WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapid nutritional transition

  1. Urgent Need to Orient Public Health Response to Rapid Nutrition Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kapil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available India is currently undergoing a rapid transition on economic, demographic, epidemiologic, nutrition, and sociological fronts. There is evidence of a decline in undernutrition with a simultaneous escalation in overnutrition and associated non-communicable diseases (NCDs. However, the current concern and national policy response for tackling malnutrition in India is still primarily restricted to undernutrition diagnosed on the basis of body size (anthropometry. A complex range of interacting factors have been linked to the rising trend of overnutrition and associated NCDs from a global perspective. The burden of overnutrition and associated morbidities is rapidly escalating to alarming proportions, particularly in urban areas and high socio-economic status groups. The poor are not spared from this transition. It is predicted that a more rapid transition may occur amongst poor populations in future with higher economic development. The need of the hour is to launch an integrated public health response to the dual burden beginning from pregnancy and early life. This will obviously require careful deliberation of the strategy and interventions, and a multi-sectoral approach, especially involving the health, women and child development, nutrition, education, agriculture, food processing, trade, architecture, water supply and sanitation, community and non-governmental organizations.

  2. Rapid transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrin, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Solar energy programs are entering a critical transitional period as we move from the initial marketing of solar technologies into a phase of widespread commercialization. We face the dual challenge of trying to get enough solar systems in place fast enough to prove solar is a viable alternative, while trying to ensure the systems are designed and installed properly, proving the energy savings as promised. This is a period of both great opportunity and high risk as the field becomes crowded with new solar cheerleaders and supporters but seldom enough competent players. The status of existing and proposed programs for the accelerated commercialization of solar energy in California is described.

  3. The nutrition transition in amazonia: rapid economic change and its impact on growth and development in Ribeirinhos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperata, Barbara A; Spence, Jennifer E; Da-Gloria, Pedro; Hubbe, Mark

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study was to assess the impact of economic change and increased market integration on subsistence strategies, living conditions, growth, and nutritional status of Ribeirinhos living in the rural Amazon, Brazil. Data on weight, height, skinfolds, and circumferences, as well as data on economic strategies and living conditions were collected from 469 individuals in 2002 and 429 in 2009. Of these, 204 individuals were measured on both occasions. Independent and paired t-tests were used to identify changes in nutritional status over time in the larger sample and smaller, longitudinal subsample, respectively. Multiple linear regressions were used to examine the relationship between changes in economic/living conditions and nutritional status in the longitudinal subsample. Results indicate modest improvements in linear growth (HAZ) and among male children the observed increase was related to enrollment in the Brazilian conditional cash transfer program, Bolsa Família (P = 0.03). In terms of short-term measures of nutritional status, we found a significant increase in ZTSF and a reduction in ZUMA in most age/sex groups. Among subadults, there was a negative relationship between ZUMA and access to electricity (P = 0.01) and positive relationship between ZUMA and the sale of the açaí fruit (P = 0.04). Significant changes in weight and BMI (P economic strategies and lifestyle, changes in nutritional status were modest which may be explained by increased food insecurity documented during this early stage of transition. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  5. The nutrition transition in India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1St John's Institute of Population Health and Clinical Research, Bangalore, India, and. 2Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Canada. M Vaz1, S Yusuf2, A V Bharathi1, A V Kurpad1, S Swaminathan1. NUTRITION IN INDIA. The nutrition transition in India. The World Health Report 2002 introduced the ...

  6. Moved by a Rapid Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueter, C.

    2013-04-01

    Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

  7. Nutrition transition and food sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belahsen, Rekia

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review nutrition transition (NT) ongoing in low and middle income countries and the associated dietary changes. NT is accompanied by demographic and epidemiological transition associated with economic development and urbanisation. In these countries, while the problems of hunger and undernourishment persist, there is an escalation of diet-related non-communicable diseases; making them face both problems of malnutrition, under and overnutrition. Indeed, in addition to protein energy malnutrition underweight and micronutrient deficiencies affect a high proportion of children and women. Conversely, changes in dietary habits and physical activity patterns have led to emergence of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, hyperlipidaemia, CHD and cancer. One possible explanation of weight gain and its associated health consequences is the trend of the consumption of already prepared meals and the restaurants that are in continuous development leading to high consumption of foods rich in sugar and fat. The health problems associated with NT have not spared populations in the Mediterranean area where the type of diet is reported to be healthy and to protect against cardiovascular risks. This is seen in North Africa that belongs also to the Mediterranean basin, where the nutritional situation raises the problem of traditional foods sustainability. Accurate nutritional policy and education are needed to redress the effects of malnutrition related to NT on health.

  8. The nutrition and health transition in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosulwat, Vongsvat

    2002-02-01

    To explore and describe the nutrition and health transition in Thailand in relation to social and economic changes, shifts in food consumption patterns and nutritional problems, as well as morbidity and mortality trends. This report reviews the nutrition and health situation and other related issues by compiling information from various reports and publications from several sources. Yearly statistics and reports from the National Statistical Office were used as well as data from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and national surveys on the nutrition and health situation of the Thai population. Thailand has undergone social and economic transitions during the past three decades and is approaching the post-demographic transitional period. These are evidenced by an increase in life expectancy at birth of the population, and declines in the total fertility and infant mortality rates. The economic structure has also moved from agricultural to industrial. Industrial growth has surpassed that of the agricultural sector as indicated by a steady rise in the share of the industrial sector in the gross domestic product, which is greater than that of other sectors. At the same time, results from several nation-wide surveys indicate that the food consumption pattern of the population has changed considerably; Thai staples and side dishes are being replaced by diets containing a higher proportion of fats and animal meat. A shift in the proportion of expenditure on food prepared at home and that expended on purchased, ready-to-eat food, in both rural and urban settings, gives another reflection of the change in food consumption of the Thai population. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has increased dramatically during the past 20 years and is more pronounced in children from private schools and urban communities than in those from public schools or rural areas. Among adults, results from two national surveys in 1991 and 1996

  9. Nutrition transition in Chile: determinants and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albala, Cecilia; Vio, Fernando; Kain, Juliana; Uauy, Ricardo

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the determinants and consequences of the nutrition transition in Chile and describe the related health promotion policies. This is a descriptive, population-based study including data on demographic, diet, nutrition and biomedical related variables. Data came from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the National Institute of Statistics (INE), the Ministries of Planning, Health and Education surveillance systems, and national surveys. As malnutrition decreased during the 1980s, obesity increased rapidly in all age groups. In adults, currently about 25% of women are obese (body mass index >30 kg m(-2)); particularly those from low socio-economic levels. Among preschoolers, obesity is now 10% while in 6-year-old children it is 17.5% (weight/height greater than two standard deviations (>2SD) of the World Health Organization reference). Nutritional risk factors are prevalent, diet is changing to a 'Western diet' with an increasing fat consumption, and sedentarianism is constant in all groups. High blood pressure (>140/90) is greater than 10% in adults. Diabetes is increasing in urban areas, including in the indigenous population, and more than 40% of adults have a cholesterol level of more than 200 mg ml(-1). Promotion of healthy lifestyles is the main strategy to cope with this situation, particularly changing behaviour in food habits, physical activity and psychosocial factors. Changes in lifestyles will not only allow the prolonged life expectancy to be of better quality, but also will favour a decrease in the morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases, mainly cardiovascular diseases.

  10. The nutrition and health transition in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Mohd Ismail

    2002-02-01

    The accelerated phase of industrialisation and urbanisation in recent decades has inevitably brought about changes in the lifestyle of Malaysians. Changes in dietary habits and sedentary lifestyles are known to be associated with changes in health and increased prevalence of chronic diseases in the population. The objective of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the link between demographic variables and food consumption patterns related to the nutrition transition in Malaysia. This review uses various reports and publications from several ministries and selected local studies. The statistics compiled over the last two decades have shown that as the population achieves affluence, intakes of calories, fats and sugars increase, which may account for the substantial increase in food importation bills over the same period. Similarly, the rapid growth of the fast food industry during the last decade has added another dimension to the change in food consumption patterns of Malaysians. With the exception of a study on adolescents, the prevalences of overweight and obesity in children and adults are not strictly comparable due to the difference in body mass index (BMI) cut-off points in children and the study protocol in adults, and hence should not be misinterpreted as trends. The recent recommendation to lower the BMI cut-off points for Asians would only increase the magnitude of the existing prevalence among adults. The need to promote healthy nutrition for the population must be pursued vigorously, as the escalation of nutrition-related chronic degenerative diseases - once an urban phenomenon--has now spread to the rural population at an alarming rate. This paper indicates that the problem is real and needs urgent attention because it may be just the tip of the iceberg.

  11. Nutrition transition, food retailing and health equity in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew; Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian

    2010-12-01

    AIM: Here we examine the influence of changes in food retailing, the food supply and the associated nutrition transition on health equity in Thailand, a middle income country experiencing rapid economic development. METHODS: The dietary transition underway in Thailand is reviewed along with theories regarding convergence to a globalised energy dense obesogenic diet and subsequent socio-economically related dietary divergence along with the implications for health inequity. RESULTS: Thailand is part way through a dietary, nutrition and health transition. The food distribution and retailing system is now 50% controlled by modern supermarkets and convenience stores. The problem of increasing availability of calorie dense foods is especially threatening because a substantial proportion of the adult population is short statured due to child malnutrition. Obesity is an emerging problem and for educated Thai women has already developed an inverse relationship to socio-economic status as found in high income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Thailand has reached an important point in its nutrition transition. The challenge for the Thai government and population is to boost affordable healthy diets and to avoid the socio-economic inequity of nutritional outcomes observed in many rich countries.

  12. Morphological Transition in Rapidly Expanding Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolinski, J.; Chakraborty, P.; Gioia, G.; Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Many explosive eruptions are initiated by rapid decompression of bubbly magma, which behaves as an elastic material during the decompression and fragments into discrete pieces following the decompression. To emulate the rapid decompression of bubbly magma, we subject a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles to quasi-static expansion. A recent theory predicts that where a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles is first subjected to expansion, the foam expands homogeneously. After a critical value of expansion is attained, the foam undergoes a morphological transition and separates into a large number of small bubbles immersed in a background of a few large bubbles [Vainchtein and Aref, Physics of Fluids 13, 2001]. In our experiments we verify the phenomenon of morphological transition under area expansion. We verity the predictions of Vainchtein and Aref, compare our results with the experimental results on rapidly expanding bubble-bearing viscoelastic fluids reported by [Namiki and Manga, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236, 2005], and discuss the implications of our results for the rapid decompression of magmas.

  13. The Nutrition Transition and Indicators of Child Malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Kimenju, Simon; Qaim, Matin

    2014-01-01

    We analyze how the nutrition transition affects child malnutrition in developing countries. It is often assumed that the nutrition transition affects child weight but not child growth, which could be one reason why child underweight decreases faster than child stunting. But these effects have hardly been analyzed empirically. Our cross-country panel regressions show that the nutrition transition reduces child underweight, while no consistent effect on child overweight is found. Against common...

  14. Simulation Model of Bus Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Fergyanto E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is modern solution for mass transportation system. The system, in comparison to the rail-based transportation system, is significantly cheaper and requires shorter development time, but lower performance. The BRT system performance strongly depends on variables related to station design and infrastructure. A numerical model offers an effective and efficient means to evaluate the system performance. This article offers a detailed numerical model on the basis of the discrete-event approach and demonstrates its application.

  15. Synchronous Routing for Personal Rapid Transit Pods

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    Mehdi Mrad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal rapid transit (PRT is a public and automated transport system in which a fleet of small driverless vehicles operate in order to transport passengers between a set of stations through a network of guided ways. Each customer is carried from one station to another directly with no stop in intermediate stations. This mode of transport can result in a high level of unused capacity due to the empty moves of the vehicles. In this paper, we model the problem of minimizing the energy consumed by the PRT system while assuming predeterministic list of orders; then we solve it using some constructive heuristics. Experiments are run on 1320 randomly generated test problems with various sizes. Our algorithms are shown to give good results over large trip instances.

  16. The role of foreign direct investment in the nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2005-06-01

    To examine the role of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the nutrition transition, focusing on highly processed foods. Data on FDI were identified from reports/databases and then compiled and analysed. A review of published literature on FDI into the food sector was conducted. The nutrition transition is a public health concern owing to its connection with the rising burden of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases in developing countries. Global health leaders are calling for action to address the threat. Highly processed foods often have considerable fat, sugar and salt content, and warrant closer examination. FDI into food processing, service and retail has risen rapidly since the 1980s, mainly from transnational food companies (TFCs) in developed countries. As FDI has risen, so has the proportion invested in highly processed foods for sale in the host market. FDI has proved more effective than trade in generating sales of highly processed foods, and enables TFCs to cut costs, gain market power and obtain efficiencies in distribution and marketing. The amount of FDI targeted at developing countries is increasing; while a disproportionate share enters the larger developing economies, foreign affiliates of TFCs are among the largest companies in low- and low- to middle-income countries. The effect of FDI is to make more highly processed foods available to more people. FDI has made it possible to lower prices, open up new purchasing channels, optimise the effectiveness of marketing and advertising, and increase sales. FDI has been a key mechanism in shaping the global market for highly processed foods. Notwithstanding the role of demand-side factors, it has played a role in the nutrition transition by enabling and promoting the consumption of these foods in developing countries. Empirical data on consumption patterns of highly processed foods in developing countries are critically needed, but since FDI is a long-term investment vehicle, it is reasonable to

  17. Processed foods and the nutrition transition: evidence from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P; Friel, S

    2014-07-01

    This paper elucidates the role of processed foods and beverages in the 'nutrition transition' underway in Asia. Processed foods tend to be high in nutrients associated with obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: refined sugar, salt, saturated and trans-fats. This paper identifies the most significant 'product vectors' for these nutrients and describes changes in their consumption in a selection of Asian countries. Sugar, salt and fat consumption from processed foods has plateaued in high-income countries, but has rapidly increased in the lower-middle and upper-middle-income countries. Relative to sugar and salt, fat consumption in the upper-middle- and lower-middle-income countries is converging most rapidly with that of high-income countries. Carbonated soft drinks, baked goods, and oils and fats are the most significant vectors for sugar, salt and fat respectively. At the regional level there appears to be convergence in consumption patterns of processed foods, but country-level divergences including high levels of consumption of oils and fats in Malaysia, and soft drinks in the Philippines and Thailand. This analysis suggests that more action is needed by policy-makers to prevent or mitigate processed food consumption. Comprehensive policy and regulatory approaches are most likely to be effective in achieving these goals. © 2014 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2014 World Obesity.

  18. Global changes in diet and activity patterns as drivers of the nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Barry M

    2009-01-01

    The nutrition transition relates to broad patterns of diet, activity and body composition that have defined our nutritional status in various stages of history. The world is rapidly shifting from a dietary period in which the higher income countries were dominated by patterns of nutrition-related non-communicable diseases (NR-NCDs; while the lower and middle world were dominated by receding famine) to one in which the world is increasingly being dominated by NR-NCDs. Dietary changes appear to be shifting universally toward a diet dominated by higher intakes of caloric sweeteners, animal source foods, and edible oils. Activity patterns at work, leisure, travel, and in the home are equally shifting rapidly toward reduced energy expenditure. Large-scale declines in food prices (e.g., beef prices), increased access to supermarkets, and urbanization of urban and rural areas are key underlying factors. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Optimalisasi Kelembagaan Dan Manajemen Dalam Bus Rapid Transit Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoni, Ahmad; Yuniar, Haptiwi Tri; Riyanto, Bambang; Supriyono, Supriyono

    2013-01-01

    Bus Rapid Transit Trans Semarang is a means of mass transportation to the transit system that began operating since 2009 as a solution to reduce congestion in the city of Semarang. This research focuses on the optimization and management of institutional BRT Trans Semarang to improve it's performance. The purpose of this study is to optimize the performance of the organization and management of BRT Trans Semarang with variable types of institutional cooperation BRT operations, and leadership...

  20. Non-linear education gradient across the nutrition transition: mothers' overweight and the population education transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Haram; Salinas, Daniel; Baker, David P

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies found that developed and developing countries present opposite education-overweight gradients but have not considered the dynamics at different levels of national development. An inverted U-shaped curve is hypothesized to best describe the education-overweight association. It is also hypothesized that as the nutrition transition unfolds within nations the shape of education-overweight curve changes. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate the moderating effect of the nutrition transition at the population level on the education-overweight gradient. At the individual level, a non-linear estimate of the education association was used to assess the optimal functional form of the association across the nutrition transition. Twenty-two administrations of the Demographic and Health Survey, collected at different time points across the nutrition transition in nine Latin American/Caribbean countries. Mothers of reproductive age (15-49 years) in each administration (n 143 258). In the pooled sample, a non-linear education gradient on mothers' overweight was found; each additional year of schooling increases the probability of being overweight up to the end of primary schooling, after which each additional year of schooling decreases the probability of overweight. Also, as access to diets high in animal fats and sweeteners increases over time, the curve's critical point moves to lower education levels, the detrimental positive effect of education diminishes, and both occur as the overall risk of overweight increases with greater access to harmful diets. Both hypotheses were supported. As the nutrition transition progresses, the education-overweight curve shifts steadily to a negative linear association with a higher average risk of overweight; and education, at increasingly lower levels, acts as a 'social vaccine' against increasing risk of overweight. These empirical patterns fit the general 'population education transition' curve hypothesis

  1. Cultural and western influences on the nutrition transition in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Katherine L; Hawks, Steven R

    2006-01-01

    The impact of economic development and urbanisation on nutrition and dietary changes in transitional countries has been well researched. It generally has been found that there is a positive correlation between economic development, urbanization, and negative nutrition transitions with the result of growing levels of obesity and diet related non-communicable diseases. However, the impact of Western influences and culture on specific eating styles associated with the nutrition transition has been less studied. There is limited information about cultural and Western influences on eating styles in Thailand. Recent findings suggest that Thailand may have progressed further along the nutrition transition model, in terms of unhealthy eating styles, than would be expected based on economic development. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of current eating styles and eating motivations among Thai university students. University students were chosen for evaluation as they are thought to represent the forefront of dietary trends and nutrition changes in a population. Convenience samples from four different universities in south-central and northern Thailand were selected. The following scales were used to assess eating and dieting styles and attitudes among 662 Thai undergraduate and graduate students: Motivation For Eating Scale (MFES), Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and Cognitive Dieting Behavior Scale (CBDS). All scales have been shown to be reliable and valid in previous research. For this study, scales were translated into Thai, reverse translated, and pilot tested to ensure cultural relevancy and the conveyance of intended meanings. Basic demographic information was also obtained, including age, gender, year in school, marital status, height and weight, and income. Results indicated that Thai students exhibit significant levels of dieting behaviour and extrinsic eating based on CBDS and MFES scores (with the exception of environmental eating). For

  2. Nutritional Transition: A Reviewo of Students' Eating Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Juliana Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional transition process has started in Brazil since the modifications of the standard Brazilian food also concomitant with changes in the epidemiological scenario, resulting in a decline of malnutrition, but in a significant increase in obesity in children and adolescents in all socioeconomic classes. The school age comprises the age group between seven and ten years old and is characterized as a period of growth with high nutritional requirements that must be supplied with quality food and in sufficient quantity to prevent future health problems. For this reason, school, teachers and family members should be responsible for the feeding habits of these children, through nutrition education projects, activities related to good nutrition and consistent information according to the real world of children. The aim of this paper is to describe some aspects of the food profile of students and its influence over the increasing incidence and prevalence of obesity and associated to co-morbidities, as well as to identify the transition process that the country has been experiencing.

  3. Intuitive eating and the nutrition transition in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Steven R; Merrill, Ray M; Madanat, Hala N; Miyagawa, Takeo; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn; Guarin, Cipriano M; Shaofang, Chen

    2004-01-01

    Current models of the nutrition transition focus on demographic changes and economic development. A further influence may be the adoption of western-based perceptions of beauty that lead to potentially harmful eating behaviours which contribute to overweight, obesity, and eating disorders. This paper proposes a comprehensive model of the nutrition transition that includes western influences on perceived attractiveness and subsequent eating styles. An exploratory test of this model for Asian countries explores differences in intuitive eating as a function of economic development and the adoption of western standards of beauty. The intuitive eating scale (IES), a measure of food consumption that is primarily characterized by the satisfaction of physical hunger, was used to evaluate agreement with intuitive eating principles in the US and four Asian countries (Japan, Thailand, the Philippines, and China). Although intuitive eating scores in the US and Thailand failed to follow predicted patterns on two of the four IES subscales, scores for the other two IES subscales and the total IES score followed predicted patterns for Asian countries. Intuitive eating appears to be a valid, measurable concept that is correlated with economic development and levels of western influence in Asian countries. The tentative findings of this exploratory study support further evaluation of cultural influences as an important component of the nutrition transition.

  4. Rapid Communication: v= 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 5. Rapid Communication: Δ υ = 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3 − states and B ( E 3 ) systematics of Sn isotopes. BHOOMIKA MAHESHWARI SWATI GARG ASHOK KUMAR JAIN. Research Article Volume 89 Issue 5 November 2017 Article ID 75 ...

  5. Rapid Communication: seniority changing transitions in yrast states ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhoomika Maheshwari

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Rapid Communication: v = 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3− states and B(E3) systematics of Sn isotopes. BHOOMIKA MAHESHWARI1,∗. , SWATI GARG2 and ASHOK KUMAR JAIN2. 1Department of Physics, Banasthali University, Banasthali 304 022, India. 2Department of Physics, IIT Roorkee, ...

  6. Non-linear education gradient across the nutrition transition: mothers’ overweight and the population education transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Daniel; Baker, David P

    2015-01-01

    Objective Previous studies found that developed and developing countries present opposite education-overweight gradients but have not considered the dynamics at different levels of national development. A U-inverted curve is hypothesized to best describe the education-overweight association. It is also hypothesized that as the nutrition transition unfolds within nations the shape of education-overweight curve change. Design Multi-level logistic regression estimates the moderating effect of the nutrition transition at the population level on education-overweight gradient. At the individual level, a non-linear estimate of the education association assesses the optimal functional form of the association across the nutrition transition. Setting Twenty-two administrations of the Demographic and Health Survey, collected at different time points across the nutrition transition in nine Latin American/Caribbean countries. Subjects Mothers of reproductive age (15–49) in each administration (n 143,258). Results In the pooled sample, a non-linear education gradient on mothers‘ overweight is found; each additional year of schooling increases the probability of being overweight up to the end of primary schooling, after which each additional year of schooling decreases the probability of overweight. Also, as access to diets of high animal fats and sweeteners increases over time, the curve‘s critical point moves to lower education levels, the detrimental positive effect of education diminishes, and both occur as the overall risk of overweight increases with greater access to harmful diets. Conclusions Both hypotheses are supported. As the nutrition transition progresses, the education-overweight curve steadily shifts to a negative linear association with higher average risk of overweight; and education, at increasingly lower levels, acts as a “social vaccine” against increasing risk of overweight. These empirical patterns fit the general “population education

  7. Effectiveness of rapid rail transit system in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui-Min; Ning, Yi-Zi; Ma, Xiaoke; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of rapid rail transit system is analyzed using tools of complex network for the first time. We evaluated the effectiveness of the system in Beijing quantitatively from different perspectives, including descriptive statistics analysis, bridging property, centrality property, ability of connecting different part of the system and ability of disease spreading. The results showed that the public transport of Beijing does benefit from the rapid rail transit lines, and the benefit of different regions from RRTS is gradually decreased from the north to the south. The paper concluded with some policy suggestions regarding how to promote the system. This study offered significant insight that can help understand the public transportation better. The methodology can be easily applied to analyze other urban public systems, such as electricity grid, water system, to develop more livable cities.

  8. Effectiveness of rapid rail transit system in Beijing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Cheng

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of rapid rail transit system is analyzed using tools of complex network for the first time. We evaluated the effectiveness of the system in Beijing quantitatively from different perspectives, including descriptive statistics analysis, bridging property, centrality property, ability of connecting different part of the system and ability of disease spreading. The results showed that the public transport of Beijing does benefit from the rapid rail transit lines, and the benefit of different regions from RRTS is gradually decreased from the north to the south. The paper concluded with some policy suggestions regarding how to promote the system. This study offered significant insight that can help understand the public transportation better. The methodology can be easily applied to analyze other urban public systems, such as electricity grid, water system, to develop more livable cities.

  9. Emerging Early Actions to Bend the Curve in Sub-Saharan Africa's Nutrition Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggblade, Steven; Duodu, Kwaku G; Kabasa, John D; Minnaar, Amanda; Ojijo, Nelson K O; Taylor, John R N

    2016-06-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the last region to undergo a nutrition transition and can still avoid its adverse health outcomes. The article explores emerging responses to "bend the curve" in sub-Saharan Africa's nutrition transition to steer public health outcomes onto a healthier trajectory. Early responses in 3 countries at different stages of food system transformation are examined: South Africa-advanced, Ghana-intermediate, and Uganda-early. By comparing these with international experience, actions are proposed to influence nutrition and public health trajectories as Africa's food systems undergo rapid structural change. Arising from rapid urbanization and diet change, major public health problems associated with overweight are taking place, particularly in South Africa and among adult women. However, public health responses are generally tepid in sub-Saharan Africa. Only in South Africa have policy makers instituted extensive actions to combat overweight and associated noncommunicable diseases through regulation, education, and public health programs. Elsewhere, in countries in the early and middle stages of transition, public health systems continue to focus their limited resources primarily on undernutrition. Related pressures on the supply side of Africa's food systems are emerging that also need to be addressed. Three types of intervention appear most feasible: maternal and child health programs to simultaneously address short-term undernutrition problems while at the same time helping to reduce future tendencies toward overweigh; regulatory and fiscal actions to limit access to unhealthy foods; and modernization of Africa's agrifood food system through job skills training, marketing reforms, and food industry entrepreneurship. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the proposed coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is applied, and the optimized headway and costs are obtained. The results show that the coordinated operation model could effectively decrease the total costs of the transit system and the transfer time of passengers. The results also suggest that the coordination between the skip-stop BRT and bus during peak hour is more effective than non-coordination operation.

  11. Symposium 6: Young people, artificial nutrition and transitional care. The nutritional challenges of the young adult with cystic fibrosis: transition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morton, Alison M

    2012-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a complex multisystem disorder affecting mainly the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory system. Intestinal malabsorption occurs in approximately 90% of patients. In the past, malnutrition was an inevitable consequence of disease progression, leading to poor growth, impaired respiratory muscle function, decreased exercise tolerance and immunological impairment. A positive association between body weight and height and survival has been widely reported. The energy requirements of patients with CF vary widely and generally increase with age and disease severity. For many young adults requirements will be 120-150% of the age-related estimated average requirement. To meet these energy needs patients are encouraged to eat a high-fat high-energy diet with appropriate pancreatic enzyme supplements. Many patients are unable to achieve an adequate intake as a result of a variety of factors including chronic poor appetite, infection-related anorexia, gastro-oesophageal reflux and abdominal pain. Oral energy supplements and enteral tube feeding are widely used. Nutritional support has been shown to improve nutritional status and stabilise or slow the rate of decline in lung function. With such emphasis on nutritional intake and nutritional status throughout life, poor adherence to therapies and issues relating to body image are emerging. The median survival of patients with CF is increasing. CF is now considered a life-limiting disease of adulthood rather than a terminal childhood illness. With increased longevity new challenges are emerging that include the transition of young adults with CF to adult services, CF-related diabetes, disordered eating, osteoporosis, liver disease and transplantation.

  12. Evolving food retail environments in Thailand and implications for the health and nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Pangsap, S; Kelly, Matthew; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    To investigate evolving food retail systems in Thailand. Rapid assessment procedures based on qualitative research methods including interviews, focus groups discussions and site visits. Seven fresh markets located in the four main regions of Thailand. Managers, food specialists, vendors and shoppers from seven fresh markets who participated in interviews and focus group discussions. Fresh markets are under economic pressure and are declining in number. They are attempting to resist the competition from supermarkets by improving convenience, food diversity, quality and safety. Obesity has increased in Thailand at the same time as rapid growth of modern food retail formats has occurred. As fresh markets are overtaken by supermarkets there is a likely loss of fresh, healthy, affordable food for poorer Thais, and a diminution of regional culinary culture, women's jobs and social capital, with implications for the health and nutrition transition in Thailand.

  13. The Nutrition Transition in Africa: Can It Be Steered into a More Positive Direction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrie M. Margetts

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this narrative review is to examine the nutrition transition and its consequences when populations in Africa modernize as a result of socio-economic development, urbanization, and acculturation. The focus is on the changes in dietary patterns and nutrient intakes during the nutrition transition, the determinants and consequences of these changes as well as possible new approaches in public health nutrition policies, interventions and research needed to steer the nutrition transition into a more positive direction in Africa. The review indicates that non-communicable, nutrition-related diseases have emerged in sub-Saharan Africa at a faster rate and at a lower economic level than in industrialized countries, before the battle against under-nutrition has been won. There is a putative epigenetic link between under- and over-nutrition, explaining the double burden of nutrition-related diseases in Africa. It is concluded that it is possible to steer the nutrition transition into a more positive direction, provided that some basic principles in planning public health promotion strategies, policies and interventions are followed. It is suggested that sub-Saharan African countries join forces to study the nutrition transition and implemented interventions on epidemiological, clinical and molecular (genetic level for better prevention of both under- and over-nutrition.

  14. Young urban women and the nutrition transition in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanat, Hala N; Lindsay, Ryan; Campbell, Tiffany

    2011-04-01

    To determine the nutrition transition stage of female Jordanian college students. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess eating styles, disordered eating attitudes and behaviours, body esteem and dissatisfaction, and media influence. Public and private universities in Jordan. A total of 255 subjects were recruited through a government-initiated youth campaign. The majority of participants had a normal BMI (70.6%) with almost all (99.4%) reporting restrained eating behaviour. Scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) indicated that 45.2% of these female college students should be screening for eating disorders. Subscales of the Body Esteem Scale (BES) showed that these women did not have substantial body esteem issues and mean scores on the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ-3) indicated that overall these women did not feel the media was dictating the way their body should look. Where Jordanian women did feel pressure from Western media, there was a 6.7-fold increase in the likelihood that they wanted to lose weight. In addition, 48.2% of the female college students desired to lose weight and 14.4% desired weight gain, indicating a certain level of body dissatisfaction. With low levels of overweight and obesity and a propensity towards eating based on external hunger cues, college-aged Jordanian women may be less advanced in their development through the nutrition transition than the general population of women. However, high levels of restrained eating and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours indicate the need for an intervention to address healthy weight-loss strategies, assess eating disorders and help maintain healthy body esteem.

  15. Food Choices and Consequences for the Nutritional Status: Insights into Nutrition Transition in an Hospital Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piple, Jitendra; Gora, Ranjeet; Purbiya, Pragati; Puliyel, Ashish; Chugh, Parul; Bahl, Pinky; Puliyel, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Although economic development is generally accompanied by improvements in the overall nutritional status of the country's population the 'nutritional transition' often involves a shift to high energy diets and less exercise with negative consequences. This pilot study was done to examine if education of parents operates at the household level to influence dietary choices and the nutritional status of children in a small community of hospital workers. 3 groups of persons with varying skill and education levels participated. Weighed food logs were used in all households to calculate 'adult equivalent' per-capita-consumption. Nutrients were calculated using nutrients calculator software. BMI was used to classify children as underweight, normal weight and overweight. 128 individuals participated from 30 families included 47 children. 10 children (21%) were underweight, 29 (62%) were normal and 8 (17%) were overweight. Energy consumption was highest in families with overweight children 2692 +/-502 compared to 2259 +/-359 in families with normal weight and 2031+/-354 in the family of underweight children. These differences were statistically significant. 42% underweight children belonged to Class 1 at the lowest skill level and there were no overweight children in this group. Most of the overweight children belonged to Class 2. In Class 3 there were no underweight children and the majority was normal weight children. Underweight children came from the poorer households. Per capita intake of the family as a whole correlated well with BMI in the children. There was increased obesity in middle income families belonging to Class 2-probably in families who move up the scale from deprivation. Nutritional status in children correlated mostly with maternal education status.

  16. Food Choices and Consequences for the Nutritional Status: Insights into Nutrition Transition in an Hospital Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Piple

    Full Text Available Although economic development is generally accompanied by improvements in the overall nutritional status of the country's population the 'nutritional transition' often involves a shift to high energy diets and less exercise with negative consequences. This pilot study was done to examine if education of parents operates at the household level to influence dietary choices and the nutritional status of children in a small community of hospital workers.3 groups of persons with varying skill and education levels participated. Weighed food logs were used in all households to calculate 'adult equivalent' per-capita-consumption. Nutrients were calculated using nutrients calculator software. BMI was used to classify children as underweight, normal weight and overweight.128 individuals participated from 30 families included 47 children. 10 children (21% were underweight, 29 (62% were normal and 8 (17% were overweight. Energy consumption was highest in families with overweight children 2692 +/-502 compared to 2259 +/-359 in families with normal weight and 2031+/-354 in the family of underweight children. These differences were statistically significant. 42% underweight children belonged to Class 1 at the lowest skill level and there were no overweight children in this group. Most of the overweight children belonged to Class 2. In Class 3 there were no underweight children and the majority was normal weight children.Underweight children came from the poorer households. Per capita intake of the family as a whole correlated well with BMI in the children. There was increased obesity in middle income families belonging to Class 2-probably in families who move up the scale from deprivation. Nutritional status in children correlated mostly with maternal education status.

  17. Food consumption patterns and nutrition transition in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoeto, Nur Indrawaty; Geok Lin, Khor; Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda

    2013-09-01

    The present study was done to confirm the relationship between changes in food patterns and nutrition transition in three South-East Asian countries, namely the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted between August 2008 and August 2009 using three methods: interviews, focus group discussions and analyses of government reports. The study was conducted in rural and urban areas in Manila and Calabanga (Philippines), Selangor and Kuala Selangor (Malaysia), and Padang, Pariaman Tanah Datar and Limapuluh Kota (West Sumatra, Indonesia). Adults aged 18 to 77 years. The results showed that Filipinos, Malaysians and Indonesians have retained many aspects of their traditional diets. In fact, most participants in the study considered Western-style and franchise fast foods as snack or recreational foods to be consumed once in a while only. However, a significant difference was noted between urban and rural areas in food varieties consumed. Participants in urban areas consumed more varieties of traditional foods owing to their availability and the participants’ food purchasing power. Although traditional food patterns were maintained by most of the participants, more sugar and vegetable oils were consumed and added to the traditional recipes. The rapid nutrition transition in this region may be due, instead, to increasing food availability and food purchasing power, rather than to a shift in food preferences towards modern Western foods.

  18. Nutrition transition in South Asia: the emergence of non-communicable chronic diseases [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghose Bishwajit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Overview: South Asian countries have experienced a remarkable economic growth during last two decades along with subsequent transformation in social, economic and food systems. Rising disposable income levels continue to drive the nutrition transition characterized by a shift from a traditional high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets towards diets with a lower carbohydrate and higher proportion of saturated fat, sugar and salt. Steered by various transitions in demographic, economic and nutritional terms, South Asian population are experiencing a rapidly changing disease profile. While the healthcare systems have long been striving to disentangle from the vicious cycle of poverty and undernutrition, South Asian countries are now confronted with an emerging epidemic of obesity and a constellation of other non-communicable diseases (NCDs. This dual burden is bringing about a serious health and economic conundrum and is generating enormous pressure on the already overstretched healthcare system of South Asian countries.   Objectives: The Nutrition transition has been a very popular topic in the field of human nutrition during last few decades and many countries and broad geographic regions have been studied. However there is no review on this topic in the context of South Asia  as yet. The main purpose of this review is to highlight the factors accounting for the onset of nutrition transition and its subsequent impact on epidemiological transition in five major South Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Special emphasis was given on India and Bangladesh as they together account for 94% of the regional population and about half world’s malnourished population. Methods: This study is literature based. Main data sources were published research articles obtained through an electronic medical databases search.

  19. A Modern Cohort of Duodenal Obstruction Patients: Predictors of Delayed Transition to Full Enteral Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Bairdain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A common site for neonatal intestinal obstruction is the duodenum. Delayed establishment of enteral nutritional autonomy continues to challenge surgeons and, since early institution of nutritional support is critical in postoperative newborns, identification of patients likely to require alternative nutritional support may improve their outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate risk factors leading to delayed establishment of full enteral nutrition in these patients. Methods. 87 patients who were surgically treated for intrinsic duodenal obstructions from 1998 to 2012 were reviewed. Variables were tested as potential risk factors. Median time to full enteral nutrition was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Independent risk factors of delayed transition were identified using the multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results. Median time to transition to full enteral nutrition was 12 days (interquartile range: 9–17 days. Multivariate Cox analysis identified three significant risk factors for delayed enteral nutrition: gestational age (GA ≤ 35 weeks (P < .001, congenital heart disease (CHD (P=.02, and malrotation (P = .03. Conclusions. CHD and Prematurity are most commonly associated with delayed transition to full enteral nutrition. Thus, in these patients, supportive nutrition should strongly be considered pending enteral nutritional autonomy.

  20. Methanogens rapidly transition from methane production to iron reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, O; Shusta, S S; Valentine, D L

    2016-03-01

    Methanogenesis, the microbial methane (CH4 ) production, is traditionally thought to anchor the mineralization of organic matter as the ultimate respiratory process in deep sediments, despite the presence of oxidized mineral phases, such as iron oxides. This process is carried out by archaea that have also been shown to be capable of reducing iron in high levels of electron donors such as hydrogen. The current pure culture study demonstrates that methanogenic archaea (Methanosarcina barkeri) rapidly switch from methanogenesis to iron-oxide reduction close to natural conditions, with nitrogen atmosphere, even when faced with substrate limitations. Intensive, biotic iron reduction was observed following the addition of poorly crystalline ferrihydrite and complex organic matter and was accompanied by inhibition of methane production. The reaction rate of this process was of the first order and was dependent only on the initial iron concentrations. Ferrous iron production did not accelerate significantly with the addition of 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) but increased by 11-28% with the addition of phenazine-1-carboxylate (PCA), suggesting the possible role of methanophenazines in the electron transport. The coupling between ferrous iron and methane production has important global implications. The rapid transition from methanogenesis to reduction of iron-oxides close to the natural conditions in sediments may help to explain the globally-distributed phenomena of increasing ferrous concentrations below the traditional iron reduction zone in the deep 'methanogenic' sediment horizon, with implications for metabolic networking in these subsurface ecosystems and in past geological settings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Australia's nutrition transition 1961-2009: a focus on fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Shaan S; Mathai, Michael L; Hryciw, Deanne H; McAinch, Andrew J

    2015-08-14

    Since the 1960s, Australian diets have changed considerably, influenced by a burgeoning multicultural cuisine, increase in urbanisation and food technology advances. This has been described as a 'nutrition transition', resulting in the adoption of a Western diet pattern, with a shift away from unrefined foods towards a diet higher in both plant-derived high PUFA and total fats and refined carbohydrates. Utilising the 1961-2009 annual food supply data from the UN FAO, the present study investigated changes in the intake of macronutrient and specific fatty acid in the Australian population, including that of the PUFA linoleic acid (LA), due to its hypothesised role in inflammation and risk for obesity. Cumulative change over time for the contribution of specific nutrients to total available energy (TAE) was calculated, as was linearity of change. Over the time period analysed, the cumulative change in TAE from carbohydrate was -9.35 and +16.67 % from lipid. The cumulative change in TAE from LA was +120.48 %. Moreover, the cumulative change in the contribution of LA to total PUFA availability was +7.1 %. Utilising the average g/d per capita of LA from selected dietary sources, the change in the contribution of specific foodstuffs was assessed, with total plant oils having a cumulative change of +627.19 % to LA availability, equating to a cumulative change of +195.61 % in contribution to total LA availability. The results of the present study indicate that LA availability in Australia has increased over the previous five decades as a result of the availability of increased plant oils, as has total fat, possibly contributing to the increasing rates of obesity and obesity-associated co-morbidities.

  2. The nutrition transition and obesity in the developing world

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Popkin, B M

    2001-01-01

    .... Using data mainly from large nationally representative and nationwide surveys, such as the 1989, 1991, 1993 and 1997 China Health and Nutrition Surveys, in combination with comparative analysis...

  3. Food systems transformations, ultra-processed food markets and the nutrition transition in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Friel, Sharon

    2016-12-03

    's nutrition transition. The carbonated soft drink market is the most highly concentrated and likely to be most harmful to population nutrition. The grocery retail sector is, in terms of increasing market concentration and thus market power, likely to be the most important driver of ongoing food systems change and ultra-processed food sales in the region. Given it's rapid growth, the food service sector will also contribute significantly to ongoing dietary change.

  4. THE ROLE OF EDUCATION IN THE NUTRITION TRANSITION AND ITS RELATION TO QUALITY OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Dueñas Romero

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Education is a powerful tool to improve individuals quality of life; its role is evident by providing the necessary knowledge so that through autonomy, responsibility and a critical attitude, appropriate food choices are taken in order to provide welfare and health. In this paper, some factors affecting human nutrition will be discussed, the nutrition situation in Colombia, the importance of nutrition education and its relation to quality of life. It supports the idea that Colombia is currently experiencing a nutrition transition process and the problems it generates can be solved through education, affecting individuals quality of life.

  5. Alternative Fuel Transit Buses: DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (US); Clark, N.

    2000-11-07

    In 1998, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, a public transit agency in Dallas, Texas, began operating a large fleet of heavy-duty buses powered by liquefied natural gas. As part of a $16 million commitment to alternative fuels, DART operates 139 LNG buses serviced by two new LNG fueling stations.

  6. Nutrition transition and dietary energy availability in Eastern Europe after the collapse of communism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Koziel, Slawomir

    2007-12-01

    After the economic transition of the late 1980s and early 1990s there was a rapid increase in overweight and obesity in many countries of Eastern Europe. This article describes changing availability of dietary energy from major dietary components since the transition to free-market economic systems among Eastern European nations, using food balance data obtained at national level for the years 1990-92 and 2005 from the FAOSTAT-Nutrition database. Dietary energy available to the East European nations satellite to the former Soviet Union (henceforth, Eastern Europe) was greater than in the nations of the former Soviet Union. Among the latter, the Western nations of the former Soviet Union had greater dietary energy availability than the Eastern and Southern nations of the former Soviet Union. The higher energy availability in Eastern Europe relative to the nations of the former Soviet Union consists mostly of high-protein foods. There has been no significant change in overall dietary energy availability to any category of East European nation between 1990-1992 and 2005, indicating that, at the macro-level, increasing rates of obesity in Eastern European countries cannot be attributed to increased dietary energy availability. The most plausible macro-level explanations for the obesity patterns observed in East European nations are declines in physical activity, increased real income, and increased consumption of goods that contribute to physical activity decline: cars, televisions and computers.

  7. Successfulness of bus rapid transit systems in Asia. Ex-post evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kogdenko, Nadja

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) can be defined as “a bus-based mass transit system that delivers fast, comfortable, and cost-effective urban mobility”. It offers the opportunity to create a high-quality mass transit system at affordable costs, which is p

  8. REAP and WAVE: new tools to rapidly assess/discuss nutrition with patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Kim M; Ross, Elizabeth; Barner, Claudia W; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; McMurray, Jerome; Eaton, Charles

    2003-02-01

    Dietary changes can be helpful in preventing or treating a variety of prevalent health problems. Physicians can be helpful in helping patients make positive dietary changes, be physically active and lose weight, but, for a variety of reasons, many physicians do little nutrition counseling. There is a need for brief, user-friendly tools to enable physicians to rapidly and accurately assess patients' diets and exercise habits as well as provide information to aid the physician in delivering effective nutrition counseling. The purpose of this paper is to discuss two new tools, WAVE and REAP, that have been developed by the Nutrition Academic Award to help physicians and other health care providers conduct nutrition assessment and counseling with their patients in a practical and effective manner. The WAVE acronym and tool is designed to encourage provider/patient dialogue about the pros and cons of the patients' current status related to Weight, Activity, Variety and Excess. The Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Patients (REAP) is a brief validated questionnaire that is designed to aid providers in performing a brief assessment of diet and physical activity. An accompanying Physician Key aids the provider in discussing the patient's answers and counseling them appropriately. REAP and WAVE can be helpful tools to facilitate nutrition assessment and counseling in the provider office. Depending on patients' health priorities and how much time is available, these tools can be used in a variety of ways to discuss nutrition with patients during a clinical encounter in 1-9 min.

  9. Urban Quality vs single travel: the Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with the con­sequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, together with short-sighted policies of transport and urban development spread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion and unlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel to people living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to those living in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonable urban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic, conside­red, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of the deterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italian cities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities, although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovative solutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by public administrations. One of the main environmental detractors is car traffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike the previous period. Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reaching the modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managing the demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation., such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developing and increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport, car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollution reduction and vehicular traffic reduction. For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal Rapid Transit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to join two apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuring individual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acoustic and air pol­lution as well as the congestion caused by private vehicular traffic. In Italy this system is still not well known

  10. Urban Quality vs Single Travel: the Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with theconsequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, togetherwith short-sighted policies of transport and urban developmentspread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion andunlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel topeople living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to thoseliving in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonableurban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic,considered, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of thedeterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italiancities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities,although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovativesolutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by publicadministrations. One of the main environmental detractors is cartraffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike theprevious period.Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reachingthe modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managingthe demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation.,such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developingand increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport,car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollutionreduction and vehicular traffic reduction.For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal RapidTransit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to jointwo apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuringindividual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acousticand air pollution as well as the congestion caused by privatevehicular traffic.In Italy this system is still not well known despite the versatility ofits fields

  11. Symposium 6: Young people, artificial nutrition and transitional care: Nutrition, growth and puberty in children and adolescents with Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, R M

    2010-02-01

    Of the individuals who present with Crohn's disease 25% are Nutritional impairment and delayed growth are common at diagnosis and remain an issue during the disease course. Treatment has the primary aim to control symptoms, induce disease remission and achieve normal growth in the long term and includes nutritional support and early use of immunomodulation. Puberty may be discordant and is generally late and final adult height may not be achieved until the late teenage years. Chronic ill health and delayed growth may be accompanied by emotional and intellectual immaturity. These factors, including the varying rates of physical and emotional development, need to be considered during adolescence with multidisciplinary input to ensure that the young patient is appropriately supported. Transition to adult care requires close collaboration between paediatric and healthcare teams with careful attention to nutritional, emotional and educational issues, all of which are relevant in the progression from childhood, through adolescence and to adult life.

  12. The nutrition transition in India | Vaz | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M Vaz, S Yusuf, AV Bharathi, AV Kurpad, S Swaminathan, S Swaminathan. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition Vol. 18(2) 2005: 198-201. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  13. Land use impacts of rapid transit: implications of recent experience. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.L.; Trygg, L.L.

    1977-08-01

    Evidence of land use impacts of recent major rapid transit improvements are reviewed and conclusions drawn concerning the extent and nature of such impacts and the conditions under which they have occurred. Transit improvements studied are primarily post-World War II in origin. American and Canadian examples are stressed, although European experience is teated briefly. Virtually all major modern American and Canadian rapid transit investments are included, covering conventional rapid rail, commuter rail, light rail and bus/busway. In addition to conclusions on general patterns of land use impact and causes, research recommendations and Federal policy implications are drawn.

  14. Nutrition transition in a middle-income country: 22-year trends in the Seychelles

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, I; Bovet, P; Viswanathan, B; Luke, A.; Marques-Vidal, P

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There is little objective information regarding nutrition transition in African countries. We assessed trends in nutrition patterns in the Seychelles between 1989 and 2011. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Population-based samples were obtained in 1989, 1994 and 2011 and participants aged 25-44 are considered in this study (n=493, 599 and 471, respectively). Similar, although not identical, food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were used in each survey and the variables were collaps...

  15. Diet and mortality rates in Sub-Saharan Africa: Stages in the nutrition transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steyn Nelia P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last century we have seen wide-reaching changes in diet, nutritional status and life expectancy. The change in diet and physical activity patterns has become known as the nutrition transition. At any given time, a country or region within a country may be at different stages within this transition. This paper examines a range of nutrition-related indicators for countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and attempts to develop a typical model of a country in transition. Methods Based on the availability of data, 40 countries in SSA were selected for analysis. Data were obtained from the World Health Organisation, Demographic and Health Surveys and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. Multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA was used to explore the determinants of infant mortality. A six point score was developed to identify each country's stage in the nutrition transition. Results MLRA showed that underweight-for-age, protein and the percentage of exclusively breastfed infants were associated with the infant mortality rate (IMR. The majority of countries (n = 26 used in the analysis had nutrition transition scores of zero and one. Most of them had a high prevalence of infant mortality, children that were stunted or underweight-for-age, small percentages of women that were overweight and obese, and low intakes of energy, protein, and fat. Countries with the highest scores include South Africa, Ghana, Gabon, Cape Verde and Senegal which had relatively low IMRs, high levels of obesity/overweight, and low levels of underweight in women, as well as high intakes of energy and fat. These countries display classic signs of a population well established in the nutrition-related non-communicable disease phase of the nutrition transition. Conclusions Countries in SSA are clearly undergoing a nutrition transition. More than half of them are still in the early stage, while a few have reached a point where

  16. State and Federal project development procedures for bus rapid transit : managing differences and reducing implementation delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This report documents an investigation into the transportation project development process in the : context of the implementation of bus rapid transit systems on the State Highway System as well as such : systems being part of the Federal New Starts ...

  17. Modeling and evaluation of characteristics for on-street Rapid Transit systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    to obtain the main objective of introducing a Rapid Transit System. to increase the number of passengers. Variations in the system characteristics have a direct impact on ridership. However, it is difficult to predict the impact of implementing or altering the characteristics. A Rapid Transit system should...... display sufficient service already in the planning phase. That is why pre-acquired knowledge of the impact of the characteristics on the system performance is valuable. Such knowledge could provide a firm basis for planning the service and operation of a Rapid Transit system. This article focuses....... It focuses on the following characteristics for Rapid Transit systems: rail factor, travel time, headway and capacity. It evaluates how the implementation and variation of these characteristics affected the ridership of a case project. It evaluates the magnitude of the impacts for the various characteristics...

  18. Climatic implications of a rapid wind/solar transition

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartzman, Peter D; Zhang, Xiaochun

    2016-01-01

    A transition to a fully global renewable energy infrastructure is potentially possible in no more than a few decades, even using current wind/solar technologies. We demonstrate that at its completion this transition would terminate anthropogenic carbon emissions to the atmosphere derived from energy consumption in roughly 25 years as well as double current global energy production. This result would provide all human energy needs worldwide and additional energy required for climate adaptation as well as carbon sequestration from the atmosphere to bring down the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration to safer levels. The implementation of this energy transition in the near future would maximize the probability for achieving a less than 2 deg C, with a potential 1.5 deg C limit, increase to global temperature over the pre-industrial level by 2100. Our best case scenario utilizes less than 3% of current annual global energy consumption per year with an annual reinvestment of 10% of its growing renewable ...

  19. Telehealth Delivery of Rapid Syllable Transitions (ReST) Treatment for Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Donna C.; McCabe, Patricia; Ballard, Kirrie J.; Lincoln, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rapid Syllable Transitions (ReST) treatment uses pseudo-word targets with varying lexical stress to target simultaneously articulation, prosodic accuracy and coarticulatory transitions in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). The treatment is efficacious for the acquisition of imitated pseudo-words, and generalization of skill to…

  20. Nutritional status of adolescents in the context of the Moroccan nutritional transition: the role of parental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pilar Montero; Anzid, Karim; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; Baali, Abdellatif; Lopez, Santiago Rodriguez

    2012-07-01

    In Morocco, the beginning of the nutritional transition is closely linked to social and economic transformations and changes in behaviour and traditional lifestyles. The objective of this study is to describe the current pattern of food consumption and the nutritional status of adolescents in the province of Ouarzazate and its association with parents' educational level. The sample comprises 327 high school students from Ouarzazate: 135 (41.3%) boys and 192 (58.7%) girls (age range 15-20 years). For both boys and girls, the results show lower height and BMI z-scores than the WHO reference values. Adolescents whose parents have a low educational level have lower height/age and BMI/age z-scores than those whose fathers have a high educational level. No differences are observed in total daily energy intake depending on fathers' educational level, but the energy provided by lipids is higher in adolescents whose fathers have a high educational background. The quality of fats consumed (MUFA+PUFA/SFA) is better among those boys whose fathers have low education, but no differences are observed for girls. The process of nutritional transition is not uniform in the sample, but depends on the socioeconomic characteristics of population groups, which include, among others, accessibility of certain food, differences in habits and lifestyles related to energy expenditure, and higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in more favoured groups.

  1. Household Income during Childhood and Young Adult Weight Status: Evidence from a Nutrition Transition Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether household income at different stages of childhood is associated with weight status in early adulthood in a nutrition transition setting (a developing country with both underweight and overweight populations). I use multinomial logistic regression to analyze prospective, longitudinal data from Cebu, Philippines.…

  2. Effects of new bus and rail rapid transit systems – an international review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvardson, Jesper Bláfoss; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2018-01-01

    this gap in the literature by reviewing and comparing the effects obtained by 86 transit systems around the world, including Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), Light Rail Transit (LRT), metro and heavy rail transit systems. The analysis is twofold by analysing (i) the direct operational effects related to travel...... areas surrounding the transit line with increasing property values. Such effects are traditionally associated with attractive rail-based public transport systems. However, a statistical comparison of 41 systems did not show significant deviations between effects on property values resulting from BRT......Cities worldwide are implementing modern transit systems to improve mobility in the increasingly congested metropolitan areas. Despite much research on the effects of such systems, a comparison of effects across transit modes and countries has not been studied comprehensively. This paper fills...

  3. Nutritional transition in children under five years and women of reproductive age: a 15-years trend analysis in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Loret de Mola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15-49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children 19 years, body mass index (BMI was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001, wasting (p<0.001, and stunting (p<0.001 in children under 5 y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001, however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%. Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001; with higher reduction in urban (↓43% than in rural children (↓24%. BMI in women aged 15-19 years increased (p<0.001 across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19 y. CONCLUSION: Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions--undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia--considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies like Peru.

  4. Transit climate change adaptation assessment/asset management pilot for the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Public transit agencies play an important role in the provision of safe, reliable, and cost-effective transportation for the communities they serve. With the growing intensity and frequency of extreme weather events, such as hurricanes Irene and Sand...

  5. Nutritional immunity. Escape from bacterial iron piracy through rapid evolution of transferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Matthew F; Elde, Nels C

    2014-12-12

    Iron sequestration provides an innate defense, termed nutritional immunity, leading pathogens to scavenge iron from hosts. Although the molecular basis of this battle for iron is established, its potential as a force for evolution at host-pathogen interfaces is unknown. We show that the iron transport protein transferrin is engaged in ancient and ongoing evolutionary conflicts with TbpA, a transferrin surface receptor from bacteria. Single substitutions in transferrin at rapidly evolving sites reverse TbpA binding, providing a mechanism to counteract bacterial iron piracy among great apes. Furthermore, the C2 transferrin polymorphism in humans evades TbpA variants from Haemophilus influenzae, revealing a functional basis for standing genetic variation. These findings identify a central role for nutritional immunity in the persistent evolutionary conflicts between primates and bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Standardized Parenteral Nutrition for the Transition Phase in Preterm Infants: A Bag That Fits.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Ann-Marie

    2018-02-02

    The optimal composition of standardized parenteral nutrition (SPN) is not yet known, contributing to nutrient deficit accrual and growth failure, with the period of parenteral nutrition weaning, i.e., transition (TN) phase, being identified as particularly vulnerable. We created a comprehensive nutrition database, representative of the nutritional course of a diverse range of preterm infants (n = 59, birth weight ≤ 1500 g, gestation < 34 weeks) by collecting hourly macronutrient intake data as part of a prospective, observational study over 19 months. Using a nutrient modeling technique for the TN phase, various amino acid (AA) concentrations of SPN were tested within the database, whilst acknowledging the nutritional contribution from enteral feeds until target AA intakes were consistently achieved. From the modeling, the AA composition of SPN was determined at 3.5 g\\/100 mL, which was the maximum to avoid exceeding target intakes at any point in the TN phase. However, in order to consistently achieve target AA intakes, additional nutritional strategies were required, which included increasing the exclusion of enteral feeds in fluid and nutrient calculations from <20 mL\\/kg\\/day to <40 mL\\/kg\\/day, and earlier fortification of breastmilk at 80 mL\\/kg\\/day. This data-driven nutrient modeling process supported the development of an improved SPN regimen for our preterm population in the TN phase.

  7. Adequacy of usual dietary intake and nutritional status among pregnant women in the context of nutrition transition: the DEPOSIT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Shahar, Danit R; Fraser, Drora; Vardi, Hillel; Friger, Michael; Bolotin, Arkardy; Freedman, Laurence S

    2012-11-28

    Bedouin Arabs in southern Israel are a traditionally semi-nomadic population undergoing the nutrition transition in a context of urbanisation. The effect of these changes on the nutritional status of pregnant women is unknown. The Dietary Exposures and Pregnancy Outcomes in a Society In Transition (DEPOSIT) study evaluated the adequacy of pregnant Bedouin women's usual dietary intake and their nutritional status. Dietary intake was assessed in a cross-sectional study design using repeat 24 h recall (24HR) questionnaires. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake of selected nutrients. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was used to evaluate nutrient intake adequacy. Measured weight and height data were used to calculate the participants' BMI. A total of 1109 24HR were obtained from 683 participants, of which 8 % contained no animal-source protein and an additional 43 % contained no haeme-Fe. Animal-source protein intake reached less than half of the EAR for most participants (71 %). Over 90 % had inadequate intakes of Ca, Fe, animal-source Zn, vitamin A and folate. The probability of consuming haeme-source Fe was higher among urban than rural participants (OR 1·68, 95 % CI 1·17, 2·41), and among those with employed v. unemployed husbands (OR 1·81, 95 % CI 1·27, 2·58). Only 14 % reported consuming home-produced animal products. According to pre-pregnancy BMI, 42 % were overweight or obese. The DEPOSIT study findings suggest that Bedouin Arab women are in need of interventions that address the co-existing problems of inadequate nutrient intakes and increased risk of obesity.

  8. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Sanders, David; Drury, Eliza; Puoane, Thandi; Chowdhury, Syeda N; Tsolekile, Lungiswa; Negin, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region - largely from Asia and the Middle East - are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could complement the SADC's ongoing commitment to regional trade policy.

  9. Regional trade and the nutrition transition: opportunities to strengthen NCD prevention policy in the Southern African Development Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Thow

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addressing diet-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs will require a multisectoral policy approach that includes the food supply and trade, but implementing effective policies has proved challenging. The Southern African Development Community (SADC has experienced significant trade and economic liberalization over the past decade; at the same time, the nutrition transition has progressed rapidly in the region. This analysis considers the relationship between regional trade liberalization and changes in the food environment associated with poor diets and NCDs, with the aim of identifying feasible and proactive policy responses to support healthy diets. Design: Changes in trade and investment policy for the SADC were documented and compared with time-series graphs of import data for soft drinks and snack foods to assess changes in imports and source country in relation to trade and investment liberalization. Our analysis focuses on regional trade flows. Results: Diets and the burden of disease in the SADC have changed since the 1990s in parallel with trade and investment liberalization. Imports of soft drinks increased by 76% into SADC countries between 1995 and 2010, and processed snack foods by 83%. South Africa acts as a regional trade and investment hub; it is the major source of imports and investment related to these products into other SADC countries. At the same time, imports of processed foods and soft drinks from outside the region – largely from Asia and the Middle East – are increasing at a dramatic rate with soft drink imports growing by almost 1,200% and processed snack foods by 750%. Conclusions: There is significant intra-regional trade in products associated with the nutrition transition; however, growing extra-regional trade means that countries face new pressures in implementing strong policies to prevent the increasing burden of diet-related NCDs. Implementation of a regional nutrition policy framework could

  10. The effect of food withdrawal in children with rapid-transit constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsey, I; Hutson, J M; Southwell, B R

    2016-07-01

    Rapid proximal colonic transit with anorectal holdup is a subtype of chronic constipation linked to food intolerance. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of dietary exclusion as a treatment for constipated children with rapid-transit constipation by scintigraphy. Questionnaires on diet and symptoms were mailed out to 125 children with chronic constipation and rapid proximal colonic transit on nuclear transit study at our institute between 1998 and 2014 years. Patients were given instructions and encouraged to undertake a six-food elimination diet targeting common protein allergens (dairy, wheat, soy, eggs, nuts, seafood). Answers were completed by circling an option or on visual analogue scale. Results were evaluated statistically using GraphPad Prism 6 by a Wilcoxon matched-pairs rank test. P Constipation, abdominal pain and pain on defecation were reduced (p 50 % of families. Dietary exclusion is a promising strategy to treat constipation in children with rapid proximal colonic transit. However, it was hard for many families, demonstrating the need for identifying the cause more specifically and a better set of instructions for the family and/or dietitian to follow.

  11. The impact of rapid economic growth and globalization on zinc nutrition in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwun, In-Sook; Do, Mi-Sook; Chung, Hae-Rang; Kim, Yang Ha; Beattie, John H

    2009-08-01

    Zn deficiency may be widespread in Asian countries such as South Korea. However, dietary habits have changed in response to rapid economic growth and globalization. Zn nutrition in South Koreans has therefore been assessed during a period (1969-1998) of unprecedented economic growth. Cross-sectional food consumption data from the Korean National Nutrition Survey Reports (KNNSR) of South Korea at four separate time points (1969, 1978, 1988 and 1998) were used to calculate Zn, Ca and phytate intakes using various food composition tables, databases and literature values. Nutrient values in local foods were cited from their analysed values. Average Zn intake was 5.8, 4.8 and 5.3 mg/d for 1969, 1978 and 1988 respectively, increasing to 7.3 mg/d in 1998 (73 % of the Korean Dietary Reference Intake). The phytate:Zn molar ratio decreased from 21 to 8 during the study period. Dietary Zn depletion due to marked decreases in cereal consumption, particularly barley which has a low Zn bioavailability, was counterbalanced by marked increases in the consumption of meat and fish, which are also Zn-rich foods. Reduced phytate consumption coincident with increased Zn intake suggests that Zn bioavailability also improved, particularly by 1998. Although total Zn intake was not greatly affected over the initial period of economic growth in South Korea (1969-1988), Zn contributions from different food sources changed markedly and both Zn intake and potential bioavailability were improved by 1998. The study may have implications for Zn nutrition in other Asian countries currently experiencing rapid economic growth.

  12. Sustainable energy for the future. Modelling transitions to renewable and clean energy in rapidly developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is first to adapt energy models for the use in developing countries and second to model sustainable energy transitions and their effects in rapidly developing countries like China and India. The focus of this thesis is three-fold: a) to elaborate the differences

  13. Impacts of bus rapid transit (BRT) on surrounding residential property values : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    As bus rapid transit (BRT) grows in popularity in the United States, a better understanding of the modes impacts on land uses and property values is needed. Economic theory suggests, and literature has shown, that people are willing to pay higher ...

  14. Modeling commuter preferences for the proposed bus rapid transit in Dar-es-Salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkurunziza, A.; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; Brussel, M.J.G.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes individual commuter preferences towards the proposed bus rapid transit (BRT) system in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The objective of the survey was to identify how commuters perceive and value the proposed BRT service quality attributes. A stated preference survey of potential users

  15. Sex reversal triggers the rapid transition from genetic to temperature-dependent sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleley, Clare E; O'Meally, Denis; Sarre, Stephen D; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A; Ezaz, Tariq; Matsubara, Kazumi; Azad, Bhumika; Zhang, Xiuwen; Georges, Arthur

    2015-07-02

    Sex determination in animals is amazingly plastic. Vertebrates display contrasting strategies ranging from complete genetic control of sex (genotypic sex determination) to environmentally determined sex (for example, temperature-dependent sex determination). Phylogenetic analyses suggest frequent evolutionary transitions between genotypic and temperature-dependent sex determination in environmentally sensitive lineages, including reptiles. These transitions are thought to involve a genotypic system becoming sensitive to temperature, with sex determined by gene-environment interactions. Most mechanistic models of transitions invoke a role for sex reversal. Sex reversal has not yet been demonstrated in nature for any amniote, although it occurs in fish and rarely in amphibians. Here we make the first report of reptile sex reversal in the wild, in the Australian bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps), and use sex-reversed animals to experimentally induce a rapid transition from genotypic to temperature-dependent sex determination. Controlled mating of normal males to sex-reversed females produces viable and fertile offspring whose phenotypic sex is determined solely by temperature (temperature-dependent sex determination). The W sex chromosome is eliminated from this lineage in the first generation. The instantaneous creation of a lineage of ZZ temperature-sensitive animals reveals a novel, climate-induced pathway for the rapid transition between genetic and temperature-dependent sex determination, and adds to concern about adaptation to rapid global climate change.

  16. Physical Growth, Biological Age, and Nutritional Transitions of Adolescents Living at Moderate Altitudes in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Campos, Rossana Gómez; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Flores, Antonio Viveros; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Olivares, Pedro R; Garcia-Rubio, Javier; de Arruda, Miguel

    2015-09-25

    Peru is experiencing a stage of nutritional transition where the principal characteristics are typical of countries undergoing development. The objectives of this study were the following: (a) compare physical growth patterns with an international standard; (b) determine biological age; and (c) analyze the double nutritional burden of adolescents living at a moderate altitude in Peru. Weight, standing height, and sitting height were measured in 551 adolescents of both sexes (12.0 to 17.9 years old) from an urban area of Arequipa, Peru (2328 m). Physical growth was compared with the international standard of the CDC-2000. Biological age was determined by using a non-invasive transversal technique based on years from age at peak height velocity (APHV). Nutritional state was determined by means of weight for age and height for age. Z scores were calculated using international standards from the CDC-2000. Body weight for both sexes was similar to the CDC-2000 international standards. At all ages, the girls' height (p nutritional burden (stunted growth and excessive weight).

  17. Rapid Fatal Outcome from Pulmonary Arteries Compression in Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A. Voutsadakis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a malignancy that metastasizes frequently to lymph nodes including the mediastinal lymph nodes. This occurrence may produce symptoms due to compression of adjacent structures such as the superior vena cava syndrome or dysphagia from esophageal compression. We report the case of a 59-year-old man with metastatic transitional cell carcinoma for whom mediastinal lymphadenopathy led to pulmonary artery compression and a rapidly fatal outcome. This rare occurrence has to be distinguished from pulmonary embolism, a much more frequent event in cancer patients, in order that proper and prompt treatment be initiated.

  18. U.S. Migration, Translocality, and the Acceleration of the Nutrition Transition in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riosmena, Fernando; Frank, Reanne; Akresh, Ilana Redstone; Kroeger, Rhiannon A

    2012-09-01

    Migrant flows are generally accompanied by extensive social, economic, and cultural links between origins and destinations, transforming the former's community life, livelihoods, and local practices. Previous studies have found a positive association between these translocal ties and better child health and nutrition. We contend that focusing on children only provides a partial view of a larger process affecting community health, accelerating the nutrition transition in particular. We use a Mexican nationally-representative survey with socioeconomic, anthropometric, and biomarker measures, matched to municipal-level migration intensity and marginalization measures from the Mexican 2000 Census to study the association between adult body mass and community migration intensity. Our findings from multi-level models suggest a significant and positive relationship between community-level migration intensity and the individual risk of being overweight and obese, with significant differences by gender and with remittance intensity playing a preponderant role.

  19. Standard versus rapid food reintroduction after exclusive enteral nutritional therapy in paediatric Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiman, Abi; Mutalib, Mohamed; Moylan, Alexander; Morgan, Natalie; Crespi, Daniel; Furman, Mark; Kader, Ajmal

    2014-03-01

    In paediatric Crohn's disease (PCD), 6-8 weeks of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is effective in 60-80% cases. EEN is followed by gradual food reintroduction over variable (1-5 weeks) periods. Currently, there is no recommended duration or method for food reintroduction. The rationale for slow reintroduction is unclear and may be because of concerns about food intolerance or to maintain longer remission. The aims of this study were as follows: to compare relapse rates following standard and rapid reintroduction of food after EEN in PCD and to determine the duration of maintained remission in two groups of PCD patients. Two groups with PCD were compared: group A received standard food reintroduction over 5 weeks and group B received rapid reintroduction over 3 days. Data were collected over two consecutive time periods: group A (2005-2009) and group B (2009-2011). Only patients with a new diagnosis of PCD were included. Those with strictures and those on steroids or biologicals during EEN were excluded. The minimum duration of follow-up was 1 year. Group A included 20 patients and group B included 19 patients. In these groups, EEN led to clinical remission in 80% of the patients in group A and in 76% of the patients in group B. At 6 months, one-third of the patients from each group had developed relapse and a year after EEN, 50% of the patients in group A and 47% of the patients in group B developed relapse. Time to first relapse was 188 days (group A) and 136 days (group B). None of these results were statistically significant. In PCD, rapid food reintroduction following 6-week EEN is safe and equally effective as longer food reintroduction. We propose that a rapid food reintroduction schedule be recommended as the most tolerable approach for food reintroduction. Relapse rate and duration of remission are uninfluenced by the type of food reintroduction.

  20. Nutrition transition and its relationship to the development of obesity and related chronic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Dyerberg, Jørn; Selleck, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity has also increased substantially in the nutritional transition countries, and the health burden of obesity-related complications is growing. The introduction of fast-food chains and Westernized dietary habits providing meals with fast-food characteristics...... and cardiovascular disease. The optimal diet for the prevention of weight gain, obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes is fat-reduced, without any industrially produced trans fatty acids, fibre-rich, high in low energy density carbohydrates (fruit, vegetables and whole grain products) and with a restricted...

  1. Learning through policy tourism: circulating bus rapid transit from South America to South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Wood

    2014-01-01

    Study tours, a form of ‘policy tourism’ in which local actors travel elsewhere to see best practice and meet with those in the exporting locality who implemented it, have become a basic tenet for policy exchange. In the pursuit of these lessons, hundreds of South African public transport enthusiasts visited South America, particularly Bogota, to learn of its thriving bus rapid transit (BRT) network. This paper evaluates the influence of these exchanges on BRT circulation and adoption—what tak...

  2. Nutrition label experience and consumption of transitional foods among a nationwide cohort of 42,750 Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpeekool, Wimalin; Kirk, Martyn; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Banwell, Cathy; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the usefulness of nutrition labels in Thailand during nutrition transition from traditional to modern diets that increase salt, sugar, and calorie intake and to note socio-demographic interactions and associations with consumption of transitional processed foods. The authors studied 42,750 distance learning Open University adults aged 23-96 years in 2013 residing nationwide and participating in an ongoing community-based prospective cohort study. The authors used multivariable logistic regression to relate nutrition label experiences ("read", "good understand", "frequent use"), socio-demographic factors, and consumption of four transitional foods. These foods included "unhealthy" instant foods, carbonated soft drinks, and sweet drinks, or "healthy" milk. Overall, two-thirds reported good understanding and frequent use of nutrition labels. Unhealthy transition-indicator processed foods were frequently consumed: instant foods (7 per cent), (carbonated) soft drinks (15 per cent), and sweet drinks (41 per cent). Frequent users of nutrition labels (e.g. females, older persons, professionals) were less likely to consume unhealthy indicator foods. Those with the most positive overall nutrition label experience ("read" + "good understanding" + "frequent use") had the best indicator food profiles: instant foods (odds ratio (OR) 0.63; 95%CI, 0.56-0.70); soft drinks (OR 0.56; 95%CI, 0.52-0.61); sweet drinks (OR 0.79; 95%CI, 0.74-0.85); milk (OR 1.87; 95%CI, 1.74-2.00). Knowledge protected - those with most nutrition label experience were least likely to consume unhealthy foods. Results support government regulated nutrition labels, expanding to include sweet drinks. The study is remarkable for its large size and nationwide footprint. Study subjects were educated, represent Thais of the future, and show high awareness of transition-indicator foods.

  3. Rapidly increasing body mass index among children, adolescents and young adults in a transitioning population, South Africa, 2008-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, B; Sartorius, K; Taylor, M; Aagaard-Hansen, J; Dukhi, N; Day, C; Ndlovu, N; Slotow, R; Hofman, K

    2017-12-14

    There is a global epidemic of overweight and obesity; however, this rate of increase is even greater in some low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). South Africa (SA) is undergoing rapid socioeconomic and demographic changes that have triggered a rapid nutrition transition. The paper focuses on the recent rate of change of body mass index (BMI) among children, adolescents and young adults, further stratified by key sociodemographic factors. We analysed mean BMI of 28 247 individuals (including children) from 7301 households by age and year, from anthropometric data from four national cross-sectional (repeated panel) surveys using non-linear fitted curves and associated 95% confidence intervals. From 2008 to 2015, there was rapid rise in mean BMI in the 6-25 age band, with the highest risk (3-4+ BMI unit increase) among children aged 8-10 years. The increase was largely among females in urban areas and of middle-high socioeconomic standing. Prominent gains were also observed in certain rural areas, with extensive geographical heterogeneity across the country. We have demonstrated a major deviation from the current understanding of patterns of BMI increase, with a rate of increase substantially greater in the developing world context compared with the global pattern. This population-wide effect will have major consequences for national development as the epidemic of related non-communicable disease unfolds, and will overtax the national health care budget. Our refined understanding highlights that risks are further compounded for certain groups/places, and emphasizes that urgent geographical and population-targeted interventions are necessary. These interventions could include a sugar tax, clearer food labelling, revised school feeding programmes and mandatory bans on unhealthy food marketing to children.The scenario unfolding in South Africa will likely be followed in other LMICs.

  4. The Department of Veterans Affairs Nutritional Status Classification Scheme Allows for Rapid Assessment of Nutritional Status Prior to Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation and Identifies Patients at High Risk of Transplant-Related Complications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toro, Juan J; Haile, David J; Chao, Ju-Hsien; Schneider, Deanna; Jewell, Pamela S; Lee, Shuko; Freytes, César O

    2009-01-01

    ... of Veterans Affairs (VA) developed a Nutritional Status Classification Scheme (NSCS) to identify nutritionally compromised inpatients rapidly and reliably. The VA-NSCS takes into account a combination of body weight, routine laboratory tests, and clinical and dietary history. The VA-NSCS is routinely utilized for the nutritional evaluation ...

  5. Partnership research on nutrition transition and chronic diseases in West Africa – trends, outcomes and impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayomi Benjamin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrition-related chronic diseases (NRCD are rising quickly in developing countries, and the nutrition transition is a major contributor. Low-income countries have not been spared. Health issues related to nutritional deficiencies also persist, creating a double burden of malnutrition (DBM. There is still a major shortage of data on NRCD and DBM in Sub-Saharan Africa. A research program has been designed and conducted in partnership with West African institutions since 2003 to determine how the nutrition transition relates to NRCD and the DBM in order to support prevention efforts. Methods In Benin, cross-sectional studies among apparently healthy adults (n=540 from urban, semi-urban and rural areas have examined cardiometabolic risk (hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance in relation to diet and lifestyle, also factoring in socio-economic status (SES. Those studies were followed by a longitudinal study on how risk evolves, opening the way for mutual aid groups to develop a prevention strategy within an action research framework. In Burkina Faso, a cross-sectional study on the nutritional status and dietary patterns of urban school-age children (n=650 represented the initial stages of an action research project to prevent DBM in schools. A cross-sectional study among adults (n=330 from the capital of Burkina Faso explored the coexistence, within these individuals, of cardiometabolic risk factors and nutritional deficiencies (anemia, vitamin A deficiency, chronic energy deficiency, as they relate to diet, lifestyle and SES. Results The studies have shown that the prevalence of NRCD is high among the poor, thereby exacerbating social inequalities. The hypothesis of a positive socio-economic (and rural–urban gradient was confirmed only for obesity, whereas the prevalence of hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia did not prove to be higher among affluent city dwellers. Women were particularly

  6. Rapid estimation of nutritional elements on citrus leaves by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Sola, Luis; García-Sánchez, Francisco; Pérez-Pérez, Juan G.; Gimeno, Vicente; Navarro, Josefa M.; Moral, Raul; Martínez-Nicolás, Juan J.; Nieves, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Sufficient nutrient application is one of the most important factors in producing quality citrus fruits. One of the main guides in planning citrus fertilizer programs is by directly monitoring the plant nutrient content. However, this requires analysis of a large number of leaf samples using expensive and time-consuming chemical techniques. Over the last 5 years, it has been demonstrated that it is possible to quantitatively estimate certain nutritional elements in citrus leaves by using the spectral reflectance values, obtained by using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). This technique is rapid, non-destructive, cost-effective and environmentally friendly. Therefore, the estimation of macro and micronutrients in citrus leaves by this method would be beneficial in identifying the mineral status of the trees. However, to be used effectively NIRS must be evaluated against the standard techniques across different cultivars. In this study, NIRS spectral analysis, and subsequent nutrient estimations for N, K, Ca, Mg, B, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn concentration, were performed using 217 leaf samples from different citrus trees species. Partial least square regression and different pre-processing signal treatments were used to generate the best estimation against the current best practice techniques. It was verified a high proficiency in the estimation of N (Rv = 0.99) and Ca (Rv = 0.98) as well as achieving acceptable estimation for K, Mg, Fe, and Zn. However, no successful calibrations were obtained for the estimation of B, Cu, and Mn. PMID:26257767

  7. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-11-03

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  8. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service. A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  9. The Impacts of the Mass Rapid Transit System on Household Car Ownership in Taipei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiu Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impacts of Taipei Mass Rapid Transit (MRT system on household car ownership and analyses how socioeconomic characteristics affect household car ownership. We employ a difference-in-difference (DID strategy integrated with generalized Poisson regression models to examine the effects of MRT. The results are as follows: first, the establishment of Taipei MRT significantly reduced the level of household car ownership. Expanding the network of MRT system can be a feasible policy to control car ownership. Second, the levels of household car ownership are related to household’s socioeconomic characteristics. Third, households with high dependence on public transport own fewer cars after Taipei MRT began operation. Hence, the traffic authority should adopt more effective methods to encourage public transit use in order to decrease household car ownership.

  10. Dealing with the Empty Vehicle Movements in Personal Rapid Transit System with Batteries Constraints in a Dynamic Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzeddine Fatnassi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Personal Rapid Transit is a new emergent transportation tool. It relies on using a set of small driverless electric vehicles to transport people on demand. Because of the specific on-demand characteristic of the Personal Rapid Transit system, many Personal Rapid Transit vehicles would move empty which results in a high level of wasted transportation capacity. This is enhanced while using Personal Rapid Transit vehicles with limited electric battery capacity. This paper deals with this problem in a real time context while minimizing the set of empty vehicle movements. First, a mathematical formulation to benchmark waiting time of passengers in Personal Rapid Transit systems is proposed. Then, a simulation model that captures the main features of the Personal Rapid Transit system is developed. A decision support system which integrates several real time solution strategies as well as a simulation module is proposed. Our dispatching strategies are evaluated and compared based on our simulation model. The efficiency of our method is tested through extensive test studies.

  11. Nutrition transition in a middle-income country: 22-year trends in the Seychelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, I; Bovet, P; Viswanathan, B; Luke, A; Marques-Vidal, P

    2013-02-01

    There is little objective information regarding nutrition transition in African countries. We assessed trends in nutrition patterns in the Seychelles between 1989 and 2011. Population-based samples were obtained in 1989, 1994 and 2011 and participants aged 25-44 are considered in this study (n=493, 599 and 471, respectively). Similar, although not identical, food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were used in each survey and the variables were collapsed into homogenous categories for the purpose of this study. Between 1989 and 2011, consumption frequency of fish (5+/week) decreased from 93 to 74%, whereas the following increased: meat (5+/week) 25 to 51%, fruits (1+/week) 48 to 94%, salty snacks (1+/week) 22 to 64% and sweet snacks (1+/week) 38 to 67% (PConsumption frequency decreased for home-brewed alcoholic drinks (1+/week) 16 to 1%, but increased for wine (1+/week) 5 to 33% (both Pconsumption frequency decreased for rice (2/day) 62 to 57% and tea (1+/day) 72 to 68%, increased for poultry (1+/week) 86 to 96% (all Pconsumption frequency of traditional staple foods (fish, polished rice), beverages (tea) and of inexpensive home brews, and increased consumption frequency of meat, poultry and snacks. Food patterns also became more varied along with a broader availability of products in the 22-year interval. The health impact of these changes should be further studied.

  12. Optimizing Performance of at-grade Intersection with Bus Rapid Transit Corridor and Heterogeneous Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has emerged as a preferred mode of public transport in various countries all over the world for its cost effectiveness in construction as well as in operation and maintenance. The rapid transit feature of BRT is seen as a solution to many traffic problems in these countries. However, in developing countries like India, the right -of-way for most of the roads is restricted and traffic is heterogeneous in nature. Provision of BRT in existing right -of-way reduces the capacity available for other motorized traffic. As the buses travel with a certain frequency on dedicated bus- ways, the dedicated corridor remains unused for most of the period when other traffic on motorized vehicle (MV lanes suffers from congestion. The problem gets severe at intersections. However, if buses are operated in mixed traffic it is no more rapid transit. Hence, a solution is required to address this problem and optimize the performance of traffic as a whole. This paper presents the effect if dedicated bus-ways end at a reasonable distance before the stop line at a busy signalized at-grade intersection, and bus lanes (beyond that are made available to all the motorized vehicular traffic (heterogeneous traffic at intersection. The performance evaluation is done in terms of average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle, vehicle throughput, average speed in network and emission of Carbon monoxide CO, mono-nitrogen oxides NOx and Volatile organic compounds (VOC. It is observed that availability of bus lanes to other motorized traffic for a reasonable distance before intersection considerably reduces the average queue length, maximum queue length, average delay time per vehicle and emission per vehicle, while there is an increase in vehicle throughput and average speed of all the vehicles in the network. Thus it results in reduction of congestion and performance enhancement of at-grade intersections and network. Results of

  13. A high-resolution chronology of rapid forest transitions following polynesian arrival in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B McWethy

    Full Text Available Human-caused forest transitions are documented worldwide, especially during periods when land use by dense agriculturally-based populations intensified. However, the rate at which prehistoric human activities led to permanent deforestation is poorly resolved. In the South Island, New Zealand, the arrival of Polynesians c. 750 years ago resulted in dramatic forest loss and conversion of nearly half of native forests to open vegetation. This transformation, termed the Initial Burning Period, is documented in pollen and charcoal records, but its speed has been poorly constrained. High-resolution chronologies developed with a series of AMS radiocarbon dates from two lake sediment cores suggest the shift from forest to shrubland occurred within decades rather than centuries at drier sites. We examine two sites representing extreme examples of the magnitude of human impacts: a drier site that was inherently more vulnerable to human-set fires and a wetter, less burnable site. The astonishing rate of deforestation at the hands of small transient populations resulted from the intrinsic vulnerability of the native flora to fire and from positive feedbacks in post-fire vegetation recovery that increased landscape flammability. Spatially targeting burning in highly-flammable seral vegetation in forests rarely experiencing fire was sufficient to create an alternate fire-prone stable state. The New Zealand example illustrates how seemingly stable forest ecosystems can experience rapid and permanent conversions. Forest loss in New Zealand is among the fastest ecological transitions documented in the Holocene; yet equally rapid transitions can be expected in present-day regions wherever positive feedbacks support alternate fire-inhibiting, fire-prone stable states.

  14. A high-resolution chronology of rapid forest transitions following polynesian arrival in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWethy, David B; Wilmshurst, Janet M; Whitlock, Cathy; Wood, Jamie R; McGlone, Matt S

    2014-01-01

    Human-caused forest transitions are documented worldwide, especially during periods when land use by dense agriculturally-based populations intensified. However, the rate at which prehistoric human activities led to permanent deforestation is poorly resolved. In the South Island, New Zealand, the arrival of Polynesians c. 750 years ago resulted in dramatic forest loss and conversion of nearly half of native forests to open vegetation. This transformation, termed the Initial Burning Period, is documented in pollen and charcoal records, but its speed has been poorly constrained. High-resolution chronologies developed with a series of AMS radiocarbon dates from two lake sediment cores suggest the shift from forest to shrubland occurred within decades rather than centuries at drier sites. We examine two sites representing extreme examples of the magnitude of human impacts: a drier site that was inherently more vulnerable to human-set fires and a wetter, less burnable site. The astonishing rate of deforestation at the hands of small transient populations resulted from the intrinsic vulnerability of the native flora to fire and from positive feedbacks in post-fire vegetation recovery that increased landscape flammability. Spatially targeting burning in highly-flammable seral vegetation in forests rarely experiencing fire was sufficient to create an alternate fire-prone stable state. The New Zealand example illustrates how seemingly stable forest ecosystems can experience rapid and permanent conversions. Forest loss in New Zealand is among the fastest ecological transitions documented in the Holocene; yet equally rapid transitions can be expected in present-day regions wherever positive feedbacks support alternate fire-inhibiting, fire-prone stable states.

  15. Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, P R; Rombeau, J L

    2000-09-01

    The use of nutrition for the medical patient, in the inpatient setting and at home, will likely continue to increase in the future. Each patient should be evaluated in an individualized but systematic fashion. Each patient in whom malnourishment is suspected should undergo a thorough assessment for the presence and degree of malnutrition with an accurate calculation of nutritional requirements. It is important to choose the correct method of delivery of nutrition, to monitor and recognize any complications or problems that may arise, and to tailor the nutritional therapy to the unique diseases that are encountered in medicine. Although increasingly new advances and changes are occurring in the field of nutrition, nutritional support and therapy are best delivered and supplied to the patient with a network of health care workers, including the physician, the nurse, the dietitian, the social worker, and pharmacist.

  16. Rapid microwave-assisted preparation of binary and ternary transition metal sulfide compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butala, Megan M.; Perez, Minue A.; Arnon, Shiri; Göbel, Claudia; Preefer, Molleigh B.; Seshadri, Ram

    2017-12-01

    Transition metal chalcogenides are of interest for energy applications, including energy generation in photoelectrochemical cells and as electrodes for next-generation electrochemical energy storage. Synthetic routes for such chalcogenides typically involve extended heating at elevated temperatures for multiple weeks. We demonstrate here the feasibility of rapidly preparing select sulfide compounds in a matter of minutes, rather than weeks, using microwave-assisted heating in domestic microwaves. We report the preparations of phase pure FeS2, CoS2, and solid solutions thereof from the elements with only 40 min of heating. Conventional furnace and rapid microwave preparations of CuTi2S4 both result in a majority of the targeted phase, even with the significantly shorter heating time of 40 min for microwave methods relative to 12 days using a conventional furnace. The preparations we describe for these compounds can be extended to related structures and chemistries and thus enable rapid screening of the properties and performance of various compositions of interest for electronic, optical, and electrochemical applications.

  17. Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl under rapid compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuanlong; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Park, Changyong; Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin

    2016-01-01

    Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl has been investigated under various compression rates (0.03-13.5 GPa/s) in a dynamic diamond anvil cell using time-resolved x-ray diffraction and fast imaging. Our experimental data show that the volume fraction across the transition generally gives sigmoidal curves as a function of pressure during rapid compression. Based upon classical nucleation and growth theories (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov theories), we propose a model that is applicable for studying kinetics for the compression rates studied. The fit of the experimental volume fraction as a function of pressure provides information on effective activation energy and average activation volume at a given compression rate. The resulting parameters are successfully used for interpreting several experimental observables that are compression-rate dependent, such as the transition time, grain size, and over-pressurization. The effective activation energy (Qeff) is found to decrease linearly with the logarithm of compression rate. When Qeff is applied to the Arrhenius equation, this relationship can be used to interpret the experimentally observed linear relationship between the logarithm of the transition time and logarithm of the compression rates. The decrease of Qeff with increasing compression rate results in the decrease of the nucleation rate, which is qualitatively in agreement with the observed change of the grain size with compression rate. The observed over-pressurization is also well explained by the model when an exponential relationship between the average activation volume and the compression rate is assumed.

  18. CDK8-Cyclin C Mediates Nutritional Regulation of Developmental Transitions through the Ecdysone Receptor in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiao-Jun; Hsu, Fu-Ning; Gao, Xinsheng; Xu, Wu; Ni, Jian-Quan; Xing, Yue; Huang, Liying; Hsiao, Hao-Ching; Zheng, Haiyan; Wang, Chenguang; Zheng, Yani; Xiaoli, Alus M.; Yang, Fajun; Bondos, Sarah E.; Ji, Jun-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone ecdysone and its receptor (EcR) play critical roles in orchestrating developmental transitions in arthropods. However, the mechanism by which EcR integrates nutritional and developmental cues to correctly activate transcription remains poorly understood. Here, we show that EcR-dependent transcription, and thus, developmental timing in Drosophila, is regulated by CDK8 and its regulatory partner Cyclin C (CycC), and the level of CDK8 is affected by nutrient availability. We observed that cdk8 and cycC mutants resemble EcR mutants and EcR-target genes are systematically down-regulated in both mutants. Indeed, the ability of the EcR-Ultraspiracle (USP) heterodimer to bind to polytene chromosomes and the promoters of EcR target genes is also diminished. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with EcR and USP identified multiple Mediator subunits, including CDK8 and CycC. Consistently, CDK8-CycC interacts with EcR-USP in vivo; in particular, CDK8 and Med14 can directly interact with the AF1 domain of EcR. These results suggest that CDK8-CycC may serve as transcriptional cofactors for EcR-dependent transcription. During the larval–pupal transition, the levels of CDK8 protein positively correlate with EcR and USP levels, but inversely correlate with the activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), the master regulator of intracellular lipid homeostasis. Likewise, starvation of early third instar larvae precociously increases the levels of CDK8, EcR and USP, yet down-regulates SREBP activity. Conversely, refeeding the starved larvae strongly reduces CDK8 levels but increases SREBP activity. Importantly, these changes correlate with the timing for the larval–pupal transition. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK8-CycC links nutrient intake to developmental transitions (EcR activity) and fat metabolism (SREBP activity) during the larval–pupal transition. PMID:26222308

  19. CDK8-Cyclin C Mediates Nutritional Regulation of Developmental Transitions through the Ecdysone Receptor in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Jun Xie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The steroid hormone ecdysone and its receptor (EcR play critical roles in orchestrating developmental transitions in arthropods. However, the mechanism by which EcR integrates nutritional and developmental cues to correctly activate transcription remains poorly understood. Here, we show that EcR-dependent transcription, and thus, developmental timing in Drosophila, is regulated by CDK8 and its regulatory partner Cyclin C (CycC, and the level of CDK8 is affected by nutrient availability. We observed that cdk8 and cycC mutants resemble EcR mutants and EcR-target genes are systematically down-regulated in both mutants. Indeed, the ability of the EcR-Ultraspiracle (USP heterodimer to bind to polytene chromosomes and the promoters of EcR target genes is also diminished. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with EcR and USP identified multiple Mediator subunits, including CDK8 and CycC. Consistently, CDK8-CycC interacts with EcR-USP in vivo; in particular, CDK8 and Med14 can directly interact with the AF1 domain of EcR. These results suggest that CDK8-CycC may serve as transcriptional cofactors for EcR-dependent transcription. During the larval-pupal transition, the levels of CDK8 protein positively correlate with EcR and USP levels, but inversely correlate with the activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP, the master regulator of intracellular lipid homeostasis. Likewise, starvation of early third instar larvae precociously increases the levels of CDK8, EcR and USP, yet down-regulates SREBP activity. Conversely, refeeding the starved larvae strongly reduces CDK8 levels but increases SREBP activity. Importantly, these changes correlate with the timing for the larval-pupal transition. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK8-CycC links nutrient intake to developmental transitions (EcR activity and fat metabolism (SREBP activity during the larval-pupal transition.

  20. Nutrition Transition and Obesity Among Teenagers and Young Adults in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Ranil; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Wijayabandara, Maheshi; Hills, Andrew P; Misra, Anoop

    2017-01-01

    Obesity among teenagers/adolescents and young adults is associated with significant adverse short and longer-term effects on health. To date, no narrative reviews have evaluated nutrition transition and its contribution to the obesity epidemic among adolescents and young adults in the South Asian (SA) region. Data were retrieved by a four-stage systematic search process. A search of the online Pub- Med/Medline, SciVerse Scopus and Web of Science databases was performed. The age groups were defined as follows; teenage:13-19 years, adolescence:10-18 years and young adult:19-24 years. Among teenagers/adolescents, the prevalence of overweight ranged from 11.0% (Sri Lanka) to 19.0% (India), while obesity ranged from 2.4% (Sri Lanka) to 11.0% (Pakistan). In young adults, prevalence of overweight ranged between 7.9% (Nepal) to 15.0% (Pakistan), while obesity showed a much wider variation (0.005%[Nepal] - 22.8%[India]). Nutritional risk factors associated with overweight/ obesity among SAs of this age group included reduced fruit and vegetable consumption, a total vegetarian diet, consumption of fast food and soft drinks, and skipping breakfast. Other contributing factors identified were: adding extra salt to meals, eating meals outside of the home, frequently visiting restaurants and eating while watching television. Daily milk/yoghurt consumption and a family supper have shown a protective effect against overweight/obesity. Overweight and obesity are common amongst teenagers/adolescents and young adults of the SA region. Several food types and habits were identified as being associated with overweight/ obesity in this population. Identifying common protective and contributory factors is very important for the development of a shared regional preventive strategy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Evidence for nutrition transition in Kuwait: over-consumption of macronutrients and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Sahar; Al-Hooti, Suad N; Al-Hamad, Nawal; Al-Zenki, Sameer; Alomirah, Husam; Alayan, Iman; Al-Attar, Hassan; Al-Othman, Amani; Al-Shami, Entessar; Al-Somaie, Mona; Jackson, Robert T

    2013-04-01

    To describe nutrient intakes and prevalence of overweight and obesity in a nationally representative sample of Kuwaitis and to compare intakes with reference values. Cross-sectional, multistage stratified, cluster sample. Settings National nutrition survey covering all geographical areas of the country. Kuwaitis (n 1704) between 3 and 86 years of age. Obesity was more prevalent among women than men (50 % and 70 % for females aged 19-50 years and ≥51 years, respectively, v. 29 % and 42 % for their male counterparts). Boys were more obese than girls, with the highest obesity rate among those aged 9-13 years (37 % and 24 % of males and females, respectively). Energy intake was higher than the estimated energy requirements for almost half of Kuwaiti children and one-third of adults. The Estimated Average Requirement was exceeded by 78-100 % of the recommendation for protein and carbohydrates. More than two-thirds of males aged ≥4 years exceeded the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for Na. Conversely, less than 20 % of Kuwaitis, regardless of age, consumed 100 % or more of the Estimated Average Requirement for vitamin D, vitamin E, Ca, n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. Less than 20 % of children met the recommended level for fibre. Nutrition transition among Kuwaitis was demonstrated by the increased prevalence of obesity and overweight, increased intakes of energy and macronutrients and decreased intakes of fibre and micronutrients. Interventions to increase awareness about healthy foods combined with modifications in subsidy policies are clearly warranted to increase consumption of low-energy, nutrient-dense foods.

  2. The Rapid Transit System That Achieves Higher Performance with Lower Life-Cycle Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Satoru; Takagi, Ryo

    In the age of traction system made of inverter and ac traction motors, distributed traction system with pure electric brake of regenerative mode has been recognised very advantageous. This paper proposes a new system as the lowest life-cycle cost system for high performance rapid transit, a new architecture and optimum parameters of power feeding system, and a new running method of trains. In Japan, these components of this proposal, i.e. pure electric brake and various countermeasures of reducing loss of regeneration have been already popular but not as yet the new running method for better utilisation of the equipment and for lower life-cycle cost. One example of what are proposed in this paper will be made as Tsukuba Express, which is under construction as the most modern commuter railway in Greater Tokyo area.

  3. Inequality in mortality in Vietnam during a period of rapid transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granlund, David; Chuc, Nguyen T; Phuc, Ho D; Lindholm, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Vietnam has experienced rapid economic growth following the transition, which began in the mid 1980s, from a planned agriculture based economy to a more market orientated one. In this paper, the associations between socioeconomic variables and mortality for 41,000 adults in Northern Vietnam followed from January 1999 to March 2008 are estimated using Cox's proportionally hazard models. Also, we use decomposition techniques to investigate the relative importance of socioeconomic factors for explaining inequality in age-standardized mortality risk. The results confirm previously found negative associations between mortality and income and education, for both men and women. We also found that marital status, at least for men, explain a large and growing part of the inequality. Finally, estimation results for relative education variables suggest that there exist positive spillover effects of education, meaning that higher education of one's neighbors or spouse might reduce ones mortality risk. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A STUDY ON THE INTRODUCTION OF BUS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM IN ASIAN DEVELOPING CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaned SATIENNAM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has increasingly become an attractive urban transit alternative in many Asian developing cities due to its cost-effective and flexible implementation. However, it still seems to be difficult to introduce BRT to these cities because almost all of their city structures have been developed under solely a road transport development city plan and weakness of land use control gives rise to many problems, such as urban sprawl, traffic congestion, and air pollution. The purpose of this study was to introduce several strategies to support BRT implementation in Asian developing cities, such as a strategy to appropriately integrate the paratransit system into BRT system as being a feeder along a BRT corridor to supply demand. These proposed strategies were evaluated by applying demand forecasting and emission models to the BRT project plan of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA in Thailand. It was demonstrated that the proposed strategies could effectively improve the BRT ridership, traffic conditions, and air pollution emission of the entire system in Bangkok. This study could be further extended to include strategy recommendation if a BRT system were to be introduced to other Asian developing cities.

  5. A rapid microwave-assisted solvothermal approach to lower-valent transition metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead-Rosenberg, Zachary; Harrison, Katharine L; Turner, Travis; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-11-18

    A green, rapid microwave-assisted solvothermal process using tetraethylene glycol (TEG) as a reducing agent has been explored as a soft-chemistry route for the preparation of various lower-valent transition metal oxides. To demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, lower-valent binary oxides such as V4O9, Mn3O4 or MnO, CoO, and Cu2O have been obtained within a short reaction time of 30 min by reducing, respectively, V2O5, MnO2, Co3O4, and CuO with TEG at LaCoO3, LaNiO3, and La4Ni3O10. The oxidation state of the transition metal ions and the oxygen content in these ternary oxides could be tuned by precisely controlling the reaction temperatures from 160 to 300 °C. The products have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and iodometric titration. The versatility of this novel technique is demonstrated by the facile synthesis of V4O9, which has only been produced recently in single-phase form.

  6. SURVEY DESIGN TO GRASP AND COMPARE USER'S ATTITUDES ON BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thillaiampalam SIVAKUMAR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In mitigating urban transportation problems and providing a sustainable transit system, rail-based systems have become popular. While rail-based systems are welcome in many developed countries, it is impractical for cities in developing countries due to the high cost of system building and operation. Thus, a staged or incremental adjustment towards fixed guide way transit implementation of greater interest to many agencies today, and these days it has started developing in terms of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT. As it is very new to developing cities, it is a challenge to get the users to understand the system and to grasp their attitude. Besides, there are many other general issues like literacy, lack of a sample frame etc. Survey design needs to be tuned carefully for these cities to obtain a resonant output. Concerning all these problems, a hypothetical questionnaire survey such as Stated Preference (SP has become popular. This study conducted a survey on BRT implementation with SP as a hypothetical tool at a selected corridor in Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka. The main objectives were to identify questionnaire design(media effects, literacy of users, segmental variation, and the important variable(s. In this survey design, system explanation has been set in two slightly different ways (media: TEXT ∼ IMAGE for comparison and it was found that even a slight difference on design affected the users' response considerably. Income level could not be predicted directly, but car ownership was found to be a good predictor, it was found to be an important variable and it showed a correlation with literacy.

  7. Does rapid urbanization aggravate health disparities? Reflections on the epidemiological transition in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Kroll

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid urbanization in low- and middle-income countries reinforces risk and epidemiological transition in urban societies, which are characterized by high socioeconomic gradients. Limited availability of disaggregated morbidity data in these settings impedes research on epidemiological profiles of different population subgroups. Objective: The study aimed to analyze the epidemiological transition in the emerging megacity of Pune with respect to changing morbidity and mortality patterns, also taking into consideration health disparities among different socioeconomic groups. Design: A mixed-methods approach was used, comprising secondary analysis of mortality data, a survey among 900 households in six neighborhoods with different socioeconomic profiles, 46 in-depth interviews with laypeople, and expert interviews with 37 health care providers and 22 other health care workers. Results: The mortality data account for an epidemiological transition with an increasing number of deaths due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs in Pune. The share of deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases remained nearly constant, though the cause of deaths changed considerably within this group. The survey data and expert interviews indicated a slightly higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among higher socioeconomic groups, but a higher incidence and more frequent complications and comorbidities in lower socioeconomic groups. Although the self-reported morbidity for malaria, gastroenteritis, and tuberculosis did not show a socioeconomic pattern, experts estimated the prevalence in lower socioeconomic groups to be higher, though all groups in Pune would be affected. Conclusions: The rising burden of NCDs among all socioeconomic groups and the concurrent persistence of communicable diseases pose a major challenge for public health. Improvement of urban health requires a stronger focus on health promotion and disease prevention for all

  8. Rapid solid-state metathesis route to transition-metal doped titanias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Nathaniel; Perera, Sujith; Gillan, Edward G., E-mail: edward-gillan@uiowa.edu

    2015-12-15

    Rapid solid-state metathesis (SSM) reactions are often short-lived highly exothermic reactions that yield a molten alkali halide salt that aids in product growth and crystallization. SSM reactions may also produce kinetically stabilized structures due to the short (seconds) reaction times. This report describes the investigation of rapid SSM reactions in the synthesis of transition-metal doped titanias (M–TiO{sub 2}). The dopant targeted compositions were ten mol percent and based on elemental analysis, many of the M–TiO{sub 2} samples were close to this targeted level. Based on surface analysis, some samples showed large enrichment in surface dopant content, particularly chromium and manganese doped samples. Due to the highly exothermic nature of these reactions, rutile structured TiO{sub 2} was observed in all cases. The M–TiO{sub 2} samples are visible colored and show magnetic and optical properties consistent with the dopant in an oxide environment. UV and visible photocatalytic experiments with these visibly colored rutile M–TiO{sub 2} powders showed that many of them are strongly absorbent for methylene blue dye and degrade the dye under both UV and visible light illumination. This work may open up SSM reactions as an alternate non-thermodynamic reaction strategy for dopant incorporation into a wide range of oxide and non-oxides.

  9. Shaping travels and land use with bus rapid transit: a developed city’s visualisation with smartcard and census data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit and land-use integration is regarded as one of the most important means of avoiding or reducing car dependence and urban sprawl, which are thought as major culprits of unsustainability. In developing countries, rail rapid transit could be too expensive to become the predominant component of their respective systems. However, bus rapid transit (BRT as one of the cheapest forms of mass transit is a better alternative for those countries. In developing countries, BRT has transformed numerous cities such as Curitiba, Brazil; Bogota, Columbia; and Guangzhou, China. Can BRT have the same transformative impacts for cities in developed countries as well? Can the impacts of BRT be visualized using the transit population? Given that few cities in developed countries have BRT and ridership data of BRT are not always available, the above questions have not been well addressed before. To answer these two questions, we analysed smartcard swipes over a five-day weekday period (11–15 March 2013 for Brisbane in Queensland, Australia, and reconstructed trip trajectories of those 255,887 transit riders. We found that BRT serves a significant percentage and number of travellers, thus shaping travel behaviour and ultimately land use – when transit ridership and rate of transit usage are used as indicators. This is a significant achievement in Australia, a country known for its car dependence and urban sprawl.

  10. Nutrition Transition and Biocultural Determinants of Obesity among Cameroonian Migrants in Urban Cameroon and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Amougou, Norbert; Ponty, Amandine; Loinger-Beck, Juliette; Nkuintchua, Téodyl; Monteillet, Nicolas; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Holdsworth, Michelle; Pasquet, Patrick

    2017-06-29

    Native of rural West Cameroon, the Bamiléké population is traditionally predisposed to obesity. Bamiléké who migrated to urban areas additionally experience the nutrition transition. We investigated the biocultural determinants of obesity in Bamiléké who migrated to urban Cameroon (Yaoundé), or urban France (Paris). We conducted qualitative interviews ( n = 36; 18 men) and a quantitative survey ( n = 627; 266 men) of adults using two-stage sampling strategy, to determine the association of dietary intake, physical activity and body weight norms with obesity of Bamiléké populations in these three socio-ecological areas (rural Cameroon: n = 258; urban Cameroon: n = 319; urban France: n = 50). The Bamiléké valued overweight and traditional energy-dense diets in rural and urban Cameroon. Physical activity levels were lower, consumption of processed energy-dense food was frequent and obesity levels higher in new migrants living in urban Cameroon and France. Female sex, age, duration of residence in urban areas, lower physical activity and valorisation of overweight were independently associated with obesity status. This work argues in favour of local and global health policies that account for the origin and the migration trajectories to prevent obesity in migrants.

  11. Transit Reliability Information Program : Reliability Verification Demonstration Plan for Rapid Rail Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    The Transit Reliability Information Program (TRIP) is a government-initiated program to assist the transit industry in satisfying its need for transit reliability information. TRIP provides this assistance through the operation of a national Data Ban...

  12. Parenteral nutrition rapidly reduces hepatic mononuclear cell numbers and lipopolysaccharide receptor expression on Kupffer cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Jiro; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Murakoshi, Satoshi; Noguchi, Midori; Moriya, Tomoyuki; Okamoto, Koichi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Yamamoto, Junji; Hase, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) reduces the number of hepatic mononuclear cell (MNCs) and impairs their function, resulting in poor survival after intraportal bacterial challenge in mice. Our recent animal study demonstrated resumption of enteral nutrition after PN to rapidly restore hepatic MNC numbers (in 12 hours) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor expression on Kupffer cells (in 48 hours). The present study examined the time courses of hepatic MNC number reductions and LPS receptor expression changes in mice receiving PN. Male mice (n = 49) from the Institute of Cancer Research were divided into chow (n = 8), PN0.5 (n = 8), PN1 (n = 8), PN2 (n = 9), PN3 (n = 9), and PN5 (n = 7) groups. The chow group was given chow with an intravenous saline infusion. The PN groups were fed parenterally for 0.5, 1, 2, 3, or 5 days following the chow-feeding courses. After 7 days of nutrition support, hepatic MNCs were isolated and counted. The expression of LPS receptors on Kupffer cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Hepatic MNC numbers rapidly reached their lowest level in the PN0.5 and PN1 groups but were somewhat restored thereafter and remained stable after the third day, without significant differences between any 2 of the PN groups. CD14 and Toll-like receptor 4/MD-2 expressions both showed significant reductions in the PN1 group compared with the chow group and gradually decreased to their lowest levels in the PN5 group. PN administration rapidly reduces hepatic MNC numbers and LPS receptor expression on Kupffer cells.

  13. Status and future transition of rapid urbanizing landscape in central Western Ghats - CA based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, S..; Rajan, K. S.; Ramachandra, T. V.

    2014-11-01

    The land use changes in forested landscape are highly complex and dynamic, affected by the natural, socio-economic, cultural, political and other factors. The remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) techniques coupled with multi-criteria evaluation functions such as Markov-cellular automata (CA-Markov) model helps in analysing intensity, extent and future forecasting of human activities affecting the terrestrial biosphere. Karwar taluk of Central Western Ghats in Karnataka state, India has seen rapid transitions in its forest cover due to various anthropogenic activities, primarily driven by major industrial activities. A study based on Landsat and IRS derived data along with CA-Markov method has helped in characterizing the patterns and trends of land use changes over a period of 2004-2013, expected transitions was predicted for a set of scenarios through 2013-2022. The analysis reveals the loss of pristine forest cover from 75.51% to 67.36% (1973 to 2013) and increase in agriculture land as well as built-up area of 8.65% (2013), causing impact on local flora and fauna. The other factors driving these changes are the aggregated level of demand for land, local and regional effects of land use activities such as deforestation, improper practices in expansion of agriculture and infrastructure development, deteriorating natural resources availability. The spatio temporal models helped in visualizing on-going changes apart from prediction of likely changes. The CA-Markov based analysis provides us insights into the localized changes impacting these regions and can be useful in developing appropriate mitigation management approaches based on the modelled future impacts. This necessitates immediate measures for minimizing the future impacts.

  14. KAJIAN AWAL SIMULASI KOMPUTER MODEL KEBIJAKAN PENENTUAN JUMLAH OPTIMAL ARMADA BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Budiawan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Keberadaan Bus Rapid Transit (BRT di Kota Semarang diharapkan dapat menjadi salah satu solusi akan permasalahan kemacetan, adanya BRT ini terutama pada trayek perjalanan koridor II, ternyata mendapatkan tanggapan positif dari masyarakat pengguna, terbukti dari meningkatnya permintaan yang terjadi dari tahun 2012 hingga 2013 yakni hampir menyentuh angka 90% dari tahun sebelumnya. Dari hasil pengamatan pada trayek perjalanan Koridor II yang telah dilakukan, ternyata diketahui bahwa pada beberapa shelter (halte terjadi permintaan yang cukup tinggi, dan akhirnya pada saat peak hour armada BRT tidak mampu menampung seluruh permintaan yang terjadi, sehingga mengakibatkan penumpang harus menunggu lebih lama untuk dilayani oleh armada tersebut. Hal tersebut memicu permasalahan baru yakni kurang optimalnya jumlah armada yang beroperasi dan juga jadwal antar keberangkatan armada yang kurang menyesuaikan kondisi ketika tingginya permintaan pada setiap halte. Adapun metode yang digunakan adalah dengan melakukan pendekatan sistem, yang selanjutnya melakukan pemodelan sistem transportasi dan simulasi computer yang terjadi pada rute perjalanan tersebut. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah rancangan model simulasi dalam bentuk model matematis dan simulasi komputer. Variabel pengendali pada model matematis dan simulasi komputer adalah frekuensi waktu antar kedatangan armada BRT, sehingga diharapkan mengurangi panjang antrian penumpang. Kata kunci: sistem transportasi, pemodelan sistem, simulasi komputer.

  15. The department of veterans affairs nutritional status classification scheme allows for rapid assessment of nutritional status prior to autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and identifies patients at high risk of transplant-related complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Juan J; Haile, David J; Chao, Ju-Hsien; Schneider, Deanna; Jewell, Pamela S; Lee, Shuko; Freytes, César O

    2009-09-01

    The nutritional assessment of patients prior to autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT) is labor intensive. A simple method of nutritional assessment prior to APSCT would be extremely helpful, especially if this method could identify patients at high risk of transplant-related complications. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) developed a Nutritional Status Classification Scheme (NSCS) to identify nutritionally compromised inpatients rapidly and reliably. The objective of this study was to determine if the use of the VA-NSCS could be utilized as a tool for the evaluation of patients prior to APBSCT and to determine if this tool could be used to identify patients at high risk of transplant-related complications. The nutritional status of 128 patients who underwent APBSCT was assessed by a registered dietician, utilizing the VA-NSCS, upon admission to the hospital and prior to conditioning regimen. Patients with moderately compromised nutritional status pretransplantation experienced a higher incidence of infections, longer duration of diarrhea, and longer length of hospital stay when compared to patients with normal or mildly compromised nutritional status. Our study demonstrates that the VA-NSCS, a simple and inexpensive tool to assess nutritional status, was useful in determining the pretransplant nutritional status of patients with lymphogenous malignancies who underwent APBSCT. In addition, this method was able to identify patients at a higher risk of posttransplant complications. Future studies should be undertaken to determine the optimal method for the nutritional assessment of autologous stem cell transplant candidates.

  16. Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  17. The nutrition transition and the right to adequate food for adolescents in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Stupar, Dijana

    2007-01-01

    Changes in diet and nutrition along with other lifestyle changes have during the last decades affected the pattern of diseases and nutrition problems in many developing countries, the phenomenon known as ‘The Nutrition Transition’. As people move into cities, their lifestyles and food supplies change leading to changes in their diets. Urban diets show trends toward greater consumption of rice and wheat, more milled and polished grains, food higher in fat, more animal products, more sugar, and...

  18. Characterizing rapid, activity-linked conformational transitions in proteins via sub-second hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resetca, Diana; Wilson, Derek J

    2013-11-01

    This review outlines the application of time-resolved electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (TRESI-MS) and hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) to study rapid, activity-linked conformational transitions in proteins. The method is implemented on a microfluidic chip which incorporates all sample-handling steps required for a 'bottom-up' HDX workflow: a capillary mixer for sub-second HDX labeling, a static mixer for HDX quenching, a microreactor for rapid protein digestion, and on-chip electrospray. By combining short HDX labeling pulses with rapid digestion, this approach provides a detailed characterization of the structural transitions that occur during protein folding, ligand binding, post-translational modification and catalytic turnover in enzymes. This broad spectrum of applications in areas largely inaccessible to conventional techniques means that microfluidics-enabled TRESI-MS/HDX is a unique and powerful approach for investigating the dynamic basis of protein function. © 2013 FEBS.

  19. Urban Air Pollution in Taiwan before and after the Installation of a Mass Rapid Transit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Pei-Hsiou; Wang, Gen-Shuh; Chen, Bing-Yu; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2016-09-01

    Urbanization causes air pollution in metropolitan areas, coupled with meteorological factors that affect air quality. Although previous studies focused on the relationships of urbanization, air pollution, and climate change in Western countries, this study evaluated long-term variations of air quality and meteorological factors in Taiwanese metropolitan areas (Taipei area, Taichung City, and Kaohsiung City) and a rural area (Hualien County) between 1993 and 2012. The influence of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system on air quality was also evaluated. Air pollutant concentrations and meteorology data were collected from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA) air monitoring stations and Central Weather Bureau stations in the surveyed areas, respectively. Analyses indicate that levels of air pollution in metropolitan areas were greater than in the rural area. Kaohsiung City had the highest levels of O, SO, and particulate matter 2.5 or 10 µm in diameter (PM and PM). Clear downward trends for CO, NO, PM, PM, and especially SO concentrations were found in the surveyed areas, whereas O showed no decrease. Both O and PM concentrations showed similar bimodal seasonal distributions. Taiwan's air quality has improved significantly since 1993, indicating the effectiveness of promoting air pollution strategies and policies by the TEPA. Air pollution had an obvious improvement in Taipei area after the MRT system began operations in 1996. Because global climate may potentially affect urban air pollution in Taiwan, further study to clarify the mechanisms by which air pollution may affect human health and other biological effects is warranted. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Particulate Matter Concentrations in San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) Train Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, L.; Macias, S.; Romero, N.; Lockett, N.; Polar, J.; Madrigal, C.; Lopez, F.; Sanchez, R.; Webster, D.; Torio, M.; Rios, V.; Marks-Block, T.; Toli, F.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a general effort to assess air quality in different regions of the San Francisco Bay Area, we collected Particulate Matter (PM) data within passenger train cars along multiple commuter train lines simultaneously during the summer and fall of 2012. We visited numerous Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system stations, including those along the Fremont, Pittsburg and SF/Daly City lines. In conducting this study we used a Dustrak 8530 aerosol sensor equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver to measure PM size 2.5 μm concentrations every second. Of all the BART stations we visited, average PM concentration levels at the Embarcadero station in San Francisco were the highest during multiple visits, with a value of 104.95 μg/m3. We also noted that high levels of PM 2.5 were released when the cloth seats on the trains were struck, which resulted in significant, temporary increases of hazardous PM levels of up to 3000 μg/m3! Embarcadero station's high PM concentration correlates to past research in other underground train stations throughout the world, where PM produced through the abrasive interaction of train wheels and tracks or brake pads becomes trapped. Compared to levels measured at outdoor stations (average of 8.52μg/m3) and other underground stations, levels detected at the Embarcadero station are particularly alarming. We believe this is due to the fact that this station is located at one end of a long, underground and underwater transbay tunnel that connects the East San Francisco Bay area to San Francisco to the west. To reduce PM exposure risk to BART employees and passengers, we suggest increasing and/or installing filtration and ventilation systems, which should substantially reduce PM concentrations at Embarcadero station.

  1. Geographic variation of overweight and obesity among women in Nigeria: a case for nutritional transition in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala

    Full Text Available Nutritional research in sub-Saharan Africa has primarily focused on under-nutrition. However, there is evidence of an ongoing nutritional transition in these settings. This study aimed to examine the geographic variation of overweight and obesity prevalence at the state-level among women in Nigeria, while accounting for individual-level risk factors.The analysis was based on the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, including 27,967 women aged 15-49 years. Individual data were collected on socio-demographics, but were aggregated to the country's states. We used a Bayesian geo-additive mixed model to map the geographic distribution of overweight and obesity at the state-level, accounting for individual-level risk factors.The overall prevalence of combined overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 was 20.9%. In multivariate Bayesian geo-additive models, higher education [odds ratio (OR & 95% Credible Region (CR: 1.68 (1.38, 2.00], higher wealth index [3.45 (2.98, 4.05], living in urban settings [1.24 (1.14, 1.36] and increasing age were all significantly associated with a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. There was also a striking variation in overweight/obesity prevalence across ethnic groups and state of residence, the highest being in Cross River State, in south-eastern Nigeria [2.32 (1.62, 3.40], the lowest in Osun State in south-western Nigeria [0.48 (0.36, 0.61].This study suggests distinct geographic patterns in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among Nigerian women, as well as the role of demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors in the ongoing nutritional transition in these settings.

  2. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and health correlates of nutrition transition dietary indicators in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriyoán Colón-Ramos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related correlates of food preferences in Puerto Rico that will help determine Caribbean-region populations vulnerable to nutrition transition. METHODS: Data from a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 858 adults residing in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico were analyzed. Multivariable ordinal logistic regressions were used to model the frequency of consumption of 1 fruits and vegetables, 2 tubers/starchy root vegetables, 3 fried foods, and 4 Western-style fast foods as a function of socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related characteristics. RESULTS: Higher frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with being physically active and older and having a medium to high level of education, whereas intake of tubers was associated with being older, having a low income, not using government insurance, and having elevated levels of triglycerides. Frequency of consumption of fast food was associated with younger age, higher income, 12-15 years of formal education, and a higher body mass index (BMI, whereas frequency of consumption of fried food was associated with being younger and male, not being a smoker, and having elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate a nutrition transition in Puerto Rico with health consequences for the Caribbean region. The characteristics of this nutrition transition seem to be determined by income, education, and age, but may also be dictated by access to various food groups. These results set the stage for needed investigation of environmental and individual-level factors that could shape patterns in food consumption.

  3. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and health correlates of nutrition transition dietary indicators in San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pérez-Cardona, Cynthia M; Monge-Rojas, Rafael

    2013-11-01

    To identify socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related correlates of food preferences in Puerto Rico that will help determine Caribbean-region populations vulnerable to nutrition transition. Data from a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 858 adults residing in the San Juan Metropolitan Area of Puerto Rico were analyzed. Multivariable ordinal logistic regressions were used to model the frequency of consumption of 1) fruits and vegetables, 2) tubers/starchy root vegetables, 3) fried foods, and 4) Western-style fast foods as a function of socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related characteristics. Higher frequency of consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with being physically active and older and having a medium to high level of education, whereas intake of tubers was associated with being older, having a low income, not using government insurance, and having elevated levels of triglycerides. Frequency of consumption of fast food was associated with younger age, higher income, 12-15 years of formal education, and a higher body mass index (BMI), whereas frequency of consumption of fried food was associated with being younger and male, not being a smoker, and having elevated levels of fasting blood glucose. The results indicate a nutrition transition in Puerto Rico with health consequences for the Caribbean region. The characteristics of this nutrition transition seem to be determined by income, education, and age, but may also be dictated by access to various food groups. These results set the stage for needed investigation of environmental and individual-level factors that could shape patterns in food consumption.

  4. Rapid synthesis of transition metal dichalcogenide-carbon aerogel composites for supercapacitor electrodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthew J Crane; Matthew B Lim; Xuezhe Zhou; Peter J Pauzauskie

    2017-01-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials have recently demonstrated exceptional supercapacitor properties after conversion to a metallic phase, which increases the conductivity of the network...

  5. Rapid and controllable a-Si:H-to-nc-Si:H transition induced by a high-density plasma route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H. P.; Xu, M.; Xu, S.; Xu, L. X.; Ji, H.; Xiao, S. Q.; Feng, Y. Y.

    2017-09-01

    The low-temperature rapid solid phase crystallization route of amorphous silicon is fundamentally and technologically significant. Micrometer thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films were exposed to a low-frequency inductively coupled hydrogen plasma under a low substrate temperature of 300 °C. The plasma treated a-Si:H was completely crystallized within half an hour. The evolution of microstructures, optical and electric properties with respect to plasma exposure duration deterministically demonstrates that the present low-temperature rapid crystallization process enables the controllable phase transition from amorphous to nanocrystalline (nc) silicon. The crystallization mechanism is discussed in terms of the unique characteristics of low-frequency inductively coupled plasma (LFICP) and the LFICP-grown precursor a-Si:H film itself. The crucial role of hydrogen atoms in the phase transition is also discussed.

  6. Performance of the Priority Control Strategies for Bus Rapid Transit: Comparative Study from Scenario Microsimulation Using VISSIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit (BRT has a great potential to improve the service level of transit system and has been implemented in many Chinese cities. However, the priority it can provide to buses has not been explored fully. Therefore, this study mainly investigated two advanced control strategies (signal priority using advanced detection and transit speed control. Signal priority using advanced detection is a strategy which detects one cycle ahead of buses’ arrival in order to adapt a more flexible control algorithm to provide signal priority for buses. Another is transit speed control, which provides priority at intersections for buses by controlling the speed of them and predicting their arrival at certain intersection. These two advanced strategies were modeled and evaluated using simulation software VISSIM and presented better performance than other three scenarios (base case, exclusive bus lane, and conventional transit signal priority. Only the eastbound direction would be researched as its traffic flow and bus volume are much larger than those of the other direction. Data used in this model was collected in Yingtan City. It is also shown that both the operation of BRT and the efficiency of private traffic can be much improved by applying the two strategies proposed above.

  7. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2006-03-28

    In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I) production and trade of agricultural goods; (II) foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III) global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis), but adaptation to products targeted at different

  8. Uneven dietary development: linking the policies and processes of globalization with the nutrition transition, obesity and diet-related chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Corinna

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a "nutrition transition", the consumption of foods high in fats and sweeteners is increasing throughout the developing world. The transition, implicated in the rapid rise of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases worldwide, is rooted in the processes of globalization. Globalization affects the nature of agri-food systems, thereby altering the quantity, type, cost and desirability of foods available for consumption. Understanding the links between globalization and the nutrition transition is therefore necessary to help policy makers develop policies, including food policies, for addressing the global burden of chronic disease. While the subject has been much discussed, tracing the specific pathways between globalization and dietary change remains a challenge. To help address this challenge, this paper explores how one of the central mechanisms of globalization, the integration of the global marketplace, is affecting the specific diet patterns. Focusing on middle-income countries, it highlights the importance of three major processes of market integration: (I production and trade of agricultural goods; (II foreign direct investment in food processing and retailing; and (III global food advertising and promotion. The paper reveals how specific policies implemented to advance the globalization agenda account in part for some recent trends in the global diet. Agricultural production and trade policies have enabled more vegetable oil consumption; policies on foreign direct investment have facilitated higher consumption of highly-processed foods, as has global food marketing. These dietary outcomes also reflect the socioeconomic and cultural context in which these policies are operating. An important finding is that the dynamic, competitive forces unleashed as a result of global market integration facilitates not only convergence in consumption habits (as is commonly assumed in the "Coca-Colonization" hypothesis, but adaptation to

  9. Use of a Nutrition Behavior Change Counseling Tool: Lessons from a Rapid Qualitative Assessment in Eastern Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid M Weiss

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Agency for International Development Feed the Future Mawa Project—led by Catholic Relief Services—aims to improve food and economic security for farming households in Zambia’s Eastern Province. Mawa employs social and behavior change strategies with households and communities to improve nutrition and reduce stunting among children under two (CU2. To support these strategies, sub-partner University Research Co., LLC employed a participatory process to develop a series of 35 action cards, each illustrating one project-promoted behavior, that are used at household and community group levels. Caregivers of CU2 are given a full set of action cards to promote household dialogue and support for the promoted behaviors. As a final step in the action card tool development process, a qualitative rapid assessment was conducted one month after implementation to investigate preliminary ways action cards were being used and if the methods of using the cards had the potential to impact behavior change. The research team conducted nine key informant interviews and four focus group discussions with Mawa staff and administered 41 qualitative interview questionnaires with project participants in the Chipata and Lundazi districts. Although not based on a representative sampling frame, the assessment produced valuable results for program improvement purposes. It also provided a feedback mechanism for community-based staff and project participants, a crucial step in the participatory tool development process. The assessment found that Mawa staff at every level use action cards combined with at least one other SBC tool for each nutrition intervention. Our results suggest Mawa staff and project participants share a common understanding of the cards’ purpose. Each group noted that the cards provide a visual cue for action and reinforce previous Mawa nutrition messages. Intended uses confirmed by the assessment include encouraging household cooperation

  10. Field Evaluation of Red-Coloured Hot Mix Asphalt Pavements for Bus Rapid Transit Lanes in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingfan Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coloured pavements have been implemented by metropolitan areas to denote dedicated lanes for bus rapid transit to maintain a high level of safety. Transit benefits of these installations are well documented. However, field performance of various types of coloured pavement has not been investigated systematically, with questions not being answered. In collaboration with the Regional Municipality of York (ON, Canada where red pavement sections have been in operation for years for its bus rapid transit lanes, the Centre for Pavement and Transportation Technology at the University of Waterloo (Waterloo, ON, Canada assessed the performance of various types of red pavements including epoxy paint and red asphalt mixes. It was found that, with significant lower texture depth, epoxy paint surface has disadvantages to red asphalt pavement from a pavement texture and safety perspective. The red asphalt sections in this study were observed as lower yet compatible frictional levels to conventional black pavement. Various types of contamination onto the red pavement were observed during field survey. In addition, the ultraviolet radiation degraded the colour of red asphalt pavement over time and may make it less effective for lane designation. Long-term monitoring is recommended to evaluate the functional and structural performance of red asphalt pavement.

  11. Evolutionary history of Serpulaceae (Basidiomycota): molecular phylogeny, historical biogeography and evidence for a single transition of nutritional mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The fungal genus Serpula (Serpulaceae, Boletales) comprises several saprotrophic (brown rot) taxa, including the aggressive house-infecting dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Recent phylogenetic analyses have indicated that the ectomycorrhiza forming genera Austropaxillus and Gymnopaxillus cluster within Serpula. In this study we use DNA sequence data to investigate phylogenetic relationships, historical biogeography of, and nutritional mode transitions in Serpulaceae. Results Our results corroborate that the two ectomycorrhiza-forming genera, Austropaxillus and Gymnopaxillus, form a monophyletic group nested within the saprotrophic genus Serpula, and that the Serpula species S. lacrymans and S. himantioides constitute the sister group to the Austropaxillus-Gymnopaxillus clade. We found that both vicariance (Beringian) and long distance dispersal events are needed to explain the phylogeny and current distributions of taxa within Serpulaceae. Our results also show that the transition from brown rot to mycorrhiza has happened only once in a monophyletic Serpulaceae, probably between 50 and 22 million years before present. Conclusions This study supports the growing understanding that the same geographical barriers that limit plant- and animal dispersal also limit the spread of fungi, as a combination of vicariance and long distance dispersal events are needed to explain the present patterns of distribution in Serpulaceae. Our results verify the transition from brown rot to ECM within Serpulaceae between 50 and 22 MyBP. PMID:21816066

  12. Evolutionary history of Serpulaceae (Basidiomycota: molecular phylogeny, historical biogeography and evidence for a single transition of nutritional mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauserud Håvard

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fungal genus Serpula (Serpulaceae, Boletales comprises several saprotrophic (brown rot taxa, including the aggressive house-infecting dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Recent phylogenetic analyses have indicated that the ectomycorrhiza forming genera Austropaxillus and Gymnopaxillus cluster within Serpula. In this study we use DNA sequence data to investigate phylogenetic relationships, historical biogeography of, and nutritional mode transitions in Serpulaceae. Results Our results corroborate that the two ectomycorrhiza-forming genera, Austropaxillus and Gymnopaxillus, form a monophyletic group nested within the saprotrophic genus Serpula, and that the Serpula species S. lacrymans and S. himantioides constitute the sister group to the Austropaxillus-Gymnopaxillus clade. We found that both vicariance (Beringian and long distance dispersal events are needed to explain the phylogeny and current distributions of taxa within Serpulaceae. Our results also show that the transition from brown rot to mycorrhiza has happened only once in a monophyletic Serpulaceae, probably between 50 and 22 million years before present. Conclusions This study supports the growing understanding that the same geographical barriers that limit plant- and animal dispersal also limit the spread of fungi, as a combination of vicariance and long distance dispersal events are needed to explain the present patterns of distribution in Serpulaceae. Our results verify the transition from brown rot to ECM within Serpulaceae between 50 and 22 MyBP.

  13. Evolutionary history of Serpulaceae (Basidiomycota): molecular phylogeny, historical biogeography and evidence for a single transition of nutritional mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrede, Inger; Engh, Ingeborg B; Binder, Manfred; Carlsen, Tor; Kauserud, Håvard; Bendiksby, Mika

    2011-08-04

    The fungal genus Serpula (Serpulaceae, Boletales) comprises several saprotrophic (brown rot) taxa, including the aggressive house-infecting dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans. Recent phylogenetic analyses have indicated that the ectomycorrhiza forming genera Austropaxillus and Gymnopaxillus cluster within Serpula. In this study we use DNA sequence data to investigate phylogenetic relationships, historical biogeography of, and nutritional mode transitions in Serpulaceae. Our results corroborate that the two ectomycorrhiza-forming genera, Austropaxillus and Gymnopaxillus, form a monophyletic group nested within the saprotrophic genus Serpula, and that the Serpula species S. lacrymans and S. himantioides constitute the sister group to the Austropaxillus-Gymnopaxillus clade. We found that both vicariance (Beringian) and long distance dispersal events are needed to explain the phylogeny and current distributions of taxa within Serpulaceae. Our results also show that the transition from brown rot to mycorrhiza has happened only once in a monophyletic Serpulaceae, probably between 50 and 22 million years before present. This study supports the growing understanding that the same geographical barriers that limit plant- and animal dispersal also limit the spread of fungi, as a combination of vicariance and long distance dispersal events are needed to explain the present patterns of distribution in Serpulaceae. Our results verify the transition from brown rot to ECM within Serpulaceae between 50 and 22 MyBP.

  14. Exploring synergies between transit investment and dense redevelopment: A scenario analysis in a rapidly urbanizing landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like many urban areas around the world, Durham and Orange counties in North Carolina, USA are experiencing population growth and sprawl that is putting stress on the transportation system. Light rail and denser transit-oriented development are being considered as possible solutio...

  15. Dallas area rapid transit impact study: A framework for assessing land use and development impacts. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, P.J.; Euritt, M.A.; Walton, C.M.

    1993-05-01

    Seven transit system impact reports were reviewed in an effort to identify strategies for measuring land-use impacts for Dallas Area Rapid Transit's (DART) light rail starter line. These systems were selected on the basis of impact study quality, system characteristics (type, size, and age), and city demographics. From these existing studies some commonly used techniques are identified and then used to form the basis for the land use component of the DART impact study design. The report concludes that DART's success in fostering economic growth will depend on many factors, including interagency coordination and, perhaps most importantly, how public/private opportunities are promoted. Other variables range from the tangible (ridership, on-time performance, operating efficiency) to the abstract (civic pride, world-class-city status, desirable urban form).

  16. 76 FR 75994 - Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing: Defining “Homeless”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Homelessness Grant program. The HEARTH Act also codifies in law the Continuum of Care planning process, long a... emergency shelter and homelessness prevention activities and to add rapid rehousing activities. The new Rural Housing Stability program replaces the Rural Homelessness Grant program. The HEARTH Act also...

  17. Transition from intravenous insulin to subcutaneous long-acting insulin in critical care patients on enteral or parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Analía; Zapata, Lluis; Vera, Paula; Betbese, Antoni J; Pérez, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    The optimal initial dose of subcutaneous (SC) insulin after intravenous (IV) infusion is controversial, especially in patients receiving continuous enteral nutrition (EN) or total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The aim of this study was to evaluate the strategy used at our hospital intensive care unit (ICU) in patients switched from IV insulin to SC insulin glargine while receiving EN or TPN. A retrospective analysis was made of 27 patients on EN and 14 on TPN switched from IV infusion insulin to SC insulin. The initial dose of SC insulin was estimated as 50% of the daily IV insulin requirements, extrapolated from the previous 12h. A corrective dose of short-acting insulin (lispro) was used when necessary. Mean blood glucose (BG) level during SC insulin treatment was 136±35mg/dL in the EN group and 157±37mg/dL in the TPN group (p=0.01). In the TPN group, mean BG was >180mg/dL during the first three days after switching, and a 41% increase in the glargine dose was required to achieve the target BG. In the EN group, mean BG remained <180mg/dL throughout the days of transition and the dose of glargine remained unchanged. In the transition from IV to SC insulin therapy, initial insulin glargine dose estimated as 50% of daily IV insulin requirements is adequate for patients on EN, but inadequate in those given TPN. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Reducing crime through physical modification: Evaluating the use of situational crime prevention strategies in a rapid transit environment in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    Situational crime prevention and crime prevention through environmental design are strategies that reduce criminal opportunities through modification of the physical environment. Although limited, evidence suggests that these strategies are successful at reducing crime that occurs in transit environments. The rapid transit system in Vancouver, British Columbia provides a unique opportunity for evaluation of situational prevention strategies as both control and experimental groups are availa...

  19. Nutritional metabolomics: Progress in addressing complexity in diet and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dean P.; Park, Youngja; Ziegler, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional metabolomics is rapidly maturing to use small molecule chemical profiling to support integration of diet and nutrition in complex biosystems research. These developments are critical to facilitate transition of nutritional sciences from population-based to individual-based criteria for nutritional research, assessment and management. This review addresses progress in making these approaches manageable for nutrition research. Important concept developments concerning the exposome, predictive health and complex pathobiology, serve to emphasize the central role of diet and nutrition in integrated biosystems models of health and disease. Improved analytic tools and databases for targeted and non-targeted metabolic profiling, along with bioinformatics, pathway mapping and computational modeling, are now used for nutrition research on diet, metabolism, microbiome and health associations. These new developments enable metabolome-wide association studies (MWAS) and provide a foundation for nutritional metabolomics, along with genomics, epigenomics and health phenotyping, to support integrated models required for personalized diet and nutrition forecasting. PMID:22540256

  20. Development of clinical application for a nutritional prescription support system for total parenteral/enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Syuzo; Oka, Ryusho; Uwai, Koji; Matsuda, Yumi; Shiraishi, Tadashi; Nakagawa, Yoshito; Shoji, Tohru; Mihara, Chie; Takeshita, Mitsuhiro; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2009-09-01

    One of the important roles of pharmacists as members of a nutrition support team is nutritional prescription support. We developed a nutritional prescription support system (NPSS) that facilitates prescription support and analysis and evaluated its usefulness in nutritional therapy. An NPSS for prescription support and the management of patient information was created. With this NPSS, the nutritional status was assessed, and, on the basis of the results, such variables as the total energy expenditure were calculated. This system allows prescription support for parenteral nutrition (PN) therapy, enteral nutrition (EN) therapy, and the transition period between them. This system was used for 2 representative patients and evaluated. In a malnourished patient receiving oral warfarin, EN solutions were compared by means of the NPSS, and an appropriate EN solution was selected. In addition, the prothrombin time-international normalized ratio was monitored, and favorable results were obtained regarding the adjustment of the warfarin dose and nutritional management. In a patient with aspiration pneumonia, continuous nutritional management to EN from PN therapy was straightforwardly performed with the NPSS. This NPSS allows rapid, comprehensive nutritional management during the transition period to EN from PN therapy, despite these therapies being considered separately in conventional nutritional management. The NPSS is useful for simplifying prescription support and facilitating information sharing among members of a nutrition support team.

  1. A transição nutricional no Brasil: tendências regionais e temporais Nutritional transition in Brazil: geographic and temporal trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaquias Batista Filho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendo como principal fonte de informações três estudos transversais realizados nas décadas de 70, 80 e 90, faz-se uma análise da transição nutricional do Brasil, referenciada no rápido declínio da prevalência de desnutrição em crianças e elevação, num ritmo mais acelerado, da prevalência de sobrepeso/obesidade em adultos. A correção dos déficits de estatura foi de 72% em crianças urbanas e de 54,4% no meio rural, enquanto a ocorrência de obesidade duplicou ou triplicou em homens e mulheres adultos nos extremos da série temporal analisada. Com exceção do Nordeste rural, a prevalência de desnutrição em mulheres adultas declinou para taxas aceitáveis (em torno de 5% a partir de 1989. Inversamente, as anemias continuam com prevalências elevadas e indicações de tendências epidêmicas. Descreve-se a evolução do estado nutricional da população brasileira segundo macrorregiões e distribuição social, analisando-se os prováveis fatores das mudanças ocorridas.Based on three cross-sectional studies conducted in the 1970s, 80s, and 90s, an analysis of the nutritional transition in Brazil was performed. This analysis found a rapid decrease in the prevalence of childhood malnutrition and an even more rapid increase in adult overweight/obesity. Correction of the height deficit was 72% in urban children and 54.4% in rural children. Obesity rates doubled or tripled in adult men and women at the extremes of the time series analyzed. Excluding the rural Northeast, malnutrition prevalence in adult women dropped to acceptable rates (about 5% starting in 1989. Inversely, anemia continued to display a high prevalence, and there is indication of an epidemic trend. The evolution of nutritional status in the Brazilian population according to macro-regions and social distribution is reported. The likely factors for the observed changes are analyzed.

  2. Transition from parenteral to enteral nutrition induces immediate diet-dependent gut histological and immunological responses in preterm neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siggers, Jayda; Sangild, Per T.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2011-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants develops very rapidly from a mild intolerance to enteral feeding into intestinal mucosal hemorrhage, inflammation, and necrosis. We hypothesized that immediate feeding-induced gut responses precede later clinical NEC symptoms in preterm pigs. Fifty......-six preterm pigs were fed total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for 48 h followed by enteral feeding for 0, 8, 17, or 34 h with either colostrum (Colos, n = 20) or formula (Form, n = 31). Macroscopic NEC lesions were detected in Form pigs throughout the enteral feeding period (20/31, 65%), whereas most Colos pigs...... remained protected (1/20, 5%). Just 8 h of formula feeding induced histopathological lesions, as evidenced by capillary stasis and necrosis, epithelial degeneration, edema, and mucosal hemorrhage. These immediate formula-induced changes were paralleled by decreased digestive enzyme activities (lactase...

  3. Gradual assembly of avian body plan culminated in rapid rates of evolution across the dinosaur-bird transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusatte, Stephen L; Lloyd, Graeme T; Wang, Steve C; Norell, Mark A

    2014-10-20

    The evolution of birds from theropod dinosaurs was one of the great evolutionary transitions in the history of life. The macroevolutionary tempo and mode of this transition is poorly studied, which is surprising because it may offer key insight into major questions in evolutionary biology, particularly whether the origins of evolutionary novelties or new ecological opportunities are associated with unusually elevated "bursts" of evolution. We present a comprehensive phylogeny placing birds within the context of theropod evolution and quantify rates of morphological evolution and changes in overall morphological disparity across the dinosaur-bird transition. Birds evolved significantly faster than other theropods, but they are indistinguishable from their closest relatives in morphospace. Our results demonstrate that the rise of birds was a complex process: birds are a continuum of millions of years of theropod evolution, and there was no great jump between nonbirds and birds in morphospace, but once the avian body plan was gradually assembled, birds experienced an early burst of rapid anatomical evolution. This suggests that high rates of morphological evolution after the development of a novel body plan may be a common feature of macroevolution, as first hypothesized by G.G. Simpson more than 60 years ago. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid transition in the structure of a coral reef community: the effects of coral bleaching and physical disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrander, G K; Armstrong, K M; Knobbe, E T; Gerace, D; Scully, E P

    2000-05-09

    Coral reef communities are in a state of change throughout their geographical range. Factors contributing to this change include bleaching (the loss of algal symbionts), storm damage, disease, and increasing abundance of macroalgae. An additional factor for Caribbean reefs is the aftereffects of the epizootic that reduced the abundance of the herbivorous sea urchin, Diadema antillarum. Although coral reef communities have undergone phase shifts, there are few studies that document the details of such transitions. We report the results of a 40-month study that documents changes in a Caribbean reef community affected by bleaching, hurricane damage, and an increasing abundance of macroalgae. The study site was in a relatively pristine area of the reef surrounding the island of San Salvador in the Bahamas. Ten transects were sampled every 3-9 months from November 1994 to February 1998. During this period, the corals experienced a massive bleaching event resulting in a significant decline in coral abundance. Algae, especially macroalgae, increased in abundance until they effectively dominated the substrate. The direct impact of Hurricane Lili in October 1996 did not alter the developing community structure and may have facilitated increasing algal abundance. The results of this study document the rapid transition of this reef community from one in which corals and algae were codominant to a community dominated by macroalgae. The relatively brief time period required for this transition illustrates the dynamic nature of reef communities.

  5. Shooting the Rapids: Navigating Transitions to Adaptive Governance of Social-Ecological Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Olsson

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The case studies of Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden; the Northern Highlands Lake District and the Everglades in the USA; the Mae Nam Ping Basin, Thailand; and the Goulburn-Broken Catchment, Australia, were compared to assess the outcome of different actions for transforming social-ecological systems (SESs. The transformations consisted of two phases, a preparation phase and a transition phase, linked by a window of opportunity. Key leaders and shadow networks can prepare a system for change by exploring alternative system configurations and developing strategies for choosing from among possible futures. Key leaders can recognize and use or create windows of opportunity and navigate transitions toward adaptive governance. Leadership functions include the ability to span scales of governance, orchestrate networks, integrate and communicate understanding, and reconcile different problem domains. Successful transformations rely on epistemic and shadow networks to provide novel ideas and ways of governing SESs. We conclude by listing some ð"„¬rules of thumb" that can help build leadership and networks for successful transformations toward adaptive governance of social-ecological systems.

  6. Rapid transition towards the Division of Labor via evolution of developmental plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Gavrilets

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A crucial step in several major evolutionary transitions is the division of labor between components of the emerging higher-level evolutionary unit. Examples include the separation of germ and soma in simple multicellular organisms, appearance of multiple cell types and organs in more complex organisms, and emergence of casts in eusocial insects. How the division of labor was achieved in the face of selfishness of lower-level units is controversial. I present a simple mathematical model describing the evolutionary emergence of the division of labor via developmental plasticity starting with a colony of undifferentiated cells and ending with completely differentiated multicellular organisms. I explore how the plausibility and the dynamics of the division of labor depend on its fitness advantage, mutation rate, costs of developmental plasticity, and the colony size. The model shows that the transition to differentiated multicellularity, which has happened many times in the history of life, can be achieved relatively easily. My approach is expandable in a number of directions including the emergence of multiple cell types, complex organs, or casts of eusocial insects.

  7. The geriatric nutritional risk index may predict healthcare costs and health transitions during hemodialysis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yanna; Wang, Pei; Yuan, Fangfang; Liang, Xianhui; Liu, Dong; Xiao, Jing; Zhao, Zhanzheng; Liu, Zhangsuo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze the relationship between the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) at baseline and healthcare costs of three-month as well as the risk of quality-of-life score at the 6-month follow-up for Chinese hemodialysis patients. One hundred patients who had been on maintenance hemodialysis were enrolled in this study. The general characteristics, laboratory test results and GNRI of the patients at baseline were recorded. The healthcare costs and quality-of-life scores were determined at the follow-up examination. Patients were divided into two groups according to their median GNRI at baseline: a lower GNRI group (GNRI 86.4). The patients in the lower GNRI group exhibited reduced hemoglobin (74.7±13.1 g/dL vs 82.3±15.2 g/dL, prisk of higher future healthcare costs as well as worse health.

  8. Nutrition transition in China: the growth of affluent diseases with the alleviation of undernutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X S; Ge, K Y

    1995-09-01

    Since 1950, the annual GNP in China increased from 104 to 1401 Yuan per capita, while household real purchasing power quadrupled. In addition, food production and distribution also rose. China's improved standard of living has brought about several health changes: a reduction in diseases of poverty (high infant mortality, communicable disease, nutritional deficiency), the doubling of life expectancy from 35 years in the 1950s to 67 (male) and 71 (female) years, but it has increased diseases of affluence, such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. The three leading causes of death in China today are cancer, cerebrovascular disease, and myocardial infarction, while deaths from tuberculosis and acute infectious illness are markedly reduced. About 60 million of the population suffer from hypertension and a quarter that number has diabetes. Because China is a vast territory with different levels of development and types of diet, pockets of nutritional deficiency remain; about 35 million people are undernourished. While most of the population receive sufficient macronutrients to satisfy the Chinese RDA, they frequently lack micronutrients. Childhood rickets and iron deficiency anaemia are prevalent in rural regions and close to half of the children under three years of age in the autonomous regions and provinces suffer from these conditions. Chinese diets are changing. They are becoming more westernised and people are consuming more food of animal origin. This is most noticeable in cities where, in 1988, fat accounted for 30% of the caloric intake (up from 26% in 1981). In urban areas about 10% of woman and 5% of men are now obese. China is encouraging citizens to eat a variety of foods along more traditional lines, with plant foods constituting the bulk of intake, and a lesser amount of food of animal origin. In 1993, the State Council approved a national position paper entitled "Outlines for China's Food Structure Reform and Development in the 1990s". The government

  9. Barrier Free Conditions of Mass Rapid Transit Stations in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    OSAKAYA, Yoshiyuki; Aoyama, Takeshi; RATANAMART, Suphawadee

    2010-01-01

    In Hong Kong, it is estimated that aging will be rapidly going on after 2010. Increase of the elderly means increase of the disabled. In Hong Kong, there are 3 KCR lines(East Line, West Line and Ma On Shan Line) and 7 MTR lines(Kwun Tong Line, Tsuen Wan Line, Island Line, Tsueng Wan O Line,Tung Chung Line, Airport Line and Disneyland Line) in 2006. This study firstly made the actual conditions of barrier free at all 81 stations clear. It secondly made problems clear. It thirdly showed proposa...

  10. The association between nutrition transition score and measures of obesity: results from a cross-sectional study among Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Airín D; Juon, Hee-soon; Levine, David M; Lyford-Pike, Victoria; Peters, Sadie

    2014-07-07

    Studies suggest that US Latinos have a higher prevalence of obesity than White Americans. However, obesity may differ by pre-immigration factors and Latinos' cultural representations of ideal body image. This paper explores whether country of origin's stage in the nutrition transition is related to Latino immigrants' BMI category and self-perception of weight. Primary data originated from a cross-sectional questionnaire of Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore in 2011. A convenience sample of self-identified Latinos, ≥18 years old, living in Baltimore was recruited from a community-based organization. Data for each country represented in the sample were obtained from the WHO Demographic and Health Surveys and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Each country was scored for its stage in the nutrition transition using a six-point scoring system. Descriptive statistics were conducted to characterize the sample. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the outcome variables and the predictors. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to examine whether a country's stage in the nutrition transition increased one's odds of having an obese BMI score (≥30 kg/cm2) and perceiving one's weight as overweight, while controlling for socio-demographic variables. The sample (n = 149) consisted of immigrants from 12 Latin American countries. Participants lived in the US for x=10.24 years. About 40% of the sample had BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (obese). The longer Latina immigrants' lived in the US, the less likely their country of origin's nutrition transition score would increase their odds of having a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (OR = 0.97 p America and how the nutrition transition globalizes obesity and weight consciousness.

  11. Whole gastrointestinal transit time is associated with clinical severity and nutritional status of HIV-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Issaragraiseel, Patchaya; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu; Jirapinyo, Pipop

    2009-07-01

    Malnutrition and malabsorption are common consequences in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The gastrointestinal tract is a major site affected by HIV Rapid gastrointestinal transit time may contribute to malabsorption. To determine whether the whole gastrointestinal transit time (WGTT) correlates with disease stages or degrees of malnutrition in HIV-infected children. Forty HIV-seropositive children, at various stages of disease, and thirty seronegative age-matched controls, aged between 1 mo and 3 yr, were enrolled in the present study. The body weight, length, or height and the WGTT were assessed Then the WGTT of children in different stages of HIV disease and in different degrees of malnutrition were compared with those of the control group. The mean ages were 15.5 and 14.3 mo in HIV-infected and control groups respectively. A greater degree of malnutrition was found in HIV-infected children with more advances HIV clinical symptoms. Compared to controls, WGTT was most rapid in severely symptomatic acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients (Category C) (14.32 +/- 3.88 versus 7.22 +/- 3.17 h; p HIV-infected children was also significantly associated with a higher degree of malnutrition. Malnutrition is clearly related to the progression ofHIV disease. Accelerated WGTT is associated with HIV seropositivity, severe clinical symptoms, and higher degrees of malnutrition.

  12. Behavioral and physiological changes during benthic-pelagic transition in the harmful alga, Heterosigma akashiwo: potential for rapid bloom formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D Tobin

    Full Text Available Many species of harmful algae transition between a motile, vegetative stage in the water column and a non-motile, resting stage in the sediments. Physiological and behavioral traits expressed during benthic-pelagic transition potentially regulate the timing, location and persistence of blooms. The roles of key physiological and behavioral traits involved in resting cell emergence and bloom formation were examined in two geographically distinct strains of the harmful alga, Heterosigma akashiwo. Physiological measures of cell viability, division and population growth, and cell fatty acid content were made using flow cytometry and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry techniques as cells transitioned between the benthic resting stage and the vegetative pelagic stage. Video-based tracking was used to quantify cell-level swimming behaviors. Data show increased temperature and light triggered rapid emergence from the resting stage and initiated cell swimming. Algal strains varied in important physiological and behavioral traits, including survivorship during life-stage transitions, population growth rates and swimming velocities. Collectively, these traits function as "population growth strategies" that can influence bloom formation. Many resting cells regained the up-swimming capacity necessary to cross an environmentally relevant halocline and the ability to aggregate in near-surface waters within hours after vegetative growth supporting conditions were restored. Using a heuristic model, we illustrate how strain-specific population growth strategies can govern the timescales over which H. akashiwo blooms form. Our findings highlight the need for identification and quantification of strain-specific physiological and behavioral traits to improve mechanistic understanding of bloom formation and successful bloom prediction.

  13. Performance Analysis of a Recycled Concrete Interfacial Transition Zone in a Rapid Carbonization Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongbing Yue

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of recycled concrete interface structures, a multi-interface reconstruction model was established. To study the microstructure evolution of the interfacial transition zone (ITZ during the carbonization process of recycled concrete, the microstructure characteristics of the ITZ of C30, C40, and C50 grade recycled concrete and the mortar matrix before and after carbonization were studied through the microhardness tester and SEM. The results show that the microhardness values of the ITZ and the mortar matrix are obviously increased and that the width of the ITZ decreases, while the ITZ performance of the C50 grade recycled concrete is not significantly changed. The ITZ exhibits a large amount of granular CaCO3 after carbonization, the pores are refined, and microcracks are generated. Overall, there are significant differences in the microstructures between the ITZ and the mortar matrix before and after carbonization.

  14. Rapid detection of transition metals in welding fumes using paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cate, David M; Nanthasurasak, Pavisara; Riwkulkajorn, Pornpak; L'Orange, Christian; Henry, Charles S; Volckens, John

    2014-05-01

    Metals in particulate matter (PM) are considered a driving factor for many pathologies. Despite the hazards associated with particulate metals, personal exposures for at-risk workers are rarely assessed due to the cost and effort associated with monitoring. As a result, routine exposure assessments are performed for only a small fraction of the exposed workforce. The objective of this research was to evaluate a relatively new technology, microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs), for measuring the metals content in welding fumes. Fumes from three common welding techniques (shielded metal arc, metal inert gas, and tungsten inert gas welding) were sampled in two welding shops. Concentrations of acid-extractable Fe, Cu, Ni, and Cr were measured and independently verified using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Results from the µPAD sensors agreed well with ICP-OES analysis; the two methods gave statistically similar results in >80% of the samples analyzed. Analytical costs for the µPAD technique were ~50 times lower than market-rate costs with ICP-OES. Further, the µPAD method was capable of providing same-day results (as opposed several weeks for ICP laboratory analysis). Results of this work suggest that µPAD sensors are a viable, yet inexpensive alternative to traditional analytic methods for transition metals in welding fume PM. These sensors have potential to enable substantially higher levels of hazard surveillance for a given resource cost, especially in resource-limited environments.

  15. Dietary transition, nutritional and health outcomes, and changing agrifood production and trade patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Cao, Lijuan

    and health outcomes of diet transition and alternative diets on the one hand and the associated agricultural and food production and trade effects on the other hand, using the Chinese case as an example. We base this analysis in a modified GTAP model featuring the demand, production and supply and trade...... such as those from the WHO and the Chinese health authority, as exogenous changes to consumer demands via shifts of consumer preferences. Simulations of these scenarios will then reveal the production and trade pattern changes that are necessary to accommodate the demand shifts, as well as the associated...... efficiency and welfare consequences. Realizing that changing dietary trends are likely to be costly, in a more refined scenario, we consider public policy options to influence consumer choices for purposes of reaching a given alternative diet target. Since the costs of the policy intervention...

  16. Aquaculture: a rapidly growing and significant source of sustainable food? Status, transitions and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D C; Newton, R W; Beveridge, M C M

    2016-08-01

    The status and potential of aquaculture is considered as part of a broader food landscape of wild aquatic and terrestrial food sources. The rationale and resource base required for the development of aquaculture are considered in the context of broader societal development, cultural preferences and human needs. Attention is drawn to the uneven development and current importance of aquaculture globally as well as its considerable heterogeneity of form and function compared with established terrestrial livestock production. The recent drivers of growth in demand and production are examined and the persistent linkages between exploitation of wild stocks, full life cycle culture and the various intermediate forms explored. An emergent trend for sourcing aquaculture feeds from alternatives to marine ingredients is described and the implications for the sector with rapidly growing feed needs discussed. The rise of non-conventional and innovative feed ingredients, often shared with terrestrial livestock, are considered, including aquaculture itself becoming a major source of marine ingredients. The implications for the continued expected growth of aquaculture are set in the context of sustainable intensification, with the challenges that conventional intensification and emergent integration within, and between, value chains explored. The review concludes with a consideration of the implications for dependent livelihoods and projections for various futures based on limited resources but growing demand.

  17. Expediting Transition to Home Parenteral Nutrition With Fast-Track Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austhof, Sandra I; DeChicco, Robert; Cresci, Gail; Corrigan, Mandy L; Lopez, Rocio; Steiger, Ezra; Kirby, Donald F

    2017-03-01

    Delivery of home parenteral nutrition (PN) is typically cycled over 12 hours. Discharge to home on PN is often delayed due to potential adverse events (AEs) associated with cycling PN. The purpose was to determine whether patients requiring long-term PN can be cycled from 24 hours to 12 hours in 1 day instead of 2 days without increasing the risk of PN-related AEs. Hospitalized patients receiving PN at goal calories infused over 24 hours without severe electrolyte or blood glucose abnormalities were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned to a 1-step "fast-track" protocol or 2-step "standard" protocol. AEs were defined as hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, new-onset or worsening dyspnea, tachycardia, tachypnea, lower extremity or sacral edema, pulmonary edema, or abdominal ascites and were graded as minor or major. In the 63 patients studied, the most prevalent PN-related AE was hyperglycemia, occurring in 24.2% and 30.0% of patients in the fast-track and standard groups, respectively. Overall, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of PN-related minor AEs between fast-track and standard groups (33.3% and 53.3%, P = .5). No major PN-related AEs occurred in the fast-track group, while 1 major PN-related AE (pulmonary edema) occurred in the standard group. Fast-track cycling is as safe as standard cycling in patients without diabetes mellitus or major organ dysfunction requiring long-term PN. Fast-track cycling could potentially expedite hospital discharge, resulting in decreased healthcare costs and improved patient satisfaction.

  18. A Plasma-Assisted Route to the Rapid Preparation of Transition-Metal Phosphides for Energy Conversion and Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng

    2017-06-06

    Transition-metal phosphides (TMPs) are important materials that have been widely used in catalysis, supercapacitors, batteries, sensors, light-emitting diodes, and magnets. The physical and chemical structure of a metal phosphide varies with the method of preparation as the electronic, catalytic, and magnetic properties of the metal phosphides strongly depend on their synthesis routes. Commonly practiced processes such as solid-state synthesis and ball milling have proven to be reliable routes to prepare TMPs but they generally require high temperature and long reaction time. Here, a recently developed plasma-assisted conversion route for the preparation of TMPs is reviewed, along with their applications in energy conversion and storage, including water oxidation electrocatalysis, sodium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors. The plasma-assisted synthetic route should open up a new avenue to prepare TMPs with tailored structure and morphology for various applications. In fact, the process may be further extended to the synthesis of a wide range of transition-metal compounds such as borides and fluorides at low temperature and in a rapid manner.

  19. Effects of nutrient supply, plasma metabolites, and nutritional status of sows during transition on performance in the next lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, A V; Lauridsen, C; Sørensen, M T; Bach Knudsen, K E; Theil, P K

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of nutrient supply, plasma metabolites, and nutritional status of sows during the transition from gestation to lactation on performance of piglets during the colostral period and throughout lactation. Forty second-parity sows were fed 1 of 4 gestation diets containing a different quantity of dietary fiber (171 to 404 g/kg of DM) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until weaning (d 28 of lactation), sows were fed 1 of 5 lactation diets with a different quantity of dietary fat [3 or 8% with different proportions of medium- (MCFA) and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA)]. Blood was obtained by jugular venipuncture on d 108 and 112 of gestation and on d 1 of lactation, and concentrations of plasma glucose, NEFA, lactate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, and fatty acids were analyzed. Piglet growth and mortality were noted throughout lactation. Piglet mortality during the colostral period (0 to 24 h) was affected by the lactation diets and was positively related to sow backfat (d 108) and plasma lactate (d 112) and negatively related to mean piglet birth weight (P piglet live BW gain (LWG) was recorded in the periods 0 to 24 h, 7 to 10 d, 14 to 17 d, and 17 to 28 d relative to parturition as indirect measures of colostrum yield (0 to 24 h), milk yield in early lactation (d 7 to 10), and at peak lactation (d 14 to 17 and d 17 to 28). Effects of gestation and lactation diets on studied sow traits were tested on selected days during the transition period and the next lactation, and tested statistically on separate days. The LWG in the colostral period was positively correlated with mean piglet birth weight (P early lactation was inversely correlated with plasma lactate on d 108 (P piglet survival, lactation performance of sows, and piglet growth during the next lactation.

  20. [Decreased anthropometric indicators of adiposity in school children as an indicator of the nutritional transition in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Preciado, Laura Leticia; Larrosa-Haro, Alfredo; Chávez-Palencia, Clío; Lizárraga-Corona, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the adiposity trend in children from a public elementary school in Guadalajara, Mexico, between 2007 and 2011. Comparative study of two samples taken transversely in 1432 schoolchildren aged 6-12 years. Z-score of BMI and anthropometric indicators of arm adiposity (triceps skinfold, fat area and arm fat index) were calculated. Reference standards of the 2007-WHO and Frisancho were used. Analysis: Chi-square and Student t test. Adiposity decreased significantly in children with normal weight (arm fat area Z-score -0.3 SD) overweight and obesity (arm fat area and index -0.4 and -0.3 z-scores respectively). An increase in the prevalence of subjects with normal weight and thinness and a decrease of overweight (4.6, -2.0 and -2.9 percentage points respectively) was observed. Obesity prevalence remained unchanged. Decrease of adiposity in overweight and obese children, reduction in the prevalence of thinness and overweight and the increase in the proportion of subjects with normal weight was observed during the study period. These data probably reflect the nutritional transition in Mexico.

  1. Effects of nutrient supply, plasma metabolites, and nutritional status of sows during transition on performance in the next lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A V; Lauridsen, C; Sørensen, M T

    2012-01-01

    gestation diets containing a different quantity of dietary fiber (171 to 404 g/kg of DM) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until weaning (d 28 of lactation), sows were fed 1 of 5 lactation diets with a different quantity of dietary fat [3 or 8% with different proportions......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of nutrient supply, plasma metabolites, and nutritional status of sows during the transition from gestation to lactation on performance of piglets during the colostral period and throughout lactation. Forty second-parity sows were fed 1 of 4...... in the periods 0 to 24 h, 7 to 10 d, 14 to 17 d, and 17 to 28 d relative to parturition as indirect measures of colostrum yield (0 to 24 h), milk yield in early lactation (d 7 to 10), and at peak lactation (d 14 to 17 and d 17 to 28). Effects of gestation and lactation diets on studied sow traits were tested...

  2. A Functional Thinking Approach to the Design of Future Transportation Systems: Taxis as a Proxy for Personal Rapid Transit in South Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Bae, Hyun Hye

    2014-01-01

    For over 50 years, personal rapid transit (PRT) has been viewed as one of the most promising ways to provide sustainable, economical, and convenient transportation while reducing reliance on personal automobiles. However, despite concerted efforts around the world, the promise of PRT has yet...... taxis can be used as an alternative embodiment of personal rapid transit and can serve as a test bed to support PRT-related design, research, and development. The paper then explores the transportation patterns and characteristics of cities in South Korea and the United States in order to determine...... the conditions necessary to create and maintain a PRT-like taxi system and to demonstrate the differences between ‘normal’ and PRT-like taxi systems. Finally, the future of personal rapid transit as a functional and physical transportation paradigm is discussed....

  3. Colonisation, the New World Order, and the eradication of traditional food habits in East Africa: historical perspective on the nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, Verena; Cheema, Bobby

    2008-07-01

    To discuss factors which have underpinned the nutrition transition in the countries of East Africa, including Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania, from early colonisation to the current, oppressive political-economic structure. Colonisation and neocolonisation in accordance with the desires of the New World Order have ensured the systematic extirpation of indigenous and traditional food habits in East Africa. These indigenous and traditional food habits, associated with myriad health benefits, have been progressively replaced by the globalised food system of the multinational corporations, a system inherently associated with the creation of non-communicable disease (NCD) epidemics throughout this region and globally. While the simplification of the East African food culture may be most apparent today, the nutrition transition has actually occurred over the past 400 years, since the onset of colonial occupation. It is imperative that greater efforts be directed towards exposing the colonial and neocolonial forces which have undermined food security and health status in East Africa. Heightened awareness of these forces is essential for proposing genuine solutions to the nutrition transition and related NCD epidemics throughout this region and, indeed, worldwide.

  4. Growing City and Rapid Land Use Transition: Assessing Multiple Hazards and Risks in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagawat Rimal

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pokhara is one of the most naturally beautiful cities in the world with a unique geological setting. This important tourist city is under intense pressure from rapid urbanization and population growth. Multiple hazards and risks are rapidly increasing in Pokhara due to unsustainable land use practices, particularly the increase in built-up areas. This study examines the relationship among urbanization, land use/land cover dynamics and multiple hazard and risk analysis of the Pokhara valley from 1990 to 2013. We investigate some of the active hazards, such as floods, landslides, fire, sinkholes, land subsidence and earthquakes, and prepare an integrated multiple hazard risk map indicating the highly vulnerable zones. Land use and land cover maps from 1990 and 2013 from Landsat images (30 m resolution have been prepared and analyzed for the spatial dynamics of urbanization and the transition of land use and land cover. In the 23-year period, the built-up area more than doubled from 24.03 km² to 54.20 km². Although the landscape in the urban, peri-urban and rural areas appears to be fragmented, different drivers play pivotal roles in landscape change in these areas. The results provide substantial information for establishing innovative action plans for disaster risk management in the valley. Recommendations are made for the most suitable places for future urban expansion in the valley. This study is important for raising awareness among policy makers and other public officials to include multiple hazard risk mitigation in land use policies and plans. Establishing connections between urban expansions, escalating population growth and multiple hazards and risk assessment will also improve in modelling the latent impact of future catastrophes and emergency preparedness.

  5. Potential for modal shift by passenger car and motorcycle users towards Bus Rapid Transit (BRT in an Asian developing city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaned Satiennam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many developing Asian cities consider a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT system in their public transport planning because of its advantages, offering lower investment cost and flexible implementation over rail systems. The objective of this research is to assess the potential of BRT for attracting travelers from passenger cars and motorcycles. Three different BRT systems were designed for the main corridor passing through Khon Kaen City in Thailand. The study developed modal split models for predicting the choices of passenger car users and motorcycle users. The models were developed based on a Stated Preference (SP survey. It was found that BRT could attract significantly private vehicle users to change mode choice. The proportion of motorcycle users shifting is higher than passenger car users. However, the majority of private vehicle users still prefer their own private vehicles. Both travel time and travel cost affects the mode choice, in which travel time has a highly significant effect on passenger car users' choice of BRT, but travel cost has a highly significant effect on motorcyclists' choice. Some socio-economic factors, including gender, age, driving license holding and residence location also influence the choice of BRT.

  6. The bus rapid transit system: A service quality dimension of commuter uptake in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince D. Ugo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated commuter uptake of the bus rapid transit (BRT system in Cape Town,South Africa. As a stated preference survey was not carried out prior to the launch of the new BRT system in the City of Cape Town, it became difficult to assess commuters’ preferences,which would have provided City policymakers and planners with an understanding of customer satisfaction of the proposed bus service. The commuting trend of the BRT system in the City indicates that tickets sales and utilisation by commuters is gradually picking up, but one would have expected high commuter engagement in terms of the modernity profile of the BRT system. This study investigated commuters’ (n = 260 satisfaction levels with 30 service quality variables on a self-rated questionnaire, using quantitative research methodology.The study result showed that passengers were not satisfied with the transport fare and the availability or accessibility of ticket sales outlets. In the context of this study, this result implies that the ‘responsiveness and affordability’ variable of the service quality dimensions should be an area of interest and review to City of Cape Town policymakers and planners. Service quality trends in public transport were also highlighted.

  7. Parent experiences of variations in service delivery of Rapid Syllable Transition (ReST) treatment for childhood apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Donna C; McCabe, Patricia; Ballard, Kirrie J; Bricker-Katz, Geraldine

    2017-05-23

    To understand parents' perceptions of Rapid Syllable Transition (ReST) treatment and their experience of either telehealth or combined parent-clinician delivery of speech-language pathology. Thematic analyses of semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 parents (5 telehealth, 5 parent-clinician) after their child completed 12 sessions of ReST treatment. Three themes were unique to telehealth: "telehealth was a million times easier," "technical problems weren't deal breakers," and "telehealth therapy has different boundaries." Three themes were unique to parent-clinician delivery: "therapy is something to get over and done with," "I wasn't very good at doing therapy," and "my child doesn't like me as his therapist." Both groups had themes related to the significance of childhood apraxia of speech, the importance of specialist treatment, and ReST being a "different way forward." Speech-language pathologists should carefully consider the suitability of caregiver-provided ReST treatment, and increase telehealth delivery of ReST treatment.

  8. Planning ahead for livable communities along the Powell–Division Bus Rapid Transit : neighborhood conditions and change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    New transit investments can be a double-edged sword for disadvantaged communities (e.g., those included in environmental justice and Title VI protected classes). Transit investments improve communities mobility and access, and may improve health w...

  9. Human annoyance, acceptability and concern as responses to vibration from the construction of Light Rapid Transit lines in residential environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong-McSweeney, D., E-mail: D.B.C.WongMcSweeney@salford.ac.uk [Acoustics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4TW (United Kingdom); Woodcock, J.S.; Peris, E.; Waddington, D.C.; Moorhouse, A.T. [Acoustics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4TW (United Kingdom); Redel-Macías, M.D. [Dep. Rural Engineering Campus de Rabanales, University of Córdoba, Córdoba (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of different self-reported measures for assessing the human response to environmental vibration from the construction of an urban LRT (Light Rapid Transit) system. The human response to environmental stressors such as vibration and noise is often expressed in terms of exposure–response relationships that describe annoyance as a function of the magnitude of the vibration. These relationships are often the basis of noise and vibration policy and the setting of limit values. This paper examines measures other than annoyance by expressing exposure–response relationships for vibration in terms of self-reported concern about property damage and acceptability. The exposure–response relationships for concern about property damage and for acceptability are then compared with those for annoyance. It is shown that concern about property damage occurs at vibration levels well below those where there is any risk of damage. Earlier research indicated that concern for damage is an important moderator of the annoyance induced. Acceptability, on the other hand, might be influenced by both annoyance and concern, as well as by other considerations. It is concluded that exposure–response relationships expressing acceptability as a function of vibration exposure could usefully complement existing relationships for annoyance in future policy decisions regarding environmental vibration. The results presented in this paper are derived from data collected through a socio-vibration survey (N = 321) conducted for the construction of an urban LRT in the United Kingdom. - Highlights: • The human response to construction vibration is assessed in residential environments. • Exposure–response relationships are generated based on survey and semi-empirical vibration estimation. • Annoyance, concern and acceptability are compared as response measures. • Concern and acceptability are viable measures complementing annoyance.

  10. Prevention of non-communicable disease in a population in nutrition transition: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study phase II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayati Mehdi

    2009-01-01

    repeated every 3 years to assess the effects of different interventions in the intervention group as compared to control group. Conclusion This controlled community intervention will test the possibility of preventing or delaying the onset of non-communicable risk factors and disorders in a population in nutrition transition. Trial registration ISRCTN52588395

  11. Post-migration dietary changes among african refugees in Geneva: a rapid assessment study to inform nutritional interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruseman, Maaike; Barandereka, Nelly-Ange; Hudelson, Patricia; Stalder, Hans

    2005-01-01

    To conduct an assessment of perceived dietary changes and problems by African asylum seekers, in order to develop appropriate nutritional education interventions. A cross-sectional qualitative study among a convenience sample. Analysis compared and contrasted reported dietary changes and migration-related difficulties. Nineteen interviews were analysed. After migration, main dietary changes were the decrease in different fruits and vegetables consumed weekly from 10 to 2 and 17 to 10 respectively. The number of respondents drinking sweetened beverages more than 3 times a week increased from 3 to 18. Reasons for changes were related to prices, taste, choice and accessibility. These dietary changes may have serious health consequences. Future remedial interventions based on suggestions of the respondents could easily be implemented.

  12. Health co-benefits in mortality avoidance from implementation of the mass rapid transit (MRT) system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Soo Chen; Tainio, Marko; Woodcock, James; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2016-03-01

    The mass rapid transit (MRT) is the largest transport infrastructure project under the national key economic area (NKEA) in Malaysia. As urban rail is anticipated to be the future spine of public transport network in the Greater Kuala Lumpur city, it is important to mainstream climate change mitigation and public health benefits in the local transport development. This study quantifies the health co-benefits in terms of mortality among the urbanites when the first line of the 150 km MRT system in Kuala Lumpur commences by 2017. Using comparative health risk assessment, we estimated the potential health co-benefits from the establishment of the MRT system. We estimated the reduced CO2 emissions and air pollution (PM2.5) exposure reduction among the general population from the reduced use of motorized vehicles. Mortality avoided from traffic incidents involving motorcycles and passenger cars, and from increased physical activity from walking while using the MRT system was also estimated. A total of 363,130 tonnes of CO2 emissions could be reduced annually from the modal shift from cars and motorcycles to the MRT system. Atmospheric PM2.5 concentration could be reduced 0.61 μg/m3 annually (2%). This could avoid a total of 12 deaths, mostly from cardio-respiratory diseases among the city residents. For traffic injuries, 37 deaths could be avoided annually from motorcycle and passenger cars accidents especially among the younger age categories (aged 15-30). One additional death was attributed to pedestrian walking. The additional daily physical activity to access the MRT system could avoid 21 deaths among its riders. Most of the mortality avoided comes from cardiovascular diseases. Overall, a total of 70 deaths could be avoided annually among both the general population and the MRT users in the city. The implementation of the MRT system in Greater Kuala Lumpur could bring substantial health co-benefits to both the general population and the MRT users mainly from the

  13. SURGICAL NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Kurniawan Darianto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A patient undergoing surgery faces great physiologic and psychologic stress. so nutritional demands are greatly increased during this period and deficiencies can easily develop. If these deficiencies are allowed to develop and are not in screening, serious malnutrition and clinical problem can occur. Therefore careful attention must be given to a patient's nutritional status in preparation of surgery, as well as to the individual nutritional needs. If these needs are met, complications are less likely developing. Natural resources provide for rapid recovery. Proper nutrition can speed healing in surgical patients with major trauma, severe malnutition, burns, and other severe illnesses. New techniques for tube feeding, intravenous nutrition for patients with serious weight loss due to gastrointestinal disorders, and use of supplements can hasten wound healing and shorten recovery times.

  14. Effects of rapid aging and lower participation rate among younger adults on the short-term trend of physical activity in the National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Nobuo; Yoshizawa, Takeshi; Okuda, Nagako

    2017-10-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan, has annually monitored two indicators of physical activity in adults. They are contrasting in the association with age; the prevalence of exercise habit is lower and step counts are higher among younger participants. The present study aimed to examine the effects of rapid aging of the Japanese population and the lower participation rate among younger adults on the short-term trend of two indicators of physical activity using tabulated data. The prevalence of exercise habit and step counts by age groups (≥20 years) from 2003 to 2010 were estimated using tabulated data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey by calculating sex-specific means weighted by age-specific Japanese population data for each year (population-weighted estimates) and for a fixed year (2005; age-standardized estimates). Linear regression analyses were used to test the statistical significance of their trends. Statistically significant increasing trends in the prevalence of exercise habit were observed for the crude means (P = 0.029), the population-weighted estimates (P = 0.007) and the age-standardized estimates (P = 0.016) only in men. Statistically significant decreasing trends in the step counts were observed for the crude means (P = 0.006 in men and P = 0.033 in women) and the population-weighted estimates (P = 0.008 in men and P = 0.049 in women) both in men and women, but for the age-standardized estimates (P = 0.039) only in men. The effects of rapid aging of the Japanese population and the lower participation rate among younger adults on the short-term trend are not small, and age-standardization is necessary to observe even the short-term trend of physical activity data. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1677-1682. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, K.S.; Katan, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are growing contributors to global disease burdens, with epidemics of CVD advancing across many regions of the world which are experiencing a rapid health transition. Diet and nutrition have been extensively investigated as risk factors for major cardiovascular diseases

  16. Using Household Consumption and Expenditures Survey (HCES) data to assess dietary intake in relation to the nutrition transition: a case study from Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dop, Marie Claude; Pereira, Clodomir; Mistura, Lorenza; Martinez, Claudio; Cardoso, Edith

    2012-09-01

    Few surveys of food and nutrient intakes are conducted at the individual level in low- and middle-income countries, whereas Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) are regularly carried out to monitor economic conditions. Because of the paucity of individual-level data, there is interest in using HCES to aid in the design of food and nutrition policies. Data from the 2001/02 HCES from Cape Verde were used to assess household dietary intakes in the context of the country's nutrition transition. The survey included weighed measurements of household food intake and measurements of the weight and height of all household members. Households were classified as "underweight" if they had at least one underweight member, "overweight" if they had at least one overweight member, and "dual burden" if they had at least one underweight and one overweight member. The proportion of households classified as underweight, overweight, and dual burden was 18%, 41%, and 14%, respectively. Household food and nutrient intakes were higher in the overweight households (particularly protein, vitamin A, and calcium) and lower in the underweight households, while there was no clear pattern of intakes in the dual burden group. Overweight households consumed more animal food groups than other households. Intakes of fruits and vegetables were low in all groups. The HCES data for Cape Verde were useful for assessing the extent of the nutrition transition and characterizing dietary intakes by anthropometric classification. Analysis of nutrient and food intakes showed that ensuring sufficient energy availability is no longer the most important issue for Cape Verde, but that ensuring dietary quality is equally crucial, in particular increasing access to fruits and vegetables.

  17. Evaluation of Flow-Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Rapid and High-Throughput Quantitative Determination of B-Vitamins in Nutritional Supplements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandari, Deepak [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The use of flow-injection electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for rapid and high-throughput mass spectral analysis of selected B-vitamins, viz. B1, B2, B3, B5, and B6, in nutritional formulations was demonstrated. A simple and rapid (~5 min) in-tube sample preparation was performed by adding extraction solvent to a powdered sample aliquot followed by agitation, centrifugation, and filtration to recover an extract for analysis. Automated flow injection introduced 1 L of the extracts directly into the mass spectrometer ion source without chromatographic separation. Sample-to-sample analysis time was 60 s representing significant improvement over conventional liquid chromatography approaches which typically require 25-45 min, and often require more significant sample preparation procedures. Quantitative capabilities of the flow-injection analysis were tested using the method of standard additions and NIST standard reference material (SRM 3280) multivitamin/multielement tablets. The quantity determined for each B-vitamin in SRM 3280 was within the statistical range provided for the respective certified values. The same sample preparation and analysis approach was also applied to two different commercial vitamin supplement tablets and proved to be successful in the quantification of the selected B-vitamins as evidenced by an agreement with the labels values and the results obtained using isotope dilution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  18. An emerging method for rapid characterization of feed structures and feed component matrix at a cellular level and relation to feed quality and nutritive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2006-06-01

    Feed quality, feed characteristics, nutrient utilization and digestive behaviour are closely related to: (i) total feed composition, (ii) feed intrinsic structures, and (iii) biological component matrix (such as protein to starch matrix, protein to carbohydrate matrix). Conventional "wet" chemical analysis can determine total chemical composition, but fails to detect the feed intrinsic structures and biological component matrix due to destruction of feed samples during the processing for chemical analysis and the "wet" chemical analysis cannot link structural information to chemical information within intact feed tissue. Recently, advanced synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy has been developed as a non-destructive and non-invasive structural-chemical analytical technique. This technique can link chemical information to structural information of biological samples within intact tissue within cellular dimensions. It can provide four kinds of information simultaneously: tissue composition, tissue structure, tissue chemistry and tissue environment. However, this novel technique has been found mainly for medical science research, extremely rare for feed science and nutrition research. The objective of this review article was to illustrate synchrotron-based FTIR microspectroscopy as a novel research tool for rapid characterization of feed structures at a cellular level and for detection of chemical features and molecular chemical make-up of feed biological component matrix and nutrient interaction. The emphasis of this article was to show that feed structural-chemical features at a cellular level are closely related to feed characteristics, feed quality and nutritive value in animals. The synchrotron-based technology will provide us with a greater understanding of the plant-animal interface.

  19. Parenteral lipids and partial enteral nutrition affect hepatic lipid composition but have limited short term effects on formula-induced necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Andreas; Thymann, Thomas; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Rapid transition from total parenteral nutrition (TPN) to enteral feeding is a risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. We hypothesized that partial enteral nutrition with colostrum, increased proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or exclusion of lipid...

  20. Eating habits of a population undergoing a rapid dietary transition: portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods and beverages consumed by Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Tony; Roache, Cindy; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-06-02

    To determine the portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods being consumed by Inuit adults in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada. A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and October, 2008. Trained field workers collected dietary data using a culturally appropriate, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed specifically for the study population. Caribou, muktuk (whale blubber and skin) and Arctic char (salmon family), were the most commonly consumed traditional foods; mean portion sizes for traditional foods ranged from 10 g for fermented seal fat to 424 g for fried caribou. Fried bannock and white bread were consumed by >85% of participants; mean portion sizes for these foods were 189 g and 70 g, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods were also widely consumed. Mean portion sizes for regular pop and sweetened juices with added sugar were 663 g and 572 g, respectively. Mean portion sizes for potato chips, pilot biscuits, cakes, chocolate and cookies were 59 g, 59 g, 106 g, 59 g, and 46 g, respectively. The present study provides further evidence of the nutrition transition that is occurring among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. It also highlights a number of foods and beverages that could be targeted in future nutritional intervention programs aimed at obesity and diet-related chronic disease prevention in these and other Inuit communities.

  1. Nutrition in adolescents: physiology, metabolism, and nutritional needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jai K; Salam, Rehana A; Thornburg, Kent L; Prentice, Andrew M; Campisi, Susan; Lassi, Zohra S; Koletzko, Berthold; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-04-01

    Adolescence is the period of development that begins at puberty and ends in early adulthood. Most commonly, adolescence is divided into three developmental periods: early adolescence (10-14 years of age), late adolescence (15-19 years of age), and young adulthood (20-24 years of age). Adolescence is marked by physical and sexual maturation, social and economic independence, development of identity, acquisition of skills needed to carry out adult relationships and roles, and the capacity for abstract reasoning. Adolescence is characterized by a rapid pace of growth that is second only to that of infancy. Nutrition and the adolescent transition are closely intertwined, since eating patterns and behaviors are influenced by many factors, including peer influences, parental modeling, food availability, food preferences, cost, convenience, personal and cultural beliefs, mass media, and body image. Here, we describe the physiology, metabolism, and nutritional requirements for adolescents and pregnant adolescents, as well as nutrition-related behavior and current trends in adolescent nutrition. We conclude with thoughts on the implications for nutrition interventions and priority areas that would require further investigation. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Validation of a rapid method of analysis using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry for nitrogen-rich adulterants in nutritional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draher, Jon; Pound, Vickie; Reddy, Todime M

    2014-12-19

    A method for the rapid quantification of 9 potential nitrogen-rich economic adulterants (dicyandiamide, urea, biuret, cyromazine, amidinourea, ammeline, amidinourea, melamine, and cyanuric acid) in five milk and soy derived nutritional ingredients, i.e. whole milk powder, nonfat dry milk, milk protein concentrate, sodium caseinate, and soy protein isolate has been developed and validated for routine use. The samples were diluted tenfold with water followed by treatment with 2% formic acid and acetonitrile to precipitate proteins. Sample extracts were analyzed using hydrophilic interaction chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) under both positive and negative modes. Stable isotope labeled internal standards were used to ensure accurate quantification. In multi-day validation experiments, the average accuracies, relative standard deviations (RSD), and method detection limits (MDL) for all analytes in whole milk powder were 82-101%, 6-13%, and 0.1mg/kg-7 mg/kg, respectively. The retention times of the analytes in matrix spiked controls were within ± 0.06 min of the average retention times of the corresponding analytes in calibration standards. The validated method was proven to be rugged for routine use to quantify the presence of 9 nitrogen-rich compounds in milk and soy derived ingredients and to provide a defense from economically motivated adulteration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Productive and nutritional performance of grazing beef heifers supplemented in the dry season and/or in the dry-rainy transition season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Vieira de Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with multiple supplement or mineral mixture in the dry season (phase 1 and/or dry-rainy transition season (phase 2 on nutritional variables and productive performance of beef cattle in Uruchloa decumbens pasture. 40 heifers at initial age and average weight of 8 months and 200 ± 3.74 kg, respectively in a complete random design with four treatments and 10 replicates, were used. In the phase 1, two groups of animals were fed multiple supplement and the other two groups were fed only mineral mixture ad libitum. In the second phase of the experiment, the two groups that received multiple supplements, one continued to receive multiple supplements and the other was receiving only mineral. Regarding the two groups fed only mineral mixture in the phase 1, one continued receiving mineral mixture in phase 2 and the other receiving supplement in phase 2. In the phase 1, supplemented animals presented higher daily average gain (DAG, the supplementation increased intake in kg/day of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, CP, non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, digested dry matter (DDM, and total digestible nutrients (TDN and it improved digestibility of all dietary constituents (P<0.10, except those of neutral detergent fiber (NDFap and ether extract (EE (P<0.10. The supplementation in the dry-rainy transition season (phase 2 increased intake in kg/day of DM, forage dry matter (FDM, OM, forage organic matter (FOM, CP, EE, DDM, digested neutral detergent fiber (DNDF and indigestible neutral detergent fiber. There was an interaction effect on supplementation in the dry season and in the dry-rainy transition season on the DAG, NFC intake, on the coefficients of DM, OM, CP, NDFap and on the content of TDN. It is recommended the use of multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers in the growth phase in the dry season and in the rainy-dry transition period. Supplementation in the dry season

  4. Eating habits of a population undergoing a rapid dietary transition: portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods and beverages consumed by Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods being consumed by Inuit adults in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and October, 2008. Trained field workers collected dietary data using a culturally appropriate, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed specifically for the study population. Results Caribou, muktuk (whale blubber and skin) and Arctic char (salmon family), were the most commonly consumed traditional foods; mean portion sizes for traditional foods ranged from 10 g for fermented seal fat to 424 g for fried caribou. Fried bannock and white bread were consumed by >85% of participants; mean portion sizes for these foods were 189 g and 70 g, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods were also widely consumed. Mean portion sizes for regular pop and sweetened juices with added sugar were 663 g and 572 g, respectively. Mean portion sizes for potato chips, pilot biscuits, cakes, chocolate and cookies were 59 g, 59 g, 106 g, 59 g, and 46 g, respectively. Conclusions The present study provides further evidence of the nutrition transition that is occurring among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. It also highlights a number of foods and beverages that could be targeted in future nutritional intervention programs aimed at obesity and diet-related chronic disease prevention in these and other Inuit communities. PMID:23724920

  5. The Role of the Silicon Cycle in the Eocene-Oligocene Transition: Rapid Rise in Diatom-δ30Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, K. E.; Rickaby, R. E.; Leng, M. J.; Halliday, A. N.

    2011-12-01

    The Eocene-Oligocene (E-O) boundary represents a time of major climatic change which heralded the descent of Earth's climate from earlier greenhouse conditions into today's icehouse world. Decline of atmospheric CO2 levels, development of major ice sheets on Antarctica and initiation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current around 34Ma ago dramatically changed the state of the atmosphere, cryosphere and hydrosphere: Major isotopic excursions are seen in both marine oxygen and carbon cycles, and yet the mechanisms behind this transition are still not fully understood. Unravelling the causes of such a significant climatic shift is essential to furthering our grasp on the mechanisms that control climate. The silicon isotope composition (δ30Si) preserved in diatom opal provides a window to the E-O Silicon cycle. The Silicon cycle is a key player in controlling atmospheric CO2 levels for two reasons. Firstly, weathering of silicate minerals acts to draw down CO2 into the ocean and ultimately sediments. Secondly, carbon export from the surface ocean by diatoms, siliceous walled phytoplankton, facilitates carbon transport to a deep ocean sink. We present a long term record of diatom-δ30Si record covering 37Ma to 25Ma, with E-O boundary targeted higher resolution (sponge spicule-δ30Si of ~2% seen by De La Rocha (2003) in sediments from the Maud Rise (ODP site 689). Taken together, these records demonstrate that changes are occurring in both the surface and deep waters of the Southern Ocean across this boundary. We will discuss the implications this has for silicon cycling across the E-O transition, in terms of variation in both weathering and diatom productivity, and the impact that this may have had on global climate.

  6. Computer-assisted glucose regulation during rapid step-wise increases of parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: a proof of concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Schoorl, Michiel A; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Wietasch, J K Götz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W N

    2010-01-01

    Early delivery of calories is important in critically ill patients, and the administration of parenteral nutrition (PN) is sometimes required to achieve this goal. However, PN can induce acute hyperglycemia, which is associated with adverse outcome. We hypothesized that initiation of PN using a rapid "step-up" approach, coupled with a computerized insulin-dosing protocol, would result in a desirable caloric intake within 24 hours without causing hyperglycemia. In our surgical intensive care unit (ICU), glucose is regulated by a nurse-centered computerized glucose regulation program. When adequate enteral feeding was not possible, PN was initiated according to a simple step-up rule at an infusion rate of 10 mL/h (approximately 10 kcal/h) and subsequently increased by steps of 10 mL/h every 4 hours, provided glucose was up period and for 24 hours after achieving target feeding. In all 23 consecutive patients requiring PN, mean intake was 1 kcal/kg/h within 24 hours. Of the 280 glucose samples during the 48-hour study period, mean ± standard deviation glucose level was 7.4 ± 1.4 mmol/L. Only 4.5% of glucose measurements during the step-up period were transiently ≥10 mmol/L. After initiating PN, the insulin requirement rose from 1.1 ± 1.5 units/h to 2.9 ± 2.5 units/h (P initiation of PN using a step-up approach coupled with computerized glucose control resulted in adequate caloric intake within 24 hours while maintaining adequate glycemic control.

  7. Implications of climate variability for the detection of multiple equilibria and for rapid transitions in the atmosphere-vegetation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathiany, S. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Claussen, M. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Universitaet Hamburg, Meteorologisches Institut, Hamburg (Germany); Fraedrich, K. [Universitaet Hamburg, Meteorologisches Institut, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    Paleoclimatic records indicate a decline of vegetation cover in the Western Sahara at the end of the African Humid Period (about 5,500 years before present). Modelling studies have shown that this phenomenon may be interpreted as a critical transition that results from a bifurcation in the atmosphere-vegetation system. However, the stability properties of this system are closely linked to climate variability and depend on the climate model and the methods of analysis. By coupling the Planet Simulator (PlaSim), an atmosphere model of intermediate complexity, with the simple dynamic vegetation model VECODE, we assess previous methods for the detection of multiple equilibria, and demonstrate their limitations. In particular, a stability diagram can yield misleading results because of spatial interactions, and the system's steady state and its dependency on initial conditions are affected by atmospheric variability and nonlinearities. In addition, we analyse the implications of climate variability for the abruptness of a vegetation decline. We find that a vegetation collapse can happen at different locations at different times. These collapses are possible despite large and uncorrelated climate variability. Because of the nonlinear relation between vegetation dynamics and precipitation the green state is initially stabilised by the high variability. When precipitation falls below a critical threshold, the desert state is stabilised as variability is then also decreased. (orig.)

  8. Consensus document of the Neuroendocrinology area of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition on management of hypopituitarism during transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Escolá, Cristina; Fernández-Rodríguez, Eva; Recio-Córdova, José María; Bernabéu-Morón, Ignacio; Fajardo-Montañana, Carmen

    2014-02-01

    The transition period from child to adult represents a crucial phase in the growth process where multiple physical and psychosocial changes occur. It has been arbitrarily defined as the period extending from late puberty to full adult maturity (i.e., from mid to late teenage years until 6-7 years after achievement of final height). The aim of this guideline is to emphasize the importance of adequate hormone replacement during this period and to review reassessment of pituitary function. In patients with GH deficiency diagnosed in childhood, an attempt is made to answer when to retest GH secretion, when to treat and how they should be monitored. Thyroxine, glucocorticoid, and sex steroid replacement are also reviewed. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Hunger in America: Hearings on Hunger and Related Nutritional Issues, before the Subcommittee on Nutrition and Investigations of the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate, and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry, United States Senate. One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (Cedar Rapids, Iowa, January 30, 1988; Washington, D.C., March 1 and 28, 1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    This report presents the testimony of numerous expert witnesses who appeared at three hearings on the following topics: (1) Hunger and Related Nutritional Issues; (2) U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Assistance Programs; and (3) Domestic Hunger and Related Nutritional Issues. The following major issues were discussed: (1) the number of…

  10. Duodenum inclusion in alimentary transit for preventing or correcting nutritional deficiencies resulting from Roux-en-y gastric bypass in obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional and metabolic complications can develop after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) when there is an exaggerated response to the anatomical and functional changes or when there is inadequate nutritional supplementation. Severe malnutrition is rare, but deficiencies of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and thiamin, metabolic bone disease and gallstones are common after RYGB. Shortage of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and also cholelithiasis are caused at least partially by excluding the duodenum and proximal jejunum from food transit. We designed a new procedure, with the maintenance of the duodenum and proximal jejunum in the gastrointestinal transit through interposition of jejunal loop, as a primary operation to prevent such deficiencies or as corrective surgery for severe malnutrition after RYGB with failure in responding to conservative treatment. Complicações nutricionais e metabólicas podem se desenvolver após a derivação gástrica em Y de Roux (DGYR) quando há uma resposta exagerada às mudanças anatômicas e funcionais ou quando há suplementação nutricional inadequada. A desnutrição grave é rara, mas deficiências de vitamina B12, ferro, cálcio e tiamina, doença óssea metabólica e cálculos biliares são comuns após a DGYR. Dessas deficiências mencionadas, a de vitamina B12, de ferro, de cálcio e também a colelitíase, são causadas, ao menos parcialmente, pela exclusão do duodeno e jejuno proximal. Um novo procedimento com a manutenção do duodeno e do jejuno proximal no trânsito gastrointestinal, mediante interposição de alça jejunal, foi idealizado como operação primária para prevenir essas deficiências ou como cirurgia corretiva de desnutrição grave após DGYR com falha na resposta a exaustivas tentativas de tratamento conservador.

  11. OH reactivity in urban and suburban regions in Seoul, South Korea - an East Asian megacity in a rapid transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Saewung; Sanchez, Dianne; Wang, Mark; Seco, Roger; Jeong, Daun; Hughes, Stacey; Barletta, Barbara; Blake, Donald R; Jung, Jinsang; Kim, Deugsoo; Lee, Gangwoong; Lee, Meehye; Ahn, Joonyoung; Lee, Sang-Deok; Cho, Gangnam; Sung, Min-Young; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Kim, Dan Bi; Kim, Younha; Woo, Jung-Hun; Jo, Duseong; Park, Rokjin; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Hong, You-Deog; Hong, Ji-Hyung

    2016-07-18

    South Korea has recently achieved developed country status with the second largest megacity in the world, the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). This study provides insights into future changes in air quality for rapidly emerging megacities in the East Asian region. We present total OH reactivity observations in the SMA conducted at an urban Seoul site (May-June, 2015) and a suburban forest site (Sep, 2015). The total OH reactivity in an urban site during the daytime was observed at similar levels (∼15 s(-1)) to those previously reported from other East Asian megacity studies. Trace gas observations indicate that OH reactivity is largely accounted for by NOX (∼50%) followed by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (∼35%). Isoprene accounts for a substantial fraction of OH reactivity among the comprehensive VOC observational dataset (25-47%). In general, observed total OH reactivity can be accounted for by the observed trace gas dataset. However, observed total OH reactivity in the suburban forest area cannot be largely accounted for (∼70%) by the trace gas measurements. The importance of biogenic VOC (BVOCs) emissions and oxidations used to evaluate the impacts of East Asian megacity outflows for the regional air quality and climate contexts are highlighted in this study.

  12. Mortality in adult immigrants in the 2000s in Belgium: a test of the 'healthy-migrant' and the 'migration-as-rapid-health-transition' hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenheede, Hadewijch; Willaert, Didier; De Grande, Hannelore; Simoens, Steven; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Firstly, to map out and compare all-cause and cause-specific mortality patterns by migrant background in Belgium; and secondly, to probe into explanations for the observed patterns, more specifically into the healthy-migrant, acculturation and the migration-as-rapid-health-transition theories. Data comprise individually linked Belgian census-mortality follow-up data for the period 2001-2011. All official inhabitants aged 25-54 at time of the census were included. To delve into the different explanations, differences in all-cause and chronic- and infectious-disease mortality were estimated using Poisson regression models, adjusted for age, socioeconomic position and urbanicity. First-generation immigrants have lower all-cause and chronic-disease mortality than the host population. This mortality advantage wears off with length of stay and is more marked among non-Western than Western first-generation immigrants. For example, Western and non-Western male immigrants residing 10 years or more in Belgium have a mortality rate ratio for cardiovascular disease of 0.72 (95% CI 0.66-0.78) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.53-0.66), respectively (vs host population). The pattern of infectious-disease mortality in migrants is slightly different, with rather high mortality rates in first-generation sub-Saharan Africans and rather low rates in all other immigrant groups. As for second-generation immigrants, the picture is gloomier, with a mortality disadvantage that disappears after control for socioeconomic position. Findings are largely consistent with the healthy-migrant, acculturation and the migration-as-rapid-health-transition theories. The convergence of the mortality profile of second-generation immigrants towards that of the host population with similar socioeconomic position indicates the need for policies simultaneously addressing different areas of deprivation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Evidence from a mouse model that epithelial cell migration and mesenchymal-epithelial transition contribute to rapid restoration of uterine tissue integrity during menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Fiona L; Murray, Alison; Esnal, Arantza; Gibson, Douglas A; Critchley, Hilary O D; Saunders, Philippa T K

    2014-01-01

    In women dynamic changes in uterine tissue architecture occur during each menstrual cycle. Menses, characterised by the shedding of the upper functional layer of the endometrium, is the culmination of a cascade of irreversible changes in tissue function including stromal decidualisation, inflammation and production of degradative enzymes. The molecular mechanisms that contribute to the rapid restoration of tissue homeostasis at time of menses are poorly understood. A modified mouse model of menses was developed to focus on the events occurring within the uterine lining during endometrial shedding/repair. Decidualisation, vaginal bleeding, tissue architecture and cell proliferation were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after progesterone (P4) withdrawal; mice received a single injection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) 90 mins before culling. Expression of genes implicated in the regulation of mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) was determined using a RT2 PCR profiler array, qRTPCR and bioinformatic analysis. Mice exhibited vaginal bleeding between 4 and 12 hours after P4 withdrawal, concomitant with detachment of the decidualised cell mass from the basal portion of the endometrial lining. Immunostaining for BrdU and pan cytokeratin revealed evidence of epithelial cell proliferation and migration. Cells that appeared to be in transition from a mesenchymal to an epithelial cell identity were identified within the stromal compartment. Analysis of mRNAs encoding genes expressed exclusively in the epithelial or stromal compartments, or implicated in MET, revealed dynamic changes in expression, consistent with a role for reprogramming of mesenchymal cells so that they could contribute to re-epithelialisation. These studies have provided novel insights into the cellular processes that contribute to re-epithelialisation post-menses implicating both epithelial cell migration and mesenchymal cell differentiation in restoration of an intact epithelial cell layer. These

  14. Nuclear transit study in children with chronic faecal soiling after Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) surgery has revealed a group with rapid proximal colonic treatment and possible adverse reactions to food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Lefteris; King, Sebastian K; Southwell, Bridget R; Hutson, John M

    2016-08-01

    Long-term problems with faecal incontinence occur in up to 50 % of patients after pull-through for Hirschsprung disease (HSCR). The cause often remains unknown, leading to empirical treatments. Using nuclear transit study, we found some patients surprisingly had rapid proximal colonic transit, suspicious of occult diarrhoea. We aimed to assess whether these patients had unrecognized adverse reactions to food. Patients (n = 10, all males, 9.6 year; 4.25-15.5 years) with persistent faecal incontinence following pull-through for HSCR referred to the senior author and after exclusion of anatomical defects, underwent nuclear transit studies. Most (8) subsequently underwent breath hydrogen tests for sugar malabsorption and were tested for adverse reactions to food. Exclusion diets for protein allergens, lactose or fructose were then trialed. Of the 10 patients with rapid intestinal transit proven on nuclear transit study, breath hydrogen tests for fructose and/or lactose malabsorption were done in 8, and were positive in 7/8 patients. Exclusion diets contributed to either resolution or improvement in faecal incontinence in 9/10 patients. Rapid transit in the proximal, ganglionated colon may be present in children with faecal incontinence following pull-through for HSCR, possibly secondary to adverse reactions to food. This study suggests that children with post-operative soiling may benefit from a transit study and hydrogen breath tests to diagnose adverse reactions to food caused by sugar malabsorption.

  15. Rapid health transition in China, 1990-2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gonghuan; Wang, Yu; Zeng, Yixin; Gao, George F; Liang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Wan, Xia; Yu, Shicheng; Jiang, Yuhong; Naghavi, Mohsen; Vos, Theo; Wang, Haidong; Lopez, Alan D; Murray, Christopher J L

    2013-06-08

    China has undergone rapid demographic and epidemiological changes in the past few decades, including striking declines in fertility and child mortality and increases in life expectancy at birth. Popular discontent with the health system has led to major reforms. To help inform these reforms, we did a comprehensive assessment of disease burden in China, how it changed between 1990 and 2010, and how China's health burden compares with other nations. We used results of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) for 1990 and 2010 for China and 18 other countries in the G20 to assess rates and trends in mortality, causes of death, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and healthy life expectancy (HALE). We present results for 231 diseases and injuries and for 67 risk factors or clusters of risk factors relevant to China. We assessed relative performance of China against G20 countries (significantly better, worse, or indistinguishable from the G20 mean) with age-standardised rates and 95% uncertainty intervals. The leading causes of death in China in 2010 were stroke (1·7 million deaths, 95% UI 1·5-1·8 million), ischaemic heart disease (948,700 deaths, 774,500-1,024,600), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (934,000 deaths, 846,600-1,032,300). Age-standardised YLLs in China were lower in 2010 than all emerging economies in the G20, and only slightly higher than noted in the USA. China had the lowest age-standardised YLD rate in the G20 in 2010. China also ranked tenth (95% UI eighth to tenth) for HALE and 12th (11th to 13th) for life expectancy. YLLs from neonatal causes, infectious diseases, and injuries in children declined substantially between 1990 and 2010. Mental and behavioural disorders, substance use disorders, and musculoskeletal disorders were responsible for almost half of all YLDs. The fraction of DALYs from YLDs rose from 28·1% (95% UI 24·2-32·5

  16. Maternal fish consumption in the nutrition transition of the Amazon Basin: growth of exclusively breastfed infants during the first 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rejane C; Dórea, José Garrofe; Bernardi, José V E; Bastos, Wanderley R; Malm, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    Changes in fish-eating habits due to rapid urbanization in Western Amazon was used as model to investigate whether maternal fish-intake rate impacts on children's weight and height during the first 5 years. The study examined the growth of 82 breastfed children, and maternal fish consumption (hair mercury concentrations, HHg) during pregnancy and lactation. Fish consumption in mothers and children was estimated through HHg. The children were measured and weighed at birth and at 6 (exclusive breastfeeding), 36 and 60 months. Fish consumption rate (HHg) had no significant impact on children's growth at the specified ages (p = 0.35). After 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding, children had the highest proportion of Z-scores -1 SD) for height-for-age (70/82), weight-for-age (74/82) and weight-for-height (74/82). At 5 years, all but one child attained Z-scores >-1. The apparently good nutritional status of subjects is more likely due to a well balanced diet composition than to only one dietary protein source--fish.

  17. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, K. S.; Katan, M B

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are growing contributors to global disease burdens, with epidemics of CVD advancing across many regions of the world which are experiencing a rapid health transition. Diet and nutrition have been extensively investigated as risk factors for major cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke and are also linked to other cardiovascular risk factors like diabetes, high blood pressure and obesity. The interpretation of evidence needs to involv...

  18. Characterization of a rapid climate shift at the MIS 8/7 transition in central Spain (Valdocarros II, Autonomous Region of Madrid) by means of the herpetological assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Hugues-Alexandre; Panera, Joaquin; Uribelarrea, David; Rubio-Jara, Susana; Pérez-González, Alfredo

    2012-07-01

    Climate instability with high-amplitude and rapid shifts during the Middle Pleistocene is well known from pollen records and deep-ocean sediment cores. Although poorly correlatable with such long climate/environment records, the successive fossil amphibian and reptile assemblages from the Middle Pleistocene site of Valdocarros II (Autonomous Region of Madrid, central Spain) provide a unique opportunity to characterize the climatic and environmental features of such rapid (certainly less than 1000 years) shifts from cold to warm conditions in a terrestrial sequence. As the amphibians and reptiles do not differ at species level from the extant herpetofauna of the Iberian Peninsula, they can contribute to the reconstruction of the landscape and climate. In this paper, the mutual climatic range and habitat weighting methods are applied to the herpetofaunistic assemblages in order to estimate quantitative data. The difference in mean annual temperature between "cold" and "warm" periods is estimated at 3.2 °C, with a greater increase in temperature during winter (+3 °C) than during summer (+1 °C). During "cold" periods the climate was more Oceanic (although preserving some dryness during the summers), whereas during "warm" periods the climate became Mediterranean (with mild winters and a long period of dryness in the summer and early autumn). Though higher during cold periods, the continentality (or atmospheric temperature range) remained roughly similar, in accordance with the geographical location of the site in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. A greater amount of open landscape occurred during "cold" periods, whereas during "warm" periods the wooded areas expanded from 20% to 40% of the landscape surface. Such climatic/environmental changes, together with the numeric datings of the site, suggest that this shift may correspond to the transition from MIS 8 to MIS 7, also called Termination III.

  19. Free-sugar, total-sugar, fibre, and micronutrient intake within elite youth British soccer players: a nutritional transition from schoolboy to fulltime soccer player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Robert J; Drust, Barry; O'Boyle, Andy; Abayomi, Julie; Mahon, Elizabeth; Morton, James P; Davies, Ian G

    2017-05-01

    It is recommended that soccer players consume a high carbohydrate diet to augment performance. However, growing evidence suggests that there is a link between high free-sugar (FS) intake (>5% total energy intake; TEI) and metabolic diseases. Furthermore, foods that are often high in sugar, such as processed foods, are typically lacking in nutrient quality. We therefore analysed total-sugar, FS, dietary fibre, and micronutrient intake of players from an English Premier League academy under (U) 18 (n = 13), U15/16 (n = 25), and U13/14 (n = 21) using a 7-day food diary. Data were compared with current United Kingdom (UK) dietary reference value (DRV) for FS via a t test. The U13/14s (10% ± 18%) and U15/16s (11% ± 30%) both consumed higher amounts of FS in comparison with the UK DRV of 5% TEI (P < 0.01); conversely, the U18s did not exceed the DRV (5% ± 13%). Furthermore, FS intake of the U18s was significantly lower than the U13/14s and U15/16s (P < 0.01). Dietary fibre was below the DRV (25 g/day for U13/14 and U15/16s; 30 g/day for U18s) for all squads (19.0 ± 4.7, 19.6 ± 8.3, 17.1 ± 4.2 g/day, respectively), but not different between squads. Additionally, micronutrient reference intakes were generally met. In conclusion, we provide novel data on dietary sugar, fibre, and micronutrient intake within elite youth soccer players. We report an apparent "nutritional transition" from schoolboy to fulltime soccer player, with U18s showing a significantly lower intake of sugar in comparison with younger squads, and a similar intake of FS to the UK DRVs. Practitioners should target improving player education around sugar and fibre consumption.

  20. The impact of body mass index and Western advertising and media on eating style, body image and nutrition transition among Jordanian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanat, Hala N; Brown, Ralph B; Hawks, Steven R

    2007-10-01

    To identify the impact of body mass index (BMI) and Western advertising and media on the stage of the nutrition transition among Jordanian women, and to evaluate their impact on eating styles and body image. A randomised cross-sectional survey that included a variety of culturally measured Likert-type scales and body size images. In addition, BMI was calculated based on measured height and weight. In the homes of the participants. The data were collected by female interviewers who worked for the Jordan Department of Statistics. The sample was based on a random and representative selection of 800 mostly urban Jordanian women. A pre-test sample of 100 women was also used to validate the instruments. Women tended to agree that they ate based on emotional cues. They had high levels of disordered eating attitudes and behaviours and 42.1% were considered restrained eaters. However, these women also had higher than expected body esteem levels and desired a healthy body size. As expected, being obese was associated with a desire to lose weight, being a restrained and emotional eater, and having more disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. Similarly, Western advertising and media were associated with restrained and emotional eating, desired weight loss, and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours. There is a need to develop health education materials that explain the influence of obesity on health and the negative psychological and physical consequences of restrained and emotional eating, building on the current cultural preferences of healthy body size. Further implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Preschool Overweight and Obesity Amidst the Nutrition Transition: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreddine, Lara; Hwalla, Nahla; Saliba, Angie; Akl, Christelle; Naja, Farah

    2017-03-11

    There is increasing evidence linking early life adiposity to disease risk later in life. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among preschoolers in Lebanon. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 2-5 years old children (n = 525). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data were obtained. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was estimated at 6.5% and 2.7%, respectively. Based on stepwise logistic regression for the prediction of overweight and obesity (combined), the variance accounted for by the first block (socioeconomic, parental characteristics) was 11.9%, with higher father's education (OR = 5.31, 95% CI: 1.04-27.26) and the presence of household helper (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.05-4.56) being significant predictors. The second block of variables (eating habits) significantly improved the prediction of overweight/obesity to reach 21%, with eating in front of the television (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02-1.13) and satiety responsiveness (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70-0.99) being significantly associated with overweight/obesity. In the third block, fat intake remained a significant predictor of overweight/obesity (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.13-4.75). This study identified specific risk factors for preschool overweight/obesity in Lebanon and characterized children from high socioeconomic backgrounds as important target groups for preventive interventions. These findings may be of significance to other middle-income countries in similar stages of nutrition transition.

  2. The Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) Design, Trades, and Analyses Performed in a Two Year NASA Investigation of Electric Sail Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.

    2017-01-01

    The Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) was one of the seven total Phase II NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) that was down-selected in 2015 for continued funding and research. In Phase I our team learned that a spacecraft propelled by an Electric Sail (E-Sail) can travel great astronomical distances, such as to the Heliopause region of the solar system (approx. 100 to 120 AU) in approximately one quarter of the time (10 years) versus the time it took the Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977 (36 years). The completed work within the Phase II NIAC funded effort builds upon the work that was done in the Phase I NIAC and is focused on: 1) Testing of plasma interaction with a charged wire in a MSFC simulated solar environment vacuum test chamber. 2) Development of a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) models that are validated in the plasma testing and used to extrapolate to the E-Sail propulsion system design. 3) Conceptual design of a Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) spacecraft developed to showcase E-Sail propulsion systems. 4) Down selection of both: a) Materials for a multi km length conductor and, b) Best configuration of the proposed conductor deployment subsystem. This paper will document the findings to date (June, 2017) of the above focused areas.

  3. A High-Speed Target-Free Vision-Based Sensor for Bus Rapid Transit Viaduct Vibration Measurements Using CMT and ORB Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Hu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has become an increasing source of concern for public transportation of modern cities. Traditional contact sensing techniques during the process of health monitoring of BRT viaducts cannot overcome the deficiency that the normal free-flow of traffic would be blocked. Advances in computer vision technology provide a new line of thought for solving this problem. In this study, a high-speed target-free vision-based sensor is proposed to measure the vibration of structures without interrupting traffic. An improved keypoints matching algorithm based on consensus-based matching and tracking (CMT object tracking algorithm is adopted and further developed together with oriented brief (ORB keypoints detection algorithm for practicable and effective tracking of objects. Moreover, by synthesizing the existing scaling factor calculation methods, more rational approaches to reducing errors are implemented. The performance of the vision-based sensor is evaluated through a series of laboratory tests. Experimental tests with different target types, frequencies, amplitudes and motion patterns are conducted. The performance of the method is satisfactory, which indicates that the vision sensor can extract accurate structure vibration signals by tracking either artificial or natural targets. Field tests further demonstrate that the vision sensor is both practicable and reliable.

  4. Computer-Assisted Glucose Regulation During Rapid Step-Wise Increases of Parenteral Nutrition in Critically Ill Patients : A Proof of Concept Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Schoorl, Michiel A.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Wietasch, J. K. Goetz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    Background: Early delivery of calories is important in critically ill patients, and the administration of parenteral nutrition (PN) is sometimes required to achieve this goal. However, PN can induce acute hyperglycemia, which is associated with adverse outcome. We hypothesized that initiation of PN

  5. The nutrition transition in India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    development of NCDs such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. In developing countries, however, lower levels of mechanisation at home, at work and in transport make the documentation of physical activity within these domains particularly important. For instance, in urban areas in India, about a third of the people who ...

  6. [Use of ready-to-use (RTU) products in home-based parenteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, M; Puiggrós, C; Sánchez, J R; Cots, I; Tutusaus, M; Rodríguez, T; Pérez-Portabella, C; Gómez, R

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the real possibility to use ready-to-use multichamber bags for total parenteral nutrition in adult patients on home parenteral nutrition. In June 2005 we studied the adult patients on home parenteral nutrition treatment controlled by the Nutritional Support Unit from an University Hospital. Demographic data, data relating to underlying disease state; infusion regimen and the necessity to modify it; body mass index, fat free mass index, and Karnofsky index evolution, and complications related to parenteral nutrition were assessed. At the time of the study, 8 patients aged 48,9 +/- 17,7 years, were on home parenteral nutrition. The artificial nutrition treatment was administered due to short-bowel syndrome (2); motility disorders (2); suboclusion (2); rapid intestinal transit (1), and malabsorption syndrome (1). With the exception of the patient who started more recently the treatment, all the others needed changes in the parenteral nutrition treatment (number of days for week, or formula modification). In general, both the body mass index and the fat free mass index increased during the treatment. The Karnofsky index was maintained or increased. In relation to catheter-related infection, 4 episodes were observed (0.85/1.000 d of HPN). Due to the effectiveness, safety and the diversity of multichamber bags available for parenteral nutrition, and the few complications observed in the patients studied, although more studied are necessary, our results suggest that we can use this commercial bags for adult patients on home parenteral nutrition.

  7. Rapid change of fecal microbiome and disappearance of Clostridium difficile in a colonized infant after transition from breast milk to cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Manli Y; Zhang, Husen; Brannan, Lera E; Carman, Robert J; Boone, James H

    2016-10-07

    Clostridium difficile is the most common known cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Upon the disturbance of gut microbiota by antibiotics, C. difficile establishes growth and releases toxins A and B, which cause tissue damage in the host. The symptoms of C. difficile infection disease range from mild diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis and toxic megacolon. Interestingly, 10-50 % of infants are asymptomatic carriers of C. difficile. This longitudinal study of the C. difficile colonization in an infant revealed the dynamics of C. difficile presence in gut microbiota. Fifty fecal samples, collected weekly between 5.5 and 17 months of age from a female infant who was an asymptomatic carrier of C. difficile, were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Colonization switching between toxigenic and non-toxigenic C. difficile strains as well as more than 100,000-fold fluctuations of C. difficile counts were observed. C. difficile toxins were detected during the testing period in some infant stool samples, but the infant never had diarrhea. Although fecal microbiota was stable during breast feeding, a dramatic and permanent change of microbiota composition was observed within 5 days of the transition from human milk to cow milk. A rapid decline and eventual disappearance of C. difficile coincided with weaning at 12.5 months. An increase in the relative abundance of Bacteroides spp., Blautia spp., Parabacteroides spp., Coprococcus spp., Ruminococcus spp., and Oscillospira spp. and a decrease of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Escherichia spp., and Clostridium spp. were observed during weaning. The change in microbiome composition was accompanied by a gradual increase of fecal pH from 5.5 to 7. The bacterial groups that are less abundant in early infancy, and that increase in relative abundance after weaning, likely are responsible for the expulsion of C. difficile.

  8. Effect of Attitudinal, Situational and Demographic Factors on Annoyance Due to Environmental Vibration and Noise from Construction of a Light Rapid Transit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-McSweeney, Daniel; Woodcock, James; Waddington, David; Peris, Eulalia; Koziel, Zbigniew; Moorhouse, Andy; Redel-Macías, María Dolores

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine what non-exposure factors influence the relationship between vibration and noise exposure from the construction of a Light Rapid Transit (LRT) system and the annoyance of nearby residents. Noise and vibration from construction sites are known to annoy residents, with annoyance increasing as a function of the magnitude of the vibration and noise. There is not a strong correlation between exposure and levels of annoyance suggesting that factors not directly related to the exposure may have an influence. A range of attitudinal, situational and demographic factors are investigated with the aim of understanding the wide variation in annoyance for a given vibration exposure. A face-to-face survey of residents (n = 350) near three sites of LRT construction was conducted, and responses were compared to semi-empirical estimates of the internal vibration within the buildings. It was found that annoyance responses due to vibration were strongly influenced by two attitudinal variables, concern about property damage and sensitivity to vibration. Age, ownership of the property and the visibility of the construction site were also important factors. Gender, time at home and expectation of future levels of vibration had much less influence. Due to the measurement methods used, it was not possible to separate out the effects of noise and vibration on annoyance; as such, this paper focusses on annoyance due to vibration exposure. This work concludes that for the most cost-effective reduction of the impact of construction vibration and noise on the annoyance felt by a community, policies should consider attitudinal factors. PMID:27983662

  9. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D

    1991-01-01

    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  10. Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to sugar beet fibre and decreasing intestinal transit time pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    that decreasing intestinal (orofaecal) transit time may be a beneficial physiological effect. The applicant provided four human studies as pertinent to the health claim. The Panel considers that no conclusion can be drawn from three studies for the scientific substantiation of the claim owing to methodological......Following an application from Nordic Sugar A/S, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... based on newly developed scientific evidence related to sugar beet fibre and “decreasing intestinal transit time”. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sugar beet fibre. This opinion applies to sugar beet fibre naturally present in foods and to those forms added to foods...

  11. Rapid anthropogenic response to short-term aeolian-fluvial palaeoenvironmental changes during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the northern Negev Desert, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel; Katra, Itzhak; Agha, Nuha; Goring-Morris, A. Nigel; Porat, Naomi; Barzilai, Omry

    2014-09-01

    Archaeological investigations along Nahal Sekher on the eastern edge of Israel's northwestern Negev Desert dunefield revealed concentrations of Epipalaeolithic campsites associated respectively with ancient water bodies. This study, aimed at better understanding the connections between these camps and the water bodies, is concerned with a cluster of Natufian sites. A comprehensive geomorphological study integrating field mapping, stratigraphic sections, sedimentological analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages was conducted in the vicinity of a recently excavated Natufian campsite of Nahal Sekher VI whose artifacts directly overlay aeolian sand dated by OSL to 12.4 ± 0.7 and 11.7 ± 0.5 ka. Residual sequences of diagnostic silty sediments, defined here as low-energy fluvial fine-grained deposits (LFFDs), were identified within the drainage system of central Nahal Sekher around the Nahal Sekher VI site. LFFD sections were found to represent both shoreline and mid-water deposits. The thicker mid-water LFFD deposits (15.7 ± 0.7-10.7 ± 0.5 ka) date within the range of the Epipalaeolithic campsites, while the upper and shoreline LFFD units that thin out into the sands adjacent to the Nahal Sekher VI site display slightly younger ages (10.8 ± 0.4 ka-7.6 ± 0.4 ka). LFFD sedimentation by low-energy concentrated flow and standing-water developed as a result of proximal downstream dune-damming. These water bodies developed as a result of encroaching sand that initially crossed central Nahal Sekher by 15.7 ± 0.7 ka and probably intermittently blocked the course of the wadi. LFFD deposition was therefore a response to a unique combination of regional sand supply due to frequent powerful winds and does not represent climate change in the form of increased precipitation or temperature change. The chronostratigraphies affiliate the Natufian sites to the adjacent ancient water bodies. These relations reflect a rapid, but temporary anthropogenic response to a

  12. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  13. WASP-167b/KELT-13b : joint discovery of a hot Jupiter transiting a rapidly rotating F1V star

    OpenAIRE

    Temple, L. Y.; Hellier, C.; Albrow, M. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Bayliss, D.; Beatty, T. G.; Bieryla, A.; Brown, D. J. A.; Cargile, P. A.; Collier Cameron, A.; Collins, K. A.; Colón, K. D.; Curtis, I. A.; D'Ago, G.; Delrez, L.

    2017-01-01

    We report the joint WASP/KELT discovery of WASP-167b/KELT-13b, a transiting hot Jupiter with a 2.02-d orbit around a $V$ = 10.5, F1V star with [Fe/H] = 0.1 $\\pm$ 0.1. The 1.5 R$_{\\rm Jup}$ planet was confirmed by Doppler tomography of the stellar line profiles during transit. We place a limit of $

  14. Rapid Communication: Δ v=2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3^- states and B(it{E}3) systematics of Sn isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Garg, Swati; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2017-11-01

    We show for the first time that the generalized seniority scheme explains reasonably well the B( E3) systematics for the (0^+ → 3_1^-) transitions in the Sn isotopes, which are odd-tensor E3 transitions connecting different seniority states (Δ v = 2). Additionally, we also present large scale shell model (LSSM) calculations to support our interpretation. The generalized seniority scheme points to the octupole character of these 3^- states in Sn isotopes.

  15. A super-agonist of growth hormone-releasing hormone causes rapid improvement of nutritional status in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczyk, Stanisław; Sikorska, Hanna; Wiecek, Andrzej; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Załecka, Klaudia; Gorczyńska, Joanna; Kubik, Małgorzata; Czerwieńska, Beata; Gosek, Katarzyna; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Wagner, David A; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Hakonen, Tiina; Kay, Sam Wai Kit; Jouhikainen, Taneli; Schaefer, Franz

    2010-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease is frequently associated with protein-energy wasting related to chronic inflammation and a resistance to anabolic hormones such as insulin and growth hormone (GH). In this study, we determined whether a new GH-releasing hormone super-agonist (AKL-0707) improved the anabolism and nutritional status of nondialyzed patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease randomized to twice daily injections of the super-agonist or placebo. After 28 days, this treatment significantly increased 24-h GH secretion by almost 400%, without altering the frequency or rhythmicity of secretory bursts or fractional pulsatile GH release, and doubled the serum insulin-like growth factor-1 level. There was a significant change in the Subjective Global Assessment from 'mildly to moderately malnourished' to 'well-nourished' in 6 of 9 patients receiving AKL-0707 but in none of 10 placebo-treated patients. By dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, both the mean fat-free mass and the body mineral content increased, but fat mass decreased, all significantly. In the AKL-0707-treated group, both serum urea and normalized protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance significantly decreased with no change in dietary protein intake, indicating a protein anabolic effect of treatment. Thus, our study shows that stimulation of endogenous GH secretion by AKL-0707 overcomes uremic catabolism of patients with advanced chronic kidney disease.

  16. Rapid assessment of the illegal presence of 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in sports nutrition and dietary supplements using 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Ilse, Maren; Hengen, Julia; El-Atma, Oliver; Kuballa, Thomas; Kohl-Himmelseher, Matthias; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2014-09-01

    1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a stimulant that can be found in pre-workout sports nutrition and dietary supplements. This practice is illegal because DMAA is not a safe food ingredient but rather an unapproved medicinal compound due to its pharmacological action. In order to determine the DMAA content in such products, a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic method was developed and validated (DMAA was quantified as DMAA-HCl). For quantification, the collective integral from two of the methyl groups of the molecule in the range δ 0.92-0.84 ppm was used. The method was linear over the examined range of 1-21 g/kg (R(2) = 0.9937). The recoveries from spiked concentrations (0.1-6 g/kg) ranged between 85% and 105% (96% on average), with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1% for an authentic sample. The detection limit was 0.03 g/kg and the quantification limit was 0.08 g/kg (calculated for 75 mg sample weight). The actual DMAA-HCl content in the sample was quantified using calibration curves (external standardization) or 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid as single-point internal standard. The developed NMR methodology was applied for the analysis of 16 products, from which 9 samples were found positive (the DMAA-HCl concentration varied between 3.1 g/kg and 415 g/kg). The method can be recommended for routine use in food testing, customs or doping control laboratories. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition services for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities and special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptomey, Lauren T; Wittenbrook, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that nutrition services provided by registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) and nutrition and dietetics technicians, registered (NDTRs), who work under RDN supervision, are essential components of comprehensive care for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN). Nutrition services should be provided throughout life in a manner that is interdisciplinary, family-centered, community based, and culturally competent. Individuals with IDD and CYSHCN have many risk factors requiring nutrition interventions, including growth alterations (eg, failure to thrive, obesity, or growth retardation), metabolic disorders, poor feeding skills, drug-nutrient interactions, and sometimes partial or total dependence on enteral or parenteral nutrition. Furthermore, these individuals are also more likely to develop comorbid conditions, such as obesity or endocrine disorders that require nutrition interventions. Poor nutrition-related health habits, limited access to services, and long-term use of multiple medications are considered health risk factors. Timely and cost-effective nutrition interventions can promote health maintenance and reduce risk and cost of comorbidities and complications. Public policy for individuals with IDD and CYSHCN has evolved, resulting in a transition from institutional facilities and programs to community and independent living. The expansion of public access to technology and health information on the Internet challenges RDNs and NDTRs to provide accurate scientific information to this rapidly growing and evolving population. RDNs and NDTRs with expertise in this area are best prepared to provide appropriate nutrition information to promote wellness and improve quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. NABIR Assessment Element, Expanded Rapid, Comprehensive, Lipid Biomarker Analysis for Subsurface, Community Composition and Nutritional/Physiological Status as Monitors of Remediation and Detoxification Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. White

    2005-09-14

    NABIR funding at the University of Tennessee Center for Biomarker Analysis (CBA) has led to several key contributions to the investigation of bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. This lab has played an integral part in assessing microbial communities at the field scale at the ORNL FRC (Istok et al., 2004) and two UMTRA sites (Anderson et al., 2003, Chang et al., 2001). Our work over the period of the grant has resulted in 42-peer reviewed publications, 62 presentations (14 of which were international), and one patent pending. Currently CBA has 2 papers in press. The main objectives relating to the field portion of this program were to provide comprehensive biomarker analysis for NABIR collaborators to enhance the understanding of microbial geo-bioprocesses involved in the effective immobilization of metals (We have worked with and published or currently are publishing with 10 groups of NAIBR investigators). The laboratory portion of our research centered on methods development and has led to three major innovations that could result in a systematic way of evaluating sites for potential bioremediation. The first of these is the development of an in situ sampling device (Peacock et al., 2004, Anderson et al., 2003, Istok et al., 2004) for the collection and concentration of microbial biomass. The second is the development of expanded lipid analysis based on the significantly greater sensitivity and selectivity of the LC/MS/MS that allows the analysis of respiratory quinones, diglycerides, sterols, intact phospholipids, poly-hydroxyalkonates, and potentially archaeol, and caldarchaeols from archea. These new analyses are accomplished more rapidly and with increased sensitivities and resolution than in the past (Lytle et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, Geyer et al., 2004). The third advance is the coupling of lipid analysis with 13C enrichment experiments (Lytle et al., 2001b, Geyer et al. 2005). With this technique it is now possible to follow the active portion of

  19. Transitioning to new child-care nutrition policies: nutrient content of preschool menus differs by presence of vegetarian main entrée.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Hales, Sarah B; Baum, Angela C

    2014-01-01

    Children who attend child care outside the home may be at increased risk for developing obesity. In 2012, the South Carolina ABC Child Care program issued new standards for food and nutrition. The goal of our study (conducted June to December 2012) was to examine changes that occurred at a large, Columbia, SC, preschool during the implementation of the South Carolina ABC Child Care program standards using an observational design, including a survey of parents and nutrient analysis of menus. The nutrition content of menu items before (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) and after (n=15 days; six of which were vegetarian) implementation of the new standards was compared. In addition, parents (N=75) were surveyed to examine opinions and support for the changes. Independent samples t tests were used to compare nutrient values before and after menu changes and analysis of variance was used to compare pre- and post-change vegetarian menus and pre- and post-change nonvegetarian menus. There were no significant differences between before and after menus with the exception of a 0.3 cup/day increase in vegetables (PVegetarian menus after the revisions were significantly higher in fiber (13 ± 3 g) than postrevision nonvegetarian menus (11 ± 3 g; Phealthy foods for celebrations received the lowest support (score of 5.8). Adding more vegetarian menu items has the potential to improve the nutrient content of menus while keeping energy intake, saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol levels at a more optimum level. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. China in the period of transition from scarcity and extensive undernutrition to emerging nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases, 1949–1992

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Shufa; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Bing; Zhai, Fengying; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses unique official data to document nutritional changes in the 1949–1992 period. In 1949 widespread famine, high mortality, and low life expectancy dominated. Economic progress was uneven, however, the longer-term food supply changed greatly, and hunger was conquered. Diet composition shifted greatly over this period. Cereal consumption, already high, increased from 541.2 grams per day (70.0% coarse grains) in 1952 to 645.9 grams per day (15.9% coarse grains) in 1992. Consumption...

  1. Current views on hunter-gatherer nutrition and the evolution of the human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Alyssa N; Schnorr, Stephanie L

    2017-01-01

    Diet composition and food choice are not only central to the daily lives of all living people, but are consistently linked with turning points in human evolutionary history. As such, scholars from a wide range of fields have taken great interest in the role that subsistence has played in both human cultural and biological evolution. Central to this discussion is the diet composition and nutrition of contemporary hunters and gatherers, who are frequently conscripted as model populations for ancestral human nutrition. Research among the world's few remaining foraging populations is experiencing a resurgence, as they are making the final transition away from diets composed of wild foods, to those dominated by domesticated cultigens and/or processed foods. In an effort to glean as much information as possible, before such populations are no longer hunting and gathering, researchers interested in the evolution of human nutrition are rapidly collecting and accessing new and more data. Methods of scientific inquiry are in the midst of rapid change and scholars are able to revisit long-standing questions using state of the art analyses. Here, using the most relevant findings from studies in ethnography, nutrition, human physiology, and microbiomes, we provide a brief summary of the study of the evolution of human nutrition as it has specifically pertained to data coming from living hunter-gatherers. In doing so, we hope to bridge the disciplines that are currently invested in research on nutrition and health among foraging populations. © 2017 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  2. The nutrition transition in the Republic of Ireland: trends in energy and nutrient supply from 1961 to 2007 using Food and Agriculture Organization food balance sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Tony; Sharma, Sangita

    2011-10-01

    Over the course of the last 50 years the Republic of Ireland has gone from being one of the poorest countries in Europe to one of the richest; however, it is now experiencing increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic disease. Although several national nutrition surveys have been carried out in Ireland since 1990, there is little information on the Irish diet before then. We analysed the FAO food balance sheets for Ireland from 1961 to 2007 in order to characterise the changes in energy and nutrient supply that took place during that period. Food balance sheets were downloaded from the FAOSTAT database and per capita supply of commodities was analysed using dietary analysis software. Energy from carbohydrate as a percentage of total energy fell from 55 % in 1961 to 46 % in 2007, whereas energy from fat increased from 29 % to 34 %; these values are well outside WHO recommendations for the prevention of chronic disease. Energy from alcohol as a percentage of total energy has doubled within the last 20 years. On a nutrient-density basis, vitamins and minerals met or exceeded WHO recommendations, apart from vitamin D, folate, Ca and Fe. Although there are methodological limitations associated with the use of food balance sheets, the present results demonstrate that the current imbalances in the Irish diet were already evident several decades ago. Because they are so long established, they will be difficult to reverse unless major public health nutrition interventions are implemented.

  3. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  4. Nutritional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need it ... nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  5. Development of automated system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits with application of universal system of representation of rocks, transition rocks and coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schejbal Ctirad

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The Geoinformatic section of Institute of geological engineering HGF VŠB-TU Ostrava is engaged a long time in the creation of coal databases, elaboration of automated systems of graphical presentation of exploration and/or mining data and in the development of automated system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits. This paper describes the main stages of problems solving, namely:− analysis of both classification and documentation systems of coal deposits,− creation of both structure and content of specialized databases,− principles of the selection of appropriate statistical/geostatistical procedures of geodata analysis,− proposal of the automated generation of both deposits documents and graphical symbols,− elaboration of the automated system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits.

  6. As diferenças de estado nutricional em pré-escolares de rede pública e a transição nutricional Differences between the nutritional status of children in public preschools and nutritional transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenir V. Guimarães

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a existência de diferenças de perfis nutricionais em pré-escolares de rede pública que justifiquem intervenções diferenciadas. MÉTODOS: trata-se de estudo seccional, realizado em 1.200 pré-escolares da rede pública de Cosmópolis, SP. Foram calculados escores de desvio-padrão para os índices altura/idade, peso/idade e peso/altura em relação aos da população do NCHS. Os índices foram analisados segundo sexo, idade, escola freqüentada e localização da escola nos setores urbanos do município. RESULTADOS: observou-se que as distribuições dos índices foram semelhantes às da população de referência. Os meninos apresentaram médias de escore z mais baixas que as meninas. Houve diferença significativa entre as médias de escore z em relação à escola freqüentada. Verificou-se prevalência maior de crianças com déficits moderados de altura e peso nas escolas fora do centro e maior prevalência de obesidade nas escolas do centro. Entretanto, mesmo nas escolas fora do centro, a prevalência de obesidade foi superior à de deficiência nutricional. CONCLUSÕES: conclui-se que também em município de pequeno porte e em segmento da população relativamente homogêneo, é possível verificar a existência de diferentes padrões nutricionais em subgrupos da população. As diferenças observadas nos perfis nutricionais, conforme a escola freqüentada e a localização da escola, apontam a necessidade de atenção e intervenções distintas.OBJECTIVE: to verify if there are different patterns of nutritional status among preschool children, and if these patterns deserve special interventions. METHODS: this cross-sectional study included 1,200 children from public preschools in Cosmópolis, a small town in the state of São Paulo. The z scores indices for height/age, weight/age, and weight/height were analyzed in terms of age, sex, type of school, and school location. RESULTS: anthropometric indices were

  7. KELT-21b: A Hot Jupiter Transiting the Rapidly Rotating Metal-poor Late-A Primary of a Likely Hierarchical Triple System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marshall C.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Zhou, George; Gonzales, Erica J.; Cargile, Phillip A.; Crepp, Justin R.; Penev, Kaloyan; Stassun, Keivan G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Colón, Knicole D.; Stevens, Daniel J.; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Ilyin, Ilya; Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Maritch, Luke; Reed, Phillip A.; Gregorio, Joao; Bozza, Valerio; Calchi Novati, Sebastiano; D’Ago, Giuseppe; Scarpetta, Gaetano; Zambelli, Roberto; Latham, David W.; Bieryla, Allyson; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; Tayar, Jamie; Serenelli, Aldo; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Clarke, Seth P.; Martinez, Maria; Spencer, Michelle; Trump, Jason; Joner, Michael D.; Bugg, Adam G.; Hintz, Eric G.; Stephens, Denise C.; Arredondo, Anicia; Benzaid, Anissa; Yazdi, Sormeh; McLeod, Kim K.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Hancock, Daniel A.; Sorber, Rebecca L.; Kasper, David H.; Jang-Condell, Hannah; Beatty, Thomas G.; Carroll, Thorsten; Eastman, Jason; James, David; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Lund, Michael B.; Mallonn, Matthias; Pepper, Joshua; Siverd, Robert J.; Yao, Xinyu; Cohen, David H.; Curtis, Ivan A.; DePoy, D. L.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Penny, Matthew T.; Relles, Howard; Stockdale, Christopher; Tan, Thiam-Guan; Villanueva, Steven, Jr.

    2018-02-01

    We present the discovery of KELT-21b, a hot Jupiter transiting the V = 10.5 A8V star HD 332124. The planet has an orbital period of P = 3.6127647 ± 0.0000033 days and a radius of {1.586}-0.040+0.039 {R}{{J}}. We set an upper limit on the planetary mass of {M}Pv\\sin {I}* =146 km s‑1, the highest projected rotation velocity of any star known to host a transiting hot Jupiter. The star also appears to be somewhat metal poor and α-enhanced, with [{Fe}/{{H}}]=-{0.405}-0.033+0.032 and [α/Fe] = 0.145 ± 0.053 these abundances are unusual, but not extraordinary, for a young star with thin-disk kinematics like KELT-21. High-resolution imaging observations revealed the presence of a pair of stellar companions to KELT-21, located at a separation of 1.″2 and with a combined contrast of {{Δ }}{K}S=6.39+/- 0.06 with respect to the primary. Although these companions are most likely physically associated with KELT-21, we cannot confirm this with our current data. If associated, the candidate companions KELT-21 B and C would each have masses of ∼0.12 {M}ȯ , a projected mutual separation of ∼20 au, and a projected separation of ∼500 au from KELT-21. KELT-21b may be one of only a handful of known transiting planets in hierarchical triple stellar systems.

  8. North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Skip to Navigation NASPGHAN Annual Meeting and Postgraduate ... transition well. Moreover, Doc4me provides information about medications, nutrition and living with IBD. Please help us promote ...

  9. Regulation of Nutritional Metabolism in Transition Dairy Cows: Energy Homeostasis and Health in Response to Post-Ruminal Choline and Methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; Cao, Yangchun; Cai, Chuanjiang; Li, Shengxiang; Yu, Chao; Yao, Junhu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of rumen-protected methionine (RPM) and rumen-protected choline (RPC) on energy balance, postpartum lactation performance, antioxidant capacity and immune response in transition dairy cows. Forty-eight multiparous transition cows were matched and divided into four groups: control, 15 g/d RPC, 15 g/d RPM or 15 g/d RPC + 15 g/d RPM. Diet samples were collected daily before feeding, and blood samples were collected weekly from the jugular vein before morning feeding from 21 days prepartum to 21 days postpartum. Postpartum dry matter intake (DMI) was increased by both additives (P energy balance values in supplemented cows were improved after parturition (P ruminal choline and methionine elevated the blood antioxidant status, as indicated by total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and the vitamin E concentration (P energy balance by increasing postpartal DMI and regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, improved postpartum lactation performance and enhanced antioxidant capacity and immune function of transition dairy cows.

  10. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Seres, David S.; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  11. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition. PMID:23503324

  12. WASP-167b/KELT-13b: joint discovery of a hot Jupiter transiting a rapidly rotating F1V star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, L. Y.; Hellier, C.; Albrow, M. D.; Anderson, D. R.; Bayliss, D.; Beatty, T. G.; Bieryla, A.; Brown, D. J. A.; Cargile, P. A.; Collier Cameron, A.; Collins, K. A.; Colón, K. D.; Curtis, I. A.; D'Ago, G.; Delrez, L.; Eastman, J.; Gaudi, B. S.; Gillon, M.; Gregorio, J.; James, D.; Jehin, E.; Joner, M. D.; Kielkopf, J. F.; Kuhn, R. B.; Labadie-Bartz, J.; Latham, D. W.; Lendl, M.; Lund, M. B.; Malpas, A. L.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Myers, G.; Oberst, T. E.; Pepe, F.; Pepper, J.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Rodriguez, J. E.; Ségransan, D.; Siverd, R. J.; Smalley, B.; Stassun, K. G.; Stevens, D. J.; Stockdale, C.; Tan, T. G.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Udry, S.; Villanueva, S.; West, R. G.; Zhou, G.

    2017-11-01

    We report the joint WASP/KELT discovery of WASP-167b/KELT-13b, a transiting hot Jupiter with a 2.02-d orbit around a V = 10.5, F1V star with [Fe/H] = 0.1 ± 0.1. The 1.5 RJup planet was confirmed by Doppler tomography of the stellar line profiles during transit. We place a limit of <8 MJup on its mass. The planet is in a retrograde orbit with a sky-projected spin-orbit angle of λ = -165° ± 5°. This is in agreement with the known tendency for orbits around hotter stars to be more likely to be misaligned. WASP-167/KELT-13 is one of the few systems where the stellar rotation period is less than the planetary orbital period. We find evidence of non-radial stellar pulsations in the host star, making it a δ-Scuti or γ-Dor variable. The similarity to WASP-33, a previously known hot-Jupiter host with pulsations, adds to the suggestion that close-in planets might be able to excite stellar pulsations.

  13. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  14. Regulation of Nutritional Metabolism in Transition Dairy Cows: Energy Homeostasis and Health in Response to Post-Ruminal Choline and Methionine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Sun

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of rumen-protected methionine (RPM and rumen-protected choline (RPC on energy balance, postpartum lactation performance, antioxidant capacity and immune response in transition dairy cows. Forty-eight multiparous transition cows were matched and divided into four groups: control, 15 g/d RPC, 15 g/d RPM or 15 g/d RPC + 15 g/d RPM. Diet samples were collected daily before feeding, and blood samples were collected weekly from the jugular vein before morning feeding from 21 days prepartum to 21 days postpartum. Postpartum dry matter intake (DMI was increased by both additives (P < 0.05, and energy balance values in supplemented cows were improved after parturition (P < 0.05. Both RPC and RPM decreased the plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA, total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (P < 0.05, but increased the plasma levels of glucose, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL and apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB 100, P < 0.05. The supplements improved milk production (P < 0.05, and increased (P < 0.05 or tended to increase (0.05 < P < 0.10 the contents of milk fat and protein. The post-ruminal choline and methionine elevated the blood antioxidant status, as indicated by total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity and the vitamin E concentration (P < 0.05, and reduced the plasma malondialdehyde (MDA level (P < 0.05. Furthermore, RPM and RPC elevated the plasma interleukin 2 (IL-2 concentration and the CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio in peripheral blood (P < 0.05. Alternatively, the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and IL-6 were decreased by RPM and RPC (P < 0.05. Overall, the regulatory responses of RPC and RPM were highly correlated with time and were more effective in the postpartum cows. The results demonstrated that dietary supplementation with RPC and RPM promoted energy balance by increasing postpartal DMI

  15. Impact of prematurity and nutrition on the developing gut microbiome and preterm infant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Alex; Qiu, Xing; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjukta; Holden-Wiltse, Jeanne; Kessler, Haeja A; Gill, Ann L; Hamilton, Brooke; Huyck, Heidie; Misra, Sara; Mariani, Thomas J; Ryan, Rita M; Scholer, Lori; Scheible, Kristin M; Lee, Yi-Horng; Caserta, Mary T; Pryhuber, Gloria S; Gill, Steven R

    2017-12-11

    Identification of factors that influence the neonatal gut microbiome is urgently needed to guide clinical practices that support growth of healthy preterm infants. Here, we examined the influence of nutrition and common practices on the gut microbiota and growth in a cohort of preterm infants. With weekly gut microbiota samples spanning postmenstrual age (PMA) 24 to 46 weeks, we developed two models to test associations between the microbiota, nutrition and growth: a categorical model with three successive microbiota phases (P1, P2, and P3) and a model with two periods (early and late PMA) defined by microbiota composition and PMA, respectively. The more significant associations with phase led us to use a phase-based framework for the majority of our analyses. Phase transitions were characterized by rapid shifts in the microbiota, with transition out of P1 occurring nearly simultaneously with the change from meconium to normal stool. The rate of phase progression was positively associated with gestational age at birth, and delayed transition to a P3 microbiota was associated with growth failure. We found distinct bacterial metabolic functions in P1-3 and significant associations between nutrition, microbiota phase, and infant growth. The phase-dependent impact of nutrition on infant growth along with phase-specific metabolic functions suggests a pioneering potential for improving growth outcomes by tailoring nutrient intake to microbiota phase.

  16. Nutrition transition among adolescents of a south-Mediterranean country: dietary patterns, association with socio-economic factors, overweight and blood pressure. A cross-sectional study in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delpeuch Francis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increase in the burden of chronic diseases linked to the nutrition transition and associated dietary and lifestyle changes is of growing concern in south and east Mediterranean countries and adolescents are at the forefront of these changes. This study assessed dietary intake and association with socio-economic factors and health outcomes among adolescents in Tunisia. Methods Cross-sectional survey (year 2005; 1019 subjects 15-19 y. from a clustered random sample. Dietary intake was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative frequency questionnaire (134 items as was physical activity; the Diet Quality Index International measured diet quality; dietary patterns were derived by multiple correspondence analysis from intakes of 43 food groups. Body Mass Index (BMI ≥85th and 95th percentile defined overweight and obesity. Waist Circumference (WC assessed abdominal fat. High blood pressure was systolic (SBP or diastolic blood pressure (DBP ≥90th of the international reference for 15-17 y., and SBP/DBP ≥120/80 mm Hg for 18-19 y. Results Energy intake levels were quite high, especially for females. The macro-nutrient structure was close to recommendations but only 38% had a satisfactory diet quality. A main traditional to modern dietary gradient, linked to urbanisation and increased economic level, featured an increasing consumption of white bread, dairy products, sugars, added fats and fruits and decreasing consumption of oils, grains, legumes and vegetables; regarding nutrients this modern diet score featured a decreasing relationship with total fat and an increase of calcium intake, but with an increase of energy, sugars and saturated fat, while vitamin C, potassium and fibre decreased. Adjusted for age, energy and physical activity, this modern pattern was associated with increased overweight in males (2nd vs. 1st tertile: Prevalence Odds-Ratio (POR = 4.0[1.7-9.3], 3rd vs. 1st: POR = 3.3[1.3-8.7] and a higher WC

  17. What is Nutrition & Metabolism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinman Richard D

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new Open Access journal, Nutrition & Metabolism (N&M will publish articles that integrate nutrition with biochemistry and molecular biology. The open access process is chosen to provide rapid and accessible dissemination of new results and perspectives in a field that is of great current interest. Manuscripts in all areas of nutritional biochemistry will be considered but three areas of particular interest are lipoprotein metabolism, amino acids as metabolic signals, and the effect of macronutrient composition of diet on health. The need for the journal is identified in the epidemic of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemias and related diseases, and a sudden increase in popular diets, as well as renewed interest in intermediary metabolism.

  18. Nutrition Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  19. The Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) - Design, Trades, and Analyses Performed in a Two Year NASA Investigation of Electric Sail Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Scheider, Todd; Heaton, Andrew; Vaughn, Jason; Stone, Nobie; Wright, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Personnel from NASA's MSFC have been investigating the feasibility of an advanced propulsion system known as the Electric Sail (E-Sail) for future scientific exploration missions. This team initially won a NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Phase I NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) award and then a two-year follow-on Phase II NIAC award in October 2015. This paper documents the findings from this three-year investigation. An Electric sail, a propellant-less propulsion system, uses solar wind ions to rapidly travel either to deep space or the inner solar system. Scientific spacecraft could reach Pluto in 5 years, or the boundary of the solar system in ten to twelve years compared to the thirty-five plus years the Voyager spacecraft took. The team's recent focuses have been: 1) Developing a Particle in Cell (PIC) numeric engineering model from MSFC's experimental data on the interaction between simulated solar wind and a charged bare wire that can be applied to a variety of missions, 2) Determining what missions could benefit from this revolutionary propulsion system, 3) Conceptualizing spacecraft designs for various tasks: to reach the solar system's edge, to orbit the sun as Heliophysics sentinels, or to examine a multitude of asteroids.

  20. [Community Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  1. Nutrition and pubertal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  2. Nutrition and pubertal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development.

  3. Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…

  4. Nutritional epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  5. Sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomanić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.

  6. JIEDDO Experience Provides Rapid Acquisition Insights

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James P Craft

    2015-01-01

    .... JIDA's rapid acquisition capabilities were preserved by transitioning the expedient organization that received supplemental funding into the Defense Department's newest combat support agency (CSA...

  7. Nutritional Status of Maasai Pastoralists under Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Kathleen A; Beeton, Tyler A; Boone, Randall B; BurnSilver, Shauna B

    This study assesses the nutritional status of Maasai pastoralists living in a period of great social, economic and ecological changes in Kajiado County, southern Kenya. Data on weight, height, skinfolds, and circumferences were collected from 534 individuals in the year 2000. The data were used to describe mean differences in human nutrition between ages, sexes, and within and among three Group Ranches. Nutritional data and diet recall data were compared with past studies of Maasai nutrition from 1930 to 2000. Results indicate that nutritional status is poor and has remained so despite numerous changes to the social-ecological system including livelihood diversification, sedentarization, human population growth and decreased access to vegetation heterogeneity. Imbirikani Group Ranch had better access to infrastructure and markets and some measures of nutritional status were better than for individuals in other group ranches. However, nutritional status remains poor despite transitioning to greater market integration.

  8. Nutritional Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eirmann, Laura

    2016-09-01

    Nutritional assessment focuses on evaluation of animal-specific, diet-specific, feeding management, and environmental factors. Assessment includes evaluation of a patient's medical history, comprehensive diet history, and physical examination including body weight, body condition, and muscle condition. Diagnostic testing may identify comorbidities associated with obesity or concurrent health conditions that need to be considered when developing a nutrition plan. When obesity is diagnosed during the nutritional assessment this finding along with health implications must be clearly communicated to the pet owner. Careful consideration of animal-specific, diet-specific, owner-specific, and environmental factors allows the clinician to develop a specific nutrition plan tailored to the needs of pet and owner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Parenteral nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Inayet, N; Neild, P

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, parenteral nutrition has been recognised as an invaluable and potentially lifesaving tool in the physician's arsenal in the management of patients with intestinal failure or inaccessibility...

  10. [Indications and practice of enteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallay, Judit; Nagy, Dániel; Fülesdi, Béla

    2014-12-21

    Malnutrition in hospitalised patients has a significant and disadvantageous impact on treatment outcome. If possible, enteral nutrition with an energy/protein-balanced nutrient should be preferred depending on the patient's condition, type of illness and risk factors. The aim of the nutrition therapy is to increase the efficacy of treatment and shorten the length of hospital stay in order to ensure rapid rehabilitation. In the present review the authors summarize the most important clinical and practical aspects of enteral nutrition therapy.

  11. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  12. Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The motivation for this technology comes from the Heliophysics Decadal Survey. The Heliophysics Decadal Survey, Section 10.5.2.7 states in part; “…...

  13. Automatic Control of Personal Rapid Transit Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. D.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for automatic longitudinal control of a string of closely packed personal vehicles are outlined. Optimal control theory is used to design feedback controllers for strings of vehicles. An important modification of the usual optimal control scheme is the inclusion of jerk in the cost functional. While the inclusion of the jerk term was considered, the effect of its inclusion was not sufficiently studied. Adding the jerk term will increase passenger comfort.

  14. Protein nutrition of the neonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeds, P. J.; Burrin, D. G.; Davis, T. A.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Stoll, B.; van Goudoever, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    The period of growth and development between birth and weaning is crucial for the long-term well-being of the organism. Protein deposition is very rapid, is achieved with a high nutritional efficiency, and is accompanied by marked differences in the growth rates of individual tissues and a series of

  15. Food habits and beliefs in transitional societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, A

    1998-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of the nutrition transition in detail. It commences with an overview of societies which are recognised as being in transition. The economic foundations of the transition from traditional to modern (and post-modern societies) will be emphasised. This will be followed by an examination of the nutrition problems and food habits associated with transitional societies. The public health context of such nutritional problems will also be described. Comparisons will be made between the food beliefs and habits held in traditional societies and those in transitional, modern and post-modern societies. It will be argued that nutritional and medical beliefs have come to play more extensive roles in non-traditional societies, most probably through the mass media. Changes in personal values associated with societal transition will be described in relation to the pursuit of luxury foods. Finally, some of the responses to the nutritional problems of transitional societies will be described. The essential roles of government and non-government organisations in moderating harmful effects of the global economy will be elucidated. It will be argued that the success of nutrition interventions such as food-based dietary guideline policies depend on the development of effective national and local social organisations.

  16. Parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayet, N; Neild, P

    2015-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, parenteral nutrition has been recognised as an invaluable and potentially lifesaving tool in the physician's arsenal in the management of patients with intestinal failure or inaccessibility; however, it may also be associated with a number of potentially life-threatening complications. A recent NCEPOD report (2010) identified a number of inadequacies in the overall provision and management of parenteral nutrition and recommendations were made with the aim of improving clinical practice in the future. This paper focuses on the practical aspects relating to parenteral nutrition for adults, including important concepts, such as patient selection, as well as general management. We also explore the various pitfalls and potential complications and how these may be minimised.

  17. Nutritional Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This article provides the reader with steps needed to accurately assess patient nutrition behaviors that contribute to weight gain, inability to lose weight, or inability to sustain weight loss. Evidence-based approaches in nutrition therapy that can create the daily energy deficit needed to produce 1/2 to 2 pounds of weight loss per week, and the strategies to create the energy deficit, are presented. To optimize health, long-term weight loss maintenance is needed. The benefits of using a multidisciplinary team approach in treating obesity are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  19. Nutrition and Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thai HbH:Vietnamese Relevant links Living with Thalassemia NUTRITION AND EXERCISE ▶ Nutrition and Diet ▶ Diet for the ... MS, RD: Dec 2016: Diet Dec 2017: Supplements Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ...

  20. Nutritional assessment of community-dwelling older adults in rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Saruna; Baral, Binaya Kumar; Callahan, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Demographic transition in Nepal, like in many developing countries, has resulted in a burgeoning elderly population whose health status is not currently monitored. One pillar of health is adequate nutrition. Yet, little is known about the nutritional health status of the elderly in Nepal. The financial, material, and personnel limitations in Nepal's health delivery services necessitate health screening instruments that require minimal clinical staff and resources. To our knowledge, no such nutritional assessment tool has been validated in Nepal. Therefore, our aims are two-fold: To assess the nutritional status of the elderly population in one typical Nepali village, Okharpauwa, in Nuwakot District, Nepal; and concurrently, to validate the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool. A cross-sectional field study was conducted with a sample of 242 elderly people in Okharpauwa, Nepal to obtain prevalence of malnutrition. Differences in demographic and lifestyle factors between these who were malnourished, those at risk of malnourishment, and those who had adequate nutritional status were analyzed. The MNA tool was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis; sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. 111 males and 131 females, with a mean age of 69.8±7.4 years, participated in this study. The mean BMI of the participants was 21.4±3.9 kg/m2; the mean MNA score was 19.3±4.2. BMI was significantly correlated with the total MNA score (r = 0.58; pnutritional health than their counterparts. The MNA appears to be a valid and sensitive tool for rapid nutritional screening of the elderly in Nepal. The prevalence of malnutrition was high among Nepalese elderly in the Okharpauwa VDC, which requires urgent health monitoring and management attention.

  1. Nutritional Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  2. Secular trends are associated with the demographic and epidemiologic transitions in an indigenous community in Oaxaca, Southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Robert M; Little, Bertis B; Peña Reyes, Maria Eugenia

    2018-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that secular changes in body size and age at menarche are related to the demographic and epidemiologic transitions in an indigenous community in Oaxaca, southern Mexico. Data were derived from surveys of a Zapotec-speaking community conducted between 1968 and 2000. Segmented linear regressions of height, weight, BMI and recalled age at menarche on year of birth in cohorts of adults born before and after the demographic transition were used to evaluate secular changes. Corresponding comparisons of body size (MANCOVA controlling for age) and age at menarche (status quo, probit analysis) were done for samples of children and adolescents born before and after the epidemiological transition. Height and weight increased in adults born after the demographic transition (mid-1950s), and especially in children and adolescents born after the epidemiological transition (mid-1980s). Age at menarche also decreased significantly in women born after the demographic transition, but at a more rapid estimated rate in adolescents born after the epidemiological transition. Secular gains in body weight were proportional to those for height among children and adolescents, but adults, males more so than females, gained proportionally more weight. The secular trend in height in adults of both sexes was associated with the decade of the demographic transition in the mid-1950s. Significant secular gains in size attained and age at menarche occurred in children and youth born after the epidemiologic transition which likely reflected improved health and nutritional conditions since the mid-1980s. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    OpenAIRE

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood...

  4. Nutrition in neurocritical care

    OpenAIRE

    Afzal Azim; Armin Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Adequate nutritional therapy is essential for recovery from critical illness. Nutritional requirement varies in different patients and varies daily in a single patient. Both under and over feeding are associated with complications. Besides this, not all patients behave in a similar way to nutritional therapy. Appropriate nutritional therapy requires identification of patients “at nutritional risk” and providing aggressive nutritional support to them. The current article deals with nutritional...

  5. The effectiveness of nutrition education for overweight/obese mothers with stunted children (NEO-MOM) in reducing the double burden of malnutrition in Indonesia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmudiono, Trias; Nindya, Triska Susila; Andrias, Dini Ririn; Megatsari, Hario; Richard R Rosenkranz

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutrition transition in developing countries were induced by rapid changes in food patterns and nutrient intake when populations adopt modern lifestyles during economic and social development, urbanization and acculturation. Consequently, these countries suffer from the double burden of malnutrition, consisting of unresolved undernutrition and the rise of overweight/obesity. The prevalence of the double burden of malnutrition tends to be highest for moderate levels (third quintile)...

  6. Calf nutrition from birth to breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drackley, James K

    2008-03-01

    The general principles of growth and nutrients required are no different for young calves than for any other species. Additional complexity is introduced, however, by the need to transition the young preruminant to functioning ruminant. The nutritional and digestive physiology of dairy calves as future ruminants needs to be the governing factor in designing practical feeding systems to meet nutrient requirements. Key aspects common to all systems include the composition and amount of liquid feed, water availability, and the first starter feeds offered. This article focuses on nutrition of calves before weaning and to breeding age, with primary emphasis on the preweaning and transition phases.

  7. Nutritional Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    strategy influences the patterns identified as important for the nutritional question under study. Therefore, in depth understanding of the study design and the specific effects of the analytical technology on the produced data is extremely important to achieve high quality data handling. Besides data......-carnitines and ketone bodies were only detected in the rat study (PAPER I). The study group in PAPER III were from a largely un-controlled observational setting with varying quality and quantity of food intake as well as varying time from last meal. This may be the cause why fewer compounds were extracted in this study...

  8. Early life nutritional programming of health and disease in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S E

    2016-04-01

    Exposures during the early life (periconceptional, prenatal and early postnatal) period are increasingly recognized as playing an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD), including coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis. The 'Developmental Origins of Health and Disease' (DOHaD) hypothesis states that these disorders originate through unbalanced nutrition early in life and risk is highest when there is a 'mismatch' between the early- and later-life environments. Thus, the DOHaD hypothesis would predict highest risk in countries where an excess of infants are born with low birth weight and where there is a rapid transition to nutritional adequacy or excess in adulthood. Here, I will review data from work conducted in rural Gambia, West Africa. Using demographic data dating back to the 1940s, the follow-up of randomized controlled trials of nutritional supplementation in pregnancy and the 'experiment of nature' that seasonality in this region provides, we have investigated the DOHaD hypothesis in a population with high rates of maternal and infant under-nutrition, a high burden from infectious disease, and an emerging risk of NCDs.

  9. Nutrition status of children in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Corvalán, C.; Garmendia, M. L.; Jones‐Smith, J.; Lutter, C. K.; Miranda, J. Jaime; Pedraza, L. S.; Popkin, B.M.; Ramirez‐Zea, M.; Salvo, D; Stein, Aryeh D.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing among Latin American children, posing challenges for current healthcare systems and increasing the risk for a wide range of diseases. To understand the factors contributing to childhood obesity in Latin America, this paper reviews the current nutrition status and physical activity situation, the disparities between and within countries and the potential challenges for ensuring adequate nutrition and physical activity. Acro...

  10. Agro-food industry growth and obesity in China: what role for regulating food advertising and promotion and nutrition labelling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, C

    2008-03-01

    Taking a food supply chain approach, this paper examines the regulation of food marketing and nutrition labelling as strategies to help combat obesity in China in an era of rapid agro-food industry growth. China is the largest food producer and consumer in the world. Since the early 1980s, the agro-food industry has undergone phenomenal expansion throughout the food supply chain, from agricultural production to trade, agro-food processing to food retailing, and from food service to advertising and promotion. This industry growth, alongside related socioeconomic changes and government policies, has encouraged a 'nutrition transition'. China's population, especially in urban areas, is now consuming significantly more energy from dietary fat, which is leading to higher rates of obesity. Regulation of food advertising and promotion and nutrition labelling has the potential to help prevent the further growth of obesity in China and encourage the agro-food industry to supplier healthier foods. Government legislation and guidance, as well as self-regulation and voluntary initiatives, are needed to reduce children's exposure to food advertising and promotion, and increase the effectiveness of nutrition labelling. Policies on food marketing and nutrition labelling should be adapted to the China context, and accompanied by further action throughout the food supply chain. Given China's unique characteristics and position in the world today, there is an opportunity for the government and the agro-food industry to lead the world by creating a balanced, health promoting model of complementary legislation and industry action.

  11. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... code here Enter ZIP code here Liver Transplant: Nutrition for Veterans and the Public Nutrition Liver Transplant Patients with liver disease have to ... liver functioning and to maintain their overall health. Nutrition recommendations are customized for individual patients, both pre- ...

  12. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sign-Up Home Patient Information Nutrition Advice & Recipes Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...

  13. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Do I Stay Healthy Share this page: Nutrition for Lung Cancer Patients Key Points There is ... lung cancer symptoms, making them worse or better. Nutrition Goals Each person's nutritional needs during lung cancer ...

  14. Food and Nutrition Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NSIP) The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP) Child Nutrition Programs Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) Fresh Fruit ... Market Nutrition Program (SFMNP) Data Program Data SNAP Child Nutrition WIC Food Distribution Overview Newsroom USDA Blog Posts ...

  15. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  16. What Is Enteral Nutrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pharmacists) will talk with you about the different types of feeding tubes. Enteral Nutrition Fact Sheet ... Continuing Education Certification Claim CE Credits ASPEN 2018 Nutrition Science and ...

  17. Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood to be th...

  18. Use of a nutrition support protocol to increase enteral nutrition delivery in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Friederike; Bojarski, Christian; Siegmund, Britta; van der Giet, Markus

    2014-09-01

    Early enteral nutrition is recommended for patients in intensive care units, but nutrition provision is often hindered by a variety of unit-specific problems. To evaluate the impact of a nutrition support protocol on nutrition prescription and delivery in the intensive care unit. Nutrition-related data from 73 patients receiving mechanical ventilation who were treated in an adult medical intensive care unit before introduction of an enteral nutrition support protocol were retrospectively compared with data for 87 patients admitted after implementation of the protocol. After implementation of the protocol, enteral nutrition was started significantly earlier (P = .007) and enteral feeding goals were reached significantly faster (6 vs 10 days, P enteral nutrition on the first day of invasive mechanical ventilation increased from 38% before to 54% after (P = .03) implementation of the protocol. Prescribed and delivered nutrition doses on the first 2 days of mechanical ventilation also increased significantly (P tubes were used in 52% of patients before and 56% of patients after protocol implementation P = .63). Jejunal tubes were placed earlier after the protocol was implemented than before (median 5 vs 6.5 days), and when a jejunal tube was in place, feeding goals were reached faster (median 2 vs 3 days, P = .002). Implementing an enteral nutrition support protocol shortened the time to reach feeding goals. Jejunal feeding tubes were necessary in more than half of the patients, and with a jejunal feeding tube in place, feeding goals were reached rapidly. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  19. Nutritional Metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürdeniz, Gözde

    . Application of multiple analytical strategies may provide comprehensive information to reach a valid answer to these research questions. In this thesis, I investigated several analytical technologies and data handling strategies in order to evaluate their effects on the biological answer. In metabolomics, one......Metabolomics provides a holistic approach to investigate the perturbations in human metabolism with respect to a specific exposure. In nutritional metabolomics, the research question is generally related to the effect of a specific food intake on metabolic profiles commonly of plasma or urine...... purposes and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) for classification and variable selection purposes; both have been used in PAPER I and II. In PAPER III, the application potential of sparse principal component analysis (SPCA) on LC-MS based metabolomics data as a pattern recognition...

  20. Nutrition and Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuti, Andrea; Patrone, Vania; Giuberti, Gianluca; Spigno, Giorgia; Pietri, Amedeo; Battilani, Paola; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The world elderly population is rapidly increasing. This demographic change represents a new challenge for the society and demands for a multisectorial intervention to promote a long, healthy, and active life span. Between the factors that contribute in fostering a long healthy life, the nutritional regime plays a central role and is recognized as a major factor in the onset of chronic diseases. A better understanding of the interaction between nutrition and ageing is essential to unravel the mechanisms responsible for these positive/negative effects and to identify diet components promoting the quality of life in the old age and to contribute to the prevention of late-life disabilities. At Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, the research activity in food science is focusing on four main objectives: food quality, food safety, functional foods and diet balancing. These objectives are the target of multidisciplinary ongoing and future research activities for a better understanding of the link between diet and ageing. Briefly, the different activities are addressed to the study of the following subjects: the most relevant factors affecting food choices and habits of old aged persons; the effects of long term low dose supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid in mouse; the use of low glycemic index and high resistant starch foods to prevent diabetes and obesity; the adjuvant effect of food bacteria for vaccination; the role of food ingredients in disease; the immunosuppression effect of mycotoxins, and its relevance in ageing people; the production of sustainable and natural antioxidant ingredients to encourage a healthy diet. Our research projects emphasize an holistic and integrated approach that, by bringing together complementary research groups, can combine the collective expertise and thus provide a comprehensive assessment of the role of nutrition in healthy ageing people.

  1. To See or Not to See: Do Front of Pack Nutrition Labels Affect Attention to Overall Nutrition Information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bix, Laura; Sundar, Raghav Prashant; Bello, Nora M; Peltier, Chad; Weatherspoon, Lorraine J; Becker, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    Front of pack (FOP) nutrition labels are concise labels located on the front of food packages that provide truncated nutrition information. These labels are rapidly gaining prominence worldwide, presumably because they attract attention and their simplified formats enable rapid comparisons of nutritional value. Eye tracking was conducted as US consumers interacted with actual packages with and without FOP labels to (1) assess if the presence of an FOP label increases attention to nutrition information when viewers are not specifically tasked with nutrition-related goals; and (2) study the effect of FOP presence on consumer use of more comprehensive, traditional nutrition information presented in the Nutritional Facts Panel (NFP), a mandatory label for most packaged foods in the US. Our results indicate that colored FOP labels enhanced the probability that any nutrition information was attended, and resulted in faster detection and longer viewing of nutrition information. However, for cereal packages, these benefits were at the expense of attention to the more comprehensive NFP. Our results are consistent with a potential short cut effect of FOP labels, such that if an FOP was present, participants spent less time attending the more comprehensive NFP. For crackers, FOP labels increased time spent attending to nutrition information, but we found no evidence that their presence reduced the time spent on the nutrition information in the NFP. The finding that FOP labels increased attention to overall nutrition information by people who did not have an explicit nutritional goal suggests that these labels may have an advantage in conveying nutrition information to a wide segment of the population. However, for some food types this benefit may come with a short-cut effect; that is, decreased attention to more comprehensive nutrition information. These results have implications for policy and warrant further research into the mechanisms by which FOP labels impact use of

  2. To See or Not to See: Do Front of Pack Nutrition Labels Affect Attention to Overall Nutrition Information?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bix

    Full Text Available Front of pack (FOP nutrition labels are concise labels located on the front of food packages that provide truncated nutrition information. These labels are rapidly gaining prominence worldwide, presumably because they attract attention and their simplified formats enable rapid comparisons of nutritional value.Eye tracking was conducted as US consumers interacted with actual packages with and without FOP labels to (1 assess if the presence of an FOP label increases attention to nutrition information when viewers are not specifically tasked with nutrition-related goals; and (2 study the effect of FOP presence on consumer use of more comprehensive, traditional nutrition information presented in the Nutritional Facts Panel (NFP, a mandatory label for most packaged foods in the US.Our results indicate that colored FOP labels enhanced the probability that any nutrition information was attended, and resulted in faster detection and longer viewing of nutrition information. However, for cereal packages, these benefits were at the expense of attention to the more comprehensive NFP. Our results are consistent with a potential short cut effect of FOP labels, such that if an FOP was present, participants spent less time attending the more comprehensive NFP. For crackers, FOP labels increased time spent attending to nutrition information, but we found no evidence that their presence reduced the time spent on the nutrition information in the NFP.The finding that FOP labels increased attention to overall nutrition information by people who did not have an explicit nutritional goal suggests that these labels may have an advantage in conveying nutrition information to a wide segment of the population. However, for some food types this benefit may come with a short-cut effect; that is, decreased attention to more comprehensive nutrition information. These results have implications for policy and warrant further research into the mechanisms by which FOP labels

  3. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  4. Nutritional status of the Indian population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    to be associated with poverty. Clearly, the Indian popula- tion is passing through a transition phase where subsis- tence conditions are being replaced by plentiful food but reduced physical work and therefore, an understanding of the changing nutritional scene is critical. Recent studies (Law 1993; Fall et al 1995; Lithell et al.

  5. Medical nutrition therapy planning

    OpenAIRE

    Torović Ljilja; Grujičić Maja; Pavlović-Trajković Ljiljana; Jovičić Jelena; Novaković Budimka; Balać Dragana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Diet has vital, preventive and therapeutic functions. Medical nutrition therapy is a part of the Standardized Nutrition Care Process integrated in health care systems. Material and methods. An overview of the Nutrition Care Process model and the application of nutrition guidelines based on literature, reports, documents and programmes of international health, food and physical activity authorities was done. Results. The Nutrition Care Process model requires registered diet...

  6. Risk Analysis: Risk Communication: Diet, Nutrition, and Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Verkooijen, K.T.; Frewer, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition and food safety related diseases such as foodborne illnesses, some cancers, and obesity belong to the most challenging health concerns of our time. As a consequence, the provision of information about diet, health, and nutrition is increasing, spread rapidly by the (mass) media, including

  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to chitosan and reduction in body weight (ID 679, 1499), maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 4663), reduction of intestinal transit time (ID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to chitosan and reduction in body weight, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, reduction of intestinal transit time and reduction of inflammation. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list...... of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is chitosan. The Panel considers that chitosan is sufficiently characterised....

  8. Towards a novel model for studying the nutritional stage dynamics of the Colombian population by age and socioeconomic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Jose D; Sarmiento, Olga L; Olaya, Camilo; Lemoine, Pablo D; Valdivia, Juan A; Zarama, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) are experiencing a nutritional transition in which the burden of obesity tends to shift towards the lower-socioeconomic status (SES) group. We propose a system dynamics (SD) model for assessing the nutritional stage dynamics of the Colombian urban population by age and SES projected to 2030. This SD model captures the ageing population according to body mass index (BMI) categories and SES. In this model, the transference rates (TRs) between BMI categories by age and SES are estimated using a heuristic based on data obtained from national surveys. The simulation results show that the Colombian population, particularly those aged 20 to 39 years with a lower SES, is moving towards the overweight and obese categories. The TRs for overweight and obese categories in the lower SES group (the mean TR from not overweight to overweight = 0.0215 (per year) and mean TR from overweight to obese = 0.0098 (per year)) are increasing more rapidly than the those in the middle (the mean TR from not overweight to overweight = 0.0162 (per year) and mean TR from overweight to obese = 0.0065 (per year)) and higher SES groups (the mean TR from not overweight to overweight = 0.0166 and mean TR from overweight to obese = 0.0054 (per year)). Additionally, from 2005 to 2010, individuals aged 20 to 39 years had the highest TRs towards the overweight and obese categories (from 0.026 to 0.036 per year and from 0.0064 to 0.012 per year, respectively). The TRs also indicated that children aged 0 to 14 years are moving from the obese to overweight and from the overweight to not overweight categories. These TRs show that the Colombian population is experiencing an SES-related nutritional transition that is affecting the lower SES population. The proposed model could be implemented to assess the nutritional transitions experienced in other LMICs.

  9. Transitional Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Mary; Keating, Stacen A.

    2008-01-01

    Transitional care encompasses a broad range of services and environments designed to promote the safe and timely passage of patients between levels of health care and across care settings. High-quality transitional care is especially important for older adults with multiple chronic conditions and complex therapeutic regimens, as well as for their…

  10. A Reaction to: What about Health Educators? Nutrition Education for Allied Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lori W.; Knol, Linda; Meyer, Mary Kay

    2012-01-01

    "What about Health Educators? Nutrition Education for Allied Health Professionals" describes an important issue in health care that is the provision of nutrition education. Obesity and chronic disease rates are rapidly increasing. Due to increase in the prevalence rates of obesity and nutrition-related chronic diseases, there is a growing need for…

  11. Nutritional assessment of community-dwelling older adults in rural Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saruna Ghimire

    Full Text Available Demographic transition in Nepal, like in many developing countries, has resulted in a burgeoning elderly population whose health status is not currently monitored. One pillar of health is adequate nutrition. Yet, little is known about the nutritional health status of the elderly in Nepal. The financial, material, and personnel limitations in Nepal's health delivery services necessitate health screening instruments that require minimal clinical staff and resources. To our knowledge, no such nutritional assessment tool has been validated in Nepal. Therefore, our aims are two-fold: To assess the nutritional status of the elderly population in one typical Nepali village, Okharpauwa, in Nuwakot District, Nepal; and concurrently, to validate the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA tool.A cross-sectional field study was conducted with a sample of 242 elderly people in Okharpauwa, Nepal to obtain prevalence of malnutrition. Differences in demographic and lifestyle factors between these who were malnourished, those at risk of malnourishment, and those who had adequate nutritional status were analyzed. The MNA tool was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis; sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated.111 males and 131 females, with a mean age of 69.8±7.4 years, participated in this study. The mean BMI of the participants was 21.4±3.9 kg/m2; the mean MNA score was 19.3±4.2. BMI was significantly correlated with the total MNA score (r = 0.58; p<0.001. The diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of MNA were 81%, 86% and 67% respectively. Of the 242 elderly sampled, 24% were malnourished and 65% were at risk of malnutrition. Malnutrition was more prevalent among females (29% than males (18%, and most prevalent among the marginalized Dalit ethnic group (40%. Elderly persons who were married and literate had better nutritional health than their counterparts.The MNA appears to be a valid and

  12. Nutritional assessment of community-dwelling older adults in rural Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Saruna; Baral, Binaya Kumar; Callahan, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Background Demographic transition in Nepal, like in many developing countries, has resulted in a burgeoning elderly population whose health status is not currently monitored. One pillar of health is adequate nutrition. Yet, little is known about the nutritional health status of the elderly in Nepal. The financial, material, and personnel limitations in Nepal’s health delivery services necessitate health screening instruments that require minimal clinical staff and resources. To our knowledge, no such nutritional assessment tool has been validated in Nepal. Therefore, our aims are two-fold: To assess the nutritional status of the elderly population in one typical Nepali village, Okharpauwa, in Nuwakot District, Nepal; and concurrently, to validate the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool. Methods A cross-sectional field study was conducted with a sample of 242 elderly people in Okharpauwa, Nepal to obtain prevalence of malnutrition. Differences in demographic and lifestyle factors between these who were malnourished, those at risk of malnourishment, and those who had adequate nutritional status were analyzed. The MNA tool was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis; sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. Results 111 males and 131 females, with a mean age of 69.8±7.4 years, participated in this study. The mean BMI of the participants was 21.4±3.9 kg/m2; the mean MNA score was 19.3±4.2. BMI was significantly correlated with the total MNA score (r = 0.58; pelderly sampled, 24% were malnourished and 65% were at risk of malnutrition. Malnutrition was more prevalent among females (29%) than males (18%), and most prevalent among the marginalized Dalit ethnic group (40%). Elderly persons who were married and literate had better nutritional health than their counterparts. Conclusions The MNA appears to be a valid and sensitive tool for rapid nutritional screening of the elderly in Nepal. The prevalence of

  13. Transboundary water governance in the Mekong: waterscapes in transition: can the Mekong River Commission improve its institutional capacity to mitigate, mediate and resolve transboundary water-related conflict within a rapidly developing Mekong River Basin?

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Mark Robert Fraser

    2017-01-01

    This research thesis will explore the relationship between integrated water resource management (IWRM), water conflict and cooperation within the Mekong River Basin and the capacity of the Mekong River Commission (MRC) to influence water governance in a rapidly evolving region. The paper will also analyse the historical evolution of the MRC and its role and influence on regional water governance within a highly complex geopolitical landscape. Based on a comparative analysis of the MRC's respo...

  14. The adherence of packaged food products in Hyderabad, India with nutritional labelling guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Elizabeth K; Guggilla, Rama K; Ratneswaran, Anenta; Webster, Jacqueline L; Maulik, Pallab K; Neal, Bruce C

    2015-01-01

    India is experiencing a nutrition transition with the consumption of processed foods rapidly increasing. Nutrition labels are essential if consumers are to understand the healthiness of these products. The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India have recently introduced regulation defining national nutrition labelling requirements and Codex Alimentarius recommends a global standard. To quantify the adherence of the declared nutrients on Indian packaged foods with national and global requirements. The presence or absence of data for seven required nutrients was recorded for all food products available for sale. Branches of three major retail chains and three smaller stores in Hyderabad, India between October and November, 2010 were surveyed. Data were collected for 4166 packaged products that fell into 14 different food groups. 52% of products displayed nutrient information on energy, protein, carbohydrate, sugar and total fat, meeting the minimum requirements of the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India. Only 27% met the minimum criteria defined by Codex which also requires the reporting of saturated fat and sodium. There was significant variation in compliance for leading brands, country of manufacture and food group (pinternational nutrient labelling guidelines. With the Indian population likely to consume much more packaged food over coming years full and effective food labelling will be essential. The failure of Indian legislation to require labelling of sodium and saturated fat may warrant review.

  15. Geomagnetic polarity transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ronald T.; McFadden, Phillip L.

    1999-05-01

    The top of Earth's liquid outer core is nearly 2900 km beneath Earth's surface, so we will never be able to observe it directly. This hot, dense, molten iron-rich body is continuously in motion and is the source of Earth's magnetic field. One of the most dynamic manifestations at Earth's surface of this fluid body is, perhaps, a reversal of the geomagnetic field. Unfortunately, the most recent polarity transition occurred at about 780 ka, so we have never observed a transition directly. It seems that a polarity transition spans many human lifetimes, so no human will ever witness the phenomenon in its entirety. Thus we are left with the tantalizing prospect that paleomagnetic records of polarity transitions may betray some of the secrets of the deep Earth. Certainly, if there are systematics in the reversal process and they can be documented, then this will reveal substantial information about the nature of the lowermost mantle and of the outer core. Despite their slowness on a human timescale, polarity transitions occur almost instantaneously on a geological timescale. This rapidity, together with limitations in the paleomagnetic recording process, prohibits a comprehensive description of any reversal transition both now and into the foreseeable future, which limits the questions that may at this stage be sensibly asked. The natural model for the geomagnetic field is a set of spherical harmonic components, and we are not able to obtain a reliable model for even the first few harmonic terms during a transition. Nevertheless, it is possible, in principle, to make statements about the harmonic character of a geomagnetic polarity transition without having a rigorous spherical harmonic description of one. For example, harmonic descriptions of recent geomagnetic polarity transitions that are purely zonal can be ruled out (a zonal harmonic does not change along a line of latitude). Gleaning information about transitions has proven to be difficult, but it does seem

  16. Nutrition and athletic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exercise - nutrition; Exercise - fluids; Exercise - hydration ... Bird R. Nutrition. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  17. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  18. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  19. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  20. Nutrition.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gov Sites FAQ Contact Us En Español Search Nutrition.Gov Search all USDA Advanced Search Browse by ... Phytonutrients Food Additives What's in Food FAQs Welcome Nutrition.gov is a USDA-sponsored website that offers ...

  1. Diabetes and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ...

  2. Nutrition and OI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition and OI Introduction To promote bone development and optimal health, children and adults with osteogenesis imperfecta ( ... no foods or supplements that will cure OI. Nutrition Related Problems Difficulties eating solid food have been ...

  3. Cooking utensils and nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/002461.htm Cooking utensils and nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, ... Cooking utensils can have an effect on your nutrition. Function Pots, pans, and other tools used in ...

  4. Nutrition and Myasthenia Gravis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good nutrition is important for everyone. This is especially true when you have a chronic disorder like myasthenia gravis ( ... difficulty with chewing and swallowing may interfere with nutrition and create safety issues. Diet modifications may be ...

  5. Living with COPD: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > COPD > Living With COPD Nutrition and COPD Most people are surprised to learn ... asking your doctor or visiting the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics at EatRight.org . Be sure to ...

  6. Providing Personalised Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poínhos, Rui; Oliveira, Bruno M.P.M.; Lans, Van Der Ivo A.; Fischer, Arnout R.H.; Berezowska, Aleksandra; Rankin, Audrey; Kuznesof, Sharron; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Frewer, Lynn J.; Almeida, De Maria D.V.

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims: Personalised nutrition has potential to revolutionise dietary health promotion if accepted by the general public. We studied trust and preferences regarding personalised nutrition services, how they influence intention to adopt these services, and cultural and social differences

  7. Rapid cooling experiments and use of an anionic nuclear probe to sense the spin transition of the 1D coordination polymers [Fe(NH2trz)3]SnF6n x H2O (NH2trz=4-amino-1,2,4-triazole).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Yann; Ksenofontov, Vadim; Mentior, Sophie; Dîrtu, Marinela M; Gieck, Christine; Bhatthacharjee, Ashis; Gütlich, Philipp

    2008-01-01

    [Fe(NH2trz)3]SnF6n x H2O (NH(2)trz=4-amino-1,2,4-triazole; n=1 (1), n=0.5 (2)) are new 1D spin-crossover coordination polymers. Compound 2 exhibits an incomplete spin transition centred at around 210 K with a thermal hysteresis loop approximately 16 K wide. The spin transition of 2 was detected by the Mössbauer resonance of the 119Sn atom in the SnF6 (2-) anion primarily on the basis of the evolution of its local distortion. Rapid-cooling 57Fe Mössbauer and superconducting quantum interference device experiments allow dramatic widening of the hysteresis width of 2 from 16 K up to 82 K and also shift the spin-transition curve into the room temperature region. This unusual behaviour of quenched samples on warming is attributed to activation of the molecular motion of the anions from a frozen distorted form towards a regular form at temperatures well above approximately 210 K. Potential applications of this new family of materials are discussed.

  8. Transitional determinacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luelsdorff, P A

    1992-01-01

    In classic generative grammar a distinction is drawn between linguistic 'competence' and linguistic 'performance', the former referring to linguistic knowledge, the latter to how linguistic knowledge is used. However, this controversial differentiation obscures the additional dichotomy between linguistic knowledge for production and linguistic knowledge for recognition. In this article it is shown that production and recognition differ, that recognition is not simply the inverse of production, and that the derivation of production from recognition and recognition from production require a small set of generalizable 'transitional determinacies'. Secondly, it is shown that transitional determinacies explain the difference between 'overt' and 'covert' recognition recently observed in prosopagnosics, patients unable to recognize familiar faces. Prosopagnosics and normals are found to differ in their transitional determinacies, such that prosopagnosics require more binders (precisors) for covert recognition than normals. In general, it is concluded that transitional determinacies are as necessary to the theory of grammar as determinacies themselves.

  9. Nutrition support in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance.......Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance....

  10. Public Health Nutrition Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torheim, Liv Elin; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Robertson, Aileen

    2016-01-01

    , Oslo, Norway, 2Unit for Nutrition Research, Landspitali University Hospital , 3Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 4Global Nutrition and Health, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark, 5School of Hospitality, culinary arts and meal science...... a common curriculum in PHN and common online courses (MOOC).  Academic institutions from each of the Nordic countries are represented in the network. The network is open for all Nordic academic institutions offering public health nutrition education or courses....

  11. Physical activity patterns in Greenland: A country in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger; Jørgensen, Marit E; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To examine differences in physical activity patterns among Inuit in Greenland in relation to social transition. The Inuit in Greenland are an indigenous population in the circumpolar north who are experiencing rapid social transition.......To examine differences in physical activity patterns among Inuit in Greenland in relation to social transition. The Inuit in Greenland are an indigenous population in the circumpolar north who are experiencing rapid social transition....

  12. [Nutrition in dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, D

    2017-02-01

    In the course of dementia sooner or later nutritional problems appear, and the question arises which interventions are effective in ensuring adequate nutrition and thus may contribute to the maintenance of health, functionality and independence. This overview presents the state of knowledge regarding nutrition in dementia. This work is based on the present guidelines of the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) on nutrition in dementia, which systematically investigated relevant available evidence. Nutritional interventions should be an integral component of dementia treatment. They should be based on a routine screening for malnutrition, followed by assessment when appropriate, and periodic body weight control in order to recognize problems early. In all stages of dementia, adequate oral nutrition can be supported by attractive, high-quality food according to individual needs served in a pleasant ambience, by adequate nursing support and treatment of underlying causes of malnutrition. If nutritional requirements are not met by usual or enriched food, oral nutritional supplements are recommended in order to improve nutritional status. Beneficial effects of energy and/or nutrient supplementation on cognitive abilities are however not proven. Artificial nutrition is only rarely indicated, namely after careful weighing of individual benefits and risks considering the patients (presumed) will. In patients with advanced dementia and in the terminal phase of life artificial nutrition is not recommended.

  13. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  14. Nutrition Education for Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasswell, Anita B.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A study of three hospitals' family medicine residents' knowledge of and interest in nutrition education revealed large gaps in residents' knowledge of nutritional aspects of certain conditions likely to arise in general practice. Previous medical school nutrition courses had little influence on residents' perceived knowledge. (MSE)

  15. Nutrition Guide for Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Nutrition Guide for Toddlers KidsHealth / For Parents / Nutrition Guide ... español Guía de nutrición para sus hijos pequeños Nutrition Through Variety Growth slows somewhat during the toddler ...

  16. Diet and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Food and Nutrition Sections Diet and Nutrition Can Fish Oil Help ... Cataract Prevention in the Produce Aisle Diet and Nutrition Leer en Español: Dieta y Nutrición May. 24, ...

  17. Our Nutrition Education Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, Donald C.

    1976-01-01

    Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

  18. Ovarian Cancer: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Nutrition can provide nutritional counseling at the Nutrition Clinic of Johns Hopkins Hospital or at Greenspring Station on a physician-referral basis by contacting (410) 955-6716 to set up an appointment with one of the qualified Registered Dietitians on staff. Eating Hints ... We subscribe to the ...

  19. Redundancy in Public Transit - Vol III. The Political Economy of Transit in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1945-63

    OpenAIRE

    Seymour Adler

    1980-01-01

    This report focuses on two concrete developments. One is the historical process that produced the Bay Area Rapid Transit District in 1957 and the district's particular regional rapid transit plan, approved by the voters of Alameda, Contra Costa, and San Francisco counties in November, 1962. The other is the process that produced the Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District in 1955 and 1956, and the particular transit service this District began operating in 1960. The relation between the two dis...

  20. Nutrition in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel L; Freeman, Lisa M

    2006-11-01

    Malnutrition associated with critical illness has been unequivocally associated with increased morbidity and mortality in humans. Because malnutrition may similarly affect veterinary patients, the nutritional requirements of hospitalized critically ill animals must be properly addressed. Proper nutritional support is increasingly being recognized as an important therapeutic intervention in the care of critically ill patients. The current focus of veterinary critical care nutrition, and the major focus of this article, is on carefully selecting the patients most likely to benefit from nutritional support, deciding when to intervene, and optimizing nutritional support to individual patients.

  1. Anthropometric normality in adults: the geographical and socio-economic paradox of the nutritional transition in Brazil Normalidade antropométrica de adultos: o paradoxo geográfico e socioeconômico da transição nutricional no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaquias Batista Filho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to consolidate secondary data and provide some as yet unpublished information on changes in the nutritional status of Brazilian children, and, principally, adults, from an anthropometrical point of view as evaluated in the course of the most recent surveys, laying emphasis on geographical and socio-economic features. METHODS: tables and graphs were used to consolidate data published by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and from other sources, along with estimates for results not included in these original documents. Preliminary data from two as yet unpublished studies were also included. RESULTS: it was shown that, alongside the decline in malnutrition in children there are signs of an epidemic increase in obesity and overweight in adults. This is characteristic of the change in epidemiological profile associated with the nutritional transition. There is an apparent paradox that the highest frequencies for normal anthropometric measurements in adults were found in the poorer North and Northeast regions of Brazil. These results were even found in localities with very low indices for human development in the Northeast region. The best anthropometric situation for adult populations in Brazil was found in families with a low income (less than ¼ of one minimum wage per household per capita, with a prevalence rate twice as high among adult males in comparison with the higher household income group. CONCLUSIONS: the results for nutritional anthropo-metry among adults, showing more normal measurements among the low-income population, reflect a peculiar phase in epidemiological terms in the process of the nutritional transition in the country, which constitutes a paradox arising in these specific circumstances, which is probably temporary.OBJETIVOS: consolidar dados secundários e algumas informações ainda inéditas sobre a evolução antropométrica de estado nutricional de crianças brasileiras e, principalmente de

  2. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Revised 2017 Standards of Practice in Nutrition Care and Standards of Professional Performance for Nutrition and Dietetics Technicians, Registered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-23

    Nutrition and dietetics technicians, registered (NDTRs) face complex situations every day. Competently addressing the unique needs of each situation and applying standards appropriately are essential to providing safe, timely patient-/client-/customer-centered quality nutrition and dietetics care and services. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) leads the profession by developing standards that can be used by NDTRs (who are credentialed by the Commission on Dietetic Registration) for self-evaluation to assess quality of practice and performance. The Standards of Practice reflect the NDTR's role under the supervision of registered dietitian nutritionists in nutrition screening and the Nutrition Care Process and workflow elements, which includes nutrition screening, nutrition assessment, nutrition diagnosis, nutrition intervention/plan of care, nutrition monitoring and evaluation, and discharge planning and transitions of care. The Standards of Professional Performance consist of six domains of professional performance: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how the standard can be applied to practice. The Academy's Revised 2017 Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for NDTRs along with the Academy/Commission on Dietetic Registration Code of Ethics, and the Scope of Practice for the NDTR provide minimum standards and tools for demonstrating competence and safe practice, and are used collectively to gauge and guide an NDTR's performance in nutrition and dietetics practice. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Age of onset or age at assessment-that is the question: Estimating newly incident alcohol drinking and rapid transition to heavy drinking in the United States, 2002-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui G; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Anthony, James C

    2017-10-15

    Age-specific incidence estimates are important and useful facts in psychiatric epidemiology, but incidence estimation can be challenging. Methods artifacts are possible. In the United States, where the minimum legal drinking age is 21 years, recent cross-sectional field research on 12- to 25-year-olds applied conventional "age-at-assessment" approaches (AAA) for incidence estimation based on 12-month recall. Estimates disclosed unexpected nonlinear patterns in age-specific incidence estimates for both drinking onset and for transitioning from first drink to heavy drinking. Here, our aim is to draw attention to an "age of onset" (AOO) alternative to AAA approaches and to verify whether the AOO approach also discloses nonlinearity. Yearly data are from U.S. nationally representative samples drawn and assessed for National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, 2002-2014, with standardized audio computer-assisted self-interview assessments for drinking outcomes. Both AAA and AOO approaches show nonlinearities, with an unexpected dip in drinking incidence rates after age 18 and before the age 21 minimum legal drinking age. The AOO and the AAA approaches disclosed similar age-specific patterns. We discuss advantages of the AOO approach when nonlinear incidence patterns can be anticipated, but we conclude that the AAA approach has not created an artifactual nonlinear pattern. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Irtun, Oivind; Olesen, Søren Schou; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Holst, Mette

    2013-11-14

    The pancreas is a major player in nutrient digestion. In chronic pancreatitis both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency may develop leading to malnutrition over time. Maldigestion is often a late complication of chronic pancreatic and depends on the severity of the underlying disease. The severity of malnutrition is correlated with two major factors: (1) malabsorption and depletion of nutrients (e.g., alcoholism and pain) causes impaired nutritional status; and (2) increased metabolic activity due to the severity of the disease. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. Good nutritional practice includes screening to identify patients at risk, followed by a thoroughly nutritional assessment and nutrition plan for risk patients. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and the mainstay of treatment is abstinence from alcohol, pain treatment, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. To achieve energy-end protein requirements, oral supplementation might be beneficial. Enteral nutrition may be used when patients do not have sufficient calorie intake as in pylero-duodenal-stenosis, inflammation or prior to surgery and can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis and should only be used in case of GI-tract obstruction or as a supplement to enteral nutrition.

  5. Herbage mineral nutrition indexed as tools for rapid mineral status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fertilisation is one of the potential options to improve pasture management as indicated by findings of this study. This is useful evidence-based information that could be incorporated in extension packages and resource materials for dissemination and subsequent adoption by livestock farming communities to improve ...

  6. herbage mineral nutrition indexed as tools for rapid mineral status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Jarrige (Ed.). John Libbey Eutotext, Londres. INRA,1997. Outils de diagnostic agro-écologique et guide pour leur utilisation. Conseil régional. Midi-Pyrénées et Union européenne,. Toulouse, France. Lecomte, P., Thomas, P., Blanfort, V., Duru, M. and Grimaud, P. 2003. Potential of NIRS to assess nitrogen, phosphorous and ...

  7. Optimizing patient nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium

    (Paper I). The present study is, to my knowledge, the only study investigating the validity of performed nutritional risk screenings by comparing them with medical records. Eight per cent of patients were correctly screened for nutritional risk. A total of 24% of 2393 patients were nutritionally screened......Malnutrition, under-nutrition and/or obesity, may develop due to disease but may also cause disease. The prevalence of under-nutrition among hospitalized patients is high: 40-60% are either already under-nourished on admittance or at-risk of becoming malnourished. As in the general population...... of prescription medication, and take longer to recover. Acknowledging the adverse effects of malnutrition on health, since 2006 it has been mandatory to screen all patients for nutritional risk within 24 hours of admittance at all hospitals in the Capital Region, Denmark. The compliance to and the validity...

  8. [Management of clinical nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Folgueras, Tomás

    2015-05-07

    Proper management of Clinical Nutrition requires careful planning of the resources required to delineate the activities to be performed by each of the participants and consider the need for continued evaluation of the results to improve. Units of Nutrition and Nutritional Support Teams must have a multidisciplinary composition, incorporating professionals with training and experience in Clinical Nutrition. Whenever conditions permit and activity of each center indicates, the staff's dedication to nutrition must be complete. The organization of processes and use of clinical practice protocols facilitates the monitoring of the activities carried out by teams of Nutrition. Each stage of a process has quality criteria based on scientific knowledge, and some key objectives whose degree of achievement can be measured by monitoring quality indicators and their comparison with standards. Successive cycles of measurement indicators, evaluation and corrective interventions lead to continuous process improvement.

  9. Barriers and catalysts of nutrition literacy among elderly Japanese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Yoko; Minai, Junko

    2011-12-01

    Improving skills for accessing and utilizing diet/nutrition information is important for preventing non-communicable diseases and frailty among elderly people. With the rapidly increasing number of elderly people in the world, promoting nutrition literacy among them is a pivotal health policy for maintaining and promoting health. This article describes the barriers and catalysts of nutrition literacy among elderly Japanese people (aged ≥75 years). A cross-sectional analysis of the responses to a questionnaire administered to 678 study participants (men = 347, women = 331) was conducted. Logistic regression analysis revealed that more men had limited nutrition literacy than did women. After stratification by gender, the limited nutrition literacy group was associated with cognitive difficulty in men and women, visual impairment in men and hearing impairment in women. Lower education level and economic status were associated with limited nutrition literacy among women. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) controlling for age, education level and economic status, as well as cognitive, visual and hearing function, indicated that informational support [OR = 5.59, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.28-24.49] and diet/nutrition information obtained from friends of the participants (OR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.11-4.20) were both associated with adequate nutrition literacy among men, whereas diet/nutrition information from health professionals (OR = 3.96, 95% CI = 1.97-7.95) had a significant relation with adequate nutrition literacy among women. Moreover, in the adequate nutrition literacy group, men were more likely to be overweight (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.20-3.91). These findings suggested that cognitive and sensory functions should be taken into account when diet information is provided to older adults. Enhancement of social networks is also a key point in improving nutrition literacy. An effective intervention to improve nutrition literacy in elderly people, particular old men

  10. How is the patient’s nutrition after a stroke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros Pomar, María D; Palazuelo Amez, Laura

    2017-05-08

    Neurological conditions usually cause altered levels of consciousness or swallowing mechanisms which make artificial nutritional support necessary. International guidelines recommend nutritional screening to detect malnutrition in patients with neurological diseases. Dysphagia is a common problem after a stroke, however, it is a treatable pathology, and swallowing rehabilitation allows for improving patients’ nutritional status. Awareness of this problem is required among healthcare professionals both for its diagnosis and for the implementation of nutritional intervention measures. Patients should be tested for dysphagia within the first 24 hours of the stroke onset; this swallowing assessment as well as malnutrition screening should never be delayed by more than 72 hours. The present study addresses diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, the indications of the different nutritional treatments available and the transition to oral feeding in patients who have had a stroke episode.

  11. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of dental diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moynihan, Paula; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2004-01-01

    Oral health is related to diet in many ways, for example, nutritional influences on craniofacial development, oral cancer and oral infectious diseases. Dental diseases impact considerably on self-esteem and quality of life and are expensive to treat. The objective of this paper is to review...... the evidence for an association between nutrition, diet and dental diseases and to present dietary recommendations for their prevention. Nutrition affects the teeth during development and malnutrition may exacerbate periodontal and oral infectious diseases. However, the most significant effect of nutrition...... remains prevalent and is increasing in some developing countries undergoing nutrition transition. There is convincing evidence, collectively from human intervention studies, epidemiological studies, animal studies and experimental studies, for an association between the amount and frequency of free sugars...

  12. Nutrition and development

    OpenAIRE

    Vuylsteke, J.

    1984-01-01

    Nutrition is discussed as related to development in a pluridisciplinary approach with emphasis on concern for the people, planning from below and involving the community. The importance of a scientific approach in nutrition underlines the necessity to give the proper identity to nutrition by a small group of 3 to 5 experienced technical men ; these must have the full authority to reorient regularly the executed programmes according to local possibilities, constraints or apparent fundamental n...

  13. Enzymes in animal nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition

    2011-01-01

    This report brings overview of endogenous as well as exogenous enzymes and their role and importance in animal nutrition. Enzymes for animal nutrition have been systematically developed since 1980´s. Phytase, xylanase and β-glucanase are used in poultry-rising, pig breeding, aquaculture and begin to push to the ruminant nutrition. Phytase increase availability of P, Ca, Zn, digestibility of proteins and fats. Its positive effect on the environment is well described – enzymes decrease the cont...

  14. Nutritional Challenges in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salera, Simona; Menni, Francesca; Moggio, Maurizio; Guez, Sophie; Sciacco, Monica; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-06-10

    Neuromuscular diseases (NMDs) represent a heterogeneous group of acquired or inherited conditions. Nutritional complications are frequent in NMDs, but they are sometimes underestimated. With the prolongation of survival in patients with NMDs, there are several nutritional aspects that are important to consider, including the deleterious effects of overnutrition on glucose metabolism, mobility, and respiratory and cardiologic functions; the impact of hyponutrition on muscle and ventilatory function; constipation and other gastrointestinal complications; chewing/swallowing difficulties with an increased risk of aspiration that predisposes to infectious diseases and respiratory complications; as well as osteoporosis with an associated increased risk of fractures. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the nutritional aspects and complications that can start in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and increase with ageing. These aspects should be considered in the transition from paediatric clinics to adult services. It is shown that appropriate nutritional care can help to improve the quality of life of DMD patients, and a multidisciplinary team is needed to support nutrition challenges in DMD patients. However, studies on the prevalence of overnutrition and undernutrition, gastrointestinal complications, infectious diseases, dysphagia, and reduced bone mass in the different types of NMDs are needed, and appropriate percentiles of weight, height, body mass index, and body composition appear to be extremely important to improve the management of patients with NMD.

  15. Nutritional Challenges in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Salera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuromuscular diseases (NMDs represent a heterogeneous group of acquired or inherited conditions. Nutritional complications are frequent in NMDs, but they are sometimes underestimated. With the prolongation of survival in patients with NMDs, there are several nutritional aspects that are important to consider, including the deleterious effects of overnutrition on glucose metabolism, mobility, and respiratory and cardiologic functions; the impact of hyponutrition on muscle and ventilatory function; constipation and other gastrointestinal complications; chewing/swallowing difficulties with an increased risk of aspiration that predisposes to infectious diseases and respiratory complications; as well as osteoporosis with an associated increased risk of fractures. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the nutritional aspects and complications that can start in children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD and increase with ageing. These aspects should be considered in the transition from paediatric clinics to adult services. It is shown that appropriate nutritional care can help to improve the quality of life of DMD patients, and a multidisciplinary team is needed to support nutrition challenges in DMD patients. However, studies on the prevalence of overnutrition and undernutrition, gastrointestinal complications, infectious diseases, dysphagia, and reduced bone mass in the different types of NMDs are needed, and appropriate percentiles of weight, height, body mass index, and body composition appear to be extremely important to improve the management of patients with NMD.

  16. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinath Reddy, K; Katan, Martijn B

    2004-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are growing contributors to global disease burdens, with epidemics of CVD advancing across many regions of the world which are experiencing a rapid health transition. Diet and nutrition have been extensively investigated as risk factors for major cardiovascular diseases like coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke and are also linked to other cardiovascular risk factors like diabetes, high blood pressure and obesity. The interpretation of evidence needs to involve a critical appraisal of methodological issues related to measurement of exposures, nature of outcome variables, types of research design and careful separation of cause, consequence and confounding as the basis for observed associations. Adequate evidence is available, from studies conducted within and across populations, to link several nutrients, minerals, food groups and dietary patterns with an increased or decreased risk of CVD. Dietary fats associated with an increased risk of CHD include trans-fats and saturated fats, while polyunsaturated fats are known to be protective. Dietary sodium is associated with elevation of blood pressure, while dietary potassium lowers the risk of hypertension and stroke. Regular frequent intake of fruits and vegetables is protective against hypertension, CHD and stroke. Composite diets (such as DASH diets, Mediterranean diet, 'prudent' diet) have been demonstrated to reduce the risk of hypertension and CHD. Sufficient knowledge exists to recommend nutritional interventions, at both population and individual levels, to reduce cardiovascular risk. That knowledge should now be translated into policies which promote healthy diets and discourage unhealthy diets. This requires coordinated action at the level of governments, international organizations, civil society and responsible sections of the food industry.

  17. Good maternal nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breda, Joao; Robertson, Aileen

    This publication has three parts: •a summary of the results of a systematic review of the most recent evidence on maternal nutrition, the prevention of obesity and noncommunicable diseases; •a review of existing recommendations for nutrition, physical activity and weight gain during pregnancy in ....... These are opportunities to promote nutrition and health throughout the life-course, ensure optimal diet-related fetal development and reduce the impact of morbidity and risk factors for noncommunicable diseases by improving maternal nutrition....

  18. Introduction to clinical nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sardesai, Vishwanath M

    2012-01-01

    .... Introduction to Clinical Nutrition, Third edition discusses the physiologic and metabolic interrelationships of all nutrients and their roles in health maintenance and the prevention of various...

  19. Nutrition of Infectious Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Gusev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the published data on clinical nutrition, including infectious diseases. The variant of diets on Pevzner into line with the standard diet used in the treatment of infectious patients. A brief description of artificial nutritional therapy in the treatment of patients with various infectious diseases. Particular importance is given to scientific substantiation of nutritional therapy in the treatment, rehabilitation of infectious patients. The correct choice of clinical nutrition contributes to the normalization of the lost functions and the speedy restoration of the human body after infection.

  20. Nutritional assessment of athletes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Driskell, Judy A; Wolinsky, Ira

    2011-01-01

    "Evaluating dietary intake, determining energy metabolism, and conducting other nutritional assessments are essential in understanding the relationships between diet, exercise, health, and physical...

  1. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  2. Food & Nutrition: Nourish Your Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food & Nutrition: Nourish Your Body; food & nutrition; food and nutrition; food and nutrition articles; information about nutrition; health & nutrition; health and nutrition; health and nutrition articles; health and nutrition facts; health nutrition; nutrition and health; nutrition health; nutrition health articles; healthy; a healthy diet; diet healthy; eating healthy; healthy diet; healthy diets; nutrition diet; diet and nutrition; diet and nutrition articles; diet and nutrition article; diet nutrition; nutrition and diet; article on nutrition; article about nutrition; articles on nutrition; facts about nutrition; good nutrition; nutrition article; nutrition articles; healthy tips; eat healthy tips; eating healthy tips; healthy diet tips; healthy eating tip; healthy eating tips; healthy food tips; should eat; reasons why you should eat healthy; why people should eat healthy; why should I eat healthy; why should people eat healthy; why should we eat healthy; why should you eat healthy; why we should eat healthy; why you should eat healthy; healthy diet; a healthy diet; diets healthy eating; eat a healthy diet; eat healthy diet; eating a healthy diet; eating healthy diet; eating healthy diets; healthy diet; way to eat; best way to eat healthy; easy way to eat healthy; easy ways to eat healthy; healthy way of eating; healthy way to eat; healthy ways of eating; healthy ways to eat; ways to eat healthy; benefits; benefits eating healthy; benefits for eating healthy; benefits from eating healthy; benefits of eating healthy; benefits of healthy eating; benefits on eating healthy; benefits to eating healthy; eating healthy benefits; health benefits of eating healthy; eat healthier; eat healthier; eating healthier; healthier eating; healthier ways to eat; how can I eat healthier; how do I eat healthier; how to eat healthier; how to start eating healthier; tips to eat healthier; ways to start eating healthier

  3. [Nutrition and health--enteral nutrition in intensive care patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haren, F.M. van; Oudemans-van Straaten, H.M.; Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.H.; Tepaske, R.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional therapy in the intensive care unit exerts favourable effects on morbidity and mortality. Enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. Only perforation or total obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract, proven mesenteric ischaemia and toxic megacolon are absolute

  4. Immediate preoperative enteral nutrition (preoperative enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lađević Nebojša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional support of surgical patients is a necessary part of the treatment. It alone cannot cure the disease but it significantly affects the recovery of patients and supports surgical interventions. Patients in malnutrition have shown to have significantly more postoperative infectious and non-infectious complications. This significantly prolongs treatment time and increases costs. However, there is one fact that cannot be expressed in money, which is the patient's impression of the surgical intervention. Adequate preoperative patient support, based on the intake of liquid nutritive solutions, reduces preoperative stress and deflects the metabolic response. Now, it is recommended for adults and children older than one year to drink clear liquid up to 2 hours before induction in anesthesia. Appropriate enteral nutrition has a significant place in the postoperative recovery of patients. Enteral nutrition is reducing complications, mainly infectious complications because the function of the digestive system as one large immune system is preserved. Perioperative enteral nutrition is a necessary part of the modern treatment of surgical patients. In addition to the significant effect on the occurrence of postoperative complications, it is also important that this type of diet improves the psychological status of patients.

  5. Presidential Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-09

    done to facilitate the transition.52 CRS-12 53 David T. Stanley, Changing Administrations (Washington: Brookings Institution, 1965), p. 6. 54 “Pre...Conference of Mayors; Sharleen Hirsch, an educational administrator; and Jule Sugarman , a public administrator. Staff members were assigned to task forces...Issues,” Washington Post, Nov. 13, 1980, p. Al. 77 David Hoffman, “Bush Names Baker Secretary of State,” Washington Post, Nov. 10, 1988, pp. Al and

  6. An Analysis of Technology Transition Within the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    for Savings Program TPM Technical Performance Measure TRA Technology Readiness Assessment TRL Technology Readiness Level TTI Technology...Rapid Technology Transition Program (RTT) Navy Has a charter to rapidly transition technology from any source, including those not traditionally...Metrics such as MOEs, Technical Performance Measures ( TPMs ), and Design-dependent Parameters (DDPs) should be established and monitored to ensure

  7. Nutrition for swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Gregory; Boyd, Kevin T; Burke, Louise M; Koivisto, Anu

    2014-08-01

    Swimming is a sport that requires considerable training commitment to reach individual performance goals. Nutrition requirements are specific to the macrocycle, microcycle, and individual session. Swimmers should ensure suitable energy availability to support training while maintaining long term health. Carbohydrate intake, both over the day and in relation to a workout, should be manipulated (3-10 g/kg of body mass/day) according to the fuel demands of training and the varying importance of undertaking these sessions with high carbohydrate availability. Swimmers should aim to consume 0.3 g of high-biological-value protein per kilogram of body mass immediately after key sessions and at regular intervals throughout the day to promote tissue adaptation. A mixed diet consisting of a variety of nutrient-dense food choices should be sufficient to meet the micronutrient requirements of most swimmers. Specific dietary supplements may prove beneficial to swimmers in unique situations, but should be tried only with the support of trained professionals. All swimmers, particularly adolescent and youth swimmers, are encouraged to focus on a well-planned diet to maximize training performance, which ensures sufficient energy availability especially during periods of growth and development. Swimmers are encouraged to avoid rapid weight fluctuations; rather, optimal body composition should be achieved over longer periods by modest dietary modifications that improve their food choices. During periods of reduced energy expenditure (taper, injury, off season) swimmers are encouraged to match energy intake to requirement. Swimmers undertaking demanding competition programs should ensure suitable recovery practices are used to maintain adequate glycogen stores over the entirety of the competition period.

  8. Enzymatic modification of phospholipids forfunctional applications and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zheng; Vikbjerg, Anders / Falk; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    Rapid progress in biochemistry of phospholipids and evolution of modern bioengineering has brought forth a number of novel concepts and technical advancements in the modification of phospholipids for industrial applications and human nutrition. Highlights cover preparation of novel phospholipid...... of phospholipids. This work reviews the natural occurrence and structural characteristics of phospholipids, their updated knowledge on manifold biological and nutritional functions, traditional and novel physical and chemical approaches to modify phospholipids as well as their applications to obtain novel...

  9. Nutrition considerations for open-water swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Gregory; Koivisto, Anu; Gerrard, David; Burke, Louise M

    2014-08-01

    Open-water swimming (OWS) is a rapidly developing discipline. Events of 5-25 km are featured at FINA World Championships, and the international circuit includes races of 5-88 km. The Olympic OWS event, introduced in 2008, is contested over 10 km. Differing venues present changing environmental conditions, including water and ambient temperatures, humidity, solar radiation, and unpredictable tides. Furthermore, the duration of most OWS events (1-6 hr) creates unique physiological challenges to thermoregulation, hydration status, and muscle fuel stores. Current nutrition recommendations for open-water training and competition are either an extension of recommendations from pool swimming or are extrapolated from other athletic populations with similar physiological requirements. Competition nutrition should focus on optimizing prerace hydration and glycogen stores. Although swimmers should rely on self-supplied fuel and fluid sources for shorter events, for races of 10 km or greater, fluid and fuel replacement can occur from feeding pontoons when tactically appropriate. Over the longer races, feeding pontoons should be used to achieve desirable targets of up to 90 g/ hr of carbohydrates from multitransportable sources. Exposure to variable water and ambient temperatures will play a significant role in determining race nutrition strategies. For example, in extreme environments, thermoregulation may be assisted by manipulating the temperature of the ingested fluids. Swimmers are encouraged to work with nutrition experts to develop effective and efficient strategies that enhance performance through appropriate in-competition nutrition.

  10. Nutrition After a Whipple Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BACK Contact Us DONATE NOW GENERAL DONATION PURPLESTRIDE Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Home Facing Pancreatic Cancer Living with Pancreatic Cancer Diet and Nutrition Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Ver esta página en ...

  11. Diet and Nutrition (Parkinson's Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Diet & Nutrition Diet & Nutrition 1. Maintain Health 2. Ease PD Symptoms 3. ... your team Seek reliable information about diet and nutrition from your medical team and local resources. Please ...

  12. Systems biology of personalized nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Broek, T. van den; Hoogh, I. de; Erk, M. van; Someren, E. van; Rouhani-Rankouhi, T.; Anthony, J.C.; Hogenelst, K.; Pasman, W.; Boorsma, A.; Wopereis, S.

    2017-01-01

    Personalized nutrition is fast becoming a reality due to a number of technological, scientific, and societal developments that complement and extend current public health nutrition recommendations. Personalized nutrition tailors dietary recommendations to specific biological requirements on the

  13. Nutritional Hormesis and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional hormesis has the potential to serve as a pro-healthy aging intervention by reducing the susceptibility of the elderly to various chronic degenerative diseases and thereby extending human healthspan. Supportive evidence for nutritional hormesis arising from essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals), dietary pesticides (natural and synthetic), dioxin and other herbicides, and acrylamide will be reviewed and discussed.

  14. Nutrition for Older Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Parents For Men For Women For Seniors Nutrition for Older Men Published February 01, 2014 Print ... Tags Health Wellness Healthy Aging For Men For Seniors Latest Content 1 2 3 4 5 Eat Right While Traveling Nutrition Info about Beverages 5 Tips to Curb Your ...

  15. Nutrition in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasco, Paula

    2015-01-01

    In cancer patients, oral nutrition is the preferred route of feeding since it is a significant part of the patient's daily routine and contributes to the patient's autonomy. It represents a privileged time to spend with family and friends, avoiding the tendency for isolation in these patients. The acknowledgement that the prescribed diet is individualized, adapted and adequate to individual needs empowers the patient with a feeling of control, and thus it is also a highly effective approach of psychological modulation. All these factors may potentially contribute to improve the patient's quality of life and may modulate treatment morbidity. The referral to a nutrition professional responsible for the individualized dietary counseling should always be based on evidence-based decision-making plans. The implementation of individualized nutritional counseling should consider the common causes for a poor nutritional intake in elderly cancer patients. A proper approach through counseling requires professionals with specific experience in both nutrition and oncology. Oral nutritional supplements are a simple and practical way to meet nutritional requirements when normal food intake is compromised. Ideally, oral nutritional supplements should be in addition to and not instead of meals. Supplements should be administered at a time which does not interfere with the appetite of the patient. The administration after the meal theoretically potentiates the anabolic effect on protein metabolism. Supplements with high energy density (>1 kcal/ml) or enriched with ω-3 fatty acid are probably the most effective. © 2015 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Nutrition and allergic diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerven, van R.J.J.; Savelkoul, Huub

    2017-01-01

    The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on

  17. Home parenteral nutrition tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Donald F; Corrigan, Mandy L; Speerhas, Rex A; Emery, Dorothy M

    2012-11-01

    The nutrition support practitioner may be called upon to help coordinate care at home for a patient who requires prolonged intravenous nutrition after he or she becomes stable enough to leave the hospital. This tutorial reviews the many concepts that must be considered to manage this type of care successfully.

  18. From Agriculture to Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The report seeks to analyze what has been learned about how agricultural interventions influence nutrition outcomes in low-and middle-income countries, focusing on the target populations of the millennium development goals-people living on less than a dollar a day. It also sets out to synthesize lessons from past efforts to improve the synergies between agriculture and nutrition outcomes. ...

  19. Nutrition. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This packet contains an instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a competency-based course on nutrition for practical nursing. The course consists of two units of instruction that cover applying principles of basic nutrition and diet therapy. Each unit contains some or all of the following components: objective…

  20. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  1. [Nutrition and oropharyngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The conclusion of a recent systematic review of the literature on the relation between nutrition, physical activity and cancer is that more than 30% of all cases of cancer can be prevented by improving nutrition and increasing physical activity. In The Netherlands, 1 out of 100 men and 1 out of 160

  2. Health enhancing traditional foods in Brazil : an interdisciplinary approach to food and nutritional security

    OpenAIRE

    Abadio Finco, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian nutritional profile is currently characterized by the so-called "nutrition transition process" i.e. the population presents nutritional status characteristics of both developing and developed countries. Therefore, malnutrition is present not only in the form of undernutrition but increasingly also presents as overweight and obesity. Some studies suggest that this is not only a particular problem of urban societies but also of rural communities. Recently, Brazil has impressiv...

  3. The Rationale, Feasibility, and Optimal Training of the Non-Physician Medical Nutrition Scientist

    OpenAIRE

    Susan E. Ettinger; Jennifer A. Nasser; Ellen S. Engelson; Jeanine B. Albu; Sami Hashim; F. Xavier Pi-Sunyer

    2015-01-01

    Dietary components have potential to arrest or modify chronic disease processes including obesity, cancer, and comorbidities. However, clinical research to translate mechanistic nutrition data into clinical interventions is needed. We have developed a one-year transitional postdoctoral curriculum to prepare nutrition scientists in the language and practice of medicine and in clinical research methodology before undertaking independent research. Candidates with an earned doctorate in nutrition...

  4. Maternal nutritional depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, K M

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses maternal nutritional depletion, the negative energy balance and/or micronutrient deficiencies resulting from the energetic burden of frequent reproductive cycling combined with undernutrition and overexertion, and its impact upon a woman's health and nutritional status and that of her offspring. The article is therefore concerned with the impact of nutritional depletion which occurs during a woman's life cycle, as opposed to the effects of nutritional depletion which occur intergenerationally. A brief summary is presented of the recognition and controversy regarding the effects of reproductive stress followed by a description of the factors which make assessment and identification of specific consequences so complex, with approaches suggested to alleviate maternal nutritional depletion. Policy directions and areas for research are suggested.

  5. Tendências do diabetes mellitus no Brasil: o papel da transição nutricional Trends in diabetes mellitus in Brazil: the role of the nutritional transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Saes Sartorelli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência do diabetes mellitus tipo 2 tem se elevado vertiginosamente e espera-se ainda um maior incremento. Na América Latina há uma tendência do aumento da freqüência entre as faixas etárias mais jovens, cujo impacto negativo sobre a qualidade de vida e a carga da doença ao sistema de saúde é relevante. O aumento das taxas de sobrepeso e obesidade associado às alterações do estilo de vida e ao envelhecimento populacional, são os principais fatores que explicam o crescimento da prevalência do diabetes tipo 2. As modificações no consumo alimentar da população brasileira - baixa freqüência de alimentos ricos em fibras, aumento da proporção de gorduras saturadas e açúcares da dieta - associadas a um estilo de vida sedentário compõem um dos principais fatores etiológicos da obesidade, diabetes tipo 2 e outras doenças crônicas. Programas de prevenção primária do diabetes vêm sendo desenvolvidos em diversos países, cujos resultados demonstram um impacto positivo sobre a qualidade de vida da população.Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus has increased rapidly and is expected to increase even further. In Latin America countries there is an upward trend among the younger age groups, with a major negative impact on the quality of life and burden of the disease for the health care system. Increasing rates of overweight and obesity associated with lifestyle changes and aging of the population are the main contributing factors to the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Dietary shifts in the Brazilian population (low frequency of fiber-rich foods and heavy consumption of saturated fatty acids and sugars and sedentary lifestyle are the main risk factors for obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Diabetes prevention programs are being promoted in several countries with results showing improvement in quality of life.

  6. Implications of the Central America-Dominican Republic-Free Trade Agreement for the nutrition transition in Central America Implicaciones del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Centroamérica y República Dominicana sobre la transición alimentaria en Centroamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Hawkes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify potential impacts of the Central America-Dominican Republic-Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR on food consumption patterns associated with the nutrition transition, obesity, and diet-related chronic diseases. METHODS: Examination of CAFTA-DR agreement to identify measures that have the potential to affect food availability and retail prices. RESULTS: CAFTA-DR includes agreements on tariffs, tariff-rate quotas (TRQs, and sanitary and phytosanitary regulations with direct implications for the availability and prices of various foods. Agreements on investment, services, and intellectual property rights (IPR are also relevant because they create a business climate more conducive to long-term investment by the transnational food industry. Trade liberalization under CAFTA-DR is likely to increase availability and lower relative prices of two food groups associated with the nutrition transition: meat and processed foods. These outcomes are expected to occur as the direct result of increased imports from the United States and increased production by U.S. companies based in Central America, and the indirect result of increased domestic meat production (due to increased availability of cheaper animal feed and increased production of processed foods by domestic companies (due to a more competitive market environment. CONCLUSIONS: CAFTA-DR is likely to further the nutrition transition in Central America by increasing the consumption of meat; highly processed foods; and new, non-traditional foods. The public health community should be more aware of the implications of trade agreements for dietary health. Governments and related stakeholders should assess the coherence between changes fostered by specific trade agreements with national policies on diet and nutrition.OBJETIVOS: Identificar el posible impacto del Tratado de Libre Comercio entre Centroamérica y República Dominicana (TLCCA-RD sobre el patrón de consumo de alimentos

  7. The effect of some social factors on adolescents nutritional status in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adolescence is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood and the second most critical period of physical growth after the first year of life. Nutritional problems may arise from poor eating habits, snacking and consumption of nutrition deficient processed foods. Some social factors have been shown to ...

  8. Perspectives and Future Directions Concerning Fresh, Whole Foods in Montana School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Byker Shanks, Carmen J.; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new USDA school meal standards, school nutrition programs may need to transition from a "heat and serve" meal preparation approach to increased scratch cooking and use of fresh, whole foods. This study aims to assess the attitudes, motivations, and barriers for Montana school nutrition professionals and key…

  9. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  10. A practical approach to nutritional screening and assessment in cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Puneeta; Raman, Maitreyi; Mourtzakis, Marina; Merli, Manuela

    2017-03-01

    Malnutrition is one of the most common complications of cirrhosis, associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. As a potentially modifiable condition, it is of particular importance to identify malnourished patients so that nutritional therapy can be instituted. Nutrition screening and assessment are infrequently performed in patients with cirrhosis. The reasons for this are multifactorial, including the absence of a validated "rapid" screening tool, multiple definitions of what constitutes malnutrition, and challenges with interpreting body composition and laboratory results in the setting of volume overload and liver dysfunction. This article summarizes the clinically relevant evidence and presents key issues, tools, and clinical options that are applicable to patients with cirrhosis. The definition, etiology, and clinically relevant outcomes associated with malnutrition are reviewed. Rapid nutritional screening is differentiated from more detailed nutritional assessment. Nutritional assessment in special populations, including women and the obese, and the role of inflammation are discussed. Multicenter studies using a common nutritional screening/assessment strategy are the next steps to fast-track adoption and implementation of nutrition-related evaluations into routine clinical practice. (Hepatology 2017;65:1044-1057). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. Nutrition and nutritional issues for dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Mónica; Carvalho, Pedro; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor H

    2013-09-01

    Proper nutrition, not simply adequate energetic intake, is needed to achieve optimal dance performance. However, little scientific research exists concerning nutrition in dance, and so, to propose nutritional guidelines for this field, recommendations need to be based mainly on studies done in other physically active groups. To diminish the risk of energy imbalance and associated disorders, dancers must consume at least 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass/day, plus the training energy expenditure. For macronutrients, a daily intake of 3 to 5 g carbohydrates/kg, 1.2 to 1.7 g protein/kg, and 20 to 35% of energy intake from fat can be recommended. Dancers may be at increased risk of poor micronutrient status due to their restricted energy intake; micronutrients that deserve concern are iron, calcium, and vitamin D. During training, dancers should give special attention to fluid and carbohydrate intake in order to maintain optimal cognition, motivation, and motor skill performance. For competition/stage performance preparation, it is also important to ensure that an adequate dietary intake is being achieved. Nutritional supplements that may help in achieving specific nutritional goals when dietary intake is inadequate include multivitamins and mineral, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, sports drinks, sports bars, and liquid meal supplements. Caffeine can also be used as an ergogenic aid. It is important that dancers seek dietary advice from qualified specialists, since the pressure to maintain a low body weight and low body fat levels is high, especially in styles as ballet, and this can lead to an unbalanced diet and health problems if not correctly supervised.

  12. Applying Communication Theory in Nutrition Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Ardyth H.

    1981-01-01

    Reports on the state of research in nutrition communication, unmet goals in nutrition education, strategies for nutrition education and nutrition education research, and research design issues. Indicates that the field of communications offers theoretical perspectives for nutrition education research. (DS)

  13. Effect of a nutrition education programme on nutritional status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of a nutrition education programme on nutritional status of children aged 3 - 5 years in Limpopo Province, South Africa. ... The nutrition intervention did not have a significant effect on indicators of nutritional status, possibly owing to its short duration (12 months) and the fact that food supplementation was not included.

  14. National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and Special Groups. A Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

    The contents of this working paper comprise a series of journal articles focusing on nutrition and special groups. Papers relating to those on the aged are entitled: Nutrition and Health of Older People, and Nutrition for the Aged--A Summation. Those on the American Indian discuss nutrition intake and food patterns, contemporary dietary patterns,…

  15. Recent advances in understanding the role of nutrition in human genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Kaixiong; Gu, Zhenglong

    2011-11-01

    Dietary transitions in human history have been suggested to play important roles in the evolution of mankind. Genetic variations caused by adaptation to diet during human evolution could have important health consequences in current society. The advance of sequencing technologies and the rapid accumulation of genome information provide an unprecedented opportunity to comprehensively characterize genetic variations in human populations and unravel the genetic basis of human evolution. Series of selection detection methods, based on various theoretical models and exploiting different aspects of selection signatures, have been developed. Their applications at the species and population levels have respectively led to the identification of human specific selection events that distinguish human from nonhuman primates and local adaptation events that contribute to human diversity. Scrutiny of candidate genes has revealed paradigms of adaptations to specific nutritional components and genome-wide selection scans have verified the prevalence of diet-related selection events and provided many more candidates awaiting further investigation. Understanding the role of diet in human evolution is fundamental for the development of evidence-based, genome-informed nutritional practices in the era of personal genomics.

  16. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Revised 2017 Standards of Practice in Nutrition Care and Standards of Professional Performance for Registered Dietitian Nutritionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) face complex situations every day. Competently addressing the unique needs of each situation and applying standards appropriately are essential to providing safe, timely, patient-/client-/customer-centered, quality nutrition and dietetics care and services. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) leads the profession by developing standards that can be used by RDNs (who are credentialed by the Commission on Dietetic Registration) for self-evaluation to assess quality of practice and performance. The Standards of Practice reflect the Nutrition Care Process and workflow elements as a method to manage nutrition care activities with patients/clients/populations that include nutrition screening, nutrition assessment, nutrition diagnosis, nutrition intervention/plan of care, nutrition monitoring and evaluation, and discharge planning and transitions of care. The Standards of Professional Performance consist of six domains of professional performance: Quality in Practice, Competence and Accountability, Provision of Services, Application of Research, Communication and Application of Knowledge, and Utilization and Management of Resources. Within each standard, specific indicators provide measurable action statements that illustrate how the standard can be applied to practice. The Academy's Revised 2017 Standards of Practice and Standards of Professional Performance for RDNs, along with the Academy's Code of Ethics and the Revised 2017 Scope of Practice for the RDN, provide minimum standards and tools for demonstrating competence and safe practice and are used collectively to gauge and guide an RDN's performance in nutrition and dietetics practice. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimizing patient nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium

    , the prevalence of overweight and obesity in hospitalized patients is high: 25-60% have a BMI above 25 kg/m2. Though obese these patients may also be undernourished in the sense of lack of protein or micronutrients. Malnourished patients have prolonged stays at hospital, an increased rate of infection and use...... (Paper I). The present study is, to my knowledge, the only study investigating the validity of performed nutritional risk screenings by comparing them with medical records. Eight per cent of patients were correctly screened for nutritional risk. A total of 24% of 2393 patients were nutritionally screened...

  18. Patient safety and nutrition: is there a connection?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... common medical errors and developed solutions to them. These are available to WHO members to help them to improve patient safety within the healthcare systems.5 Of the solutions, the following link to nutrition: patient identification, assuring medication accuracy during transitions in care, and avoiding ...

  19. Hipertensão, obesidade abdominal e baixa estatura: aspectos da transição nutricional em uma população favelada Hypertension, abdominal obesity and short stature: aspects of nutritional transition within a shantytown in the city of Maceió (Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo da Silva Ferreira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar, em mulheres de muito baixa renda, a prevalência e a associação entre a baixa estatura, o sobrepeso, a obesidade abdominal e a hipertensão arterial, discutindo os achados, segundo o processo de transição nutricional e a hipótese da programação fetal (hipótese Barker. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 223 mulheres de 18 a 65 anos, por meio dos seguintes indicadores: índice de massa corporal (kg/m² >25 para sobrepeso + obesidade ou 0,8 para obesidade abdominal; pressão arterial sistólica e/ou diastólica >140/90mmHg para hipertensão; percentil 25 (1º quartil para baixa estatura. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sobrepeso + obesidade (35,9% foi superior à de magreza (9,4%. A pressão diastólica associou-se com o índice de massa corporal (r=0,37; IC 95%: 0,01 OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency of occurrence of short stature, overweight, abdominal obesity and arterial hypertension, and the possible correlations among such factors, in women of very low income. The findings were considered in terms of nutrition transition and the Barker's programming hypothesis. METHODS: A group of 223 women, 18 to 65 years of age, were studied with respect to the following parameters: for body mass index (kg/m², values >25 indicated overweight and obesity, whilst values 0.8 indicated abdominal adiposity; for systolic/diastolic blood pressure, values >140/90 mm Hg indicated hypertension; and for height, values within the 25th percentile (1st quartile indicated short stature. RESULTS: The frequency of occurrence of overweight and obesity (present in 35.9% of the group was greater than that of underweight (9.4% of the group. The diastolic blood pressure was positively associated with body mass index (r= 0.37; CI 95,0%: 0.01

  20. Drug and nutrition interactions: not just food for thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullata, J I

    2013-08-01

    The management of drug-drug interactions - from recognition of the interaction potential, to addressing the negative consequences - are well-recognized and avoided, or rapidly addressed when identified clinically. Drug-nutrition interactions are no less important than drug-drug interactions in patient care. Unfortunately, beyond those caused by food, these interactions are less commonly recognized or identified and managed. This article will re-introduce the topic of drug-nutrition interactions to clinicians. Although many clinicians are acutely aware of and vigilant for potential drug-drug interactions, most are less aware of the possibility of drug-nutrition interactions beyond classic food-drug interactions. Interaction can occur between a drug and a nutrient, multiple nutrients, food in general, specific foods or components, or nutrition status. An interaction is considered clinically significant if it alters therapeutic drug response and/or compromises nutrition status. Mechanistically the interactions may be physicochemical reactions, actions at membrane transporters or metabolizing enzymes, or an influence on physiologic function. Appreciating the many types of drug-nutrition interactions will aid the clinician and have the potential to influence patient outcome. Ongoing advances in knowledge about drug and nutrition interactions have potential to improve patient care. Drug-nutrition interactions need to be better recognized, understood on a mechanistic basis, predicted, and managed as necessary. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Metabolic and nutritional support of the enterocutaneous fistula patient: a three-phase approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Travis M; Schwab, C William

    2012-03-01

    The care and outcome of enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) have improved greatly over several decades due to revolutionary advances in nutrition, along with dramatic improvements in the treatment of sepsis and the critically ill. However, as the collective experience with damage control surgery has matured, the frequent development of enteroatmospheric fistula (EAF) in the "open abdomen" patient has emerged as an even more vexing problem. Despite our best efforts, ECF and especially EAF continue to be highly morbid conditions, and sepsis and malnutrition remain the leading causes of death. Aggressive nutritional and metabolic support is the most significant predictor of outcome with ECF and EAF. Discussion of the historical advances in nutritional therapy and their impact on ECF, as well as review of the classification of ECF and EAF, provides a framework for the suggested phased strategy that specifically targets the nutritional and metabolic needs of the ECF/EAF patient. These three phases include (1) diagnosis, resuscitation, and early interval nutrition; (2) definition of fistula anatomy, drainage of collections, nutritional assessment and monitoring, and placement of feeding access; and (3) definitive nutritional management, including pharmacologic adjuncts. Early nutritional support with parenteral nutrition followed by transition to enteral nutrition is advocated, including the merits of delivery of enteral nutrition via the fistula itself, known as fistuloclysis. Aggressive nutritional therapy is necessary to reverse the catabolic state associated with ECF/EAF patients. Once established, it allows proper time, preparation, and planning for definitive management of the fistula, and in many cases provides the support for spontaneous closure.

  2. Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Karen R.

    A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…

  3. [Cystic fibrosis: nutritional considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Arias, M; Prieto Bozano, G; Sarría Osés, J; Polanco Allué, I

    2001-06-01

    During the last few decades, improved treatment measures and nutritional support in cystic fibrosis have increased survival and quality of life in these patients. There is a clear relationship between the development of malnutrition and worsening in respiratory function and both factors have been related to poor disease outcome. Malnutrition is a very frequent complication of this disease and is found in 20% of patients, due to negative energy-proteic balance. This disequilibrium can be explained by increased energy expenditure, high nutritional requirements and decreased oral intake. Periodic monitoring of clinical, anthropometrical and functional nutritional status is mandatory. Intake must be greater than requirements and specific nutritional support should be established when required. Patients with cystic fibrosis must receive a hypercaloric and hyperproteotic diet, with a high fat content, a normal quantity of carbohydrates and with pancreatic and liposoluble vitamin supplements in case of pancreatic insufficiency.

  4. Celiac disease - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002443.htm Celiac disease - nutritional considerations To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Celiac disease is an immune disorder passed down through families. ...

  5. Papaya nutritional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...

  6. Nutrition and Peritoneal Dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Nutrition and Peritoneal Dialysis Print Email As a patient ... and snacks as ordered by your doctor. Your renal dietitian can also tell you about protein foods ...

  7. Cystic fibrosis - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002437.htm Cystic fibrosis - nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening disease that causes ...

  8. Nutrition information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, L

    1972-10-01

    Medical personnel and medical librarians may tend to think of nutrition in medical terms and to forget its interdisciplinary aspects. For this reason, it is desirable for medical librarians to become familiar with a variety of sources of information on the composition of foods, nutrient values, food additives, and food protection. Many of these are government publications from such agencies as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Research Council, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Less familiar sources include nutrition materials from state agricultural experiment stations and extension services and important data published in a wide range of scientific or agricultural journals, which may be located through Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and the Bibliography of Agriculture. Sources of current information on nutrition research in progress include the Department of Agriculture's Current Research Information System (CRIS) and selective listings from the Smith-sonian Information Exchange.

  9. [Carbohydrates in clinical nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysikov, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    The article presents data on role of carbohydrate in clinical nutrition. The review described carbohydrate metabolism, hormonal regulation of carbohydrate, carbohydrate energy source role, carbohydrate requirements in critical study.

  10. Nutrition and Allergic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    R.J.J. van Neerven; Huub Savelkoul

    2017-01-01

    The development of IgE-mediated allergic diseases is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors such as pollution and farming, but also by nutrition. In the last decade, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the impact that nutrition can have on allergic diseases. Many studies have addressed the effect of breastfeeding, pre-, pro- and synbiotics, vitamins and minerals, fiber, fruit and vegetables, cow?s milk, and n-3 fatty acids, on the develo...

  11. Nutrition in Pediatric Cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Tracie L.; Neri, Daniela; Extein, Jason; Somarriba, Gabriel; Strickman-Stein, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Pediatric cardiomyopathies are heterogeneous groups of serious disorders of the heart muscle and are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality among children who have the disease. While enormous improvements have been made in the treatment and survival of children with congenital heart disease, parallel strides have not been made in the outcomes for cardiomyopathies. Thus, ancillary therapies, such as nutrition and nutritional interventions, that may not cure but may potentially imp...

  12. Nutrition, Epigenetics, and Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Hyeran; Serra, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Increasing epidemiological evidence suggests that maternal nutrition and environmental exposure early in development play an important role in susceptibility to disease in later life. In addition, these disease outcomes seem to pass through subsequent generations. Epigenetic modifications provide a potential link between the nutrition status during critical periods in development and changes in gene expression that may lead to disease phenotypes. An increasing body of evidence from experiment...

  13. Nutrition of aging dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jennifer A; Farcas, Amy

    2014-07-01

    Aging is a normal process characterized by a variety of physiologic changes. Geriatric dogs are also more likely to be afflicted with certain disease conditions. Both normal and abnormal physiologic changes associated with aging in the dog may be amenable to nutritional intervention. Specific alterations in nutrients or in dietary characteristics can be beneficial; however, these are best done in the context of an individualized nutritional assessment and monitoring paradigm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Youth Education - Health / Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Deborah L. Angell: The Bug Stops Here! Cheryl L. Barber: Successful Snacks - Food, Fitness and Food Safety Learning Activities. Darcy Batura: At-Risk Youth and Household Hazardous Waste Education. Katherine L. Cason: Nutrition Mission – A Multimedia Educational Tool for Youth . Patsy A. Ezell: An Interactive Food and Nutrition Education Program for Youth. Rhea Lanting: Got Calcium? Sandy McCurdy: Reaching Teens through a Food Safety Education Partnership. Patricia Mulkeen: Choosing 4-H Fitnes...

  15. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: food and nutrition for older adults: promoting health and wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Melissa; Munoz, Nancy

    2012-08-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all Americans aged 60 years and older receive appropriate nutrition care; have access to coordinated, comprehensive food and nutrition services; and receive the benefits of ongoing research to identify the most effective food and nutrition programs, interventions, and therapies. Health, physiologic, and functional changes associated with the aging process can influence nutrition needs and nutrient intake. The practice of nutrition for older adults is no longer limited to those who are frail, malnourished, and ill. The population of adults older than age 60 years includes many individuals who are living healthy, vital lives with a variety of nutrition-related circumstances and environments. Access and availability of wholesome, nutritious food is essential to ensure successful aging and well-being for the rapidly growing, heterogeneous, multiracial, and ethnic population of older adults. To ensure successful aging and minimize the effects of disease and disability, a wide range of flexible dietary recommendations, culturally sensitive food and nutrition services, physical activities, and supportive care tailored to older adults are necessary. National, state, and local strategies that promote access to coordinated food and nutrition services are essential to maintain independence, functional ability, disease management, and quality of life. Those working with older adults must be proactive in demonstrating the value of comprehensive food and nutrition services. To meet the needs of all older adults, registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, must widen their scope of practice to include prevention, treatment, and maintenance of health and quality of life into old age. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [SHORT BOWEL SYNDROME AND NUTRITIONAL ENTERAL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariadel Cobo, Diana; Pereira Cunill, José Luis; Socas Macías, María; Serrano Aguayo, Pilar; Gómez Liébana, Eulalia; Morales Conde, Salvador; García Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2015-12-01

    The particularity of this case is the nutritional management that has managed to avoid the use of prolonged parenteral nutrition and possible complications by placing jejunal tube at the distal end in patients with short bowel. It is a 34-year-old colecistectomizado complicated with postoperative peritonitis and dehiscence; two years he studied with small bowel obstruction, he was made de-volvulus and was complicated with two leak at different times after the second escape took place jejunostomy side double barreled shotgun level dehiscence, presented high debits by afferent loop of the terminal jejunostomy; during admission, polyurethane probe enteral feeding was inserted by the efferent loop jejunostomy. He received jejunal tube feeding laundry in the efferent loop terminal with decreased weight gain and subsequent reconstruction of intestinal transit debit proximal jejunostomy. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Developmental Idealism, Body Weight and Shape, and Marriage Entry in Transitional China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongwei

    2016-04-01

    New trends toward later and less marriage are emerging in post-reform China. Previous research has examined the changing individual-level socioeconomic and demographic characteristics shaping marriage entry in Chinese adults. Employing a cultural model known as developmental idealism (DI), this study argues that a new worldview specifying an ideal body type has become popular in the West and that this new worldview has been exported to China. This new part of the DI package is likely stratified by gender, has a stronger impact on women than on men, and has likely penetrated urban areas more than rural areas. Drawing on the 1991-2009 longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey, this study employs discrete-time logit models to estimate the relationships between various body types and transition to first marriage in Chinese young adults 18-30 years old. Body weight status and body shape are measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), respectively, and further divided into categories of underweight, normal, and obese. Regression results indicate that larger values of BMI and WHR were associated with delayed entry into first marriage in urban women, whereas being overweight or obese was associated with accelerated transition to first marriage in rural men. Not only were these associations statistically significant, but their strengths were substantively remarkable. Findings from this study suggest that both body weight and body shape have important implications for marital success, independent of individual-level socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, and contribute to evolving gender and rural-urban disparities, as China is undergoing a rapid nutrition transition.

  18. [Nutrition and respiratory insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, M; Burgos, R

    2000-01-01

    Unlike other pathologies, not much attention has been paid to the relationship between nutrition and respiratory disease. This is probably because some of these diseases, such as cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, are closely associated with smoking while others that could be more directly linked with nutrition such as cystic fibrosis and emphysema are not directly caused by nutrition disorders. Not all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are undernourished. When malnutrition is present in these patients it is because of multiple reasons and is associated with an increase in both mortality and morbidity. In patients with acute respiratory insufficiency, malnutrition is often secondary to a heightened catabolic state leading to the severe fundamental illness. We also know that nutritional treatment may not only correct malnutrition but also help in improving the respiratory function. This nutritional therapy is not normally easy to comply with. It must be accompanied by other non-pharmacological therapies such as rehabilitation. Renourishment may also entail risks for patients with respiratory diseases so it is very important to know as closely as possible their nutritional requirements and to focus on specific actions.

  19. Semantic Elaboration: ERPs Reveal Rapid Transition from Novel to Known

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Jackson, Felicia L.

    2015-01-01

    Like language, semantic memory is productive: It extends itself through self-derivation of new information through logical processes such as analogy, deduction, and induction, for example. Though it is clear these productive processes occur, little is known about the time course over which newly self-derived information becomes incorporated into…

  20. Rapidly Activated Dynamic Phase Transitions in Nonlinear Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-15

    I Form Approv# edAD -A263 601 AiENTA11ON PAGE- f____________18 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Lea"e blaWk 12. REPORT DATE 13. REPORT TYPE AND OATES COVEREO Feb...phase transforming media during high energy impact. Conversion of mechanical energy to thermal ener- gy has been studied by means of an extended theory...and Phase Structures in General Media , R. Fosdick, E. Dunn & M. Slemrod eds., IMA volume series, Springer- Verlag. Song, J. and T. L. Pence (1992

  1. Canopy visible and near-infrared reflectance data to estimate alfalfa nutritive attributes before harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proximal sensing could help improve profit margins by timing the cutting or harvesting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), in rapid assessment of nutritive values, such as total nitrogen (N), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) as well as nutritive quality indicators such as r...

  2. The influence of socio-demographic factors on the nutritional status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-25

    Sep 25, 2012 ... Keywords: nutritional intake, socio-demographic, obesity, children, overweight. The influence of socio-demographic factors on the nutritional status of children in the Stellenbosch area, Western Cape. Introduction. Obesity has rapidly become one of the most important medical and public health problems of ...

  3. Globalisation of agrifood systems and sustainable nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaim, Matin

    2017-02-01

    The globalisation of agrifood systems is a mega-trend with potentially profound nutritional implications. This paper describes various facets of this globalisation process and reviews studies on nutritional effects with a particular focus on developing countries. Results show that global trade and technological change in agriculture have substantially improved food security in recent decades, although intensified production systems have also contributed to environmental problems in some regions. New agricultural technologies and policies need to place more emphasis on promoting dietary diversity and reducing environmental externalities. Globalising agrifood systems also involve changing supply-chain structures, with a rapid rise of modern retailing, new food safety and food quality standards, and higher levels of vertical integration. Studies show that emerging high-value supply chains can contribute to income growth in the small farm sector and improved access to food for rural and urban populations. However, there is also evidence that the retail revolution in developing countries, with its growing role of supermarkets and processed foods, can contribute to overweight and obesity among consumers. The multi-faceted linkages between changing agrifood systems and nutrition are a new field of interdisciplinary research, combining agricultural, nutritional, economics and social sciences perspectives. The number of studies on specific aspects is still limited, so the evidence is not yet conclusive. A review at this early stage can help to better understand important relationships and encourage follow-up work.

  4. [Changes in factors associated with the nutrition transition in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Delgado-Sánchez, Guadalupe; Hernández-Briones, Ana

    2006-01-01

    To describe the demographic and socioeconomic changes, food availability and food expense in Mexico during 1980-2000. From official statistics (Population Census, FAO Food Balance Sheets, Family Income and Expense National Survey and Economic Census) we estimated the evolution of population distribution according to locality size, occupational structure, woman participation in the wage-earning labor force, minimum wage, availability of food establishments and expense in food. The percentage of the population that lives in urban areas has increased, they are employed in the tertiary sector, womens participation in the labor market has increased but real minimum wages have decreased. Vegetables, oleaginous, oils, fish and seafood availability have decreased whereas animal fat, vegetables, fruits, softdrinks, meats and egg availability have increased. The number of inexpensive restaurants (cocinas económicas and fondas) has also increased. Food expenses have decreased while amount of money spent in food consumed away from home has increased. In Mexico, the growth in urban areas and the tertiary job sector shows a parallel growth in the availability of high fat and protein food, a greater diet variety and more opportunities to consume food not prepared in the home. On the other hand, the sale of equipment and places designed for recreational physical activity have increased. By reducing employment in the primary sector it is foreseeable that labor intensive physical activity will become less important overtime.

  5. Nutrition Transition in Developing Countries: A Review | Azuike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Over the centuries there have been changes in the diet of man. This is accompanied by changes in the level of activity and body composition. These changes have effects on the health of man. Modern science has continued to reveal the relationship between the changes in diet, physical activity, body ...

  6. The dual burden household and the nutrition transition paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doak, C.M.; Adair, L.S.; Bentley, M.; Monteiro, C.; Popkin, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to document the prevalence of households with underweight and overweight persons (henceforth referred to as dual burden households) and their association with income and urban residence. The explorations by urban residence and income will test whether dual

  7. Nutritional status and HIV in rural South African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Norris, Shane A; Pettifor, John M; Tollman, Stephen M; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Gómez-Olivé, Xavier F; Dunger, David B; Kahn, Kathleen

    2011-03-25

    Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV status and determinants of nutritional status. The study involved 671 children aged 12-59 months living in the Agincourt sub-district, rural South Africa in 2007. Anthropometric measurements were taken and HIV testing with disclosure was done using two rapid tests. Z-scores were generated using WHO 2006 standards as indicators of nutritional status. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to establish the determinants of child nutritional status. Prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting (18%), was high in the overall sample of children. HIV prevalence in this age group was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.79 to 5.97). HIV positive children had significantly poorer nutritional outcomes than their HIV negative counterparts. Besides HIV status, other significant determinants of nutritional outcomes included age of the child, birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. This study documents poor nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in rural South Africa. HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Early paediatric HIV testing of exposed or at risk children, followed by appropriate health care for infected children, may improve their nutritional status and survival.

  8. Acrodermatitis enteropathica during adequate enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changela, Avani; Javaiya, Hemangkumar; Changela, Kinesh; Davanos, Evangelia; Rickenbach, Kiersten

    2012-03-01

    Acrodermatitis enteropathica is a rare skin disorder of zinc deficiency. This case report describes a 91-year-old female nursing home resident who presented with a skin eruption resembling acrodermatitis enteropathica while receiving adequate enteral nutrition (EN) via a percutaneous gastrostomy tube. A low zinc level of 36 mcg/dL confirmed zinc deficiency, and treatment with oral zinc sulfate 220 mg 3 times a day resulted in rapid resolution of the skin lesions. This case supports the notion of close monitoring of patients on long-term EN for clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency, especially in the presence of an unexplained skin rash. Although micronutrient deficiencies are more prevalent in underdeveloped countries and with patients receiving parenteral nutrition, these deficiencies should be kept in mind for patients in developed countries as well as patients receiving EN.

  9. Opportunities and barriers to public health nutrition education in Vietnamese universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quynh Th; Worsley, Anthony; Lawrence, Mark; Marshall, Bernie

    2017-05-01

    A core challenge for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in combating the negative effects of the nutrition transition is to implement appropriate prevention strategies to halt the increasing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs), against a background of prevailing under nutrition. There have been several proposals for the enhancement of university nutrition education for future health and related professionals who are expected to communicate knowledge of health risks to the broad community. However, little is known about university nutrition education in LMICs. The present study aimed to investigate professional development opportunities and barriers for university nutrition lecturers to teach public health nutrition (PHN). An online survey was conducted among 242 Vietnamese health and education professionals and university nutrition lecturers across Vietnam. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants. Comparisons of between the groups' responses were examined via SPSS Crosstabs. The structures of the perceived barriers and desired PHN training topics were examined via factor analyses. Multiple linear regression examined the influences on lecturers' learning interests in nutrition areas. The lecturers' learning interests spanned four areas: basic nutrition, basic food, food policy and 'new' trends (e.g. food policy, marketing). Major impediments to nutrition teaching in universities divided into two groups: resource limitations and professional constraints (e.g. lack of relevant training opportunities). The lecturers' perceptions of professional constraints influenced their interest in learning about 'new' trends. The results highlighted the need and opportunities to enhance PHN professional development for nutrition lecturers in Vietnam.

  10. [Usefulness of postoperative support by enteral nutrition of patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the larynx].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, D A; Cabezas, G; Aller, R; Izaola, O

    2000-01-01

    At the present time, artificial nutrition has made great strides and enteral nutrition has become the first choice delivery method. The purpose of our paper is to analyze the usefulness of this type of nutrition in the post-operative care of patients with larynx tumours. A total of 38 patients were studied, with an average age of 63.2 +/- 10.2 years. On average, in the post-operative period until oral nutrition was restored enteral nutrition lasted for 10.6 +/- 4.9 days. A biochemical and anthropometric assessment of the nutritional condition was effected at the time of admission and 7-10 days into the nutritional treatment. During the post-operative period, no anthropometric changes were detected; the analytical variation, however, showed an improvement on the first review of pre-albumen (12.5 +/- 5.1 mg/dl versus 18.7 +/- 7.9 mg/dl; p enteral nutrition was 4,723 +/- 1,600 pesetas per day. Enteral nutrition is effective in the post-operative care of patients with tumour of the larynx, improving their nutritional biochemistry parameters and allowing easy transition to oral nutrition, with presentation of few side effects and all for low cost.

  11. Plant metabolomics and its potential application for human nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.; Brouwer, I.D.; Fitzgerald, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    With the growing interest in the use of metabolomic technologies for a wide range of biological targets, food applications related to nutrition and quality are rapidly emerging. Metabolomics offers us the opportunity to gain deeper insights into, and have better control of, the fundamental

  12. Nutrition-parasite interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coop, R L; Kyriazakis, I

    1999-08-01

    The interactions between host nutrition and parasitism in ruminants are viewed within a framework that accounts for the allocation of scarce nutrient resources, such as energy and protein, between the various competing body functions of the host. These include functions that are the direct result of parasitism. Since it is proposed that the host gives priority to the reversal of the pathophysiological consequences of parasitism over other body functions, it is to be expected that improved nutrition will always lead to improved resilience. On the other hand, it is proposed that the function of growth, pregnancy and lactation are prioritised over the expression of immunity. Thus, improved nutrition may affect the degree of expression of immunity during these phases. The framework is useful at highlighting areas of future research on host/parasite/nutrition interactions. Its suggestions can account for the observations of the periparturient relaxation of immunity in reproducing females, as well as the reduction in worm burden in small ruminants supplemented with additional protein. Although developed for gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants, the concepts of the framework should be applicable to the interactions of nutrition in other parasitic diseases.

  13. Nutrition in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirlich, M; Lochs, H

    2001-12-01

    Malnutrition is more common in elderly persons than in younger adults. Ageing itself, however, neither leads to malabsorption nor to malnutrition with the exception of a higher frequency of atrophic gastritis in older persons. Malnutrition in elderly people is therefore a consequence of somatic, psychic or social problems. Typical causes are chewing or swallowing disorders, cardiac insufficiency, depression, social deprivation and loneliness. Undernutrition is associated with a worse prognosis and is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Awareness of this problem is therefore important. For the evaluation of nutritional status, it must be remembered that most normal values are derived from younger adults and may not necessarily be suitable for elderly persons. Suitable tools for evaluating the nutritional status of elderly persons are e.g. the body mass index, weight loss within the last 6 months, the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) or the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). An improvement in the nutritional status can be achieved by simple methods such as the preparation of an adequate diet, hand feeding, additional sip feeding or enteral nutrition. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  14. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  15. Dynamic transition from Mach to regular reflection of shock waves in a steady flow

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, K

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The steady, two-dimensional transition criteria between regular and Mach reflection are well established. Little has been done on the dynamic effect on transition due to a rapidly rotating wedge. Results from experiments and computations done...

  16. An aggressive parenteral nutrition protocol improves growth in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törer, Birgin; Hanta, Deniz; Özdemir, Zeliha; Çetinkaya, Bilin; Gülcan, Hande

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare postnatal growth and clinical outcomes of preterm infants after an adjustment in amino acid and lipid administration practice. The study was conducted retrospectively in preterm infants with a birth weight parenteral nutrition group). In 2010, amino acid solution was initiated at 3 g/kg/day on the first day of life and advanced 1 g/kg/day to a maximum of 4 g/kg/ day; lipid solution was initiated at 1 g/kg/day on the first day of life and advanced 1 g/kg/day to a maximum of 3 g/kg/day (high-dose parenteral nutrition group). Patient characteristics were similar in the two groups. Infants in the high-dose parenteral nutrition group showed a significant reduction in the time needed to regain birth weight and a significant reduction in the maximum weight loss. Weight, length and head circumference at discharge were significantly higher in the high-dose parenteral nutrition group. The mean duration of parenteral nutrition, mean number of days to reach full enteral feeding and incidence of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis were significantly lower in the high-dose parenteral nutrition group. There was no significant difference in the mortality rate between the groups. In conclusion, a more aggressive parenteral nutrition protocol for preterm infants resulted in a more rapid increase in weight, length and head circumference, and decreased incidence of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis.

  17. Personalized nutrition diagnostics at the point-of-need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoho; Srinivasan, Balaji; Vemulapati, Sasank; Mehta, Saurabh; Erickson, David

    2016-07-07

    Micronutrient deficiency is widespread and negatively impacts morbidity, mortality, and quality of life globally. On-going advancements in nutritional biomarker discovery are enabling objective and accurate assessment of an individual's micronutrient and broader nutritional status. The vast majority of such assessment however still needs to be conducted in traditional centralized laboratory facilities which are not readily accessible in terms of cost and time in both the developed and developing countries. Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technologies are enabling an increasing number of biochemical reactions at the point-of-need (PON) settings, and can significantly improve the current predicament in nutrition diagnostics by allowing rapid evaluation of one's nutritional status and providing an easy feedback mechanism for tracking changes in diet or supplementation. We believe that nutrition diagnostics represents a particularly appealing opportunity over other PON applications for two reasons: (1) healthy ranges for many micronutrients are well defined which allows for an unbiased diagnosis, and (2) many deficiencies can be reversed through changes in diet or supplementation before they become severe. In this paper, we provide background on nutritional biomarkers used in nutrition diagnostics and review the emerging technologies that exploit them at the point-of-need.

  18. Transitions: A Personal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Ann Stace

    1995-01-01

    Distinguishes between unchosen transitions (children maturing and leaving, parents aging, companies downsizing) and chosen ones (moving, divorce, marriage, career changes). Describes the steps one goes through: uneasiness, renewed energy, complaining, exploration, partial transition, and the completed transition. (JOW)

  19. Effects of vegetarian nutrition-A nutrition ecological perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metz, Martina; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    .... The nutrition ecological perspective offers a basis for the assessment of the effects of worldwide developments concerning shifts in diets and the effects of vegetarian nutrition on global problems like climate change...

  20. Survey of Nutrition Knowledge as a Part of Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, Cenek

    1972-01-01

    Surveys of nutritional knowledge were made before and after a national nutrition education campaign in Czechoslovakia. The surveys were used as an integral part of the campaign as well as for evaluation of the campaign. (BL)

  1. Nutritional rickets in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Jensen, Tina Kold; Gram, Jeppe

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study describes clinical and biochemical characteristics of nutritional rickets and risk factors at diagnosis among children living in Denmark. All medical records from patients with rickets referred to or discharged from hospitals in Southern Denmark from 1985 to 2005 were...... identified by register search. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients included were younger than 15 years of age and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of primary, nutritional rickets. A total of 112 patients with nutritional rickets were included: 29 were of ethnic Danish origin, and 83 were immigrants. RESULTS......: Patients diagnosed before the age of 4 (median 1.4) years displayed the classic clinical signs of rickets, whereas patients diagnosed after the age of 4 (median 12.5) years had few clinical signs and unspecific symptoms. Ethnic Danish patients were only diagnosed before age 24 months, and they accounted...

  2. Nutrition in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kh Dzgoeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is one of the fundamental factors that influence the effectiveness of physical activity, increase efficiency and replenishment of muscle mass, balances the ratio of energy consumed and restored. The diet of an athlete can and should be built on common foods available and prepared in accordance with generally accepted principles of healthy eating. The need for major macronutrients and micronutrients is determined by the need for energy, the intensity of sweating and the goals for building muscle mass. Depending on the intensity of the proposed load including competition, there are individual nutritional needs and, if necessary, various food supplements may be used. The basic principles of sport nutrition are described in this article

  3. Nutritional role of folate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebara, Shuhei

    2017-09-01

    Folate functions as a coenzyme to transfer one-carbon units that are necessary for deoxythymidylate synthesis, purine synthesis, and various methylation reactions. Ingested folate becomes a functional molecule through intestinal absorption, circulation, transport to cells, and various modifications to its structure. Associations between nutritional folate status and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction have been reported. It has also been reported that maternal folate nutritional status is related to the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the offspring. It has also been recommended that folate be consumed in the diet to promote the maintenance of good health. To reduce the risk of NTDs, supplementation with folic acid (a synthetic form of folate) during the periconceptional period has also been recommended. This paper describes the basic features and nutritional role of folate. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  4. Nutrition in Medicine: Nutrition Education for Medical Students and Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Kelly M.; Kohlmeier, Martin; Powell, Margo; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    Proper nutrition plays a key role in disease prevention and treatment. Many patients understand this link and look to physicians for guidance diet and physical activity. Actual physician practice, however, is often inadequate in addressing the nutrition aspects of diseases such as cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Physicians do not feel comfortable, confident, or adequately prepared to provide nutrition counseling, which may be related to suboptimal knowledge of basic nutrition science facts and...

  5. Issues in Nutrition: Nutritional Assessment of Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Margaret E; Noel, Mary Barth

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of nutritional status in adults should begin with a complete history, including intake of fruits and vegetables, sources of fat, and added sugar (eg, sugar-sweetened beverages). The history should include social factors that may impede a patient's ability to obtain food, as well as any factors that might interfere with preparing, chewing, and digesting food and absorbing nutrients. The physical examination should include measurement of height and weight and calculation of body mass index. It also may include measurements of waist circumference and waist to hip ratio, and an evaluation of strength. Laboratory evaluation should include measurement of albumin, prealbumin, and other markers of total body protein stores. No biomarker is completely sensitive or specific. With a range of dietary patterns, it is possible for nutritional gaps specific to those patterns to develop. Identification of a single nutrient deficiency typically reflects an overall weakness in the diet. The Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets have the most evidence to support them as healthy diets. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  6. Parenteral Nutrition: Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2017-03-10

    There is growing interest in nutrition therapies that deliver a generous amount of protein, but not a toxic amount of energy, to protein-catabolic critically ill patients. Parenteral amino acids can achieve this goal. This article summarizes the biochemical and nutritional principles that guide parenteral amino acid therapy, explains how parenteral amino acid solutions are formulated, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different parenteral amino acid products with enterally-delivered whole protein products in the context of protein-catabolic critical illness.

  7. Good Nutrition Promotes Health: Guide for Parent Nutrition Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    The purpose of this manual is to guide users of the nutrition education project produced by Padres Hispanos en Accion por Una Sana Generacion (Hispanic Parents in Action for a Healthy Generation). The project provides nutrition education materials to trainers who provide nutrition counseling to parents of Head Start children. The project has two…

  8. Nutritional and Anti – Nutritional Composition of the African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the nutritional and anti – nutritional composition of the African palmyrah palm (Borassus aethiopum). Subjects/ Materials and Methods: Studies were conducted on the proximate composition, vitamin C, total carotenoids and some anti-nutritional factors / toxins of the fresh seedling of the African ...

  9. Nutrition economics - Characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lenoir-Wijnkoop (Irene); M. Dapoigny; D. Dubois; E. Ganse (Éric); I. Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea (Iñaki); J. Hutton; P. Jones; T. Mittendorf (Thomas); M.J. Poley (Marten); S. Salminen (Seppo); M.J.C. Nuijten (Mark)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThere is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for

  10. Towards implementation of optimum nutrition and better clinical nutrition support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, C. F.; Prins, F.; van Kempen, A.; Tepaske, R.; Sauerwein, H. P.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical Nutrition Support--defined as nutrition for hospitalized patients suffering from metabolic stress--plays a limited role in the therapeutic routine of the physician. This is not surprising as most research in the field of clinical nutrition is disappointing with regard to the objective

  11. The evaluation of a nutrition education programme on the nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this project was to test if learning took place through the implementation of a nutrition education programme, using specific developed nutrition education tools in pre-primary school children, aged six and seven years old, in the Vaal region. A validated nutrition knowledge questionnaire was completed with ...

  12. Nutritional status of children on the National School Nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. School feeding programmes are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, and provide incomes to families. Objectives. To assess the nutritional status of children receiving meals provided by the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP) in Capricorn Municipality, ...

  13. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of…

  14. Nutrition for the pediatric surgical patient: approach in the peri-operative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falcão Mário Cícero

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition is essential for maintenance of physiologic homeostasis and growth. Hypermetabolic states lead to a depletion of body stores, with decreased immunocompetence and increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update regarding the provision of appropriate nutrition for the pediatric surgical patient, emphasizing the preoperative and postoperative periods. Modern nutritional support for the surgical patient comprises numerous stages, including assessment of nutritional status, nutritional requirements, and nutritional therapy. Nutritional assessment is performed utilizing the clinical history, clinical examination, anthropometry, and biochemical evaluation. Anthropometric parameters include body weight, height, arm and head circumference, and skinfold thickness measurements. The biochemical evaluation is conducted using determinations of plasma levels of proteins, including album, pre-albumin, transferrin, and retinol-binding protein. These parameters are subject to error and are influenced by the rapid changes in body composition in the peri-operative period. Nutritional therapy includes enteral and/or parenteral nutrition. Enteral feeding is the first choice for nutritional therapy. If enteral feeding is not indicated, parenteral nutrition must be utilized. In all cases, an individualized, adequate diet (enteral formula or parenteral solution is obligatory to decrease the occurrence of overfeeding and its undesirable consequences.

  15. Nutritional Lifestyles of College Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harmon, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    ...., second only to smoking. The purpose of this study is to explore the nutritional lifestyle of college women, and to determine if there are differences in nutritional lifestyle, as well as, perception of health status...

  16. Diet and Nutrition With Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Diet and nutrition with lupus Lupus Foundation of America September 26, ... Living with Lupus I Have Lupus Exercise and Nutrition Site Footer Need to talk to someone? Our ...

  17. Diet and Nutrition in Porphyria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the APF You are here Home Diet and Nutrition A proper diet is important to all individuals, ... alter food intake. Therefore, attention to diet and nutrition is important in almost any disease. Porphyrias are ...

  18. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Professional Development Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...

  19. Definitions of Health Terms: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/definitions/nutritiondefinitions.html Definitions of Health Terms: Nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, ... National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Nutrition This field of study focuses on foods and ...

  20. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  1. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Features Spokespeople News Archive eNewsletters Calendar Use the Nutrition Facts Label You can help your family eat ... to some of their favorite foods. Use the Nutrition Facts label found on food packages to make ...

  2. Nutrition for healthy term infants

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants is the new national statement on nutrition for infants from birth to 24 months, developed collaboratively by the Canadian Paediatric Society, Dietitians of Canada and Health Canada.

  3. Impact evaluation of child nutrition programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Review of current practices and recent developments in impact evaluation of nutrition programmes for preschool children in developing countries. A survey of the major types of nutrition programmes for young children - nutrition education, food supplementation, and nutrition rehabilitation - is

  4. 77 FR 25127 - Food and Nutrition Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-- Disaster Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (D-SNAP) AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the...

  5. Nutrition: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Show Less Related Health Topics Breastfeeding Calcium Carbohydrates Child Nutrition Cholesterol Dietary Fats Dietary Fiber Dietary Proteins Diets Eating Disorders Food Labeling Food Safety Infant and Newborn Nutrition Malnutrition Nutrition for Seniors Nutritional Support Obesity Pregnancy and ...

  6. Stability of somatostatin in total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, J B; Galard, R; Catalan, R; Martinez, J; Salvador, P; Sabin, P

    1990-12-14

    The stability of somatostatin, added to a total parenteral nutrition formula, in glass containers and in plastic ethylene vinyl acetate containers was investigated. The somatostatin concentration decreased immediately from 3 micrograms/ml to 0.3-0.6 micrograms/ml after addition to the emulsion. In spite of this rapid decrease, somatostatin concentrations remained stable with values of 0.4-0.7 micrograms/ml during the follow-up period (24 h). These findings could be explained assuming adsorption to the surface of the container.

  7. Temporal trends in the use of parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershengorn, Hayley B; Kahn, Jeremy M; Wunsch, Hannah

    2014-03-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend enteral over parenteral nutrition in critical illness and do not recommend early initiation. Few data are available on parenteral nutrition use or timing of initiation in the ICU or how this use may have changed over time. We used the Project IMPACT database to evaluate temporal trends in parenteral nutrition use (total and partial parenteral nutrition and lipid supplementation) and timing of initiation in adult ICU admissions from 2001 to 2008. We used χ2 tests and analysis of variance to examine characteristics of patients receiving parenteral nutrition and multilevel multivariate logistic regression models to assess parenteral nutrition use over time, in all patients and in specific subgroups. Of 337,442 patients, 20,913 (6.2%) received parenteral nutrition. Adjusting for patient characteristics, the use of parenteral nutrition decreased modestly over time (adjusted probability, 7.2% in 2001-2002 vs 5.5% in 2007-2008, Pparenteral nutrition declined most rapidly in emergent surgical patients, patients with moderate illness severity, patients in the surgical ICU, and patients admitted to an academic facility (P≤.01 for all interactions with year). When used, parenteral nutrition was initiated a median of 2 days (interquartile range, 1-3), after ICU admission and >90% of patients had parenteral nutrition initiated within 7 days; timing of initiation of parenteral nutrition did not change from 2001 to 2008. Use of parenteral nutrition in US ICUs declined from 2001 through 2008 in all patients and in all examined subgroups, with the majority of parenteral nutrition initiated within the first 7 days in ICU; enteral nutrition use coincidently increased over the same time period.

  8. Optimising design and cost-effective implementation of future pan-African dietary studies: a review of existing economic integration and nutritional indicators for scenario-based profiling and clustering of countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglago, Elom K; Landais, Edwige; Zotor, Francis; Nicolas, Genevieve; Gunter, Marc J; Amuna, Paul; Slimani, Nadia

    2018-02-01

    Most of the African countries are undergoing a complex nutrition and epidemiologic transition associated with a rapid increase in the prevalence of diverse non-communicable diseases. Despite this alarming situation, the still limited and fragmented resources available in Africa impede the implementation of effective action plans to tackle the current and projected diet-disease burden. In order to address these common needs and challenges, the African Union is increasingly supporting continental approaches and strategies as reflected in the launching of the Agenda 2063 and the African regional nutrition strategy 2015-2025, among others. To assure the successful implementation of pan-African nutritional and health initiatives, cost-effective approaches considering similarities/disparities in economy, regional integration, development and nutritional aspects between countries are needed. In the absence of pre-existing models, we reviewed regional economic integration and nutritional indicators (n 13) available in international organisations databases or governmental agencies websites, for fifty-two African countries. These indicators were used to map the countries according to common languages (e.g. Arabic, English, French, Portuguese), development status (e.g. human development index), malnutrition status (e.g. obesity) and diet (e.g. staples predominantly based on either cereals or tubers). The review of the indicators showed that there exist similarities between African countries that can be exploited to benefit the continent with cross-national experiences in order to avoid duplication of efforts in the implementation of future pan-African health studies. In addition, including present and future nutrition surveillance programmes in Africa into national statistical systems might be cost-effective and sustainable in the longer term.

  9. Nutritional Labeling and Consumer Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin Kiesel; Jill J. McCluskey; Sofia B. Villas-Boas

    2011-01-01

    In 1994, nutritional facts panels became mandatory for processed foods to improve consumer access to nutritional information and to promote healthy food choices. Recent applied work is reviewed here in terms of how consumers value and respond to nutritional labels. We first summarize the health and nutritional links found in the literature and frame this discussion in terms of the obesity policy debate. Second, we discuss several approaches that have been used to empirically investigate consu...

  10. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional adv...

  11. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  12. Nutritional needs of seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, J

    1997-12-01

    Aging is accompanied by a variety of economic, psychologic, and social changes that can compromise nutritional status. Aging also produces physiologic changes that affect the need for several essential nutrients. While nutritional status surveys of the elderly have shown a relatively low prevalence of frank nutrient deficiencies, there is a marked increase in risk of malnutrition and evidence of subclinical deficiencies with a direct impact on function. A critical risk factor of malnutrition among older adults is their declining need for energy due to a reduction in the amount of lean body mass and a more sedentary lifestyle. Decreasing energy intake with advancing age has important implications for the diet in terms of protein and micronutrients. Dietary quality is difficult to ensure when overall energy intake is low. The gap between actual nutrient consumption common among older adults and the recommended intakes from diets associated with health promotion and prevention of chronic diseases is large. The significance of sound nutrition education and the adverse impact of consumer misinformation about the benefits of these food choices becomes clear with the recognition that nutritional status influences the rate of physiologic and functional declines with age. New dietary guidelines for the elderly should emphasize the value of high quality, nutrient-dense foods. This approach will require new efforts in consumer education sensitive to the needs and beliefs of older people.

  13. Nutrition in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acreman, Sue

    2009-10-01

    Nutrition in palliative care and at the end of life should be one of the goals for improving quality of life. It is important to address issues of food and feeding at this time to assist in the management of troublesome symptoms as well as to enhance the remaining life. While this paper focuses upon the nutritional aspects of cancer in palliative care, the sentiments are applicable to other serious chronic illnesses such as advanced cardiac failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and dementia. Cancer and its treatments exert a major impact upon physical and psychological reserves and at the end of life problems with appetite and the ability to eat and drink compound such impact. The aims of nutritional care minimize food-related discomfort and maximize food enjoyment. Identification of any nutritional problems can facilitate the employment of strategies which need to be discussed with the patient and their families and reviewed regularly as conditions change. Ethical questions will be raised concerning the provision of food and fluids to a person nearing the end of their life. Nurses need to acknowledge that food has greater significance than the provision of nutrients.

  14. Somatotype, nutrition, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, M; Nacheva, A; Boev, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the somatotype characteristics of the studied group and search for a relation between somatotype, obesity, and particular features of nutrition. Somatotype after Health & Carter (1990), nutritional status according to Body mass index (BMI), and nutrition determined by food-frequency questionnaires. Over 94% of the subjects in this study were distributed into five somatotype categories: 51.6% endomorphic mesomorphs, 17.1% mesomorph-endomorphs, 16.7% mesomorphic endomorphs, 6.1% balanced mesomorphs, and 3.0% ectomorphic mesomorphs, with a pronounced sexual dimorphism. Males were distributed into five categories: over 65% were endomorphic mesomorphs, and above 40 years of age the mesomorphy increased. Females were distributed into three somatotype categories: up to and above 40 years of age over 44% were mesomorphic endomorphs. In the most common somatotype categories, 1 of 5 subjects (from 21.4% to 19.9%) had normal body mass ( 25 kg/m2) or obese (> 30 kg/m2) kg/m2 (from 44.4% to 27.5%). In the remaining eight categories, all subjects had normal body mass. Hyperenergetic, sodium- and fat-excess nutrition had an especially unfavorable influence.

  15. Nutritional disorders in chrysanthemums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda van Eysinga, J.P.N.L.; Smilde, K.W.

    1980-01-01

    This book is a guide to diagnosing nutritional disorders in chrysanthemums. Deficiencies and toxicities are included, fifteen in all. Colour plates and descriptions are given for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sulphur, boron, copper, manganese, iron and zinc deficiency and for

  16. Nutrition & Pancreatic Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the first part of this thesis was to determine the optimal feeding strategy after pancreatoduodenectomy. The available nutritional guidelines give conflicting recommendations and are all based on studies after major gastrointestinal surgery for cancer in general. We systematically

  17. Nutrition in Children's Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

  18. Nutritional disturbances by adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Stassart, Martine

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional disturbances are frequent by adolescents. That is a psychological defense against dependance toward the mother but also a middle to remain in a childish position i.e. either as a fat baby - in the fall of obesity- or as the ideal pre- or bisexual great child - in the case of anorexia.

  19. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Foodomics for healthy nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Alessandra; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-09-01

    To understand how the principles of foodomics could improve the assessment of the nutritional status and needs. The knowledge that metabolic pathways may be altered in individuals with genetic variants in the presence of certain dietary exposures offers great potential for personalized nutrition advice, and epigenetics and nutrigenetics have been used to assess the need and status of specific nutrients. MicroRNAs profiling and genome-wide association studies have also contributed. Since nutritional effects of complex diets emerge only if dietary assessments are validated, nutrimetabolomics offers the validation tools on the basis of food intake biomarkers. Apart from the provision, via a high-throughput approach, of objective measurable parameters to be used as biomarkers, a consensus must be reached on the definition of health and wellness. Health (and wellness) can be considered a position having specific coordinates in a multiple-dimension space, and many factors contribute to our movements in this space. Foodomics is the science aiming at studying, through the evaluation of different biomarkers, the entity and the direction of the movements across the healthy or unhealthy space, developing models that are able to explain how food components, food, diet and lifestyle can influence our trajectory toward the healthy condition. Only considering the 'health space' as a multidimensional one, we have the possibility of understanding the complex relationship linking nutrition and health, and of reaching healthier conditions by personalized balanced diets in a foodomics vision.

  1. Nutritional Patterns of Centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mary Ann; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared dietary patterns of 165 older adults. Compared to younger cohorts, centenarians (n=24) consumed breakfast more regularly, avoided weight loss diets and large fluctuation in body weight, consumed slightly more vegetables, and relied on doctors and family for nutrition information. Centenarians were less likely to consume low-fat diets and…

  2. Teenage Nutrition and Physique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenemann, Ruth L.; And Others

    Body size, composition, and conformation in a teen-age population, and associated factors were studied to obtain useful data for planning programs in public health nutrition. This book describes the purpose, methods, and findings of this four-year longitudinal and cross-sectional study conducted in Berkeley, California, during the years 1961 to…

  3. Nutrition during lactation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation

    1991-01-01

    ... and Nutrition Board Institute of Medicine National Academy of Sciences NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1991 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files XML from other this and of recomposed styles, version ...

  4. Nutritional iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Hurrell, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming

  5. Prenatal nutrition: special considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, J T; Phelan, S T

    2009-10-01

    Awareness of the importance of nutrition during pregnancy has increased in recent years.Pregnancy outcomes vary by prepregnant weight as well as gestational weight gain. Inappropriate gain may have both short- and long-term consequences for mother and infant. This review article includes the newly released US Institute of Medicine prenatal weight gain guidelines, as well as the Dietary Reference Intakes for the US and selected European societies.Food safety topics are discussed including Listeria, Toxoplasma, peanuts, mercury and other contaminants. Preconceptual nutrition is discussed, as are specific at-risk prenatal nutrients, including folic acid, choline, vitamin B12, omega-3 fatty acids, iodine, calcium, vitamin D, and iron. Current controversies are discussed and practical suggestions are given to safely optimize nutrient intake. As part of the medical team, a local Registered Dietitian or other nutrition professional can give much more detailed guidance and support for a pregnant woman given her particular risk factors, including her pre-existing medical conditions and cultural concerns, and will emphasize nutritional quality rather than just pounds gained.

  6. Nutrition in children posttransplantation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    decreases infectious complications and shortens ventilation time. Parenteral nutrition ... cholestasis and poor intake. Cholestasis leads to malabsorption of fat soluble vitamins. Managing malnutrition in children in with end stage liver disease is a challenge. ... including additional vitamin D as needed together with folic acid,.

  7. Tuberculosis and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems of considerable magnitude in most of the underdeveloped regions of the world. These two problems tend to interact with each other. Tuberculosis mortality rates in different economic groups in a community tend to vary inversely with their economic levels. Similarly, nutritional status is significantly lower in patients with active tuberculosis compared with healthy controls. Malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host′s susceptibility to infection. In patients with tuberculosis, it leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting. Both, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies increase the risk of tuberculosis. It has been found that malnourished tuberculosis patients have delayed recovery and higher mortality rates than well-nourished patients. Nutritional status of patients improves during tuberculosis chemotherapy. High prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV infection in the underdeveloped countries further aggravates the problem of malnutrition and tuberculosis. Effect of malnutrition on childhood tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test are other important considerations. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in tuberculosis patients. In addition, raising nutritional status of population may prove to be an effective measure to control tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of world.

  8. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  9. Youth, Nutrition and Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordouw, J.; Snoek, H.M.; Broek, van den E.; Reinders, M.J.; Meeusen, M.J.G.; Veggel, van R.J.F.M.; Kooijman, V.M.; Stijnen, D.A.J.M.; Trentelman, I.

    2012-01-01

    Healthy nutrition is widely assumed to have a beneficial influence on educational performance and social behaviour. Yet research in developed countries about the effects of food intake on children's behaviour and school performance is limited. We propose a randomised controlled field experiment to

  10. Psoriasis and Nutrition Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Tevfikoğlu Alceylan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic complex inflammatory disease affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Nutrition and diet has been suggested to play a role in the etiology and pathogenesis of psoriasis. Diets poor in energy and saturated fatty acids and rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have positive effects on the treatment of psoriasis. Vitamin A and D modulate immune system and their receptors shows an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the proliferation of keratinocytes. Patients with psoriasis are often Vitamin D deficient, they should be therefore evaluated considering their vitamin D levels. If they take a vitamin D supplementation, they should be monitored for side effects. Consumption levels of minerals such as copper, zinc and iron, and antioxidant compounds, including carotenoids and flavonoids involve in antioxidant reactions should be followed-up. A diet including a variety of vegetables and fruit can help reduce the risk of oxidative stress. Selenium levels are lower in patients, and selenium is effective in the prognosis of the disease when combined with antioxidant treatment. Alcohol consumption has a negative impact on the nutrition of the patients and the prognosis of the disease and should be avoided. The follow-up of the disease at an early stage, adequate and balanced nutrition are important in the treatment of psoriasis. Weight controls should be provided and diets with individual specific nutrition variety should be set.

  11. The Science of Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Pat; Burkman, Mary Anne; Streng, Katharina

    2000-01-01

    Nutrition and learning are inextricably connected. Protein, fat, B vitamins, iron, choline, and antioxidants promote brain functions. The USDA's "Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children" (and adaptations for school-age kids) offers guidelines for formulating a child's diet. Breakfast, family meal-sharing, and exercise are essential.…

  12. Neonatal nutrition and metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thureen, Patti J; Hay, William W

    2006-01-01

    ..., the volume highlights the important longterm effects of fetal and neonatal growth on health in later life. In addition, there are very practical chapters on methods and techniques for assessing nutritional status, body composition, and evaluating metabolic function. Written by an authoritative, international team of cont...

  13. Nutrition Activities Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a…

  14. State of nutrition support teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelly, Andrea True; Kelley, Andrea True

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review.

  15. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  16. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Learn Videos View More Understanding the New Nutrition Facts Label The new Nutrition Facts label features updated information to help consumers ... and Tipsheets for Families and Communities 3 National Nutrition Month® 1 How to Fuel Your Workout 2 ...

  17. Nutrition communication in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are frequently confronted with patients who suffer from obesity or other nutrition-related diseases, such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. There is increasing evidence that nutrition communication is effective in changing nutrition behaviour. Moreover, it is widely

  18. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences (ISSN 0189-0913), official Journal of the Nutrition Society of Nigeria, is a peer-reviewed publication and is published biannually, two volumes per year. The primary focus of the journal is the publication of basic and applied studies in nutritional sciences and related fields.

  19. Nutritional management of gastrointestinal malignancies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional management of a patient with gastrointestinal cancer fi rst begins with an appropriate nutritional assessment, seeing that several factors could affect the patient's nutritional status. The most signifi cant dietary advice for cancer patients in general, is to consume a signifi cant amount of energy daily to maintain ...

  20. [Management in clinical nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, J; Monereo, S; Ortiz, P; Salido, C

    2004-01-01

    Terms such as management, costs, efficacy, efficiency, etc. that are so common in the discourse of managers are now beginning to appear in the vocabulary of clinicians. Management in Clinical Nutrition is an innovative aspect of interest among health-care professionals dealing with the needs of undernourished patients or those at risk of malnutrition. The basic goal of this paper is to show that the tools for clinical management of hospitals are applicable to such a multidisciplinary and complex speciality as clinical nutrition and also to propose the measures needed to improve our information systems and optimize management in this field. The very concept of hospitals has changed, as has their activity, over the years. Hospitals are nowadays no longer just a charitable institution but has become a service company, a public utility for the promotion of good health and they have to be managed in accordance with criteria of efficacy, efficiency, equity and quality. The concepts of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and Cost-Effective Medicine (CEM) are of evident importance in the different ways of managing health-care services. Good clinical practice is the combination of EBM and CEM. This review defines the various cost studies of fundamental importance when taking decisions in hospital management and analyzes such clinical management tools as analytical accounting, Minimum Hospital Database Set (MHDS) and encoding systems, among others, thus facilitating an analysis of the usefulness of data in clinical nutrition management systems. Finally, after reviewing some specific examples, measures are proposed to optimize current information systems. The medical staff and those of us responsible for Nutrition Units operate in hospitals as part of a centralized service transferring information to the various departments where the patient is physically located (Surgery, Internal Medicine, Digestive, ICU, etc.). One of the priority goals in micro-management and middle management

  1. Nutrition and vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, L; Heim, L; Sherzai, A; Jaceldo-Siegl, K; Sherzai, A

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this review was to elucidate the relationship between VaD and various nutritional factors based on epidemiological studies. Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common type of dementia. The prevalence of VaD continues to increase as the US population continues to grow and age. Currently, control of potential risk factors is believed to be the most effective means of preventing VaD. Thus, identification of modifiable risk factors for VaD is crucial for development of effective treatment modalities. Nutrition is one of the main modifiable variables that may influence the development of VaD. A systematic review of literature was conducted using the PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL Plus databases with search parameters inclusive of vascular dementia, nutrition, and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Fourteen articles were found that proposed a potential role of specific nutritional components in VaD. These components included antioxidants, lipids, homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12, and fish consumption. Antioxidants, specifically Vitamin E and C, and fatty fish intake were found to be protective against VaD risk. Fried fish, elevated homocysteine, and lower levels of folate and vitamin B12 were associated with increased VaD. Evidence for dietary lipids was inconsistent, although elevated midlife serum cholesterol may increase risk, while late-life elevated serum cholesterol may be associated with decreased risk of VaD. Currently, the most convincing evidence as to the relationship between VaD and nutrition exists for micronutrients, particularly Vitamin E and C. Exploration of nutrition at the macronutrient level and additional long term prospective cohort studies are warranted to better understand the role of nutrition in VaD disease development and progression. At present, challenges in this research include limitations in sample size, which was commonly cited. Also, a variety of diagnostic criteria for VaD were employed in the studies

  2. Nutrition in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-lee, M

    1989-07-01

    Village women have adopted techniques set down by UNICEF in achieving higher food production and, ultimately, self sufficiency. Women's cooperatives integrate kitchen gardening and irrigated agriculture in an effort to combat the complex nutritional problems in Africa. Projects also offered training in a variety of areas including management of plots, labor-saving technology--diesel-driven grinding mills, rice husking, machines, wells with hand pumps, motor pumps for irrigation, all geared towards women benefitting themselves by growing their own food and furthering their children's health and development. Projects such as the one in Senegal were undertaken in other regions of Africa, like the Sahel and the Wadis--low-lying areas. From these projects, aid agencies and governments have suggested a number of recommendations in seeking a solution to Africa's nutritional problems. 1st, a balance between production of cash crops and food for consumption is called for. 2nd, research is necessary to improve the quality of locally grown food as much as livestock. 3rd, governments should extend surface area cultivation, 4th, more research on the advantage of indigenous food plants, 5th, women should be in on all levels of decision making in food production, 6th, governments should increase women farmer's efficiency, and further women's access to land and credit and 7th, women should be provided with increased educational opportunities. Nutrition in developing countries cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon--solutions to nutritional development should include all aspects of the problem including health and nutrition education, growth monitoring, water supply, literacy, technological know-how, and agricultural and plant and soil conservation.

  3. [Nutritional therapy of gout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickolai, Beate; Kiss, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and nutritional behaviours have been found to play a major role in the development of gout. Studies show that body mass index (BMI), as well as excessive intake of alcoholic beverages, meat, soft drinks and fruit juices increase the risk of developing gout. Similarly, dairy products and coffee have been seen to decrease the risk of hyperuricemia and gout, as they increase the excretion of uric acid. Flares of gout are often caused by large meals and high alcohol consumption. Each additional intake of meat portion per day increases the risk of gout by 21 %. Taking total alcohol consumption into account, the risk of gout increases after one to two standard drinks. In contrast to previous assumptions purine-rich plant foods like legumes and vegetables do not increase the risk of gout. The current dietary guidelines take into account nutritional factors, which not only consider purine intake, but also their endogenous production and their influence on renal excretion. A balanced diet based on the Swiss healthy eating guideline pyramid as well as the Mediterranean diet is appropriate for this patient population. The treatment of gout is multi-faceted, since this patient population presents other comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Collectively, these risk factors are diet dependent and require a treatment strategy that is centered on modifying one's nutrition and nutritional behaviours. The aim of such therapy is to educate the patient as well as treat the accompanying comorbidities with the goal of decreasing serum uric acid values. Motivated patients require consultation and follow-up care in order to be able to actively decrease the serum uric acid.

  4. Precision Nutrition and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Case for Personalized Supplementation Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floyd H. Chilton

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary essential omega-6 (n-6 and omega-3 (n-3 18 carbon (18C- polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (ALA, can be converted (utilizing desaturase and elongase enzymes encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes to biologically-active long chain (LC; >20-PUFAs by numerous cells and tissues. These n-6 and n-3 LC-PUFAs and their metabolites (ex, eicosanoids and endocannabinoids play critical signaling and structural roles in almost all physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. Methods: This review summarizes: (1 the biosynthesis, metabolism and roles of LC-PUFAs; (2 the potential impact of rapidly altering the intake of dietary LA and ALA; (3 the genetics and evolution of LC-PUFA biosynthesis; (4 Gene–diet interactions that may lead to excess levels of n-6 LC-PUFAs and deficiencies of n-3 LC-PUFAs; and (5 opportunities for precision nutrition approaches to personalize n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation for individuals and populations. Conclusions: The rapid nature of transitions in 18C-PUFA exposure together with the genetic variation in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway found in different populations make mal-adaptations a likely outcome of our current nutritional environment. Understanding this genetic variation in the context of 18C-PUFA dietary exposure should enable the development of individualized n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation regimens to prevent and manage human disease.

  5. Precision Nutrition and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Case for Personalized Supplementation Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Human Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Floyd H.; Dutta, Rahul; Reynolds, Lindsay M.; Sergeant, Susan; Mathias, Rasika A.; Seeds, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dietary essential omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) 18 carbon (18C-) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), can be converted (utilizing desaturase and elongase enzymes encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes) to biologically-active long chain (LC; >20)-PUFAs by numerous cells and tissues. These n-6 and n-3 LC-PUFAs and their metabolites (ex, eicosanoids and endocannabinoids) play critical signaling and structural roles in almost all physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. Methods: This review summarizes: (1) the biosynthesis, metabolism and roles of LC-PUFAs; (2) the potential impact of rapidly altering the intake of dietary LA and ALA; (3) the genetics and evolution of LC-PUFA biosynthesis; (4) Gene–diet interactions that may lead to excess levels of n-6 LC-PUFAs and deficiencies of n-3 LC-PUFAs; and (5) opportunities for precision nutrition approaches to personalize n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation for individuals and populations. Conclusions: The rapid nature of transitions in 18C-PUFA exposure together with the genetic variation in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway found in different populations make mal-adaptations a likely outcome of our current nutritional environment. Understanding this genetic variation in the context of 18C-PUFA dietary exposure should enable the development of individualized n-3 LC-PUFA supplementation regimens to prevent and manage human disease. PMID:29068398

  6. Precision Nutrition and Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Case for Personalized Supplementation Approaches for the Prevention and Management of Human Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Floyd H; Dutta, Rahul; Reynolds, Lindsay M; Sergeant, Susan; Mathias, Rasika A; Seeds, Michael C

    2017-10-25

    Dietary essential omega-6 ( n -6) and omega-3 ( n -3) 18 carbon (18C-) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), can be converted (utilizing desaturase and elongase enzymes encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes) to biologically-active long chain (LC; >20)-PUFAs by numerous cells and tissues. These n -6 and n -3 LC-PUFAs and their metabolites (ex, eicosanoids and endocannabinoids) play critical signaling and structural roles in almost all physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. This review summarizes: (1) the biosynthesis, metabolism and roles of LC-PUFAs; (2) the potential impact of rapidly altering the intake of dietary LA and ALA; (3) the genetics and evolution of LC-PUFA biosynthesis; (4) Gene-diet interactions that may lead to excess levels of n -6 LC-PUFAs and deficiencies of n -3 LC-PUFAs; and (5) opportunities for precision nutrition approaches to personalize n -3 LC-PUFA supplementation for individuals and populations. The rapid nature of transitions in 18C-PUFA exposure together with the genetic variation in the LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathway found in different populations make mal-adaptations a likely outcome of our current nutritional environment. Understanding this genetic variation in the context of 18C-PUFA dietary exposure should enable the development of individualized n -3 LC-PUFA supplementation regimens to prevent and manage human disease.

  7. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goal. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to... agency shall integrate nutrition education into SFMNP operations and may satisfy nutrition education...

  8. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal accepts articles from all basic and applied areas of dietetics and human nutrition, including clinical nutrition, community nutrition, food science, food policy, food service management, nutrition policy and public health nutrition. The Journal has a broad interpretation of the field of nutrition and recognizes that there ...

  9. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  10. Organizational Transition and Change Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Nicolescu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the very important atopic of organizational transition and change resistance. It is divided in four parts. The first part deals with transition inevitability and its content in the change process. The second part of the paper refers to the change resistance. After a short presentation of a recent approach of this topic, elaborated by Rick Maurer, the authors present their point of view, identifying 14 main causes refering to the main factors involved in the organizational transition. In the third part, authors have formulated a set of key elements which should be taken into consideration in order to achieve a rapid and succesful organizational changes. These key elements are valable for any type of organization – entreprise, institution, locality, region, country a.s.a. The last part of the study deals with conflicts approach, which appear almost always during organizational transition. The conflicts are separated in three categories and for whom are presented the methodes recommended in order to solve them with good results.

  11. Passive Supporters of Terrorism and Phase Transitions

    CERN Document Server

    August, Friedrich; Delitzscher, Sascha; Hiller, Gerald; Krueger, Tyll

    2010-01-01

    We discuss some social contagion processes to describe the formation and spread of radical opinions. The dynamics of opinion spread involves local threshold processes as well as mean field effects. We calculate and observe phase transitions in the dynamical variables resulting in a rapidly increasing number of passive supporters. This strongly indicates that military solutions are inappropriate.

  12. Phase Transition in Strongly Degenerate Hydrogen Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Filinov, V. S.; Fortov, V. E.; Bonitz, M.; Levashov, P. R.

    2001-01-01

    Direct fermionic path-integral Monte-Carlo simulations of strongly coupled hydrogen are presented. Our results show evidence for the hypothetical plasma phase transition. Its most remarkable manifestation is the appearance of metallic droplets which are predicted to be crucial for the electrical conductivity allowing to explain the rapid increase observed in recent shock compression measurments.

  13. Electroweak phase transition recent results

    CERN Document Server

    Csikor, Ferenc

    2000-01-01

    Recent results of four-dimensional (4d) lattice simulations on the finite temperature electroweak phase transition (EWPT) are discussed. The phase transition is of first order in the SU(2)-Higgs model below the end point Higgs mass 66.5$\\pm$1.4 GeV. For larger masses a rapid cross-over appears. This result completely agrees with the results of the dimensional reduction approach. Including the full Standard Model (SM) perturbatively the end point is at 72.1$\\pm$1.4 GeV. Combined with recent LEP Higgs mass lower bounds, this excludes any EWPT in the SM. A one-loop calculation of the static potential makes possible a precise comparison of the lattice and perturbative results. Recent 4d lattice studies of the Minimal Supersymmetric SM (MSSM) are also mentioned.

  14. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  15. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  16. Army Leader Transitions Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    usacac.army.mil/CAC2/CAL. LEADER TRANSITION MODEL Leader Transitions Handbook 1 The Army Leader Transitions Handbook is designed to help leaders plan and...D-1) Managing transitions is a leadership responsibility. Leader transitions within the Army are significant events for any organization due to...current. Administrative skills - Brush up on personnel management , especially leader development. Know UCMJ, promotions, administrative discharge

  17. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  18. Nutrition in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkins, Mark R; Daniels, Stephen R; de Ferranti, Sarah D; Golden, Neville H; Kim, Jae H; Magge, Sheela N; Schwarzenberg, Sarah Jane

    2016-11-01

    Nutrition is a critical factor for appropriate child and adolescent development. Appropriate nutrition changes according to age. Nutrition is an important element for prevention of disease development, especially for chronic diseases. Many children and adolescents live in environments that do not promote optimum nutrition. Families must work to provide improved food environments to encourage optimum nutrition. Early primordial prevention of risk factors for chronic disease, such as cardiovascular disease, is important, and dietary habits established early may be carried through adult life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  20. Observables of non-equilibrium phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasik, Boris [Univerzita Mateja Bela, FPV, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Ceske vysoke uceni technicke v Praze, FJFI, Prague (Czech Republic); Schulc, Martin; Kopecna, Renata [Ceske vysoke uceni technicke v Praze, FJFI, Prague (Czech Republic); Melo, Ivan [Univerzita Mateja Bela, FPV, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Zilinska univerzita, Elektrotechnicka fakulta, Zilina (Slovakia)

    2016-08-15

    A rapidly expanding fireball which undergoes first-order phase transition will supercool and proceed via spinodal decomposition. Hadrons are produced from the individual fragments as well as the left-over matter filling the space between them. Emission from fragments should be visible in rapidity correlations, particularly of protons. In addition to that, even within narrow centrality classes, rapidity distributions will be fluctuating from one event to another in case of fragmentation. This can be identified with the help of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Finally, we present a method which allows to sort events with varying rapidity distributions, in such a way that events with similar rapidity histograms are grouped together. (orig.)