inertinite was the lowest. The activation energy was affected by rank and increased with increasing rank. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Life cycle assessment of biochar application in Vietnam using two pyrolysis technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Cowie, Annette; Mai, Thi Lan Anh; Anaya de la Rosa, Ruy; Kristiansen, Paul; Brandão, Miguel; Joseph, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    This study presents a comparative analysis of the environmental impacts of biochar systems in Vietnam using household scale and district scale pyrolysis technologies. At the household scale, pyrolytic cook-stoves were assumed to be used by households to produce biochar. The pyrolytic cook-stoves burn pyrolysis gases and use the heat for cooking. At the district scale, the BIGchar 2200 unit, a continuous operation system, is utilised to convert rice husk to biochar. This unit allows for easy capture of produced gases, which can be used to generate energy products, adding value to biochar production and decreasing environmental costs through the displacement of fossil fuels. The biochar produced from each system was assumed to be applied to paddy rice fields. Results from Life Cycle Assessment showed that biochar production at the both scales for application to the soil significantly improved environmental performance of 1 Mg of rice husk relative to the reference scenario (open burning of husk) across a range of impacts including climate change (CC), particulate matter and non-renewable energy (NRE) use. Net carbon abatement of biochar systems ranged from 355 to 427 kg CO2-eq Mg-1 of spring rice husk at the household scale and district scale, respectively. The district scale offered greater carbon abatement primarily due to the higher rate of LPG displaced by this unit.

  18. Vacuum pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic analysis of liquid crystal from scrap liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya; Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-04-05

    Recycling of waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels is an urgent task with the rapid expanding LCD market. However, as important composition of LCD panels, the treatment of liquid crystal is seldom concerned for its low concentration. In present study, a stripping product enriched liquid crystal and indium is gained by mechanical stripping process, in which liquid crystal is enriched from 0.3wt.% to 53wt.% and indium is enriched from 0.02wt.% to 7.95wt.%. For the stripping product, liquid crystal should be removed before indium recovery because (a) liquid crystal will hinder indium recycling; (b) liquid crystal is hazardous waste. Hence, an effective and green approach by vacuum pyrolysis is proposed to treat liquid crystal in the stripping product. The results are summarized as: (i) From the perspective of apparent activation energy, the advantages of vacuum pyrolysis is expounded according to kinetic analysis. (ii) 89.10wt.% of liquid crystal is converted and the content of indium in residue reaches 14.18wt.% under 773K, 15min and system pressure of 20Pa. This study provides reliable information for further industrial application and an essential pretreatment for the next step of indium recycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of pyrolysis temperatures and times on the adsorption of cadmium onto orange peel derived biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai Nguyen; You, Sheng-Jie; Chao, Huan-Ping

    2016-02-01

    The mechanism and capacity of adsorption of cadmium (Cd) on orange peel (OP)-derived biochar at various pyrolysis temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700 and 800°C) and heating times (2 and 6 h) were investigated. Biochar was characterized using proximate analysis, point of zero charge (PZC) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Equilibrium and kinetic experiments of Cd adsorption on biochar were performed. The results indicated that the pH value at PZC of biochar approached 9.5. Equilibrium can be reached rapidly (within 1 min) in kinetic experiments and a removal rate of 80.6-96.9% can be generated. The results fitted the pseudo-second-order model closely. The adsorption capacity was estimated using the Langmuir model. The adsorption capacity of Cd on biochar was independent of the pyrolysis temperature and heating time (p>0.01). The maximum adsorption capacity of Cd was 114.69 (mg g(-1)). The adsorption of Cd on biochar was regarded as chemisorption. The primary adsorption mechanisms were regarded as Cπ-cation interactions and surface precipitation. Cadmium can react with calcite to form the precipitation of (Ca,Cd)CO3 on the surface of biochar. The OP-derived biochar can be considered a favourable alternative and a new green adsorbent for removing Cd(2+) ions from an aqueous solution. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. FAST PYROLYSIS PROCESS OF ORANGE SOLID WASTE. FACTORS INFLUENCE IN THE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Aguiar Trujillo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The orange processing industry generates high volumes of solid residue. This residue has been used in animal feeding and biochemical processes. A possible energy use of the waste can be thermochemical fast pyrolysis process. The objective was to determine the influence of the heating rate and temperature in the process of rapid pyrolysis of orange solid residue. In the process a design, 2k full factorial experiment was used, evaluating the influence of the independent variables and its interactions on the answers, using a 95 % significance level. We found that temperature is the most significant influence on the responses parameter having significant influence on the yields to: gas, coal, tar and the calorific value of the gas and the heating rate does not influence the answers. Finally, the interaction affects the gas yield. The results obtained in this study are: Rgas (19 – 38 %, Rchar (25 – 42 %, Ralq (6 – 12 %, PCIgas entre (140 – 1050 kJ/m3N.

  1. Pure hydrogen from pyrolysis oil by the steam-iron process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    The steam-iron process is an old process, which was used for the production of hydrogen from cokes at the beginning of the twentieth century. In this thesis the steam-iron process is used to produce pure hydrogen from pyrolysis oil. Pyrolysis oil, obtained from the pyrolysis of biomass, is used to

  2. Pyrolysis of Compositions of Mixtures of Combustible Shales and Brown Coals Deposited in Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishtvan, I. I.; Dudarchik, V. M.; Kraiko, V. M.; Belova, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of investigating the pyrolysis of compositions of mixtures of brown coals and combustible shales in a close-packed and a moving layer and the yield dynamics of the pyrolysis gas and resin. A comparative analysis of the quality of pyrolysis products obtained from combustible shales and brown coal and from their mixtures has been performed.

  3. Catalytic Flash Pyrolysis of Biomass Using Different Types of Zeolite and Online Vapor Fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Bio-oil produced from conventional flash pyrolysis has poor quality and requires expensive upgrading before it can be used as a transportation fuel. In this work, a high quality bio-oil has been produced using a novel approach where flash pyrolysis, catalysis and fractionation of pyrolysis vapors

  4. Pyrolysis-GC/MS of charred purified condensed tannin: towards identification of tannin-derived black carbon in environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaal, Joeri; Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Kraal, Peter; Preston, Caroline M.

    2010-05-01

    Tannins account for a significant proportion of plant biomass and are therefore a possible source of Black C in the charred remains from wildfires. Nonetheless, in contrast with other major biocomponents such as lignin and cellulose, the thermal degradation of tannins has not been investigated in laboratory charring experiments. We used pyrolysis-GC/MS to investigate the effects of furnace charring (30 min at fixed temperatures up to 600 °C under limited oxygen supply) on the degradation of pure condensed tannin (CT) isolated from Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) needles. The experiments showed a rapid loss (at 300 °C and higher) of the pyrogallol moieties of the B-ring of prodelphinidin-type CT, due to dehydroxylation. The relative abundance of catechols (from procyanidin-type CT) decreased at 350 °C and higher temperatures. This led to the formation of phenols that were strongly enriched between 300 and 400 °C. At higher temperatures, further dehydroxylation caused a decline in contributions of phenols producing a series of monocyclic aromatics ((alkyl)benzenes) and condensation of aromatics produced polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e. the typical pyrolysis fingerprint of strongly charred biomass. We conclude that (i) the thermal degradation of CT can be successfully monitored by pyrolysis-GC/MS, (ii) thermal degradation of CT is characterized by dehydroxylation of phenolic groups and condensation of aromatics that increase with temperature and (iii) CT-derived Black C may be recognized by catechol enrichments at low temperatures and possibly (relative) abundance of phenol and biphenyl at higher levels of thermal breakdown. Applying the same method to natural charcoal from gorse bushfires indicated that pyrolysis-GC/MS fingerprinting may allow for tannin identification in environmental Black C samples.

  5. Simultaneous measurements of acetylene and soot during the pyrolysis of ethylene and benzene in a shock tube

    KAUST Repository

    KC, Utsav

    2016-10-12

    Acetylene is one of the most important precursors of soot and contributes to soot growth by the hydrogen-abstraction acetylene-addition (HACA) mechanism. In this work, we undertake time-resolved simultaneous measurements of acetylene and soot behind reflected shock waves at temperatures of 1600-2200. K and pressures of 3-5. bar. Acetylene mole fraction time-histories are measured from the absorption of a quantum-cascade laser operating around 13.6. μm. The soot volume fraction, particle size and number densities are calculated from the extinction and scattering of a cw Nd:Yag laser at 532. nm. Acetylene and soot are generated from the pyrolysis of 1% benzene in argon, 2.35% ethylene in argon, and binary mixtures of ethylene with propane/methane in argon. We note that acetylene time-histories exhibit a two-stage growth during the pyrolysis of benzene, which can be correlated to the initial rapid increase of soot volume fraction and a later plateauing. In comparison to ethylene pyrolysis, the pyrolysis of benzene results in larger values of the soot volume fraction, particle diameter and number density. We compare the measured data against the values simulated using the method-of-moments routine in Chemkin-Pro and a detailed PAH mechanism based on KM2 [1] and AramcoMech 1.3 [2]. Large discrepancies are observed between the measured and predicted values of the soot parameters. The data obtained from our experiments may assist future validation and development of soot mechanisms.

  6. Specialists' workshop on fast pyrolysis of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This workshop brought together most of those who are currently working in or have published significant findings in the area of fast pyrolysis of biomass or biomass-derived materials, with the goal of attaining a better understanding of the dominant mechanisms which produce olefins, oxygenated liquids, char, and tars. In addition, background papers were given in hydrocarbon pyrolysis, slow pyrolysis of biomass, and techniques for powdered-feedstock preparation in order that the other papers did not need to introduce in depth these concepts in their presentations for continuity. In general, the authors were requested to present summaries of experimental data with as much interpretation of that data as possible with regard to mechanisms and process variables such as heat flux, temperatures, partial pressure, feedstock, particle size, heating rates, residence time, etc. Separate abstracts have been prepared of each presentation for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (DMC)

  7. Pyrolysis of a waste from the grinding of scrap tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, A M; Barriocanal, C; Alvarez, R

    2012-02-15

    The fibres that are used to reinforce tyres can be recovered as a waste in the process of grinding of scrap tyres. In this paper beneficiation through pyrolysis is studied since the fibres are made up of polymers with a small amount of rubber because the latter is difficult to separate. The experiments were performed at three temperatures (400, 550 and 900°C) in a horizontal oven. The three products - gas, oil and char - obtained from the pyrolysis were investigated. The composition of the gas was analyzed by means of gas chromatography. The oil was studied by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. The char porous structure was determined by N(2) adsorption. In addition, the topography of the chars was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products resulting from the pyrolysis of the fibres were compared with those obtained from scrap rubber. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Production of methanol from biomass waste via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, S K; Shamsul, N S; Ghani, J A; Chia, S K; Liew, H S; Samsudin, A S

    2013-02-01

    The production of methanol from agricultural, forestry, livestock, poultry, and fishery waste via pyrolysis was investigated. Pyrolysis was conducted in a tube furnace at 450-500 °C. Sugarcane bagasse showed the methanol production (5.93 wt.%), followed by roots and sawdust with 4.36 and 4.22 wt.%, respectively. Animal waste offered the lowest content of methanol, as only 0.46, 0.80, and 0.61 wt.% were obtained from fishery, goat, and cow waste, respectively. It was also observed that the percentage of methanol increased with an increase in volatile compounds while the percentage of ethanol increased with the percentage of ash and fix carbon. The data indicate that, pyrolysis is a means for production of methanol and ethanol after further optimization of the process and sample treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental investigation of flash pyrolysis oil droplet combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana; Jensen, Peter A.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate and compare the combustion behaviour of a single droplet of pyrolysis oil derived from wheat straw and heavy fossil oil in a single droplet combustion chamber. The initial oil droplet diameters were in between 500 μm to 2500 μm. The experiments were performed...... at a temperature ranging between 1000 and 1400°C with an initial gas velocity of 1.6 m/s and oxygen concentration of 3%. The evolution of combustion of bio-oil droplets was recorded by a digital video camera. It was observed that the combustion behaviour of pyrolysis oil droplet differ from the heavy oil in terms...... both of ignition, devolatilisation and char oxidation. The pyrolysis oil is more difficult to ignite and has a shorter devolatilisation time and a longer char oxidation time. Copyright © 2013, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l....

  10. Methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.

    2015-10-20

    Embodiments of methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In one example, a method comprises the steps of separating a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent into a low-oxygen-pyoil organic phase stream and an aqueous phase stream. Phenolic compounds are removed from the aqueous phase stream to form a phenolic-rich diluent recycle stream. A biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is diluted and heated with the phenolic-rich diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to deoxygenate the heated diluted pyoil feed stream.

  11. The use of tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, S; Ramaswamy, M C; Nagarajan, G

    2008-12-01

    Tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled with 10%, 30%, and 50% of tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blended with diesel fuel (DF). The TPO was derived from waste automobile tyres through vacuum pyrolysis. The combustion parameters such as heat release rate, cylinder peak pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise also analysed. Results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine fueled with TPO-DF blends increased with an increase in blend concentration and reduction of DF concentration. NO(x), HC, CO, and smoke emissions were found to be higher at higher loads due to the high aromatic content and longer ignition delay. The cylinder peak pressure increased from 71 bars to 74 bars. The ignition delays were longer than with DF. It is concluded that it is possible to use tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future.

  12. Pyrolysis and combustion behaviour of coal-MBM blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodras, G; Grammelis, P; Basinas, P

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, thermogravimetric analysis was employed in order to investigate the behaviour of MBM and their blends with Greek brown coal, under pyrolysis and combustion conditions. MBM presented enhanced pyrolysis rates reflecting its high volatile and low ash contents compared to Greek brown coal. Increased conversion rates were observed when MBM was added in the brown coal sample. Significant interactions were detected between the two fuel blend components leading to significant deviations from the expected behaviour. The catalytic effect of mineral matter on the pyrolysis of MBM resulted in reaction rate decrease and DTG curve shift to lower temperatures for the demineralised MBM. Alterations in the combustion process due to the mineral matter were minimal when testing the blends. Interactions maintained during combustion and lower reactivity of MBM was achieved due to the reduced oxygen content.

  13. Method for Hot Real-Time Sampling of Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, Marc D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Biomass Pyrolysis has been an increasing topic of research, in particular as a replacement for crude oil. This process utilizes moderate temperatures to thermally deconstruct the biomass which is then condensed into a mixture of liquid oxygenates to be used as fuel precursors. Pyrolysis oils contain more than 400 compounds, up to 60 percent of which do not re-volatilize for subsequent chemical analysis. Vapor chemical composition is also complicated as additional condensation reactions occur during the condensation and collection of the product. Due to the complexity of the pyrolysis oil, and a desire to catalytically upgrade the vapor composition before condensation, online real-time analytical techniques such as Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) are of great use. However, in order to properly sample hot pyrolysis vapors, many challenges must be overcome. Sampling must occur within a narrow range of temperatures to reduce product composition changes from overheating or partial condensation or plugging of lines from condensed products. Residence times must be kept at a minimum to reduce further reaction chemistries. Pyrolysis vapors also form aerosols that are carried far downstream and can pass through filters resulting in build-up in downstream locations. The co-produced bio-char and ash from the pyrolysis process can lead to plugging of the sample lines, and must be filtered out at temperature, even with the use of cyclonic separators. A practical approach for considerations and sampling system design, as well as lessons learned are integrated into the hot analytical sampling system of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) to provide industrially relevant demonstrations of thermochemical transformations of biomass feedstocks at the pilot scale.

  14. Pyrolysis of polyolefins for increasing the yield of monomers' recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaj, Pawel J; Kaminsky, W; Buzeto, F; Yang, W

    2012-05-01

    Pyrolysis of plastic waste is an alternative way of plastic recovery and could be a potential solution for the increasing stream of solid waste. The objective of this work was to increase the yield the gaseous olefins (monomers) as feedstock for polymerization process and to test the applicability of a commercial Ziegler-Natta (Z-N): TiCl(4)/MgCl(2) for cracking a mixture of polyolefins consisted of 46%wt. of low density polyethylene (LDPE), 30%wt. of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and 24%wt. of polypropylene (PP). Two sets of experiments have been carried out at 500 and 650°C via catalytic pyrolysis (1% of Z-N catalyst) and at 650 and 730°C via only-thermal pyrolysis. These experiments have been conducted in a lab-scale, fluidized quartz-bed reactor of a capacity of 1-3kg/h at Hamburg University. The results revealed a strong influence of temperature and presence of catalyst on the product distribution. The ratios of gas/liquid/solid mass fractions via thermal pyrolysis were: 36.9/48.4/15.7%wt. and 42.4/44.7/13.9%wt. at 650 and 730°C while via catalytic pyrolysis were: 6.5/89.0/4.5%wt. and 54.3/41.9/3.8%wt. at 500 and 650°C, respectively. At 650°C the monomer generation increased by 55% up to 23.6%wt. of total pyrolysis products distribution while the catalyst was added. Obtained yields of olefins were compared with the naphtha steam cracking process and other potentially attractive processes for feedstock generation. The concept of closed cycle material flow for polyolefins has been discussed, showing the potential benefits of feedstock recycling in a plastic waste management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular characterisation of a bio-based active packaging containing Origanum vulgare L. essential oil using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana-Ruíz-Cabello, María; Pichardo, Silvia; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T; Bermúdez, José M; Aucejo, Susana; González-Vila, Francisco J; Cameán, Ana M; González-Pérez, José A

    2016-07-01

    Environmental, economic and safety challenges motivate shift towards safer materials for food packaging. New bioactive packaging techniques, i.e. addition of essential plant oils (EOs), are gaining attention by creating barriers to protect products from spoilage. Analytical pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) was used to fingerprint a bioactive polylactic acid (PLA) with polybutylene succinate (PBS) (950 g kg(-1) :50 g kg(-1) ) film extruded with variable quantities (0, 20, 50 and 100 g kg(-1) ) of Origanum vulgare EO. Main PLA:PBS pyrolysis products were lactide enantiomers and monomer units from the major PLA fraction and succinic acid anhydride from the PBS fraction. Oregano EO pyrolysis released cymene, terpinene and thymol/carvacrol peaks as diagnostic peaks for EO. In fact, linear correlation coefficients better than 0.950R(2) value (P < 0.001) were found between the chromatographic area of the diagnostic peaks and the amount of oregano EO in the bioplastic. The pyrolytic behaviour of a bio-based active package polymer including EO is studied in detail. Identified diagnostic compounds provide a tool to monitor the quantity of EO incorporated into the PLA:PBS polymeric matrix. Analytical pyrolysis is proposed as a rapid technique for the identification and quantification of additives within bio-based plastic matrices. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Upgrading of Intermediate Bio-Oil Produced by Catalytic Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Zia [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Chadwell, Brad [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Hindin, Barry [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Ralston, Kevin [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to (1) develop a process to upgrade catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (2) investigate new upgrading catalysts suited for upgrading catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (3) demonstrate upgrading system operation for more than 1,000 hours using a single catalyst charge, and (4) produce a final upgraded product that can be blended to 30 percent by weight with petroleum fuels or that is compatible with existing petroleum refining operations. This project has, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time enabled a commercially viable bio-oil hydrotreatment process to produce renewable blend stock for transportation fuels.

  17. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). By thermal degradation of agricultural residues in the PCR, a liquid oil, char and non-condensable gases are produced. The yield of each fraction...... bio-oils. Mainly the influence of feedstock type (wheat straw, rice husk and pine wood), feedstock water content and reactor temperature on the yield of char, bio-oil and gas were investigated. The storage stability of bio-oils with respect to changes in viscosity, water content and pH were...

  18. Efficiency tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents results from water boiling tests on the pyrolysis gasifier stove Peko Pe, which has been developed by the Norwegian Paal Wendelbo. The stove efficiency determined vary between 21 and 29% when burning dry Danish woodchips (10% moisture) with an estimated caloric value of 16 MJ...... the water content in the grass. In Adjumani refugee camp it was furthermore found that the stove was able to provide sufficient energy from solid combustion, after the pyrolysis was stopped, to boil water for additional 25-30 minutes with lid. This effect was not seen in the tests on woodchips in Denmark...

  19. Pyrolysis of Cigarette Ingredients Labelled with Stable Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stotesbury S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to know how tobacco additives behave when cigarettes are smoked, whether they transfer intact to the smoke or whether there is any decomposition during smoking. Pyrolysis-GC-MS is a technique that can be focussed upon the effects of combustion from a single material free from interference from the complex mixture of different components present in the smoke. However, because pyrolysis is a model technique, the results need to be validated by comparison with cigarette smoke chemistry. In a previous paper we presented such a method for modelling the smoke chemistry from a burning cigarette using pyrolysis-GC-MS. The transfer and the extent of degradation of anisole, p-anisaldehyde, benzaldehyde, isoamylisovalerate, methyl trans-cinnamate and vanillin within a burning cigarette were estimated using this pyrolysis method. When these data were compared with results from smoke studies from 14C-analogues of the materials, the high levels of transfer predicted by pyrolysis were found to be generally consistent with the smoke chemistry data. However, there were still two outstanding issues. Firstly, there was some ambiguity in the labelled study about whether vanillin actually transferred without degradation or not. Furthermore, the results from the 14C-labelled study showed a greater extent of degradation for p-anisaldehyde than that indicated from the pyrolysis experiments. The purpose of the current study was to present some new information obtained to address these questions by better understanding the effect upon the smoke chemistry from adding vanillin and p-anisaldehyde, and the relationship between the smoke chemistry and the pyrolysis results. Components were identified in the smoke from cigarettes loaded with p-anisaldehyde and vanillin labelled with 18O and 13C. The extent of degradation from each additive was estimated by identifying labelled degradation products in the smoke. Because there was a clear distinction between the

  20. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification behaviour of black liquor and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain basic experimental data on pyrolysis and gasification of various black liquors and biofuels at elevated pressures, and to model these processes. Liquor-to-liquor differences in conversion behavior of single liquor droplets during gasification at atmospheric pressure were investigated. The applicability of a rate equation developed for catalyzed gasification of carbon was investigated with regard to pressurized black liquor gasification. A neural network was developed to simulate the progression of char conversion during pressurized black liquor gasification. Pyrolysis of black liquor in a pressurized drop-tube furnace was investigated in collaboration with KTH in Stockholm. (author)

  1. The Pyrolysis of (?)-(S)-Nicotine: Racemization and Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Peter; Lu, Annhelen; Bishop, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The pyrolytic behaviour of (?)-(S)-nicotine in methanol was investigated using on-line pyrolysis GC/MS to establish whether racemization to the R(+) antipode occurs and to identify other products of pyrolysis. The conditions used included pyrolysing the sample for 15 seconds in an atmosphere of 9% oxygen in nitrogen (275ml/min total flow) across the temperature range of 200?C?1000?C. A chiral Cyclodex-B analytical column (30m ? 0.25mm i.d. ? 0.25 ?m film thickness) was used to separate the en...

  2. Comparative study on pyrolysis of lignocellulosic and algal biomass using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Zhang, Liqiang; Zhu, Liang; Zhu, Xifeng

    2017-06-01

    The cornstalk and chlorella were selected as the representative of lignocelulosic and algal biomass, and the pyrolysis experiments of them were carried out using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The physicochemical properties of samples and the pyrolytic product distribution were presented. And then the compositional differences between the two kinds of pyrolytic products were studied, the relevant pyrolysis mechanisms were analyzed systematically. Pyrolytic vapor from lignocellulosic biomass contained more phenolic and carbonyl compounds while that from algal biomass contained more long-chain fatty acids, nitrogen-containing compounds and fewer carbonyl compounds. Maillard reaction is conducive to the conversion of carbonyl compounds to nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds with better thermal stability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Scheduled Intermittent Screening with Rapid Diagnostic Tests and Treatment with Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine versus Intermittent Preventive Therapy with Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine for Malaria in Pregnancy in Malawi: An Open-Label Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwayiwawo Madanitsa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, most plasmodium infections during pregnancy remain asymptomatic, yet are associated with maternal anemia and low birthweight. WHO recommends intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP. However, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP efficacy is threatened by high-level parasite resistance. We conducted a trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of scheduled intermittent screening with malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and treatment of RDT-positive women with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP as an alternative strategy to IPTp-SP.This was an open-label, two-arm individually randomized superiority trial among HIV-seronegative women at three sites in Malawi with high SP resistance. The intervention consisted of three or four scheduled visits in the second and third trimester, 4 to 6 wk apart. Women in the IPTp-SP arm received SP at each visit. Women in the intermittent screening and treatment in pregnancy with DP (ISTp-DP arm were screened for malaria at every visit and treated with DP if RDT-positive. The primary outcomes were adverse live birth outcome (composite of small for gestational age, low birthweight [<2,500 g], or preterm birth [<37 wk] in paucigravidae (first or second pregnancy and maternal or placental plasmodium infection at delivery in multigravidae (third pregnancy or higher. Analysis was by intention to treat. Between 21 July 2011 and 18 March 2013, 1,873 women were recruited (1,155 paucigravidae and 718 multigravidae. The prevalence of adverse live birth outcome was similar in the ISTp-DP (29.9% and IPTp-SP (28.8% arms (risk difference = 1.08% [95% CI -3.25% to 5.41%]; all women: relative risk [RR] = 1.04 [95% CI 0.90-1.20], p = 0.625; paucigravidae: RR = 1.10 [95% CI 0.92-1.31], p = 0.282; multigravidae: RR = 0.92 [95% CI 0.71-1.20], p = 0.543. The prevalence of malaria at delivery was higher in the ISTp-DP arm (48.7% versus 40.8%; risk difference = 7.85%, [95% CI 3

  4. Structural, electrical and photovoltaic properties of CoS/Si heterojunction prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Radaf, I. M.; Nasr, Mahmoud; Mansour, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Au/p-CoS/n-Si/Al heterojunction device was fabricated by spray pyrolysis technique. The structural and morphological features were examined by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The capacitance–voltage characteristics of the prepared heterojunction were analyzed at room temperature in the dark. The current–voltage characteristics were examined under dark and different incident light intensities 20–100 mW cm‑2. The rectification ratio, series resistance, shunt resistance, diode ideality factor and the effective barrier height were determined at dark and illumination conditions. The photovoltaic parameters such as short circuit current density, open circuit voltage, fill factor and power conversion efficiency were calculated at different incident light intensities.

  5. A Spray Pyrolysis Method to Grow Carbon Nanotubes on Carbon Fibres, Steel and Ceramic Bricks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilatela, Juan J; Rabanal, M E; Cervantes-Sodi, Felipe; García-Ruiz, Máximo; Jiménez-Rodríguez, José A; Reiband, Gerd; Terrones, Mauricio

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a spray pyrolysis method to grow carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with high degree of crystallinity, aspect ratio and degree of alignment on a variety of different substrates, such as conventional steel, carbon fibres (CF) and ceramics. The process consists in the chemical vapour deposition of both a thin SiO2 layer and CNTs that subsequently grow on this thin layer. After CNT growth, increases in specific surface by factors of 1000 and 30 for the steel and CF samples, respectively, are observed. CNTs growth on ceramic surfaces results in a surface resistance of 37.5 Ohm/sq. When using conventional steel as a rector tube, we observed CNTs growth rates of 0.6 g/min. Details of nanotube morphology and the growth mechanism are discussed. Since the method discussed here is highly versatile, it opens up a wide variety of applications in which specific substrates could be used in combination with CNTs.

  6. Fast pyrolysis of lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinh, N.T.

    2013-04-15

    Non-conventional biomass feedstock may also be applicable for fast pyrolysis processes. Among the forms of non-conventional biomasses, macroalgae, lignin (industrial residue) and sewage sludge may be attractive materials due to their low price, non-competitiveness with food crops and the possible utilization of solid wastes. Besides, a fast pyrolysis process can be used as a process to densify the biomass and produce bioslurry, a mixture of bio-oil and pyrolytic char. The bioslurry is found to be a possible feedstock for pressurized gasification plants. Thus, the aims of this project are to investigate fast pyrolysis properties of lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae on a lab scale PCR and characterize their bio-oil properties. Bioslurry properties with respect to use as a feedstock for pressurized gasification is also investigated. Lignin and sewage sludge PCR pyrolysis provided bio-oil yields of 47 and 54 wt% daf, and oil energy recovery of 45 and 50 %, respectively. While the macroalgae PCR pyrolysis showed promising results with an organic oil yield of 65 wt% daf and an oil energy recovery of 76 %. The HHV of the lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae oils were 29.7, 25.7 and 25.5 MJ/kg db respectively, and that are higher than that of typical bioiv oil from conventional biomasses (23-24 MJ/kg db). Almost all metals feedstock contents were contained in the chars at temperatures of 550 - 575 deg. C for lignin, sewage sludge and macroalgae PCR pyrolysis. Due to high feedstock nitrogen and sulfur contents, also a high level of nitrogen and sulfur of macroalgae and sewage sludge oils were observed compared to conventional bio-oil and this may limit their further industrial applications. The lignin char had a high proportion of small size particles, a HHV of 21 MJ/kg db and were almost free of chloride and sulfur, thus it is considered as a promising fuel for gasification or combustion; whereas macroalgae and sewage sludge chars containing high amounts of

  7. Open access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Open access week Van 19 tot en met 25 oktober 2015 vond wereldwijd de Open Access Week plaats. Tijdens deze week werden er over de hele wereld evenementen georganiseerd waar open access een rol speelt. Ook in Nederland zijn er diverse symposia, workshops en debatten georganiseerd zoals het debat in

  8. Low-temperature co-pyrolysis behaviours and kinetics of oily sludge: effect of agricultural biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiehong; Jia, Hanzhong; Qu, Chengtun; Fan, Daidi; Wang, Chuanyi

    2017-02-01

    Pyrolysis is potentially an effective treatment of oily sludge for oil recovery, and its kinetics and efficiency are expected to be affected by additives. In the present study, the pyrolysis parameters, including heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, and pyrolysis time of oily sludge in the presence of agricultural biomass, apricot shell, were systematically explored. As a result, maximum oil recovery is achieved when optimizing the pyrolysis conditionas15 K/min, 723 K, and 3 h for heating rate, final pyrolysis temperature, and pyrolysis time, respectively. Thermogravimetric experiments of oily sludge samples in the presence of various biomasses conducted with non-isothermal temperature programmes suggest that the pyrolysis process contains three stages, and the main decomposition reaction occurs in the range of 400-740 K. Taking Flynn-Wall-Ozawa analysis of the derivative thermogravimetry and thermogravimetry results, the activation energy (Ea) values for the pyrolysis of oily sludge in the presence and absence of apricot shell were derived to be 35.21 and 39.40 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The present work supports that the presence of biomass promotes the pyrolysis of oily sludge, implying its great potential as addictive in the industrial pyrolysis of oily sludge.

  9. Effects of feedstock characteristics on microwave-assisted pyrolysis - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaning; Chen, Paul; Liu, Shiyu; Peng, Peng; Min, Min; Cheng, Yanling; Anderson, Erik; Zhou, Nan; Fan, Liangliang; Liu, Chenghui; Chen, Guo; Liu, Yuhuan; Lei, Hanwu; Li, Bingxi; Ruan, Roger

    2017-04-01

    Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is an important approach to obtain bio-oil from biomass. Similar to conventional electrical heating pyrolysis, microwave-assisted pyrolysis is significantly affected by feedstock characteristics. However, microwave heating has its unique features which strongly depend on the physical and chemical properties of biomass feedstock. In this review, the relationships among heating, bio-oil yield, and feedstock particle size, moisture content, inorganics, and organics in microwave-assisted pyrolysis are discussed and compared with those in conventional electrical heating pyrolysis. The quantitative analysis of data reported in the literature showed a strong contrast between the conventional processes and microwave based processes. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis is a relatively new process with limited research compared with conventional electrical heating pyrolysis. The lack of understanding of some observed results warrant more and in-depth fundamental research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adding nickel formate in alkali lignin to increase contents of alkylphenols and aromatics during fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jing; Wang, Wen-Liang; Yu, Yu-Xiang; Chang, Jian-Min; Cai, Li-Ping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2017-03-01

    The composition of pyrolysis vapors obtained from alkali lignin pyrolysis with the additive of nickel formate was examined using the pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Characterization of bio-chars was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that the nickel formate significantly increased liquid yield, simplified the types of alkali lignin pyrolysis products and increased individual component contents. The additive of nickel formate increased contents of alkylphenols and aromatics from alkali lignin pyrolysis. With an increase in temperature, a greater amount of the relative contents can be achieved. The nickel formate was thermally decomposed to form hydrogen, resulting in hydrodeoxygenation of alkali lignin during pyrolysis. It was also found that Ni is in favor of producing alkylphenols. The analysis based on the experimental result provided evidences used to propose reaction mechanism for pyrolysis of nickel formate-assisted alkali lignin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. [Study on Microwave Co-Pyrolysis of Low Rank Coal and Circulating Coal Gas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Yang, Zhe; Liu, Xiao-feng; Wu, Lei; Tian, Yu-hong; Zhao, Xi-cheng

    2016-02-01

    The pyrolysis of low rank coal to produce bluecoke, coal tar and gas is considered to be the optimal method to realize its clean and efficient utilization. However, the current mainstream pyrolysis production technology generally has a certain particle size requirements for raw coal, resulting in lower yield and poorer quality of coal tar, lower content of effective components in coal gas such as H₂, CH₄, CO, etc. To further improve the yield of coal tar obtained from the pyrolysis of low rank coal and explore systematically the effect of microwave power, pyrolysis time and particle size of coal samples on the yield and composition of microwave pyrolysis products of low rank coal through the analysis and characterization of products with FTIR and GC-MS, introducing microwave pyrolysis of low rank coal into the microwave pyrolysis reactor circularly was suggested to carry out the co-pyrolysis experiment of the low rank coal and coal gas generated by the pyrolysis of low rank coal. The results indicated that the yield of the bluecoke and liquid products were up to 62.2% and 26.8% respectively when the optimal pyrolysis process conditions with the microwave power of 800W, pyrolysis time of 40 min, coal samples particle size of 5-10 mm and circulating coal gas flow rate of 0.4 L · min⁻¹ were selected. The infrared spectrogram of the bluecoke under different microwave power and pyrolysis time overlapped roughly. The content of functional groups with -OH, C==O, C==C and C−O from the bluecoke through the pyrolysis of particle size coal samples had a larger difference. To improve microwave power, prolonging pyrolysis time and reducing particle size of coal samples were conducive to converting heavy component to light one into coal tar.

  12. Comprehensive model for predicting elemental composition of coal pyrolysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricahrds, Andrew P. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Shutt, Tim [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Fletcher, Thomas H. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2017-04-23

    Large-scale coal combustion simulations depend highly on the accuracy and utility of the physical submodels used to describe the various physical behaviors of the system. Coal combustion simulations depend on the particle physics to predict product compositions, temperatures, energy outputs, and other useful information. The focus of this paper is to improve the accuracy of devolatilization submodels, to be used in conjunction with other particle physics models. Many large simulations today rely on inaccurate assumptions about particle compositions, including that the volatiles that are released during pyrolysis are of the same elemental composition as the char particle. Another common assumption is that the char particle can be approximated by pure carbon. These assumptions will lead to inaccuracies in the overall simulation. There are many factors that influence pyrolysis product composition, including parent coal composition, pyrolysis conditions (including particle temperature history and heating rate), and others. All of these factors are incorporated into the correlations to predict the elemental composition of the major pyrolysis products, including coal tar, char, and light gases.

  13. Yields from pyrolysis of refinery residue using a batch process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prithiraj

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch pyrolysis was a valuable process of assessing the potential of recovering and characterising products from hazardous waste materials. This research explored the pyrolysis of hydrocarbon-rich refinery residue, from crude oil processes, in a 1200 L electrically-heated batch retort. Furthermore, the off-gases produced were easily processed in compliance with existing regulatory emission standards. The methodology offers a novel, cost-effective and environmentally compliant method of assessing recovery potential of valuable products. The pyrolysis experiments yielded significant oil (70% with high calorific value (40 MJ/kg, char (14% with carbon content over 80% and non-condensable gas (6% with significant calorific value (240 kJ/mol. The final gas stream was subjected to an oxidative clean-up process with continuous on-line monitoring demonstrating compliance with South African emission standards. The gas treatment was overall economically optimal as only a smaller portion of the original residue was subjected to emission-controlling steps. Keywords: Batch pyrolysis, Volatiles, Oil yields, Char, Emissions, Oil recovery

  14. Preliminary evaluation of fuel oil produced from pyrolysis of waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical and structural properties of the fuel oil produced compared favorably with that of Aviation fuel JP-4 (a wide-cut US Air force fuel). Presently African countries are importing aviation fuels. The fuel oil produced from the pyrolysis of waste water sachets can therefore be used in place of JP–4, providing the aviation ...

  15. Pyrolysis of wheat straw-derived organosolv lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, P.J. de; Huijgen, W.J.J.; Heeres, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of a lignocellulose biorefinery may be improved by developing applications for lignin with a higher value than application as fuel. We have developed a pyrolysis based lignin biorefinery approach, called LIBRA, to transform lignin into phenolic bio-oil and biochar using

  16. Competition Between Hydrotreating and Polymerization Reactions During Pyrolysis Oil Hydrodeoxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercader, F. De Miguel; Koehorst, P. J. J.; Heeres, H. J.; Kersten, S. R. A.; Hogendoorn, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of pyrolysis oil is an upgrading step that allows further coprocessing of the oil product in (laboratory-scale) standard refinery units to produce advanced biofuels. During HDO, desired hydrotreating reactions are in competition with polymerization reactions that can lead to

  17. Pyrolysis of thermally thick wood particles - experiments and mathematical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller Andersen, S.; Thaaning Pedersen, S.; Goebel, B.; Houbak, N.; Henriksen, Ulrik [MEK - DTU, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Dall Bentzen, J. [COWI a/s, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    A simple, dynamic, l-dimensional model describing heating, drying and pyrolysis of thermally thick wood particles with a l-dimensional geometry has been developed and implemented. The model output is the dynamic evolution of both the char yield and the amount of volatiles. The model is developed in such a simple and accessible way, that it easily can be implemented in a larger model for dimensioning and optimisation of applications where pyrolysis is a part of the overall process as for instance gasification. Experiments using a Thermo Gravimetric Analyser (TGA), built so pieces of wood can be fed into a hot atmosphere instantaneously, have been used to observe the influence of various parameters like temperature and size and wood types on the pyrolysis process. Results from the model have been compared with results from the experiments. The comparison showed good accordance when both wood particles with a well-defined geometry (a cylinder) and when beds of wood chips and wood pellets, respectively, were pyrolyzed. The model has proven that transport of heat to the wood; internal transport and accumulation of heat inside the wood and kinetics of pyrolysis are all important parameters. (au)

  18. Effect of Pyrolysis Temperature on Cadmium and Lead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption of tobacco as cigarette or otherwise has been demonstrated to contribute to air pollution via smoke generation resulting in adverse health effect. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the concentration, distribution of cadmium and lead between ash residue and smoke in some ...

  19. Biochar production from freshwater algae by slow pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A study on the feasibility of biochar production from 3 kinds of freshwateralgae, viz. Spirulina, Spirogyra and Cladophora, was undertaken. Using a slow pyrolysis process in a specially designed reactor, biochar could be generated at 550oC under nitrogen atmosphere. The yields of biochar were between 28-31% of the dry algae.

  20. A computational study of pyrolysis reactions of lignin model compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder

    2010-01-01

    Enthalpies of reaction for the initial steps in the pyrolysis of lignin have been evaluated at the CBS-4m level of theory using fully substituted b-O-4 dilignols. Values for competing unimolecular decomposition reactions are consistent with results previously published for phenethyl phenyl ether models, but with lowered selectivity. Chain propagating reactions of free...

  1. Analytical Pyrolysis-Chromatography: Something Old, Something New

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Nathan W.; Blanchet, Conor J. K.

    2010-01-01

    Despite a long history of use across multiple disciplines, analytical pyrolysis is rarely taught in undergraduate curricula. We briefly review some interesting applications and discuss the three types of analytical pyrolyzers available commercially. We also describe a low-cost alternative that can be used to teach the basic principles of…

  2. Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using ex-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  3. In-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, M.; Dutta, A.; Jones, S.; Meyer, A.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates converting woody biomass using in-situ catalytic fast pyrolysis followed by upgrading to gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks. Technical barriers and key research needs that should be pursued for this pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived blendstocks have been identified.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of fuel oil produced from pyrolysis of low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical and structural properties of the fuel oil produced compared favorably with that of Aviation fuel JP-4 (a wide-cut US Air force fuel). Presently African countries are importing aviation fuels. The fuel oil produced from the pyrolysis of waste water sachets can therefore be used in place of JP–4, providing the aviation ...

  5. Pyrolysis kinetics of phenols from lignite semicoking tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Polovetskaya, O.S.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Shavyrina, O.A. [Leo Tolstoy Tula State Pedag University, Tula (Russian Federation)

    2002-11-01

    The features of pyrolysis of phenols from lignite semicoking tar were studied. The activation energy and order of the reactions of accumulation of methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dioxide, naphthalene and its methyl homologs, phenols, and isomeric cresols and dimethylphenols were determined.

  6. Biomass Pyrolysis in DNS of Turbulent Particle-Laden Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, E; Fröhlich, Jochen; Kuerten, Johannes G.M.; Geurts, Bernardus J.; Armenio, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is important for co-firing in coal power plants thereby reducing CO2 emissions. Modeling the combustion of biomass involves various physical and chemical processes, which take place successively and even simultaneously [1, 2]. An important step in biomass combustion is pyrolysis, in which

  7. Study on the Inference Factors of Huangling Coking Coal Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Meili; Yang, Zongyi; Fan, Jinwen

    2018-01-01

    In order to reasonably and efficiently utilize Huangling coking coal resource, coal particle, heating rate, holding time, pyrolysis temperature and others factors were dicussed for the influence of those factor on Huangling coking coal pyrolysis products. Several kinds of coal blending for coking experiments were carried out with different kinds of coal such as Huangling coking coal, Xida coal with high ash low sufur, Xinghuo fat coal with hign sulfur, Zhongxingyi coking coal with high sulfur, Hucun lean coal, mixed meager and lean coal. The results shown that the optimal coal particle size distribution was 0.5~1.5mm, the optimal heating rate was 8°C/min, the optimal holding time was 15min, the optimal pyrolysis temperature was 800°C for Huangling coking coal pyrolysis, the tar yield increased from 4.7% to 11.2%. The maximum tar yield of coal blending for coking under the best single factor experiment condition was 10.65% when the proportio of Huangling coking coal was 52%.

  8. Oxalate Synthesis and Pyrolysis: A Colorful Introduction to Stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, Michael W.; Richards-Babb, Michelle; Sweeney, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Metal oxalate synthesis and pyrolysis provides an opportunity for students to (i) learn stoichiometry, (ii) experience the consequences of proper stoichiometric calculations and experimental techniques, and (iii) be introduced to the relevance of chemistry by highlighting oxalates in context, for example, usages and health effects. At our…

  9. Investigation on biomass nitrogen-enriched pyrolysis: Influence of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Chen, Yingquan; Yang, Haiping; Li, Kaixu; Chen, Xu; Chen, Hanping

    2017-10-07

    Biomass (bamboo waste) nitrogen-enriched pyrolysis was carried out in a fixed bed with NH3 atmosphere at 400-800 °C, and formation mechanism of N-containing species was explored in depth. Results showed that N-enriched pyrolysis greatly increased bio-oil and gas yields. H2 yield increased sharply to 130 mL/g (32.93 vol%) and became the main composition at higher temperature, while CH4 and CO yields deceased, and the lower heating value of gas reached ∼14 MJ/Nm(3). For bio-oil, the content of phenols (main compositions) and N-containing species increased significantly, and the maximums reached 61.33% and 11.47%, respectively. While that of acetic acid (disappeared), O-containing species (aldehydes/ketones/furans/esters) and aromatics decreased largely accordingly. For biochar, Nitrogen content increased, and it contained abundant pyridininc-N, pyrrolic-N, quaternary-N, and pyridone-N-oxide. Possible reaction pathways of biomass N-enriched pyrolysis was proposed based on products evolution. In conclusion, biomass N-enriched pyrolysis could obtain high-valued N-containing chemical species and functional biochar. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of aquatic biomass using thermogravimetric analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kejing; Liu, Ji; Wu, Yulong; Chen, Yu; Li, Qinghai; Xiao, Xin; Yang, Mingde

    2014-07-01

    The differences in pyrolysis process of three species of aquatic biomass (microalgae, macroalgae and duckweed) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Three stages were observed during the pyrolysis process and the main decomposition stage could be divided further into three zones. The pyrolysis characteristics of various biomasses were different at each zone, which could be attributed to the differences in their components. A stepwise procedure based on iso-conversional and master-plots methods was used for the kinetic and mechanism analysis of the main decomposition stage. The calculation results based on the kinetic model was in good agreement with the experimental data of weight loss, and each biomass had an increasing activation energy of 118.35-156.13 kJ/mol, 171.85-186.46 kJ/mol and 258.51-268.71 kJ/mol in zone 1, 2 and 3, respectively. This study compares the pyrolysis behavior of various aquatic biomasses and provides basis for further applications of the biomass thermochemical conversion. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. An Idealized Direct-Contact Biomass Pyrolysis Reactor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. S.; Bellan, J.

    1996-01-01

    A numerical study is performed in order to assess the performance of biomass pyrolysis reactors which utilize direct particle-wall thermal conduction heating. An idealized reactor configuration consisting of a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer flow with particle convection along the heated wall and incorporating particle re-entrainment is considered.

  12. Fuel gases from pyrolysis of waste Polyethylene sachets 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    catalytic pyrolysis of polyethylene in spouted bed reactor and obtained products ranging from C2 to C9. It was concluded that the rate of weight loss is greatly influenced by the .... reaction to form these 18 gaseous products at higher temperatures. Fig 3 Effect of Temperature and time on the yield of gaseous products. 0. 100.

  13. Co-pyrolysis of coal with organic solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straka, P.; Buchtele, J. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The co-pyrolysis of high volatile A bituminous coal with solid organic materials (proteins, cellulose, polyisoprene, polystyrene, polyethylene-glycolterephtalate-PEGT) at a high temperature conditions was investigated. Aim of the work was to evaluate, firstly, the changes of the texture and of the porous system of solid phase after high temperature treatment in presence of different types of macromolecular solids, secondly, properties and composition of the tar and gas. Considered organic solids are important waste components. During their co-pyrolysis the high volatile bituminous coal acts as a hydrogen donor in the temperature rank 220-480{degrees}C. In the rank 500- 1000{degrees}C the solid phase is formed. The co-pyrolysis was carried out at heating rate 3 K/min. It was found that an amount of organic solid (5-10%) affects important changes in the optical texture forms of solid phase, in the pore distribution and in the internal surface area. Transport large pores volume decreases in presence of PEGT, polystyrene and cellulose and increases in presence of proteins and polyisoprene. (image analysis measurements show that the tendency of coal to create coarse pores during co-pyrolysis is very strong and increases with increasing amount of organic solid in blend). An addition of considered materials changes the sorption ability (methylene blue test, iodine adsorption test), moreover, the reactivity of the solid phase.

  14. Temperature Jump Pyrolysis Studies of RP 2 Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-09

    Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 2 Propellants Branch, Rocket Propulsion Division Aerospace Engineering Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL...Mixture Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. PA Clearance 17026 4 RP-2 Pyrolysis/ Combustion Chemistries? • Recent...restricted fuel flow Leads to increased exposure to thermal stressing Fuel Composition Changes: Liquid to gas transition in cooling channels Causes break

  15. Catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapours using Faujasite zeolite catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.S.; Zabeti, M.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Brem, Gerrit; Seshan, Kulathuiyer

    2012-01-01

    Bio-oil produced via fast pyrolysis of biomass has the potential to be processed in a FCC (fluid catalytic cracking) unit to generate liquid fuel. However, this oil requires a significant upgrade to become an acceptable feedstock for refinery plants due to its high oxygen content. One promising

  16. Maximizing the stability of pyrolysis oil/diesel fuel emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several emulsions consisting of biomass pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) in diesel fuel were produced and analyzed for stability over time. An ultrasonic probe was used to generate microscopic droplets of bio-oil suspended in diesel fuel, and this emulsion was stabilized using surfactant chemicals. The most...

  17. Investigation of solid organic waste processing by oxidative pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolibaba, O. B.; Sokolsky, A. I.; Gabitov, R. N.

    2017-11-01

    A thermal analysis of a mixture of municipal solid waste (MSW) of the average morphological composition and its individual components was carried out in order to develop ways to improve the efficiency of its utilization for energy production in thermal reactors. Experimental studies were performed on a synchronous thermal analyzer NETZSCH STA 449 F3 Jupiter combined with a quadrupole mass spectrometer QMC 403. Based on the results of the experiments, the temperature ranges of the pyrolysis process were determined as well as the rate of decrease of the mass of the sample of solid waste during the drying and oxidative pyrolysis processes, the thermal effects accompanying these processes, as well as the composition and volumes of gases produced during oxidative pyrolysis of solid waste and its components in an atmosphere with oxygen content of 1%, 5%, and 10%. On the basis of experimental data the dependences of the yield of gas on the moisture content of MSW were obtained under different pyrolysis conditions under which a gas of various calorific values was produced.

  18. Biomass pyrolysis liquid to citric acid via 2-step bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiguang; Bai, Zhihui; Sun, Hongyan; Yu, Zhisheng; Li, Xingxing; Guo, Yifei; Zhang, Hongxun

    2014-12-31

    The use of fossil carbon sources for fuels and petrochemicals has serious impacts on our environment and is unable to meet the demand in the future. A promising and sustainable alternative is to substitute fossil carbon sources with microbial cell factories converting lignocellulosic biomass into desirable value added products. However, such bioprocesses require tolerance to inhibitory compounds generated during pretreatment of biomass. In this study, the process of sequential two-step bio-conversion of biomass pyrolysis liquid containing levoglucosan (LG) to citric acid without chemical detoxification has been explored, which can greatly improve the utilization efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass. The sequential two-step bio-conversion of corn stover pyrolysis liquid to citric acid has been established. The first step conversion by Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) is desirable to decrease the content of other compounds except levoglucosan as a pretreatment for the second conversion. The remaining levoglucosan in solution was further converted into citric acid by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) CBX-209. Thus the conversion of cellulose to citric acid is completed by both pyrolysis and bio-conversion technology. Under experimental conditions, levoglucosan yield is 12% based on the feedstock and the citric acid yield can reach 82.1% based on the levoglucosan content in the pyrolysis liquid (namely 82.1 g of citric acid per 100 g of levoglucosan). The study shows that P. chrysosporium and A. niger have the potential to be used as production platforms for value-added products from pyrolyzed lignocellulosic biomass. Selected P. chrysosporium is able to decrease the content of other compounds except levoglucosan and levoglucosan can be further converted into citric acid in the residual liquids by A. niger. Thus the conversion of cellulose to citric acid is completed by both pyrolysis and bio-conversion technology.

  19. Electrochemical and/or microbiological treatment of pyrolysis wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, José R O; Santos, Dara S; Santos, Ubiratan R; Eguiluz, Katlin I B; Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R; Schneider, Jaderson K; Krause, Laiza C; López, Jorge A; Hernández-Macedo, Maria L

    2017-10-01

    Electrochemical oxidation may be used as treatment to decompose partially or completely organic pollutants (wastewater) from industrial processes such as pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical process used to obtain bio-oil from biomasses, generating a liquid waste rich in organic compounds including aldehydes and phenols, which can be submitted to biological and electrochemical treatments in order to minimize its environmental impact. Thus, electrochemical systems employing dimensionally stable anodes (DSAs) have been proposed to enable biodegradation processes in subsurface environments. In order to investigate the organic compound degradation from residual coconut pyrolysis wastewater, ternary DSAs containing ruthenium, iridium and cerium synthetized by the 'ionic liquid method' at different calcination temperatures (500, 550, 600 and 700 °C) for the pretreatment of these compounds, were developed in order to allow posterior degradation by Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp. or Acinetobacter sp. bacteria. The electrode synthesized applying 500 °C displayed the highest voltammetric charge and was used in the pretreatment of pyrolysis effluent prior to microbial treatment. Regarding biological treatment, the Pseudomonas sp. exhibited high furfural degradation in wastewater samples electrochemically pretreated at 2.0 V. On the other hand, the use of Acinetobacter efficiently degraded phenolic compounds such as phenol, 4-methylphenol, 2,5-methylphenol, 4-ethylphenol and 3,5-methylphenol in both wastewater samples, with and without electrochemical pretreatment. Overall, the results indicate that the combination of both processes used in this study is relevant for the treatment of pyrolysis wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pyrolysis Model Development for a Multilayer Floor Covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B. McKinnon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive pyrolysis models that are integral to computational fire codes have improved significantly over the past decade as the demand for improved predictive capabilities has increased. High fidelity pyrolysis models may improve the design of engineered materials for better fire response, the design of the built environment, and may be used in forensic investigations of fire events. A major limitation to widespread use of comprehensive pyrolysis models is the large number of parameters required to fully define a material and the lack of effective methodologies for measurement of these parameters, especially for complex materials. The work presented here details a methodology used to characterize the pyrolysis of a low-pile carpet tile, an engineered composite material that is common in commercial and institutional occupancies. The studied material includes three distinct layers of varying composition and physical structure. The methodology utilized a comprehensive pyrolysis model (ThermaKin to conduct inverse analyses on data collected through several experimental techniques. Each layer of the composite was individually parameterized to identify its contribution to the overall response of the composite. The set of properties measured to define the carpet composite were validated against mass loss rate curves collected at conditions outside the range of calibration conditions to demonstrate the predictive capabilities of the model. The mean error between the predicted curve and the mean experimental mass loss rate curve was calculated as approximately 20% on average for heat fluxes ranging from 30 to 70 kW·m−2, which is within the mean experimental uncertainty.

  1. Pyrolysis polygeneration of pine nut shell: Quality of pyrolysis products and study on the preparation of activated carbon from biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Chen, Xiaojuan; Sun, Jun; Zheng, Zhongcheng; Fu, Kexin

    2016-09-01

    A lab-scale pyrolysis reactor was utilized to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature (300-700°C) on the yield, quality, and energy distribution of products issued from the pyrolysis polygeneration of pine nut shells. Afterward, activated carbon was prepared from biochar using the steam activation method. Pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 500 to 600°C were found to be optimal in inducing products with improved properties, such as higher heating values of non-condensable gas, lower water content and elevated heating values of bio-oil, and substantial fixed carbon content and greater specific surface area of biochar. In addition, it was noticed that the activation conditions had a significant effect on the yield and adsorption performance of the activated carbon. As a result, activated carbon with elevated specific surface area reaching 1057.8m(2)/g was obtained at the optimal conditions of 850°C activation temperature, 80min activation time, and 1.5 steam/biochar ratio. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermal decomposition and gasification of biomass pyrolysis gases using a hot bed of waste derived pyrolysis char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rahbi, Amal S; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2016-03-01

    Chars produced from the pyrolysis of different waste materials have been investigated in terms of their use as a catalyst for the catalytic cracking of biomass pyrolysis gases during the two-stage pyrolysis-gasification of biomass. The chars were produced from the pyrolysis of waste tyres, refused derived fuel and biomass in the form of date stones. The results showed that the hydrocarbon tar yields decreased significantly with all the char materials used in comparison to the non-char catalytic experiments. For example, at a cracking temperature of 800°C, the total product hydrocarbon tar yield decreased by 70% with tyre char, 50% with RDF char and 9% with biomass date stones char compared to that without char. There was a consequent increase in total gas yield. Analysis of the tar composition showed that the content of phenolic compounds decreased and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased in the product tar at higher char temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pyrolysis Treatment of Chromite Ore Processing Residue by Biomass: Cellulose Pyrolysis and Cr(VI) Reduction Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Lei; Zhang, Mei-Yi; Zhang, Chu-Hui; Sun, Ying-Jie; Sun, Xiao; Yuan, Xian-Zheng

    2016-03-15

    The pyrolysis treatment with biomass is a promising technology for the remediation of chromite-ore-processing residue (COPR). However, the mechanism of this process is still unclear. In this study, the behavior of pyrolysis reduction of Cr(VI) by cellulose, the main component of biomass, was elucidated. The results showed that the volatile fraction (VF) of cellulose, ie. gas and tar, was responsible for Cr(VI) reduction. All organic compounds, as well as CO and H2 in VF, potentially reduced Cr(VI). X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy confirmed the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and the formation of amorphous Cr2O3. The remnant Cr(VI) content in COPR can be reduced below the detection limit (2 mg/kg) by the reduction of COPR particle and extension of reaction time between VF and COPR. This study provided a deep insight on the co-pyrolysis of cellulose with Cr(VI) in COPR and an ideal approach by which to characterize and optimize the pyrolysis treatment for COPR by other organics.

  4. Open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Marcel; Chesbrough, Henry; Moedas, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Open innovation is now a widely used concept in academia, business, and policy making. This article describes the state of open innovation at the intersection of research, practice, and policy. It discusses some key trends (e.g., digital transformation), challenges (e.g., uncertainty......), and potential solutions (e.g., EU funding programs) in the context of open innovation and innovation policy. With this background, the authors introduce select papers published in this Special Section of California Management Review that were originally presented at the second annual World Open Innovation...

  5. Soil organic degradation: bridging the gap between Rock-Eval pyrolysis and chemical characterization (CPMAS 13C NMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Remy; Sebag, David; Verrecchia, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Being a source of mineral nutrients, organic matter contributes to soil chemical fertility and acts on soil physical fertility through its role in soil structure. Soil organic matter (SOM) is a key component of soils. Despite the paramount importance of SOM, information on its chemistry and behaviour in soils is incomplete. Numerous methods are used to characterize and monitor OM dynamics in soils using different approaches (Kogel-Knabner, 2000). Two of the main approaches are evaluated and compared in this study. Rock-Eval pyrolysis (RE pyrolysis) provides a description of a SOM's general evolution using its thermal resistance. The second tool (13C CPMAS NMR) aims to give precise and accurate chemical information on OM characterization. The RE pyrolysis technique was designed for petroleum exploration (Lafargue et al., 1998) and because of its simplicity, it has been applied to a variety of other materials such as soils or Recent sediments (Disnar et al., 2000; Sebag, 2006). Recently, RE pyrolysis became a conventional tool to study OM dynamics in soils. In RE pyrolysis, a peak deconvolution is applied to the pyrolysis signal in order to get four main components related to major classes of organic constituents. These components differ in origin and resistance to pyrolysis: labile biological constituents (F1), resistant biological constituents (F2), immature non-biotic constituents (F3) and a mature refractory fraction (F4) (Sebag, 2006; Coppard, 2006). Main advantages of the technique are its repeatability, and rapidity to provide an overview of OM properties and stocks. However, do the four major classes used in the literature reflect a pertinent chemical counterpart? To answer this question, we used 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the solid state (13C CPMAS NMR) to collect direct information on structural and conformational characteristics of OM. NMR resonances were assigned to chemical structures according to five dominant forms: alkyl C, O

  6. A Comprehensive Study on Pyrolysis Mechanism of Substituted β-O-4 Type Lignin Dimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Jiang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the pyrolysis mechanism of β-O-4 type lignin dimers, a pyrolysis model is proposed which considers the effects of functional groups (hydroxyl, hydroxymethyl and methoxyl on the alkyl side chain and aromatic ring. Furthermore, five specific β-O-4 type lignin dimer model compounds are selected to investigate their integrated pyrolysis mechanism by density functional theory (DFT methods, to further understand and verify the proposed pyrolysis model. The results indicate that a total of 11 pyrolysis mechanisms, including both concerted mechanisms and homolytic mechanisms, might occur for the initial pyrolysis of the β-O-4 type lignin dimers. Concerted mechanisms are predominant as compared with homolytic mechanisms throughout unimolecular decomposition pathways. The competitiveness of the eleven pyrolysis mechanisms are revealed via different model compounds, and the proposed pyrolysis model is ranked in full consideration of functional groups effects. The proposed pyrolysis model can provide a theoretical basis to predict the reaction pathways and products during the pyrolysis process of β-O-4 type lignin dimers.

  7. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and polypropylene using fixed-bed pyrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzatie, N. I.; Basha, M. H.; Uemura, Y.; Mazlan, M. A.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hamid, M. F.

    2016-11-01

    The present work encompasses the impact of temperature (450, 500, 550, 600 °C) on the properties of pyrolysis oil and on other product yield for the co-pyrolysis of Polypropylene (PP) plastics and rice straw. Co-pyrolysis of PP plastic and rice straw were conducted in a fixed-bed drop type pyrolyzer under an inert condition to attain maximum oil yield. Physically, the pyrolysis oil is dark-brown in colour with free flowing and has a strong acrid smell. Copyrolysis between these typically obtained in maximum pyrolysis oil yields up to 69% by ratio 1:1 at a maximum temperature of 550 °C. From the maximum yield of pyrolysis oil, characterization of pyrolysis product and effect of biomass type of the composition were evaluated. Pyrolysis oil contains a high water content of 66.137 wt.%. Furfural, 2- methylnaphthalene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), toluene and acetaldehyde were the major organic compounds found in pyrolysis oil of rice straw mixed with PP. Bio-char collected from co-pyrolysis of rice straw mixed with PP plastic has high calorific value of 21.190 kJ/g and also carbon content with 59.02 wt.% and could contribute to high heating value. The non-condensable gases consist of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane as the major gas components.

  8. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-liang; Chang, Jian-min; Cai, Li-ping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2014-12-01

    This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Comprehensive Study on Pyrolysis Mechanism of Substituted β-O-4 Type Lignin Dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoyan; Lu, Qiang; Hu, Bin; Liu, Ji; Dong, Changqing; Yang, Yongping

    2017-11-09

    In order to understand the pyrolysis mechanism of β-O-4 type lignin dimers, a pyrolysis model is proposed which considers the effects of functional groups (hydroxyl, hydroxymethyl and methoxyl) on the alkyl side chain and aromatic ring. Furthermore, five specific β-O-4 type lignin dimer model compounds are selected to investigate their integrated pyrolysis mechanism by density functional theory (DFT) methods, to further understand and verify the proposed pyrolysis model. The results indicate that a total of 11 pyrolysis mechanisms, including both concerted mechanisms and homolytic mechanisms, might occur for the initial pyrolysis of the β-O-4 type lignin dimers. Concerted mechanisms are predominant as compared with homolytic mechanisms throughout unimolecular decomposition pathways. The competitiveness of the eleven pyrolysis mechanisms are revealed via different model compounds, and the proposed pyrolysis model is ranked in full consideration of functional groups effects. The proposed pyrolysis model can provide a theoretical basis to predict the reaction pathways and products during the pyrolysis process of β-O-4 type lignin dimers.

  10. Fast Pyrolysis of Four Lignins from Different Isolation Processes Using Py-GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Lin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is a promising approach that is being investigated to convert lignin into higher value products including biofuels and phenolic chemicals. In this study, fast pyrolysis of four types of lignin, including milled Amur linden wood lignin (MWL, enzymatic hydrolysis corn stover lignin (EHL, wheat straw alkali lignin (AL and wheat straw sulfonate lignin (SL, were performed using pyrolysis gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA showed that the four lignins exhibited widely different thermolysis behaviors. The four lignins had similar functional groups according to the FTIR analysis. Syringyl, guaiacyl and p-hydroxyphenylpropane structural units were broken down during pyrolysis. Fast pyrolysis product distributions from the four lignins depended strongly on the lignin origin and isolation process. Phenols were the most abundant pyrolysis products from MWL, EHL and AL. However, SL produced a large number of furan compounds and sulfur compounds originating from kraft pulping. The effects of pyrolysis temperature and time on the product distributions from corn stover EHL were also studied. At 350 °C, EHL pyrolysis mainly produced acids and alcohols, while phenols became the main products at higher temperature. No obvious influence of pyrolysis time was observed on EHL pyrolysis product distributions.

  11. Effect of pyrolysis temperature and sulfuric acid during the fast pyrolysis of cellulose and douglas fir in an atmospheric pressure wire mesh reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Zhouhong; Zhou, Shuai; Pecha, Brennan; Westerhof, Roel J M; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand important reactions responsible for the suppression of anhydrosugars during the pyrolysis of microcrystalline Avicel, ball-milled Avicel, levoglucosan, cellobiosan, and Douglas fir at varied pyrolysis conditions (heating rate 100°C/s, temperature

  12. Open hardware for open science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the open source software movement, the Open Hardware Repository was created to enable hardware developers to share the results of their R&D activities. The recently published CERN Open Hardware Licence offers the legal framework to support this knowledge and technology exchange.   Two years ago, a group of electronics designers led by Javier Serrano, a CERN engineer, working in experimental physics laboratories created the Open Hardware Repository (OHR). This project was initiated in order to facilitate the exchange of hardware designs across the community in line with the ideals of “open science”. The main objectives include avoiding duplication of effort by sharing results across different teams that might be working on the same need. “For hardware developers, the advantages of open hardware are numerous. For example, it is a great learning tool for technologies some developers would not otherwise master, and it avoids unnecessary work if someone ha...

  13. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  14. Progressing towards more quantitative analytical pyrolysis of soil organic matter using molecular beam mass spectroscopy of whole soils and added standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddix, Michelle L.; Magrini-Bair, Kim; Evans, Robert J.; Conant, Richard T.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Morris, Sherri J.; Calderón, Francisco; Paul, Eldor A.

    2016-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is extremely complex. It is composed of hundreds of different organic substances and it has been difficult to quantify these diverse substances in a dynamic-ecosystem functioning standpoint. Analytical pyrolysis has been used to compare chemical differences between soils, but its ability to measure the absolute amount of a specific compound in the soil is still in question. Our objective was to assess whether utilizing pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectroscopy (py-MBMS) to define the signature of known reference compounds (adenine, indole, palmitic acid, etc.) and biological samples (chitin, fungi, cellulose, etc.) separately and when added to whole soils it was possible to make py-MBMS more quantitative. Reference compounds, spanning a wide variety of compound categories, and biological samples, expected to be present in SOM, were added to three soils from Colorado, Ohio, and Massachusetts that have varying total C, % clay, and clay type. Py-MBMS, a rapid analysis technique originally developed to analyze complex biomolecules, flash pyrolyzes soil organic matter to form products that are often considered characteristic of the original molecular structure. Samples were pyrolyzed at 550 degrees C by py-MBMS. All samples were weighed and %C and %N determined both before and after pyrolysis to evaluate mass loss, C loss, and N loss for the samples.An average relationship of r2 = 0.76 (P = 0.005) was found for the amount of cellulose added to soil at 25, 50, and 100% of soil C relative to the ion intensity of select mass/charge of the compound.There was a relationship of r2 = 0.93 (P < 0.001) for the amount of indole added to soil at 25, 50, and 100% of soil C and the ion intensity of the associated mass variables (mass/charge). Comparing spectra of pure compounds with the spectra of the compounds added to soil and isolated clay showed that interference could occur based on soil type and compound with the Massachusetts soil with high C (55

  15. High yield polycarbosilane precursors to stoichiometric SiC. Synthesis, pyrolysis and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Interrante, L.V.; Wu, H.J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Whitmarsh, C.W.; Sherwood, W. [Starfire Systems, Inc., Glenville, NY (United States); Lewis, R.; Maciel, G. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-12-31

    The synthesis and properties of two polycarbosilanes that have essentially a ``SiH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}`` composition is described. One of these polymers is a highly branched hydridopolycarbosilane (HPCS) derived from Grignard coupling of Cl{sub 3}SiCH{sub 2}Cl followed by LiAlH{sub 4} reduction. This synthesis is amenable to large scale production and the authors are exploring applications of HPCS as a source of SiC coatings and its allyl-derivative, AHPCS, as a matrix source for SiC and C-fiber reinforced composites. These polymers thermoset on heating at 200--400 C (or at 100 C with a catalyst) and give near stoichiometric SiC with low O content in ca. 80% yield on pyrolysis to 1,000 C. The second method involves ring-opening polymerization of 1,1,3,3-tetrachlorodisilacyclobutane and yields a high molecular weight, linear polymer that can be reduced to [SiH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}]{sub n} (PSE), the monosilicon analog of polyethylene. In contrast to high density polyethylene which melts at 135 C, PSE is a liquid at room temperature which crystallizes at ca. 5 C. On pyrolysis to 1,000 C, PSE gives stoichiometric, nanocrystalline, SiC in virtually quantitative yield. The polymer-to-ceramic conversion was examined for PSE by using TGA, mass spec., solid state NMR, and IR methods yielding information regarding the cross-linking and structural evolution processes. The results of these studies of the polymer-to-ceramic conversion process and their efforts to employ the AHPCS polymer as a source of SiC matrices are described.

  16. Structure and pyrolysis characteristics of lignin derived from wood powder hydrolysis residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi; Qiu, Zejing; Wang, Congwei; Huang, Yanqin; Ma, Longlong; Wu, Shubin

    2012-09-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of wood powder acid hydrolysis residue (WAHR) were studied firstly in this study, and WAHL (lignin derived from WAHR) was separated successfully from WAHR based on an improved isolating method. The content of functional group such as phenolic hydroxyl group of guaiacyl, syringyl, and hydroxyl-phenyl units in WAHL were identified by (31)P-NMR and DFRC (derivatization followed by reductive cleavage) method. Thermal degradation experiments were carried out on a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer to show pyrolysis characteristics of WAHL. The compositions of pyrolysis products of WAHL were also studied throughout a pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) analyzer. It was shown that the pyrolysis of WAHL took place in a wide temperature range and there were two obvious peaks in the differential thermogravimetric diagram. Results of Py-GC-MS analysis indicated that pyrolysis products were mainly formed through cleavage of the β-O-4 connection and multiple pyrolysis.

  17. Synthesis of fluorescent carbon dots from one-step pyrolysis of frontal-polymerized poly(acrylamide-co-4-vinylpyridine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiao-Ling; Tang, Wen-Qi; Wang, Cai-Feng; Chen, Su

    2014-07-01

    We report herein the synthesis of carbon dots (CDs) by a one-step pyrolysis from poly(acrylamide-co-4-vinylpyridine) [poly(AAM-co-4-VP)]. The poly(AAM-co-4-VP) was fabricated using frontal polymerization within 5 min in an easy and rapid way and then was pyrolyzed to afford CDs. The as-prepared CDs show crystalline structure and excellent dispersibility with particle sizes in the range of 2-4 nm. The optical properties were throughly investigated, and we found the CDs exhibit strong blue fluorescence with quantum yield of ~18 % and excellent photoluminescent stability, which is rarely influenced by the external conditions. This process can be exploited as an effective path for synthesis CDs with polymers by a facile and rapid way.

  18. Open Source and Open Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Publication reference: Koper, R. (2008). Open Source and Open Standards. In J. M. Spector, M. Merrill, J. van Merriënboer & M. P. Driscol (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (3rd ed., pp. 355-368). New York: Routledge.

  19. Characterisation of coking activity during supercritical hydrocarbon pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoin, Nicolas; Gillard, Philippe; Bernard, Stephane [Laboratoire Energetique, Explosion, Structure, UPRES-EA 1205, 63, avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges Cedex (France); Bouchez, Marc [MBDA France, 8, rue Le Brix, 18000 Bourges (France)

    2008-12-15

    The active cooling of the Supersonic Combustion Ramjet engine, for hypersonic flight purpose, is ensured thanks to fuel, n-dodecane for the present study. The endothermic fuel pyrolysis, starting above 800 K, could generate an unwanted coke formation. Experimental tests up to 1125 K and between 1 MPa and 6 MPa have been performed on the hydrocarbon fuel pyrolysis to evaluate the coking activity. 316L stainless steel, low carbon steel and titanium reactors have been considered. A witness of the coke formation, based on its thermal insulation and pressure loss effects, has been found. A correlation between methane production and coke deposit was found. The coke has been studied with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometer and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The porosity, the density and the permeability of the coke have been estimated. (author)

  20. Apparatuses and methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnes, Tom N.

    2015-12-29

    Apparatuses and methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided herein. In one example, the method comprises of dividing a feedstock stream into first and second feedstock portions. The feedstock stream comprises the biomass-derived pyrolysis oil and has a temperature of about 60.degree. C. or less. The first feedstock portion is combined with a heated organic liquid stream to form a first heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The first heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a first deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to form an intermediate low-oxygen pyoil effluent. The second feedstock portion is combined with the intermediate low-oxygen pyoil effluent to form a second heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The second heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a second deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to form additional low-oxygen pyoil effluent.

  1. Influence of Pyrolysis Parameters on the Performance of CMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C. Campo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon hollow fiber membranes have been prepared by pyrolysis of a P84/S-PEEK blend. Proximate analysis of the precursor was performed using thermogravimetry (TGA, and a carbon yield of approximately 40% can be obtained. This study aimed at understanding the influence of pyrolysis parameters—end temperature, quenching effect, and soaking time—on the membrane properties. Permeation experiments were performed with N2, He, and CO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM has been done for all carbon hollow fibers. The highest permeances were obtained for the membrane submitted to an end temperature of 750°C and the highest ideal selectivities for an end temperature of 700°C. In both cases, the membranes were quenched to room temperature.

  2. Experience and lessons learned from sewage sludge pyrolysis in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridle, Trevor R.; Skrypski-Mantele, Stefan

    2003-07-01

    Management of sewage sludge via ''publicly acceptable'' methods is becoming increasingly difficult primarily due to health and environmental concerns with respect to reuse of the product in agriculture. Consequently thermal processes are gaining popularity with significantly increased interest being shown in pyrolysis and gasification processes, due to their ''non-incineration status''. One such process is the ENERSLUDGE(TM) technology which has been developed and commercialised by Environmental Solutions International Ltd (ESI). The world's first commercial ENERSLUDGE(TM) plant is located at the Subiaco Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) that was handed over to the client, the Water Corporation of Western Australia in June 2001. Extensive design knowledge and operational experience has now been accumulated from this commercial pyrolysis facility and future applications of the technology will benefit immensely from the lessons learned and experience gained from this facility.

  3. 3D Material Response Analysis of PICA Pyrolysis Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Brandon A.

    2017-01-01

    Primarily interested in improving ablation modeling for use in inverse reconstruction of flight environments on ablative heat shields. Ablation model is essentially a component of the heat flux sensor, so model uncertainties lead to measurement uncertainties. Non-equilibrium processes have been known to be significant in low density ablators for a long time, but increased accuracy requirements of the reconstruction process necessitates incorporating this physical effect. Attempting to develop a pyrolysis model for implementation in material response based on the PICA data produced by Bessire and Minton. Pyrolysis gas species molar yields as a function of temperature and heating rate. Several problems encountered while trying to fit Arrhenius models to the data led to further investigation of the experimental setup.

  4. Kinetic Analysis of the Main Temperature Stage of Fast Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Yuying; Xu, Lanshu; Li, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Kinetics of the thermal decomposition of eucalyptus chips was evaluated using a high-rate thermogravimetric analyzer (BL-TGA) designed by our research group. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal condition in order to determine the fast pyrolysis behavior of the main temperature stage (350-540ºC) at heating rates of 60, 120, 180, and 360ºC min-1. The Coats-Redfern integral method and four different reaction mechanism models were adopted to calculate the kinetic parameters including apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor, and the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method was employed to testify apparent activation energy. The results showed that estimation value was consistent with the values obtained by linear fitting equations, and the best-fit model for fast pyrolysis was found.

  5. Pyrolysis and Matrix-Isolation FTIR of Acetoin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Sarah; Ellis, Martha; Sowards, John; McCunn, Laura R.

    2017-06-01

    Acetoin, CH_3C(O)CH(OH)CH_3, is an additive used in foods and cigarettes as well as a common component of biomass pyrolysate during the production of biofuels, yet little is known about its thermal decomposition mechanism. In order to identify thermal decomposition products of acetoin, a gas-phase mixture of approximately 0.3% acetoin in argon was subject to pyrolysis in a resistively heated SiC microtubular reactor at 1100-1500 K. Matrix-isolation FTIR spectroscopy was used to identify pyrolysis products. Many products were observed in analysis of the spectra, including acetylene, propyne, ethylene, and vinyl alcohol. These results provide clues to the overall mechanism of thermal decomposition and are important for predicting emissions from many industrial and residential processes.

  6. Design of pyrolysis reactor for production of bio-oil and bio-char simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladin, Andi; Alwi, Ratna Surya; Syarif, Takdir

    2017-05-01

    The residues from the wood industry are the main contributors to biomass waste in Indonesia. The conventional pyrolysis process, which needs a large energy as well as to produce various toxic chemical to the environment. Therefore, a pyrolysis unit on the laboratory scale was designed that can be a good alternative to achieve zero-waste and low energy cost. In this paper attempts to discuss design and system of pyrolysis reactor to produce bio-oil and bio-char simultaneously.

  7. Microwave assisted pyrolysis of plastic waste for production of fuels: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad Haroon; Sulaiman Shaharin A.; Hussain Zahid; Naz Yasin; Basrawi Firdaus

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of advantages of microwave assisted pyrolysis of waste plastics together with its limitations. It has been established that microwave induced pyrolysis can be used to get value added chemicals and fuels through its numerous noted advantages in contrast to conventional pyrolysis. The process has the potential for fast, volumetric and selective heating of plastics for the recovery of energy. The limitation in the use of dielectric material as absorbent in plastic...

  8. Fast Pyrolysis of Four Lignins from Different Isolation Processes Using Py-GC/MS

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xiaona; Sui, Shujuan; Tan, Shun; Pittman, Charles; Sun, Jianping; Zhang, Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis is a promising approach that is being investigated to convert lignin into higher value products including biofuels and phenolic chemicals. In this study, fast pyrolysis of four types of lignin, including milled Amur linden wood lignin (MWL), enzymatic hydrolysis corn stover lignin (EHL), wheat straw alkali lignin (AL) and wheat straw sulfonate lignin (SL), were performed using pyrolysis gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the...

  9. Pyrolysis and dehalogenation of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoning; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) have been an important environmental problem because these plastics commonly contain toxic halogenated flame retardants which may cause serious environmental pollution, especially the formation of carcinogenic substances polybrominated dibenzo dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs), during treat process of these plastics. Pyrolysis has been proposed as a viable processing route for recycling the organic compounds in WEEE plastics into fuels and chemical feedstock. However, dehalogenation procedures are also necessary during treat process, because the oils collected in single pyrolysis process may contain numerous halogenated organic compounds, which would detrimentally impact the reuse of these pyrolysis oils. Currently, dehalogenation has become a significant topic in recycling of WEEE plastics by pyrolysis. In order to fulfill the better resource utilization of the WEEE plastics, the compositions, characteristics and dehalogenation methods during the pyrolysis recycling process of WEEE plastics were reviewed in this paper. Dehalogenation and the decomposition or pyrolysis of WEEE plastics can be carried out simultaneously or successively. It could be 'dehalogenating prior to pyrolysing plastics', 'performing dehalogenation and pyrolysis at the same time' or 'pyrolysing plastics first then upgrading pyrolysis oils'. The first strategy essentially is the two-stage pyrolysis with the release of halogen hydrides at low pyrolysis temperature region which is separate from the decomposition of polymer matrixes, thus obtaining halogenated free oil products. The second strategy is the most common method. Zeolite or other type of catalyst can be used in the pyrolysis process for removing organohalogens. The third strategy separate pyrolysis and dehalogenation of WEEE plastics, which can, to some degree, avoid the problem of oil value decline due to the use of catalyst, but obviously, this strategy may increase the cost of

  10. MODELING OF NAPHTHA PYROLYSIS WITH USING GENETIC ALGORITM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Bityukov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In operation of industrial pyrolysis furnaces, the main task is the selection of the optimal mode of thermal decomposition of the feedstock, depending on the yield of the desired products under conditions of technological limitations on the process. To solve this problem for an operating reactor, this paper considers the SRT-VI Large-Capacity industrial Furnace , the mathematical model of the pyrolysis process was constructed, using a kinetic scheme which consists of primary reaction of decomposition of raw materials and secondary elementary reactions of interaction of the considered mixture components, the heat balance equation and hydrodynamics of flow in the coil. The raw material for the selected installation type is naphtha (straight-run petrol. Output parameters of the model are the molar costs of marketable hydrocarbons. The reactor is described by the equation of ideal displacement in the static mode of operation. It is assumed that all reactions have a temperature dependence that follows the Arrhenius law. The activation energies of chemical processes were estimated using the PolanyiSemenov equation and identification of pre-exponential factors was carried out using a genetic algorithm (GA. This task requires solving simultaneous system of differential equations describing the pyrolysis process and a search for a large number of unknown parameters, and therefore it is proposed to modify the GA. Optimal scheme includes Gray encoding arithmetic operators, tournament selection, with tournament ranking more than 4, crossover with partial random choice of alleys, mutations with a high probability of occurring and elitism with competitive global competition. Using the proposed approach, the parametric identification of model process is accomplished. The analysis of the simulation results with the data of operating reactor showed its suitability for use in order to control the pyrolysis process.

  11. A study of paint sludge deactivation by pyrolysis reactions

    OpenAIRE

    L.A.R. Muniz; Costa, A. R. [UNESP; E. Steffani; Zattera,A.J.; Hofsetz, K; K. Bossardi; Valentini, L.

    2003-01-01

    The production of large quantities of paint sludge is a serious environmental problem. This work evaluates the use of pyrolysis reaction as a process for deactivating paint sludge that generates a combustible gas phase, a solvent liquid phase and an inert solid phase. These wastes were classified into three types: water-based solvent (latex resin) and solvents based on their resins (alkyd and polyurethane). An electrically heated stainless steel batch reactor with a capacity of 579 mL and a m...

  12. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  13. Biomass Pyrolysis Solids as Reducing Agents: Comparison with Commercial Reducing Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adrados, Aitziber; De Marco, Isabel; López-Urionabarrenechea, Alexander; Solar, Jon; Caballero, Blanca; Gastelu, Naia

    ... to its extensive availability and its contribution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass under appropriate conditions (slow heating rate and high temperatures)...

  14. Ultrasensitive binder-free glucose sensors based on the pyrolysis of in situ grown Cu MOF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xuan; Luo, Jiangshui; Tang, Pengyi

    2017-01-01

    A non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on carbon/Cu composite materials was developed by the in-situ growth and subsequent pyrolysis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) on Cu foam. After pyrolysis, SEM, HRTEM and STEM-EELS were employed to clarify the hierarchical Cu@porous carbon electrode. It is f......A non-enzymatic glucose sensor based on carbon/Cu composite materials was developed by the in-situ growth and subsequent pyrolysis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) on Cu foam. After pyrolysis, SEM, HRTEM and STEM-EELS were employed to clarify the hierarchical Cu@porous carbon electrode...

  15. Conventional and microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass under different heating rates

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, C; Budarin, VL; Gronnow, MJ; De Bruyn, M; Onwudili, JA; Clark, JH; Williams, PT

    2014-01-01

    Biomass was subjected to conventional and microwave pyrolysis, to determine the influence of each process on the yield and composition of the derived gas, oil and char products. The influence of pyrolysis temperature and heating rate for the conventional pyrolysis and the microwave power was investigated. Two major stages of gas release were observed during biomass pyrolysis, the first being CO/CO and the second one CH/H. This two-stage gas release was much more obvious for the conventional p...

  16. Perspective on Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils: Essential Roles of Fe-Based Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yongchun; Hensley, Alyssa; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Wang, Yong

    2016-06-27

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis is the most promising approach for biofuel production, due to its simple process and versatility to handle lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks with varying and complex compositions. Compared with in situ catalytic fast pyrolysis, ex situ catalytic pyrolysis has the flexibility of optimizing the pyrolysis step and catalytic process individually to improve the quality of pyrolysis oil (stability, oxygen content, acid number, etc.) and to maximize the carbon efficiency in the conversion of biomass to pyrolysis oil. Hydrodeoxygenation is one of the key catalytic functions in ex situ catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recently, Fe-based catalysts have been reported to exhibit superior catalytic properties in hydrodeoxygenation of model compounds in pyrolysis oil, which potentially makes the ex situ pyrolysis of biomass commercially viable due to the abundance and low cost of Fe. Here, we briefly summarize the recent progress on Fe-based catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation of biomass, and provide perspectives on how to further improve Fe-based catalysts (activity and stability) for their potential applications in the emerging area of biomass conversion.

  17. Production and characterization of pyrolysis liquids from sunflower-pressed bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerçel, Hasan Ferdi

    2002-11-01

    Pyrolysis experiments on sunflower (Helianthus annus L.)-pressed bagasse were performed in a fixed-bed tubular reactor. The effects of nitrogen flow rate and final pyrolysis temperature on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield of 52.10 wt.% was obtained in a nitrogen atmosphere with flow rate of 50 ml min(-1) and at a pyrolysis temperature of 550 degrees C with a heating rate of 5 degrees C s(-1). The chemical characterization results showed that the oil obtained from sunflower-pressed bagasse may be a potentially valuable source as fuel or chemical feedstocks.

  18. Pyrolysis characteristics of the mixture of printed circuit board scraps and coal powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Juan; Wang, Haifeng; Chen, Shuhe; Cai, Bin; Ge, Linhan; Xia, Wencheng

    2014-10-01

    Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and infrared spectroscopy were used to analyze the pyrolysis characteristics of printed circuit board scraps (PCBs), coal powder and their mixtures under nitrogen atmosphere. The experimental results show that there is a large difference between waste PCBs and coal powder in pyrolysis processing. The pyrolysis properties of the mixing samples are the result of interaction of the PCBs and coal powder, which is influenced by the content of mixture. The degree of pyrolysis and pyrolysis properties of the mixture are much better than that of the single component. The TG and the differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves of the PCBs mixed with coal powder move towards the high-temperature zone with increasing amount of coal powder and subsequently the DTG peak also becomes wider. The Coats-Redfern integral method was used to determine the kinetic parameters of pyrolysis reaction mechanism with the different proportion of mixture. The gas of pyrolysis mainly composes of CO2, CO, H2O and some hydrocarbon. The bromide characteristic absorption peak has been detected obviously in the pyrolysis gas of PCBs. On the contrary, the absorption peak of the bromide is not obvious in pyrolysis gas of the PCBs samples adding 40% coal powder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Combustion, performance and emission analysis of a DI diesel engine using plastic pyrolysis oil

    OpenAIRE

    Kalargaris, Ioannis; Tian, Guohong; Gu, Sai

    2016-01-01

    Plastic waste is an ideal source of energy due to its high heating value and abundance. It can be converted into oil through the pyrolysis process and utilised in internal combustion engines to produce power and heat. In the present work, plastic pyrolysis oil is manufactured via a fast pyrolysis process using a feedstock consisting of different types of plastic. The oil was analysed and it was found that its properties are similar to diesel fuel. The plastic pyrolysis oil was tested on a fou...

  20. Catalytic Flash Pyrolysis of Biomass Using Different Types of Zeolite and Online Vapor Fractionation

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Bio-oil produced from conventional flash pyrolysis has poor quality and requires expensive upgrading before it can be used as a transportation fuel. In this work, a high quality bio-oil has been produced using a novel approach where flash pyrolysis, catalysis and fractionation of pyrolysis vapors using two stage condensation are combined in a single process unit. A bench scale unit of 1 kg/h feedstock capacity is used for catalytic pyrolysis in an entrained down-flow reactor system equipped w...

  1. Pyrolysis kinetics of hazelnut husk using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Selim; Topçu, Yıldıray

    2014-03-01

    This study aims at investigating physicochemical properties and pyrolysis kinetics of hazelnut husk, an abundant agricultural waste in Turkey. The physicochemical properties were determined by bomb calorimeter, elemental analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy. Physicochemical analysis results showed that hazelnut husk has a high calorimetric value and high volatile matter content. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a thermogravimetric analyzer under inert conditions and operated at different heating rates (5, 10, 20°C/min). Three different kinetic models, the iso-conversional Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) models and Coats-Redfern method were applied on TGA data of hazelnut husk to calculate the kinetic parameters including activation energy, pre-exponential factor and reaction order. Simulation of hazelnut husk pyrolysis using data obtained from TGA analysis showed good agreement with experimental data. Combining with physicochemical properties, it was concluded that this biomass can become useful source of energy or chemicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF BIO-OIL FROM PALM KERNEL SHELL PYROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of palm kernel shell in a fixed-bed reactor was studied in this paper. The objectives were to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature and particle size on the products yield and to characterize the bio-oil product. In order to get the optimum pyrolysis parameters on bio-oil yield, temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500 and 550 °C and particle sizes of 212–300 µm, 300–600 µm, 600µm–1.18 mm and 1.18–2.36 mm under a heating rate of 50 °C min-1 were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield was 38.40% at 450 °C with a heating rate of 50 °C min-1 and a nitrogen sweep gas flow rate of 50 ml min-1. The bio-oil products were analysed by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR and gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GCMS. The FTIR analysis showed that the bio-oil was dominated by oxygenated species. The phenol, phenol, 2-methoxy- and furfural that were identified by GCMS analysis are highly suitable for extraction from the bio-oil as value-added chemicals. The highly oxygenated oils need to be upgraded in order to be used in other applications such as transportation fuels.

  3. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Greenberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were mostly oxygenated and included acetic acid, furylaldehyde, acetol, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 gC/kgC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC/gC(CO2 measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively. The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and endothermic pyrolysis under low turbulence conditions may produce flammable concentrations near leaves and may facilitate the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  4. Catalytic pyrolysis of car tire waste using expanded perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Y

    2011-08-01

    In this study, the non-catalytic and catalytic pyrolysis experiments were conducted on the sample of tire waste using expanded perlite as an additive material to determine especially the effect of temperature and catalyst-to-tire ratio on the products yields and the compositions and qualities of pyrolytic oils (NCPO and CPO). Non-catalytic studies, which were carried out under the certain conditions (a nitrogen flow of 100mL/min and a heating rate of 10°C/min), showed that the highest yield of pyrolytic oil (NCPO) was 60.02wt.% at 425°C. Then, the catalytic pyrolysis studies were carried out at catalyst-to-tire ratio range of 0.05-0.25 and the highest catalytic pyrolytic oil (CPO) yield was 65.11wt.% at the ratio of 0.10 with the yield increase of 8.48wt.% compared with the non-catalytic pyrolysis. Lastly, the pyrolytic oils were characterized with applying a various techniques such as elemental analyses and various chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques (GC-MS, (1)H NMR, FT-IR, etc.). The characterization results revealed that the pyrolytic oils which were complex mixtures of C(5)-C(15) organic compounds (predominantly aromatic compounds) and also the CPO compared to the NCPO was more similar to conventional fuels in view of the certain fuel properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Friedli, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Hanson, D.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.

    2005-09-01

    Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa) were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were acetic acid, furylaldehyde, methyl acetate, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 mgC/gC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC)/gC(CO2)) measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively. The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and the pyrolysis of vegetation heated under low turbulence conditions produces concentrations near leaves that reach the lower limits of flammability and the emissions may be important in the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  6. A study of paint sludge deactivation by pyrolysis reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniz L.A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of large quantities of paint sludge is a serious environmental problem. This work evaluates the use of pyrolysis reaction as a process for deactivating paint sludge that generates a combustible gas phase, a solvent liquid phase and an inert solid phase. These wastes were classified into three types: water-based solvent (latex resin and solvents based on their resins (alkyd and polyurethane. An electrically heated stainless steel batch reactor with a capacity of 579 mL and a maximum pressure of 30 atm was used. Following the reactor, a flash separator, which was operated at atmospheric pressure, partially condensed and separated liquid and gas products. Pressure and temperature were monitored on-line by a control and data acquisition system, which adjusted the heating power supplied to the pyrolysis reactor. Reactions followed an experimental design with two factors (reaction time and temperature and three levels (10, 50 and 90 minutes; 450, 550 and 650degreesC. The response variables were liquid and solid masses and net heat of combustion. The optimal operational range for the pyrolysis process was obtained for each response variable. A significant reduction in total mass of solid waste was obtained.

  7. Multisteps Global Kinetic Analysis of MSW Slow Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Aries Himawanto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to find relationships between single components slow pyrolysis characteristics and mixed component slow pyrolysis characteristics of segregated municipal solid wastes (MSW. The material of this research consists of organic wastes (bamboo wastes and banana leaves wastes and inorganic wastes (styrofoam wastes and snack wrapping wastes. The materials which used to study were the unprosessing waste. The samples were collected, dried and crushed until passing 20 mesh shieves then characterized in self manufactured macro balance. The thermogravimetry analyses were done to find the MSW slow pyrolysis characteristics. The 20 gram sample was placed in the furnace whose temperature is increased with 10 0C/min heating rate until reached 400 0 final temperature and held for 30 minutes before the sample is cooled into room temperature. One hundred ml/min nitrogen introduced from the bottom of furnace as a swept gas. The results of the research show that the global kinetic method could be used to predict the MSW single component activation energy but it should be modified to calculate the mixed sample activation energy . The predictive activation energy values which calculated based on weighed sum of single component have 18.5 % deviations if compared with experimental result.

  8. Application of pyrolysis process in processing of mixed food wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grycová Barbora

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The food industry produces large amounts of solid and also liquid wastes. Different waste materials and their mixtures were pyrolysed in the laboratory pyrolysis unit to a final temperature of 800°C with a 10 minute delay at the final temperature. After the pyrolysis process of the selected wastes a mass balance of the resulting products, off-line analysis of the pyrolysis gas and evaluation of solid and liquid products were carried out. The highest concentration of methane, hydrogen and carbon monoxide were analyzed during the 4th gas sampling at a temperature of approx. 720–780°C. The concentration of hydrogen was measured in the range from 22 to 40 vol.%. The resulting iodine numbers of samples CHFO, DS, DSFW reach values that indicate the possibility of using them to produce the so-called “disposable sorbents” in wastewater treatment. The WC condensate can be directed to further processing and upgrading for energy use.

  9. The Pyrolysis Behavior of Evolved Species from Date Palm Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker Mohammed Elamen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The pyrolytic behavior of evolved gases from date palm seeds (DPSs were measured to gain insight into the mechanism of DPSs pyrolysis. Six different cultivars were used in this study, namely Deglet nour, Piarom, Suffry, Safawi, Mabroom and Aliya. A thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA and a real-time gas analyzer (GA were used to calculate the mass losses and the mole fraction of evolved gases, respectively. DPSs samples were pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere condition using argon with a purge rate of 100 mL/minute. The samples were subjected to non-isothermal operation. An independent single model and parallel reaction model were adopted to interpret the empirical data collected from TGA and GA, respectively. The results reveled that there are three types of pyrolysis zones depending on the main constituents of every cultivars. Moreover, the potentialty of the zones in controlling the pyrolysis behavior was noticeable. The dominant hydrocarbon species in DPSs were CO and CH4 (40 to 50% higher than the rest of species. The mole fraction of CO was 2 to 4 times higher than the mole fraction of CO2. The activation energy and frequency factor of DPSs evolved species showed that Mabroom has the highest activation energy regarding H2 (63.21kJ/mol and CO (74.32 kJ/mol.

  10. The pyrolysis of (-)-(S)-nicotine: racemization and decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Peter; Lu, Annhelen; Bishop, Louise

    2010-05-05

    The pyrolytic behaviour of (-)-(S)-nicotine in methanol was investigated using on-line pyrolysis GC/MS to establish whether racemization to the R(+) antipode occurs and to identify other products of pyrolysis. The conditions used included pyrolysing the sample for 15 seconds in an atmosphere of 9% oxygen in nitrogen (275 ml/min total flow) across the temperature range of 200 degrees C-1000 degrees C. A chiral Cyclodex-B analytical column (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d. x 0.25 microm film thickness) was used to separate the enantiomers of nicotine, although the two enantiomer peaks were not baseline resolved. The results of the experiment shows that there is no increase in (+)-(R)-nicotine levels across a wide temperature range. This suggests that the elevated levels of (+)-R-nicotine observed in tobacco smoke (compared to tobacco leaf material) are not due to the pyrolytic auto-racemization of (-)-(S)-nicotine but are a result of more complex interactions between (-)-(S)-nicotine and other smoke components. The pyrolysis of isotopically labelled nicotine established that nicotine undergoes thermal decomposition to beta-nicotyrine which in turn may decompose to other products. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. The Pyrolysis of (−)-(S)-Nicotine: Racemization and Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Peter; Lu, Annhelen; Bishop, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The pyrolytic behaviour of (−)-(S)-nicotine in methanol was investigated using on-line pyrolysis GC/MS to establish whether racemization to the R(+) antipode occurs and to identify other products of pyrolysis. The conditions used included pyrolysing the sample for 15 seconds in an atmosphere of 9% oxygen in nitrogen (275ml/min total flow) across the temperature range of 200°C–1000°C. A chiral Cyclodex-B analytical column (30m × 0.25mm i.d. × 0.25 μm film thickness) was used to separate the enantiomers of nicotine, although the two enantiomer peaks were not baseline resolved. The results of the experiment shows that there is no increase in (+)-(R)-nicotine levels across a wide temperature range. This suggests that the elevated levels of (+)-R-nicotine observed in tobacco smoke (compared to tobacco leaf material) are not due to the pyrolytic auto-racemization of (−)-(S)-nicotine but are a result of more complex interactions between (−)-(S)-nicotine and other smoke components. The pyrolysis of isotopically labelled nicotine established that nicotine undergoes thermal decomposition to β-nicotyrine which in turn may decompose to other products. Chirality 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19644958

  12. High quality fuel gas from biomass pyrolysis with calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baofeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lei; Sun, Laizhi; Si, Hongyu; Chen, Guanyi

    2014-03-01

    The removal of CO2 and tar in fuel gas produced by biomass thermal conversion has aroused more attention due to their adverse effects on the subsequent fuel gas application. High quality fuel gas production from sawdust pyrolysis with CaO was studied in this paper. The results of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) experiments indicate that the mass ratio of CaO to sawdust (Ca/S) remarkably affects the behavior of sawdust pyrolysis. On the basis of Py-GC/MS results, one system of a moving bed pyrolyzer coupled with a fluid bed combustor has been developed to produce high quality fuel gas. The lower heating value (LHV) of the fuel gas was above 16MJ/Nm(3) and the content of tar was under 50mg/Nm(3), which is suitable for gas turbine application to generate electricity and heat. Therefore, this technology may be a promising route to achieve high quality fuel gas for biomass utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Fast pyrolysis of cotton stalk biomass using calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Chen, Yingquan; Yang, Haiping; Chen, Wei; Wang, Xianhua; Chen, Hanping

    2017-06-01

    We herein investigate the various roles of calcium oxide in the pyrolysis of biomass at a variant temperatures. The evolution of pyrolysis products was examined to propose the various roles of Ca at a range of temperatures and CaO addition ratios with cotton stalk on a fixed-bed reactor. We found that upon the addition of CaO, the content of ketones produced increased, while that of acidic compounds decreased. Under similar conditions, the concentration of evolved H2 and CH4 increased, while that of CO2 decreased. Thus, variation in the CaO/biomass (Ca/B) mass ratios and pyrolysis temperatures indicated that CaO could act as a reactant, an absorbent, and a catalyst at Ca/B ratios of 0.2, and >0.4, respectively. Moreover, at temperatures >600°C, the roles of CaO as an absorbent and a reactant were less apparent, while its role as a catalyst was enhanced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pyrolysis of microalgal biomass in carbon dioxide environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Heon; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Young Jae; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2015-10-01

    This work mechanistically investigated the influence of CO2 in the thermo-chemical process of microalgal biomass (Chlorella vulgaris and Microcystis aeruginosa) to achieve a fast virtuous cycle of carbon via recovering energy. This work experimentally justified that the influence of CO2 in pyrolysis of microalgal biomass could be initiated at temperatures higher than 530 °C, which directly led to the enhanced generation of syngas. For example, the concentration of CO from pyrolysis of M. aeruginosa increased up to ∼ 3000% at 670 °C in the presence of CO2. The identified universal influence of CO2 could be summarized by the expedited thermal cracking of VOCs evolved from microalgal biomass and by the unknown reaction between VOCs and CO2. This identified effectiveness of CO2 was different from the Boudouard reaction, which was independently occurred with dehydrogenation. Thus, microalgal biomass could be a candidate for the thermo-chemical process (pyrolysis and gasification). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Value added liquid products from waste biomass pyrolysis using pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K

    2015-12-15

    Douglas fir wood, a forestry waste, was attempted to be converted into value added products by pretreatments followed by pyrolysis. Four different types of pretreatments were employed, namely, hot water treatment, torrefaction, sulphuric acid and ammonium phosphate doping. Subsequently, pyrolysis was done at 500°C and the resulting bio-oils were analysed for their chemical composition using Karl Fischer titration, thermogravimetry, ion exchange, and gas chromatography. Pretreatment with acid resulted in the highest yield of bio-oil (~60%). The acid and salt pretreatments were responsible for drastic reduction in the lignin oligomers and enhancement of water content in the pyrolytic liquid. The quantity of xylose/mannose reduced as a result of pretreatments. Although, the content of fermentable sugars remained similar across all the pretreatments, the yield of levoglucosan increased. Pretreatment of the biomass with acid yielded the highest amount of levoglucosan in the bio-oil (13.21%). The acid and salt pretreatments also elevated the amount of acetic acid in the bio-oils. Addition of acid and salt to the biomass altered the interaction of cellulose-lignin in the pyrolysis regime. Application of pretreatments should be based on the intended end use of the liquid product having a desired chemical composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Microwave pyrolysis of multilayer plastic waste (LDPE) using zeolite catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Hendrianie, Nuniek; Ramadhan, Pandu Jati; Satria, Dama Husin

    2017-05-01

    To overcome the problem of garbage, especially plastic waste, environmental experts and scholars from various disciplines have conducted various studies and actions. One way to degrade the multilayer packaging plastic waste LDPE (Low Density Poliethylene) with microwave pyrolysis process by using natural zeolite catalysts. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of temperature and time of microwave pyrolysis process by using natural zeolite catalyst to degrade the plastic waste LDPE and compare them. Pyrolysis process was done by using a closed glass reactor with a capacity of 500 ml, operated at a pressure of 1 atm and flowed nitrogen 0.5 1 / min. Plastic waste was LDPE, and natural zeolite was used as its catalyst. Sample was heated at temperature 300, 400, 500 or 550 °C and was kept during time variables of 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes. Liquid product was analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), raw material was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), and solid product was analyzed by X-Ray Fluorescene (XRF). From the experimental resulted in the best yield products of pyrolisis using natural zeolite at 550 °C and 90 minutes was 2.88 % of solid yield, 28.12 % of liquid yield and the highest hydrocarbon concentration of 19.02 %.

  17. Pyrolysis of poppy capsule pulp for bio-oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopa, Derya Yeşim; Yılmaz, Nazan; Alagöz, Oğuzhan; Dilek, Meltem; Helvacı, Ahmet; Durupınar, Ümit

    2016-12-01

    The feasibility of biofuel production via the pyrolysis of poppy capsule pulp, the main waste product of Afyon Alkoloid Factory, was investigated. The poppy capsule pulp was shown to have a high volatile matter content (ca. 76%). Pyrolysis experiments were carried out in the temperature range 400-550°C (heating rate 18°C min(-1) and holding time 20 min) under a nitrogen atmosphere. The chemical components of the bio-oil were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effects of pyrolysis temperature on the production efficiency and the calorific value of the bio-oil were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield and its calorific value at 500°C were 23.6% and 31.6 MJ kg(-1), respectively. The latter value is close to that of many petroleum fractions. This high-energy bio-oil is therefore a clean fuel precursor and can be upgraded into higher quality fuels. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Pyrolysis and combustion kinetics and emissions of waste lube oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Rico, Maria F.; Martin-Gullon, Ignacio; Fullana, Andres; Conesa, Juan A.; Font, Rafael [Chemical Engineering Department, Universidad de Alicante, PO Box 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2003-08-01

    The present work studies first the kinetics of the global primary thermal decomposition of raw waste lubricant oils in helium atmosphere conditions and with different proportions of helium:oxygen by TGA. In addition, pyrolysis and partial oxidation runs were carried out in a tubular reactor at 723 and 1123 K, where the volatiles and semivolatiles evolved were quantified by gas chromatography. TGA analysis shows nearly no difference between helium and helium-oxygen atmosphere, yielding no appreciable residue. Primary decomposition, which takes place between 450 and 700 K, can be modeled with two different processes: the main one (92.6% of the initial material) is an evaporation of the motor oil (with apparent zero order and a kinetic constant dependent on the mass and heating rate) and a small contribution of a typical solid carbonaceous pyrolysis. In the tubular reactor, gases evolved in pyrolysis at 773 K corroborate TG findings that the process is mainly an evaporation, with little changes with respect to the original chemical structure of the oil. Nevertheless, the gas composition changes completely in the presence of air, where the partial oxidation in the gas phase after evaporation yields lower chain paraffins and olefines. Gas evolution at 1123 K is completely different, yielding showing typical cracked flue gas composition: light gases with abundant olefins and poly-condensed aromatics.

  19. Differentiation of pre-existing trapped methane from thermogenic methane in an igneous-intruded coal by hydrous pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Robert F.; Lewan, Michael D.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Kotarba, Maciej J.

    2014-01-01

    So as to better understand how the gas generation potential of coal changes with increasing rank, same-seam samples of bituminous coal from the Illinois Basin that were naturally matured to varying degrees by the intrusion of an igneous dike were subjected to hydrous pyrolysis (HP) conditions of 360 °C for 72 h. The accumulated methane in the reactor headspace was analyzed for δ13C and δ2H, and mol percent composition. Maximum methane production (9.7 mg/g TOC) occurred in the most immature samples (0.5 %Ro), waning to minimal methane values at 2.44 %Ro (0.67 mg/g TOC), and rebounding to 3.6 mg/g TOC methane in the most mature sample (6.76 %Ro). Methane from coal with the highest initial thermal maturity (6.76 %Ro) shows no isotopic dependence on the reactor water and has a microbial δ13C value of −61‰. However, methane from coal of minimal initial thermal maturity (0.5 %Ro) shows hydrogen isotopic dependence on the reaction water and has a δ13C value of −37‰. The gas released from coals under hydrous pyrolysis conditions represents a quantifiable mixture of ancient (270 Ma) methane (likely microbial) that was generated in situ and trapped within the rock during the rapid heating by the dike, and modern (laboratory) thermogenic methane that was generated from the indigenous organic matter due to thermal maturation induced by hydrous pyrolysis conditions. These findings provide an analytical framework for better assessment of natural gas sources and for differentiating generated gas from pre-existing trapped gas in coals of various ranks.

  20. Kinetics of coffee industrial residue pyrolysis using distributed activation energy model and components separation of bio-oil by sequencing temperature-raising pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nanwei; Ren, Jie; Ye, Ziwei; Xu, Qizhi; Liu, Jingyong; Sun, Shuiyu

    2016-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the kinetics of coffee industrial residue (CIR) pyrolysis, the effect of pyrolysis factors on yield of bio-oil component and components separation of bio-oil. The kinetics of CIR pyrolysis was analyzed using distributed activation energy model (DAEM), based on the experiments in thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and it indicated that the average of activation energy (E) is 187.86kJ·mol-1. The bio-oils were prepared from CIR pyrolysis in vacuum tube furnace, and its components were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among pyrolysis factors, pyrolysis temperature is the most influential factor on components yield of bio-oil, directly concerned with the volatilization and yield of components (palmitic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, octadecanoic acid and caffeine). Furthermore, a new method (sequencing temperature-raising pyrolysis) was put forward and applied to the components separation of bio-oil. Based on experiments, a solution of components separation of bio-oil was come out. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION BEHAVIOUR OF DIFFERENT BIOMASS FEEDSTOCKS: PYROLYSIS AND GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Gülsaç

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available n this study, a bench-scale bubbling fluidized bed (BFB gasifier and thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA were applied for the determination of the thermochemical conversion reactivity of biomass fuels under both gasification and pyrolysis conditions. Six different biomass feedstocks, namely; straw pellet (SP, softwood pellet (WP, torrefied wood chips (TWC, pyrolysis char (PC, miled sunflower seed (MSS and dried distillers’ grains and solubles (DDGS were investigated. TGA of biomass feedstocks were carried out under pyrolysis conditions at four different heating rates (2-15 °C/min. Raw data obtained from the experiments were used to calculate the kinetic parameters (A, Ea of the samples by using two different models; Coats-Redfern and Isoconversional Method. TGA analysis showed that pyrolysis char was the only sample having decomposition temperature above 800 K since it was the pre-pyrolized sample before the gasification. According to DTG profiles, two peaks and two shoulders at around 450-650 K were observed for DDGS whereas no peaks were detected for pyrolysis char as the indication of absence of volatiles/cellulosic components. It was seen that the highest devolatization rates and devolatization temperatures (associated mainly with cellulose decomposition were obtained for softwood and torrefied wood samples, which had the least char yields among the other biomass feedstocks. It was seen that WP was more reactive for thermochemical conversion and less prone to agglomeration. Furthermore high ash content and agglomeration index of MSS were the potential drawbacks in front of its utilization via thermochemical conversion. During the air gasification of these feedstocks (except DDGS, the product syngas was characterized in terms of main gas composition, tar and sulfur compounds. It was shown that the highest cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion and calorific value were obtained for the gasification of SP. On the other hand, SP had some

  2. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  3. Pyrolysis result of polyethylene waste as fuel for solid oxide fuel cell with samarium doped-ceria (SDC)-carbonate as electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, R. J. E.; Rahmawati, F.; Prameswari, A. P.; Saktian, R.

    2017-02-01

    In this research, the result of pyrolysis on polyethylene was used as fuel for a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The pyrolysis result is a liquid which consists of hydrocarbon chains. According to GC-MS analysis, the hydrocarbons mainly consist of C7 to C20 hydrocarbon chain. Then, the liquid was applied to a single cell of NSDC-L | NSDC | NSDC-L. NSDC is a composite SDC (samarium doped-ceria) with sodium carbonate. Meanwhile, NSDC-L is a composite of NSDC with LiNiCuO (LNC). NSDC and LNC were analyzed by X-ray diffraction to understand their crystal structure. The result shows that presence of carbonate did not change the crystal structure of SDC. SEM EDX analysis for fuel cell before and after being loaded with polyethylene oil to get information of element diffusion to the electrolyte. Meanwhile, the conductivity properties were investigated through impedance measurement. The presence of carbonate even increases the electrical conductivity. The single cell test with the pyrolysis result of polyethylene at 300 - 600 °C, found that the highest power density is at 600 °C with the maximum power density of 0.14 mW/cm2 and open circuit voltage of 0.4 Volt. Elemental analysis at three point spots of single cell NDSC-L |NSDC|NSDC-L found that a migration of ions was occurred during fuel operation at 300 - 600 °C.

  4. Bio-oil and bio-char from low temperature pyrolysis of spent grains using activated alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Aimaro; Li, Sujing; Linforth, Rob; Smart, Katherine A; Andrésen, John M

    2011-11-01

    The pyrolysis of wheat and barley spent grains resulting from bio-ethanol and beer production respectively was investigated at temperatures between 460 and 540 °C using an activated alumina bed. The results showed that the bio-oil yield and quality depend principally on the applied temperature where pyrolysis at 460 °C leaves a bio-oil with lower nitrogen content in comparison with the original spent grains and low oxygen content. The viscosity profile of the spent grains indicated that activated alumina could promote liquefaction and prevent charring of the structure between 400 and 460 °C. The biochar contains about 10-12% of original carbon and 13-20% of starting nitrogen resulting very attractive as a soil amendment and for carbon sequestration. Overall, value can be added to the spent grains opening a new market in bio-fuel production without the needs of external energy. The bio-oil from spent grains could meet about 9% of the renewable obligation in the UK. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of distillation on performance, emission, and combustion of a DI diesel engine, using tyre pyrolysis oil diesel blends

    OpenAIRE

    Murugan Sivalingam; Ramaswamy Chandrasekaran M.R.; Nagarajan Govindan

    2008-01-01

    Conversion of waste to energy is one of the recent trends in minimizing not only the waste disposal but also could be used as an alternate fuel for internal combustion engines. Fuels like wood pyrolysis oil, rubber pyrolysis oil are also derived through waste to energy conversion method. Early investigations report that tyre pyrolysis oil derived from vacuum pyrolysis method seemed to possess properties similar to diesel fuel. In the present work, the crude tyre pyrolisis oil was desulphurise...

  6. Metallic tin-based nanoparticles synthesis by laser pyrolysis: Parametric studies focused on the decreasing of the crystallite size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutu, E. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Dept, Bucharest—Magurele, 409, Atomistilor Street, 077125 (Romania); Dumitrache, F., E-mail: dumitracheflorian@yahoo.com [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Dept, Bucharest—Magurele, 409, Atomistilor Street, 077125 (Romania); “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, Physics Department, Independentei 313, Bucharest (Romania); Fleaca, C.T. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Dept, Bucharest—Magurele, 409, Atomistilor Street, 077125 (Romania); “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, Physics Department, Independentei 313, Bucharest (Romania); Morjan, I.; Gavrila-Florescu, L.; Morjan, I.P.; Sandu, I.; Scarisoreanu, M.; Luculescu, C.; Niculescu, A.-M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Dept, Bucharest—Magurele, 409, Atomistilor Street, 077125 (Romania); Vasile, E. [“Politehnica” University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, Dept. of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, 1-7, Gh. Polizu Street, 011061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Metallic tin-based nanoparticles were synthesized using laser pyrolysis technique. • Tetramethyltin was used as precursors whereas ethylene was the sensitizer. • The nanoparticles where covered with a tin oxidized/carbonaceous shell. • Their size where decreased by diminishing the laser beam residence time. - Abstract: Due to their characteristic to allow a continuous, one-step nanosize particles production, the laser pyrolysis technique was employed to synthesize metallic Sn-based nanoparticles using tetramethyltin vapors as precursors and ethylene as laser energy transfer agent (sensitizer). Small size of tin particles is a requirement for their use as anodes in lithium ion batteries. In order to decrease the particle size, some experimental parameters were varied, allowing the control of the crystallite size down to 30 nm. The diminishing diameter of the reactive flow injection nozzle as well as the increasing of the tin precursor vapor flow enhance the gas velocity and the decrease the reactive species residence time in the laser beam, resulting smaller tin nanodroplets which forms solid nanoparticles after rapid cooling. XRD, TEM, EDX and SAED analysis point to the formation of nanosize β-Sn particles accompanied by various amount of disordered carbon as coating provided by ethylene decomposition (associated with their polymerization/dehydrogenation) in the presence of methyl radicals from Sn(CH{sub 3}){sub 4}.

  7. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  8. Open data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Everyone wants open data, but the road towards it can be both difficult and long. Implementation of data portals and ICT solutions for support of the data infrastructure can be initiated from the central government through legislation, regulation and public procurement. This is what you would call...

  9. Open Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderhoff, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Museums around the world hold enormous troves of public domain artworks. In digitized form, they can be powerful tools for research and learning, as well as building blocks, in the hands of students, teachers, scholars, developers, and creative people. By opening up their digitized assets for reuse...

  10. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Shannon

    2001-01-01

    I am glad to be here today to help open the symposium on Arkansas' forests. It is gratifying to see so many forestry leaders in attendance. I am particulary pleased to welcome my brother, State Forester from Oklahoma, Roger Davis; and representatives of the State Foresters from Tennessee and Louisiana.

  11. opened capsule

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by the opened capsule method is bioequivalent to a proprietary formulation approved by regulatory agencies. In the future, paediatric fixed-drug combination (FDC) antiretroviral formulations will greatly accelerate the roll-out of antiretrovirals to children in rural resource-limited settings. However, no paediatric antiretroviral ...

  12. Open IS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germonprez, Matt; Crowston, Kevin; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The collective intelligence and collective action of “open” communities have produced a variety of complex knowledge goods and radical social change. The Information Systems (IS) community has invested significant effort into researching open communities and the ecosystems in which they operate, ...

  13. Hydrodeoxygenation of pyrolysis oil fractions: process understanding and quality assessment through co-processing in refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Miguel Mercader, F.; de Miguel Mercader, Ferran; Groeneveld, M.J.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Geantet, Christophe; Toussaint, Guy; Way, Nico W.J.; Schaverien, Colin J.; Hogendoorn, Kees

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of pyrolysis oil fractions was studied to better understand the HDO of whole pyrolysis oil and to assess the possibility to use individual upgrading routes for these fractions. By mixing pyrolysis oil and water in a 2:1 weight ratio, two fractions were obtained: an oil

  14. High quality bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass over alumina-supported sodium carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Performance of a novel alumina-supported sodium carbonate catalyst was studied to produce a valuable bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was investigated in a catalyst fixed bed reactor at the downstream of the pyrolysis

  15. Experimental studies on the pyrolysis of humins from the acid-catalysed dehydration of C6-sugars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasrendra, C. B.; Windt, M.; Wang, Y.; Adisasmito, S.; Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; van Eck, E. R. H.; Meier, D.; Heeres, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis of two representative solid humin samples using pyrolysis GC-MS (300-600 C, 10 s, He atmosphere) and micro-pyrolysis (500 C, 12s, N-2 atmosphere) are reported. The humins were obtained by treatment of aqueous solutions of ID-glucose and D-fructose at 180 C in the presence of sulphuric acid

  16. Sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis in a carbon dioxide atmosphere with conventional and microwave-assisted heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Jhih eLin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is an important thermochemical method to convert biomass into bio-oil. In this study, the pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in a CO2 atmosphere under conventional and microwave-assisted heating is investigated to achieve CO2 utilization. In the microwave pyrolysis, charcoal is used as the microwave absorber to aid in pyrolysis reactions. The results indicate that the yields of pyrolysis products are greatly influenced by the heating modes. In the conventional heating, the prime product is bio-oil and its yield is in the range of 51-54 wt%, whereas biochar is the major product in microwave-assisted heating and its yield ranges from 61 to 84 wt%. Two different absorber blending ratios of 0.1 and 0.3 are considered in the microwave pyrolysis. The solid yield decreases when the absorber blending ratio decreases from 0.3 to 0.1, while the gas and liquid yields increase. This is attributed to more energy consumed for bagasse pyrolysis at the lower blending ratio. Hydrogen is produced under the microwave pyrolysis and its concentration is between 2 and 12 vol%. This arises from the fact that the secondary cracking of vapors and the secondary decomposition of biochar in an environment with microwave irradiation is easier than those with conventional heating.

  17. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons from Lignocellulose by Pyrolysis over Cesium-Modified Amorphous Silica Alumina Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zabeti, M.; Sai Sankar Gupta, Karthick Babu; Raman, G.; Lefferts, Leon; Schallmoser, Stefan; Lercher, Johannes A.; Seshan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Cesium-modified amorphous silica alumina (Cs/ASA) is a promising catalyst for the production of hydrocarbons through pyrolysis of biomass. Catalytic pyrolysis of pinewood over Cs/ASA in a pyrolyzer system in conjunction with a gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer resulted in a 22% yield of

  18. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: Laboratory-scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does no...

  19. Controlled catalytic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of polycarbonate and plastic waste to recover monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R.J.; Chum, H.L.

    1994-06-14

    A process is described using fast pyrolysis to convert a plastic waste feed stream containing polycarbonate and ABS to high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituents prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting an acid or base catalysts and an oxide or carbonate support for treating the feed stream to affect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of the high value monomeric constituents of polycarbonate and ABS in the first temperature program range; differentially heating the feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis or other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents from the polycarbonate to cause pyrolysis to a different high value monomeric constituent of the plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the second higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of different high value monomeric constituents; and separating the different high value monomeric constituents. 68 figs.

  20. Controlled catalystic and thermal sequential pyrolysis and hydrolysis of polycarbonate and plastic waste to recover monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert J.; Chum, Helena L.

    1994-01-01

    A process of using fast pyrolysis to convert a plastic waste feed stream containing polycarbonate and ABS to high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis of other plastic components therein comprising: selecting a first temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of a given polymer to its high value monomeric constituents prior to a temperature range that causes pyrolysis of other plastic components; selecting an acid or base catalysts and an oxide or carbonate support for treating the feed stream to affect acid or base catalyzed reaction pathways to maximize yield or enhance separation of the high value monomeric constituents of polycarbonate and ABS in the first temperature program range; differentially heating the feed stream at a heat rate within the first temperature program range to provide differential pyrolysis for selective recovery of optimum quantities of the high value monomeric constituents prior to pyrolysis or other plastic components; separating the high value monomeric constituents from the polycarbonate to cause pyrolysis to a different high value monomeric constituent of the plastic waste and differentially heating the feed stream at the second higher temperature program range to cause pyrolysis of different high value monomeric constituents; and separating the different high value monomeric constituents.

  1. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  2. Direct upgrading of fast pyrolysis lignin vapor over the HZSM-5 catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Guofeng; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Le, Duy M.

    2016-01-01

    Lignin has been pyrolyzed in a continuous fast pyrolysis reactor and the vapor was subsequently upgraded in situ over a downstream, close coupled HZSM-5 catalyst in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of the catalyst temperature on the HZSM-5 upgrading of lignin derived pyrolysis vapor was investigat...

  3. Pyrolysis oil upgrading for Co-processing in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Miguel Mercader, F.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis considers the route that comprises the upgrading of pyrolysis oil (produced from lingo-cellulosic biomass) and its further co-processing in standard refineries to produce transportation fuels. In the present concept, pyrolysis oil is produced where biomass is available and then

  4. Upgrading Fast Pyrolysis Oil via Hydrodeoxygenation and Thermal Treatment: Effects of Catalytic Glycerol Pretreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyhanitash, Ehsan; Tymchyshyn, M.; Yuan, Zhongshun; Albion, K.; van Rossum, G.; Xu, C.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of stabilizing fast pyrolysis oil (PO) with glycerol via catalytic glycerol pretreatment on upgrading via hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) or thermal treatment (TT) were studied. Nonstabilized (original) fast pyrolysis oil was also upgraded via HDO or TT to obtain benchmarks. Generally, HDO

  5. Chemical yields from low-temperature pyrolysis of CCA-treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qirong Fu; Dimitris Argyropolous; Lucian Lucia; David Tilotta; Stan Lebow

    2009-01-01

    Low-temperature pyrolysis offers a feasible option for wood-waste management and the recovery of a variety of useful chemicals. The effect of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative on the yield and composition of various pyrolysis products was investigated in the present research. A novel quantitative 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (...

  6. Co-pyrolysis mechanism of seaweed polysaccharides and cellulose based on macroscopic experiments and molecular simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Xia, Zhen; Hu, Yamin; He, Zhixia; Uzoejinwa, Benjamin Bernard; Wang, Qian; Cao, Bin; Xu, Shanna

    2017-03-01

    Co-pyrolysis conversion of seaweed (Enteromorpha clathrat and Sargassum fusiforme) polysaccharides and cellulose has been investigated. From the Py-GC/MS results, Enteromorpha clathrata (EN) polysaccharides pyrolysis mainly forms furans; while the products of Sargassum fusiforme (SA) polysaccharides pyrolysis are mainly acid esters. The formation mechanisms of H2O, CO2, and SO2 during the pyrolysis of seaweed polysaccharides were analyzed using the thermogravimetric-mass spectrometry. Meanwhile the pyrolysis of seaweed polysaccharide based on the Amber and the ReaxFF force fields, has also been proposed and simulated respectively. The simulation results coincided with the experimental results. During the fast pyrolysis, strong synergistic effects among cellulose and seaweed polysaccharide molecules have been simulated. By comparing the experimental and simulation value, it has been found that co-pyrolysis could increase the number of molecular fragments, increase the pyrolysis conversion rate, and increase gas production rate at the middle temperature range. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel technique for coal pyrolysis and hydrogenation product analysis. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfefferle, L.D.; Boyle, J.

    1993-03-15

    A microjet reactor coupled to a VUV photoionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been used to obtain species measurements during high temperature pyrolysis and oxidation of a wide range of hydrocarbon compounds ranging from allene and acetylene to cyclohexane, benzene and toluene. Initial work focused on calibration of the technique, optimization of ion collection and detection and characterization of limitations. Using the optimized technique with 118 nm photoionization, intermediate species profiles were obtained for analysis of the hydrocarbon pyrolysis and oxidation mechanisms. The ``soft`` ionization, yielding predominantly molecular ions, allowed the study of reaction pathways in these high temperature systems where both sampling and detection challenges are severe. Work has focused on the pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures representative of coal pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis products. The detailed mass spectra obtained during pyrolysis and oxidation of hydrocarbon mixtures is especially important because of the complex nature of the product mixture even at short residence times and low primary reactant conversions. The combustion community has advanced detailed modeling of pyrolysis and oxidation to the C4 hydrocarbon level but in general above that size uncertainties in rate constant and thermodynamic data do not allow us to a priori predict products from mixed hydrocarbon pyrolyses using a detailed chemistry model. For pyrolysis of mixtures of coal-derived liquid fractions with a large range of compound structures and molecular weights in the hundreds of amu the modeling challenge is severe. Lumped models are possible from stable product data.

  8. Catalytic cracking of fast and tail gas reactive pyrolysis bio-oils over HZSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    While hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of pyrolysis oil is well understood as an upgrading method, the high processing pressures associated with it alone justify the exploration of alternative upgrading solutions, especially those that could adapt pyrolysis oils into the existing refinery infrastructure. Ca...

  9. Production of advanced biofuels: co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refinery units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Miguel Mercader, F.; de Miguel Mercader, F.; Groeneveld, M.J.; Hogendoorn, Kees; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Way, N.W.J.; Schaverien, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the possible process options for the production of advanced biofuels is the co-processing of upgraded pyrolysis oil in standard refineries. The applicability of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) was studied as a pyrolysis oil upgrading step to allow FCC co-processing. Different HDO reaction end

  10. Techno-economic evaluation of high temperature pyrolysis processes for mixed plastic waste.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, R.W.J.; Westerhout, R.W.J.; van Koningsbruggen, M.P.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1998-01-01

    Three pyrolysis processes for Mixed Plastic Waste (MPW) with different reactors (Bubbling Fluidized Bed, Circulating Fluidized Bed and Rotating Cone Reactor, respectively BFB, CFB and RCR) were designed and evaluated. The estimated fixed capital investment for a 50 kton/year MPW pyrolysis plant

  11. A Comparative study of microwave-induced pyrolysis of lignocellulosic and algal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Tahmasebi, Arash; Yu, Jianglong; Xu, Jing; Huang, Feng; Mamaeva, Alisa

    2015-08-01

    Microwave (MW) pyrolysis of algal and lignocellulosic biomass samples were studied using a modified domestic oven. The pyrolysis temperature was recorded continuously by inserting a thermocouple into the samples. Temperatures as high as 1170 and 1015°C were achieved for peanut shell and Chlorella vulgaris. The activation energy for MW pyrolysis was calculated by Coats-Redfern method and the values were 221.96 and 214.27kJ/mol for peanut shell and C. vulgaris, respectively. Bio-oil yields reached to 27.7wt.% and 11.0wt.% during pyrolysis of C. vulgaris and peanut shell, respectively. The bio-oil samples from pyrolysis were analyzed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Bio-oil from lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis contained more phenolic compounds while that from microalgae pyrolysis contained more nitrogen-containing species. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis results showed that concentration of OH, CH, CO, OCH3, and CO functional groups in char samples decreased significantly after pyrolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recycling WEEE: Polymer characterization and pyrolysis study for waste of crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Pablo; Javimczik, Selene; Benevit, Mariana; Veit, Hugo

    2017-02-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules contain both valuable and hazardous materials, which makes its recycling meaningful economically and environmentally. In general, the recycling of PV modules starts with the removal of the polymeric ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) resin using pyrolysis, which assists in the recovery of materials such as silicon, copper and silver. The pyrolysis implementation, however, needs improvement given its importance. In this study, the polymers in the PV modules were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the removal of the EVA resin using pyrolysis has been studied and optimized. The results revealed that 30min pyrolysis at 500°C removes >99% of the polymers present in photovoltaic modules. Moreover, the behavior of different particle size milled modules during the pyrolysis process was evaluated. It is shown that polymeric materials tend to remain at a larger particle size and thus, this fraction has the greatest mass loss during pyrolysis. A thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) performed in all polymeric matter revealed the optimum pyrolysis temperature is around 500°C. Temperatures above 500°C continue to degrade matter, but mass loss rate is 6.25 times smaller. This study demonstrates the use of pyrolysis can remove >99% of the polymeric matter from PV modules, which assists the recycling of this hazardous waste and avoids its disposal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synergistic effect on co-pyrolysis of capsicum stalks and coal | Niu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synergistic effect on co-pyrolysis of capsicum stalks and coal. ... Results show that the thermal degradation temperature range of capsicum stalks was 290 to 387°C, while that of Baoji coal was 416 to 586°C. According to the comparison of ... Keywords: Pyrolysis, capsicum stalks, mixing rate, kinetics, synergistic effect ...

  14. Fast pyrolysis of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor: in-situ filtering of the vapors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, E.; Hogendoorn, Kees; Wang, X.; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Groeneveld, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    A system to remove in situ char/ash from hot pyrolysis vapors has been developed and tested at the University of Twente. The system consists of a continuous fluidized bed reactor (0.7 kg/h) with immersed filters (wire mesh, pore size 5 μm) for extracting pyrolysis vapors. Integration of the filter

  15. Finding the chemistry in biomass pyrolysis: Millisecond chemical kinetics and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Christoph

    Biomass pyrolysis is a promising thermochemical method for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable sources. Development of a fundamental understanding of biomass pyrolysis chemistry is difficult due to the multi-scale and multi-phase nature of the process; biomass length scales span 11 orders of magnitude and pyrolysis phenomena include solid, liquid, and gas phase chemistry in addition to heat and mass transfer. These complexities have a significant effect on chemical product distributions and lead to variability between reactor technologies. A major challenge in the study of biomass pyrolysis is the development of kinetic models capable of describing hundreds of millisecond-scale reactions of biomass into lower molecular weight products. In this work, a novel technique for studying biomass pyrolysis provides the first- ever experimental determination of kinetics and rates of formation of the primary products from cellulose pyrolysis, providing insight into the millisecond-scale chemical reaction mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of heat and mass transport limitations for cellulose pyrolysis chemistry and are used to identify the length scales at which transport limitations become relevant during pyrolysis. Through this technique, a transition is identified, known as the reactive melting point, between low and high temperature depolymerization. The transition between two mechanisms of cellulose decompositions unifies the mechanisms that govern low temperature char formation, intermediate pyrolysis conditions, and high temperature gas formation. The conditions under which biomass undergoes pyrolysis, including modes of heat transfer, have been shown to significantly affect the distribution of biorenewable chemical and fuel products. High-speed photography is used to observe the liftoff of initially crystalline cellulose particles when impinged on a heated surface, known as the Leidenfrost effect for room-temperature liquids. Order

  16. Renewable chemical commodity feedstocks from integrated catalytic processing of pyrolysis oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vispute, Tushar P; Zhang, Huiyan; Sanna, Aimaro; Xiao, Rui; Huber, George W

    2010-11-26

    Fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass produces a renewable liquid fuel called pyrolysis oil that is the cheapest liquid fuel produced from biomass today. Here we show that pyrolysis oils can be converted into industrial commodity chemical feedstocks using an integrated catalytic approach that combines hydroprocessing with zeolite catalysis. The hydroprocessing increases the intrinsic hydrogen content of the pyrolysis oil, producing polyols and alcohols. The zeolite catalyst then converts these hydrogenated products into light olefins and aromatic hydrocarbons in a yield as much as three times higher than that produced with the pure pyrolysis oil. The yield of aromatic hydrocarbons and light olefins from the biomass conversion over zeolite is proportional to the intrinsic amount of hydrogen added to the biomass feedstock during hydroprocessing. The total product yield can be adjusted depending on market values of the chemical feedstocks and the relative prices of the hydrogen and biomass.

  17. Modelling of pyrolysis of coal-biomass blends using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Anup Kumar; Gupta, Parthapratim; Goyal, Tripurari; Saha, Ranajit Kumar

    2008-11-01

    The primary objective of this work was to develop an appropriate model to explain the co-pyrolysis behaviour of lignite coal-biomass blends with different proportions using a thermogravimetric analyzer. A new parallel-series kinetic model was proposed to predict the pyrolysis behaviour of biomass over the entire pyrolysis regime, while a kinetic model similar to that of Anthony and Howard [Anthony, D.B., Howard, J.B., 1976. Coal devolatilization and hydrogasification. AIChE Journal 22(4), 625-656] was used for pyrolysis of coal. Analysis of mass loss history of blends showed an absence of synergistic effect between coal and biomass. Co-pyrolysis mass-loss profiles of the blends were predicted using the estimated kinetic parameters of coal and biomass. Excellent agreement was found between the predicted and the experimental results.

  18. PYROLYSIS OF BROWN COAL USING A CATALYST BASED ON W–Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Jílková

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tars from pyrolysis of brown coal can be refined to obtain compounds suitable for fuel production. However, it is problematic to refine the liquids from brown coal pyrolysis, because high molecular compounds are produced, and the sample solidifies. Therefore we decided to investigate the possibility of treating the product in the gas phase during pyrolysis, using a catalyst. A two-step process was investigated: thermal-catalytic refining. In the first step, alumina was used as the filling material, and in the second step a catalyst based on W-Ni was used. These materials were placed in two separate layers above the coal, so the volatile products passed through the alumina and catalyst layers. Pyrolysis tests showed that using the catalyst has no significant effect on the mass balance, but it improves the properties of the gas and the properties of the organic part of the liquid pyrolysis products, which will then be processed further.

  19. Recent progress on biomass co-pyrolysis conversion into high-quality bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, H; Lim, J K; Hameed, B H

    2016-12-01

    Co-pyrolysis of biomass with abundantly available materials could be an economical method for production of bio-fuels. However, elimination of oxygenated compounds poses a considerable challenge. Catalytic co-pyrolysis is another potential technique for upgrading bio-oils for application as liquid fuels in standard engines. This technique promotes the production of high-quality bio-oil through acid catalyzed reduction of oxygenated compounds and mutagenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. This work aims to review and summarize research progress on co-pyrolysis and catalytic co-pyrolysis, as well as their benefits on enhancement of bio-oils derived from biomass. This review focuses on the potential of plastic wastes and coal materials as co-feed in co-pyrolysis to produce valuable liquid fuel. This paper also proposes future directions for using this technique to obtain high yields of bio-oils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fast pyrolysis of rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and coconut shell in an induction-heating reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, W.T.; Chang, Y.M. [Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717 (Taiwan); Lee, M.K. [Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717 (Taiwan)

    2006-06-01

    With the application of induction heating, a fast pyrolysis was used for producing valuable products from rice straw, sugarcane bagasse and coconut shell in an externally heated fixed-bed reactor. The effect of process parameters such as pyrolysis temperature, heating rate and holding time on the yields of pyrolysis products and their chemical compositions were investigated. The maximum yield of ca. 50% on the pyrolysis liquid product could be obtained at the proper process conditions. The chemical characterization by elemental (CHNO), calorific, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the pyrolysis liquid products contain large amounts of water (>65wt.%), and fewer contents of oxygenated hydrocarbons composing of carbonyl groups, resulting in low pH and low heating values. The results were very similar to bio-oils obtained from other biomass materials. The residual solid (char or charcoal) was also characterized in the present study. (author)

  1. Concentration-response data on toxicity of pyrolysis gases from six synthetic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Huttlinger, N. V.

    1978-01-01

    Concentration-response data are presented on the toxic effects of the pyrolysis gases from six synthetic polymers on Swiss Webster male mice, using a toxicity screening test method. The polymers consisted of one sample each of polycarbonate and polystyrene, and two samples each of polyethylene and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS). All six samples were evaluated using the rising temperature program, and three samples were evaluated using the fixed temperature program. The pyrolysis gases from polycarbonate, polyethylene, and ABS appeared to exhibit the concentration-response relationships commonly encountered in toxicology. The polystyrene sample gave variable results; probably due to poor reproducibility of the essentially anaerobic pyrolysis. Carbon monoxide seemed to be the principal toxicant in the pyrolysis gases from polycarbonate and polyethylene, but did not appear to be the principal toxicant in the pyrolysis gases from ABS.

  2. Isocyanate emissions from pyrolysis of mattresses containing polyurethane foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, María A; Gerecke, Andreas C; Heeb, Norbert; Font, Rafael; Conesa, Juan A

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the emissions of powerful asthmatic agents called isocyanates from small-scale pyrolysis experiments of two common foams employed in mattress production such as flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) and viscoelastic memory foam (VMF). A nitrogen atmosphere and five different temperatures, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 850 °C, were selected to carry out the experiments in order to evaluate the worst possible conditions for thermal degradation. A similar trend for both materials was found. At lower temperatures, diisocyanates were the most important products whereas at 850 °C monoisocyanates, and mainly isocyanic acid released mainly from the thermal cracking of diisocyanates evolved directly from the polymer chains. The total yields of isocyanates were in the range of 1.43-11.95 mg/m3 for FPUF at 300-850 °C and 0.05-6.13 mg/m3 for VMF, 300-850 °C. This difference could be a consequence of the lower amount of isocyanates employed in the VMF production which was confirmed by the nitrogen content of the foams, 5.95% FPUF vs. 3.34% in VMF. Additionally, a qualitative search for so far unknown isocyanates was performed in samples from the pyrolysis of FPUF at 300, 400 and 850 °C. It was confirmed that six different aminoisocyanates at 300 °C were evolved, whereas at 400 and 850 °C only five of them were detected. The general trend observed was a decrease of the aminoisocyanate levels with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass in inert and steam atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersan Putun; Funda Ates; Ayse Eren Putun [Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey). Department of Materials Science and Engineering

    2008-05-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate thermal conversion of a perennial shrub, Euphorbia rigida biomass sample with catalyst in inert (N{sub 2}) and steam atmospheres. Experimental studies were conducted in a well swept fixed bed reactor with a heating rate of 7{sup o}C/min to a final pyrolysis temperature of 550{sup o}C and with a mean particle size of 0.55 mm in order to determine the effect of different atmospheres with various catalyst ratios on pyrolysis yields and characteristics. The catalyst ratios were 5%, 10% and 20% (w/w) under nitrogen atmosphere with flow rates of 50, 100, 200 and 400 cm{sup 3}/min and steam atmosphere with well-swept velocities of 12, 25 and 52 cm{sup 3}/min. The optimum oil yield was obtained as 32.1% at the nitrogen flow rate of 200 cm{sup 3}/min, while it was obtained as 38.6% at steam flow rate of 25 cm{sup 3}/min when a 10% catalyst by weight according to the biomass was used. Higher oil yields were observed when biomass sample was treated in steam atmosphere than in inert (N{sub 2}) atmosphere. The oil composition was then analysed by elemental analyses techniques such as IR and GC-MS. The oil products were also fractionated by column chromatography. The bio-oils obtained at both atmospheres contain mainly n-alkanes and alkenes, aromatic compounds; mainly benzene and derivatives and PAHs, nitrogenated compounds and ketones, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, phenols and triterpenoid compounds. More oxygenated compounds and less substituted alkanes and alkenes were obtained in catalytic pyrolysis of E. rigida in the steam atmosphere. The experimental and chemical characterisation results showed that the oil obtained from perennial shrub, E. rigida can be used as a potential source of renewable fuel and chemical feedstock. 39 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Open Source, Open Access, Open Review, Open Data. Initiativen zu mehr Offenheit in der digitalen Welt

    OpenAIRE

    Herb, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the principles of openess, open access and open availability of information based on the examples of open access to scientific information, open government data, open geographical data and open source software.

  5. Test plan for ISV laboratory-pyrolysis testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAtee, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the laboratory-pyrolysis studies is to obtain information on the high temperature (< 1200{degree}C) degradation and alteration of organic chemicals and materials similar to those found in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Pit 9. This test plan describes experimental procedures, sampling and analysis strategy, sampling procedures, sample control, and document management. It addresses safety issues in the experimental apparatus and procedures, personal training, and hazardous waste disposal. Finally, it describes the data quality objectives using the EPA tiered approach to treatability studies to define where research/scoping tests fit into these studies and the EPA analytical levels required for the tests.

  6. Radiant flash pyrolysis of biomass using a xenon flashtube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, M.W.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1984-06-01

    Biomass materials, including lignin, redwood, corn cob, Calotropis Procera, Leucaena wood, Kraft paper, newsprint, cow manure, D-glucose, and D-cellobiose, were pyrolyzed in vacuum by the visible radiant flux emitted from a Xenon flashtube. The flux density exceeded 8 kW/cm/sup 2/ during the 1 ms flash. Sirup yields were low (avg 25%), while the gas yield was high (avg 32%). The gaseous products were composed primarily of CO and CO/sub 2/. The high relative yields of CO establish the existence of a high temperature fragmentation pathway active during the flash pyrolysis of all biomass materials. 39 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  7. A generalized methodology to characterize composite materials for pyrolysis models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Mark B.

    The predictive capabilities of computational fire models have improved in recent years such that models have become an integral part of many research efforts. Models improve the understanding of the fire risk of materials and may decrease the number of expensive experiments required to assess the fire hazard of a specific material or designed space. A critical component of a predictive fire model is the pyrolysis sub-model that provides a mathematical representation of the rate of gaseous fuel production from condensed phase fuels given a heat flux incident to the material surface. The modern, comprehensive pyrolysis sub-models that are common today require the definition of many model parameters to accurately represent the physical description of materials that are ubiquitous in the built environment. Coupled with the increase in the number of parameters required to accurately represent the pyrolysis of materials is the increasing prevalence in the built environment of engineered composite materials that have never been measured or modeled. The motivation behind this project is to develop a systematic, generalized methodology to determine the requisite parameters to generate pyrolysis models with predictive capabilities for layered composite materials that are common in industrial and commercial applications. This methodology has been applied to four common composites in this work that exhibit a range of material structures and component materials. The methodology utilizes a multi-scale experimental approach in which each test is designed to isolate and determine a specific subset of the parameters required to define a material in the model. Data collected in simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry experiments were analyzed to determine the reaction kinetics, thermodynamic properties, and energetics of decomposition for each component of the composite. Data collected in microscale combustion calorimetry experiments were analyzed to

  8. Pyrolysis of brominated feedstock plastic in a fluidised bed reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, W.J.; Williams, P.T.

    2006-01-01

    Fire retarded high impact polystyrene has been pyrolysed using a fluidised bed reactor with a sand bed. The yield and composition of the products have been investigated in relation to fluidised bed temperature. The bromine distribution between the products and a detailed analysis of the oils using GC-FID/ECD, GC-MS, FT-ir, and size exclusion chromatography has been carried out. It was found that the majority of the bromine transfers to the pyrolysis oil and the antimony was detected in both t...

  9. Structural and Compositional Transformations of Biomass Chars during Fast Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trubetskaya, Anna; Steibel, Markus; Spliethoff, Hartmut

    In this work the physical and chemical transformations of biomass chars during fast pyrolysis, considered as a 2nd stage of combustion, has been investigated. Seven biomasses containing different amount of ash and organic components were reacted at up to 1673 K with high heating rates in a wire......-mesh reactor and the resulting chars were retrieved. In order to obtain information on the structural and compositional transformations of the biomass chars, samples were subjected to elemental analysis, scanning electron microcopy with EDX and Raman spectrometry. The results show that there are significant...

  10. Novel sorbent materials for environmental remediation via Pyrolysis of biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaniotou, Anastasia

    2013-04-01

    One of the major challenges facing society at this moment is the transition from a non-sustainable, fossil resources-based economy to a sustainable bio-based economy. By producing multiple products, a biorefinery can take advantage of the differences in biomass components and intermediates and maximize the value derived from the biomass feedstock. The high-value products enhance profitability, the high-volume fuel helps meet national energy needs, and the power production reduces costs and avoids greenhouse-gas emissions From pyrolysis, besides gas and liquid products a solid product - char, is derived as well. This char contains the non converted carbon and can be used for activated carbon production and/or as additive in composite material production. Commercially available activated carbons are still considered expensive due to the use of non-renewable and relatively expensive starting material such as coal. The present study describes pyrolysis as a method to produce high added value carbon materials such as activated carbons (AC) from agricultural residues pyrolysis. Olive kernel has been investigated as the precursor of the above materials. The produced activated carbon was characterized by proximate and ultimate analyses, BET method and porosity estimation. Furthermore, its adsorption of pesticide compound in aqueous solution by was studied. Pyrolysis of olive kernel was conducted at 800 oC for 45min in a fixed reactor. For the production of the activated carbon the pyrolytic char was physically activated under steam in the presence of CO2 at 970oC for 3 h in a bench scale reactor. The active carbons obtained from both scales were characterized by N2 adsorption at 77 K, methyl-blue adsorption (MB adsorption) at room temperature and SEM analysis. Surface area and MB adsorption were found to increase with the degree of burn-off. The surface area of the activated carbons was found to increase up to 1500 m2/g at a burn-off level of 60-65wt.%, while SEM analysis

  11. Diesel-like fuel obtained by pyrolysis of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Daniela G.; Soares, Valerio C.D.; Ribeiro, Eric B.; Cardoso, Erika C.V.; Rassi, Flavia C.; Mundim, Kleber C.; Rubim, Joel C.; Suarez, Paulo A.Z. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Brasilia, CP 4478, 70919-970 Brasilia-DF (Brazil); Carvalho, Daniel A. [CEPAT-ANP, Brasilia-DF (Brazil)

    2004-06-01

    The pyrolysis reactions of soybean, palm tree, and castor oils were studied. The pyrolytic products were analyzed by CG-FID, CG-MS, and FTIR, showing the formation of olefins, paraffins, carboxylic acids, and aldehydes. The adequate choice of distillation temperature (DT) ranges made it possible to isolate fuels with physical-chemical properties comparable to those specified for petroleum based fuels. The catalytic upgrading of the soybean pyrolytic fuel over HZSM-5 zeolite at 400C was also studied and has shown a partial deoxygenation of the pyrolytic products.

  12. Fast pyrolysis of lignin, macroalgae and sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung

    of carrier gas, pyrolyse biomass without a heat carrier and obtain a biomass particle heating rate of 1000 - 1500 K/s by a high centrifugal force. The reactor can be constructed at a size that could be applicable locally at waste water treatment plants or pulp and paper plants, bio-ethanol plants or can...... sludge PCR pyrolysis were obtained at optimal temperatures of 550 – 575 °C. The optimal oil properties with respect to industrial applications seem to observe at the optimal temperatures for obtaining a maximum oil yield. The Broido-Shafizadeh scheme1 and kinetic parameters of lignin and cellulose1...

  13. Effect of Blended Feedstock on Pyrolysis Oil Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kristin M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gaston, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    Current techno-economic analysis results indicate biomass feedstock cost represents 27% of the overall minimum fuel selling price for biofuels produced from fast pyrolysis followed by hydrotreating (hydro-deoxygenation, HDO). As a result, blended feedstocks have been proposed as a way to both reduce cost as well as tailor key chemistry for improved fuel quality. For this study, two feedstocks were provided by Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Both were pyrolyzed and collected under the same conditions in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU). The resulting oil properties were then analyzed and characterized for statistical differences.

  14. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post treatment of the pyrolysis vapors. The in-situ catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in an entrained flow reactor system using a premixed feedstock of Na2CO3 and biomass and post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was conducted in a downstream fixed bed reactor of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3. Results have shown that both Na2CO3 and Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 can be used for the production of a high quality bio-oil from catalytic pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake. The catalytic bio-oil had very low oxygen content, water content as low as 1wt.%, a neutral pH, and a high calorific value upto 41.8MJ/kg. The bio-oil consisted of high value chemical compounds mainly hydrocarbons and undesired compounds in the bio-oil were either completely removed or considerably reduced. Increasing the triglycerides content (vegetable oil) in the wood enhanced the formation of hydrocarbons in the bio-oil. Post treatment of the pyrolysis vapor over a fixed bed of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 produced superior quality bio-oil compared to in-situ catalytic pyrolysis with Na2CO3. This high quality bio-oil may be used as a precursor in a fractionating process for the production of alternative fuels. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  15. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250–300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes. PMID:25656294

  16. Open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Interest in open innovation (OI) as a field of research has grown exponentially since the phrase was coined by Chesbrough in his 2003 book, with numerous articles, special issues, books, and conference sessions. Various reviews of the literature have summarized prior work, offered new frameworks,...... is rejected, abandoned, or fails. Finally, we consider how OI can be better linked to prior theoretical research, including topics such as absorptive capacity, user innovation, resources, dynamic capabilities, business models, and the definition of the firm....

  17. Universal model of slow pyrolysis technology producing biochar and heat from standard biomass needed for the techno-economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinar, Dušan

    2016-04-01

    Biochar as a soil amendment and carbon sink becomes in last period one of the vast, interesting product of slow pyrolysis. Simplest and most used industrial process arrangement is a production of biochar and heat at the same time. Proposed mass and heat balance model consist of heat consumers (heat demand side) and heat generation-supply side. Direct burning of all generated uncondensed volatiles from biomass provides heat. Calculation of the mass and heat balance of both sides reveals the internal distribution of masses and energy inside process streams and units. Thermodynamic calculations verified not only the concept but also numerical range of the results. The comparisons with recent published scientific and vendors data prove its general applicability and reliability. The model opens the possibility for process efficiency innovations. Finally, the model was adapted to give more investors favorable results and support techno-economic assessments entirely. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pyrolysis of UR-144, a synthetic cannabinoid, augments an affinity to human CB1receptor and cannabimimetic effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizaki-Mitsumoto, Asuka; Hataoka, Kyoko; Funada, Masahiko; Odanaka, Yuki; Kumamoto, Hiroki; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Drug abusers most often smoke 'herbal incense' as a cigarette or inhale it using a smoking tool. Smoking may cause pyrolysis of the drug and produce decomposed products of which biological effect has never been investigated. The synthetic cannabinoid UR-144 is known to undergo thermal degradation, giving a ring-opened isomer, so-called UR-144 degradant. The present study demonstrates by using UR-144 as a model drug that the smoke of burned UR-144 contains the UR-144 degradant. The UR-144 degradant showed approximately four fold higher agonist activity to human CB 1 receptor and augmented hypothermic and akinetic actions in mice compared to UR-144. These results indicate that smoking behavior may increase psychological actions of the certain synthetic cannabinoids.

  19. Continuous-Flow Inlet Systems for Low Pressure Curie-Point Pyrolysis. Introduction of Pulse-Pyrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Carlsen, Lars

    1984-01-01

    With emphasis on a constant reactant flow, a series of inlet systems for gas-phase Curie-point pyrolysis—mass spectrometry experiments have been studied. Inlet systems for the handling of gaseous, liquid and oligomeric (solid) samples have been designed and their performances evaluated. The princ......With emphasis on a constant reactant flow, a series of inlet systems for gas-phase Curie-point pyrolysis—mass spectrometry experiments have been studied. Inlet systems for the handling of gaseous, liquid and oligomeric (solid) samples have been designed and their performances evaluated....... The principle of pulse-pyrolysis is introduced and its applicability to kinetic studies outlined....

  20. Electrocatalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis oils to chemical and fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Ho

    The present project's aim is to liquefy biomass through fast pyrolysis and then upgrade the resulting "bio-oil" to renewable fuels and chemicals by intensifying its energy content using electricity. This choice reflects three points: (a) Liquid hydrocarbons are and will long be the most practical fuels and chemical feedstocks because of their energy density (both mass and volume basis), their stability and relative ease of handling, and the well-established infrastructure for their processing, distribution and use; (b) In the U.S., the total carbon content of annually harvestable, non-food biomass is significantly less than that in a year's petroleum usage, so retention of plant-captured carbon is a priority; and (c) Modern technologies for conversion of sunlight into usable energy forms---specifically, electrical power---are already an order of magnitude more efficient than plants are at storing solar energy in chemical form. Biomass fast pyrolysis (BFP) generates flammable gases, char, and "bio-oil", a viscous, corrosive, and highly oxygenated liquid consisting of large amounts of acetic acid and water together with hundreds of other organic compounds. With essentially the same energy density as biomass and a tendency to polymerize, this material cannot practically be stored or transported long distances. It must be upgraded by dehydration, deoxygenation, and hydrogenation to make it both chemically and energetically compatible with modern vehicles and fuels. Thus, this project seeks to develop low cost, general, scalable, robust electrocatalytic methods for reduction of bio-oil into fuels and chemicals.